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1

Cognitive function and self-care management in older patients with heart failure.  

PubMed

Aims: People with heart failure have difficulty with self-care management. We do not know if patients with heart failure have difficulty with self-care management due to underlying, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The purpose of this study was to determine whether MCI, as identified on a simple screening tool, is significantly associated with self-care management in a sample of community dwelling older patients with heart failure. Methods and results: Using a cross-sectional design, heart failure patients (n=100, mean age 72 SD 10 years) attending an outpatient heart failure clinic completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool (MoCA), Self-Care in Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) and Geriatric Depression Scale. The presence of MCI, as defined by a MoCA score <26, was present in 73% patients; 21% had an adequate self-care management SCHFI score; and 12% reported symptoms of depression. Participants with a MoCA score <26 vs. ? 26 scored significantly lower on the self-care management subscale of the SCHFI (48.1 SD 24 vs. 59.3 SD 22 respectively, p=0.035). Using backward regression, the final model was fitted to self-care management while controlling for age and sex and was significant, with (F= 7.04 df (3, 96), and p<0.001), accounting for 18% of the total variance in self-care management (R (2) = 18.03%). The MoCA score was the only variable which remained in the model significantly with p= 0.001. Conclusion: Findings from this study highlight the difficulty older heart failure patients have with self-care management and the need to include formal screening for MCI when exploring variables contributing to self-care management in heart failure patients. PMID:23733350

Harkness, Karen; Heckman, George A; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Demers, Catherine; Gunn, Elizabeth; McKelvie, Robert S

2014-06-01

2

Health Care Autonomy in Children with Chronic Conditions: Implications for Self Care and Family Management  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Health care autonomy typically occurs during late adolescence but health care providers and families often expect children with chronic health conditions to master self-care earlier. Few studies have examined the development of health care autonomy as it pertains to self-care and family management. This review will link the three concepts and discuss implications for families and health care providers. Case studies are provided as exemplars to highlight areas where intervention and research is needed.

Beacham, Barbara L.; Deatrick, Janet A.

2013-01-01

3

Promoting Self-Care Management among Persons with Serious Mental Illness and HIV.  

PubMed

People with a serious mental illness (SMI) along with HIV have complex health conditions. This population also has high rates of poverty, difficulty in sustaining regular housing, and limited supportive networks. Typically, the combination of psychotropic and HIV medication regimens is complicated, changes frequently, and requires coordination among multiple providers. Furthermore, fragmented and divided primary health care and mental health care systems present substantial barriers for these individuals and for the public health nurses who care for them. In this paper, we present "real world" case studies of individuals with SMI and HIV and the self-care management strategies used by nurses to address medication and treatment management, build interpersonal skills, and develop sustainable health networks. The case studies can be used for quality improvement discussions among practicing public health nurses and for instructing nursing students in a self-care management approach. PMID:22399840

Hanrahan, Nancy P; Rolin-Kenny, Donna; Roman, June; Kumar, Aparna; Aiken, Linda; Blank, Michael

2011-12-01

4

Diabetes Management and Self-Care Education for Hospitalized Patients With Cancer  

PubMed Central

Managing diabetes can be a daunting task for patients with cancer. Empowerment-based diabetes education and motivational interviewing are complementary approaches. Oncology nurses may feel unprepared to teach patients and their families about self-care for diabetes, but they provide individualized information on symptom management of cancer throughout hospitalization and at discharge. The essential self-care issues include food, exercise, medication, blood glucose monitoring, prevention, recognition and treatment of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and when and how to get additional medical and educational support. This patient-centered model of diabetes education differs from the older “compliance” model that covers many universal rules for all patients, which are predetermined by the nurse. Informing nurses about their role in care of patients with cancer and diabetes is critical.

Leak, Ashley; Davis, Ellen D.; Houchin, Laura B.; Mabrey, Melanie

2009-01-01

5

Symptom management and self-care for peripheral neuropathy in HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication in HIV and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease, sociodemographic and disease-related correlates and self-care strategies. A convenience sample of 1,217 respondents was recruited from data

P. K. Nicholas; J. K. Kemppainen; G. E. Canaval; I. B. Corless; E. F. Sefcik; K. M. Nokes; C. A. Bain; K. M. Kirksey; L. Sanzero Eller; P. J. Dole; M. J. Hamilton; C. L. Coleman; W. L. Holzemer; N. R. Reynolds; C. J. Portillo; E. H. Bunch; D. J. Wantland; J. Voss; R. Phillips; Y.-F. Tsai; M. Rivero Mendez; T. G. Lindgren; S. M. Davis; D. M. Gallagher

2007-01-01

6

How technology in care at home affects patient self-care and self-management: a scoping review.  

PubMed

The use of technology in care at home has potential benefits such as improved quality of care. This includes greater focus on the patients' role in managing their health and increased patient involvement in the care process. The objective of this scoping review is to analyse the existing evidence for effects of technology in home-based care on patients' self-care and self-management. Using suitable search terms we searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Picarta and NIVEL dating from 2002 to 2012. Thirty-three studies (six review studies and twenty-seven individual studies) were selected. Effects were extracted from each study and were classified. In almost all the studies, the concepts self-care and self-management are not clearly defined or operationalized. Therefore, based on a meta-analysis, we made a new classification of outcome measures, with hierarchical levels: (1) competence (2) illness-management (3) independence (social participation, autonomy). In general, patient outcomes appear to be positive or promising, but most studies were pilot studies. We did not find strong evidence that technology in care at home has (a positive) effect on patient self-care and self-management according to the above classification. Future research is needed to clarify how technology can be used to maximize its benefits. PMID:24173139

Peeters, José M; Wiegers, Therese A; Friele, Roland D

2013-11-01

7

Transforming hypertension management using mobile health technology for telemonitoring and self-care support.  

PubMed

Achieving and sustaining good blood pressure control continues to be a challenge for many reasons including nonadherence with prescribed treatment and lifestyle measures, shortage of primary care physicians especially in less populated areas, and variations in physicians' practice behaviour. Many strategies have been advocated to improve outcomes with the greatest success being achieved using nurse or pharmacist-led interventions in which they were given the authority to prescribe or alter antihypertensive treatment. However, this treatment approach, which historically involved 1-on-1 visits to a doctor's office or pharmacy, proved costly, was not scalable, and did not actively engage patients in treatment decision-making. Several electronic health interventions have been designed to overcome these limitations. Though more patient-centred and often effective, they required wired connections and a personal computer, and logging on for Internet access and navigating computer screens greatly reduced access for many older patients. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the benefits were related to better case management or technological advances. Mobile health (mHealth) technology circumvents the technical challenges of electronic health systems and provides a more flexible platform to enhance patient self-care. mHealth applications are particularly appropriate for interventions that depend on patients' sustained adherence to monitoring schedules and prescribed treatments. Studies from our group in hypertension and other chronic conditions have shown improved health outcomes using mHealth applications that have undergone rigourous usability testing. Nonetheless, the inability of most electronic medical record systems to receive and process information from mobile devices continues to be a major impediment in realizing the full potential of mHealth technology. PMID:23618506

Logan, Alexander G

2013-05-01

8

[Community resources prescription for self-care improvement in chronic illnesses. Clinical case management in Primary Health Care].  

PubMed

A case is presented of a 52 year-old male seen in a Primary Care nursing clinic for a type 2 diabetes mellitus metabolic control. The frequency of the visits increased due to perceived difficulties caused by changing the medical treatment. A focused interview was conducted under functional health patterns framework. The patient was unable to write or read, had not worked for the last 25 years, and expressed a lack of control over his self-care. An action plan was prepared, prioritizing Ineffective Health Maintenance, Powerlessness, and Impaired Social Interaction NANDA-I nursing diagnoses. The goals were set at improving knowledge and control over his disease and participating in leisure activities. To achieve these, the social health resources in the area were contacted, and agreed that the patient could attend activities that could improve his self-care and his quality of life. An improvement in his diabetes control was observed in the following evaluations, with an increase in his level of knowledge and self-care. The Primary Health care nurse should consider available community resources by using a comprehensive approach to chronic diseases for their therapeutic benefit and management, especially in those patients with adverse sociocultural conditions. PMID:24786984

Pérez-Vico-Díaz de Rada, Lucía; González-Suárez, Miriam; Duarte-Clíments, Gonzalo; Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymán

2014-01-01

9

Self care in patients with chronic heart failure. Pilot study - self care includes problems.  

PubMed

AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to define the scope of therapeutic self-care demand in heart failure (HF) patients according to the concepts of self-care postulated by D.E. Orem and to determine the level of problems experienced and self-care in these patients. METHODS: A questionnaire consisting of 7 areas with closed format questions was developed according to the definition. The level of patient problems and level of self-care actions were mapped in each area. The questionnaire was distributed at the hospital outpatient clinic. The study group consisted of 47 heart failure patients (14 women) with following characteristics: average age 68 years, average BMI 29.4, resynchronization therapy 21%, hypertension 69.8%, diabetes mellitus 25.6%, coronary artery disease 46.5%, dilated cardiomyopathy 46.5%, obesity 46.5%, smoking history 39.5% (present and past smoking together), other cardiac disease 16.28%, condition after myocardial infarction 27.8% (NYHA II 41%, NYHA III 56.8%, NYHA IV 2.2%). RESULTS: The greatest problems were in the area of physical activity, sleep and fatigue, the least were in the area of chest pain and blood circulation. The greatest self-care agency was shown in the area of managing problems with physical activities and sleep, the lowest in the area of liquid intake and output. In the patients' subjective opinion, fatigue and sleep problems had the greatest impact on the quality of life. There were no substantial differences in either area based on gender. CONCLUSIONS: The data can serve as a foundation for modifying the extent and structure of patient education for more comprehensive and more effective out?patient treatment of HF. PMID:23765097

Halmo, Renata; Galuszka, Jan; Langova, Katerina; Galuszkova, Dana

2013-06-12

10

Telehealth for Persons with Severe Functional Disabilities and their Caregivers: Facilitating Self-care Management in the Home Setting  

PubMed Central

Persons with severe functional disabilities are the highest users of health care services. Caring for the needs of this population represents a significant percentage of our national health care costs. A growing body of research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-management strategies and caregiver engagement for effective long-term care for individuals with chronic medical conditions. Economic forces over the past decade have led to new challenges and resulted in major changes in health care delivery resulting in shortened length of inpatient stays and greater limits on the length of outpatient treatment. Telehealth is an innovative method for health care delivery and a means of meeting this new challenge. This paper highlights the findings of three pilot studies on the use of telecommunications technologies in promoting self-care management and enhancing health care outcomes in persons with severe disabilities and their family caregivers. The importance of matching technology to the needs of this population, lessons learned from these investigations, and future directions for research are addressed.

Forducey, Pamela G.; Glueckauf, Robert L.; Bergquist, Thomas; Maheu, Marlene M.; Yutsis, Maya

2012-01-01

11

Creating 'good' self-managers?: Facilitating and governing an online self care skills training course  

PubMed Central

Background In chronic disease management, patients are increasingly called upon to undertake a new role as lay tutors within self-management training programmes. The internet constitutes an increasingly significant healthcare setting and a key arena for self-management support and communication. This study evaluates how a new quasi-professional health workforce – volunteer tutors – engage, guide and attempt to manage people with long-term conditions in the ways of 'good' self-management within the context of an online self-management course. Methods A qualitative analysis of postings to the discussion centre of 11 online classes (purposively selected from 27) run as part of the Expert Patients Programme. Facilitators (term for tutors online) and participants posted questions, comments and solutions related to self-management of long-term conditions; these were subjected to a textual and discursive analysis to explore: a) how facilitators, through the internet, engaged participants in issues related to self-management; b) how participants responded to and interacted with facilitators. Results Emergent themes included: techniques and mechanisms used to engage people with self-management; the process facilitators followed – 'sharing', 'modelling' and 'confirming'; and the emergence of a policing role regarding online disclosure. Whilst exchanging medical advice was discouraged, facilitators often professed to understand and give advice on psychological aspects of behaviour. Conclusion The study gave an insight into the roles tutors adopt – one being their ability to 'police' subjective management of long-term conditions and another being to attempt to enhance the psychological capabilities of participants.

Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Gately, Claire; Lee, Victoria

2009-01-01

12

Promoting Geriatric Self-Care: Enhancing the Management of Chronic Health Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Univ. of Rhode Island developed the project to refine a model educational program to encourage older persons to assume more responsibility for managing their health-related behavior with regard to arthritis, diabetes, and heart disease. Products devel...

R. J. Marshall P. G. Clark

1991-01-01

13

Testing a Model of Diabetes Self-Care Management: A Causal Model Analysis with LISREL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A diabetes-management model is presented, which includes an attitudinal element and depicts relationships among causal elements. LISREL-VI was used to analyze data from 115 Type-I and 105 Type-II patients. The data did not closely fit the model. Results support the importance of the personal meaning of diabetes. (TJH)

Nowacek, George A.; And Others

1990-01-01

14

Perspectives on Self-Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-care for clinicians is much needed. To discover ways to implement self-care into our lives, we (four therapists) tried different self-care methods over a span of one to two weeks. After using practices that explored self-care through mindfulness meditation, autohypnosis, music, and spirituality, we wrote about the outcome of these experiences…

Williams, Isha D.; Richardson, Tenille A.; Moore, Darren D.; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks; Keeling, Margaret L.

2010-01-01

15

Structural role of perceived benefits and barriers to self-care in patients with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Goal: In diseases and disorders such as diabetes, treatment and disease management depends mostly on patient's performance. So, self-care is very important in these patients and they can affect their own welfare, functional capabilities, and disease processes by achieving self-care skills. Nowadays, we know that self care follows individual, psychological and social factors which its recognition can assist health care providing systems to carry out educational programs. This study aimed to investigate the role of perceived benefits and barriers in doing self-care behaviors among diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a narrative review and articles with sectional, cohort, and interventional, clinical trial, qualitative and narrative designs were chosen using databases and academic search engines such as PubMed, SCOPUS, ProQuest, Elsevier and key words like self-care diabetes, perceived benefits and barriers. Persian articles were also selected using databases like IRANMEDEX, MEDLIB, as well as searching the articles in sites of domestic scientific magazines. Results: Reviewed articles’ findings show the average situation of perceived benefits and barriers in diabetic patients regarding self-care. Qualified blood sugar (glucose) control, weight control, happiness feeling and expenses reduction are the most important perceived benefits. The most significant perceived barriers in self-care consist of lack of family support, shame feeling, forgetfulness and not being able to ignore foods’ flavor. Conclusion: Perceived benefits and barriers, as central constructs in some patterns and theories of behavior change, were related to self-care, so that it was directly related to perceived benefits and reversely related to perceived barriers. Therefore, these two constructs can be considered as strategies for promoting self-care behaviors in diabetic patients.

Mohebi, Siamak; Azadbakht, Leila; Feizi, Avat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kargar, Mehdi

2013-01-01

16

Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs  

PubMed Central

Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of women with lymphoedema. The extensive use of injectable, oral and topical antibiotics by indigenous healers and women without medical supervision suggests a need for health education messages related to the risks of such practices.

Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart

2006-01-01

17

Self-care coping strategies in people with diabetes: a qualitative exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The management of diabetes self-care is largely the responsibility of the patient. With more emphasis on the prevention of complications, adherence to diabetes self-care regimens can be difficult. Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle changes. This study will explore patient perceptions of diabetes self-care, with particular reference to the burden of self-care and coping

Margaret M Collins; Colin P Bradley; Tony O'Sullivan; Ivan J Perry

2009-01-01

18

Self-care and health outcomes of diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Studies show that self-care improves diabetes mellitus (DM) outcomes; however, previous studies have focused on self-care maintenance, and little is known about self-care management. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of DM self-care maintenance and management on number of hospitalizations and hospitalization days. A cohort design with secondary analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study 2002-2004 was used. Data from 726 adults with DM were analyzed with logistic regression and negative binomial regression adjusting for covariates. Self-care maintenance and management were significant determinants of hospitalization outcomes. Establishing a goal for HbA1c (self-care management) and eating ?2 snacks or desserts per day (self-care maintenance) were associated with a decrease in hospitalizations (IRR = 0.860, p = .001; IRR = 0.914, p = .043, respectively). DM self-care maintenance and management influence health outcomes but in different ways. These data provide evidence that both elements are needed in the education of patients about DM. PMID:21926278

Song, MinKyoung; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Tkacs, Nancy C; Riegel, Barbara

2012-08-01

19

Self-care: the new principal care.  

PubMed

We predict self-care will become the new principal source of care. People living with diverse chronic conditions spend more time on self-management than with their providers. The increasing burden of chronic disease and costs coupled with value-based payments and innovative care models will generate a shift away from expensive specialized care toward high-value self-care facilitated by information technology, social support, and clinical expertise. This predicted shift in the value stream carries with it risks and uncertainties but will likely prevail as society seeks to confer "agency" by enabling people to make decisions and engage effectively in care coproduction. PMID:24887523

Nelson, Eugene C; Meyer, Gregg; Bohmer, Richard

2014-01-01

20

A middle-range theory of self-care of chronic illness.  

PubMed

Nearly 50% of adults have one or more chronic illnesses. Self-care is considered essential in the management of chronic illness, but the elements of self-care in this context have not been specified in a middle-range theory. This article describes a middle-range theory of self-care that addresses the process of maintaining health with health promoting practices within the context of the management required of a chronic illness. The key concepts include self-care maintenance, self-care monitoring, and self-care management. Assumptions and propositions of the theory are specified. Factors influencing self-care including experience, skill, motivation, culture, confidence, habits, function, cognition, support from others, and access to care are described. PMID:22739426

Riegel, Barbara; Jaarsma, Tiny; Strömberg, Anna

2012-01-01

21

The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a national lay-led self care support programme for patients with long-term conditions: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Supporting patients’ self care could have a major effect on the management of long-term conditions, which has led to worldwide interest in effective self care interventions. In England, self care support is being developed through the “Expert Patients Programme”, which provides lay-led generic courses to improve patients’ self care skills. However, the clinical and cost effectiveness of such courses

Anne Kennedy; David Reeves; Peter Bower; Victoria Lee; Elizabeth Middleton; Gerry Richardson; Caroline Gardner; Claire Gately; Anne Rogers

2007-01-01

22

Self-Care Among Chronically Ill African Americans: Culture, Health Disparities, and Health Insurance Status  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the self-care practices of chronically ill African Americans or how lack of access to health care affects self-care. Results from a qualitative interview study of 167 African Americans who had one or more chronic illnesses found that self-care practices were culturally based, and the insured reported more extensive programs of self-care. Those who had some form of health insurance much more frequently reported the influence of physicians and health education programs in self-care regimens than did those who were uninsured. It is concluded that the cultural components of self-care have been underemphasized, and further, that the potential to maximize chronic illness management through self-care strategies is not realized for those who lack access to health care.

Becker, Gay; Gates, Rahima Jan; Newsom, Edwina

2004-01-01

23

AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors Handouts  

MedlinePLUS

... Educator Questions, Comments, Concerns? 800 . 338 . 3633 AADE7™ Self-Care Behaviors Handouts These handouts provide some basic ... activities that will get you started on your self-care and reinforce some of the lessons you ...

24

Dispersion-managed solitons at normal average dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that in a dispersion-managed fiber, in which the strength of the dispersion management is above some threshold, solitons can exist with normal average dispersion. When the normal average dispersion is below some limiting value there exist two soliton solutions with the same pulse duration and different pulse energies. When the normal average dispersion is above this limiting value,

V. S. Grigoryan; C. R. Menyuk

1998-01-01

25

Exploring self care in Tehran, Iran: A population based study  

PubMed Central

Background: self care empowers individuals to self manage their minor ailments, chronic conditions, and to exert more control over their lives. Self care includes activities such as influencing prevention, health maintenance, and treatment of illness by individuals, this study was conducted to assess views about self care among the general population living in south of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This survey was cross-sectional study by using of two-stage random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals aged 17 years and over was surveyed regarding self care. A structured closed validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were finally analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson Chi-square, Fisher exact test and linear by linear association. Questionnaire has totally five parts including knowledge, attitude, performance toward self care, views regarding general health and demographic characteristics as well. Furthermore; project number is 4276-62-02-85. Results: The mean age of subjects was 27.9 years (SD = 5.2); 50.2% (n = 603) were female; 54% (n = 643) were married (deleted), (55%, n = 658) reported that they were not knowledgeable about self care and (82%, n = 986) were interested in self care. Only 4% (n = 53) of subjects indicated they drank ? 7 glasses of water daily; fewer reported they consumed at least five portions of fruits/vegetables daily (3%, n = 31; and (4%, n = 51) engaged in physical activity more than 3 h weekly. There were statistically significant relationships between knowledge and interest (P < 0.01), knowledge and practice (P < 0.001), and interest and practice regarding self care (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The vast majority of subjects approximately two third felt satisfied with their health, most of subjects reported “feeling healthy” despite engaging in unhealthy life styles, it is revealed that more educated people, and likely those with more income, were interested in and knowledgeable regarding self care and were actually active in healthy life styles. In brief; this study suggests that physicians could support self care through their consultations with patients.

Eftekhar, Hassan; Mirkamali, Seyyed Kamaladdin; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Mohammad, Kazem; Shahnazi, Hossein; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

2012-01-01

26

Health Literacy and Self-Care of Patients with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background and Research Objective Today’s complex health care system relies heavily on sophisticated self-care regimens. To navigate the system and follow self-care protocols, patients must be able to understand and use health information, which requires health literacy. However, nearly 90 million Americans lack the necessary health literacy skills to adequately care for themselves in the face of a complex healthcare system and self-care regimens. Understanding how to effectively care for one’s self is thought to improve heart failure symptoms and patient outcomes, but little is actually known about how health literacy influences self-care in patients with heart failure. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the relationship between health literacy and self-care of patients with heart failure. Subjects and Methods Patients with a diagnosis of heart failure were recruited from a variety of community settings. Participants completed the Short-Form Test of Functional Health Literacy (measured health literacy), the Self-Care Index of Heart Failure (measured self-care maintenance, management, and confidence), and a demographic questionnaire. Spearman’s Rho correlations were used to assess the strength of the relationship between health literacy level and self-care scores. Results and Conclusions Among the 49 participants recruited, health literacy was positively related to self-care maintenance (Rs=0.357, p=0.006). Health literacy had a negative relationship with self-care management (Rs=?0.573, p=0.001). There was no association between health literacy and self-care confidence (Rs=0.201, p=0.083). This project provides preliminary data regarding the association between health literacy and self-care in heart failure, showing support for higher health literate patients performing more self-care maintenance, which has been shown to improve patient outcomes in heart failure. Patients with higher health literacy trended toward having greater self-care confidence, which can increase the likelihood of performing self-care, but this finding was not significant. It was unexpected to find that lower health literate patients performed more self-care management.

Chen, Aleda M. H.; Yehle, Karen S.; Plake, Kimberly S.; Murawski, Matthew M.; Mason, Holly L.

2011-01-01

27

[Hospital discharge preparation: enhancing self-care competence of patients after minimally invasive hip arthroplasty].  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of hip replacement implant surgeries in Switzerland today are minimally invasive. Patients undergoing such procedures become mobile faster and are discharged from hospital to home within an average of four days. Using a qualitative descriptive design, this study examined how post-operative self-care is taught to patients in the orthopaedic department of a rehabilitation hospital after a minimally invasive hip arthroplasty and explored ways to optimise such teaching methods. Data were collected by conducting three focus groups with nine nursing professionals and expert interviews with the chief surgeon and the assigned physiotherapist. Data were analysed by using qualitative content analysis procedures. Results showed that teaching to enhance self-care competence of patients was not carried out systematically. Instead, the primary focus was to inform and prescribe rather than empower patients. Empowerment, however, would be necessary to assure adherence to the treatment regime. Hospital discharge often takes place surprisingly early and prevents assessment-based counselling of patients. The researchers concluded that the introduction of the minimally invasive surgical technique requires that the multidisciplinary rehabilitation team adapts its teaching methods. Self-care confidence in patients should be enhanced by following participatory clinical pathways. This demands modification in discharge and rehabilitation teaching plans to make them patient-oriented, and the plans should be supported by the entire team and the management. PMID:24088649

Schärli, Marianne; Hantikainen, Virpi; Bischofberger, Iren

2013-10-01

28

Implementation of a self-care of heart failure program among home-based clients.  

PubMed

Heart failure is the most common admission in hospitals among Medicare recipients aged 65 years or older. Self-care management of heart failure has been reported to decrease heart failure hospital admission rates. The purpose of this evidence-based practice project was to examine how a self-care of heart failure program (Heart Failure Self-care to Success) impacts hospital admissions and patient perceptions of self-care management. Heart Failure Self-care to Success (HF S2S) was successfully implemented with 18 participants by nurse practitioners in a house call practice. Six months following implementation of the self-care of heart failure program no heart failure admissions occurred among participants and a significant increase in their self-care of heart failure behaviors (p < .01) was reported by participants. Nurse practitioners using HF S2S can decrease health care costs and improve self-care behaviors in the older, homebound heart failure patient. Further testing of HF S2S is recommended in different practice settings, sample populations, and geographic locations. PMID:24559620

Bryant, Rebecca; Gaspar, Phyllis

2014-01-01

29

The Limits of Self-Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-care complements but does not replace medical care. Some of the current limits to self-care include inability to change environmental conditions, inability to stop tobacco use, need for surgery, lack of equipment, and lack of information. (JOW)

Vickery, Donald M.; Levinson, Arnold

1993-01-01

30

Dispersion-managed solitons at normal average dispersion  

SciTech Connect

We find that in a dispersion-managed fiber, in which the strength of the dispersion management is above some threshold, solitons can exist with normal average dispersion. When the normal average dispersion is below some limiting value there exist two soliton solutions with the same pulse duration and different pulse energies. When the normal average dispersion is above this limiting value, no soliton exists. Both higher-energy and lower-energy solitons are dynamically stable in the parameter range that we considered. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}

Grigoryan, V.S.; Menyuk, C.R. [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States)

1998-04-01

31

Dispersion-managed solitons at normal average dispersion.  

PubMed

We find that in a dispersion-managed fiber, in which the strength of the dispersion management is above some threshold, solitons can exist with normal average dispersion. When the normal average dispersion is below some limiting value there exist two soliton solutions with the same pulse duration and different pulse energies. When the normal average dispersion is above this limiting value, no soliton exists. Both higher-energy and lower-energy solitons are dynamically stable in the parameter range that we considered. PMID:18084592

Grigoryan, V S; Menyuk, C R

1998-04-15

32

Self-Care and Professionally Guided Care in Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-management practices among older White and African American persons with osteoarthritis. Self-management was defined broadly to include all behaviors adopted to reduce morbidity, whether recommended by physicians or not. Methods A population-based sample of Medicare beneficiaries (n = 551) was recruited. An expanded set of self-management behaviors using structured and open-ended inquiry, along with use of arthritis-specific medications was elicited. Results Few differences in self-care behaviors between race groups were found. However, older African American persons were significantly less likely to have prescriptions for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) and more likely to use over-the-counter nonprescription analgesics. Discussion Older White and African American persons made similar use of self-care strategies to reduce disease morbidity. African Americans without access to prescription pain relievers substituted nonprescription analgesics. A broader view of self-management is valuable for assessing the ways people may move between professionally guided care and self-care.

Albert, Steven M.; Musa, Donald; Kwoh, C. K.; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Silverman, Myrna

2008-01-01

33

Averaging of Dispersion-Managed Solitons: Existence and Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider existence and stability of dispersion-managed solitons in the two ap- proximations of the periodic nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation: (i) a dynamicalsystem for a Gaussian pulse and (ii) an average integral NLS equation. We apply normal form transformations for finite-dimensionaland infinite-dimensionalHamil tonian systems with periodic coefficients. First- order corrections to the leading-order averaged Hamiltonian are derived explicitly for both

Dmitry E. Pelinovsky; Vadim Zharnitsky

2003-01-01

34

Knowledge is insufficient for self-care among heart failure patients with psychological distress.  

PubMed

Objective: We conducted a study to identify barriers to, and factors promoting, self-care among heart failure (HF) patients with higher or lower levels of knowledge. Method: Baseline data from 612 patients with HF enrolled in the REMOTE-HF trial were analyzed. Using median splits on the HF Knowledge Scale and the European HF Self-Care Behavior Scale, patients were divided into four groups: (a) low knowledge and good self-care, (b) low knowledge and poor self-care, (c) high knowledge and good self-care, and (d) high knowledge and poor self-care. Characteristics of the groups were compared using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and chi-square tests, followed by pairwise tests with Bonferroni correction. Variables significant in the univariate analyses were evaluated as predictors of self-care using hierarchical multiple linear regression. The potential moderating effect of knowledge was tested with interaction terms. Results: The four groups did not differ in sociodemographics or health literacy scores, but differed in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, comorbidities, and scores on depression, anxiety, and perceived control. In post hoc pairwise tests, patients with high knowledge and poor self-care tended to have worse NYHA class, greater depression and anxiety, and lower levels of perceived control than others. In the multivariate analysis, knowledge, depressive symptoms, and perceived control were significant predictors of self-care, as was the interaction between knowledge and anxiety. Conclusions: Screening and treatment of depression and anxiety is important in improving self-care among HF patients. HF management programs need to include strategies for increasing patients' perceived control over their heart disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23815766

Hwang, Boyoung; Moser, Debra K; Dracup, Kathleen

2014-07-01

35

Psychometric testing of the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index Version 6.2.  

PubMed

The Self-Care of Heart Failure Index Version 6.2 (SCHFI v.6.2) is widely used, but its psychometric profile is still questioned. In a sample of 659 heart failure patients from Italy, we performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the original construct of the SCHFI v.6.2 scales (Self-Care Maintenance, Self-Care Management, and Self-Care Confidence), with limited success. We then used exploratory factor analysis to determine the presence of separate scale dimensions, followed by CFA in a separate sub-sample. Construct validity of individual scales showed excellent fit indices: CFI?=?.92, RMSEA?=?.05 for the Self-Care Maintenance Scale; CFI?=?.95, RMSEA?=?.07 for the Self-Care Management Scale; CFI?=?.99, RMSEA?=?.02 for the Self-Care Confidence scale. Contrasting groups validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were supported as well. This evidence provides a new understanding of the structure of the SCHFI v.6.2 and supports its use in clinical practice and research. PMID:23832431

Vellone, Ercole; Riegel, Barbara; Cocchieri, Antonello; Barbaranelli, Claudio; D'Agostino, Fabio; Antonetti, Giovanni; Glaser, Dale; Alvaro, Rosaria

2013-10-01

36

Mental health nurses' and allied health professionals' perceptions of the role of the Occupational Health Service in the management of work-related stress: how do they self-care?  

PubMed

Higher rates of stress-related sickness are found in health care professionals when compared with other sectors. The annual direct cost of absence to the National Health Service is £1.7 billion. Increased clinical demand, long hours, low staffing and a lack of support from colleagues and management are contributing to absenteeism, somatic complaints and mental health problems. Mental health work is inherently stressful and levels of work stress experienced by mental health nurses are especially high. The study investigated mental health nurses' and allied health professionals' (AHPs) awareness and knowledge of the service provided by the Occupational Health Service (OHS) and identified work-related stress and self-care strategies within these two groups. Nurses and AHP staff employed in mental health services in a Scottish healthboard area were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Results demonstrated that staff found their contact with the OHS to be a positive experience. They considered direct patient care to be less stressful than the organizational constraints they work under, and they reported a lack of support from both their peer groups and management. There should be recognition of the increased stress that hospital-based nurses and AHPs experience. These areas should be scrutinized and reviewed further to support staff within these environments in accordance with organizational objectives. PMID:21040230

Gibb, J; Cameron, I M; Hamilton, R; Murphy, E; Naji, S

2010-11-01

37

Diabetes self-care: Lessons from research on the family and broader contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundation of diabetes management is the self-care behavior of the patient. All of the systems within which the person\\u000a with diabetes interacts, as well as the media and broader social and cultural values, affect this self-care behavior. In this\\u000a article I focus on recent research that has examined the link between relationships in the patient’s intimate network (ie,\\u000a family

Barbara J. Anderson

2003-01-01

38

Health Literacy, Diabetes Self-Care, and Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Although limited health literacy is a barrier to disease management and has been associated with poor glycemic control, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between health literacy and diabetes outcomes are unknown. We examined the relationships between health literacy, determinants of diabetes self-care, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. We collected information on demographics, health literacy, diabetes knowledge, diabetes fatalism, social support, and diabetes self-care, and hemoglobin A1c values were extracted from the medical record. Structural equation models tested the predicted pathways linking health literacy to diabetes self-care and glycemic control. Results No direct relationship was observed between health literacy and diabetes self-care or glycemic control. Health literacy had a direct effect on social support (r?=??0.20, P?self-care (r?=??0.07) and on glycemic control (r?=??0.01). More diabetes knowledge (r?=?0.22, P?self-care and through self-care were related to glycemic control (r?=??0.20, P?self-care and glycemic control through its association with social support. This suggests that for patients with limited health literacy, enhancing social support would facilitate diabetes self-care and improved glycemic control.

Osborn, Chandra Y.; Bains, Sujeev S.

2010-01-01

39

Psychologic prediction of duration of inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation and performance of self-care.  

PubMed

The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Derogatis Symptom Check List (SCL-90) and a short form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-168) were administered to 28 spinal cord injury (SCI) patients on admission to an inpatient rehabilitation program. Of the several psychologic measures derived from this battery of tests, measures of distress/depression predicted both duration of inpatient rehabilitation and performance of self-care of bladder and skin at discharge. Based on follow-up an average of 7 months post-discharge, the best predictor of future self-care behavior seems to be past self-care behavior, augmented by knowledge of personality tendencies. Results emphasize the importance of minimizing patient distress during SCI inpatient rehabilitation and suggest that, for some patients, psychologic intervention following discharge directed at modifying certain personality features may facilitate continued performance of critical self-care behaviors. PMID:6882174

Malec, J; Neimeyer, R

1983-08-01

40

Kidney stones - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... Concord grapes Vegetables: beets, leeks, summer squash, sweet potatoes, spinach, and tomato soup Drinks: tea and instant ... Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap128. FerrandinoMN, Pietrow PK, Preminger GM. Evaluation and medical management of urinary lithiasis. In: ...

41

College Student Self-Care Diary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this docoment is to help college students maintain health by keeping a weekly diary of health related behaviors including diet, exercise, and stress levels. In addition each weekly entry presents a self-care tip for health improvement. Discussions of the college student and health, health and lifestyle, instructions on use of the…

Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Dintiman, George B.

42

The UK Expert Patients Program: Lessons learned and implications for cancer survivors’ self-care support programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, the enablement of self-care is increasingly being recognised as an essential component of chronic disease management.\\u000a Within the UK a key self-care policy initiative is the Expert Patients Program. Developed from the Chronic Disease Self-Management\\u000a Program, this is a 6 week self-management education program for people with different chronic diseases, facilitated by lay\\u000a volunteers. As an example of a major

Patricia M. Wilson

2008-01-01

43

Complementary Self-Care Strategies for Healthy Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on alternative self-care practices in terms of collaboration with the primary care physician and individual exploration of self-care practices such as acupuncture, meditation, and nutrition counseling. (JOW)

Barrett, Sondra

1993-01-01

44

Teaching Counselors Self-Care through Mindfulness Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few counseling programs directly address the importance of self-care in reducing stress and burnout in their curricula. A course entitled Mind/Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care was created to address personal and professional growth opportunities through self-care and mindfulness practices (meditation, yoga, gong, and conscious relaxation…

Newsome, Sandy; Christopher, John Chambers; Dahlen, Penny; Christopher, Suzanne

2006-01-01

45

Self-Caring IT Systems: A Proof-of-Concept Implementation in Virtualized Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In self-caring IT systems, faults are handled proactively, e.g. by slowing down the deterioration of system health thereby effectively avoiding or delaying system failures. This requires health management which entails health monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, planning of recovery and remediation actions. A brief overview of our prior work, which proposes a general methodology to capture system properties and incorporate health management

Selvi Kadirvel; José A. B. Fortes

2010-01-01

46

Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with adherence to diabetes self-care behaviours  

PubMed Central

Aims Our aim was to examine the associations of alcohol consumption with six diabetes self-care behaviours. Methods We determined levels of alcohol consumption and examined associations between alcohol consumption and six self-care behaviours in 65 996 adults with diabetes who received care through Kaiser Permanente Northern California and who responded to a 1994?1997 survey. Adherence with recommendations for self monitoring of blood glucose, HbA1c testing, and diabetes medications were determined from electronic records; smoking and use of diet and exercise to treat diabetes were self reported. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the associations between alcohol consumption (average number of drinks/day in the past year) and the probability of adherence to each self-care behaviour. Results Current alcohol consumption was reported by 50.8% of adults with diabetes. In adjusted models, we observed a gradient of increasing risk for poor adherence to diabetes self-care behaviours with increasing alcohol consumption, starting with those who consume even one drink a day. Former drinkers had the greatest compliance with each self-care behaviour, except for current smoking. Conclusions Alcohol consumption is a marker for poorer adherence to diabetes self-care behaviours. These findings highlight the importance of routine assessment of alcohol intake in people with diabetes, particularly as half of adults with diabetes consume alcohol. Given extant evidence that moderate alcohol intake may have cardiovascular benefits for patients with diabetes, examination of the trade-offs between cardiovascular benefits vs. potential risk of lower adherence with self-care behaviours deserves study.

