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Sample records for average self-care management

  1. Determinants of Heart Failure Self-Care Maintenance and Management in Patients and Caregivers: A Dyadic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Julie T; Vellone, Ercole; Lyons, Karen S; D'Agostino, Fabio; Riegel, Barbara; Juárez-Vela, Raúl; Hiatt, Shirin O; Alvaro, Rosaria; Lee, Christopher S

    2015-10-01

    Disease self-management is a critical component of maintaining clinical stability for patients with chronic illness. This is particularly evident in the context of heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization for older adults. HF self-management, commonly known as HF self-care, is often performed with the support of informal caregivers. However, little is known about how a HF dyad manages the patient's care together. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of patient and caregiver contributions to HF self-care maintenance (daily adherence and symptom monitoring) and management (appropriate recognition and response to symptoms), utilizing an approach that controls for dyadic interdependence. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 364 dyads of Italian HF patients and caregivers. Multilevel modeling was used to identify determinants of HF self-care within patient-caregiver dyads. Patients averaged 76.2 (SD = 10.7) years old, and a slight majority (56.9%) was male, whereas caregivers averaged 57.4 (SD = 14.6) years old, and about half (48.1%) were male. Most caregivers were adult children (48.4%) or spouses (32.7%) of patients. Both patients and caregivers reported low levels of HF maintenance and management behaviors. Significant individual and dyadic determinants of self-care maintenance and self-care management included gender, quality of life, comorbid burden, impaired ADLs, cognition, hospitalizations, HF duration, relationship type, relationship quality, and social support. These comprehensive dyadic models assist in elucidating the complex nature of patient-caregiver relationships and their influence on HF self-care, leading to more effective ways to intervene and optimize outcomes. PMID:26355702

  2. Self-care management programme for older adults with diabetes: An integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cherry Chay Lee; Cheng, Karis Kin Fong; Wang, Wenru

    2015-05-01

    This paper summarizes evidence on effectiveness of diabetes self-care interventions for older adults with diabetes, and identifies factors influencing self-care behaviours. The search for articles published from 2002 to 2012 was done using electronic databases, namely, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO and PubMed. Search terms include diabetes, self-management, self-care, barriers and intervention. Out of 261 articles screened, 21 were selected for review. Findings revealed that interventions using concepts of self-efficacy, self-determination and proactive coping, and interventions incorporating information technology were effective in influencing diabetes self-care behaviours with improved health outcomes. Psychosocial factors influencing self-care include motivation, socioeconomic status, literacy, knowledge, social and health-care providers' support, and particularly for older adults, the key factors were their self-efficacy, motor skill and literacy in self-care activities. This review provides important insight for nurse practitioners to address psychosocial issues in developing self-care management programmes for older adults with diabetes. PMID:26125579

  3. Health Care Autonomy in Children with Chronic Conditions: Implications for Self Care and Family Management

    PubMed Central

    Beacham, Barbara L.; Deatrick, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Health care autonomy typically occurs during late adolescence but health care providers and families often expect children with chronic health conditions to master self-care earlier. Few studies have examined the development of health care autonomy as it pertains to self-care and family management. This review will link the three concepts and discuss implications for families and health care providers. Case studies are provided as exemplars to highlight areas where intervention and research is needed. PMID:23659815

  4. Symptom management and self-care for peripheral neuropathy in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, P K; Kemppainen, J K; Canaval, G E; Corless, I B; Sefcik, E F; Nokes, K M; Bain, C A; Kirksey, K M; Eller, L Sanzero; Dole, P J; Hamilton, M J; Coleman, C L; Holzemer, W L; Reynolds, N R; Portillo, C J; Bunch, E H; Wantland, D J; Voss, J; Phillips, R; Tsai, Y-F; Mendez, M Rivero; Lindgren, T G; Davis, S M; Gallagher, D M

    2007-02-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication in HIV and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease, sociodemographic and disease-related correlates and self-care strategies. A convenience sample of 1,217 respondents was recruited from data collection sites in several US cities, Puerto Rico, Colombia and Taiwan. Results of the study indicated that respondents with peripheral neuropathy (n=450) identified 20 self-care behaviors including complementary therapies, use of medications, exercise and rest and/or elevation of extremities. Ratings of frequency and effectiveness were also included. An activities checklist summarized into five categories of self-care behaviors including activities/thoughts, exercise, medications, complementary therapies and substance was used to determine self-care behaviors. Taking a hot bath was the most frequent strategy used by those with peripheral neuropathy (n=292) and received the highest overall rating of effectiveness of any self-management strategies included in this study at 8.1 (scale 1-10). Other self-care strategies to manage this symptom included: staying off the feet (n=258), rubbing the feet with cream (n=177), elevating the feet (n=236), walking (n=262), prescribed anti-epileptic agent (n=80), prescribed analgesics (n=84), over-the-counter medications (n=123), vitamin B (n=122), calcium supplements (n=72), magnesium (n=48), massage (n=156), acupuncture (n=43), reflexology (n=23) and meditation (n=80). Several behaviors that are often deemed unhealthy were included among the strategies reported to alleviate peripheral neuropathy including use of marijuana (n=67), cigarette smoking (n=139), drinking alcohol (n=81) and street drugs (n=30). PMID:17364396

  5. Self-Care Management among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in East Jerusalem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Nihaya; Osman, Amira; Hart, Trevor A.; Berry, Elliott M.; Adler, Bella

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Little research exists on diabetes self-care management (DSCM) in Arab populations. We examined the contribution of health belief constructs, socioeconomic position (SEP) and clinical factors (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1C] level, type of diabetes treatments, and receiving professional guidance) to DSCM among Arab patients in East

  6. Self-Care Management among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in East Jerusalem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Nihaya; Osman, Amira; Hart, Trevor A.; Berry, Elliott M.; Adler, Bella

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Little research exists on diabetes self-care management (DSCM) in Arab populations. We examined the contribution of health belief constructs, socioeconomic position (SEP) and clinical factors (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1C] level, type of diabetes treatments, and receiving professional guidance) to DSCM among Arab patients in East…

  7. Self Care

    MedlinePlus

    The Center for Health & Healing Mount Sinai Beth Israel Heart Disease Diabetes Chronic Pain New Approaches to Chronic Disease Self Assessment Self Care Connections Experiences Research Learning Evaluation Print Email Self Care If you are living with a chronic health ...

  8. Connecting Patients to mHealth Applications to Enhance Self-care Management.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Meghan K

    2015-09-01

    Smartphone use and the desire to use mHealth are growing in the population of patients who most commonly use home healthcare (HHC) services, a population with chronic conditions and complex healthcare management needs. HHC nurses are positioned to connect HHC patients with mHealth Apps to access health-related information, engage in interactive monitoring, and manage self-care activities. The challenge of finding reputable Apps is discussed and resources are presented to overcome this challenge at the business orindividual level. PMID:26323008

  9. The clinical effectiveness of self-care interventions with an exercise component to manage knee conditions: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Button, Kate; Roos, Paulien E.; Spasić, Irena; Adamson, Paul; van Deursen, Robert W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Treatment of knee conditions should include approaches to support self-care and exercise based interventions. The most effective way to combine self-care and exercise has however not been determined sufficiently. Therefore the aim was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of self-care programmes with an exercise component for individuals with any type of knee conditions. Methods A keyword search of Medline, CINAHL, Amed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases was conducted up until January 2015. Two reviewers independently assessed manuscript eligibility against inclusion/exclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Downs and Black quality assessment tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Data were extracted about self-care and exercise intervention type, control intervention, participants, length of follow-up, outcome measures, and main findings. Results From the 7392 studies identified through the keyword search the title and abstract of 5498 were screened. The full text manuscripts of 106 studies were retrieved to evaluate their eligibility. Twenty-one manuscripts met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Conclusion The treatment potential of combined self-care and exercise interventions has not been maximised because of limitations in study design and failure to adequately define intervention content. Potentially the most beneficial self-care treatment components are training self-management skills, information delivery, and goal setting. Exercise treatment components could be strengthened by better attention to dose and progression. Modern technology to streamline delivery and support self-care should be considered. More emphasis is required on using self-care and exercise programmes for chronic condition prevention in addition to chronic condition management. PMID:26056046

  10. Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…

  11. Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.

  12. How Technology in Care at Home Affects Patient Self-Care and Self-Management: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, José M.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Friele, Roland D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of technology in care at home has potential benefits such as improved quality of care. This includes greater focus on the patients’ role in managing their health and increased patient involvement in the care process. The objective of this scoping review is to analyse the existing evidence for effects of technology in home-based care on patients’ self-care and self-management. Using suitable search terms we searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Picarta and NIVEL dating from 2002 to 2012. Thirty-three studies (six review studies and twenty-seven individual studies) were selected. Effects were extracted from each study and were classified. In almost all the studies, the concepts self-care and self-management are not clearly defined or operationalized. Therefore, based on a meta-analysis, we made a new classification of outcome measures, with hierarchical levels: (1) competence (2) illness-management (3) independence (social participation, autonomy). In general, patient outcomes appear to be positive or promising, but most studies were pilot studies. We did not find strong evidence that technology in care at home has (a positive) effect on patient self-care and self-management according to the above classification. Future research is needed to clarify how technology can be used to maximize its benefits. PMID:24173139

  13. Everyday life, healthcare, and self-care management among people with irritable bowel syndrome: an integrative review of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Håkanson, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a commonly recognized chronic disease in all healthcare settings. This integrative review investigated current knowledge about adults' illness-related experiences of this disease from the perspectives of everyday life, healthcare, and self-care management. The overarching findings related to everyday life with irritable bowel syndrome were life-limiting experiences of the body-self as unfamiliar and of the body and symptoms as shameful and unpredictable. The limitations manifested as lack of ability to move about freely, fulfill ambitions or commitments at work, maintain social activities, uphold or develop close and/or sexual relationships and parenting, and live a life with spontaneity. Physical condition, knowledge about disease/illness-related matters, and one's own perceived ability to find adequate strategies were significant for the ability of self-care management. Healthcare was experienced as being unsupportive and not providing information and guidance for enabling self-care management. These results suggest a need for controlled intervention trials of healthcare models that take as their point of departure the individual's experience of illness, needs, and life situation, and that enable learning and sharing of illness experiences, combined with the provision of scientific knowledge and advice from healthcare professionals. PMID:24871667