Ahmed, A. T.; Karter, A. J.; Liu, J.

2008-01-01

47

Patients' Perspectives on Factors that Influence Diabetes Self-Care  

PubMed Central

Background Although diabetes mellitus is of high concern in Iran, and the level of control is unacceptable, few qualitative studies have been carried out to reflect the experiences of patients on the barriers and motivators to self-care. This study aimed to explore a culturally based experience of Iranian diabetic patients regarding the personal and environmental barriers to and facilitating factors for diabetes self-care. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted among type 2 diabetic patients in the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases’ diabetes clinic. Purposeful sampling was used. Newly diagnosed patients (less than six months) and all type 1 diabetic patients were excluded. Three focus groups were held on for each sex. A total of 43 patients participated in the study. Frame-work analysis was used to extract the themes from the data. Results: Data analysis showed five main barriers: physical barriers (such as physical effects of diabetes); psychological barriers (such as health beliefs); educational barriers (such as lack of knowledge about diabetes); social barriers (such as group pressure); and care system barriers (such as service availability). Along with the barriers, there were some motivators that the participants mentioned as a stimuli to control their diabetes. They include beliefs about diabetes, perceived responsibility for family, religious beliefs, and the views of significant others. Conclusion: Culturally based interventions are needed to improve diabetes care management in Iran. In addition to personal factors, diabetes health educators should pay attention to the environmental factors when they develop programs.

Shakibazadeh, E; Larijani, B; Shojaeezadeh, D; Rashidian, A; Forouzanfar, MH; Bartholomew, LK

2011-01-01

48

A pilot test of an integrated self-care intervention for persons with heart failure and concomitant diabetes.  

PubMed

Studies show 30% to 47% of people with heart failure (HF) have concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). Self-care for persons with both of these chronic conditions is conflicting, complex, and often inadequate. This pilot study tested an integrated self-care program for its effects on HF and DM knowledge, self-care efficacy, self-care behaviors, and quality of life (QOL). Hospitalized HF-DM participants (N = 71) were randomized to usual care or intervention using a 1:2 allocation and followed at 30 and 90 days after intervention. Intervention was an integrated education and counseling program focused on HF-DM self-care. Variables included demographic and clinical data, knowledge about HF and DM, HF- and DM-specific self-efficacy, standard HF and DM QOL scales, and HF and DM self-care behaviors. Analysis included descriptive statistics, multilevel longitudinal models for group and time effects, post hoc testing, and effect size calculations. Sidak adjustments were used to control for type 1 error inflation. The integrated HF-DM self-care intervention conferred effects on improved HF knowledge (30 days, p = .05), HF self-care maintenance (30 and 90 days, p < .001), HF self-care management (90 days, p = .05), DM self-efficacy (30 days, p = .03; 90 days, p = .004), general diet (30 days, p = .05), HF physical QOL (p = .04), and emotional QOL scores (p = .05) at 90 days within the intervention group. The participants in the usual care group also reported increased total and physical QOL. Greater percentages of participants in the intervention group improved self reported exercise between 0 and 30 days (p = .005 and moderate effect size ES = .47) and foot care between 0 and 90 days (p = .03, small ES = .36). No group differences or improvements in DM-specific QOL were observed. An integrated HF-DM self-care intervention was effective in improving essential components of self-care and had sustained (90 day) effects on selected self-care behaviors. Future studies testing HF-DM integrated self-care interventions in larger samples with longer follow-up and on other outcomes such as hospitalization and clinical markers are warranted. PMID:24211112

Dunbar, Sandra B; Butts, Brittany; Reilly, Carolyn M; Gary, Rebecca A; Higgins, Melinda K; Ferranti, Erin P; Culler, Steven D; Butler, Javed

2014-01-01

49

The Relationship Between Self-Care and Health Status Domains in Thai Patients with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the relationship between self-care in heart failure (HF) and outcomes like health status. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between HF self-care and Short Form-36 (SF-36) health status domains. Methods and Results A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected on 400 HF patients living in southern Thailand was completed using bivariate comparisons and hierarchical multiple regression modeling. Thai population norm-based SF-36 scores and Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) scores were used in the analysis. The sample was in older adulthood (65.7 ± 13.8 years), a slight majority of subjects were male (52%); the majority of subjects (62 %) had class III or IV HF. Each health domain was low in this sample compared to the general population. SCHFI maintenance and confidence scores were correlated significantly with each health status domain. SCHFI scores explained a significant amount of variance all domains, both in bivariate and multivariate models, except social functioning. In multivariate models, higher levels of self-care were associated with better health in certain domains, but only when both SCFHI management and confidence were high. Conclusion Improving HF self-care may be a mechanism through which future interventions can improve health in this population.

Lee, Christopher S.; Suwanno, Jom; Riegel, Barbara

2009-01-01

50

Bridging the Self-care Deficit Gap: Remote Patient Monitoring and the Hospital-at-Home  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the use of a remote patient monitoring intervention to address the challenge of patient self-care in complex hospital-at-home therapies. It was shown that in a home hemodialysis patient group, remote patient monitoring facilitated self-care and was supported by patients and, in particular, family caregivers. This does not come without cost to the patient however, who now has greater personal responsibility and accountability for their health management. Promising results from this study indicate that most patients are willing to assume this cost in exchange for the possibility of improved health outcomes.

Cafazzo, Joseph A.; Leonard, Kevin; Easty, Anthony C.; Rossos, Peter G.; Chan, Christopher T.

51

Exponential decay of dispersion managed solitons for vanishing average dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that any $L^2$ solution of the Gabitov-Turitsyn equation describing dispersion managed solitons decay exponentially in space and frequency domains. This confirms in the affirmative Lushnikov's conjecture of exponential decay of dispersion managed solitons.

M. Burak Erdogan; Dirk Hundertmark; Young-Ran Lee

2010-01-01

52

Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging.  

PubMed

Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one's health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health). Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions. PMID:23807842

Söderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

53

Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging  

PubMed Central

Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one’s health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health). Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions.

Soderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

54

Certificate Program in Self-Care for Pharmacy Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Purdue University School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences initiated a Certificate Program in Self-Care for Pharmacy Practice. The program aimed to enable pharmacists to develop their practice to better serve the self-care needs of customers. In a pilot group 26 participating pharmacists took a sequence of home study modules and workshops…

Blank, Jerome W.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

55

Communication Strategies for Improving Diabetics' Self-Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on various levels of diabetic patients' involvement in the care of their disease and effects of these levels on how closely they later followed self-care programs. Suggests that by participating in group discussions about excuses for not following a self-care regimen, and offering solutions to counter those excuses, diabetic patients…

Pryor, Burt; Mengel, Marvin C.

1987-01-01

56

A Descriptive Analysis of Self-Care Behaviors in Emerging Adults with Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate diabetes self-care behaviors, metabolic control, and associated demographic and medical correlates in an understudied sample of emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods Participants included 49 individuals (65% female) aged 18–26 years recruited from two major metropolitan areas and staff from a diabetes summer camp. Participants completed two diabetes interviews to assess daily self-care behaviors and self-report measures of psychosocial adjustment and demographic/medical characteristics. Metabolic control was assessed via HbA1c. Results Most participants (82%) utilized three or more daily insulin injections or an insulin pump. Self-care behaviors varied widely with an average of 2.56 daily blood glucose checks and 3.78 meals/snacks per day. Forty-one percent of participants engaged in daily exercise; just over half were active for 30 minutes or more. Across recall interviews, only 8% (n = 4) met American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations for both blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and daily physical activity. Average metabolic control was 8.25% with 81% of HbA1c values above 7.0%. Psychosocial adjustment was within normal limits and unrelated to self-care. Conclusions Daily diabetes care could be improved within this age group, as a significant percentage did not meet minimal ADA recommendations for disease care and metabolic control. Increased BGM and physical activity is recommended, and BGM should correspond to insulin regimen as well as meal and exercise habits. Emerging adults may benefit from targeted education, training, and behavioral support to enhance self-care behaviors during this critical period.

Hendricks, Melissa C.; Monaghan, Maureen; Soutor, Sari; Chen, Rusan; Holmes, Clarissa S.

2013-01-01

57

Effective behavior change techniques in asthma self-care interventions: Systematic review and meta-regression.  

PubMed

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to update previous systematic reviews of interventions targeting asthma self-care in adults with asthma, and to use meta-regression to examine the association between the use of specific behavior change techniques and intervention effectiveness. Methods: Electronic bibliographies were searched systematically to identify randomized controlled trials of interventions targeting asthma self-care. Intervention content was coded using a published taxonomy of behavior change techniques. For trials with a low-to-moderate risk of bias, study outcomes were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Associations between intervention content and effect size were explored using meta-regression. Results: Meta-analysis of 38 trials (7883 patients) showed that interventions targeting asthma self-care reduced symptoms (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.38 [-0.52, -0.24]) and unscheduled health care use (odds ratio [OR] = 0.71 [0.56 to 0.90]) and increased adherence to preventive medication (OR = 2.55 [2.11 to 3.10]). meta-regression analyses found that "active involvement of participants" was associated with a reduction in unscheduled health care use (OR = 0.50 vs. 0.79). Inclusion of "stress management" techniques was associated with an increase in asthma symptoms (SMD = 0.01 vs. -0.44). Existing recommendations about the "optimal" content of asthma self-care interventions were tested but were not supported by the data. Conclusions: Interventions targeting asthma self-care are effective. Active involvement of participants is associated with increased intervention effectiveness, but the use of stress management techniques may be counterproductive. Taxonomy-based systematic reviews using meta-regression have potential for identifying techniques associated with increased effectiveness in behavioral interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23815765

Denford, Sarah; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Greaves, Colin J

2014-07-01

58

Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion.  

PubMed

We determine the power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons on map strength and average dispersion, using a combination of numerical simulations and the variational approach. In particular, we investigate the behavior near zero dispersion and identify the region of existence of dispersion-managed solitons in the average normal-dispersion regime. PMID:18087377

Berntson, A; Doran, N J; Forysiak, W; Nijhof, J H

1998-06-15

59

Correlates of self-care in low-income African American and Latino patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

Objective: This study aimed to examine diabetes self-care (DSC) patterns in low-income African American and Latino patients with Type 2 diabetes, and identify patient-related, biomedical/disease-related, and psychosocial correlates of DSC. Method: We performed cross-sectional analysis of survey data from African Americans and Latinos aged ?18 years with Type 2 diabetes (n = 250) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention at 4 primary care clinics. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities captured the subcomponents of healthy eating, physical activity, blood sugar testing, foot care, and smoking. Correlates included patient-related attributes, biomedical/disease-related factors, and psychosocial constructs, with their multivariable influence assessed with a 3-step model building procedure using regression techniques. Results: Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age of 53 years (SD = 12.4); 69% female; 53% African American; 74% with incomes below $20,000; and 60% with less than a high school education. DSC performance levels were highest for foot care (4.5/7 days) and lowest for physical activity (2.5/7 days). Across racial/ethnic subgroups, diabetes-related distress was the strongest correlate for DSC when measured as a composite score. Psychosocial factors accounted for 14% to 33% of variance in self-care areas for both racial/ethnic groups. Patient characteristics were more salient correlates in Hispanic/Latinos when examining the self-care subscales, particularly those requiring monetary resources. Conclusions: Important information is provided on specific DSC patterns in a sample of ethnic/racial minorities with Type 2 diabetes. Significant correlates found may help with identification and intervention of patients who may benefit from strategies to increase self-care adherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24364373

Hernandez, Rosalba; Ruggiero, Laurie; Riley, Barth B; Wang, Yamin; Chavez, Noel; Quinn, Lauretta T; Gerber, Ben S; Choi, Young-Ku

2014-07-01

60

The meaning of actualization of self-care resources among a group of older home-dwelling people--A hermeneutic study  

PubMed Central

Self-care is an activity of mature persons who have developed their abilities to take care of themselves. Individuals can choose to actualize their self-care abilities into self-care activities to maintain, restore, or improve health and well-being. It is of importance to understand the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources among older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources, i.e., actions taken to improve, maintain, or restore health and well-being, among a group of older home-dwelling individuals with a high sense of coherence. The design of this study was to reanalyse narratives revealing self-care activities from 11 (five females and six males) Norwegian older home-dwelling people (65 years or older) identified as having a high sense of coherence. In order to reveal the meaning and get an understanding of why these self-care resources were realized or actualized, a Gadamerian-based research method was chosen. The analysis revealed four themes that showed the meaning of actualization of self-care resources in the study group: “Desire to carry on”, “Be of use to others”, “Self-realization”, and “Confidence to manage in the future”. The findings showed what older people found meaningful to strive for, and this information can be used as a guide for health professionals when supporting older people in their self-care. Older people with self-care resources can also be an important resource for others in need of social contact and practical help. These resources have to be asked for in voluntary work among older people in need of help and, thereby, can be a valuable supplement to the community health care system.

Soderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bj?rg; Soderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

61

Self-care support in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes: bridging the gap between patient education and health promotion? A review.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: This study examines how the term 'self-care' imported from health promotion has been used in the context of patient education interventions for paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty articles over the last decade were analysed, using a qualitative method of thematic coding and categorizing. RESULTS: The term 'self-care' has been mainly used as a synonym for self-management of one's condition and treatment. Indeed, the activities performed by paediatric patients independently or with the help of their parents under the term 'self-care' fail to explicitly take into account the general health and life dimensions of self-care, as defined in health promotion. Although such dimensions are implicitly present when it comes to define the parents' and health-care providers' roles in supporting the children's emerging self-care capacity, their importance is acknowledged as a way of strengthening the children's and their families' capacity to respond to illness demands, rather than in relation to their general well-being. CONCLUSION: The discourse on self-care in the field of paediatric diabetes therefore appears to be oriented more towards disease and prevention, rather than health promotion. The psychosocial dimension of self-care should be particularly investigated, as young patients need to be supported in their efforts to gain autonomy not only in relation to the management of their condition, but in their lives in general. PMID:23311712

Pelicand, Julie; Fournier, Cécile; Le Rhun, Anne; Aujoulat, Isabelle

2013-01-14

62

Orem's Self-Care Model of Nursing: An Enumerative Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a 119-item bibliography of literature which deals with Orem's self-care model of nursing. Sources of entries include journals, doctoral dissertations, abstracts, books, and conference papers. (JN)

Sanchez, James Joseph, Comp.

63

A Study of a Self-Care Rehabilitation Program in Pediatric Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Self-Care Rehabilitation in Pediatric Asthma (SCRPA) project was designed to ascertain (1) the level to which children with asthma are able to acquire the asthma knowledge and skills presented in a self-management training program conducted by the American Lung Association of Utah and (2) the effect of such training on the asthma experience.The preschool SCRPA Curriculum (ages 2-5) consisted

Neal Whitman; Dee West; Franklin K. Brough; Molly Welch

1985-01-01

64

Investing Time in Health: Do Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Patients Spend More or Less Extra Time on Diabetes Self-Care?  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Research on self-care for chronic disease has not examined time requirements. TRIAD, a multi-site study of managed care patients with diabetes, is among the first to assess self-care time. Objective To examine associations between socioeconomic position and extra time patients spend on foot care, shopping/cooking, and exercise due to diabetes. Data 11,927 patient surveys from 2000–01. Methods Bayesian two-part models were used to estimate associations of self-reported extra time spent on self-care with race/ethnicity, education, and income, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Proportions of patients spending no extra time on foot care, shopping/cooking and exercise were respectively 37%, 52% and 31%. Extra time spent on foot care and shopping/cooking was greater among racial/ethnic minorities, less-educated and lower-income patients. For example, African-Americans were about 10 percentage points more likely to report spending extra time on foot care than whites and extra time spent was about three more minutes/day. Discussion Extra time spent on self-care was greater for socioeconomically disadvantaged patients than for advantaged patients, perhaps because their perceived opportunity cost of time is lower or they cannot afford substitutes. Our findings suggest that poorly controlled diabetes risk factors among disadvantaged populations may not be attributable to self-care practices.

Ettner, Susan L.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Russell, Louise B.; Brown, Arleen; Karter, Andrew J.; Safford, Monika; Mangione, Carol; Beckles, Gloria; Herman, William H.; Thompson, Theodore J.

2010-01-01

65

Experimental demonstration of long-distance dispersion-managed soliton propagation at zero average dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed for the first time stable propagation of dispersion-managed solitons with zero or slightly below normal average dispersion over 28000 km in a recirculating fiber loop. Comparison between theory and experiment provides a highly sensitive estimate of the average dispersion

V. S. Grigoryan; R.-M. Mu; G. M. Carter; C. R. Menyuk

2000-01-01

66

The averaging method for finding exactly periodic dispersion-managed solitons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical averaging method for finding exactly periodic solutions [dispersion-managed (DM) solitons] of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with dispersion management is described. Variations of the method for finding solutions of fixed energy and fixed pulsewidth are discussed, and the effects of including fiber loss are considered. The generation of resonant sidebands due to phase matching between the DM soliton and

J. H. B. Nijhof; W. Forysiak; N. J. Doran

2000-01-01

67

Head and neck cancer: historical evolution of treatment and patient self-care requirements.  

PubMed

The purpose of this literature review is to explore the historical progression of treatment and its impact on care requisites in patients with head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancers are some of the most visible types of cancer. Patients often experience difficulties in self-care because of problems adapting to and coping with the diagnosis and disease management. Evaluation of the literature from the 1960s to present indicated a shift from coping with disfigurement to focusing on dysfunction and rehabilitative self-care. The process of assisting patients with self-care activities occurs from the time of diagnosis through post-treatment and beyond. Adapting to and coping with changes in physical appearance and function begins with the cognitive decision to initiate treatment modalities specific to the cancer site. Current knowledge of the manifestations of head and neck cancer provides the healthcare team with a better understanding of the disease trajectory and how best to assist patients in adapting to and coping with changes affecting their quality of life. PMID:24305487

Sobecki-Ryniak, Diane; Krouse, Helene J

2013-12-01

68

Dispersion-managed soliton in optical fibers with zero average dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dispersion-managed optical system with stepwise periodic variation of dispersion is studied in the framework of a path-averaged Gabitov-Turitsyn equation. The soliton solution is obtained by means of iterating the path-averaged equation. The dependence of soliton parameters on dispersion map strength is investigated, together with the oscillating tails of the soliton. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

P. M. Lushnikov

2000-01-01

69

Dispersion-managed soliton in optical fibers with zero average dispersion  

SciTech Connect

A dispersion-managed optical system with stepwise periodic variation of dispersion is studied in the framework of a path-averaged Gabitov-Turitsyn equation. The soliton solution is obtained by means of iterating the path-averaged equation. The dependence of soliton parameters on dispersion map strength is investigated, together with the oscillating tails of the soliton. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

Lushnikov, P. M.

2000-08-15

70

Teaching Self-Care to Severely Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual provides guidelines for using the problem-oriented approach to teach the self-care skills of self-feeding, dressing, and toileting to severely handicapped students. The approach consists of identifying the problem that is an obstacle to acquisition of a particular skill, selecting and evaluating intervention techniques, and establishing…

Campbell, Philippa H.

71

Comparing self-efficacy and self-care behaviours between outpatients with comorbid schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes and outpatients with only type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

People with schizophrenia show higher-than-normal rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, research on their understanding of diabetes self-efficacy and self-care behaviours is lacking. This study compared differences in scores of self-efficacy and self-care behaviours between outpatients with comorbid schizophrenia and T2DM and outpatients with T2DM alone. Data were collected using the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale and Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activity questionnaire. In total, 105 outpatients with schizophrenia and T2DM and 106 outpatients with T2DM returned completed questionnaires. Results of this study revealed that outpatients with schizophrenia and T2DM had significantly lower total self-efficacy and self-care scores than outpatients with only T2DM. The stepwise regression analysis revealed that self-efficacy, the haemoglobin A1C level and current smoking were significant predictors of self-care behaviours in outpatients with comorbid schizophrenia and T2DM, which explained 33.20% of the variance. These findings help mental health professionals improve patient care through a better understanding of self-care behaviours among outpatients with comorbid schizophrenia and T2DM. PMID:23829198

Chen, S-R; Chien, Y-P; Kang, C-M; Jeng, C; Chang, W-Y

2014-06-01

72

Role of Motivation in the Relationship between Depression, Self-Care, and Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective The mechanism by which depression influences health outcomes in persons with diabetes is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to test whether depression is related to self-care behavior via social motivation; and indirectly related to glycemic control via self-care behavior. Methods Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient clinic. Information gathered pertained to demographics, depression, diabetes knowledge (information); diabetes fatalism (personal motivation); social support (social motivation); diabetes self-care (behavior). Hemoglobin A1C values were extracted from the patient medical record. Structural equation models tested the predicted pathways. Results Higher levels of depressive symptoms were significantly related to having less social support, and decreased performance of diabetes self-care behavior. In addition, when depressive symptoms were included in the model, fatalistic attitudes were no longer associated with behavioral performance. Conclusions Among adults with diabetes, depression impedes the adoption of effective self-management behaviors (including physical activity, appropriate dietary behavior, and appropriate self-monitoring of blood glucose behavior) through a decrease in social motivation.

Egede, Leonard E.; Osborn, Chandra Y.

2011-01-01

73

“I'm a Health Nut!” Street Drug Users' Accounts of Self-Care Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study analyzes data from in-depth interviews to describe self-care strategies among chronic and injecting drug users. While the types of strategies varied from participant to participant, the theme of proactive self-care remained strong throughout the data. Researchers identified five self-care domains discussed by the study participants. The self-care domains include strategies to improve nutrition, increase physical activity, address

Rene‘ D. Drumm; Duane McBride; Lisa Metsch; Melodie Neufeld; Alex Sawatsky

2005-01-01

74

Self-Care Among Chronically Ill African Americans: Culture, Health Disparities, and Health Insurance Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the self-care practices of chronically ill African Ameri- cans or how lack of access to health care affects self-care. Results from a quali- tative interview study of 167 African Americans who had one or more chronic ill- nesses found that self-care practices were culturally based, and the insured reported more extensive programs of self-care. Those who

Gay Becker; Rahima Jan Gates; Edwina Newsom

2004-01-01

75

Dispersion-managed solitons in optical amplifier transmission systems with zero average dispersion.  

PubMed

Soliton propagation in a cascaded dispersion-managed optical amplifier system with zero net dispersion is examined. We present a qualitative physical explanation for the recently discovered fact that a soliton with finite energy can propagate down a fiber line with zero or normal average dispersion. We describe a specific practical system for the main properties of such a soliton, namely, the dependence of the soliton power on the pulse width at chirp-free points and the soliton average energy and width at chirp-free points as functions of the dispersion-allocation (strength of the map) parameter. PMID:18087309

Turitsyn, S K; Shapiro, E G

1998-01-01

76

"We have become doctors for ourselves": motives for malaria self-care among adults in southeastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria with effective medicines remains necessary if malaria control goals are to be achieved. The theoretical concepts from self-care and the health belief model were used to examine the motivations for malaria self-care among the adult population. Methods A qualitative study was conducted through eight focus group discussions with adult community members to explore their general opinions, views and perceptions of malaria and of its treatments. These groups were followed by 15 in-depth interviews of participants with a recent malaria experience to allow for an in-depth exploration of their self-care practices. The analysis followed principles of grounded theory and was conducted using Nvivo 9 qualitative data management software. Results The self-treatment of malaria at home was found to be a common practice among the study participants. The majority of the participants practiced self-medication with a painkiller as an initial response. The persistence and the worsening of the disease symptoms prompted participants to consider other self-care options. Perceptions that many malaria symptoms are suggestive of other conditions motivated participants to self-refer for malaria test. The accessibility of private laboratory facilities and drug shops motivated their use for malaria tests and for obtaining anti-malarial medicines, respectively. Self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy was common, motivated by their perceived effectiveness and availability. The perceived barriers to using the recommended combination treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, were related to the possible side-effects and to uncertainty about their effectiveness, and these doubts motivated some participants to consider self-medication with local herbs. Several factors were mentioned as motivating people for self-care practices. These included poor patient provider relationship, unavailability of medicine and the costs associated with accessing treatments from the health facilities. Conclusions Malaria self-care and self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy are common among adults, and are motivated by both individual characteristics and the limitations of the existing health care facilities. There is a need for public health interventions to take into account community perceptions and cultural schemas on malaria self-care practices.

2014-01-01

77

Understanding and Promoting Effective Self-Care During Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Heart failure (HF) self-care relates to the decisions made outside clinical settings by the individual with HF to maintain\\u000a life, healthy functioning, and well-being. The people who help patients most (ie, caregivers\\/family members) should be involved\\u000a in care, and general principles of health behavior change should be used to guide support. Medicines should be prescribed\\u000a with once-daily dosing, with

Alexander M. Clark; Patricia Davidson; Kay Currie; Mehri Karimi; Amanda S. Duncan; David R. Thompson

2010-01-01

78

Optimization of the average-dispersion range for long-haul dispersion-managed soliton systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider limitations on unfiltered transmission of dispersion-managed solitons, arising from the Gordon-Haus jitter, adjacent pulse interaction, and signal-to-noise degradation. We maximize the range of allowed values of average dispersion, thereby providing the first step in optimization of dispersion maps for wavelength-division-multiplexed lightwave systems. As specific examples, we consider dispersion maps made of several different types of optical fiber and

T. I. Lakoba; G. P. Agrawal

2000-01-01

79

Status and Recommendations for Self-Care Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy, 2006  

PubMed Central

Teachers of pharmacy self-care courses have met annually since 1998 at the Nonprescription Medicines Academy (NMA) held in Cincinnati, Ohio. During these meetings, self-care faculty members discuss methods of enhancing the teaching of self-care in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Self-care courses are taught using a variety of methods and content is woven into pharmacy curricula in many different ways. This manuscript sets forth the current state of self-care instruction in pharmacy curricula including the recommended core curriculum, instructional methodologies, course mechanics, existing standards, and assessment and curricular placement, and makes recommendations for the future.

Zierler-Brown, Seena L.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Casper, Kristin A.; Krypel, Linda L.; Salcido, Amista Lone; Padron, Victor A.; Pray, W. Steven; Wall, Andrea L.; Sobotka, Jenelle L.; Engle, Janet P.

2006-01-01

80

Health Literacy Influences Heart Failure Knowledge Attainment but Not Self-Efficacy for Self-Care or Adherence to Self-Care over Time  

PubMed Central

Background. Inadequate health literacy may be a barrier to gaining knowledge about heart failure (HF) self-care expectations, strengthening self-efficacy for self-care behaviors, and adhering to self-care behaviors over time. Objective. To examine if health literacy is associated with HF knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care adherence longitudinally. Methods. Prior to education, newly referred patients at three HF clinics (N = 51, age: 64.7 ± 13.0 years) completed assessments of health literacy, HF knowledge, self-efficacy, and adherence to self-care at baseline, 2, and 4 months. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted alpha levels was used to test longitudinal outcomes. Results. Health literacy was associated with HF knowledge longitudinally (P < 0.001) but was not associated with self-efficacy self-care adherence. In posthoc analyses, participants with inadequate health literacy had less HF knowledge than participants with adequate (P < 0.001) but not marginal (P = 0.073) health literacy. Conclusions. Adequate health literacy was associated with greater HF knowledge but not self-efficacy or adherence to self-care expectations over time. If nurses understand patients' health literacy level, they may educate patients using methods that promote understanding of concepts. Since interventions that promote self-efficacy and adherence to self-care were not associated with health literacy level, new approaches must be examined.

Chen, Aleda M. H.; Yehle, Karen S.; Albert, Nancy M.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mason, Holly L.; Murawski, Matthew M.; Plake, Kimberly S.

2013-01-01

81

The Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive Model to Facilitate Self-care of Patients with Diabetes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patient, in his multiple facets of citizen and user of services of health, needs to acquire during, and later in his majority of age, favorable conditions of health to accentuate his quality of life and it is the responsibility of the health organizations to initiate the process of support for that patient during the process of mature life. The provision of services of health and the relation doctor-patient are undergoing important changes in the entire world, forced to a large extent by the indefensibility of the system itself. Nevertheless decision making requires previous information and, what more the necessity itself of being informed requires having a “culture” of health that generates pro activity and the capacity of searching for instruments that facilitate the awareness of the suffering and the self-care of the same. Therefore it is necessary to put into effect a ICT model (hiPAPD) that has the objective of causing Interaction, Motivation and Persuasion towards the surroundings of the diabetic Patient facilitating his self-care. As a result the patient himself individually manages his services through devices and AmI Systems (Ambient Intelligent).

Vargas-Lombard, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Álvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Menasalva Ruíz, Ernestina

82

Narrated lived experiences of self-care and health among rural-living older persons with a strong sense of coherence  

PubMed Central

Sense of coherence (SOC), with its components comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness, is a major factor in the ability to cope successfully with stressors and is closely related to health. Qualitative studies related to SOC are scarce, and in this phenomenological interview study, self-care is investigated in relation to SOC. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older home-dwelling individuals living in rural areas and who have a strong SOC. Eleven persons with a mean age of 73.5 years and a SOC value in the range of 153–188, measured by Antonovsky’s 29-item SOC scale, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a phenomenological descriptive method. The findings showed that successful self-care involves having, when needed, contact with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and/or others, and being satisfied and positive and looking forward. Formal and informal caregivers should be conscious of the importance of motivating and supporting older individuals with respect to these dimensions of self-care.

Soderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bj?rg; Soderhamn, Olle

2011-01-01

83

[Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].  

PubMed

Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rati

Poplinger, A

2010-04-01

84

Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-care: Results From the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the study:?African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect hypertension self-care of older parents and their adult children.?Design and Methods:?We recruited 95 African American older parent–adult child dyads with hypertension. We constructed separate logistic regression models for older parents and adult children with medication adherence as the outcome. Each model included individual demographic and health characteristics, the partner’s knowledge, and self-efficacy to manage hypertension and dyad-related characteristics.?Results:?Parents were more adherent with medication than adult children (67.4% vs. 49.5%, p < .012). There were no significant factors associated with parent medication adherence. In adjusted models for adult children, medication adherence was associated with child’s gender (odds ratio [OR] = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–8.59), parent beliefs that the child had better hypertension self-care (OR = 4.36, 95% CI = 1.34–14.17), and child reports that the dyad conversed about hypertension (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.18–10.29). Parental knowledge of hypertension and parent’s self-efficacy were weakly associated with adult children’s medication adherence (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.99–1.84 and OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 0.94–7.12, respectively).?Implications:?Interventions should consider targeting African American older adults to increase self-care knowledge and empower them as a primary influencer of hypertension self-care within the family.

Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

2011-01-01

85

Averaged dynamics of soliton molecules in dispersion-managed optical fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence regimes and dynamics of soliton molecules in dispersion-managed (DM) optical fibers have been studied. Initially we develop a variational approximation to describe the periodic dynamics of a soliton molecule within each unit cell of the dispersion map. The obtained system of coupled equations for the pulse width and chirp allows to find the parameters of DM soliton molecules for the given dispersion map and pulse energy. Then by means of a scaling transformation and averaging procedure we reduce the original nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with piecewise-constant periodic dispersion to its counterpart with constant coefficients and additional parabolic potential. The obtained averaged NLSE with expulsive potential can explain the essential features of solitons and soliton molecules in DM fibers related to their energy loss during propagation. Also, the model of averaged NLSE predicts the instability of the temporal position of the soliton, which may lead to difficulty in holding the pulse in the middle of its time slot. All numerical simulations are performed using the parameters of the existing DM fiber setup and illustrated via pertinent examples.

Alamoudi, S. M.; Al Khawaja, U.; Baizakov, B. B.

2014-05-01

86

Effect of home blood pressure telemonitoring with self-care support on uncontrolled systolic hypertension in diabetics.  

PubMed

Lowering blood pressure reduces cardiovascular risk, yet hypertension is poorly controlled in diabetic patients. In a pilot study we demonstrated that a home blood pressure telemonitoring system, which provided self-care messages on the smartphone of hypertensive diabetic patients immediately after each reading, improved blood pressure control. Messages were based on care paths defined by running averages of transmitted readings. The present study tests the system's effectiveness in a randomized, controlled trial in diabetic patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension. Of 244 subjects screened for eligibility, 110 (45%) were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 55) or control (n = 55) group, and 105 (95.5%) completed the 1-year outcome visit. In the intention-to-treat analysis, mean daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure, the primary end point, decreased significantly only in the intervention group by 9.1 ± 15.6 mmHg (SD; P < 0.0001), and the mean between-group difference was 7.1 ± 2.3 mmHg (SE; P < 0.005). Furthermore, 51% of intervention subjects achieved the guideline recommended target of <130/80 mmHg compared with 31% of control subjects (P < 0.05). These improvements were obtained without the use of more or different antihypertensive medications or additional clinic visits to physicians. Providing self-care support did not affect anxiety but worsened depression on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (baseline, 4.1 ± 3.76; exit, 5.2 ± 4.30; P = 0.014). This study demonstrated that home blood pressure telemonitoring combined with automated self-care support reduced the blood pressure of diabetic patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension and improved hypertension control. Home blood pressure monitoring alone had no effect on blood pressure. Promoting patient self-care may have negative psychological effects. PMID:22615116

Logan, Alexander G; Irvine, M Jane; McIsaac, Warren J; Tisler, Andras; Rossos, Peter G; Easty, Anthony; Feig, Denice S; Cafazzo, Joseph A

2012-07-01

87

Experiences of self-care in patients with colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title. Experiences of self-care in patients with colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study. Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore patients' experiences of self-care during a 6-month course of chemotherapy treatment for colorectal cancer. Background. A greater degree of patient involvement in self-care is increasingly being encouraged, however, little is known about patients' experiences of being actively

Lisa Kidd; Nora Kearney; Ronan O’Carroll; Gill Hubbard

2008-01-01

88

Sex disparities in diabetes process of care measures and self-care in high-risk patients.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic diabetic complications experience high morbidity and mortality. Sex disparities in modifiable factors such as processes of care or self-care activities have not been explored in detail, particularly in these high-risk patients. Sex differences in processes of care and self-care activities were assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of the Pathways Study, an observational cohort of primary care diabetic patients from a managed care organization (N = 4,839). Compared to men, women had decreased odds of dyslipidemia screening (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.85), reaching low-density lipoprotein goal (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58-0.86), and statin use (AOR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.81); women had 19% greater odds of reaching hemoglobin A1c <7% (95% CI 1.02-1.41). There were no sex differences in hemoglobin A1c testing, microalbuminuria screening, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Women were less likely to report regular exercise but had better adherence to healthy diet, glucose monitoring, and self-foot examination compared to men. Patterns of sex differences were consistent in subjects with diabetic complications. Significant sex disparities exist in diabetes process of care measures and self-care, even amongst patients known to have chronic diabetic complications. PMID:23671877

Yu, Margaret K; Lyles, Courtney Rees; Bent-Shaw, Luis A; Young, Bessie A

2013-01-01

89

Soliton Pulse Propagation in Averaged Dispersion-managed Optical Fiber System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of nonlinear pulse propagation in an averaged dispersion-managed soliton system is governed by a variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). For a special set of parameters the variable coefficient NLSE is completely integrable. The same variable coefficient NLSE is also applicable to optical fiber systems with phase modulation or pulse compression. For such variable coefficient NLSE, solitary waves have been computed earlier in the literature either by the inverse scattering transform or the Bäcklund transformation. The Hirota bilinear method is shown to be applicable here too, and this modified format is employed to compute the exact bright and dark soliton solutions and the periodic waves solutions. The analysis is also extended to the coupled variable coefficient NLSEs. The merit of the Hirota bilinear approach is demonstrated clearly as periodic and solitary waves are obtained even for nonintegrable coupled systems. The validity of the new solutions is verified directly and independently by the software Mathematica.

Mak, C. C.; Chow, K. W.; Nakkeeran, K.