  14. Transforming hypertension management using mobile health technology for telemonitoring and self-care support.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G

    2013-05-01

    Achieving and sustaining good blood pressure control continues to be a challenge for many reasons including nonadherence with prescribed treatment and lifestyle measures, shortage of primary care physicians especially in less populated areas, and variations in physicians' practice behaviour. Many strategies have been advocated to improve outcomes with the greatest success being achieved using nurse or pharmacist-led interventions in which they were given the authority to prescribe or alter antihypertensive treatment. However, this treatment approach, which historically involved 1-on-1 visits to a doctor's office or pharmacy, proved costly, was not scalable, and did not actively engage patients in treatment decision-making. Several electronic health interventions have been designed to overcome these limitations. Though more patient-centred and often effective, they required wired connections and a personal computer, and logging on for Internet access and navigating computer screens greatly reduced access for many older patients. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the benefits were related to better case management or technological advances. Mobile health (mHealth) technology circumvents the technical challenges of electronic health systems and provides a more flexible platform to enhance patient self-care. mHealth applications are particularly appropriate for interventions that depend on patients' sustained adherence to monitoring schedules and prescribed treatments. Studies from our group in hypertension and other chronic conditions have shown improved health outcomes using mHealth applications that have undergone rigourous usability testing. Nonetheless, the inability of most electronic medical record systems to receive and process information from mobile devices continues to be a major impediment in realizing the full potential of mHealth technology. PMID:23618506

  15. [Community resources prescription for self-care improvement in chronic illnesses. Clinical case management in Primary Health Care].

    PubMed

    Prez-Vico-Daz de Rada, Luca; Gonzlez-Surez, Miriam; Duarte-Clments, Gonzalo; Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymn

    2014-01-01

    A case is presented of a 52 year-old male seen in a Primary Care nursing clinic for a type 2 diabetes mellitus metabolic control. The frequency of the visits increased due to perceived difficulties caused by changing the medical treatment. A focused interview was conducted under functional health patterns framework. The patient was unable to write or read, had not worked for the last 25 years, and expressed a lack of control over his self-care. An action plan was prepared, prioritizing Ineffective Health Maintenance, Powerlessness, and Impaired Social Interaction NANDA-I nursing diagnoses. The goals were set at improving knowledge and control over his disease and participating in leisure activities. To achieve these, the social health resources in the area were contacted, and agreed that the patient could attend activities that could improve his self-care and his quality of life. An improvement in his diabetes control was observed in the following evaluations, with an increase in his level of knowledge and self-care. The Primary Health care nurse should consider available community resources by using a comprehensive approach to chronic diseases for their therapeutic benefit and management, especially in those patients with adverse sociocultural conditions. PMID:24786984

  16. Engaging Patients in Online Self-Care Technologies for Chronic Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Picton, Peter; Wiljer, David; Urowitz, Sara; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    A common perception is that the use of Internet-based self-care systems is best suited for a younger, tech-proficient population, and that these systems will increase the burden on patients with complex chronic conditions. The study stratified patients with diabetes into three regimens of use of an Internet-based diabetes self-care portal. Results show that patients were more likely to adhere to a diurnal regimen than a variable regimen, and older patients, over the age of 60, were more adherent than younger patients, regardless of regimen. This suggests that common misconceptions should be reconsidered when prescribing Internet-based interventions for patients with chronic illness. PMID:27009709

  17. Role of self-care in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Matthie, Nadine; Jenerette, Coretta; McMillan, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Self-care is an important aspect of managing a chronic disease. In sickle cell disease (SCD), home self-care contributes to individual pain management and thus pain crisis prevention. A better understanding of self-care can help health care providers equip patients with the resources and skills necessary to participate in their disease management. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence self-care among young adults with SCD. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data analysis. Participants were recruited from two SCD clinics in the southeastern United States. The sample consisted of 103 young adults, ages 18 to 30 years, with SCD. Bivariate correlations and regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships among SCD self-efficacy, social support, sociodemographics, self-care, and hospital visits for pain crises. Study participants were primarily women (61.2%), unemployed or disabled (68%), lived with family (73.8%), and had an annual average of three hospital visits for pain crises. Participants, on average, had 12 years of education, an annual household income of $35,724, and were 24 years old. Social support (p = .001), SCD self-efficacy (p = .002), and years of education (p = .043) were significantly related to self-care. Of the hypothesized variables, only income was significantly associated with hospital visits for pain crises (r = -0.219, p = .05). Individuals with SCD may benefit from self-care interventions that enhance social support, SCD self-efficacy, and access to education. To inform intervention development, further investigation is needed regarding daily self-care behaviors used by young adults with SCD. PMID:25439112

  18. Acne - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Acne vulgaris - self-care; Cystic acne - self-care; Pimples - self-care; Zits - self-care ... If daily skin care does not clear up blemishes, try over-the-counter acne medicines that you apply to your skin. These products ...

  19. Self-care Management Intervention to Improve Psychological Wellbeing for Jordanian Patients with Type Two Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Albikawi, Zainab Fatehi; Petro-Nustas, Wasileh; Abuadas, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of self-care management intervention on psychological wellbeing for Jordanian patients with type two diabetes mellitus. A quasi-experimental design was used. The study was conducted in a diabetes clinic of a specialized diabetes center in Amman. One hundred and forty-nine participants completed the three-month post-treatment assessments (76 in the intervention group and 73 in the control group). Both the control and intervention groups received a standard diabetic educational program. The intervention group received the following additional interventions: (1) Diabetes Self-care Management booklet, (2)DVD viewing, (3) counseling rehearsal session, and (4) a telephone follow-up. The main study instrument was an Arabic version 20 of the depression anxiety stress scales: To assess the group differences of dependent variable changes, repeated measure ANOVA was used. It was found that psychological wellbeing was not significant at 2-week post-intervention and significant change was observed at 3-month post-intervention. The findings from this study can guide the health providers to be trained to provide relevant diabetic interventions into their nursing interventions, education, and research. PMID:26962749

  20. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  1. Telehealth for Persons with Severe Functional Disabilities and their Caregivers: Facilitating Self-care Management in the Home Setting

    PubMed Central

    Forducey, Pamela G.; Glueckauf, Robert L.; Bergquist, Thomas; Maheu, Marlene M.; Yutsis, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Persons with severe functional disabilities are the highest users of health care services. Caring for the needs of this population represents a significant percentage of our national health care costs. A growing body of research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-management strategies and caregiver engagement for effective long-term care for individuals with chronic medical conditions. Economic forces over the past decade have led to new challenges and resulted in major changes in health care delivery resulting in shortened length of inpatient stays and greater limits on the length of outpatient treatment. Telehealth is an innovative method for health care delivery and a means of meeting this new challenge. This paper highlights the findings of three pilot studies on the use of telecommunications technologies in promoting self-care management and enhancing health care outcomes in persons with severe disabilities and their family caregivers. The importance of matching technology to the needs of this population, lessons learned from these investigations, and future directions for research are addressed. PMID:22662729

  2. Creating 'good' self-managers?: Facilitating and governing an online self care skills training course

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Gately, Claire; Lee, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Background In chronic disease management, patients are increasingly called upon to undertake a new role as lay tutors within self-management training programmes. The internet constitutes an increasingly significant healthcare setting and a key arena for self-management support and communication. This study evaluates how a new quasi-professional health workforce volunteer tutors engage, guide and attempt to manage people with long-term conditions in the ways of 'good' self-management within the context of an online self-management course. Methods A qualitative analysis of postings to the discussion centre of 11 online classes (purposively selected from 27) run as part of the Expert Patients Programme. Facilitators (term for tutors online) and participants posted questions, comments and solutions related to self-management of long-term conditions; these were subjected to a textual and discursive analysis to explore: a) how facilitators, through the internet, engaged participants in issues related to self-management; b) how participants responded to and interacted with facilitators. Results Emergent themes included: techniques and mechanisms used to engage people with self-management; the process facilitators followed 'sharing', 'modelling' and 'confirming'; and the emergence of a policing role regarding online disclosure. Whilst exchanging medical advice was discouraged, facilitators often professed to understand and give advice on psychological aspects of behaviour. Conclusion The study gave an insight into the roles tutors adopt one being their ability to 'police' subjective management of long-term conditions and another being to attempt to enhance the psychological capabilities of participants. PMID:19505302

  3. HIV illness representation as a predictor of self-care management and health outcomes: a multi-site, cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, N R; Eller, L Sanzero; Nicholas, P K; Corless, I B; Kirksey, K; Hamilton, M J; Kemppainen, J K; Bunch, E; Dole, P; Wantland, D; Sefcik, E; Nokes, K M; Coleman, C L; Rivero, M; Canaval, G E; Tsai, Y F; Holzemer, W L

    2009-04-01

    Research has shown that the perceptions that form the cognitive representation of an illness (illness representation) are fundamental to how persons cope with illness. This study examined the relationship of illness representation of HIV with self-care behavior and health outcomes. Data were collected at 16 sites in the United States, Taiwan, Norway, Puerto Rico and Colombia via survey. HIV seropositive participants (n = 1,217, 31% female, 38% African-American/Black, 10% Asian/Pacific Islander and 26% White/Anglo) completed measures of illness representation based on the commonly accepted five-component structure: identity, time-line, consequences, cause, and cure/controllability (Weinman et al. 1996, Psychology and Health, 11, 431-445). Linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate relationships among illness representation, self-care behaviors and quality-of-life outcomes. Components of illness representation were associated with self-care and health outcomes, indicating that the cognitive representation of HIV has consequences for effective illness management. For example, perception that there is little that can be done to control HIV was significantly associated with fewer and less effective self-care activities (F = 12.86, P < .001) and poorer health function in the domain of quality-of-life (F = 13.89, P < .001). The concept of illness representation provides a useful framework for understanding HIV symptom management and may be useful in directing development of effective patient-centered interventions. PMID:17705096

  4. Testing a Model of Diabetes Self-Care Management: A Causal Model Analysis with LISREL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacek, George A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A diabetes-management model is presented, which includes an attitudinal element and depicts relationships among causal elements. LISREL-VI was used to analyze data from 115 Type-I and 105 Type-II patients. The data did not closely fit the model. Results support the importance of the personal meaning of diabetes. (TJH)