2005-05-01

90

Double Wronskian solutions of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an averaged dispersion-managed fiber system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the presence of chirp and loss terms, which describes the optical solitons in an averaged dispersion-managed (DM) fiber system with fiber losses, is studied via symbolic computation. N-soliton solutions are constructed and verified with the Wronskian technique. Analytic one-, two- and three-soliton solutions are discussed. The soliton has a linear frequency chirp. Soliton width increases exponentially while soliton amplitude, energy and speed decrease exponentially along the DM fiber. As the chirp-loss coefficient increases, soliton width gets wider, while soliton amplitude, energy and speed become smaller. Interactions between the two solitons and among the three solitons are discussed and illustrated. For the larger initial soliton separations, interactions result in some smaller envelopes, which soon disappear due to the chirp-loss effect. When the soliton separations almost reaches zero, solitons interact quasi-periodically along the DM fiber, while each soliton undergoes broadening and decaying.

Liu, Rong-Xiang; Tian, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Zhong, Hui; Zhou, Hui-Ping

2013-07-01

91

Empowering Older Patients to Engage in Self Care: Designing an Interactive Robotic Device  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To develop and test an interactive robot mounted computing device to support medication management as an example of a complex self-care task in older adults. Method: A Grounded Theory (GT), Participatory Design (PD) approach was used within three Action Research (AR) cycles to understand design requirements and test the design configuration addressing the unique task requirements. Results: At the end of the first cycle a conceptual framework was evolved. The second cycle informed architecture and interface design. By the end of third cycle residents successfully interacted with the dialogue system and were generally satisfied with the robot. The results informed further refinement of the prototype. Conclusion: An interactive, touch screen based, robot-mounted information tool can be developed to support healthcare needs of older people. Qualitative methods such as the hybrid GT-PD-AR approach may be particularly helpful for innovating and articulating design requirements in challenging situations.

Tiwari, Priyadarshi; Warren, Jim; Day, Karen

2011-01-01

92

Self Care Behavior among Patients with Diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: The Health Belief Model Perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires lifelong medical treatments and a life style adjustment. To prevent serious morbidity and mortality, it requires dedication to demanding self-care behaviors in multiple domains. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. Methods From a total of 425 follow up diabetic patients, a quantitative cross sectional study was conducted among 222 of them from three different hospitals in Harar town, from March to April, 2011. The sample was taken using simple random sampling method. Data was collected using pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics multiple logistic regression analysis were also used to assess the predicators of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. Result Majority of the study respondents 134 (60.4%) were female and the mean age was 49.7 (SD±14.7) years. More than half 147(66.2%) of them were medically diagnosed with type-2 diabetes. 208(93.7%) had general knowledge about diabetes and specific knowledge about diabetes self care 207(93.2%). Large proportion of them had moderate perceived susceptibility 174(78.4%) and severity 112(50.5%). More than half of the respondents 149(67.1%) had less perceived barrier while only 30 (13.5%) of them had high self efficacy to self care practices related to diabetes mellitus. Only 87(39.2%) followed the recommended self care practices on diabetes. Conclusions Patients with less frequent information were less likely to take diabetes self care. Patients who were more educated, middle income, had high perceived severity of diabetes and less perceived barrier to self care were more likely to take diabetes self care. To increase the self care behavior, diabetes messages should focus on severity of diabetes and how to overcome barriers for self care by segmenting the audiences based on income and educational status with increasing the frequency and reach of message on diabetes.

Girma, Eshetu

2012-01-01

93

Public perception on the role of community pharmacists in self-medication and self-care in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background The choices for self-medication in Hong Kong are much diversified, including western and Chinese medicines and food supplements. This study was to examine Hong Kong public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding self-medication, self-care and the role of pharmacists in self-care. Methods A cross-sectional phone survey was conducted, inviting people aged 18 or older to complete a 37-item questionnaire that was developed based on the Thematic Household surveys in Hong Kong, findings of the health prorfessional focus group discussions on pharmacist-led patient self management and literature. Telephone numbers were randomly selected from residential phone directories. Trained interviewers invited eligible persons to participate using the "last birthday method". Associations of demographic characteristics with knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on self-medication, self-care and role of pharmacists, and spending on over-the-counter (OTC) products were analysed statistically. Results A total of 1, 560 phone calls were successfully made and 1, 104 respondents completed the survey which indicated a response rate of 70.8%. 63.1% had adequate knowledge on using OTC products. Those who had no formal education/had attended primary education (OR = 3.19, 95%CI 1.78-5.72; p < 0.001), had attended secondary education (OR = 1.50, 95%CI 1.03-2.19; p = 0.035), and aged ?60 years (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.02-3.26; p = 0.042) were more likely to have inadequate knowledge on self-medication. People with chronic disease also tended to spend more than HKD100 on western (OR = 3.58, 95%CI 1.58-8.09; p = 0.002) and Chinese OTC products (OR = 2.94, 95%CI 1.08-7.95; p = 0.034). 94.6% believed that patients with chronic illnesses should self-manage their diseases. 68% agreed that they would consult a pharmacist before using OTC product but only 45% agreed that pharmacists could play a leading role in self-care. Most common reasons against pharmacist consultation on self-medication and self-care were uncertainty over the role of pharmacists and low acceptance level of pharmacists. Conclusions The majority of respondents supported patients with chronic illness to self-manage their diseases but less than half agreed to use a pharmacist-led approach in self-care. The government should consider developing doctors-pharmacists partnership programs in the community, enhancing the role of pharmacists in primary care and providing education to patients to improve their awareness on the role of pharmacists in self-medication and self-care.

2011-01-01

94

How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

2011-01-01

95

Econometric analysis to evaluate the effect of community-based health insurance on reducing informal self-care in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines the role of community-based health insurance (CBHI) in influencing health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Community-based health insurance was introduced in Nouna district, Burkina Faso, in 2004 with the goal to improve access to contracted providers based at primary- and secondary-level facilities. The paper specifically examines the effect of CBHI enrolment on reducing the prevalence of seeking modern and traditional methods of self-treatment as the first choice in care among the insured population. Methods Three stages of analysis were adopted to measure this effect. First, propensity score matching was used to minimize the observed baseline differences between the insured and uninsured populations. Second, through matching the average treatment effect on the treated, the effect of insurance enrolment on health-seeking behaviour was estimated. Finally, multinomial logistic regression was applied to model demand for available health care options, including no treatment, traditional self-treatment, modern self-treatment, traditional healers and facility-based care. Results For the first choice in care sought, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of self-treatment among the insured and uninsured populations, reaching over 55% for each group. When comparing the alternative option of no treatment, CBHI played no significant role in reducing the demand for self-care (either traditional or modern) or utilization of traditional healers, while it did significantly increase consumption of facility-based care. The average treatment effect on the treated was insignificant for traditional self-care, modern self-care and traditional healer, but was significant with a positive effect for use of facility care. Discussion While CBHI does have a positive impact on facility care utilization, its effect on reducing the prevalence of self-care is limited. The policy recommendations for improving the CBHI scheme’s responsiveness to population health care demand should incorporate community-based initiatives that offer attractive and appropriate alternatives to self-care.

Robyn, Paul Jacob; Hill, Allan; Liu, Yuanli; Souares, Aurelia; Savadogo, Germain; Sie, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

2012-01-01

96

The relationship between neuropsychological measures and self-care skills in patients with cerebrovascular lesions.  

PubMed Central

The present investigation examined the relationship between performance on the Michigan Neuropsychological Battery (MNB) and selected self-care skills in a group of patients with unilateral cerebrovascular lesions. Among MNB measures, left-sided somatosensory and motor functions were the best predictors of self-care skills, showing that in these stroke patients lower level cerebral functions mediated by the right hemisphere are more strongly related to the self-care skills examined than higher cerebral functions. Also, evidence that patients with cerebrovascular lesions in the left hemisphere performed better than patients with right hemisphere lesions in several self-care categories is further indication that right hemisphere processes have a special role to play in the mediation of these self-care activities. The research and clinical implications of these findings are noted.

Campbell, A.; Brown, A.; Schildroth, C.; Hastings, A.; Ford-Booker, P.; Lewis-Jack, O.; Adams, C.; Gadling, A.; Ellis, R.; Wood, D.

1991-01-01

97

Validity and Reliability of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale Among Adults from the United States with Symptomatic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure (HF) self-care is an important component of disease management and the focus of many interventions. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 9-item European HF Self-Care Behavior Scale (EHFScB-9) in a sample of 200 adults from the United States with symptomatic HF. Methods Psychometric tests included item and confirmatory factor analyses, convergent and discriminant validity, and internal consistency. Results Item-total correlations ranged from 0.25–0.65. Many fit indices for the EHFScB-9 and the 4-item consulting behaviors reached thresholds of acceptability. As expected, the EHFScB-9 was associated with other measures of HF self-care but not with quality-of-life. Coefficient ? was 0.80 for the EHFScB-9 and and 0.85 for the consulting behaviors subscale. Conclusion The EHFScB-9 was a valid and reliable measure of HF self-care among English-speaking U.S. adults with symptomatic HF.

Lee, Christopher S.; Lyons, Karen S.; Gelow, Jill M.; Mudd, James O.; Hiatt, Shirin O.; Nguyen, Thuan; Jaarsma, Tiny

2014-01-01

98

Neural Mechanisms of Self-Care Behavior: Grooming-Related Changes in Serotonin and Dopamine in the Rat Prefrontal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-care behaviors have been thought to be fundamental to maintain quality of life, especially health condition under certain stress conditions including various sickness and diseases. Although the biological significance of self-care behaviors is well-known, the biological basis and neural mechanisms of self-care behaviors are not well understood. We used rat grooming behavior as an animal model of self-care behavior to

Noboru SHIOTA; Kimiya NARIKIYO; Akira MASUDA; Tomoko TSURUOKA; Shuji AOU

99

Self-Care in the Classroom for Children with Chronic Illness: A Case Study of a Student with Cystic Fibrosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the essential self-care of an eight-year old second-grade student. This study illustrates a school counselor's use of a multimodal, behavioral intervention to increase the level of self-care in the classroom. Relevant reinforcements, individual and group counseling, and peer support, resulted in improved self-care. (RJM)

Cox, Julie Elizabeth Jonson

1994-01-01

100

Quality of recipient-caregiver relationship and psychological distress are correlates of self-care agency after lung transplantation.  

PubMed

Self-care behaviors are crucial for following the complex regimen after lung transplantation, yet little is known about recipients' levels of self-care agency (the capability and willingness to engage in self-care behaviors) and its correlates. We examined levels of self-care agency and recipient characteristics (socio-demographics, psychological distress, quality of relationship with primary lay caregiver, and health locus of control) in 111 recipients. Based on Perceived Self-Care Agency scores, recipients were assigned to either the low- or high-self-care agency comparison group. Characteristics were compared between groups to identify characteristics likely to be associated with lower-self-care agency. Mean (SD) score for self-care agency (scale range, 53-265) was 223.02 (22.46). Recipients with lowest-self-care agency scores reported significantly poorer quality of caregiver relationships (p < 0.001) and greater psychological distress (p < 0.001). After controlling for psychological distress, the quality of the recipient-caregiver relationship remained significantly associated with self-care agency. Every one-point decrease in the quality of caregiver relationship increased the risk of low-self-care agency by 12%. Recipients with poorer caregiver relationships and greater psychological distress may need additional support to perform the self-care behaviors expected after lung transplantation. PMID:23004565

DeVito Dabbs, Annette; Terhorst, Lauren; Song, Mi-Kyung; Shellmer, Diana A; Aubrecht, Jill; Connolly, Mary; Dew, Mary Amanda

2013-01-01

101

The use of medicinal plants in self-care in rural central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are an important element of Ethiopian traditional medicine. This questionnaire survey examined the extent and type of medicinal plants used in self-care by rural Ethiopian community. Six hundred mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The prevalence of the use of herbal drugs in self-care was found to be 12.5%. Twenty-five plant species belonging to 21 families were reported, each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used. This study showed that self-care using medicinal plants is a major part of health care options in Butajira community. PMID:12860301

Gedif, Teferi; Hahn, Heinz-Jürgen

2003-08-01

102

African-Americans' perceptions of health care provider cultural competence that promote HIV medical self-care and antiretroviral medication adherence.  

PubMed

Most studies of cultural competence in healthcare examine healthcare providers' definitions of cultural competence practices. This study is unique in that it examines the relationship between African-American patients' perceptions of the cultural competence of their HIV healthcare providers and the adherence of these patients to medical self-care and antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cross-sectional, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted at the Ruth Rothstein CORE Center in Chicago, Illinois. The sample consisted of 202 HIV-positive African-Americans who completed surveys during clinic visits. Multiple measures were used, including the Patient Assessments of Cultural Competency survey instrument developed by the Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Medical self-care was measured using the advice and instructions scale and the self-care symptom management for people living with HIV/AIDS categorical scale. ART adherence was measured using the Adherence Behaviors Self-Report and Adherence Self-Report scales. The data revealed many significant correlations between variables. The more patients believed that providers should integrate culture in HIV treatment; the better their reported health (F1,138=0.151, P=0.05) and the more they followed their provider's advice and instructions (medical self-care; F1,138=0.029, P=0.05). Participants who trusted their providers engaged in more medical self-care (F1,138=0.280, P=0.01). More shared treatment decisions were reported among participants who had higher levels of education (F1,127=0.337, P=0.05). Findings of this study indicate the need for increased attention to the role of cultural competence in HIV/AIDS care. Understanding patient perceptions of provider cultural competence has the potential to improve HIV treatment adherence and health outcomes. PMID:23356569

Gaston, Gina B

2013-01-01

103

The association of patient trust and self-care among patients with diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes requires significant alterations to lifestyle and completion of self management tasks to obtain good control of disease. The objective of this study was to determine if patient trust is associated with reduced difficulty and hassles in altering lifestyle and completing self care tasks. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey and medical record review was performed to measure patient trust and difficulty in completing diabetes tasks among 320 medically underserved patients attending diabetes programs in rural North Carolina, USA. Diabetes tasks were measured three ways: perceived hassles of diabetic care activities, difficulty in completing diabetes-related care activities, and a global assessment of overall ability to complete diabetes care activities. The association of patient trust with self-management was examined after controlling for patient demographics, physical functioning, mental health and co-morbidities. Results Level of patient trust was high (median 22, possible max 25). Higher trust levels were associated with lower levels of hassles (p = 0.006) and lower difficulty in completing care activities (p = 0.001). Patients with higher trust had better global assessments of overall ability to complete diabetes care activities (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Higher patient trust in physicians is associated with reduced difficulty in completing disease specific tasks by patients. Further studies are needed to determine the causal relationship of this association, the effect of trust on other outcomes, and the potential modifiability of trust

Bonds, Denise E; Camacho, Fabian; Bell, Ronny A; Duren-Winfield, Vanessa T; Anderson, Roger T; Goff, David C

2004-01-01

104

A pilot study of yoga as self-care for arthritis in minority communities  

PubMed Central

Background While arthritis is the most common cause of disability, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics experience worse arthritis impact despite having the same or lower prevalence of arthritis compared to non-Hispanic whites. People with arthritis who exercise regularly have less pain, more energy, and improved sleep, yet arthritis is one of the most common reasons for limiting physical activity. Mind-body interventions, such as yoga, that teach stress management along with physical activity may be well suited for investigation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Yoga users are predominantly white, female, and college educated. There are few studies that examine yoga in minority populations; none address arthritis. This paper presents a study protocol examining the feasibility and acceptability of providing yoga to an urban, minority population with arthritis. Methods/design In this ongoing pilot study, a convenience sample of 20 minority adults diagnosed with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis undergo an 8-week program of yoga classes. It is believed that by attending yoga classes designed for patients with arthritis, with racially concordant instructors; acceptability of yoga as an adjunct to standard arthritis treatment and self-care will be enhanced. Self-care is defined as adopting behaviors that improve physical and mental well-being. This concept is quantified through collecting patient-reported outcome measures related to spiritual growth, health responsibility, interpersonal relations, and stress management. Additional measures collected during this study include: physical function, anxiety/depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, social roles, and pain; as well as baseline demographic and clinical data. Field notes, quantitative and qualitative data regarding feasibility and acceptability are also collected. Acceptability is determined by response/retention rates, positive qualitative data, and continuing yoga practice after three months. Discussion There are a number of challenges in recruiting and retaining participants from a community clinic serving minority populations. Adopting behaviors that improve well-being and quality of life include those that integrate mental health (mind) and physical health (body). Few studies have examined offering integrative modalities to this population. This pilot was undertaken to quantify measures of feasibility and acceptability that will be useful when evaluating future plans for expanding the study of yoga in urban, minority populations with arthritis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01617421

2013-01-01

105

Development of the Self-Care for Adults on Dialysis tool (SCAD).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a norm-referenced tool that would measure the self-care abilities and behaviours for adults requiring dialysis therapy. Guided by the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (Orem, 2001) and an extensive review of the research literature, the Lay Care Giving for Adults on Dialysis tool (LC-GAD) (Horsburgh, Laing, Beanlands, Meng, & Harwood, 2008) was modified to develop the Self-Care for Adults on Dialysis (SCAD) measure. Content validity testing of the SCAD was conducted by a panel of 13 nephrology nursing experts. The tool was modified based on study findings. Further psychometric testing is required. When completed the SCAD tool will guide nurses to design and evaluate supportive self-care interventions for adults requiring dialysis. PMID:21894839

Costantini, Lucia; Beanlands, Heather; Horsburgh, Martha Elizabeth

2011-01-01

106

Potential Benefits of Companion Animals for Self-Care Children. Reviews of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the potential benefits of having pets for self-care children. Researchers suggest that companion animals can lower blood pressure, show up high on a list of children's helpers and indirectly increase feelings of safety. (RJC)

Heath, D. Terry; McKenry, Patrick C.

1989-01-01

107

Ethnic differences in illness perceptions, self-efficacy and diabetes self-care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed differences between Europeans, South Asians and Pacific Islanders in illness perceptions, self-efficacy, self-care, metabolic control and retinopathy in diabetes. We also evaluated the role of illness perceptions and self-efficacy in diabetes self-care and metabolic control within each group. A total of 86 Europeans, 86 South Asians, and 87 Pacific Islanders with type-2 diabetes completed self-report measures of

Debbie Bean; Tim Cundy; Keith J. Petrie

2007-01-01

108

The use of medicinal plants in self-care in rural central Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are an important element of Ethiopian traditional medicine. This questionnaire survey examined the extent and type of medicinal plants used in self-care by rural Ethiopian community. Six hundred mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The prevalence of the use of herbal drugs in self-care was found to be 12.5%. Twenty-five plant species belonging to 21 families were

Teferi Gedif; Heinz-Jürgen Hahn

2003-01-01

109

Self-care self-efficacy, quality of life, and depression after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robinson-Smith G, Johnston MV, Allen J. Self-care self-efficacy, quality of life, and depression after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:460-4. Objective: To determine the relationship of self-care self-efficacy to functional independence, quality of life, and depression after stroke. Methods: Longitudinal, descriptive correlational design. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation facility at 1 month after stroke and home at 6 months after stroke. Participants:

Gale Robinson-Smith; Mark V Johnston; Judith Allen

2000-01-01

110

Pests and diseases contribute to sugar beet yield difference between top and averagely managed farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop yield has to increase to meet the expanding demand for food, feed and bio-energy, caused by world population growth and increasing wealth. Raising sugar yield is also the key to sustaining the profitability of the sugar beet crop. This paper describes the factors that impacted on yield differences between 26 ‘top’ and 26 ‘average’ growers based on four years

B. Hanse; J. H. M. Schneider; A. J. Termorshuizen; M. Varrelmann

2011-01-01

111

Using Personal Digital Assistants to improve self-care in oral health.  

PubMed

We conducted a pilot project to evaluate the potential of Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) technologies to improve the oral health of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities, chronic health problems and a long-standing history of poor oral health self-care. Oral health video and audio materials were prepared and transferred to PDAs. Patients were trained in the use of the PDAs at a regular dental appointment and the utilization of the PDA and any change in oral health status was tracked over the next six months. More than half of the 36 patients reported problems in keeping the PDAs functioning properly (mainly problems of keeping the batteries charged) for the duration of the project and 11 patients dropped out of the study. Ten of the remainder (40%) achieved improvement in at least three areas of oral health. The pilot project potentially brings a range of health promotion activities within the reach of people with limited health literacy which may produce better self-management of chronic health conditions. PMID:18430286

O'Hara, David M; Seagriff-Curtin, Patricia; Levitz, Mitchell; Davies, Daniel; Stock, Steven

2008-01-01

112

Symptoms of Depression Prospectively Predict Poorer Self-Care in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

AIMS To prospectively examine the association of depression symptoms with subsequent self-care and medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS 208 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes completed the Harvard Department of Psychiatry/National Depression Screening Day Scale (HANDS), and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) at baseline. They also self-reported medication adherence at baseline and at a follow-up, a mean of 9 months later. RESULTS Baseline HANDS scores ranged from 0 to 27, with a mean score of 5.15± 4.99. In separate linear regression models that adjusted for baseline self-care, patients with higher levels of depressive symptoms at baseline reported significantly lower adherence to general diet recommendations and specific recommendations for consumption of fruits and vegetables and spacing of carbohydrates; less exercise; and poorer foot care at follow-up (ßs ranging from -0.12 to -0.23; ps <0 .05). Similarly, each one-point increase in baseline HANDS score was associated with a 1.08-fold increase in the odds of nonadherence to prescribed medication at follow-up (95% CI = 1.001 - 1.158, p = 0.047). Increases in depression scores over time also predicted poorer adherence to aspects of diet and exercise. CONCLUSIONS Depressive symptoms predict subsequent nonadherence to important aspects of self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes, even after controlling for baseline self-care. Though the relationship between symptoms of depression and poorer diabetes self care is consistent, it is not large and interventions may need to simultaneously address depression and self-care skills in order to maximize effects on diabetes outcomes.

Gonzalez, JS; Safren, SA; Delahanty, LM; Cagliero, E; Wexler, DJ; Meigs, JB; Grant, RW

2008-01-01

113

Being old and living alone in urban areas: the meaning of self-care and health on the perception of life situation and identity  

PubMed Central

Background Living alone in urban areas when getting old is an important and necessary field for research as the growth of the urban population worldwide increases, and due to the fact that people live longer. How older people manage their self-care and health, and how this might influence their identity and life situation may be very important to understand when planning for a new, upcoming older generation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. Methods A phenomenological–hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur was applied. Nine single-living older persons in urban areas, 70–82 years of age, and identified to be in good health were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a phenomenological–hermeneutic method. Results Strength and a time dimension characterized the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity as narrated by the group of single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. The informants were, as older individuals, caring, autonomous, and robust characters, who had gone through difficult times in life, and in a resilient way moved towards a new future. They valued and were grateful for what they had learned in their lives and could go forward and still experience and explore. Conclusion Self-care is significant in the perception of life situation and identity among single urban older people in this study, and characterized by strength, temporality, gratitude, autonomy, and natality. Society needs to acknowledge the strengths and capabilities of older people to a greater extent.

Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Soderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

114

The physician payments sunshine act: what the average radiologist and manager need to know.  

PubMed

The Physician Payments Sunshine Act (PPSA) was enacted in 2010 and requires applicable manufacturers of medical devices, drugs, biological material, or medical supplies to report payments or transfers of value that are provided to physicians or teaching hospitals. PPSA has value in creating greater transparency in the financial relationships between industry, physicians, and teaching hospitals, and in potentially reducing problematic conflicts of interest. PPSA requires that this data be published, in searchable form, on a public website. CMS has delayed the reporting under PPSA until after January 1, 2013, and has yet to issue its final rules for PPSA; however, Physician Payments data already exist in a publically searchable database. It is important to realize that names of individuals may appear in the PPSA public database, even if those individuals did not actually receive a transfer of value. As with all broad-stroke legislation, consequences not anticipated or not considered sufficiently important for our government leaders may well present a problem for individuals. It behooves all physicians and healthcare managers to carefully follow the CMS PPSA regulations. In advance of meeting or interacting with any PPSA-applicable manufacturer, obtain a clear and mutual understanding regarding what reportable value, if any, will be prepared for and provided by the applicable manufacturer. In this, as in all situations in which government regulations are at play, "knowledge is strength." PMID:23735270

Haramati, Nogah

2013-06-01

115

An empirical test of a self-care model of women's responses to battering.  

PubMed

A model of women's responses to battering was constructed based on Orem's theory of self-care deficit and on empirical and clinical observations. The model proposed that the age, educational level, and cultural influences as basic conditioning factors would all be directly related to relational conflict, which would be negatively related to self-care agency (as a mediator) and indirectly related to both outcomes of health and well-being. Using simultaneous structural equation modeling with specification searching, a modified model was derived that eliminated the mediation path but supported direct effects of both abuse and self-care agency on health. The derived model was found to be only a borderline fit with the data, probably due to measurement problems, lack of inclusion of important variables, and small sample size (N = 117). However, there was support for several of the relationships deduced from and/or congruent with Orem's theory. PMID:11847780

Campbell, J C; Weber, N

2000-01-01

116

Evolution of self-care with over-the-counter medications.  

PubMed

Self-care with over-the-counter (OTC) medicines has evolved from the "dark ages" of patent medicine manufacture and sale to a modern era of new drug development involving prescription-to-OTC switch. This evolution is largely due to the OTC Review, which placed science at the cornerstone of safety, effectiveness, and labeling of nonprescription medicines. As self-care with OTC drugs has evolved, the switching of drugs from prescription to nonprescription status has produced important benefits, creating more self-reliant consumers through novel self-care therapeutics, significant cost savings to the health care system, expanded markets for companies, enhanced science for regulatory decisions, a more consumer-friendly label for all OTC agents, and a more consistent and predictable drug approval process. Potential regulatory barriers and an evolving claims environment for prescription drugs and dietary supplements present important challenges for the OTC industry today. PMID:9915100

Soller, R W

1998-01-01

117

Integration of Problem-based Learning and Innovative Technology Into a Self-Care Course  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the integration of problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course. Design. Problem-based learning (PBL) activities were developed and implemented in place of lectures in a self-care course. Students used technology, such as computer-generated virtual patients and iPads, during the PBL sessions. Assessments. Students’ scores on post-case quizzes were higher than on pre-case quizzes used to assess baseline knowledge. Student satisfaction with problem-based learning and the use of technology in the course remained consistent throughout the semester. Conclusion. Integrating problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course enabled students to become active learners.

2013-01-01

118

The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory as a curriculum conceptual framework in baccalaureate education.  

PubMed

Although Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory has been used for curricula framework for years, it was not until 2001 that Orem identified the nursing practice sciences and the foundational nursing sciences and specified the appropriate content for the two sciences. The broad purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance of utilizing nursing theories as curricular conceptual frameworks. The specific purpose is to delineate the appropriate content for baccalaureate programs that adopt a Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory conceptual framework for their curriculum. PMID:21471038

Berbiglia, Violeta A

2011-04-01

119

Using Behavior Change Plans to Improve Medical Student Self-Care  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe an innovative approach to teaching medical students the principles and practice of health behavior change and self-care using a Behavior Change Plan (BCP). Method Second-year medical students at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (n = 343) took a required Healthy Living unit in 2008 or 2009. They completed a BCP project in which they selected a personal behavior to change (exercise, nutrition, sleep, personal habits/hygiene, study/work habits, or mental/emotional health), set a goal, tracked progress, and self-assessed success. The authors employed a one-group posttest-only design to conduct a quantitative analysis and a qualitative evaluation of students' BCPs and their attitudes concerning the project. Results Among the 343 students, 299 (87.2%) set BCP goals related to exercise, nutrition, or sleep. BCP outcomes varied: 139 students (40.5%) achieved their goal, 170 (49.6%) failed to do so, and 34 (9.9%) were uncertain. Factor analysis produced two independent attitude scales: utility (? = .80) and burden (? = .67). Logistic regression showed that success approached statistical significance only in the sleep behavior category and for the utility attitude scale. Qualitative case reports provide insights about BCP targets, management, and results. After completing the assignment, 274 (79.9%) of the students considered themselves to be healthier and 281 (81.9%) indicated they would use the process again. Conclusions Completing a BCP is a valuable and effective exercise that enables medical students to practice the strategies and skills and experience the obstacles of changing health behavior.

Kushner, Robert F.; Kessler, Sheila; McGaghie, William C.

2011-01-01

120

Support and Self-Care: Professional Reflections of Six New Zealand High School Counsellors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many Western societies there is increasing demand for counselling; in turn, heightened levels of support needs have been identified for counsellors themselves. Despite calls for practitioners to adopt a more proactive approach to self-care, research suggests many still pay insufficient attention to alleviating on-the-job stress or achieving…

Evans, Yvonne A.; Payne, Monica A.

2008-01-01

121

Young Cancer Patients' Perceptions of a Video Game Used to Promote Self Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A video game called "Re-Mission" has recently been investigated with adolescent and young adult cancer patients enrolled in a multi-site randomized controlled evaluation of the game as a psycho-educational intervention. The main focus of the trial was to determine effects of the game on self-care and other health-related outcomes. It was also…

Beale, Ivan L.; Marin-Bowling, Veronica M.; Guthrie, Nicole: Kato, Pamela M.

2006-01-01

122

Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

2008-01-01

123

A Behavioral Approach to Improving Self-Care Skills in OBS Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, the treatment of geriatric patients suffering from Organic Brain Syndrome (OBS) has been characterized by non-therapeutic custodial care. To determine whether elderly clients with dementia can benefit from self-care skill training, and to compare their progress with clients without OBS, 30 clients of the Residential Aging Program in…

McEvoy, Cathy L.; Patterson, Roger L.

124

Complementary\\/alternative medicine in chronic illness as informed self-care decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons that persons with chronic illness explore complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have not been well understood. Using data from a study of self-care decision making in chronic illness, we conducted a qualitative secondary analysis to interpret the rationale underlying decisions to experiment with and use various CAM practices and products. The findings confirm that CAM use can be

Sally Thorne; Barbara Paterson; Cynthia Russell; Annette Schultz

2002-01-01

125

Technology-Based Self-Care Methods of Improving Antiretroviral Adherence: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background As HIV infection has shifted to a chronic condition, self-care practices have emerged as an important topic for HIV-positive individuals in maintaining an optimal level of health. Self-care refers to activities that patients undertake to maintain and improve health, such as strategies to achieve and maintain high levels of antiretroviral adherence. Methodology/Principal Findings Technology-based methods are increasingly used to enhance antiretroviral adherence; therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to examine technology-based self-care methods that HIV-positive individuals utilize to improve adherence. Seven electronic databases were searched from 1/1/1980 through 12/31/2010. We included quantitative and qualitative studies. Among quantitative studies, the primary outcomes included ARV adherence, viral load, and CD4+ cell count and secondary outcomes consisted of quality of life, adverse effects, and feasibility/acceptability data. For qualitative/descriptive studies, interview themes, reports of use, and perceptions of use were summarized. Thirty-six publications were included (24 quantitative and 12 qualitative/descriptive). Studies with exclusive utilization of medication reminder devices demonstrated less evidence of enhancing adherence in comparison to multi-component methods. Conclusions/Significance This systematic review offers support for self-care technology-based approaches that may result in improved antiretroviral adherence. There was a clear pattern of results that favored individually-tailored, multi-function technologies, which allowed for periodic communication with health care providers rather than sole reliance on electronic reminder devices.

Saberi, Parya; Johnson, Mallory O.

2011-01-01

126

[The job of the hospital nurse: self-care and caring for others].  

PubMed

The self-care of nurses is a requirement for the care of the patient, so that the care provided will not imply on the resignation of the nursing professional or the client. The objective of the present study is to verify how the work of hospital nurses has been done, regarding the self-care of these professionals and the care provided to patients. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with nurses from two different districts in Rio Grande do Sul, who had graduated from public universities in the same state and worked in hospitals of the respective districts. Results showed that these professionals expressed the need of taking care of themselves in order to provide care for their patients. It was also reported that nurses assume responsibilities of other professionals and lack, in their professional environment, human and material resources. This situation generates negative consequences for the nurse's self-care, as well as for the care of the patients. It is important that nursing professionals implement strategies to deal with asymmetric power relations in the hospital, based on their beliefs, values and knowledge. This can lead to more appropriate conditions of work, which can guarantee a more qualified self-care of the professional, and a better care for the patient. PMID:12222029

Beneri, R L; Santos, L R; Lunardi, V L

2001-01-01

127

Self Care Resource Corner: Its Impact on Appropriate Health Service Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to intervene before students enter the medical care system at the University of Michigan, a Self Care Resource Corner and accompanying materials were developed and implemented. The objective was to encourage students to view themselves as the primary decision makers for health-related conditions before seeking care from clinicians.…

McClaran, Diane M.; Breakey, Robin Sarris

128

Adult Diabetic Patients' Self-Care Levels, Attitudes, and Perceptions Following an Education Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A descriptive study was conducted to evaluate diabetics' self-care levels, attitudes, and perceptions following a structured diabetic education program. Subjects consisted of diabetics between 25 and 65 years of age who had attended the 5 day course at a ...

S. M. Witt

1983-01-01

129

Perceived Impact of Distribution of a Self-Care Book on Members of an HMO in Texas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that medical self-care holds promise in not only improving health, but also in potentially reducing the cost of medical care. A study was conducted to evaluate the perceived impact of the distribution of a self-care book on members of a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas, area. Data were…

Enos, Richard; Chng, Chwee Lye

130

Testing Self-Efficacy as a Pathway that Supports Self-Care among Family Caregivers in a Psychoeducational Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which a psychoeducational intervention supports family-centered care by influencing health risk and self-care behaviors of caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (N = 325). Moreover, this study investigated the extent to which changes in self-efficacy explained changes in health risk and self-care

Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Brintnall-Peterson, Mary

2010-01-01

131

What Kind of Self-Care Strategies Do People Report Using and Is There an Association with Well-Being?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe what kind of self-care strategies people report using to improve or maintain their well-being. Furthermore, we also wanted to investigate whether reports of using self-care strategies were associated with well-being. Methods: A selected sample (n = 871), aged between 20 and 64 years, living in…

Hansson, Anna; Hilleras, Pernilla; Forsell, Yvonne

2005-01-01

132

A cross-sectional study of depression and self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without foot ulcers.  

PubMed

Depression has been recognized as a risk factor for foot ulceration in persons with diabetes mellitus. Using convenience sampling methods, a cross-sectional study was conducted among persons with type 2 diabetes treated in a diabetic foot clinic in Sao Paulo, Brazil between February 2010 and December 2011. One hundred (100) patients (average age 62 years, range 38 to 83 years), 50 with a foot ulcer and 50 at risk for developing a foot ulcer, participated. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), where scores increase with severity; and patients were interviewed about foot self-care behaviors. Average BDI scores among patients with an ulcer were higher (mean 20.37; range 1 to 42) than those of patients that had not developed a foot ulcer (mean 15.70; range 2 to 49) (P = 0.030). Self-care behavior was not significantly different between the two groups. Severe depression (P = 0.049, OR= 6.56 95% CI 1.01-42.58) and male gender (P <0.001, OR=14.87 95% CI 3.83-57.82) were associated with the presence of a foot ulcer. Despite reported adequate self-care behaviors, patients with an ulcer had more symptoms of depression than patients who were at risk for developing a foot ulcer. Studies examining cause-and-effect relationships between these observations and the potential role of depression interventions are needed. The results of this and other studies suggest depression screening is important in patients with diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers. PMID:24515984

Coelho, Camila Ribeiro; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht; Parisi, Maria Cândida Ribeiro

2014-02-01

133

Evaluation of self-care practices and relative components among type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess self-care practices and their relative components among type 2 diabetic patients. We hypothesized that some sociodemographic and health-related factors, high diabetes distress, and low self-efficacy would be associated with poorer self-care practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 6 months in 2011. Study population was type 2 diabetic patients referring to Omolbanin center, an outpatient diabetic center in Isfahan. One hundred forty diabetic patients met the inclusion criteria and were all included in the study. Patients’ self-care practices were measured by Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities (SDSCA) self-report scale that includes items on the following aspects of the diabetes regimen: General diet, specific diet, exercise, blood glucose testing, foot care, medications, and smoking. Diabetes distress measured by Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) scale and Stanford diabetes self-efficacy scale was used for scoring this issue. Collected data were analyzed by using SPSS software version 11.5. Results: Participants were between the ages of 37 and 75 years, with a mean of 53.23 years (SD=7.82). Fifty-four percent (n=76) were females; 97.1% were married (n=136), and 53.6% had education lower than diploma (n=75). Mean of duration of diabetes was 7.1 (SD=5.63) years. “Medications” subscale was considered as the most important one in measuring diabetes self-care practices (5.24 ± 2.38 days/week). Study findings revealed that general diet had significant relation with comorbidity, type of treatment, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS), (Blood Sugar) (BS), waist circumference, diabetes distress, and self-efficacy. Specific diet had significant relation with comorbidity, education, triglyceride (TG), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and low density lipoprotein (LDL). Exercise showed significant relation with history of diabetes, education, type of treatment, disease duration, TG, BMI, and BS. Also, blood glucose testing showed significant relation with disease duration, self-efficacy, TG, DBP, BS, LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL). On the other hand, foot care was related to age, diabetes distress, TG, BMI, HDL, and diabetes complications. Medications subscale as the most important subscale of self-care practices was relevant with age, disease duration, diabetes complications, type of treatment, FBS, HDL, and self-efficacy. The last subscale, smoking, had significant relation with sex, diabetes complications, diabetes distress, self-efficacy, TG, total cholesterol, BS, and HDL. Conclusion: This information should be used in clinical practice when targeting and designing educational and care plan for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Tol, Azar; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Eslami, Ahmadali; Alhani, Fatemeh; Mohajeritehrani, Mohamadreza; Baghbanian, Abdolvahab; Sharifirad, Golamreza

2012-01-01

134

Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural dwelling women and men. Method Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results Both older women and men rely heavily on over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies self-care; professional health care is typically sought when self-care is not effective. However, relative to men, women were more knowledgeable about different approaches to self-care, especially home remedies, they used a wider range of self-care activities, and they placed greater priority on self-care over professional health care. Discussion The structure of older women’s and men’s self-care domain of health lifestyle is similar. However, there are subtle differences in health lifestyle that are likely embedded in gendered role behavior and may contribute to women’s greater health complaints.

Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

135

Self-care and anticipated transition into retirement and later life in a Nordic welfare context  

PubMed Central

Few studies have appeared in the health care literature on the meaning of transition into retirement and later life. However, this predictable-involuntary transition may influence personal health and well-being, and studying it from a self-care perspective could be useful. The aim of this study was to illuminate aspects of self-care in a group of middle-aged individuals in relation to their anticipated transition into retirement in the Nordic welfare context. A total of 13 individuals, aged 55 to 65 years, were randomly chosen from the total number of inhabitants in three municipalities in mid-west Sweden. Conversational interviews took place, during which the informants shared important events in their lives that had occurred from early childhood until the present time, together with thoughts about their anticipated future developmental transition into later life. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. After content analyses and interpretation, a comprehensive picture of the phenomenon was revealed. The results showed that there were opportunities, expectations, wishes, concerns, and worries related to the transition into retirement and old age among informants from both rural and urban municipalities. Self-care, in connection with this, depended on motivating and demotivating factors. Autonomy and mature dependence seemed to be positive driving forces for reaching a successful transition into later life. Supporting autonomy should be a way of facilitating the transition into retirement and later life.

Soderhamn, Olle; Skisland, Anne; Herrman, Margaretha

2011-01-01

136

Self-Care Practices among Diabetic Patients in Anand District of Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Background. Diabetes care requires a multipronged approach, wherein the patient has an important role to play. This study was undertaken to explore self-care practices of diabetic patients residing in Anand district of Gujarat. Methods. A cross-sectional study, involving 100 diabetic patients, was conducted in 2009-2010. Self-care practices in seven domains of physical activity, dietary practices, medication taking, monitoring of glucose, problem solving, foot care, and psychosocial adjustment were assessed using scores assigned to participants' responses. Results. The mean age was 60.9 (SD = 12.2) years and 57% were males. Majority (92%) were Hindus and were consulting private medical practitioners (71%). “Medication taking” was the domain with the best performance score (88.1%) and “problem solving” the worst (11.0%). The “psychosocial adjustment” of the participants was satisfactory (82.5%). Overall mean performance percentage score was 54.41%. Males had better performance scores as compared to females in areas of “physical activity,” “dietary practices,” and “problem solving.” Housewives had poorer performance scores. Total mean performance score was similar for patients on treatment from specialists and general practitioners. Conclusion. A self-care education program designed for this region should address the lacunae identified in various domains with a special emphasis on females.

Raithatha, Shyamsundar Jagdish; Shankar, Singh Uday; Dinesh, Kumar

2014-01-01

137

Developing an appropriate model for self-care of hypertensive patients: first experience from EMRO  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute 53% of deaths above the age of 30; 54% of these deaths are attributed to high blood pressure. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of mortality in the world. Hypertension accounts for 13% of mortalities and 6% of morbidities and is one of the main risk factors that cause loss of healthy life years. Blood pressure is not optimally controlled even among those who are aware of their disease. Previous studies showed that apart from pharmacological treatment, lifestyle improvement can also play a significant role in the prevention of high blood pressure CVDs. Self-care among them has been addressed in several previous studies. There are few self-care programs in Iran, but no study has been conducted on blood pressure. METHODS In this study the primary model is designed and then revised, and in the pilot study the feasibility of the project was approved and the final model presented. RESULTS The current project proposes a model for self-care of hypertensive patients and their families, and is based on education of health care providers and patients in such a way that patients can control their illness. CONCLUSION The model can be implemented at a national scale.

Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shiri, Mansoor; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

2013-01-01

138

Self Care  

MedlinePLUS

... blood sugar levels Increase blood circulation and wound healing Decrease pain And the best part is, they are relaxing and easy to do. Yoga: Simple movements for flexibility, health and relaxation Reflexology: A simple self-massage technique Breathing for Relaxation: a quick exercise in deep ...

139

Sore throat: effective communication delivers improved diagnosis, enhanced self-care and more rational use of antibiotics.  

PubMed

The majority of throat infections are of viral origin and resolve without antibiotic treatment. Despite this, antibiotic use for sore throat infections remains high, partly because it is difficult to determine when antibiotics may be useful, on the basis of physical findings alone. Antibiotics may be beneficial in bacterial throat infections under certain clinical and epidemiological circumstances; however, even many of those infections in which bacteria play a role do resolve just as quickly without antibiotics. Furthermore, non-medical factors such as patient expectations and patient pressure are also important drivers of antibiotic use. To address these issues, a behavioural change is required that can be facilitated by improved communication between primary healthcare providers and patients. In this article, we provide doctors, nurses and pharmacy staff, working in primary care or in the community, with a structured approach to sore throat management, with the aim of educating and empowering patients to self-manage their condition. The first component of this approach involves identifying and addressing patients' expectations and concerns with regard to their sore throat and eliciting their opinion on antibiotics. The second part is dedicated to a pragmatic assessment of the severity of the condition, with attention to red-flag symptoms and risk factors for serious complications. Rather than just focusing on the cause (bacterial or viral) of the upper respiratory tract infections as a rationale for antibiotic use, healthcare providers should instead consider the severity of the patient's condition and whether they are at high risk of complications. The third part involves counselling patients on effective self-management options and providing information on the expected clinical course. Such a structured approach to sore throat management, using empathetic, non-paternalistic language, combined with written patient information, will help to drive patient confidence in self-care and encourage them to accept the self-limiting character of the illness - important steps towards improving antibiotic stewardship in acute throat infections. PMID:24238425

van der Velden, A W; Bell, J; Sessa, A; Duerden, M; Altiner, A

2013-11-01

140

Average Speed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is not an inquiry activity but will help students understand the meaning of average velocity. Students do not easily understand from a textbook that an object's velocity changes over a period of acceleration. They have difficulty understanding wh

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

141

Ibuprofen: a model medicine for self-care of common conditions.  

PubMed

The expansion and development of the self-care agenda across Europe and beyond has the potential to realise huge efficiencies for national health services. Self-medication of common ailments is one of the themes being developed by community pharmacy in several European countries. In the UK, as part of this development, ibuprofen was one of the first Prescription Only Medicines switched to Pharmacy Only (P) status and, arguably, the most successful. Within 4 years of switching, ibuprofen had 25% of the over-the-counter analgesic market and was a main choice for community pharmacists when recommending treatment for mild-to-moderate pain and fever in both adults and children over 6 months (now permitted from 3 months). However, self-care of minor conditions appears not to be developing in line with the objectives of the self-care agenda. The reliance on national health systems for these conditions is still a major and unnecessary burden on health service resources. Taking ibuprofen use as a marker of this, whereas initially it was widely used for the effective and well-tolerated treatment of minor conditions, pharmacists now appear to offer significant barriers to its wider use. One reason for this could be criticism of community pharmacists' competence when dealing with and treating common conditions. For example, in the UK in the early 1980s, pharmacists have contributed to a risk averse approach. Another is that certain restrictions that may have been justified in 1983 when ibuprofen was granted P status (e.g. caution in asthmatic patients and patients with history of severe gastrointestinal complaints), have acted as a barrier to wider treatment with ibuprofen. However, there is currently little evidence to support the continued maintenance of all these barriers. Regulators may need to revisit the Summary of Product Characteristics and community pharmacists to update their knowledge of ibuprofen, and possibly other switched medicines, where unjustified barriers to use exist if pharmacists are to contribute more successfully to the self-care agenda. PMID:23163548

Maguire, T A

2013-01-01

142

An Internet-Based Counseling Intervention With Email Reminders that Promotes Self-Care in Adults With Chronic Heart Failure: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a public health priority. Its age-standardized prevalence has increased over the past decade. A major challenge for the management of CHF is to promote long-term adherence to self-care behaviors without overtaxing available health care resources. Counseling by multidisciplinary health care teams helps to improve adherence to self-care behaviors and to reduce the rate of death and hospitalization. In the absence of intervention, adherence to self-care is below recommended standards. Objective This trial aims to establish and evaluate a Canadian e-platform that will provide a core, standardized protocol of behavioral counseling and education to facilitate long-term adherence to self-care among patients with CHF. Methods Canadian e-Platform to Promote Behavioral Self-Management in Chronic Heart Failure (CHF-CePPORT) is a multi-site, double blind, randomized controlled trial with a 2 parallel-group (e-Counseling + Usual Care vs e-Info Control + Usual Care) by 3 assessments (baseline, 4-, and 12-month) design. We will identify subjects with New York Heart Association Class II or III systolic heart failure from collaborating CHF clinics and then recruit them (n=278) by phone. Subjects will be randomized in blocks within each site (Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver). The primary outcome will be improved quality of life, defined as an increased number of subjects with an improvement of ?5 points on the summary score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We will also assess the following secondary outcomes: (1) diet habits, depression, anxiety, smoking history, stress level, and readiness for change using self-report questionnaires, (2) physical activity level, current smoking status, and vagal-heart rate modulation by physiological tests, and (3) exercise capacity, prognostic indicators of cardiovascular functioning, and medication adherence through medical chart review. The primary outcome will be analyzed using generalized estimation equations with repeated measures on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes will be analyzed using repeated-measures linear mixed models with a random effects intercept. All significant main effects or interactions in the statistical models will be followed up with post hoc contrasts using a Bonferroni correction with a 2-sided statistical significance criterion of P<.05. Results This 3.5-year, proof-of-principle trial will establish the e-infrastructure for a pan-Canadian e-platform for CHF that is comprised of a standardized, evidence-based protocol of e-Counseling. Conclusions CHF-CePPORT is designed to improve long-term adherence to self-care behaviors and quality of life among patients with CHF. It will demonstrate a distinct Canadian initiative to build capacity for preventive eHealth services for patients with CHF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01864369; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01864369 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Iiv6so7E).

Payne, Ada YM; Ross, Heather; White, Michel; D'Antono, Bianca; Chan, Sammy; Barr, Susan I; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Nigam, Anil; Perreault, Sylvie; Farkouh, Michael; McDonald, Michael; Goodman, Jack; Thomas, Scott; Zieroth, Shelley; Isaac, Debra; Oh, Paul; Rajda, Miroslaw; Chen, Maggie; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liu, Sam; Zbib, Ahmad

2014-01-01

143

The effects of nursing discharge plan (post-discharge education and follow-up) on self-care ability in patients with chronic schizophrenia hospitalized in Razi psychiatric Center  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychotic disorder that affects patients’ personality, career-related and social functioning. Patients stop medications after discharge or inpatient care, when they feel relatively recovered. Most patients do not know that they are sick and they need medication for recovery due to lack of information and cognitive impairment, which makes them incompetent for self-care. A well designed discharge plan with disease management, prevention cares and education along with follow-up can significantly improve patients and decrease the health care costs; because it helps them take care of themselves and maintain a certain level of health. This study aimed to determine the effect of discharge, education and follow-up program on self-care abilities of patients with chronic schizophrenia. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, using a hospital based accessible sampling method. Participants included 60 schizophrenic patients who were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control (30 patients in each group). After their symptoms were relatively controlled, the intervention group received a service of post-discharge program and home-care for 6 months. Data were collected before, and one month after education up to 6 month after discharge, using a demographic data questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire for self-care. Validity and reliability of instruments were approved by content validity and test-retest, respectively. Also, ethical approval for this study was obtained from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the self-care abilities after intervention (from month 1 to month 6) in the intervention group compared with the controls. It means that conducting a discharge plan, education and follow-up increased the self-care abilities of the participants in the intervention group compared with themselves and control group members. CONCLUSIONS: Educating patients and their families and follow-up cares after discharge along with medications led to independency, self-care improvement and cognitive and social functioning of schizophrenic patients.

Khankeh, Hamidreza; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Ranjbar, Maryam

2011-01-01

144

Contribution of stochastic control singular perturbation averaging and team theories to an example of large-scale systems: Management of hydropower production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a global model describing a hydropower production system and the related management problem. Using averaging and singular perturbation techniques, we define a nearby optimal problem. The optimization in the class of local feedbacks leads to a team problem which can be solved numerically.

F. Delebecque; J. Quadrat

1978-01-01

145

Adoption of and farmers’ exposure to soil and Water Management (SWMGT) Practices in the Sahel Savanna of West Africa: Average Treatment Effect (ATE) Estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper approaches the soil and water management (SWMGT) adoption estimation from the perspective of the modern evaluation theory. As a result, the analytical procedure adopted for the study follows the Average Treatment Effect (ATE) estimation framework. The data gathered for the analysis are part of the baseline data collected from a sample of 572 households in 20 villages in

Luke O. Olarinde; Joachim Binam; Tahirou Abdoulaye; Nouri Maman; Adewale Adekunle

2010-01-01

146

Chronic Illness Self-care and the Family Lives of Older Adults: A Synthetic Review Across Four Ethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on family and social ties among older ethnic minority men and women with the literature on chronic illness self-care among elders in these groups, in order to increase understanding of social influences on self-care behavior, raise questions for future research, and inform culturally appropriate interventions to maximize the health-promoting potential of social relationships. The paper presents demographic and chronic illness prevalence information, and then summarizes literature about patterns of chronic illness self-care behaviors for older African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, and American Indians in the U.S. For each group, the sociological literature about residential, cultural, and socioeconomic patterns, family lives, and other social ties is then reviewed, and the self-care literature that has accounted for these patterns is discussed. Finally, six themes are outlined and related questions are identified to further illuminate the social context of older adults’ chronic illness self-care.

Gallant, Mary P.; Spitze, Glenna; Grove, Joshua G.

2010-01-01

147

Women with heart failure: do they require a special approach for improving adherence to self-care?  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to evaluate research regarding whether women with heart failure (HF) need a special approach for improving their adherence to self-care. Prior research has sampled mostly white, male populations and these results have been generalized to the population of all HF patients. After age 65, women are at a higher risk than men for developing HF. Once women develop HF they are more likely than men with HF to experience greater symptom burden, re-hospitalizations, social isolation, and higher mortality rates. In this review we will explore barriers and facilitators that women experience when performing self-care, and whether they need individualized interventions or approaches to care that are different from those for male patients with HF. Special approaches such as assessment of social support and self-care counseling when treating women with HF will be discussed, as this may improve women's adherence, thereby slowing the symptom burden and disease progression. PMID:24740754

Stamp, Kelly D

2014-09-01

148

Podiatric physicians' perspectives on their role in promoting self-care in high-risk patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

Background : Foot self-care is key in preventing morbidity in high-risk diabetic patients. Motivational interviewing (MI) is an approach to encourage behavior change by patients that can be used in medical settings. The goal was to explore how podiatric physicians promote self-care in such patients and whether they use MI techniques. Methods : We conducted a 19-question online survey of US-based practicing podiatric physicians. Most answers were on a 5-point scale. The MI index was the sum of answers to five relevant questions. Results : Of 843 podiatric physicians, 86% considered foot self-care to be very important for high-risk diabetic patients, and 90% felt that it was their role to discuss foot self-care with them; 49% felt that they had training and were successful in promoting behavior change, but most were definitely (38%) or possibly (46%) interested in learning more. Only 24% of respondents scored at least 15 of 20 on the MI index. Higher MI scores were associated with more face time and more time discussing foot self-care but were not related to podiatric physicians' age, sex, geographic location, percentage of time in surgery, or years in practice. Reported barriers to counseling were lack of reimbursed time and poor patient engagement. Conclusions : Most podiatric physicians view self-care behavior among high-risk diabetic patients and their role in promoting it as very important; most feel already proficient, but only a few demonstrate MI skills; most are willing to learn more. Success in behavioral counseling, such as MI, is likely to require more time and may be encouraged by a move from fee-for-service to outcome-based reimbursement. PMID:25076083

Tinloy, Jennifer; Kaul, Shailja; Ulbrecht, Jan; Schaefer, Eric; Gabbay, Robert A

2014-07-01

149

Beginning the recovery journey in acute psychiatric care: using concepts from Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory.  

PubMed

A national agenda has been established for mental health systems to move toward a recovery model of care. Recovery principles are embedded in the foundations of nursing science and practice. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) is in alignment with the ideals of recovery and can provide a structure for changing cultures on inpatient psychiatric units. SCDNT can guide research activities that link a patient's self-care abilities to improved recovery model outcomes. This paradigm shift is an opportunity for psychiatric nursing to return to its roots and deliver care that is patient-centered and conducive to recovering from mental illness. PMID:22646204

Seed, Mary S; Torkelson, Diane J

2012-06-01

150

The challenges of antiphospholipid syndrome: experience from diagnosis to self-care.  

PubMed

A young woman presented to our unit with pancreatitis and acute kidney injury (AKI) 4?weeks after initiation of an oral contraceptive. She subsequently developed seizures due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and required ongoing haemodialysis for oliguric AKI. Routine antiphospholipid antibody screen was normal, but arterial and venous thromboses were identified on renal biopsy. Further coagulation studies identified an antiphospholipid-dependent inhibitor confirming the suspected diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. She remained seizure free with control of hypertension and was established on anticoagulation. She remained haemodialysis dependent performing this independently at a new self-care unit. She provides us with valuable insights into her experience encouraging us to reconsider our current methods of education and communication in our younger population of patients living with chronic disease. PMID:24969073

Larmour, Kathryn; Lewis, Gareth; Benson, Gary; Hanko, Jennifer

2014-01-01

151

[Nursing activities in self-care and rehabilitation of patients who suffered stroke].  

PubMed

There can be serious damage to motor, sensatory, and perceptive capabilities when the brain suffers vascular alterations. With this in mind, the objective of this study is to report and share Nursing care to the individual who has suffered a cerebral vascular accident, emphasizing Orem-based rehabilitation and self-care. This study is a report of a practical care experiment, carried out in May and July of 2006 involving 15 individuals and their families in a rehabilitation center in southern Brazil. Integral Nursing care occurs with stimulation to sensatory, motor, postural control, movement amplitude, and marching practice activities when accompanied by health care education actions. These abilities grant nurses performance capacities, in turn proportioning reductions in damage and incapacities. PMID:21468511

Lessmann, Juliana Cristina; De Conto, Fernanda; Ramos, Greice; Borenstein, Míriam Susskind; Meirelles, Betina Homer Schlindwein

2011-01-01

152

Numerical study of random variations of span lengths and span path-average dispersions on dispersion-managed soliton system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the performance of dispersion-managed (DM) soliton systems with random variations of span lengths and span path-average dispersions by numerical simulation. We show that while DM solitons still exist in systems with nonperiodic dispersion maps, those nonperiodic maps tend to degrade system performance. We investigate the performance degradation of both on-off keyed and differential phase-shift keyed DM-soliton systems

Chongjin Xie; Linn F. Mollenauer; Nadejda Mamysheva

2003-01-01

153

Do employee health management programs work?  

PubMed

Current peer review literature clearly documents the economic return and Return-on-Investment (ROI) for employee health management (EHM) programs. These EHM programs are defined as: health promotion, self-care, disease management, and case management programs. The evaluation literature for the sub-set of health promotion and disease management programs is examined in this article for specific evidence of the level of economic return in medical benefit cost reduction or avoidance. The article identifies the methodological challenges associated with determination of economic return for EHM programs and summarizes the findings from 23 articles that included 120 peer review study results. The article identifies the average ROI and percent health plan cost impact to be expected for both types of EHM programs, the expected time period for its occurrence, and caveats related to its measurement. PMID:19288852

Serxner, Seth; Gold, Daniel; Meraz, Angela; Gray, Ann

2009-01-01

154

Increasing Independence in Self-Care Tasks for Children with Autism Using Self-Operated Auditory Prompts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine the effects of self-operated auditory prompting systems (SOAPs) on independent self-care task completion of elementary-school-aged children with autism and intellectual disabilities. Prerecorded verbal prompts on a student-operated tape recorder were employed to facilitate independence in washing hands and…

Mays, Nicole McGaha; Heflin, L. Juane

2011-01-01

155

The Development of an ICF-Oriented, Adaptive Physician Assessment Instrument of Mobility, Self-care, and Domestic Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was development and psychometric testing of an adaptive, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-oriented questionnaire to be processed by the rehabilitation physician that aids in assessing mobility, self-care, and domestic life (Moses-Physician). The intent is to develop a physician…

Farin, Erik; Fleitz, Annette

2009-01-01

156

Nurturing each other on the front lines of caring: self-care in the aftermath of hurricane Sandy.  

PubMed

Holistic nurses are equipped with a strong set of core values and holistic principles that guide our practice. This includes understanding and upholding the value of self-care. Even on the front lines in highly stressful situations, holistic nurses value the importance of nurturing self and colleagues. PMID:24575516

Resnicoff, Marci

2013-10-01

157

Effectiveness of Parent and Therapist Collaboration Program (PTCP) for Teaching Self-Care and Domestic Skills to Individuals with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and determine the effectiveness of a Parent and Therapist Collaboration Program for teaching self care and domestic skills to individuals with autism with varying educational needs, age, and severity of disability. Three individuals with autism, one habilitation provider, and three parents participated in…

Cavkaytar, Atilla; Pollard, Elena

2009-01-01

158

Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

159

Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

2009-01-01

160

Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition  

PubMed Central

Introduction In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Findings Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life. Conclusion Health care professionals should be aware of these findings in order to support self-care in older people, and they should pay attention to the social aspects at meals.

Tomstad, Solveig T; Soderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Soderhamn, Olle

2012-01-01

161

Self-care telephone talks as a health-promotion intervention in urban home-living persons 75+ years of age: a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a telephone-based self-care intervention among urban living individuals 75+ years of age by comparing self-reported perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency before and after the intervention. Materials and methods In a randomized controlled study, 15 persons answered a questionnaire about perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency. In a sex- and age-matched control group (n=15), the same questions were answered. Data were collected before and after intervention. An open-ended question about experiences of the intervention was included in the last questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a first meeting with health professionals and additional five self-care telephone calls. The control group did not receive any intervention or attention except for the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study group. To compare the intervention group and control group on nominal and ordinal levels, the McNemar test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively, were chosen. Results Thirty individuals (14 females and 16 males) participated in the study, ranging in age between 75 and 93 years. A significant difference was obtained in the intervention group regarding mental health. Mental health improved significantly in the intervention group (P=0.037). In the control group, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency showed worse outcome results after the intervention (19 weeks). Conclusion Self-care telephone talks improved mental health significantly in our sample, and mental health focus could be understood as a possible condition for health promotion to take place. Structured self-care telephone talks have proved to be successful and a relevant method to use in practice.

Sundsli, Kari; Soderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Soderhamn, Olle

2014-01-01

162

Hygiene Self-Care of Older Adults in West Virginia: Effects of Gender  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated whether oral hygiene self-care behavior differs between genders in older adults in Appalachia, a geographic area with significant oral health concerns. Identifying the practices of older adults may provide valuable information for designing interventions, and improving overall oral health outcomes. Methods As part of a larger, on-going study on cognition and oral health in later life in Appalachia, a sample of dentate, older adults without dementia aged 70 and above (n =245, 86 men and 159 women) received an oral assessment by either a dentist or dental hygienist. Psychometricians assessed cognition using a standardized battery of neuropsychological tests. They also administered the General Oral Health Assessment Index and conducted structured interviews concerning diet, oral hygiene practices, oral health, social support, income, and years of education. Results Over 80% of women (n = 128) and 52.3% of men (n = 45) reported brushing their teeth twice daily. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, controlling for socioeconomic status, social support (i.e., frequency of contacting friends and relatives), general oral health assessment items, number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces, plaque index, and having regular dental visits. The results showed that women reported more frequent toothbrushing than their male counterparts (OR=4.04, 95% CI:1.93,8.42). Conclusion Older women in West Virginia had significantly better oral hygiene practices than older men, particularly regarding toothbrushing. Interventions are needed to improve older men’s dental hygiene behaviors to improve overall oral health outcomes.

Wiener, R. Constance; Wu, Bei; Crout, Richard J.; Plassman, Brenda L.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Wiener, Michael A.; Kao, Elizabeth C.; Caplan, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

163

Impact of chronic disease self-management programs on type 2 diabetes management in primary care  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) on glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and selected self-reported measures. METHODS: We compared patients who received a diabetes self-care behavioral intervention, the CDSMP developed at the Stanford University, with controls who received usual care on their HbA1c and selected self-reported measures, including diabetes self-care activities, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), pain and fatigue. The subjects were a subset of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that took place at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated integrated healthcare system of a multi-specialty group practice between January 2009 and June 2011. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 mo. Data were analyzed using multilevel statistical models and linear mixed models to provide unbiased estimates of intervention effects. RESULTS: Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were generally comparable between the two groups. The average baseline HbA1c values in the CDSMP and control groups were 9.4% and 9.2%, respectively. Significant reductions in HbA1c were seen at 12 mo for the two groups, with adjusted changes around 0.6% (P < 0.0001), but the reductions did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.885). Few significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. No significant differences were observed in the participants’ HRQOL, pain, or fatigue measures. CONCLUSION: The CDSMP intervention may not lower HbA1c any better than good routine care in an integrated healthcare system. More research is needed to understand the benefits of self-management programs in primary care in different settings and populations.

Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G; Jiang, Luohua; Vuong, Ann M; Bolin, Jane N

2014-01-01

164

Long-term Urinary Catheter Users Self-Care Practices and Problems  

PubMed Central

Aims The aims were to characterize a sample of 202 adult community-living long-term indwelling urinary catheter users, to describe self-care practices and catheter problems, and to explore relationships among demographics, catheter practices, and problems. Background Long-term urinary catheter users have not been well studied, and persons using the device indefinitely for persistent urinary retention are likely to have different patterns of catheter practices and problems. Design The study was a cross-sectional descriptive and exploratory analysis. Methods Home interviews were conducted with catheter users who provided information by self-reported recall over the previous two months. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and tests of association between demographics, catheter practices, and catheter problems. Results The sample was widely diverse in age (19–96 years), race, and medical diagnosis. Urethral catheters were used slightly more often (56%) than suprapubic (44%), for a mean of 6 yrs. (SD 7 yrs.). Many persons were highly disabled, with 60% having difficulty in bathing, dressing, toileting, and getting out of the bed; 19% also required assistance in eating. A high percentage of catheter problems were reported with: 43% experiencing leakage (bypassing of urine), 31% having had a urinary tract infection, 24% blockage of the catheter, 23% catheter-associated pain, and 12% accidental dislodgment of the catheter. Treatments of catheter-related problems contributed to additional health care utilization including extra nurse or clinic visits, trips to the emergency department, or hospitalization. Symptoms of catheter associated urinary tract infections were most often related to changes in the color or character of urine or generalized symptoms. Conclusions Catheter related problems contribute to excess morbidity and health care utilization and costs. Relevance to clinical practice More research is needed in how to minimize catheter associated problems in long-term catheter users. Information from this study could help inform the development of interventions in this population.

Wilde, Mary; McDonald, Margaret V.; Brasch, Judith; McMahon, James M.; Fairbanks, Eileen; Shah, Shivani; Tang, Wan; Scheid, Eileen

2013-01-01

165

Teaching Self-Care to Caregivers: Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on the Mental Health of Therapists in Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation for the role of therapist can occur on both professional and personal levels. Research has found that therapists are at risk for occupationally related psychological problems. It follows that self-care may be a useful complement to the professional training of future therapists. The present study examined the effects of one approach to self-care, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), for therapists

Shauna L. Shapiro; Kirk Warren Brown; Gina M. Biegel

2007-01-01

166

The effect of group-based exercise on cognitive performance and mood in seniors residing in intermediate care and self-care retirement facilities: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the effect of a general group-based exercise programme on cognitive performance and mood among seniors without dementia living in retirement villages.Design:Randomised controlled trial.Setting:Four intermediate care and four self-care retirement village sites in Sydney, Australia.Participants:154 seniors (19 men, 135 women; age range 62 to 95 years), who were residents of intermediate care and self-care retirement facilities.Intervention:Participants were randomised to

A K Brown; T Liu-Ambrose; R Tate; S R Lord

2009-01-01

167

The effect of community health nurse home visit on self-care self-efficacy of the elderly living in selected Falavarjan villages in Iran in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Perceived self-efficacy is a strong predictor for behavior. Considering the importance of health-promoting self-care behaviors in increasing quality of life in the elderly, this study was aimed at defining the effect of nurse home visits on self-care self-efficacy of the elderly in rural areas. Materials and Methods: This is a pre and post quasi-experimental study conducted on 33 older adults randomly selected from five villages in Falavarjan province in Iran. Intervention program was in the direction of self-care self-efficacy in four domains including nutrition, health practice, physical activity, and well-being in the form of five home visit programs and one group session by a nurse during 6 weeks, and included two different sections of education and nursing interventions administered based on needs assessment and determination of the tasks for the clients and their families. Theoretical framework of this study was supported by Bandura's self-efficacy, Orem's self-care theory, and Pender's revised health promotion model. The data were collected by self-care self-efficacy and demographic information questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and paired t-test. Results: The mean elderly score in the four aforementioned domains increased after the home visit program. A significant difference was seen in the mean total scores of self-care self-efficacy and its subscales by paired t-test before and after intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It was observed that home visit program, integrated with the theories, had a positive influence on improving self-care self-efficacy of the elderly, and was supported by Bandura's theory of self-efficacy suggesting four sources of performance accomplishment, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal. With regard to the importance of self-care behavior in health promotion of the elderly, multifaceted low-cost interventions with the highest effect seem essential.

Hosseini, Habibollah; Torkani, Sara; Tavakol, Khosrow

2013-01-01

168

Intra-oral myofascial therapy versus education and self-care in the treatment of chronic, myogenous temporomandibular disorder: a randomised, clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Myogenous temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are considered to be a common musculoskeletal condition. No studies exist comparing intra-oral myofascial therapies to education, self-care and exercise (ESC) for TMD. This study evaluated short-term differences in pain and mouth opening range between intra-oral myofascial therapy (IMT) and an ESC program. Methods Forty-six participants with chronic myogenous TMD (as assessed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria Axis 1 procedure) were consecutively block randomised into either an IMT group or an ESC group. Each group received two sessions per week (for five weeks) of either IMT or short talks on the anatomy, physiology and biomechanics of the jaw plus instruction and supervision of self-care exercises. The sessions were conducted at the first author’s jaw pain and chiropractic clinic in Sydney, Australia. Primary outcome measures included pain at rest, upon opening and clenching, using an eleven point ordinal self reported pain scale. A secondary outcome measure consisted of maximum voluntary opening range in millimetres. Data were analysed using linear models for means and logistic regression for responder analysis. Results After adjusting for baseline, the IMT group had significantly lower average pain for all primary outcomes at 6 weeks compared to the ESC group (p?

2013-01-01

169

Self Care and Medication Adherence among Type 2 Diabetics in Puducherry, Southern India: A Hospital Based Study.  

PubMed

Background: Micro and macro-vascular complications of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) could be decreased by maintaining a good glycaemic control, which is dependent on adherence to medication and self care. Aim: (1) To assess medication adherence and adherence to self care among type 2 diabetics who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital (2) To identify factors which were associated with medication adherence. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study involved 150 in-patients of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital (SMVMCH), a teaching hospital in Puducherry, southern India. Subjects who had type 2 DM for more than 1 month were included in the study, irrespective of their diagnoses at admission. They were interviewed within 24 hours of their admissions by using a pre-designed, pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) and questions for assessing adherence to self care activities. The factors which were associated with medication adherence were identified by Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 54 years. Only 49.3% (95% CI: 41% to 57%) of the diabetics had high medication adherence (MMAS score = 8). Only 22.7% of the diabetics were involved in physical exercise for at least 30 minutes, for at least 4 days in a week. Only 16.7% of them regularly inspected their feet. Around 67.3% of the subjects reported about consuming a diabetic diet for at least 4 days/week. Poor family support showed a significant association with low medication adherence. Conclusion: Only 49.3% of the subjects adhered to anti-diabetic medications. Less than 25% of the diabetics adhered to self care activities such as exercising/walking for 30 minutes on at least 4 days in a week, regularly inspected their feet and provided feet care. Family support played a vital role in medication adherence among the diabetic subjects. Hence, it is important to regularly assess patients for medication adherence and include their families also in counseling sessions. PMID:24959496

S, Arulmozhi; T, Mahalakshmy

2014-04-01

170

Self Care and Medication Adherence among Type 2 Diabetics in Puducherry, Southern India: A Hospital Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Micro and macro-vascular complications of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) could be decreased by maintaining a good glycaemic control, which is dependent on adherence to medication and self care. Aim: (1) To assess medication adherence and adherence to self care among type 2 diabetics who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital (2) To identify factors which were associated with medication adherence. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study involved 150 in-patients of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital (SMVMCH), a teaching hospital in Puducherry, southern India. Subjects who had type 2 DM for more than 1 month were included in the study, irrespective of their diagnoses at admission. They were interviewed within 24 hours of their admissions by using a pre-designed, pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) and questions for assessing adherence to self care activities. The factors which were associated with medication adherence were identified by Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 54 years. Only 49.3% (95% CI: 41% to 57%) of the diabetics had high medication adherence (MMAS score = 8). Only 22.7% of the diabetics were involved in physical exercise for at least 30 minutes, for at least 4 days in a week. Only 16.7% of them regularly inspected their feet. Around 67.3% of the subjects reported about consuming a diabetic diet for at least 4 days/week. Poor family support showed a significant association with low medication adherence. Conclusion: Only 49.3% of the subjects adhered to anti-diabetic medications. Less than 25% of the diabetics adhered to self care activities such as exercising/walking for 30 minutes on at least 4 days in a week, regularly inspected their feet and provided feet care. Family support played a vital role in medication adherence among the diabetic subjects. Hence, it is important to regularly assess patients for medication adherence and include their families also in counseling sessions.

S., Arulmozhi

2014-01-01

171

A mixed methods exploration of family members'/friends' roles in a self-care intervention for depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES The aims of this exploratory study were to examine the: (1) family and friend (F/F) support patients reported receiving and F/F reported providing to patients while participating in a self-care intervention (SCI) for depressive symptoms and (2) associations between different types of F/F support and patients' use of the self-care tools in the SCI. METHODS Fifty-seven patients aged 40?+?participating in an uncontrolled feasibility study of an SCI, completed structured telephone interviews about the support they received from F/F while participating in the SCI. Eighteen F/F completed questionnaires on the support they provided to patients during the SCI. Seven F/F participated in a post-study qualitative interview on their involvement in the SCI. RESULTS About 35% of patients reported receiving F/F support with the SCI. Patients' use of the behavioral tools was positively associated with patients' report of F/F support, and with F/F's report of instrumental support provided. F/F reported uncertainty about the type of support they should offer to patients in the SCI. DISCUSSION F/F involvement in SCIs for depressive symptoms may be helpful to patients and may foster adherence to these interventions. More research is warranted on the nature of such involvement from the perspective of patients and F/F. PMID:23986084

Sussman, Tamara; Yaffe, Mark; McCusker, Jane; Burns, Victoria; Strumpf, Erin; Sewitch, Maida; Belzile, Eric

2014-06-01

172

Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts--Cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum  

PubMed Central

Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others’ anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice.

Martin Salzmann-Erikson, R.N.; Henrik Eriksson, R.N.T.