  5. The Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ): development and evaluation of an instrument to assess diabetes self-care activities associated with glycaemic control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though several questionnaires on self-care and regimen adherence have been introduced, the evaluations do not always report consistent and substantial correlations with measures of glycaemic control. Small ability to explain variance in HbA1c constitutes a significant limitation of an instrument’s use for scientific purposes as well as clinical practice. In order to assess self-care activities which can predict glycaemic control, the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ) was designed. Methods A 16 item questionnaire to assess self-care activities associated with glycaemic control was developed, based on theoretical considerations and a process of empirical improvements. Four subscales, ‘Glucose Management’ (GM), ‘Dietary Control’ (DC), ‘Physical Activity’ (PA), and ‘Health-Care Use’ (HU), as well as a ‘Sum Scale’ (SS) as a global measure of self-care were derived. To evaluate its psychometric quality, 261 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes were assessed with the DSMQ and an established analogous scale, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure (SDSCA). The DSMQ’s item and scale characteristics as well as factorial and convergent validity were analysed, and its convergence with HbA1c was compared to the SDSCA. Results The items showed appropriate characteristics (mean item-total-correlation: 0.46 ± 0.12; mean correlation with HbA1c: -0.23 ± 0.09). Overall internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was good (0.84), consistencies of the subscales were acceptable (GM: 0.77; DC: 0.77; PA: 0.76; HU: 0.60). Principal component analysis indicated a four factor structure and confirmed the designed scale structure. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated appropriate fit of the four factor model. The DSMQ scales showed significant convergent correlations with their parallel SDSCA scales (GM: 0.57; DC: 0.52; PA: 0.58; HU: n/a; SS: 0.57) and HbA1c (GM: -0.39; DC: -0.30; PA: -0.15; HU: -0.22; SS: -0.40). All correlations with HbA1c were significantly stronger than those obtained with the SDSCA. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that the DSMQ is a reliable and valid instrument and enables an efficient assessment of self-care behaviours associated with glycaemic control. The questionnaire should be valuable for scientific analyses as well as clinical use in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:23937988

  6. Tremor - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Shaking - self-care ... medicines can cause tremors. Talk with your health care provider about stopping a medicine that may be causing your tremor. Your health care provider may lower your dosage or switch you ...

  7. Perspectives on Self-Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Isha D.; Richardson, Tenille A.; Moore, Darren D.; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks; Keeling, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Self-care for clinicians is much needed. To discover ways to implement self-care into our lives, we (four therapists) tried different self-care methods over a span of one to two weeks. After using practices that explored self-care through mindfulness meditation, autohypnosis, music, and spirituality, we wrote about the outcome of these experiences…

  8. iMHere: A Novel mHealth System for Supporting Self-Care in Management of Complex and Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pramana, Gede; Yu, Daihua Xie; Fairman, Andrea D; Dicianno, Brad E; McCue, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with chronic conditions are vulnerable to secondary complications that can be prevented with adherence to self-care routines. They benefit most from receiving effective treatments beyond acute care, usually in the form of regular follow-up and self-care support in their living environments. One such population is individuals with spina bifida (SB), the most common permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. A Wellness Program at the University of Pittsburgh in which wellness coordinators supervise the care of individuals with chronic disease has produced remarkably improved outcomes. However, time constraints and travel costs have limited its scale. Mobile telehealth service delivery is a potential solution for improving access to care for a larger population. Objective The project’s goal was to develop and implement a novel mHealth system to support complex self-care tasks, continuous adherence to regimens, monitoring of adherence, and secure two-way communications between patients and clinicians. Methods We developed and implemented a novel architecture of mHealth system called iMHere (iMobile Health and Rehabilitation) consisting of smartphone apps, a clinician portal, and a two-way communication protocol connecting the two. The process of implementing iMHere consisted of: (1) requirement analysis to identify clinically important functions that need to be supported, (2) design and development of the apps and the clinician portal, (3) development of efficient real-time bi-directional data exchange between the apps and the clinician portal, (4) usability studies on patients, and (5) implementation of the mHealth system in a clinical service delivery. Results There were 9 app features identified as relevant, and 5 apps were considered priority. There were 5 app features designed and developed to address the following issues: medication, skin care, bladder self-catheterization, bowel management, and mental health. The apps were designed to support a patient’s self-care tasks, send adherence data to the clinician portal, and receive personalized regimens from the portal. The Web-based portal was designed for clinicians to monitor patients’ conditions and to support self-care regimens. The two-way communication protocol was developed to facilitate secure and efficient data exchange between the apps and the portal. The 3 phases of usability study discovered usability issues in the areas of self-care workflow, navigation and interface, and communications between the apps and the portal. The system was used by 14 patients in the first 6 months of the clinical implementation, with 1 drop out due to having a poor wireless connection. The apps have been highly utilized consistently by patients, even those addressing complex issues such as medication and skincare. The patterns of utilization showed an increase in use in the first month, followed by a plateau. Conclusions The system was capable of supporting self-care and adherence to regimen, monitoring adherence, supporting clinician engagement with patients, and has been highly utilized. PMID:25100682

  9. Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of women with lymphoedema. The extensive use of injectable, oral and topical antibiotics by indigenous healers and women without medical supervision suggests a need for health education messages related to the risks of such practices. PMID:17187660

  10. Shin splints - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... tibial stress syndrome - self-care; MTSS - self-care; Exercise-induced leg pain - self-care; Tibial periostitis - self- ... Shin splints are an exercise problem. You get shin splints from ... tendons or shin bone. Shin splints happen from overuse with ...