2011-01-01

173

Comparison of the role of self-efficacy and illness representations in relation to dietary self-care and diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study examined the joint effects of self-efficacy and illness representations on dietary self-care and diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by comparing two theoretical models: the Self-regulation Model (Leventhal, H., Meyer, D., & Nerenz, D. (1980). The common-sense representations of illness danger. In S. Rachman (Ed.), Medical Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 7-30). New York: Pergamon.) and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. (1997). Self efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.). One hundred and fifty-one adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed self-report measures of dietary self-efficacy, illness representations, dietary self-care and diabetes distress. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The model best supported by the data (Leventhal's Self-regulation Model) showed that dietary self-efficacy, perceived consequences and treatment effectiveness had direct and independent effects on both dietary self-care and diabetes distress. Together with dietary self-efficacy, perceived short-term treatment effectiveness was a significant predictor of dietary self-care. Age was found to be a negative predictor of short-term treatment effectiveness beliefs. Diabetes distress was best predicted by self-efficacy and perceived consequences. It can be concluded that to target effectively dietary self-care and distress, clinicians should focus on key illness representation variables (perceived short-term treatment effectiveness and perceived consequences) in conjunction with self-efficacy. PMID:20205046

Nouwen, Arie; Urquhart Law, G; Hussain, Shakir; McGovern, Steven; Napier, Heidi

2009-11-01

174

Women with heart failure are at high psychosocial risk: a systematic review of how sex and gender influence heart failure self-care.  

PubMed

To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995-2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care. PMID:21403845

Thomas, Jody R; Clark, Alexander M

2011-01-01

175

Psychometric analysis of the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care inventory-revised version questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory-Revised Version (SCI-R) questionnaire to assess the degree of adherence to self-care among adults with diabetes. Methods We validated the Spanish and Catalan translation from, and back translation to, English and cultural adaptation of the SCI-R in type 1 diabetes patients on multiple insulin doses or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and in type 2 diabetes patients on oral agents and/or insulin. Internal reliability, structural validity, and external validity (correlation with glycated hemoglobin) were evaluated. Responsiveness to change was assessed in patients 1 year after onset of type 1 diabetes and following a structured education program. Results The SCI-R presented good internal reliability Cronbach’s ?: 0.75, test-retest reliability (r = 0.82) and structural validity (r > 0.40). The external validity was also good; the SCI-R correlated with HbA1c in patients with type 1 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = ?0.50) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (r = ?0.66) and in patients with type 2 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = ?0.62). However, it was not satisfactory in patients on oral agents (r = ?0.20) and/or bedtime insulin (r = ?0.35). Responsiveness to change was analyzed in 54 patients (age 27.3±7.4 years, 26% men, HbA1c 6.8% ±1.1%); the SCI-R score was 72.3% ±13.7% and correlated negatively with glycated hemoglobin (r = ?0.42) and 3 scales of the Diabetes Quality of Life questionnaire (lower score indicating better perception): Impact (r = ?0.37), Social Worry (r = ?0.36) and Diabetes Worry (r = ?0.38), all at P < 0.05. Conclusion The Spanish and Catalan versions of the SCI-R questionnaire show good psychometric properties and both could be considered as useful tools for evaluating self-care behavior in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, there are still some subgroups of patients with type 2 diabetes in which the validity of this questionnaire needs further evaluation.

Jansa, Margarida; Vidal, Merce; Gimenez, Marga; Conget, Ignacio; Galindo, Mercedes; Roca, Daria; Colungo, Cristina; Esmatjes, Enric; Salamero, Manel

2013-01-01

176

Teaching an insulin-dependent blind patient about self-care.  

PubMed

Today's home care nurse faces many challenges in providing patient-centered care while working within the guidelines set forth by the payor. A patient with Type 1 diabetes who was blind and lived alone was referred to our agency. A multidisciplinary approach for diabetes education along with tools for the visually impaired led our patient to independent diabetes management while keeping within the managed care guidelines. PMID:11985257

Camporeale, J

2001-04-01

177

Influence of Patient Attachment Style on Self-care and Outcomes in Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Difficulties collaborating with providers and important others may adversely influence self-management in patients with diabetes. We predicted that dismissing attachment style, characterized by high interpersonal self-reliance and low trust of others, would be associated with poorer self-management in patients with diabetes. Methods: A population-based mail survey was sent to all patients with diabetes from nine primary care clinics of

PAUL CIECHANOWSKI; JOAN RUSSO; WAYNE KATON; MICHAEL VON KORFF; EVETTE LUDMAN; ELIZABETH LIN; GREGORY SIMON; TERRY BUSH

2004-01-01

178

Non-adherence to self-care practices & medication and health related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Non-adherence to lifestyle modification among diabetic patients develops the short-term risks and the long-term complications as well as declines the quality of life. This study aimed to find out the association between non-adherence to self-care practices, medication and health related quality of life (HR-QoL) among type 2 diabetic patients. Methods At least 1 year diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (N?=?500), age>25 years were conveniently selected from the Out-Patient Department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences Hospital. Patients’ self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using an analytical cross-sectional design. HRQoL was assessed by an adapted and validated Bangla version of the EQ-5D (EuroQol Group, 2009) questionnaire which has five domains- mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression and two levels on each dimension. EQ-5D responses were further translated into single summery EQ-5D index using UK TTO value set. Patients’ were considered as non-adhered to self-care practices according to the guidelines of Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association between non-adherence towards self-care practices and HRQoL. Results Among the study patients, 50.2% were females and mean ± SD age was 54.2 (±11.2) years. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: blood glucose monitoring (37%), diet (44.8%), foot care (43.2%), exercise (33.2%) and smoking (37.2%). About 50.4% patients had problem in mobility, 28.2% in self-care, 47.6% in usual activities, 72.8% in pain/discomfort and 73.6% in anxiety/depression. On chi-squared test, significant association was found between non adherence to foot care and problem with mobility, self-care and usual activities (p?self- care, usual activities, pain and anxiety (p?

2014-01-01

179

Stability of parent report on mobility and self-care item scores of the pediatric evaluation of disability inventory.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Secondary analysis using data from a clinical trial was performed to evaluate the stability of individual items of the Mobility and Self-Care functional skills scales of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Parents of 113 children aged 1-6 years old with cerebral palsy completed the PEDI twice by questionnaire 6 months apart. An item was classified "unstable" if the score changed from capable to unable. The number of children with more than five unstable items and the number of items with more than five children having unstable scoring patterns were calculated. Nineteen children (17%) and 13 items had unstable scoring patterns. The majority of PEDI items demonstrated stability of parent scoring. Examination of unstable items suggests that parents may need assistance in understanding the difference between "usual" and "best" performance, interpreting descriptors such as "thoroughly," and maintaining the same context reference for outdoor mobility items. PMID:23931334

Worth, Melanie; Darrah, Johanna; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Wiart, Lesley; Law, Mary

2014-08-01

180

The development of an ICF-oriented, adaptive physician assessment instrument of mobility, self-care, and domestic life.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was development and psychometric testing of an adaptive, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-oriented questionnaire to be processed by the rehabilitation physician that aids in assessing mobility, self-care, and domestic life (Moses-Physician). The intent is to develop a physician version, analogous in content to the existing patient questionnaire 'Moses-Patient'. The 58 items of Moses-Patient were converted to an external assessment format without altering the content. The data were compiled for 549 patients with musculoskeletal diseases, 212 patients with cardiac diseases, and 259 neurology rehabilitation patients. Analyses were carried out on the basis of the one-parameter item response theory (Rasch model). Effect sizes and the reliable change index were calculated to test responsiveness. Differential item functioning (DIF) was tested using DIF contrasts, equivalent to Mantel-Haenszel DIF sizes. After the item response theory analysis, 47 of 58 items remained, distributed over 12 scales. The scales are more homogeneous in content than in the patient version because of the omission of 11 items and thus do not cover the ICF categories as broadly. Model fit indices (infit and outfit mean square statistics) were in an acceptable range for all items. Cronbach's alpha was between 0.73 and 0.95. Moreover, there is clear evidence of unidimensionality and sensitivity to change of the scales of Moses-Physician. The item parameters of Moses-Physician are invariant with respect to sex and age for all scales. However, there are clear differences regarding disease groups. The Moses-Physician questionnaire is an adaptive, Rasch-scaled assessment instrument that, to a great extent, covers the contents of the ICF chapters 'mobility', 'self-care', and 'domestic life'. PMID:19458523

Farin, Erik; Fleitz, Annette

2009-06-01

181

Breathing Words Slowly: Creative Writing and Counselor Self-Care--The Writing Workout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional counselors work daily with compassion and connection, yet must also manage trauma and pain. Clients' stories of loneliness, fear, abuse, and anger frequently fill the landscape of a counselor's work. Counselors may experience burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious trauma by failing to recognize and adequately address the negative…

Warren, Jane; Morgan, Michael M.; Morris, Lay-Nah Blue; Morris, Tanaya Moon

2010-01-01

182

Complicações do funcionamento intestinal e práticas de auto-cuidado em pacientes com trauma raquimedular Bowel functioning and self care practices in patients with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injuried (SCI) patients present severe physical and psychological alterations being necessary to focus on their rehabilitation. The goal of this study was to understand SCI patients' epidemiological characteristics, complications of bowel functioning and self care practices and the relationship between the number of hospitalizations and information about intestinal rehabilitation. Twenty seven individuals with SCI participated of this study,

Márcia Lúcia de Souza Furlan; Maria Helena Larcher Caliri; Dra Maria Helena Caliri

183

The Effects of Employment and Mental Health Status on the Balance of Work, Play\\/Leisure, Self-Care, and Rest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In occupational therapy, a fundamental belief is that a healthy lifestyle reflects the adapted balance between work, play\\/leisure, self-care and rest activities, which promotes occupational function. Adolph Meyer (1922) stated that our existence is structured through occupation. The occupational balance may be disrupted when an individual experiences a mental health problem. Mental health problems vary in terms of diagnosis, but

Patricia H. Crist; Christine G. Davis; Patricia S. Coffin

2000-01-01

184

Psychosocial barriers to self-care among Hispanic women with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional survey-designed study investigated the presence and influence of psychosocial barriers to diabetes self-management practices among Hispanic women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Women (n = 128) who were diagnosed and being treated for type 2 diabetes were recruited from the Miami-Dade area in South Florida. A Beck Depression Inventory-II, Diabetes Care Profile, Diabetes Knowledge Test, Diabetes Empowerment, Multidimensional

Zara Charmaine Shah

2003-01-01

185

Being prepared: essential to self-care and quality of life for the person with cancer.  

PubMed

Being adequately prepared for an experience such as cancer empowers patients, lowers distress, improves coping, supports self-management, promotes recovery, and improves quality of life. However, patients with cancer report unmet informational and support needs across the cancer trajectory. The purpose of this article is to describe the relationship of information preparation and patient outcomes, identify information and support needs across the cancer trajectory, and describe the role of oncology nurses in the delivery of high-quality patient-centered cancer care. The middle range theory of "Carrying On" was used to identify information and support needs during different phases of the cancer trajectory from treatment to survivorship. The authors concluded that nurses should engage the patient in a relational exchange of information; provide concrete, understandable information across specific times in the cancer experience; and use creative approaches to minimize barriers in meeting patient needs to achieve high-quality patient-centered cancer care. PMID:23715703

Knobf, M Tish

2013-06-01

186

Neutron resonance averaging  

SciTech Connect

The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

Chrien, R.E.

1986-10-01

187

Is There any Difference in Health Related Quality of Life, Self Care and Social Function in Children with Different Disabilities Living in Turkey?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine the differences in the health related quality of life and the self care and social function in daily life of children with different disabilities. Methods One hundred and two children with physical, emotional and cognitive disabilities (cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and hearing loss) and 28 children age matched as a control group were included in this study for the comparison. The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) was used to evaluate the independence and participation of children in daily life activities. The Turkish version of the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent form (CHQ - PF50) was used to evaluate the health related quality of life. Findings All 3 groups were different from the control group in terms of self-care and the social domains according to the PEDI results (P<0.05). Children with cerebral palsy (CP) were more dependent in the areas of self-care and mobility activities (P<0.05). The main difference was found in global general health (GGH), physical functioning (PF), the emotional impact on the parent (PE) subsections of the CHQ-PF50 between the CP and the hearing loss groups; the role of the physical (RP) and emotional behavior (BE) subsections between the mental retardation (MR) and the CP groups, and the BE and mental health (MH) subsections between the MR and the hearing loss (HL) groups (P<0.05). Conclusion All the children with disabilities were different from the control group in their quality of life, self care and social function. However the status of the children with MR and HL were parallel between each other in their health related quality of life, self care and social function. On the other hand, the most affected and dependent group was children with CP. The results will provide guidelines for healthcare professionals in implementing effective rehabilitation programs, especially to those with cerebral palsy, to reduce the level of strain and increase the health related quality of life, self care and social function of children with different disabilities.

Elbasan, Bulent; Duzgun, Irem; Oskay, Deran

2013-01-01

188

After-school supervision and adolescent cigarette smoking: contributions of the setting and intensity of after-school self-care.  

PubMed

This paper looks at the independent contributions of the setting and the intensity of after-school self-care to the cigarette smoking behaviors of 2352 ninth graders. We controlled for a variety of correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking that have not been accounted for in existing research. Results indicated that the intensity of the self-care experience was significantly associated with adolescent smoking behavior irrespective of the typical setting of the adolescents' after-school activities. Our findings also indicated that a nonpermissive parenting style, family rule-setting about cigarettes, and especially, in absentia parental monitoring may reduce the likelihood of cigarette smoking among latchkey and nonlatchkey adolescents alike. However, latchkey youth were not any more sensitive to these aspects of parenting than other adolescents. This is consistent with the notion that targeting these aspects of the home lives of all adolescents has the potential to reduce smoking behaviors among latchkey as well as nonlatchkey children. PMID:10196728

Mott, J A; Crowe, P A; Richardson, J; Flay, B

1999-02-01

189

Development and psychometric properties of a new social support scale for self-care in middle-aged patients with type II diabetes (S4-MAD)  

PubMed Central

Background Social support has proved to be one of the most effective factors on the success of diabetic self-care. This study aimed to develop a scale for evaluating social support for self-care in middle-aged patients (30–60 years old) with type II diabetes. Methods This was a two-phase qualitative and quantitative study. The study was conducted during 2009 to 2011 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part, a sample of diabetic patients participated in four focus group discussions in order to develop a preliminary item pool. Consequently, content and face validity were performed to provide a pre-final version of the questionnaire. Then, in a quantitative study, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest analysis), validity and factor analysis (both exploratory and confirmatory) were performed to assess psychometric properties of the scale. Results A 38-item questionnaire was developed through the qualitative phase. It was reduced to a 33-item after content validity. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 30-item with a five-factor solution (nutrition, physical activity, self monitoring of blood glucose, foot care and smoking) that jointly accounted for 72.3% of observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the data. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.94), and test-retest of the scale with 2-weeks intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC=0.87). Conclusion The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for measuring social support for self-care in middle-aged patients with type II diabetes. It is an easy to use questionnaire and contains the most significant diabetes related behaviors that need continuous support for self-care.

2012-01-01

190

Moving toward comprehensive acute heart failure risk assessment in the emergency department : the importance of self-care and shared decision making.  

PubMed

Nearly 700,000 emergency department (ED) visits were due to acute heart failure (AHF) in 2009. Most visits result in a hospital admission and account for the largest proportion of a projected $70 billion to be spent on heart failure care by 2030. ED-based risk prediction tools in AHF rarely impact disposition decision making. This is a major factor contributing to the 80% admission rate for ED patients with AHF, which has remained unchanged over the last several years. Self-care behaviors such as symptom monitoring, medication taking, dietary adherence, and exercise have been associated with decreased hospital readmissions, yet self-care remains largely unaddressed in ED patients with AHF and thus represents a significant lost opportunity to improve patient care and decrease ED visits and hospitalizations. Furthermore, shared decision making encourages collaborative interaction between patients, caregivers, and providers to drive a care path based on mutual agreement. The observation that “difficult decisions now will simplify difficult decisions later” has particular relevance to the ED, given this is the venue for many such issues. We hypothesize patients as complex and heterogeneous as ED patients with AHF may need both an objective evaluation of physiologic risk as well as an evaluation of barriers to ideal self-care, along with strategies to overcome these barriers. Combining physician gestalt, physiologic risk prediction instruments, an evaluation of self-care, and an information exchange between patient and provider using shared decision making may provide the critical inertia necessary to discharge patients home after a brief ED evaluation. PMID:24159563

Collins, Sean P; Storrow, Alan B

2013-08-01

191

Evaluation of Self-Care Practices and Emotional Distress Among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine self-care practices and diabetes related emotional distress among people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross sectional survey-involving 121 Types 2 diabetics was conducted in 4 diabetic clinics located in Dar es Salaam. Anthropometric and biomedical measurements namely weight, height, waist, hip, mid-upper arm circumference, blood pressure and fasting

Theobald C. E. Mosha; Heri Rashidi

2009-01-01

192

Threaded Average Temperature Thermocouple.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A threaded average temperature thermocouple is provided to measure the average temperature of a situs in a test material. A ceramic insulator rod with two parallel holes through its length is securely fitted in a cylinder, which is bored along the longitu...

S. W. Ward

1988-01-01

193

Does diabetes-related distress explain the presence of depressive symptoms and/or poor self-care in individuals with Type 1 diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology, diabetes-related distress and aspects of diabetes self-care in a cohort of individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Methods Individuals with Type 1 diabetes taking part in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale and the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale. Self-care was measured by physical activity in the past week and over the previous year, frequency of blood glucose/urine testing, smoking status and alcohol intake. Results Clinically significant levels of depressive symptomatology (i.e. scores ? 16) were reported by 14% of the study population on the BDI and by 18% on the CES-D. There were strong correlations between depressive symptoms and diabetes-related distress (PAID scores) and physical activity. Multivariate analyses indicated that depression was independently associated with diabetes-related distress scores and with physical activity, but not with frequency of blood glucose testing. Conclusions These findings have implications for clinical practice and treatment of both psychological morbidity and diabetes. There may be significant effects of depression on aspects of diabetes self-care. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

Lloyd, C. E.; Pambianco, G.; Orchard, T. J.

2011-01-01

194

Family variables as moderators between beliefs towards medicines and adherence to self-care behaviors and medication in type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

This study analyzed whether family variables such as marital adjustment, partner support, family coping, and family stress moderated the relationship between negative beliefs about medicines and adherence to self-care behaviors (diet, glucose monitoring, exercise, foot care, and medication), in Type 2 diabetes patients. The sample was composed of 387 individuals with Type 2 diabetes, diagnosed in the past 12 months. Patients were assessed on self-care behaviors in diabetes, medication adherence, beliefs about medicines, family coping, family stress, marital adjustment, and partner support. The results showed marital adjustment, family coping, partner support, and family stress as moderators in the relationship between negative beliefs and adherence. Patients with negative beliefs regarding medicines, but who reported good marital adjustment and family coping were more likely to test their blood glucose; and if they reported low support from their partners were less likely to adhere to their prescribed diet. Finally, patients with negative beliefs about medicines, but who reported high family stress, were less likely to take their medication. The results emphasize the importance of family variables on adherence to self-care behaviors and medication. This study revealed the importance of including partners on interventions regarding Type 2 diabetes because they seem to play an important role in patient's adherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24707825

Pereira, M Graça; Pedras, Susana; Machado, José Cunha

2014-06-01

195

The average eye.  

PubMed

For statistical and other purposes one needs to be able to determine an average eye. An average of refractive errors is readily calculated as an average of dioptric power matrices. A refractive error, however, is not so much a property of the eye as a property of the compensating lens in front of the eye. As such, it ignores other aspects of the optical character of the eye. This paper discusses the difficulties of finding a suitable average that fully accounts for the first-order optics of a set of optical systems. It proposes an average based on ray transferences and logarithms and exponentials of matrices. Application to eyes in particular is discussed. PMID:15491486

Harris, W F

2004-11-01

196

PROMOTING CONTINUING EDUCATION IN DIABETES MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes knowledge among hospital nurses is sub- optimal. Studies that measured basic diabetes knowledge among nurses in a variety of clinical settings have consis- tently reported poor understanding of hemoglobin A1C, medication usage and side effects, and self-care diabetes management. Although diabetes is a common diagnosis among hospitalized patients, many nurses report they have never attended an update on diabetes

Geralyn Spollett

197

Hemodialysis access - self care  

MedlinePLUS

An access is needed for you to get hemodialysis. Using the access, blood is removed from your body, cleaned by ... dialyzer, then returned to your body. Usually the access is put in a person's arm. But it ...

198

Tremor - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

A tremor is a type of shaking in your body. Most tremors are in the hands and arms, but they ... For many people with a tremor, the cause is not found. Some types of tremors run in families. A tremor may also be part of a long- ...

199

Constipation - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 or 2 teaspoons of bran flakes, ground flax seeds, wheat bran, or psyllium on foods such ... before talking with your doctor. This includes mineral oil. Some people get a rash, nausea, or sore ...

200

Emerging information management technologies and the future of disease management.  

PubMed

Disease management (DM) has become a widely accepted way to support care delivery in the chronically ill patient population. Patients enrolled in these programs have been shown to have better health, fewer complications and comorbidities, and lower health care costs. The development of advanced information management technologies is further enhancing the role DM plays in optimizing outcomes and cost-effectiveness in clinical care. These emerging information management technologies (EIMT) include advances in software, hardware, and networking, all of which share common impact attributes in their ability to improve cost-effectiveness of care, quality of care, and access to care. Specific examples include interactive websites with the ability to engage patients in the self-care management process, the embedding of biometric devices (digital scales, modem-enabled glucose meters in the home, blood pressure monitoring, etc.), workflow and care coordination programs that add intelligence via guideline-directed alerts and reminders to the delivery process, registries that include a summary of personal health data that can be used as a reference point for improved clinical decisions, and the systematic collection of aggregated, de-identified clinical, administrative, and cost data into comprehensive data sets to which predictive modeling analytic tools can be applied. By way of case example, we also present data from a controlled clinical trial utilizing EIMT in the form of home-based weight measurement using a digital scale and linkage to a care coordination center for the management of severe congestive heart failure. Outcome results on 85,515 patient-months of an aggregate commercial and Medicare continuously enrolled population demonstrated an average reduction of care utilization (hospitalization) of 57% and a reduction in related delivery cost (per member per year payments) of 55%. We conclude that EIMT have already begun to offer significant and quantifiable benefits to DM and are likely to become heavily embedded in care management strategies in the future. PMID:14736346

Nobel, Jeremy J; Norman, Gordon K

2003-01-01

201

Threaded average temperature thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the average temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.

Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

202

Dynamic Shapes Average.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A framework for computing shape statistics in general, and average in particular, for dynamic shapes is introduced in this paper. Given a metric d(-,-) on the set of static shapes, the empirical mean of N static shapes, C(sub 1),...,C(sub N), is defined b...

P. Maurel G. Sapiro

2005-01-01

203

The Average Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the U.S. Current Population Survey and the Schools and Staffing Survey indicate that the average public school teacher is 42 years old, female, and white, with a bachelor's degree, 15 years of teaching experience, and an annual salary of $39,346. About 74 percent of teachers surveyed plan to stay in teaching as long as possible, 69…

Teacher Magazine, 2002

2002-01-01

204

Average Rate of Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2005-04-21

205

Effect of a Self-care Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model on Reducing Low Birth Weight Among Pregnant Iranian Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is considered as an important outcome of birth and pregnancy, which is associated with long-term consequences and health-care problems. Maternal lifestyle and health care during pregnancy are powerful predictors of BW of infants. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a self-care educational program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on reducing LBW among a sample of pregnant Iranian women. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, we recruited 270 pregnant women referred to prenatal clinics in the south of Tehran, Iran. The participants were randomly allocated to two intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group received an educational program to promote self-care behaviors during pregnancy. The control group received routine care. BW was compared between the two groups. Baseline demographic characteristics and knowledge and attitude scores before the intervention in both groups were compared using the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to control the effect of demographic variables on BW. Results: The results showed that LBW was reduced significantly in the intervention group at the follow-up measurement (5.6 vs. 13.2%, P = 0.03). After controlling for demographic characteristics, we found a significant decrease in the risk of LBW in the intervention group [odds ratio (OR): 0.333; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.88, P = 0.02]. Conclusions: Implementation of a self-care educational program designed on the basis of an HBM on pregnant women was effective in reducing the rate of LBW.

Ekhtiari, Yalda Soleiman; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Shakibazadeh, Elham

2014-01-01

206

An Average Lunch?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This statistics activity requires students to find the mean using their TI-10 or TI-15 Explorer calculators. The task asks students to read part of Sideways Stories of Wayside School by Louis Sachar and find different combinations of lunches that would give an average price of $1.85. This resource includes a three-page PDF lesson plan with guiding questions, data collection page, and calculator instructions.

2008-06-09

207

41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01... false Are there fleet average fuel economy...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient...102-34.55 Are there fleet average fuel...

2013-07-01

208

Factors Influencing the Use of a Web-Based Application for Supporting the Self-Care of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background The take-up of eHealth applications in general is still rather low and user attrition is often high. Only limited information is available about the use of eHealth technologies among specific patient groups. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence the initial and long-term use of a Web-based application (DiabetesCoach) for supporting the self-care of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A mixed-methods research design was used for a process analysis of the actual usage of the Web application over a 2-year period and to identify user profiles. Research instruments included log files, interviews, usability tests, and a survey. Results The DiabetesCoach was predominantly used for interactive features like online monitoring, personal data, and patient–nurse email contact. It was the continuous, personal feedback that particularly appealed to the patients; they felt more closely monitored by their nurse and encouraged to play a more active role in self-managing their disease. Despite the positive outcomes, usage of the Web application was hindered by low enrollment and nonusage attrition. The main barrier to enrollment had to do with a lack of access to the Internet (146/226, 65%). Although 68% (34/50) of the enrollees were continuous users, of whom 32% (16/50) could be defined as hardcore users (highly active), the remaining 32% (16/50) did not continue using the Web application for the full duration of the study period. Barriers to long-term use were primarily due to poor user-friendliness of the Web application (the absence of “push” factors or reminders) and selection of the “wrong” users; the well-regulated patients were not the ones who could benefit the most from system use because of a ceiling effect. Patients with a greater need for care seemed to be more engaged in long-term use; highly active users were significantly more often medication users than low/inactive users (P = .005) and had a longer diabetes duration (P = .03). Conclusion Innovations in health care will diffuse more rapidly when technology is employed that is simple to use and has applicable components for interactivity. This would foresee the patients’ need for continuous and personalized feedback, in particular for patients with a greater need for care. From this study several factors appear to influence increased use of eHealth technologies: (1) avoiding selective enrollment, (2) making use of participatory design methods, and (3) developing push factors for persistence. Further research should focus on the causal relationship between using the system’s features and actual usage, as such a view would provide important evidence on how specific technology features can engage and captivate users.

van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia EWC; Kelders, Saskia M; Brandenburg, Bart J; Seydel, Erwin R

2011-01-01

209

Effects of a community-based intervention on cardio-metabolic risk and self-care behaviour in older adults with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

This pilot study was performed to investigate the effects of a community-based intervention (CBI) on cardio-metabolic risk and self-care behaviour in 92 older adults with metabolic syndrome at public health centres in Suwon, Korea. A prospective, pretest and posttest, controlled, quasi-experimental design was used. The older adults in the intervention group participated in an 8-week intensive lifestyle counselling, whereas those in the control group received usual care. The mean (standard deviation) age of the participants was 71.4 (4.43) years ranging from 60 to 84, and 75.0% of the participants were female. The intervention group at 8 weeks showed significant reduction in waist circumference by -1.35 cm (P<0.001) and improved self-care behaviour (+5.17 score, P<0.05) and self-efficacy (+4.84 score, P<0.001) when compared with the control group. The percentages of those who successfully completed the targeted behavioural modification were 71.7% for exercise and 52.2% for dietary control in the intervention group at 8 weeks. This pilot study provided evidence of the beneficial impact of the CBI for Korean older adults with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24713018

Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Hyung-Ran

2014-04-01

210

Staging Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction in Elderly Community-Dwelling Persons According to Difficulties in Self-Care and Domestic Life Functioning  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to describe the conceptual foundation and development of an activity limitation and participation restriction staging system for community-dwelling people 70 yrs or older according to the severity and types of self-care (activities of daily living [ADLs]) and domestic life (instrumental ADLs (IADLs)) limitations experienced. Design Data from the second Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 9447) were used to develop IADL stages through the analyses of self- and proxy-reported difficulties in performing IADLs. An analysis of activity limitation profiles identified hierarchical thresholds of difficulty that defined each stage. IADL stages are combined with ADL stages to profile status for independent living. Results IADL stages define five ordered thresholds of increasing activity limitations and a “not relevant” stage for those who normally have someone else do those activities. Approximately 42% of the population experience IADL limitations. To achieve a stage, a person must meet or exceed stage-specific thresholds of retained functioning defined for each activity. Combined ADL and IADL stages de-fine 29 patterns of activity limitations expressing the individual’s potential for participating in life situations pertinent to self-care and independent community life. Conclusions ADL and IADL stages can serve to distinguish between groups of people according to both severity and the types of limitations experienced during home or outpatient assessments, in population surveillance, and in research.

Stineman, Margaret G.; Henry-Sanchez, John T.; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Pan, Qiang; Xie, Dawei; Saliba, Debra; Zhang, Zi; Streim, Joel E.

2012-01-01

211

A handheld chemotherapy symptom management system: results from a preliminary outpatient field trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A symptom management system was developed and implemented on personal digital assistants (PDAs) for use by cancer outpatients in their daily management of chemotherapy symptoms. The system allowed patients to record their symptoms at home and send these data to their cancer centre. Patients could view personalized self-care advice and more general medical information. In addition, cancer care nurses were

Marilyn Rose Mcgee; Philip D. Gray

2005-01-01

212

The Limits of Self-Management: Community and Health Care System Barriers Among Latinos With Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies examine diabetes self-care, few regard ecological framework correlates such as community and institutional level factors as fundamental for understanding diabetes management for Latinos. This article addresses the dearth of research that exists regarding social contextual forces and diabetes management for Latinos. Given the scarcity of research on this topic, studies of non-Latino groups were reviewed to illustrate

Janine Jurkowski

2010-01-01

213

Stimulating Healthy Aging with a Model Nurse-Managed Free Clinic in a Senior Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a Geriatric Education and Health Management program, a model nurse-managed free clinic has been established at an urban senior center by faculty and students of the University of New Mexico College of Nursing. Funded by a 3-year grant from the Department of Health and Human Services, the weekly clinic is based on Orem's self-care theory…

Franklin, Ruth H.

214

On fast Birkhoff averaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the pointwise behavior of Birkhoff sums S_nphi(x) on subshifts of finite type for Hölder continuous functions phi. In particular, we show that for a given equilibrium state mu associated to a Hölder continuous potential, there are points x such that S_nphi(x) - n mathbb{E}_mu phi ˜ a n(beta) for any a>0 and 0< beta <1. Actually the Hausdorff dimension of the set of such points is bounded from below by the dimension of mu and it is attained by some maximizing equilibrium state nu such that mathbb{E}_nu phi = mathbb{E}_mu phi. On such points the ergodic average n(-1) S_nphi(x) converges more rapidly than predicted by the Birkhoff Theorem, the Law of the Iterated Logarithm and the Central Limit Theorem. All these sets, for different choices (a, beta), are distinct but have the same dimension. This reveals a rich multifractal structure of the symbolic dynamics. As a consequence, we prove that the set of uniform recurrent points, which are close to periodic points, has full dimension. Applications are also given to the study of syndetic numbers, Hardy-Weierstraß functions and lacunary Taylor series.

Fan, Ai-Hua; Schmeling, Jörg

2003-11-01

215

Self-Efficacy, Self-Care, and Metabolic Control in Persons with Type 2, Diet and Exercised Controlled Diabetes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although people with diabetes are often judged by numbers on a computer screen, tight metabolic control remains the ultimate clinical endpoint (Diabetes control and Complications Trial, 1993). Nurses' understanding of diabetes management coupled with a ho...

L. M. Randall

1998-01-01

216

Effects of educational intervention based on PRECEDE model on self care behaviors and control in patients with type 2 diabetes in 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is a chronic disease and its control requires essential change in patients' life style. The aim of this study was survey of effects of educational intervention based on PRECEDE Model on self care behaviors and control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study carried out in 78 patients with type 2 diabetes who have referred to Minoodasht clinic of diabetes. The educational program has been designed according to the PRECEDE Model. Prior to perform the educational intervention, the patients filled a questionnaire which was designed according to the structure of PRECEDE Model for type 2 diabetes patients. The diabetes education program was performed on three target groups (patients, their families and Health care personnel). After four weeks, the effects of the educational program have been evaluated through the same questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by SPSS version 16 and p-value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The mean age of participants was 49 years, 87.2% were married and 19.2% was illiterate. The rate of income of 44.9% was low. 66% had a family history of diabetes and 64% had been afflicted with diabetes more than 5 years. The Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between formation of a file in diabetes clinic and on-time presence to receive services and participation in the educational classes with the marital status variable. The results also showed that there is a significant relationship between observing food diet and job. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude, practice, reinforcing factors and enabling factors has increased after educational intervention. The Chi-square test shows a significant difference before and after of education intervention in stages of the model. Conclusion The obtained results based on PRECEDE Model would support the positive effect of the educational intervention and its major elements (predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors) on diabetes self-care behaviors.

2014-01-01

217

Encouraging patients to self-care - the preliminary development and validation of the VeLUSET©, a self-efficacy tool for venous leg ulcer patients, aged 60?years and over.  

PubMed

Venous leg ulceration has a high recurrence rate. Patients with healed or frequently recurring venous ulceration are required to perform self-care behaviours to prevent recurrence or promote healing, but evidence suggests that many find these difficult to perform. Bandura's self-efficacy theory is a widely used and robust behaviour change model and underpins many interventions designed to promote self-care in a variety of chronic conditions. By identifying areas where patients may experience difficulty in performing self-care, interventions can be developed to strengthen their self-efficacy beliefs in performing these activities successfully. There are currently a variety of self-efficacy scales available to measure self-efficacy in a variety of conditions; but not a disease-specific scale for use with venous ulcer patients. The aim of this study, therefore, was to develop and validate a disease-specific, patient-focused self-efficacy scale for patients with healed venous leg ulceration. This scale will need further validation studies; however, it is ready for use in clinical practice and will enable practitioners to identify those patients who may need additional support in performing self-care activities to prevent recurrence. PMID:24373556

Brown, Annemarie; Kendall, Sally; Flanagan, Madeleine; Cottee, Michaela

2014-06-01

218

Evaluation of an Internet-Based Application for Supporting Self-Care of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the Internet into medical practice as an information-sharing and communication medium has brought about many opportunities for the management of chronic care. Research has shown that teleconsultation for example is a practical, cost-effective, and reliable way of delivering a worthwhile health care service to diabetics. As a result, Internet-based applications are being developed to support patients in

Nicol Nijland; Erwin R. Seydel; Julia E. W. C. Van Gemert-pijnen; Bart Brandenburg; Saskia M. Kelders; Marijke Will

2009-01-01

219

Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

2002-01-01

220

Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…

Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

2013-01-01

221

UK and Canadian perspectives of the effectiveness of mobile diabetes management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of mobile technologies for self-monitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure for diabetes patients is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. This is propelled by the proliferation of the wider usage of mobile phones and other wireless technologies and computing platforms in the healthcare sector. Such technologies can play a pivotal role in chronic disease management and patient self-care. There

Emily Seto; Robert S. H. Istepanian; Joseph A. Cafazzo; Alexander Logan; Ala Sungoor

2009-01-01

222

Diabetes self-management: Perspectives of Latino patients and their health care providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifestyle modification programs tailored to experience, culture, psychosocial characteristics, and world-view can improve knowledge, self-care behaviors, and glucose control among Latinos with diabetes. Few data exist, however, on improving diabetes self-management among Latinos. In addition, views and practices of practitioners caring for these patients have received little attention.

Elena T. Carbone; Milagros C. Rosal; M. Idalí Torres; Karin V. Goins; Odilia I. Bermudez

2007-01-01

223

Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

2010-01-01

224

High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser  

SciTech Connect

We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A

2001-05-23

225

Technologies to better serve the millions of diabetic patients: a holistic, interactive and persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care, in extremely poor rural zones of Central America.  

PubMed

Health indicators express remarkable gaps between health systems at a world-wide level. Countries of the entire world are overflowed by the need of new strategies, methodologies and technologies to better serve the millions of patients, who demand better medical attention. The present archaic and ephemerally systematized systems widen the gap even more than the quality of medical services that should be provided for the millions of diabetic patients. It is therefore necessary to develop highly familiar environments with diabetic patients and their care needs. A Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care of patients with diabetes (hIPAPD), is proposed as an innovative technological development in Panama to health optimized treatment for diabetic patients. Three health centers located in the District of Aguadulce, Province of Cocle, located on Panama's Pacific Coast, were selected to validate the model; the area presents extremely poor population, mostly with one daily meal, without any health insurance and with a high illiteracy rate. A series of experiences in the application and validation process are presented and analyzed in order to confirm the application, value and contribution of ICTs in health care in poor regions of Central America. PMID:20703674

Vargas-Lombardo, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Alvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Ruíz, Ernestina Menasalva

2012-04-01

226

Health coaching by telephony to support self-care in chronic diseases: clinical outcomes from The TERVA randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to evaluate the effect of a 12-month individualized health coaching intervention by telephony on clinical outcomes. Methods An open-label cluster-randomized parallel groups trial. Pre- and post-intervention anthropometric and blood pressure measurements by trained nurses, laboratory measures from electronic medical records (EMR). A total of 2594 patients filling inclusion criteria (age 45?years or older, with type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease or congestive heart failure, and unmet treatment goals) were identified from EMRs, and 1535 patients (59%) gave consent and were randomized into intervention or control arm. Final analysis included 1221 (80%) participants with data on primary end-points both at entry and at end. Primary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum total and LDL cholesterol concentration, waist circumference for all patients, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for diabetics and NYHA class in patients with congestive heart failure. The target effect was defined as a 10-percentage point increase in the proportion of patients reaching the treatment goal in the intervention arm. Results The proportion of patients with diastolic blood pressure initially above the target level decreasing to 85?mmHg or lower was 48% in the intervention arm and 37% in the control arm (difference 10.8%, 95% confidence interval 1.5–19.7%). No significant differences emerged between the arms in the other primary end-points. However, the target levels of systolic blood pressure and waist circumference were reached non-significantly more frequently in the intervention arm. Conclusions Individualized health coaching by telephony, as implemented in the trial was unable to achieve majority of the disease management clinical measures. To provide substantial benefits, interventions may need to be more intensive, target specific sub-groups, and/or to be fully integrated into local health care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00552903

2012-01-01

227

MIT BLOSSOMS - Flaws of Averages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning video presents an introduction to the Flaws of Averages using three exciting examples: the “crossing of the river” example, the “cookie” example, and the “dance class” example. Averages are often worthwhile representations of a set of data by a single descriptive number. The objective of this module, however, is to simply point out a few pitfalls that could arise if one is not attentive to details when calculating and interpreting averages. Most students at any level in high school can understand the concept of the flaws of averages presented here. The essential prerequisite knowledge for this video lesson is the ability to calculate an average from a set of numbers. Materials needed include: pen and paper for the students; and a blackboard or equivalent. During this video lesson, students will learn about three flaws of averages: (1) The average is not always a good description of the actual situation, (2) The function of the average is not always the same as the average of the function, and (3) The average depends on your perspective. To convey these concepts, the students are presented with the three real world examples mentioned above. The total length of the four in-class video segments is 12 minutes, leaving lots of time in a typical class session for the teacher to work with the students on their own learning examples (such as those from the supplementary notes) to firm up the ideas presented here on the flaws of averages.

Blossoms, Mit

2011-06-23

228

Average Speed and Unit Conversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will determine average speeds from data collected and convert units for speed problems. Students try to roll the ball with a prescribed average speed based on intuition. Then, based on unit conversion we will see how accurate the rolls really were.

2009-01-01

229

Predictor Selection for Model Averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a number of distinct models is available for prediction, choice of a single model can offer unstable results. In regression, stochastic search vari- able selection with Bayesian model averaging is a solution for this robustness issue but utilizes very many predictors. Here we look at Bayesian model averag- ing that incorporates variable selection for prediction and use decision theory

MARINA VANNUCCI; PHILIP J. BROWN; TOM FEARN

2001-01-01

230

Changes of Average Maternal Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a report in NATURE of March 18 of an address delivered by Dr. L. S. Penrose to the Industrial Section of the British Psychological Society on February 8, the following sentence occurs: ``When the birth-rate is falling, the average maternal age [average age at child-birth] will probably become greater''. In support of this view it is stated that Dr.

R. S. Barclay; W. O. Kermack

1939-01-01

231

Engagement with Automated Patient Monitoring and Self-Management Support Calls: Experience with a Thousand Chronically-Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Patient self-care support via Interactive Voice Response (IVR) can improve disease management. However little is known about the factors affecting program engagement. Methods We compiled data on IVR program engagement for 1,173 patients with: heart failure, depression, diabetes, and cancer who were followed for 28,962 person-weeks. Patients in programs for diabetes or depression (N=727) had the option of participating along with an informal caregiver who received electronic feedback based on the patient’s IVR assessments. Analyses focused on factors associated with completing weekly IVR calls. Results Patients were on average 61 years old, 37% had at most a high school education, and 48% reported incomes < $30,000. Among patients given the option of participating with an informal caregiver, 65% chose to do so. Patients completed 83% of attempted IVR assessments, with rates higher for heart failure (90%) and cancer programs (90%) than for the diabetes (81%) or depression programs (71%) (p<0.001). Among patients in diabetes or depression programs, those opting to have feedback provided to an informal caregiver were more likely to complete assessments (adjusted odds ratio: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.75). Older patients had higher call completion rates, even among patients > 75 years of age. Missed clinic appointments, prior hospitalizations, depression program participation, and poorer mental health were associated with lower completion rates. Conclusions Patients with a variety of chronic conditions will complete IVR self-care support calls regularly. Risk factors for missed IVR calls overlap with those for missed appointments. Involvement of informal caregivers may significantly increase engagement.

Piette, John D.; Rosland, Ann-Marie; Marinec, Nicolle Stec; Striplin, Dana; Bernstein, Steven J.; Silveira, Maria J.

2013-01-01

232

High average power pockels cell  

DOEpatents

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1991-01-01

233

Parvalbumin Cell Ablation of NMDA-R1 Causes Increased Resting Network Excitability with Associated Social and Self-Care Deficits.  

PubMed

NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that net excitation propagated by impaired NMDAR signaling on GABAergic interneurons may be of particular interest in mediating several aspects of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which behavioral domains are governed by a net increase of excitation and whether modulating downstream GABAergic signaling can reverse neural and thus behavioral deficits. The current study determines the selective contributions of NMDAR dysfunction on PV-containing interneurons to electrophysiological, cognitive, and negative-symptom-related behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia using mice with a PVcre-NR1flox-driven ablation of NR1 on PV-containing interneurons. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of one agent that directly modulates GABAergic signaling (baclofen) and one agent that indirectly modifies NMDAR-mediated signaling through antagonism of mGluR5 receptors (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP)). The data indicate that loss of NMDAR function on PV interneurons impairs self-care and sociability while increasing N1 latency and baseline gamma power, and reducing induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation. Baclofen normalized baseline gamma power without corresponding effects on behavior. MPEP further increased N1 latency and reduced social behavior in PVcre/NR1+/+ mice. These two indices were negatively correlated before and following MPEP such that as N1 latency increases, sociability decreases. This finding suggests a predictive role for N1 latency with respect to social function. Although previous data suggest that MPEP may be beneficial for core features of autism spectrum disorders, current data suggest that such effects require intact function of NMDAR on PV interneurons. PMID:24525709

Billingslea, Eddie N; Tatard-Leitman, Valerie M; Anguiano, Jaynie; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Suh, Jimmy; Saunders, John A; Morita, Susumu; Featherstone, Robert E; Ortinski, Pavel I; Gandal, Michael J; Lin, Robert; Liang, Yuling; Gur, Raquel E; Carlson, Gregory C; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Siegel, Steven J

2014-06-01

234

Determining GPS average performance metrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

Moore, G. V.

1995-01-01

235

Atopic dermatitis - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... moist (called lubricating or moisturizing the skin). Use ointments (such as petroleum jelly), creams, or lotions 2 - ... is important to apply lubricating creams, lotions, or ointments on the skin while it is damp. This ...

236

Shin splints - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... splints. Common activities that cause shin splints are: Running, especially on hills. If you are a new ... arches Work out on hard surfaces, such as running on the street or playing basketball or tennis ...

237

Genital herpes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... health care provider prescribes it. Wear loose-fitting cotton underwear. Do not wear nylon or other synthetic ... 2010 Dec17;59(RR-12):1-110. Lentz GM, Eckert LO. Infections of the lower genital tracts: ...

238

Rotator cuff - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... and remain stable. Common rotator cuff problems include: Tendinitis , which is irritation of the tendons and inflammation ... Brien MJ, Leggin BG, Williams GR. Rotator cuff tendinopathies and tears: surgery and therapy. In: Skirven TM, ...

239

Self-Care After Disasters  

MedlinePLUS

... National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ... respond to the event. Natural and technological disasters impact survivors, bereaved family members, witnesses to the event, ...

240

Anal itching - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... foods and beverages Scents or dyes in toilet paper or soap Diarrhea Hemorrhoids , which are swollen veins ... wipes, a wet washcloth, or wet unscented toilet paper. Avoid soaps with dyes or fragrances. Pat dry ...

241

Allergic rhinitis - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... or no sleepiness or learning problems. Antihistamine nasal sprays work well for treating allergic rhinitis. You may ... They come as pills, liquids, capsules, or nasal sprays. You can buy them without a prescription. You ...

242

Kegel exercises - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... C, Thorpe KE, Straus SE. What type of urinary incontinence does this woman have? JAMA . 2008;299:1446- ... the-science conference statement: prevention of fecal and urinary incontinence in adults. Ann Intern Med . 2008 Mar 18; ...

243

Averaging inhomogenous cosmologies - a dialogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.

Buchert, T.

244

Averaging inhomogeneous cosmologies - a dialogue.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.

Buchert, T.

245

ARMA (Autoregressive Moving Average) Identification,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In view of recent results on the asymptotic behavior of the prediction error covariance for a state variable system (see Ref. 1), an identification scheme for autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes is proposed. The coefficients of the d-step predi...

G. Algengrin R. S. Bucy J. M. Moura J. Pages M. I. Ribeiro

1987-01-01

246

PAC-Bayesian model averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAC-Bayesian learning methods combine theinformative priors of Bayesian methods withdistribution-free PAC guarantees. Building onearlier methods for PAC-Bayesian model selection,this paper presents a method for PACBayesianmodel averaging. The method constructsan optimized weighted mixture of conceptsanalogous to a Bayesian posterior distribution.Although the main result is stated forbounded loss, a preliminary analysis for unboundedloss is also given.1 INTRODUCTIONA PAC-Bayesian...

David A. McAllester; Shannon Labs

1999-01-01

247

F-IF Average Cost  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: John makes DVDs of his friendâs shows. He has realized that, because of his fixed costs, his average cost per DVD depends on the number of DVDs he prod...

248

Ensemble averaging of acoustic data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called Ensemble Averaging of Acoustic Data is documented. The program samples analog data, analyzes the data, and displays them in the time and frequency domains. Hard copies of the displays are the program's output. The documentation includes a description of the program and detailed user instructions for the program. This software was developed for use on the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel's Dynamic Analysis System consisting of a PDP-11/45 computer, two RK05 disk drives, a tektronix 611 keyboard/display terminal, and FPE-4 Fourier Processing Element, and an analog-to-digital converter.

Stefanski, P. K.

1982-01-01

249

Differential absorption lidar signal averaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents experimental results using an atmospheric backscatter dual CO2 laser DIAL. It is shown that DIAL signals can be averaged to obtain an N exp -1/2 dependence decrease in the standard deviation of the ratio of backscattered returns from two lasers, where N is the number of DIAL signals averaged, and that such a lidar system can make measurements of gas concentrations with a precision of 0.7 percent in absorptance over 75 m in a short measurement time when the signal strength is high. Factors that eventually limit the rate of improvement in the SNR, such as changes in the ratio of the absorption and/or backscatter at the two laser frequencies and background noise, are discussed. In addition, it is noted that DIAL measurements made using hard-target backscatter often show departures from N exp -1/2 dependence improvement in the standard deviation because they are further limited by the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence and speckle (since the relative reproducibility of the speckle pattern on the receiver gives rise to correlations of the lidar signals).

Grant, William B.; Brothers, Alan M.; Bogan, James R.

1988-01-01

250

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

SciTech Connect

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2007-09-15

251

Flexible time domain averaging technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

2013-09-01

252

Management.  

PubMed

Driving across the North Yorkshire moors in the course of a working day has its attractions, but the size of the largest FHSA in England and Wales can make for communication problems that need careful handling. For Chris Town, General Manager, North Yorkshire FHSA, management is about the art of diplomacy. PMID:10119208

Town, C

1992-05-01

253

Relationship of diabetes-specific knowledge to self-management activities, ambulatory preventive care, and metabolic outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Educational interventions increase diabetes patients' knowledge and self-care activities, but their impact on the use of health services to prevent diabetes complications is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship of patients' diabetes-specific knowledge with self-management behaviors, use of ambulatory preventive care, and metabolic outcomes.Methods. We surveyed 670 adults with diabetes from three managed care plans to assess diabetes

Stephen D. Persell; Nancy L. Keating; Mary Beth Landrum; Bruce E. Landon; John Z. Ayanian; Catherine Borbas; Edward Guadagnoli

2004-01-01

254

75 FR 54073 - Medicaid Program; Withdrawal of Determination of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...definition of `average manufacturer price' or the statutory definition of...The terms ``average manufacturer price'' and ``multiple source drug...reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. List of Subjects in 42 CFR Part 447...

2010-09-03

255

28 CFR 505.2 - Annual determination of average cost of incarceration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE...determination of average cost of incarceration. ...96c, the Bureau of Prisons staff is responsible...calculating the annual average cost of incarceration....

2013-07-01

256

28 CFR 505.2 - Annual determination of average cost of incarceration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE...determination of average cost of incarceration. ...96c, the Bureau of Prisons staff is responsible...calculating the annual average cost of incarceration....

2009-07-01

257

28 CFR 505.2 - Annual determination of average cost of incarceration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE...determination of average cost of incarceration. ...96c, the Bureau of Prisons staff is responsible...calculating the annual average cost of incarceration....

2010-07-01

258

Long-term outcomes of an arthritis self-management study: Effects of reinforcement efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An underlying assumption of self-care interventions is that they are most effective when reinforced. To test this assumption, 8 months after baseline, 589 subjects who had taken a 6-week Arthritis Self-management Course (ASMC) were randomized to (1) receive a bi-monthly arthritis newsletter, (2) attend a new 6-week Arthritis Reinforcement Course (ARC) or (3) receive no reinforcement. Between 8 and 20

Kate Lorig; Halsted R. Holman

1989-01-01

259

The effects of a school-based intervention on the self-care and health of African-American inner-city children with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma is a chronic illness that affects 5% to 10% or about 5 million children in this country. Morbidity and rising mortality rates are of particular concern in minority children. This study addresses a serious knowledge deficit about the management of asthma in minority children by testing the effect of a school-based asthma education program on psychosocial and health outcomes

Barbara Velsor-Friedrich; Therese D. Pigott; Adrianne Louloudes

2004-01-01

260

Patient outcomes and experiences of an acupuncture and self-care service for persistent low back pain in the NHS: a mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Supported self-management, acupuncture and information can help reduce the symptoms of low back pain. These approaches are currently recommended by NICE guidance as treatment options for patients with persistent low back pain. However, there has been no previous evaluation of a service providing them together for this common problem. The purpose of this service evaluation was to report patient outcomes and experiences of the Beating Back Pain Service (BBPS), a pilot service based in a primary and community care setting, delivering acupuncture, self-management and information to patients with chronic low back pain. Methods Patients completed a questionnaire at three time points: pre-BBPS, immediately post-BBPS and three months post-BBPS. Outcome measures included the Bournemouth Questionnaire (measuring musculoskeletal, MSK, problems), EuroQoL-5D (measuring quality of life), Pain and Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and additional questions on medication use, physical activity, understanding of pain and positive well-being. Additionally, the STarT Back (measuring risk of developing chronic pain) was collected at BBPS information sessions. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate pre- and post- variables. Questionnaires also collected qualitative data (open-text responses) regarding patient views and experiences of the BBPS, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Results 80 (out of 108) patients who attended the initial BBPS information session agreed to participate in the service evaluation (mean age 47 years, 65% female). 65 patients attended subsequent BBPS acupuncture and/or self-management sessions and were asked to complete post-treatment questionnaires; complete datasets were available for 61 patients. There were statistically significant improvements over time for pain (p <0.0001), quality of life (p?=?0.006), understanding of pain (p <0.001), physical activity (p?=?0.047) and relaxation (p?=?0.012). Post-hoc analysis revealed that scores improved between baseline and post-treatment, these improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up (except relaxation). Patients receiving a combination of acupuncture and self-management sessions produced the most positive results. Patient satisfaction with the BBPS was high. Conclusions The BBPS provided a MSK pain management service that many patients found effective and valuable. Combining self-management with acupuncture was found to be particularly effective, although further consideration is required regarding how best to engage patients in self-management.

2013-01-01

261

RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations  

SciTech Connect

RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

2009-05-04

262

Average balance equations for granular materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general weighted space-time averaging procedure is developed and utilized to obtain the average balance equations for granular materials. The method is applicable to both solid-like (quasi-static) and fluid-like (granular flow) modes of granular material behavior. The average balance equations take the same mathematical form while all average quantities involved in these equations retain the same clear physical meaning whether

Marijan Babic

1997-01-01

263

The Scatter in Tropical Average Precipitation Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical mean precipitation anomalies ^P9& for 3-month averages appear quite scattered in relation to tropical average sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies ^& , based on examination of a number of observational T9 s datasets and of atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) results. Even though SST is locally important for determining precipitation, for a given warm SST anomaly, the tropical average

HUI S UA; NDJ. DAVID NEELIN

2003-01-01

264

EL CUIDADO DE SÍ DE LA EMBARAZADA DIABÉTICA COMO UNA VIA PARA ASEGURAR UN HIJO SANO SELF-CARE OF DIABETIC PREGNANT WOMEN, A WAY OF ENSURING A HEALTHY BABY O CUIDADO DE SI DE GESTANTES DIABÉTICAS COMO UM CAMINHO PARA ASSEGURAR UM FILHO SAUDÁVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This focused ethnography explored the beliefs, values, habits and behavioral patterns of diabetic pregnant women who were treated in Hospital Doutor Enrique Tejera, residents of three poor, urban communities in the city of Valencia, Venezuela. The purpose of this study was to find the meaning of self-care for these pregnant women. The Health Analysis, the Theory of Diversity, and the

Carmen Amarilis; Guerra de Castillo; Marta Lucía Vásquez

2006-01-01

265

Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

266

Delivering the WISE (Whole Systems Informing Self-Management Engagement) training package in primary care: learning from formative evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The WISE (Whole System Informing Self-management Engagement) approach encompasses creating, finding, and implementing appropriate self-care support for people with long-term conditions. A training package for primary care to introduce the approach was developed and underwent formative evaluation. This entailed exploring the acceptability of the WISE approach and its effectiveness in changing communication within consultations. The study aimed to refine

Anne Kennedy; Carolyn Chew-Graham; Thomas Blakeman; Andrew Bowen; Caroline Gardner; Joanne Protheroe; Anne Rogers; Linda Gask

2010-01-01

267

[Evaluation of the educational practices in promoting self-management in type 2 diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

The objective of this is study to evaluate the educational practices in promoting the self-management of diabetes mellitus. Subjects were twenty-six individuals with type 2 diabetes, who participated in the educational program at a teaching hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The subjects were followed for four months in 2008. The educational group practices consisted of three monthly meetings, in which recreational and interactive dynamics were performed, and individual sessions were held using dialogic education. The evaluation was performed using a specific questionnaire: self-care and clinical exams in the beginning and four months after the intervention. The mean age of the subjects was 60.9 ±8.4 years; the mean time of disease was 8.7±6.7 years; most (55.6% or 27 individuals) had incomplete primary education and a family income between 1 and 3 minimum salaries. Satisfactory results were found in the self-care test. It was also observed that HbA1c levels dropped down and the educational practices improved self-care and self-management of the disease. PMID:22031366

Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho; Pereira, Flávia Rodrigues Lobo; Alexandre, Luciana Rodrigues

2011-10-01

268

Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

2013-07-01

269

Average-cost based robust structural control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

Hagood, Nesbitt W.

1993-01-01

270

Neutron resonance averaging with filtered beams  

SciTech Connect

Neutron resonance averaging using filtered beams from a reactor source has proven to be an effective nuclear structure tool within certain limitations. These limitations are imposed by the nature of the averaging process, which produces fluctuations in radiative intensities. The fluctuations have been studied quantitatively. Resonance averaging also gives us information about initial or capture state parameters, in particular the photon strength function. Suitable modifications of the filtered beams are suggested for the enhancement of non-resonant processes.

Chrien, R.E.

1985-01-01

271

High average power active-mirror amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operation of the first high average power Nd:glass active-mirror amplifier, a scalable laser device that may be used to configure solid-state laser systems with high average power output into the kilowatt regime, is reported. An extractable average power of over 120 W was achieved at the device laser material fracture limit, and at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

Brown, D. C.; Lee, K. K.; Bowman, R.; Menders, J.; Kuper, J.

1986-03-01

272

Averaging in GR using Cartan scalars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Averaging problem in GR and cosmology is of fundamental importance. It is still not clear how to unambiguously average Einstein equations and the metric tensor (despite some promising attempts). Here we will present a new approach to this problem using the theory of the Cartan scalars. After short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, averaging procedure is presented and some examples are given.

Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar

2012-07-01

273

Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation  

SciTech Connect

A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

Stroud, P.

1994-02-01

274

Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow  

SciTech Connect

A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

Richard W. Johnson

2012-09-01

275

Bayes model averaging with selection of regressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a number of distinct models contend for use in prediction, the choice of a single model can offer rather unstable predictions. In regression, stochastic search variable selection with Bayesian model averaging offers a cure for this robustness issue but at the expense of requiring very many predictors. Here we look at Bayes model averaging incorporating variable selection for prediction.

P. J. Brown; M. Vannucci; T. Fearn

2002-01-01

276

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

277

Averages in vector spaces over finite fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in Rn when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number of model cases.

ANTHONY CARBERY; BRENDAN STONES; JAMES WRIGHT

2008-01-01

278

Whatever Happened to the Average Student?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mandated state testing, college entrance exams and their perceived need for higher and higher grade point averages have raised the anxiety levels felt by many of the average students. Too much focus is placed on state test scores and college entrance standards with not enough focus on the true level of the students. The author contends that…

Krause, Tom

2005-01-01

279

Small scale magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

By relaxing exact magnetic flux conservation below a scale [lambda] a system of flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived from Hamilton's principle with modified constraints. An energy principle can be derived from the linearized averaged system because the total system energy is conserved. This energy principle is employed to treat the resistive tearing instability and the exact growth rate is recovered when [lambda] is identified with the resistive skin depth. A necessary and sufficient stability criteria of the tearing instability with line tying at the ends for solar coronal loops is also obtained. The method is extended to both spatial and temporal averaging in Hamilton's principle. The resulting system of equations not only allows flux reconnection but introduces irreversibility for appropriate choice of the averaging function. Except for boundary contributions which are modified by the time averaging process total energy and momentum are conserved over times much longer than the averaging time [tau] but not for less than [tau]. These modified boundary contributions correspond to the existence, also, of damped waves and shock waves in this theory. Time and space averaging is applied to electron magnetohydrodynamics and in one-dimensional geometry predicts solitons and shocks in different limits.

Pfirsch, D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-8046 Garching (Germany)); Sudan, R.N. (Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States))

1994-08-01

280

Averaging in cosmology based on Cartan scalars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new approach for averaging in general relativity and cosmology. After a short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, we consider two ways of dealing with averaging based on Cartan scalars. We apply the theory for two different Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi models. In the first one, the correlation term behaves as a positive cosmological constant, in the second example, the leading correlation term behaves like spatial curvature. We also show the non-triviality of averaging for linearized monochromatic gravitational wave.

Kašpar, P.; Svítek, O.

2014-05-01

281

Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.  

PubMed

If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

2008-10-31

282

Averaging methods in nonlinear dynamical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents: Basic material. Asymptotics of slow-time processes, first steps. The theory of averaging. Attraction. Averagingover spatial variables: systems with slowly varying frequency and passage through resonance. Normal forms. Hamiltonian systems. Appendices.

J. A. Sanders; F. Verhulst

1985-01-01

283

Generalization to stochastic averaging in random vibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stochastic Averaging is applied to a class of randomly excited single- degree-of-freedom oscillators possessing linear damping and nonlinear stiffness terms. The assumed excitation form involves an externally applied evolutionary Gaussian stochastic proce...

J. R. Red-Horse

1992-01-01

284

40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 ...certification averaging program. Include only motorcycles certified under this subpart and intended...for which you manufacture or import motorcycles. (d) Calculate your...

2013-07-01

285

Average Atom Model of Partial Ionization, Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The average atom model of partial ionization discussed by Zeldovich and Raizer provides an approximate solution to the Saha equation. As originally derived the model contains several approximations and ad hoc assumptions and violates one of the Maxwell eq...

M. J. Clauser

1975-01-01

286

Modeling Plants With Moving-Average Outputs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three discrete-state-variable representations derived. Paper discusses mathematical modeling of digital control systems for plants in which outputs include combinations of instantaneous and moving-average-prefiltered measurements.

Polites, Michael E.

1989-01-01

287

Heuristic approach to capillary pressures averaging  

SciTech Connect

Several methods are available to average capillary pressure curves. Among these are the J-curve and regression equations of the wetting-fluid saturation in porosity and permeability (capillary pressure held constant). While the regression equation seem completely empiric, the J-curve method seems to be theoretically sound due to its expression based on a relation between the average capillary radius and the permeability-porosity ratio. An analysis is given of each of these methods.

Coca, B.P.

1980-10-01

288

Climatology of globally averaged thermospheric mass density  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a climatological analysis of daily globally averaged density data, derived from orbit data and covering the years 1967–2007, along with an empirical Global Average Mass Density Model (GAMDM) that encapsulates the 1986–2007 data. The model represents density as a function of the F10.7 solar radio flux index, the day of year, and the Kp geomagnetic activity index. We

J. T. Emmert; J. M. Picone

2010-01-01

289

Applications of high average power nonlinear optics  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.

Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.

1996-02-05

290

On the average genus of a graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all rational numbers are possibilities for the average genus of an individual graph. The smallest such numbers are determined,\\u000a and varied examples are constructed to demonstrate that a single value of average genus can be shared by arbitrarily many\\u000a different graphs. It is proved that the number 1 is a limit point of the set of possible values for

Jonathan L. Gross; E. Ward Klein; Robert G. Rieper

1993-01-01

291

Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.  

PubMed

The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images. PMID:18662790

Fernando, K Vince

2008-10-01

292

Efficient Algorithms for Average Completion Time Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the competitive ratio of algorithms for minimizing (weighted) average completion time on identical parallel machines and prove that the well-known shortest remaining processing time algorithm (SRPT) is 5/4-competitive w.r.t. the average completion time objective. For weighted completion times we give a deterministic algorithm with competitive ratio 1.791 + o(m). This ratio holds for preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling.

Sitters, René

293

When Is the Local Average Treatment Close to the Average? Evidence from Fertility and Labor Supply  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The local average treatment effect (LATE) may differ from the average treatment effect (ATE) when those influenced by the instrument are not representative of the overall population. Heterogeneity in treatment effects may imply that parameter estimates from 2SLS are uninformative regarding the average treatment effect, motivating a search for…

Ebenstein, Avraham

2009-01-01

294

An overview of chronic vaginal atrophy and options for symptom management.  

PubMed

During the menopausal transition and after menopause, up to 45 percent of women will develop vaginal atrophy as a consequence of decreased levels of circulating estrogen. Symptoms include vaginal dryness, itching, soreness, bleeding, increased susceptibility to infection and pain with sexual intercourse. Treatments are often underused because of patient and clinician lack of knowledge of available treatments, embarrassment about initiating a discussion of symptoms and reluctance to initiate hormonal therapy. Methods of symptom management include self-care with over-the-counter agents and prescription treatment with various forms of localized estrogen. Clinicians should consider each woman's unique situation and health history before recommending a management strategy. PMID:23253575

Woods, Nancy Fugate

2012-12-01

295

Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

2008-11-01

296

Perceiving the average hue of color arrays  

PubMed Central

The average of a color distribution has special significance for color coding (e.g. to estimate the illuminant) but how it depends on the visual representation (e.g. perceptual vs. cone-opponent) or nonlinearities (e.g. categorical coding) is unknown. We measured the perceived average of two colors shown alternated in spatial arrays. Observers adjusted the components until the average equaled a specified reference hue. Matches for red, blue-red, or yellow-green were consistent with the arithmetic mean chromaticity, while blue-green settings deviated toward blue. The settings show little evidence for categorical coding, and cannot be predicted from the scaled appearances of the individual components.

Webster, Jacquelyn; Kay, Paul; Webster, Michael A.

2014-01-01

297

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

SciTech Connect

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

2013-11-01

298

On the Average Pairing Energy in Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macroscopic-microscopic method is applied to calculate the nuclear energies, especially the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. The single-particle levels are obtained with the Yukawa folded mean-field potential. The macroscopic energy is evaluated using the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop model. The shell corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky method with smoothing in nucleon number space. The average nuclear pairing energy is also determined by folding the BCS sums in nucleon number space. The average pairing energy dependence on the nuclear elongation is investigated.

Nerlo-Pomorska, Bo?ena; Pomorski, Krzysztof

299

Boundedness and Dimension for Weighted Average Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The power considers a weighted average property of the type u(x sub 0) = (the integral over B of uwdx)/(the integral over B of wdx), B a ball in E superscript n with center x sub 0. A lemma constructing such functions is presented from which it follows th...

D. P. Stanford

1969-01-01

300

Average Values of Mean Squares in Factorials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumptions appropriate to the application of analysis of variance to specific examples, and the effects of these assumptions on the resulting interpretations, are today a matter of very active discussion. Formulas for average values of mean squares play a central role in this problem, as do assumptions about interactions. This paper presents formulas for crossed (and, incidentally, for nested

Jerome Cornfield; John W. Tukey

1956-01-01

301

Science of NHL Hockey: Statistics & Averages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Being a top goalie in the NHL takes more than quick reflexes and nerves of steel, it also requires a firm grip on the numbers. Namely, the key averages and statistics of goaltending. "Science of NHL Hockey" is a 10-part video series produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation and the National Hockey League.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

302

Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation  

PubMed Central

Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior.

FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

2014-01-01

303

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21

304

Average configuration of the induced venus magnetotail  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss the interaction of the solar wind flow with Venus and describe the morphology of magnetic field line draping in the Venus magnetotail. In particular, we describe the importance of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) X-component in controlling the configuration of field draping in this induced magnetotail, and using the results of a recently developed technique, we examine the average magnetic configuration of this magnetotail. The derived J x B forces must balance the average, steady state acceleration of, and pressure gradients in, the tail plasma. From this relation the average tail plasma velocity, lobe and current sheet densities, and average ion temperature have been derived. In this study we extend these results by making a connection between the derived consistent plasma flow speed and density, and the observational energy/charge range and sensitivity of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) plasma analyzer, and demonstrate that if the tail is principally composed of O/sup +/, the bulk of the plasma should not be observable much of the time that the PVO is within the tail. Finally, we examine the importance of solar wind slowing upstream of the obstacle and its implications for the temperature of pick-up planetary ions, compare the derived ion temperatures with their theoretical maximum values, and discuss the implications of this process for comets and AMPTE-type releases.

McComas, D.J.; Spence, H.E.; Russell, C.T.

1985-01-01

305

Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

2010-01-01

306

Average Annual Rainfall Over the Globe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts1 1.74×10 J of solar radiation per second and it is divided over various channels as given in Table 1. It keeps our planet warm and maintains its average temperature2 of 288 K with the help of the atmosphere in such a way that life can survive. It also recycles the water in the oceans/rivers/ lakes by initial evaporation and subsequent precipitation; the average annual rainfall over the globe is around one meter. According to M. King Hubbert1 the amount of solar power going into the evaporation and precipitation channel is 4.0×10 W. Students can verify the value of average annual rainfall over the globe by utilizing this part of solar energy. This activity is described in the next section.

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-12-01

307

Methodology for Bayesian Model Averaging: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard practice of selecting a single model from some class of models and then making inferences based on this model ignores model uncertainty. Ignoring model uncertainty can im- pair predictive performance and lead to overstatement of the strength of evidence via p-values that are too small. Bayesian model averaging provides a coherent approach for accounting for model uncertainty. A

Jennifer A. Hoeting

308

Estimation of areally-averaged surface fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of blending height is used to estimate areally averaged surface fluxes of momentum and heat in a stratified, horizontally inhomogeneous surface-layer flow. This concept is based on the assumption that at sufficiently large heights above a heterogeneous surface, subsequent surface modifications will not be recognizable in the flow individually, but overall flux and mean profiles will represent the surface condition of a large area. The height at which the flow becomes approximately independent of horizontal position is called blending height according to Wieringa (1986). Here, it is proposed to classify the ground surface in a surface-layer grid box of a larger-scale model into several land-use categories. Surface momentum and heat fluxes should be estimated for each category at the blending height. The grid-averaged surface fluxes are to be obtained by the average of surface fluxes on each land-use surface weighted by its fractional area. The postulate of computing the surface fluxes at the blending height leads to a new formulation of turbulent transfer coefficients. The proposed parameterization has been tested by employing a small-scale numerical model as a surface-layer grid box of a hypothesized larger-scale model. Several quite different flow configurations have been studied in order to investigate the performance of the new parameterization. Generally, the relative errors of estimated averaged surface fluxes are found to be well within ±10%.

Claussen, Martin

1991-03-01

309

Profile of Hired Farmworkers, 1998 Annual Averages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An average of 875,000 persons 15 years of age and older did hired farmwork each week as their primary job in 1998. An additional 63,000 people did hired farmwork each week as their secondary job. Hired farmworkers were more likely than the typical U.S. wa...

J. L. Runyan

2000-01-01

310

Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

Sturrock, Alan

1997-01-01

311

Distributed averaging on asynchronous communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Distributed algorithms for averaging have at- tracted interest in the control and sensing literature. However, previous works have not addressed some practical concerns that will arise in actual implementations on packet-switched communication networks such as the Internet. In this paper, we present several implementable algorithms that are robust to asynchronism and dynamic topology changes. The algorithms do not require

M. Mehyar; D. Spanos; J. Pongsajapan; S. H. Low; R. M. Murray

2005-01-01

312

Analysis of Time Series by Moving Averages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer program for estimation of trends in longitudinal research based on the moving average was presented and applied to a sample set of data. The program allows both standard and weighted procedures for supression of incidental variation. (Author/JKS)

Krus, David J.; Ceurvorst, Robert W.

1978-01-01

313

Why do Noninvertible Estimated Moving Averages Occur.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The positive probability that an estimated moving average process is noninvertible is studied for maximum likelihood estimation of a univariate process. Upper and lower bounds for the probability in the first-order case are obtained as well as limits when...

A. Takemura T. W. Anderson

1984-01-01

314

The Average Height of Planted Plane Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An asymptotic expression for the average height of a planted plane tree is derived, based on an asymptotic series for sums such as the Summation (k > or = 1) of (2n, N + K) d(k) and the Summation (k > or = 1) of (e to the (-k squared/n) power) d(k), where...

D. E. Knuth N. G. de Bruijn S. O. Rice

1971-01-01

315

Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-01-01

316

Average case analysis of dynamic graph algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model for edge updates with restricted randomness in dynamic graph algorithms and a general technique for analyzing the expected running time of an update operation. This model is able to capture the average case in many applications, since (1) it allows restrictions on the set of edges which can be used for insertions and (2) the type

David Alberts; Monika Rauch Henzinger

1995-01-01

317

High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable nonlinear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multirod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version is presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

1994-07-01

318

Staph infections - self-care at home  

MedlinePLUS

... until they heal. Avoid contact with other people's wounds or bandages. Do NOT share personal items such as towels, ... or cosmetics. Simple steps for athletes include: Cover wounds with a clean bandage. Do NOT touch other people’s bandages. Wash your ...

319

Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... by mistake Not eating enough during meals or snacks after you have taken insulin or diabetes medicine ... your blood sugar levels. Make sure you have snacks with you. Ask your doctor or nurse if ...

320

Type 2 diabetes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body has trouble using the insulin it ... can get too high. Over time, people with type 2 diabetes may not have enough insulin. Most people with ...