  11. Broken toe - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... toe - self-care; Broken bone - toe - self-care; Fracture - toe - self-care ... Broken toes are a common injury. The fracture is most often treated without surgery and can be taken care of at home. Severe injuries include: Breaks that cause the toe to ...

  12. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regional flaps - self-care; Distant flaps - self-care; Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care ... the dressing and area around it clean and free from dirt or sweat. Don't let the ...

  13. Self-Care Among Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yngman-Uhlin, Pia; Hjortswang, Henrik; Riegel, Barbara; Stjernman, Henrik; Hollman Frisman, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology. The disease occurs early in life and the burden of symptoms is significant. Patients need to perform self-care to handle their symptoms, but knowledge about what kind of self-care patients do is limited and these individuals need to learn how to manage the symptoms that arise. The aim of this study was to explore self-care among patients with IBD. Twenty adult patients with IBD, 25–66 years of age, were interviewed. Data were analyzed by performing a qualitative content analysis. Four categories with 10 subcategories emerged from the analysis of the interviews. The self-care patients perform consists of symptom recognition (subcategories: physiological sensations and psychological sensations), handling of symptoms (subcategories: adapting the diet, using medical treatment, stress management, and using complementary alternative medicine), planning life (subcategories: planning for when to do activities and when to refrain from activities), and seeking new options (subcategories: seeking knowledge and personal contacts). Self-care consists of symptom recognition, handling life through planning, and accommodating the existing situation with the ultimate goal of maintaining well-being. Being one step ahead facilitates living with IBD. A decision to actively participate in care of a chronic illness is a prerequisite for self-care. Healthcare professionals must consider patients' potential for and desire for self-care when giving advice on self-care activities. Doing so may help people better cope with IBD. PMID:26166423

  14. Neck pain or spasms - self care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck stiffness-self-care; Cervicalgia-self-care; Whiplash-self-care ... improve blood flow to your muscles and promote healing. They also ... neck stretching and strengthening exercises and how to do them.

  15. Human bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Bites - human - self-care ... them. Wash your hands afterward, as well. To care for the wound: Stop the wound from bleeding ... deeper wounds, you may need stitches. Your health care provider may give you a tetanus shot. You ...

  16. Consumers' self-care algorithms for the common cold: implications for health education interventions.

    PubMed

    Reis, J

    2001-07-01

    Two hundred ninety-seven young adults enumerated a self-care plan with at least seven behaviors for the management of a cold with a fever. They summarized satisfaction with their self-care activities and the role of self-care after a lecture on self-care in managing the common cold. Half of the participants relied solely on self-care, and the other half said they would seek medical attention. Having a fever directed two thirds of the sample in their decision making concerning treatment. Five percent would change their self-care behaviors as a consequence of the instruction. Methodological and theoretical implications for self-care interventions are discussed. PMID:11534748

  17. An integrative literature review on nursing interventions aimed at increasing self-care among heart failure patients 1

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Sophie; Proulx-Belhumeur, Alexandra; Gonçalves, Natalia; Doré, Michel; Francoeur, Julie; Gallani, Maria Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze and summarize knowledge concerning critical components of interventions that have been proposed and implemented by nurses with the aim of optimizing self-care by heart failure patients. Methods: PubMed and CINAHL were the electronic databases used to search full peer-reviewed papers, presenting descriptions of nursing interventions directed to patients or to patients and their families and designed to optimize self-care. Forty-two studies were included in the final sample (n=4,799 patients). Results: this review pointed to a variety and complexity of nursing interventions. As self-care encompasses several behaviors, interventions targeted an average of 3.6 behaviors. Educational/counselling activities were combined or not with cognitive behavioral strategies, but only about half of the studies used a theoretical background to guide interventions. Clinical assessment and management were frequently associated with self-care interventions, which varied in number of sessions (1 to 30); length of follow-up (2 weeks to 12 months) and endpoints. Conclusions: these findings may be useful to inform nurses about further research in self-care interventions in order to propose the comparison of different modalities of intervention, the use of theoretical background and the establishment of endpoints to evaluate their effectiveness. PMID:26444179

  18. Self-Care Among Chronically Ill African Americans: Culture, Health Disparities, and Health Insurance Status

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Gay; Gates, Rahima Jan; Newsom, Edwina

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the self-care practices of chronically ill African Americans or how lack of access to health care affects self-care. Results from a qualitative interview study of 167 African Americans who had one or more chronic illnesses found that self-care practices were culturally based, and the insured reported more extensive programs of self-care. Those who had some form of health insurance much more frequently reported the influence of physicians and health education programs in self-care regimens than did those who were uninsured. It is concluded that the cultural components of self-care have been underemphasized, and further, that the potential to maximize chronic illness management through self-care strategies is not realized for those who lack access to health care. PMID:15569953

  19. Animal bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  20. Adherence to self-care in patients with heart failure in the HeartCycle study

    PubMed Central

    Stut, Wim; Deighan, Carolyn; Cleland, John G; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel online education and coaching program to promote self-care among patients with heart failure. In this program, education and coaching content is automatically tailored to the knowledge and behavior of the patient. Patients and methods The evaluation of the program took place within the scope of the HeartCycle study. This multi-center, observational study examined the ability of a third generation telehealth system to enhance the management of patients recently (<60 days) admitted to the hospital for worsening heart failure or outpatients with persistent New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification III/IV symptoms. Self-reported self-care behavior was assessed at baseline and study-end by means of the 9-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior scale. Adherence to daily weighing, blood pressure monitoring, and reporting of symptoms was determined by analyzing the system’s database. Results Of 123 patients enrolled, the mean age was 66±12 years, 66% were in NYHA III and 79% were men. Self-reported self-care behavior scores (n=101) improved during the study for daily weighing, low-salt diet, physical activity (P<0.001), and fluid restriction (P<0.05). Average adherence (n=120) to measuring weight was 90%±16%, to measuring blood pressure was 89%±17% and to symptom reporting was 66%±32%. Conclusion Self-reported self-care behavior scores improved significantly during the period of observation, and the objective evidence of adherence to daily weight and blood pressure measurements was high and remained stable over time. However, adherence to daily reporting of symptoms was lower and declined in the long-term. PMID:26316725

  1. Staph infections - self-care at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections - self-care at home; Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus infections - self-care at home; MRSA infections - self- ... type of staph germ, called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) , is harder to treat. This is because ...

  2. Varicose and other vein problems - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Venous insufficiency - self-care; Venous stasis ulcers - self-care; Lipodermatosclerosis - self-care ... These problems usually get worse over time. Learn self-care that you can do at home to: Slow ...

  3. Care for the Caregiver: Evaluation of Mind-Body Self-Care for Accelerated Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Drew, Barbara L; Motter, Tracey; Ross, Ratchneewan; Goliat, Laura M; Sharpnack, Patricia A; Govoni, Amy L; Bozeman, Michelle C; Rababah, Jehad

    2016-01-01

    Stress affects the well-being of both nursing students and the individuals with whom they work. With the theory of cognitive appraisal as a framework for this study, it is proposed that mind-body self-care strategies promote stress management by stabilization of emotions. Outcomes will be a perception of less stress and more mindful engagement with the environment. Objective of the study was to describe an evaluation of student perceived stress and mindfulness to 1-hour per week of class time dedicated to mind-body self-care (yoga, mindful breathing, Reiki, and essential oil therapy). It was a quasi-experimental study; data collection took place at 4 time points. Participants were entry-level accelerated nursing students from 3 US universities: 50 in the treatment group, 64 in the comparison group. Data included health-promoting practices using Health-Promoting Promotion Lifestyle Profile II as a control variable, stress and mindfulness (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS] and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale [MAAS]), and demographic information; analysis using mixed-design repeated-measures analysis of variances. There was a statistically significant interaction between intervention and time on PSS scores, F(3, 264) = 3.95, P = .009, partial η = 0.043, with PSS scores of the intervention group decreasing from baseline to T3 when intervention ended whereas PSS scores of the comparison group increased from baseline. The average scores on the MAAS did not differ significantly. Evaluation of an embedded mind-body self-care module in the first nursing course demonstrated promising improvements in stress management. The findings support the appropriateness of integrating mind-body self-care content into nursing curricula to enhance students' ability to regulate stress. PMID:27078809

  4. Self-care agency: conceptualizations and operationalizations.

    PubMed

    Gast, H L; Denyes, M J; Campbell, J C; Hartweg, D L; Schott-Baer, D; Isenberg, M

    1989-10-01

    This article traces the interactive process between theory and research as it has been used to clarify the concept of self-care agency, a key concept in Orem's model of nursing. Theoretical constructions of self-care agency that have emerged in the work of Orem and the Nursing Development Conference Group are reviewed. Operational measures of self-care agency are described, particularly with regard to their underlying theoretical formulations. Factorial structures for some self-care agency instruments are related to the components of self-care agency in Orem's most recent conceptualization. Dimensions of self-care agency that are consistently supported by research studies of this phenomenon are identified. PMID:2506797

  5. Self-Care Among Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Interview Study.

    PubMed

    Lovén Wickman, Ulrica; Yngman-Uhlin, Pia; Hjortswang, Henrik; Riegel, Barbara; Stjernman, Henrik; Hollman Frisman, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology. The disease occurs early in life and the burden of symptoms is significant. Patients need to perform self-care to handle their symptoms, but knowledge about what kind of self-care patients do is limited and these individuals need to learn how to manage the symptoms that arise. The aim of this study was to explore self-care among patients with IBD. Twenty adult patients with IBD, 25-66 years of age, were interviewed. Data were analyzed by performing a qualitative content analysis. Four categories with 10 subcategories emerged from the analysis of the interviews. The self-care patients perform consists of symptom recognition (subcategories: physiological sensations and psychological sensations), handling of symptoms (subcategories: adapting the diet, using medical treatment, stress management, and using complementary alternative medicine), planning life (subcategories: planning for when to do activities and when to refrain from activities), and seeking new options (subcategories: seeking knowledge and personal contacts). Self-care consists of symptom recognition, handling life through planning, and accommodating the existing situation with the ultimate goal of maintaining well-being. Being one step ahead facilitates living with IBD. A decision to actively participate in care of a chronic illness is a prerequisite for self-care. Healthcare professionals must consider patients' potential for and desire for self-care when giving advice on self-care activities. Doing so may help people better cope with IBD. PMID:26166423