321

New applications for high average power beams  

SciTech Connect

The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

1993-08-01

322

Time-average dynamic speckle interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the study of microscopic processes occurring at structural level in solids and thin biological objects, a method of dynamic speckle interferometry successfully applied. However, the method has disadvantages. The purpose of the report is to acquaint colleagues with the method of averaging in time in dynamic speckle - interferometry of microscopic processes, allowing eliminating shortcomings. The main idea of the method is the choice the averaging time, which exceeds the characteristic time correlation (relaxation) the most rapid process. The method theory for a thin phase and the reflecting object is given. The results of the experiment on the high-cycle fatigue of steel and experiment to estimate the biological activity of a monolayer of cells, cultivated on a transparent substrate is given. It is shown that the method allows real-time visualize the accumulation of fatigue damages and reliably estimate the activity of cells with viruses and without viruses.

Vladimirov, A. P.

2014-05-01

323

High average power free-electron lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since the first free-electron laser (FEL) was both conceived and demonstrated in the 1970s at Stanford, it has attracted much attention as a promising foundation for a high average power light source. Since its light is produced from free electrons, an FEL can be designed to lase at virtually any wavelength. Furthermore, since its light is generated from a relativistic beam that is continually replenished, its gain medium cannot be damaged by any conventional means. Accordingly, as there have been several ambitious attempts to design and construct high average power FELs over the past several decades, we chronicle some of these efforts. Additionally, we provide an overview of FEL technology and theory, discuss some of the obstacles that remain in the construction of a high-power FEL, and provide a road map toward a megawatt-class device.

Blau, Joseph; Cohn, Keith; Colson, William B.

2013-02-01

324

Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having {Lambda} = 0 have volume deceleration parameter q{sup vol}<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated q{sup vol} in some Lemaitre-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that q{sup vol}>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit q{sup vol}<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

Bolejko, Krzysztof [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Andersson, Lars, E-mail: bolejko@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: larsa@math.miami.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States)

2008-10-15

325

Model Averaging with Discrete Bayesian Network Classifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of perform- ing classification by model-averaging over a class of discrete Bayesian network structures consistent with a partial ordering and with bounded in-degree k. We show that for N nodes this class contains in the worst-case at least ›( ¡N=2 k ¢N=2 ) distinct network structures, but we show that this summation can be per-

Denver Dash; Gregory F. Cooper

326

Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing.

Canavan

1991-01-01

327

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion  

SciTech Connect

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

328

Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.

Ballatore, P.

329

A Simple Algorithm for Averaging Spike Trains  

PubMed Central

Although spike trains are the principal channel of communication between neurons, a single stimulus will elicit different spike trains from trial to trial. This variability, in both spike timings and spike number can obscure the temporal structure of spike trains and often means that computations need to be run on numerous spike trains in order to extract features common across all the responses to a particular stimulus. This can increase the computational burden and obscure analytical results. As a consequence, it is useful to consider how to calculate a central spike train that summarizes a set of trials. Indeed, averaging responses over trials is routine for other signal types. Here, a simple method for finding a central spike train is described. The spike trains are first mapped to functions, these functions are averaged, and a greedy algorithm is then used to map the average function back to a spike train. The central spike trains are tested for a large data set. Their performance on a classification-based test is considerably better than the performance of the medoid spike trains.

2013-01-01

330

Modern average global sea-surface temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1993-01-01

331

Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

Dirks, Jean; And Others

1983-01-01

332

Averaging over multiple or continuous scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several important physical systems with microstructures that vary spatially and/or temporally are examined. The appropriate averaging schemes are developed to derive effective equations and parameters describing the long- term, long-range behavior of the systems studied. For a general time-periodic linear planar flow, it is shown that the large-time, time-average transport of a pulse of localized solute can be described by classical anisotropic diffusion. The constant effective diffusion tensor is derived as a function of frequency, amplitude and flow topology. Statistical averaging of similar advection-diffusion problem with a random velocity field possessing certain stochastic properties is carried out. An extension of earlier exact renormalization theory to the case of two and three dimensional homogeneous stationary isotropic turbulence allows the derivation of integral-scale effective transport equation and the associated effective diffusivity, which is time-dependent in general, in terms of parameters defining the velocity statistics. With the Kolmogorov velocity spectrum, the developed theory predicts both time-evolution of the mean-square displacement of fluid particles and the infinite-time asymptotic value of eddy diffusivity in turbulent pipe and channel flows with acceptable accuracy in a wide range of Reynolds number. A macroscopic disjoining pressure near a triple contact line for an arbitrary air/liquid interface is derived from the attractive van der Waals forces by a renormalized coarse-graining scheme. It is then used to obtain the dynamic contact angles for partially-wetting fluids. For glycerine on Plexiglas, the predicted critical capillary number for the onset of rolling motion is in good agreement with fingering experiments both for gravity-driven flow and during spin coating. The resulting dynamic contact angle for Santicizer 405 on silicone treated glass is in quantitative agreement with Hoffman's capillary data and, at low spreading speeds, with earlier asymptotic theories.

Indeikina, Alexandra E.

333

Low-pass filters for signal averaging  

SciTech Connect

Detailed comparison of the settling time-noise bandwidth products of 31 types of low-pass filters demonstrates that the settling time-noise bandwidth product is the figure of merit for such filters when the goal is averaging. Common filters such as Butterworth, elliptic, and Chebyshev are found to be unusable for such purposes while others, such as Bessel filters, offer only moderate figures of merit. The best reported analog low-pass filter differs from ideality by only about 11%. The optimum analog low-pass filter, having continuous, rational transfer function, is unknown.

Voigtman, E.; Winefordner, J.D.

1986-05-01

334

High average power laser for EUV lithography  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated the operation of a high average power, all solid state laser and target system for EUV lithography. The laser operates at 1.06 {mu}m with a pulse repetition rate of 200 Hz. Each pulse contains up to 400 mJ of energy and is less than 10 ns in duration. The ELTV conversion efficiency measured with the laser is independent of the laser repetition rate. Operating at 200 Hz, the laser has been used for lithography using a 3 bounce Kohler illuminator.

Kania, D.R.; Gaines, D.P.; Hermann, M.; Honig, J.; Hostetler, R.; Levesque, R.; Sommargren, G.E.; Spitzer, R.C.; Vernon, S.P.

1995-01-19

335

Average prime-pair counting formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking r>0 , let ?_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p? x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that ?_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ?_{2r}(x)=?_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for ?(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ?_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

2010-04-01

336

MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS  

SciTech Connect

A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.

Kevin Jordan; Trent Allison; Richard Evans; James Coleman; Albert Grippo

2003-05-01

337

Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

2009-12-15

338

40 CFR 60.1755 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? 60.1755 Section 60...SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? (a) Use the equation...

2013-07-01

339

Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition  

PubMed Central

The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

2014-01-01

340

A visibility graph averaging aggregation operator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of aggregation is of considerable importance in many disciplines. In this paper, a new type of operator called visibility graph averaging (VGA) aggregation operator is proposed. This proposed operator is based on the visibility graph which can convert a time series into a graph. The weights are obtained according to the importance of the data in the visibility graph. Finally, the VGA operator is used in the analysis of the TAIEX database to illustrate that it is practical and compared with the classic aggregation operators, it shows its advantage that it not only implements the aggregation of the data purely, but also conserves the time information. Meanwhile, the determination of the weights is more reasonable.

Chen, Shiyu; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

2014-06-01

341

Pleasing the Masses: Messages for Daily Life Management in African American Women's Popular Media Sources  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the “strong Black woman” (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Methods. Using the search term “strong Black woman,” we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Results. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management (“please the masses”), emotional suppression (“game face”), and postponement of self-care (“last on the list”) incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Conclusions. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources.

Peacock, Nadine

2011-01-01

342

Screening, evaluation and management of depression in people with diabetes in primary care.  

PubMed

Family physicians are responsible for diagnosing and treating the majority of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression. As a result of the impact of co-morbid depression on patient self-care and treatment outcomes, screening for depression in the context of a structured approach to case management and patient follow up is recommended in people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the need for improved recognition and treatment of depression in diabetes; and makes expert recommendations with regard to integrating screening tools and therapies into a busy family or general medical practice setting. PMID:23280258

Hermanns, Norbert; Caputo, Salvatore; Dzida, Grzegorz; Khunti, Kamlesh; Meneghini, Luigi F; Snoek, Frank

2013-04-01

343

Current usefulness of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram.  

PubMed

Signal-averaged electrocardiography is a relatively simple, noninvasive technique by which valuable information can be gained to help in the management of patients with cardiovascular disease. The presence of late potentials on the SAECG is a good marker for the presence of an arrhythmogenic substrate that is believed to be the source of ventricular tachycardia in patients with coronary artery disease. The value of the detection of late potentials has been studied best after myocardial infarction, when the absence of late potentials makes the occurrence of an arrhythmic event very unlikely. The positive predictive value for an arrhythmic event to occur in the presence of late potentials is low, however, comparable to the predictive value of decreased left ventricular function, complex ventricular ectopy, or abnormal autonomic tone. This appears to have its explanation in the complex pathophysiology behind the occurrence of arrhythmic events. Improved accuracy for the SAECG is achieved when the result of the test is interpreted with consideration of the presence or absence of other predictive markers. A thorough understanding of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram makes optimal clinical use of the information gained from this easily acquired test possible. PMID:8348835

Kjellgren, O; Gomes, J A

1993-06-01

344

Rheumatoid Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... vertebrae to prevent slippage of the vertebrae. Self-Care Rheumatoid arthritis cannot be cured but it can be managed through medications and self-care. The following are important self-care tips: Exercise ...

345

Flux-Averaged and Volume-Averaged Concentrations in Continuum Approaches to Solute Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformations between volume-averaged pore fluid concentrations and flux-averaged concentrations are presented which show that both modes of concentration obey convective-dispersive transport equations of identical mathematical form for nonreactive solutes. The pertinent boundary conditions for the two modes, however, do not transform identically. Solutions of the convection-dispersion equation for a semi-infinite system during steady flow subject to a first-type inlet boundary condition is shown to yield flux concentrations, while solutions subject to a third-type boundary condition yield volume-averaged concentrations. These solutions may be applied with reasonable impunity to finite as well as semi-infinite media if back mixing at the exit is precluded. Implications of the distinction between resident and flux concentrations to laboratory and field studies of solute transport are discussed. It is suggested that perceived limitations of the convection-dispersion model for media with large variations in pore water velocities may in certain cases be attributable to a failure to distinguish between volume-averaged and flux-averaged concentrations.

Parker, J. C.; van Genuchten, M. Th.

1984-07-01

346

Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite  

SciTech Connect

The average structure of the monoclinic modification of lazurite Ca{sub 1.26}Na{sub 6.63}K{sub 0.04}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](SO{sub 4}){sub 1.53}S{sub 0.99}Cl{sub 0.05} (discovered in the Lake Baikal region) incommensurately modulated along the c axis is solved by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.069(1) A, b = 12.868(1) A, c = 12.872(1) A, {gamma} = 90.19(1) deg., sp. gr. Pa, R = 6.9%, 2057 reflections. The AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a partially ordered framework. The positions in the cavities of the framework are split and randomly occupied by Na and Ca atoms and the SO{sub 4}, S{sub 2}, S{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} anionic groups. The structure of the mineral is compared with the superstructure of triclinic lazurite. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of the incommensurate modulation in monoclinic and other lazurites.

Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru; Sapozhnikov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2006-07-15

347

Averaging and globalising quotients of informetric and scientometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the particular case of the average impact factor of a subfield versus the impact factor of this subfield as a whole, the difference is studied between an average of quotients, denoted as AQ, and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages, and denoted as GQ. In the case of impact factors, AQ becomes the average impact

Leo Egghe; Ronald Rousseau

1996-01-01

348

Pain management in ambulatory surgery-a review.  

PubMed

Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional ?-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3-5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures. PMID:25061796

Jakobsson, Jan G

2014-01-01

349

Patient Perspectives on Fluid Management in Chronic Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the perspectives and experiences of chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients regarding self-care and adherence to fluid restrictions. Design Semi-structured focus groups. Setting Two outpatient hemodialysis centers. Participants 19 patients on chronic hemodialysis. Intervention Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to encourage discussion about the management of fluid restriction within the broad categories of general knowledge, knowledge sources or barriers, beliefs and attitudes, self-efficacy, emotion, and self-care skills. Main outcome measure We analyzed session transcripts using the theoretical framework of content analysis to identify themes generated by the patients. Results Patients discussed both facilitators and barriers to fluid restriction which we categorized into 6 themes: knowledge, self-assessment, psychological factors, social, physical, and environmental. Psychological factors were the most common barriers to fluid restriction adherence, predominantly involving lack of motivation. Knowledge was the most discussed facilitator with accurate self-assessment, positive psychological factors, and supportive social contacts also playing a role. Dialysis providers were most commonly described as the source of dialysis information (54%), but learning through personal experience was also frequently noted (28%). Conclusion Interventions to improve fluid restriction adherence of chronic hemodialysis patients should target motivational issues, assess and improve patient knowledge, augment social support, and facilitate accurate self-assessment of fluid status.

Smith, Kimberly; Coston, Melinda; Glock, Kimberly; Elasy, Tom A.; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.

2009-01-01

350

Relation of Poisson's ratio on average with Young's modulus. Auxetics on average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear relation between the Poisson's ratio averaged along the transverse directions and Young's modulus of the tensed cubic crystal is established. It is found that the coefficients of the linear relation in the dimensionless form depend on two dimensionless elastic parameters combined from three compliance coefficients. By virtue of this fact, the form of angular regions of the crystal orientation with negative Poisson's ratio on average varies as the magnitude of one dimensionless coefficient and the sign of the other one. We find the critical value of the dimensionless parameter at which there is the topological change in the structure of the angular regions occurs is established.

Goldstein, R. V.; Gorodtsov, V. A.; Lisovenko, D. S.

2012-04-01

351

Optimal estimation of the diffusion coefficient from non-averaged and averaged noisy magnitude data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude operation changes the signal distribution in MRI images from Gaussian to Rician. This introduces a bias that must be taken into account when estimating the apparent diffusion coefficient. Several estimators are known in the literature. In the present paper, two novel schemes are proposed. Both are based on simple least squares fitting of the measured signal, either to the median (MD) or to the maximum probability (MP) value of the Probability Density Function (PDF). Fitting to the mean (MN) or a high signal-to-noise ratio approximation to the mean (HS) is also possible. Special attention is paid to the case of averaged magnitude images. The PDF, which cannot be expressed in closed form, is analyzed numerically. A scheme for performing maximum likelihood (ML) estimation from averaged magnitude images is proposed. The performance of several estimators is evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We focus on typical clinical situations, where the number of acquisitions is limited. For non-averaged data the optimal choice is found to be MP or HS, whereas uncorrected schemes and the power image (PI) method should be avoided. For averaged data MD and ML perform equally well, whereas uncorrected schemes and HS are inadequate. MD provides easier implementation and higher computational efficiency than ML. Unbiased estimation of the diffusion coefficient allows high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and may therefore help solving the problem of crossing fibers encountered in white matter tractography.

Kristoffersen, Anders

2007-08-01

352

How Does the Supply Requisitioning Process Affect Average Customer Wait Time Onboard U.S. Navy Destroyers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy's current inventory and requisition management procedures for issuing repair parts onboard ships have remained relatively unchanged for decades. As a result of current practices, many ships are experiencing higher average customer wait times (ACW...

A. Phillips P. R. Saucedo

2013-01-01

353

To quantum averages through asymptotic expansion of classical averages on infinite-dimensional space  

SciTech Connect

We study asymptotic expansions of Gaussian integrals of analytic functionals on infinite-dimensional spaces (Hilbert and nuclear Frechet). We obtain an asymptotic equality coupling the Gaussian integral and the trace of the composition of scaling of the covariation operator of a Gaussian measure and the second (Frechet) derivative of a functional. In this way we couple classical average (given by an infinite-dimensional Gaussian integral) and quantum average (given by the von Neumann trace formula). We can interpret this mathematical construction as a procedure of 'dequantization' of quantum mechanics. We represent quantum mechanics as an asymptotic projection of classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. This space can be represented as the space of classical fields, so quantum mechanics is represented as a projection of 'prequantum classical statistical field theory'.

Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, University of Vaexjoe, Vaexjoe S-35195 (Sweden)

2007-01-15

354

Scaling of average weighted shortest path and average receiving time on weighted hierarchical networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work on the networks has focused on the weighted hierarchical networks that are significantly different from the un-weighted hierarchical networks. In this paper we study a family of weighted hierarchical networks which are recursively defined from an initial uncompleted graph, in which the weights of edges have been assigned to different values with certain scale. Firstly, we study analytically the average weighted shortest path (AWSP) on the weighted hierarchical networks. Using a recursive method, we determine explicitly the AWSP. The obtained rigorous solution shows that the networks grow unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded. Then, depending on a biased random walk, we research the mean first-passage time (MFPT) between a hub node and any peripheral node. Finally, we deduce the analytical expression of the average of MFPTs for a random walker originating from any node to first visit to a hub node, which is named as the average receiving time (ART). The obtained result shows that ART is bounded or grows sublinearly with the network order relating to the number of initial nodes and the weighted factor or grows quadratically with the iteration.

Sun, Yu; Dai, Meifeng; Xi, Lifeng

355

Symbolic analysis methods for averaged modeling of switching power converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic analysis methods for the averaged modeling of switching power converters are presented in this paper. A general averaging method suitable for computer-aided modeling is discussed first. Then, a symbolic analysis package that uses this averaging method to automatically generate an analytical averaged model for a switching power converter is described. The package is implemented using the computer algebra system

Jian Sun; Horst Grotstollen

1997-01-01

356

Extensions of averaging theory for power electronic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends averaging theory for power electronic systems to include feedback controlled converters. New averaging techniques based on the integral equation description provide theoretical justification for commonly used averaging methods. The new theory provides a basis for answering fundamental questions about the averaging approximation. A ripple estimate expression is presented, along with the simulation results for a feedback controlled

Brad Lehman; Richard M. Bass

1996-01-01

357

Fuel Economy Standards, New Vehicle Sales, and Average Fuel Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average fuel efficiency of new automobiles sold in the United States increased substantially from 1975 to 1981. This trend stagnated in 1981, however, and average fuel efficiency has actually fallen since 1987. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards—the major policy tool in the United States directed at improving fuel efficiency—may have contributed to the stagnation and decline of average

Steven G. Thorpe

1997-01-01

358

Application of the Navy Average Grade Model to the Naval Underwater Systems Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forecasts for manpower requirements by NUSC for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 were made using a linear regression model of the goal programming variety. An application of one of the Charnes, Cooper, Niehaus career management models for manpower planning was then made to evaluate the consequences of the policy reducing average GS grade to 9.35 while…

Mannis, Laurence S.

359

An efficient fuzzy weighted average algorithm for the military UAV selecting under group decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuzzy weighted average (FWA), which is a function of fuzzy numbers and is useful as an aggregation method in engineering or management science based on fuzzy sets theory. It provides a discrete approximate solution by ?-cuts level representation of fuzzy sets and interval analysis. Since the FWA method has an exponential complexity, thus several researches have focused on reducing

Kuo-Ping Lin; Kuo-Chen Hung

2011-01-01

360

Enhancement of Fuzzy Weighted Average and Application to Military UAV Selected under Group Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuzzy weighted average (FWA), which is a function of fuzzy numbers and is useful as an aggregation method in management and engineering science based on fuzzy sets theory by Zadeh. It provides a discrete approximate solution by ¿-cuts level representation of fuzzy sets and interval analysis. Since the FWA method has an exponential complexity, thus several researches have focused

Kuo-Chen Hung; Kuo-Ping Lin; Michael Yin

2009-01-01

361

Using NDVI to assess departure from average greenness and its relation to fire business. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Satellite-derived vegetation greenness maps of the contiguous United States have been available to fire managers since 1989. This report describes a new map, departure from average, which is designed to compare current-year vegetation greenness to average greenness for the same time of year and describes it relationship to fire business.

Burgan, R.E.; Hartford, R.A.; Eidenshink, J.C.

1996-04-01

362

Estimation of average diagnosis and treatment costs of hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Aim The objective of this study was to estimate the average cost of diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C among patients based on their treatment regime, during the one course of treatment and six-month after stopping that. Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide and a major public health problem. Patients and methods All data for this cross-sectional study were collected from medical records of 200 patients with hepatitis C, who referred to a private gastroenterology clinic between years 2005 through 2009. Information related to the 200 patients was extracted from their medical records and finally, 77 patients of them, who their treatment was not interfering with any other disease entered in this study. Therefore diagnosis and treatment costs of these patients were calculated. Attributable costs were reported as purchasing power parity dollars (PPP$). Results Mean costs of diagnosis and treatment in one course of treatment and six month after that with standard interferon plus ribavirin (INF-RBV) exceeds 3,850 PPP$ and for patients who treated with peg-interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-RIBV) was 16,494 PPP$. Also in both types of treatment, medication cost was found to be a dominant cost component. Conclusion Hepatitis C represents a very important and potentially costly disease to managed care organizations. Patients with this disease require expensive drug therapies and consume significant health care resources.

Ashtari, Sara; Vahedi, Mohsen; Pourhoseingholi, Asma; Safaee, Azadeh; Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

363

Reach-averaged sediment routing model of a canyon river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial complexity in channel geometry indicates that accurate prediction of sediment transport requires modeling in at least two dimensions. However, a one-dimensional model may be the only practical or possible alternative, especially for longer river reaches of practical concern in river management or landscape modeling. We have developed a one-dimensional model of the Colorado River through upper Grand Canyon that addresses this problem by reach averaging the channel properties and predicting changes in sand storage using separate source and sink functions coupled to the sand routing model. The model incorporates results from the application of a two-dimensional model of flow, sand transport, and bed evolution, and a new algorithm for setting the near-bed sand boundary condition for sand transported over an exposed bouldery bed. Model predictions were compared to measurements of sand discharge during intermittent tributary inputs and varying discharges controlled by dam releases. The model predictions generally agree well with the timing and magnitude of measured sand discharges but tend to overpredict sand discharge during the early stages of a high release designed to redistribute sand to higher-elevation deposits.

Wiele, S. M.; Wilcock, P. R.; Grams, P. E.

2007-01-01

364

Real-time instrument averages 100 data sets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument generates average curve of 100 consecutive cycles of any function that occurs as time varying electrical signal. Device has been used to average parameters on 1975 Chevrolet V-8 engine, and on Continental six cylinder aircraft engine.

Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.; Toma, G. B.

1979-01-01

365

78 FR 49770 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2012 was $27,003...average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2012 was...

2013-08-15

366

[Using the health literacy concept to promote self-management in a chronic kidney disease patient].  

PubMed

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) must learn and use self-management skills to control their disease and delay disease progression. Comprehension of instructions is thus critical to integrating self-management principles into daily life. In this case report, the client had difficulty implementing the behavioral changes necessary to control diet and blood sugar due to the lack of proper and sufficient information. The authors applied health literacy concepts to assess the client's knowledge and skills related to disease control and then provided health teaching at a level appropriate to the client's health literacy level. This individualized care enhanced the client's confidence and motivation to implement self-care activities. Healthcare professionals should help patients overcome barriers to reading and verbal communication to help low-health-literacy patients successfully self-manage their chronic disease. Clients may thus learn to report their symptoms clearly and accurately. PMID:24519350

Sun, Jia-Hui; Lin, Chiu-Chu

2014-02-01

367

27 CFR 19.37 - Average effective tax rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...19.37 Average effective tax rate. (a) The proprietor may establish an average effective tax rate for any eligible...whole or in part, for domestic consumption. At the beginning of each...recompute the average effective tax rate so as to include...

2010-04-01

368

Averaging in SU(2) open quantum random walk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the average position and the symmetry of the distribution in the SU(2) open quantum random walk (OQRW). We show that the average position in the central limit theorem (CLT) is non-uniform compared with the average position in the non-CLT. The symmetry of distribution is shown to be even in the CLT.

Clement, Ampadu

2014-03-01

369

Averaging and Globalising Quotients of Informetric and Scientometric Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of impact factors for "Journal Citation Reports" subject categories focuses on the difference between an average of quotients and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages. Applications in the context of informetrics and scientometrics are given, including journal prices and subject discipline influence scores. (Author/LRW)

Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

1996-01-01

370

Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Autoregressive Coefficients and Moving Average Covariances of Vector Autoregressive Moving Average Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to derive asymptotically efficient estimates for the autoregressive matrix coefficients and moving average covariance matrices of the vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) models in both time and frequency domains. To d...

F. Ahrabi

1979-01-01

371

Lee-Yang Theorems and the Complexity of Computing Averages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the complexity of computing average quantities related to spin systems, such as the mean magnetization and susceptibility in the ferromagnetic Ising model, and the average dimer count (or average size of a matching) in the monomer-dimer model. By establishing connections between the complexity of computing these averages and the location of the complex zeros of the partition function, we show that these averages are #P-hard to compute, and hence, under standard assumptions, computationally intractable. In the case of the Ising model, our approach requires us to prove an extension of the famous Lee-Yang Theorem from the 1950s.

Sinclair, Alistair; Srivastava, Piyush

2014-05-01

372

Home Monitoring for Heart Failure Management  

PubMed Central

With a prevalence of 5.8 million in the United States alone, heart failure (HF) is a common syndrome associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and health-care expenditures. Close to 1 million HF hospitalizations occur annually in the United States, with the majority of these resulting from worsening congestion in patients previously diagnosed with HF. An estimated 37.2 billion dollars is spent each year on HF in the United States. These statistics emphasize the need to develop and implement more effective strategies to assess, monitor, and treat HF. It has also become increasingly apparent that interventions geared towards identifying and monitoring sub-clinical congestion would be of value in the home management of chronic HF. Earlier identification and treatment of congestion together with improved care coordination, management of comorbid conditions, and enhanced patient self-management may help to prevent hospitalizations in patients with chronic HF. Such home monitoring extends from the promotion of self-care and home visitations, to telemedicine and remote monitoring of external or implantable devices. This paper will discuss the challenges in monitoring patients with HF, review clinical trials testing different monitoring strategies in HF, and highlight ongoing investigations into the optimal approaches to home monitoring for HF.

Bui, Anh L.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

2011-01-01

373

Calculating High Speed Centrifugal Compressor Performance from Averaged Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the understanding of high performance centrifugal compressors found in modern aircraft engines, the aerodynamics through these machines must be experimentally studied. To accurately capture the complex flow phenomena through these devices, research facilities that can accurately simulate these flows are necessary. One such facility has been recently developed, and it is used in this paper to explore the effects of averaging total pressure and total temperature measurements to calculate compressor performance. Different averaging techniques (including area averaging, mass averaging, and work averaging) have been applied to the data. Results show that there is a negligible difference in both the calculated total pressure ratio and efficiency for the different techniques employed. However, the uncertainty in the performance parameters calculated with the different averaging techniques is significantly different, with area averaging providing the least uncertainty.

Lou, Fangyuan; Fleming, Ryan; Key, Nicole L.

2012-12-01

374

40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average and corporate...

2013-07-01

375

DRAGON/OPTEX predictions of channel power peaking factors and average exit burnup in CANDU-6  

SciTech Connect

The lattice code DRAGON has been under development at Ecole Polytechnique for several years. Features of the code and its application to the analysis of Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor cells and supercells are discussed in companion papers. Different homogenization techniques are used to generate the two-group macroscopic cross sections required for reactor calculations. To test the significance of the various improvements or modifications to the lattice code or to its input microscopic cross-section library, simplified benchmark reactor calculations can be carried out with a diffusion code such as TRIVAC-2. The on-line refueling feature of the CANDU reactor introduces characteristic fuel management effects that influence the flux and power distributions in the reactor and determines the fuel performance. A simplified yet demanding benchmark procedure was introduced to calculate time-average power distributions, power peaking factors, device reactivity worth, and average exit burnup, which characterize a given fuel management strategy.

Rozon, D.; Varin, R.E. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada)

1995-12-31

376

Diabetes control with reciprocal peer support versus nurse care management: A randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Many health care systems face barriers to implementing resource-intensive care management programs for patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Mobilizing patients to provide reciprocal peer support may enhance care management and improve clinical outcomes. Objective To compare the effectiveness of a reciprocal diabetes peer support program (RPS) with nurse care management (NCM) in improving glycemic control in real-world clinical settings. Design Six-month parallel randomized controlled effectiveness study from 2007–2010 (Trial Registration NCT00320112) Setting Two U.S. Veterans’Affairs (VA) health care facilities Participants 244 male diabetes patients with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the prior 6 months of 7.5% or more. Primary Funding Source VA Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) Measurements The primary outcome was change in HbA1c between baseline and six months. Secondary outcomes were new insulin starts and intensification, blood pressure, diabetes-specific social support, emotional distress, and medication adherence. Intervention Participants in both arms attended an initial session led by a nurse care manager to review and discuss their point-of-service HbA1c and blood pressure values, and most recent medical record cholesterol values. RPS patients then participated in a group session to set diabetes-related behavioral goals, receive brief training in peer communication skills, and be paired with another age-matched participant. Paired peer partners were encouraged to talk weekly using a telephone platform that recorded call frequency and duration and provided automated reminders promoting peer contact. Intervention participants were also offered three optional 1.5 hour patient-driven group sessions at months 1, 3, and 6 to share concerns, questions, strategies, and progress on goals. Patients in the NCM arm attended a 1.5 hour session to receive education on care manager services and diabetes educational materials and be assigned to a nurse care manager with whom they were encouraged to follow up regularly. Results Of the 244 patients enrolled, at six months 216 (89%) completed the HbA1c and 231 (95%) the survey assessments. RPS participants had a mean HbA1c of 8.02% at baseline, which improved to 7.73% at six months (?0.29%) compared with an average increase in HbA1c among NCM participants (7.93 to 8.22 [SD 0.29]). The difference between groups was 0.58% (p=0.004). Among patients with a baseline HbA1c >8.0%, RPS participants had a mean decrease of 0.88% compared with a 0.07% decrease among NCM participants (p<0.001). Eight RPS patients started insulin compared to one NCM patient (p=0.02), and RPS participants reported greater increases in diabetes social support than NCM participants (+11.4 vs. +4.5, p=0.01). There were no differences between groups at follow-up in blood pressure, self-reported medication adherence, or diabetes-specific distress. Limitations The study was limited to male veterans. It will be important to replicate this study in gender-mixed samples of patients who share the same chronic condition and other shared characteristics (e.g., religion, ethnicity, culture) in different settings. Conclusions Participants in the reciprocal peer support intervention had improved HbA1c levels, insulin starts, and diabetes-specific support after six months compared to usual nurse care management. Peer-based models are effective in bridging service gaps while increasing the quality and quantitity of self-care support.

Heisler, Michele; Vijan, Sandeep; Makki, Fatima; Piette, John D.

2014-01-01

377

An improved model averaging scheme for logistic regression  

PubMed Central

Recently, penalized regression methods have attracted much attention in the statistical literature. In this article, we argue that such methods can be improved for the purposes of prediction by utilizing model averaging ideas. We propose a new algorithm that combines penalized regression with model averaging for improved prediction. We also discuss the issue of model selection versus model averaging and propose a diagnostic based on the notion of generalized degrees of freedom. The proposed methods are studied using both simulated and real data.

YUAN, Z.

2009-01-01

378

Simplified intersubject averaging on the cortical surface using SUMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Task and group comparisons in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are often accomplished through the creation of intersubject average activation maps. Compared with traditional volume-based intersubject averages, averages made using computational models of the cortical surface have the potential to increase statistical power because they reduce intersubject variability in cortical folding patterns. We describe a two-step method for creating

Brenna D. Argall; Ziad S. Saad; Michael S. Beauchamp

2006-01-01

379

On Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages and nonextensive entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By replacing linear averaging in Shannon entropy with Kolmogorov-Nagumo average (KN-average) or quasilinear mean and further imposing the additivity constraint, Re?nyi proposed the first formal generalization of Shannon entropy. Using this recipe of Re?nyi, one can prepare only two information measures: Shannon and Re?nyi entropy. Indeed, using this formalism Re?nyi characterized these additive entropies in terms of axioms of quasilinear

Ambedkar Dukkipati

2010-01-01

380

An Excel macro for transformed and weighted averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Excel macro is presented for averaging spreadsheet data. The macro has several special features: (1) The data are weighted\\u000a by the inverse variance of each datum to decrease the contribution-of noisy outliers. (2) There is a provision for a power\\u000a or a log transform of the data before averaging. The rationale for transforming the data before averaging is discussed

Stanley A. Klein

1992-01-01

381

Fiber-optic large area average temperature sensor  

SciTech Connect

In many instances the desired temperature measurement is only the spatial average temperature over a large area; eg. ground truth calibration for satellite imaging system, or average temperature of a farm field. By making an accurate measurement of the optical length of a long fiber-optic cable, we can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and hence the temperature of the material in contact with it.

Looney, L.L.; Forman, P.R.

1994-05-01

382

An average interstellar extinction curve for the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LMC regions located more than 0.5 deg from the center of the 30 Doradus nebula have an average UV extinction curve that is about 2 units higher in the far UV than the average Galactic curve. Within the 30 Doradus region, the normalized far-UV extinction is much steeper than the average Galactic or average LMC curves, yet has been considered to be representative of the LMC in general in the past. The present results show typical LMC extinction properties to have much more in common with those in the Milky Way.

Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

1986-01-01

383

A feasibility study of mobile phone text messaging to support education and management of type 2 diabetes in iraq.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: We undertook a feasibility study to evaluate feasibility and utility of short message services (SMSs) to support Iraqi adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Fifty patients from a teaching hospital clinic in Basrah in the first year after diagnosis were recruited to receive weekly SMSs relating to diabetes self-management over 29 weeks. Numbers of messages received, acceptability, cost, effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diabetes knowledge were documented. Results: Forty-two patients completed the study, receiving an average 22 of 28 messages. Mean knowledge score rose from 8.6 (SD 1.5) at baseline to 9.9 (SD 1.4) 6 months after receipt of SMSs (P=0.002). Baseline and 6-month knowledge scores correlated (r=0.297, P=0.049). Mean baseline HbA1c was 79?mmol/mol (SD 14?mmol/mol) (9.3% [SD 1.3%]) and decreased to 70?mmol/mol (SD 13?mmol/mol) (8.6% [SD 1.2%]) (P=0.001) 6 months after the SMS intervention. Baseline and 6-month values were correlated (r=0.898, P=0.001). Age, gender, and educational level showed no association with changes in HbA1c or knowledge score. Changes in knowledge score were correlated with postintervention HbA1c (r=-0.341, P=0.027). All patients were satisfied with text messages and wished the service to be continued after the study. The cost of SMSs was €0.065 per message. Conclusions: This study demonstrates SMSs are acceptable, cost-effective, and feasible in supporting diabetes care in the challenging, resource-poor environment of modern-day Iraq. This study is the first in Iraq to demonstrate similar benefits of this technology on diabetes education and management to those seen from its use in better-resourced parts of the world. A randomized controlled trial is needed to assess precise benefits on self-care and knowledge. PMID:24502284

Haddad, Nazar S; Istepanian, Robert; Philip, Nada; Khazaal, Faris A K; Hamdan, Thamer A; Pickles, Timothy; Amso, Nazar; Gregory, John W

2014-07-01

384

Chasing trends: recursive moving average trading rules and internet stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent rise and fall of Internet stock prices has led to popular impressions of a speculative bubble in the Internet sector. We investigate whether investors could have exploited the momentum in Internet stocks using simple moving average (MA) trading rules. We simulate real time technical trading using a recursive trading strategy applied to over 800 moving average rules. Statistical

Wai Mun Fong; Lawrence H. M. Yong

2005-01-01

385

42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MA-PD plans included in the national average bid a weight based...assigned zero weight). (c) Geographic adjustment. (1) Upon...appropriate methodology, the national average monthly bid amount...2) CMS does not apply any geographic adjustments if CMS...

2013-10-01

386

Five-Year Average Global Temperature Anomalies 1880 - 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color-coded map displays a progression of changing five-year average global surface temperatures anomalies from 1880 through 2010. The final frame represents global temperature anomalies averaged from 2006 to 2010. The temperature anomalies are computed relative to the base period 1951-1980.

Schmunk, Robert B.; Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, Mki; Lo, K.; Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

387

Investigating Smooth Multiple Regression by the Method of Average Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let (x1, …, xk, y) be a random vector where y denotes a response on the vector x of predictor variables. In this article we propose a technique [termed average derivative estimation (ADE)] for studying the mean response m(x) = E(y | x) through the estimation of the k vector of average derivatives ? = E(m?). The ADE procedure involves

Wolfgang Härdle; Thomas M. Stoker

1989-01-01

388

Phase averaging of image ensembles by using cepstral gradients  

SciTech Connect

The direct Fourier phase averaging of an ensemble of randomly blurred images has long been thought to be too difficult a problem to undertake realistically owing to the necessity of proper phase unwrapping. It is shown that it is nevertheless possible to average the Fourier phase information in an image ensemble without calculating phases by using the technique of cepstral gradients.

Swan, H.W.

1983-11-01

389

78 FR 16711 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2011 was $26,163. DATES...average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2011 was $26,163....

2013-03-18

390

76 FR 57081 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2010 was $25,838. DATES...average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2010 was $25,838....

2011-09-15

391

76 FR 6161 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2009 was $24,758. DATES...average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2009 was $24,758....

2011-02-03

392

High average power excimer laser-pumped dye oscillators  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction, and testing of a high-average-power excimer laser-pumped dye oscillator is described. The system is designed to produce up to 75 watts of average power in the near uv at a pulse repetition rate of 500 Hz. 8 figs.

Tennant, R.A.; Whitehead, M.C.; Tallman, C.R.; Basinger, R.W.

1988-01-01

393

Measurement of the average lifetime of b hadrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average lifetime of b hadrons has been measured using the L3 detector at LEP, running at &surd;s ~ MZ. A b-enriched sample was obtained from 432538 hadronic Z events collected in 1990 and 1991 by tagging electrons and muons from semileptonic b hadron decays. From maximum likelihood fits to the electron and muon impact parameter distributions, the average b

O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S. P. Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; Q. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; T. Angelescu; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; A G Atamanchuk; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; J. Bao; R. Barillère; L. Barone; A. Baschirotto; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; J. Bechtluft; R. Becker; U. Becker; F. Behner; J. Behrens; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; A. Biland; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; Gerjan J Bobbink; R K Böck; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; M. Bosetti; D. Bourilkov; Maurice Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B T Bouwens; Elena Brambilla; J. G. Branson; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; A T Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; J K Busenitz; A O Buytenhuijs; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; M. Caria; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; R. Castello; M Cerrada-Canales; F. Cesaroni; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; W. Y. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. T. Choi; S. Chung; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; A. Contin; S. Costantini; F. Cotorobai; X. T. Cui; X. Y. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; R. de Asmundis; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; M. Dhina; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; M. Ditmarr; L. Djambazov; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Easo; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; F. C. Erné; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; S. J. Fan; O. Fackler; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; W. Friebel; M. Fukushima; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; D. Gele; S. Gentile; N. Gheordanescu; S Goldfarb; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; M. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; J. K. Guo; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; K. Hangarter; B. Hartmann; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; C. F. He; J. T. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H Hoorani; G Q Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; S. Jezequel; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; I. Josa-Mutuberria; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; S. C. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; R. Klöckner; A. C. König; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kramer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; A. Krivshich; H. Kuijten; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; A. Lebedev; P Lecomte; P. Lecoq; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; J. S. Lee; K. Y. Lee; I. Leedom; C. Leggett; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; C. Li; H. T. Li; P. J. Li; J. Y. Liao; W. T. Lin; Z. Y. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; J. M. Ma; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; M. Maolinbay; P. Marchesini; F. Marion; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; L. Martinez-Laso; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McMahon; D. McNally; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; A. Mihul; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; A. Nadtochy; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; C. Neyer; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G. Organtini; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; J. Perrier; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; P. A. Piroué; F. Plasil; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; Z. D. Qi; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; B. C. Riemers; K. Riles; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; S. Ro; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; M. Sachwitz; J M Salicio; G. S. Sanders; A. Santocchia; M. S. Sarakinos; G. Sartorelli; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; V. Schegelsky; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; H. J. Schreiber; J. Shukla; R. Schulte; S. Schulte; K. Schultze; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; I. Scott; R. Sehgal; P. G. Seiler; J. C. Sens; L. Servoli; I. Sheer; D. Z. Shen; S. Shevchenko; X. R. Shi; E. Shumilov; V. Shoutko

1993-01-01

394

A Batting Average: Does It Represent Ability or Luck?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Bickel and Stotz (2003) explored differences in players' batting average (AVG) over pitch count, and noted that many people misinterpreted the drop in batting average when there was two strikes. Stotz (2004) decomposes AVG as a product of two terms, the rate of not striking out, and an \\

Jim Albert

2004-01-01

395

Control Chart Tests Based on Geometric Moving Averages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geometrical moving average gives the most recent observation the greatest weight, and all previous observations weights decreasing in geometric progression from the most recent back to the first. A graphical procedure for generating geometric moving averages is described in which the most recent observation is assigned a weight r. The properties of control chart tests based on geometric moving

S. W. Roberts

1959-01-01

396

A Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate extension of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart is presented, and guidelines given for designing this easy-to-implement multivariate procedure. A comparison shows that the average run length (ARL) performance of this chart is similar to that of multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts in detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution.

Cynthia A. Lowry; William H. Woodall; Charles W. Champ; Steven E. Rigdon

1992-01-01

397

Delineating the Average Rate of Change in Longitudinal Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The average rate of change is a concept that has been misunderstood in the literature. This article attempts to clarify the concept and show unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of the average rate of change in longitudinal models. The slope from the straight-line change model has at times been interpreted as if it were always the…

Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.

2008-01-01

398

Determining Average Program Execution Times and their Variance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general framework for determining average program execution times and their variance, based on the program's interval structure and control dependence graph. Average execution times and variance values are computed using frequency information from an optimized counter-based execution profile of the program. 1 Introduction It is important for a compiler to obtain estimates of execution times for

Vivek Sarkar

1989-01-01

399

40 CFR 60.2943 - hour arithmetic averages into the  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Incineration] [Sec. 60.2943 How Do I Convert My 1 - hour arithmetic averages into the...2943 Sec. 60.2943 How do I convert my 1 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL...Incineration Sec. 60.2943 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the...

2009-07-01

400

40 CFR 60.1265 - hour arithmetic averages into the  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waste] [Sec. 60.1265 How Do I Convert My 1 - hour arithmetic averages into the...1265 Sec. 60.1265 How do I convert my 1 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL...Waste Sec. 60.1265 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the...

2009-07-01

401

40 CFR 60.3042 - hour arithmetic averages into the  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Solid] [Sec. 60.3042 How Do I Convert My 1 - hour arithmetic averages into the...3042 Sec. 60.3042 How do I convert my 1 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL...Solid Sec. 60.3042 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the...

2009-07-01

402

40 CFR 60.1755 - hour arithmetic averages into appropriate  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Small] [Sec. 60.1755 How Do I Convert My 1 - hour arithmetic averages into appropriate...1755 Sec. 60.1755 How do I convert my 1 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL...Small Sec. 60.1755 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into...

2009-07-01

403

Some Statistical Characteristics of a Peak to Average Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peak to average ratio is a measure used in engineering design. Peak refers TV the greatest observation of a population or sample and average refers to one of the familiar measures of central tendency. The density function of the peak to median ratio is derived in general for non-negative variates using applicable order statistics techniques. It is then derived

Milton Morrison; Filbert Tobias

1965-01-01

404

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Outgoing Longwave Radiation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Bridgman, Tom; Wielicki, Bruce; Wong, Takmeng; Barkstrom, Bruce

2001-06-20

405

Strategies for managing behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type: a systematic overview.  

PubMed

The purpose of this systematic overview was to summarize research findings on strategies for managing the behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. A search of the published and unpublished literature resulted in 265 articles, 45 of which were judged to be relevant. Using validity criteria, 1 article was judged to be strong, 6 moderate, 20 weak, and 18 poor. Strategies such as planned walking, pet therapy, an attention-focusing program, functional skills training, music, and visual barriers demonstrated promising results in improving: (a) aggressive, agitated, and disruptive behaviours, (b) social interaction, (c) self-care ability, (d) day-night disturbances, or (e) wandering. The findings indicate that there is existing research, although in its infancy, to support the use of strategies for managing the behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. PMID:9807289

Forbes, D A

1998-01-01

406

Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?  

SciTech Connect

Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-06-17

407

LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner full orbit data averages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Averages taken over full orbit data spans of the pitch and roll residual measurement errors of the two conical Earth sensors operating on the LANDSAT 4 spacecraft are described. The variability of these full orbit averages over representative data throughtout the year is analyzed to demonstrate the long term stability of the sensor measurements. The data analyzed consist of 23 segments of sensor measurements made at 2 to 4 week intervals. Each segment is roughly 24 hours in length. The variation of full orbit average as a function of orbit within a day as a function of day of year is examined. The dependence on day of year is based on association the start date of each segment with the mean full orbit average for the segment. The peak-to-peak and standard deviation values of the averages for each data segment are computed and their variation with day of year are also examined.

Stanley, J. P.; Bilanow, S.

1983-01-01

408

Managing Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes the skills necessary for managing resources, including planning, project management, budget management, information management, change management, and organizational performance assessment.

ITU Leadership Development (George Mason University)

2012-01-20

409

Effects of being uninsured on ethnic minorities' management of chronic illness  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effectiveness with which insured and uninsured persons with chronic illnesses managed their health care. Design Recruited volunteers diagnosed with a variety of chronic illnesses who underwent 3 semistructured interviews in a 1-year period. Setting Volunteers were recruited through referrals, flyers, and face-to-face contacts from community health clinics, senior centers, acute care hospitals, and home care services in 2 urban counties in California between December 1997 and December 2000. Participants A total of 297 persons between the ages of 23 and 97 years (35% African American, 33% Latino, and 32% Filipino American), of whom 42 (14%) had no health insurance. Main outcome measures Qualitative analysis of interview data compared insured and uninsured respondents on a series of components of chronic illness management, including control over illness, frequency of health crises, procuring medication, use of medication, understanding of the illness, knowledge of self-care measures, and awareness of risk factors. Whether respondents were under the care of a regular physician was also assessed. Results Compared with insured respondents, uninsured respondents were much less effective at managing their illnesses. The uninsured had poorly controlled illnesses, frequent health crises, difficulty procuring medication, used medication incorrectly, demonstrated poor understanding of their illness, and displayed little knowledge of self-care measures or risk awareness. They rarely had a regular physician or attended a specific health clinic. Conclusions The findings suggest that not only did uninsured persons with chronic health conditions lack adequate health care, their illnesses were also poorly controlled. Inadequately educated about their health, uninsured persons lacked the information, insight, and tools that would have allowed them to manage their illnesses more effectively.

Becker, Gay

2001-01-01

410

Structuring Collaboration in Mixed-Ability Groups to Promote Verbal Interaction, Learning, and Motivation of Average-Ability Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Average-ability students often do not take full advantage of learning in mixed-ability groups because they hardly engage in the group interaction. This study examined whether structuring collaboration by group roles and ground rules for helping behavior might help overcome this participatory inequality. In a plant biology course, heterogeneously…

Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, Ton de

2007-01-01

411

Comparison of the WISC-R and the Leiter International Performance Scale with Average and Above-Average Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) (WISC-R) and the Leiter International Performance Scale with 40 average and above average students. Results indicated a curvilinear relationship between the WISC-R and the Leiter, which correlates higher at the mean and deviates as the Full Scale varies from the mean. (JAC)

Mask, Nan; Bowen, Charles E.

1984-01-01

412

Precaution and Solar Radiation Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation management is a form of geoengineering that involves the intentional manipulation of solar radiation with the aim of reducing global average temperature. This paper explores what precaution implies about the status of solar radiation management. It is argued that any form of solar radiation management that poses threats of catastrophe cannot constitute an appropriate precautionary measure against another

Lauren Hartzell-Nichols

2012-01-01

413

Experimental demonstration of squeezed-state quantum averaging  

SciTech Connect

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement-induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean yields a lower value than the corresponding value obtained for the standard arithmetic-mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested for squeezed and thermal states as well as for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources. The harmonic-mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of squeezed-light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels.

Lassen, Mikael; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Sabuncu, Metin [Max-Planck-Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Filip, Radim [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17 Listopadu 50, CZ-772 07 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

2010-08-15

414

Thomson scattering in the average-atom approximation.  

PubMed

The average-atom model is applied to study Thomson scattering of x-rays from warm dense matter with emphasis on scattering by bound electrons. Parameters needed to evaluate the dynamic structure function (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave functions, and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The resulting analysis provides a relatively simple diagnostic for use in connection with x-ray scattering measurements. Applications are given to dense hydrogen, beryllium, aluminum, and titanium plasmas. In the case of titanium, bound states are predicted to modify the spectrum significantly. PMID:23031036

Johnson, W R; Nilsen, J; Cheng, K T

2012-09-01

415

Definition of average path and relativity parameter computation in CASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System CASA (computer-assisted semen analysis) is a medical applicable system which gets the sperm motility and its parameters using image processing method. But there is no any authoritative administration or academic organization gives a set of criterion for CASA now result in lowering the effective compare of work between the labs or researchers. The average path and parameters relative to it as average path velocity, amplitude of lateral head displacement and beat cross frequency are often unable to compare between systems because of different algorithm. The paper presents a new algorithm that could define the average path uniquely and compute those 3 parameters above quickly and handy from any real path.

Wu, Dawei; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xiaohua; Yu, Chang

2001-09-01

416

Sample Selected Averaging Method for Analyzing the Event Related Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The event related potential (ERP) is often measured through the oddball task. On the oddball task, subjects are given “rare stimulus” and “frequent stimulus”. Measured ERPs were analyzed by the averaging technique. In the results, amplitude of the ERP P300 becomes large when the “rare stimulus” is given. However, measured ERPs are included samples without an original feature of ERP. Thus, it is necessary to reject unsuitable measured ERPs when using the averaging technique. In this paper, we propose the rejection method for unsuitable measured ERPs for the averaging technique. Moreover, we combine the proposed method and Woody's adaptive filter method.

Taguchi, Akira; Ono, Youhei; Kimura, Tomoaki

417

Thomson scattering in the average-atom approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average-atom model is applied to study Thomson scattering of x-rays from warm dense matter with emphasis on scattering by bound electrons. Parameters needed to evaluate the dynamic structure function (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave functions, and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The resulting analysis provides a relatively simple diagnostic for use in connection with x-ray scattering measurements. Applications are given to dense hydrogen, beryllium, aluminum, and titanium plasmas. In the case of titanium, bound states are predicted to modify the spectrum significantly.

Johnson, W. R.; Nilsen, J.; Cheng, K. T.

2012-09-01

418

Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping.  

PubMed

Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ~10(7) 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels varied with averaging time. Mean sound pressure levels averaged in linear space, though susceptible to strong bias from outliers, are most relevant to cumulative impact assessment metrics. PMID:23039575

Merchant, Nathan D; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D Tom; Dorocicz, John

2012-10-01

419

Cascade of failures in interdependent networks with different average degree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of modern systems are coupled by two sub-networks and therefore should be modeled as interdependent networks. The study towards robustness of interdependent networks becomes interesting and significant. In this paper, mainly by numerical simulations, the robustness of interdependent Erdös-Rényi (ER) networks and interdependent scale-Free (SF) networks coupled by two sub-networks with different average degree are investigated. First, we study the robustness of interdependent networks under random attack. Second, we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes, and find that interdependent networks with different average degree are significantly different from those interdependent networks with equal average degree.

Cheng, Zunshui; Cao, Jinde; Hayat, Tasawar

2014-05-01

420

Stroboscopic averaging in Banach spaces: Application to NLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider general, highly-oscillatory evolution equations, posed in a Banach space (more precisely high- frequency systems, with one frequency in an infinite-dimensional setting) and we describe an averaging procedure (namely stroboscopic averaging) for which the obtained averaged system respects the intrinsic geometric properties of the original equation. The typical example we have in mind in that of nonlinear PDE's in a high-frequency regime, where only one frequency is present, and the averaged effect of the oscillations in the nonlinearities is to be computed at high order. We apply our results to general nonlinear Schrödinger equations in a high-frequency regime and show that, up to a simple and standard filtering procedure, the obtained results provide a hierarchy of models that approximate the original equations.

Castella, F.; Chartier, Ph.; Méhats, F.; Murua, A.

2012-09-01

421

Averaging Principle and Systems of Singularly Perturbed Stochastic Differential Equations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A modified version of the stochastic averaging principle has been developed to investigate dynamical systems consisting of fast and slow phenomena. This result is applicable for systems of singularly perturbed stochastic differential equations with coeffi...

J. Golec G. Ladde

1990-01-01

422

Averaging analyses for spacecraft orbital motions around asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes a few cases of spacecraft orbital motion around asteroid for which averaging method can be applied, i.e., when central body rotates slowly, fast, and when a spacecraft is near to the resonant orbits between the spacecraft mean motion and the central body's rotation. Averaging conditions for these cases are given. As a major extension, a few classes of near resonant orbits are analyzed by the averaging method. Then some resulted conclusions of these averaging analyses are applied to understand the stability regions in a numerical experiment. Some stability conclusions are obtained. As a typical example, it is shown in detail that near circular 1:2 resonant orbit is always unstable.

Hu, Wei-Duo; Scheeres, D. J.

2014-05-01

423

Optimal Strategies for Estimating the Average Fidelity of Quantum Gates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the minimum experimental effort to estimate the average error of a quantum gate scales as 2n for n qubits and requires classical computational resources ˜n223n when no specific assumptions on the gate can be made. This represents a reduction by 2n compared to the best currently available protocol, Monte Carlo characterization. The reduction comes at the price of either having to prepare entangled input states or obtaining bounds rather than the average fidelity itself. It is achieved by applying Monte Carlo sampling to so-called 2-designs or two classical fidelities. For the specific case of Clifford gates, the original version of Monte Carlo characterization based on the channel-state isomorphism remains an optimal choice. We provide a classification of the available efficient strategies to determine the average gate error in terms of the number of required experimental settings, average number of actual measurements, and classical computational resources.

Reich, Daniel M.; Gualdi, Giulia; Koch, Christiane P.

2013-11-01

424

Outlier Average Manufacturer Prices in the Federal Upper Limit Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine whether any Federal upper limit (FUL) drugs met the outlier criteria because of inconsistencies in how unit types were reported. To determine whether the outlier average manufacturer prices (AMP) for FUL drugs are accurate. To determine wheth...

2009-01-01

425

Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models.

Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya

2014-01-01

426

Does subduction zone magmatism produce average continental crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether present day subduction zone magmatism produces material of average continental crust composition, which perhaps most would agree is andesitic, is addressed. It was argued that modern andesitic to dacitic rocks in Andean-type settings are produced by plagioclase fractionation of mantle derived basalts, leaving a complementary residue with low Rb/Sr and a positive Eu anomaly. This residue must be removed, for example by delamination, if the average crust produced in these settings is andesitic. The author argued against this, pointing out the absence of evidence for such a signature in the mantle. Either the average crust is not andesitic, a conclusion the author was not entirely comfortable with, or other crust forming processes must be sought. One possibility is that during the Archean, direct slab melting of basaltic or eclogitic oceanic crust produced felsic melts, which together with about 65 percent mafic material, yielded an average crust of andesitic composition.

Ellam, R. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

1988-01-01

427

Ensemble vs. time averages in financial time series analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical analysis of financial time series suggests that the underlying stochastic dynamics are not only non-stationary, but also exhibit non-stationary increments. However, financial time series are commonly analyzed using the sliding interval technique that assumes stationary increments. We propose an alternative approach that is based on an ensemble over trading days. To determine the effects of time averaging techniques on analysis outcomes, we create an intraday activity model that exhibits periodic variable diffusion dynamics and we assess the model data using both ensemble and time averaging techniques. We find that ensemble averaging techniques detect the underlying dynamics correctly, whereas sliding intervals approaches fail. As many traded assets exhibit characteristic intraday volatility patterns, our work implies that ensemble averages approaches will yield new insight into the study of financial markets’ dynamics.

Seemann, Lars; Hua, Jia-Chen; McCauley, Joseph L.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

2012-12-01

428

On quantum averaging, quantum KAM, and quantum diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems and their quantizations this paper discusses properties of the quantized systems whose classical analogues constitute the subject of KAM theory and related areas: averaging theory, Nekhoroshev stability, and diffusion. Bibliography: 31 titles.

Kuksin, Sergei B.; Neishtadt, Anatolii I.

2013-04-01

429

7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. ...determination. (b) Nuts shall be obtained from a randomly drawn composite sample. Official certification shall be based on the...

2009-01-01

430

7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. ...determination. (b) Nuts shall be obtained from a randomly drawn composite sample. Official certification shall be based on the...

2010-01-01

431

Improvements in Dynamic GPS Positions Using Track Averaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue of improving a Global Positioning System (GPS), Precise Positioning System (PPS) solution under dynamic conditions through averaging is investigated. Static and dynamic data from the Precision Lightweight GPS receiver (PLGR) were used to analyze...

J. R. Clynch R. Franke B. Neta

1999-01-01

432

7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...base prices and, therefore, marketing season average prices will...types 51-52, for each of the marketing seasons beginning in the years...such tobacco during each such marketing season. Basic Commodities Extra...

2010-01-01

433

7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...base prices and, therefore, marketing season average prices will...types 51-52, for each of the marketing seasons beginning in the years...such tobacco during each such marketing season. Basic Commodities Extra...

2009-01-01

434

Advanced Phosphate Glasses for High Average Power Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphate glass compositions with superior properties for operation as active elements in high average power lasers have been developed. Large, high optical quality castings of these new glasses that are free of metallic inclusions have been made by Schot...

J. E. Marion

1989-01-01

435

Network Bit Synchronization Atomic Clock Versus Frequency Averaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the atomic clock and frequency averaging synchronization techniques, presents a comparison of these techniques, and offers conclusions on their applicability to the Mallard system. Analytical results show that the expected magnitude a...

J. I. Novak M. W. Williard W. K. Wigner W. O. Woolsey

1968-01-01

436

Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

1993-01-01

437

The Average Height of Binary Trees and Other Simple Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average height of a binary tree with n internal nodes is shown to be asymptotic to 2 6. This represents the average stack height of the simplest recursive tree traversal algorithm. The method used in this estimation is also applicable to the analysis of traversal algorithms of unary-binary trees, unbalanced 2-3 trees, t-ary trees for any t, and other

Philippe Flajolet; Andrew M. Odlyzko

1982-01-01

438

How to Average Equating Functions, If You Must  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An interest in averaging two or more equating functions can arise in various settings. As the motivation for the angle bisector method described later in this paper, Angoff (1971) mentioned situations with multiple estimates of the same linear equating\\u000a function for which averaging the different estimates may be appropriate. In the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT)\\u000a equating design, several

Paul W. Holland; William E. Strawderman

439

Average-value modeling of automotive alternator-rectifier systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average-value modeling is indispensable for dynamic characterization of automotive machine-converter systems. However, analytical derivation of accurate models at low voltage applications is challenging due to the non-ideal characteristics of semiconductor switches (rectifier diodes). This paper presents a parametric average-value model of a car alternator-rectifier system. The model parameters take into account the diode forward voltage drop and are extracted using

Sina Chiniforoosh; Pooya Alaeinovin; Ali Davoudi; Juri Jatskevich; Patrick L. Chapman

2008-01-01

440

A precision measurement of the average lifetime of B hadrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average lifetime ofB hadrons was measured using data collected with the DELPHI detector at the LEP collider during 1991 and 1992. The measurement was performed using two different anayses. The first method was an improvement on a previous technique, which used charged particle impact parameter distributions. This analysis measured an average lifetime forB hadrons of(1)\\u000a$$\\\\tau _B = 1.542

P. Abreu; W. Adam; T. Adye; E. Agasi; Roy Aleksan; G. D. Alekseev; P P Allport; S. Almehed; F. M. L. Almeida Junior; S. J. Alvsvaag; Ugo Amaldi; A. Andreazza; P. Antilogus; W.-D. Apel; R. J. Apsimon; Y. Arnoud; B. Åsman; J.-E. Augustin; A. Augustinus; Paul Baillon; P. Bambade; F. Barao; R. Barate; Guido Barbiellini; Dimitri Yuri Bardin; G. J. Barker; A. Baroncelli; O. Barring; J. A. Barrio; Walter Bartl; M. J. Bates; Marco Battaglia; M. Baubillier; K.-H. Becks; M. Begalli; P. Beilliere; Yu A Belokopytov; P. Beltran; Alberto C Benvenuti; M. Berggren; D. Bertrand; F. Bianchi; M. Bigi; M. S. Bilenky; P. Billoir; J. Bjarne; D. Bloch; J. Blocki; S. Blyth; V. Bocci; P. N. Bogolubov; T. Bolognese; M. Bonesini; W. Bonivento; P. S. L. Booth; G. Borisov; C. Bosio; B. Bostjancic; S. Bosworth; O. Botner; B. Bouquet; C. Bourdarios; T. J. V. Bowcock; M. Bozzo; S. Braibant; P. Branchini; K. D. Brand; R. A. Brenner; H. Briand; C. Bricman; L. Brillault; R. C. A. Brown; J.-M. Brunet; L. Bugge; T. Buran; A. Buys; J. A. M. A. Buytaert; M. Caccia; M. Calvi; A. J. Camacho Rozas; R. Campion; T. Camporesi; V. Canale; K. Cabkocak; F. Cao; F. Carena; P. Carrilho; L. Carroll; R. Cases; Carlo Caso; M. V. Castillo Gimenez; A. Cattai; F. R. Cavallo; L. Cerrito; V. Chabaud; A. Chan; Ph. Charpentier; J. Chauveau; P. Checchia; G. A. Chelkov; L. Chevalier; P V Chliapnikov; V. Chorowicz; J. T. M. Chrin; V. Cindro; P. Collins; J. L. Contreras; R. Contri; E. Cortina; G. Cosme; F. Couchot; H. B. Crawley; D J Crennell; G. Crosetti; J. Cuevas Maestro; S. Czellar; E. Dahl-Jensen; J. Dahm; B. Dalmagne; M. Dam; G. Damgaard; E. Daubie; A. Daum; P. D. Dauncey; M. Davenport; J. Davies; W. Da Silva; C. Defoix; P. Delpierre; N. Demaria; A. De Angelis; H. De Boeck; W. De Boer; S. De Brabandere; C. De Clercq; M. D. M. De Fez Laso; C. De La Vaissiere; D. De Lotto; A. De Min; L. De Paula; H. Dijkstra; L. Di Ciaccio; F. Djama; J. Dolbeau; M. Donszelmann; K. Doroba; M. Dracos; J. Drees; M. Dris; Y. Dufour; F. Dupont; D. Edsall; L.-O. Eek; R. Ehret; T. Ekelof; G. Ekspong; A. Elliot Peisert; M. Elsing; J.-P. Engel; N. Ershaidat; M. Espirito Santo; V. Falaleev; D. Fassouliotis; M. Feindt; A. Fenyuk; A Filippas-Tassos; T. A. Filipas; A. Firestone; H. Foeth; E. Fokitis; F. Fontanelli; K. A. J. Forbes; F. Formenti; J.-L. Fousset; S. Francon; B. Franek; P. Frenkiel; D. C. Fries; A. G. Frodesen; R. Fruhwirth; F. Fulda-Quenzer; H. Fustenau; J. Fuster; D. Gamba; M. Gandelman; C. Garcia; J. Garcia; C. Gaspar; U. Gasparini; Ph. Gavillet; E. N. Gazis; J.-P. Gerber; P. Giacomelli; D. Gillespie; R. Gokieli; B. Golob; V. M. Golovatyuk; J. J. Gomez Y Cadenas; G. Gopal; L. Gorn; M. Gorski; V. Gracco; F. Grard; E. Graziani; G. Grosdidier; B. Grossetete; P. Gunnarsson; J. Guy; U. Haedinger; F. Hahn; M. Hahn; S Haider; Z. Hajduk; A. Hakansson; A. Hallgren; K. Hamacher; G. Hamel De Monchenault; W. Hao; F. J. Harris; V. Hedberg; R. Henriques; J. J. Hernandez; J. A. Hernando; P. Herquet; H. Herr; T. L. Hessing; C. O. Higgins; E. Higon; H. J. Hilke; T. S. Hill; S. D. Hodgson; S.-O. Holmogren; P. J. Holt; D J Holthuizen; P. F. Honore; M A Houlden; Josef Hrubec; K. Huet; K. Hultqvist; P. Ioannou; P.-S. Iversen; J. N. Jackson; R. Jacobsson; P. Jalocha; G. Jarlskog; P. Jarry; B. Jean-Marie; E. K. Johansson; M. Jonker; L B Jönsson; P. Juillot; M. Kaiser; G Kalkanis; F. Kapusta; M. Karlsson; E. Karvelas; S. Katsanevas; E. C. Katsoufis; R. Keranen; B. A. Khomenko; N. N. Khovanski; B. King; N. J. Kjaer; H. Klein; A. Klovning; P. Kluit; A. Koch-Mehrin; J. H. Koehne; B. Koene; P. Kokkionias; M. Koratzinos; K. Korcyl; A. V. Korytov; V. Kostioukhine; C. Kourkoumelis; O. Kouznetsov; P. H. Kramer; M. Krammer; C. Kreuter; J. Krolikowski; I. Kronkvist; W. Krupinski; K. Kulka; K. Kurvinen; C. Lacasta; C. Lambropoulos; J. W. Lamsa; L. Lanceri; P. Langefeld; V. Lapin; I. Last; J.-P. Laugier; R. Lauhakangas; G. Leder; F. Ledroit; R. Leitner; Y. Lemoigne; J. Lemonne; G. Lenzen; V. Lepeltier; T. Lesiak; J. M. Levy; E. Lieb; D. Liko; R. Linder; A. Lipnicka; I. Lippi; B. Loerstad; M. Lokajicek; J. G. Loken; A. Lopez-Feernandez; M. A. Lopez Aguera; M A López-Aguera; D. Loukas; J. J. Lozano; P. Lutz; L. Lyons; G. Maehlum; J. Maillard; A. Maio; A. Maltezos; F. Mandl; J. Marco; B. Marechal; M. Margoni; J.-C. Marin; C. Mariotti; A. Markou; T. Maron; S. Marti; C. Martinez-Rivero; F. Martinez-Vidal; C. Mattekuzzi; G. Mathiae; M. Mazzucato; M. Mc. Cubbin; R. Mc Kay; R. Mc. Nulty; J. Medbo; C. Meroni; W. T. Meyer; M. Michelotto; E. Migliore; I. Mikulec; L. Mirabito; W. A. Mitaroff; G. V. Mitselmakher; U. Mjoernmark; T. Moa; R. Moeller; K. Moenig; M. R. Monge; P. Morettini; H. Mueller; W. J. Murray; B. Muryn; G. Myatt; F. Naraghi; F. L. Navarria; P. Negri; S. Nemecek; W. Neumann; N. Neumeister; R. Nicolaidou; B. S. Nielsen; V. Nikolaenko

1994-01-01

441

Analytical spatially-averaged photochemical nonsteady state urban ozone model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Analytical Spatially-averaged Photochemical (ASP) air quality model is presented for predicting daytime time-dependent volume-averaged ozone concentrations in urban areas. The ASP model is designed for screening air pollution control strategies, particularly in urban areas in developing countries where data, computer, and monetary constraints preclude using complex advection-diffusion-transformation airshed models. The ASP model is an analytical time-dependent box model, developed

1984-01-01

442

Average current control of three-phase PWM boost rectifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average current control of three-phase PWM boost rectifiers with three linear current compensators and six-step PWM is a very attractive solution for its simplicity. The performance of the closed-loop control depends on the compensator design. This paper presents a modeling, analysis and design procedure for the average current control scheme. The current compensator design is verified experimentally on a high-frequency

Silva Hiti; Dusan Borojevic; Ravindra Ambatipudi; Richard Zhang; Yimin Jiang

1995-01-01

443

Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)  

DOE Data Explorer

The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

444

Average Power Effects in Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally induced phase mismatch and thermally induced lensing will limit the average power available from a parametric oscillator or amplifier. Expressions are derived that describe both of these average power effects for the commonly used radial heat extraction as well as for longitudinal heat extraction. It is shown that the effects of thermally induced phase mismatch can be mitigated by a judicious selection of the phase-matching conditions.

Barnes, Norman P.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.

1995-01-01

445

Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime  

SciTech Connect

We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2010-01-15

446

40 CFR 60.3042 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the appropriate averaging times and units?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...averages into the appropriate averaging times and units? 60.3042 Section 60...SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units...averages into the appropriate averaging times and units? (a) Use Equation 1...

2013-07-01

447

Exact Averaging of Stochastic Equations for Flow in Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that at present, exact averaging of the equations for flow and transport in random porous media have been proposed for limited special fields. Moreover, approximate averaging methods--for example, the convergence behavior and the accuracy of truncated perturbation series--are not well studied, and in addition, calculation of high-order perturbations is very complicated. These problems have for a long time stimulated attempts to find the answer to the question: Are there in existence some, exact, and sufficiently general forms of averaged equations? Here, we present an approach for finding the general exactly averaged system of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded stochastically homogeneous fields. We do this by using (1) the existence and some general properties of Green's functions for the appropriate stochastic problem, and (2) some information about the random field of conductivity. This approach enables us to find the form of the averaged equations without directly solving the stochastic equations or using the usual assumption regarding any small parameters. In the common case of a stochastically homogeneous conductivity field we present the exactly averaged new basic nonlocal equation with a unique kernel-vector. We show that in the case of some type of global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy, or orthotropy), we can for three-dimensional and two-dimensional flow in the same way derive the exact averaged nonlocal equations with a unique kernel-tensor. When global symmetry does not exist, the nonlocal equation with a kernel-tensor involves complications and leads to an ill-posed problem.

Karasaki, Kenzi; Shvidler, Mark; Karasaki, Kenzi

2008-03-15

448

It is Possible: Availability of Lymphedema Case Management in each Health Facility in Togo. Program Description, Evaluation, and Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne parasitic disease that can clinically manifest as disabling lymphedema. Although the LF elimination program aims to reduce disability and to interrupt transmission, there has been a scarcity of disease morbidity management programs, particularly on a national scale. This report describes the implementation of the first nationwide LF lymphedema management program. The program, which was initiated in Togo in 2007, focuses on patient behavioral change. Its goal is two-fold: to achieve a sustainable program on a national-scale, and to serve as a model for other countries. The program has five major components: 1) train at least one health staff in lymphedema care in each health facility in Togo; 2) inform people with a swollen leg that care is available at their dispensary; 3) train patients on self-care; 4) provide a support system to motivate patients to continue self-care by training community health workers or family members and providing in home follow-up; and 5) integrate lymphedema management into the curriculum for medical staff. The program achieved the inclusion of lymphedema management in the routine healthcare package. The evaluation after three years estimated that 79% of persons with a swollen leg in Togo were enrolled in the program. The adherence rate to the proposed World Health Organization treatment of washing, exercise, and leg elevation was more than 70% after three years of the program, resulting in a stabilization of the lymphedema stage and a slight decrease in reported acute attacks among program participants. Health staff and patients consider the program successful in reaching and educating the patients. After the external funding ended, the morbidity management program is maintained through routine Ministry of Health activities.

Mathieu, Els; Dorkenoo, Ameyo M.; Datagni, Michael; Cantey, Paul T.; Morgah, Kodjo; Harvey, Kira; Ziperstein, Joshua; Drexler, Naomi; Chapleau, Gina; Sodahlon, Yao

2013-01-01

449

Self-management support in "real-world" settings: An empowerment-based intervention  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the impact of a 6-month, empowerment-based diabetes self-management support (DSMS) intervention on clinical outcomes, self-care behaviors, and quality of life (QOL) compared to a 6-month control period. Methods This control-intervention cohort study recruited 77 African-American adults with type 2 diabetes. Baseline, 6-month, and 12-month assessments measured A1C, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, self-care behaviors, and QOL. During the control period, participants received weekly educational newsletters. During the intervention period, participants attended weekly DSMS groups as frequently as they needed. Sessions were guided by participants’ self-management questions and concerns, and also emphasized experiential learning, coping, problem-solving, and goal-setting. Results The control period found significant improvements for diastolic BP (p<0.05), serum cholesterol (p<0.001), following a healthy diet (p<0.01), and monitoring blood glucose (p<0.01). The intervention period found significant additional improvements for A1C (p<0.001), weight (p<0.05), BMI (p<0.05), and LDL (p<0.001). Compared to the control period, participation in the intervention led to a significant reduction in A1C (p< 0.01). Conclusion Findings suggest that an empowerment-based, DSMS intervention is promising for improving and/or maintaining diabetes-related health, particularly A1C. Practical implications Incorporating empowerment principles in DSMS interventions may be useful for supporting patients’ self-management efforts in “real-world” settings.

Tang, Tricia S.; Funnell, Martha M.; Brown, Morton B.; Kurlander, Jacob E.

2009-01-01

450