  6. Making self-care a priority for women at risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Radina, M Elise; Armer, Jane M; Stewart, Bob R

    2014-05-01

    Estimates suggest that between 41% and 94% of breast cancer survivors may develop the chronic condition of secondary lymphedema at some point during their lifetimes. Self-care is critical for effective lymphedema management and risk-reduction. At the same time, women in general have been characterized as engaging in self-sacrificing behaviors in which they choose other-care over self-care. This study explored the self-care experiences of women with breast cancer within the contexts of complex and demanding familial and work-related responsibilities. Participants (N=14) were enrolled in a behavioral-educational intervention aimed at lymphedema risk-reduction. This feminist family theory-informed secondary analysis of qualitative data focused on women's familial roles and the balance or lack of balance between self-sacrifice and self-care. Findings included participants' struggles with time management and prioritizing self-care over care of others as well as making a commitment to self-care. Findings have implications for patient and family-level education and research with regard to gender role-based barriers to self-care and self-care within complex social contexts. PMID:24476674

  7. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care ... Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ...

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Self-Care Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Yoon, Hye-Won; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Chyun, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n = 34) that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012) were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57%) and Caucasian (67%) dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential. PMID:24223305

  9. Thermal management in high average power pulsed compression systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wavrik, R. W.; Reed, K. W.; Harjes, H. C.; Weber, G. J.; Butler, M.; Penn, K. J.; Neau, E. L.

    High average power repetitively pulsed compression systems offer a potential source of electron beams which may be applied to sterilization of wastes, treatment of food products, and other environmental and consumer applications. At Sandia National Laboratory, the Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) program is developing a 7 stage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an electron beam diode load. The RHEPP machine is designed to deliver 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60 ns FWHM, 2.5 MV, 3 kJ pulses at a repetition rate of 120 Hz. In addition to the electrical design considerations, the repetition rate requires thermal management of the electrical losses. Steady state temperatures must be kept below the material degradation temperatures to maximize reliability and component life. The optimum design is a trade off between thermal management, maximizing overall electrical performance of the system, reliability, and cost effectiveness. Cooling requirements and configurations were developed for each of the subsystems of RHEPP. Finite element models that combine fluid flow and heat transfer were used to screen design concepts. The analysis includes one, two, and three dimensional heat transfer using surface heat transfer coefficients and boundary layer models. Experiments were conducted to verify the models as well as to evaluate cooling channel fabrication materials and techniques in Metglas wound cores.

  10. Self-Care Self-Efficacy, Religious Participation and Depression as Predictors of Poststroke Self-Care Among Underserved Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Suzanne M.; Huddleston, Cashuna; Porter, Ben; Amspoker, Amber B.; Evans-Hudnall, Gina L.

    2013-01-01

    Underserved ethnic minorities have multiple chronic disease risk factors, including tobacco, alcohol and substance use, which contribute to increased incidence of stroke. Self-efficacy (self-care self-efficacy), religious participation and depression may directly and indirectly influence engagement in post stroke self-care behaviors. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression, on tobacco, alcohol and substance use in a sample of largely ethnic minority, underserved stroke survivors (n=52). Participants previously recruited for a culturally tailored secondary stroke prevention self-care intervention were included. The treatment group received three stroke self-care sessions. The usual care group completed assessments only. Both groups were included in these analyses. Main outcome measures included tobacco, alcohol and substance use. Self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression were also assessed. Logistic regression analyses, using self-efficacy, religious practice and depression as the referents, were used to predict binary outcomes of tobacco, alcohol and substance use at 4-weeks poststroke. Higher depression and self-care self-efficacy were associated with reduced odds of smoking and substance use. Greater participation in religious activities was associated with lower odds of alcohol use. We can conclude that incorporating depression treatment and techniques to increase self-care self-efficacy, and encouraging religious participation may help to improve stroke self-care behaviors for underserved and low socioeconomic status individuals. Results are discussed in the context of stroke self-management. PMID:26973890

  11. Self-Care and Professionally Guided Care in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Steven M.; Musa, Donald; Kwoh, C. K.; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Silverman, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-management practices among older White and African American persons with osteoarthritis. Self-management was defined broadly to include all behaviors adopted to reduce morbidity, whether recommended by physicians or not. Methods A population-based sample of Medicare beneficiaries (n = 551) was recruited. An expanded set of self-management behaviors using structured and open-ended inquiry, along with use of arthritis-specific medications was elicited. Results Few differences in self-care behaviors between race groups were found. However, older African American persons were significantly less likely to have prescriptions for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) and more likely to use over-the-counter nonprescription analgesics. Discussion Older White and African American persons made similar use of self-care strategies to reduce disease morbidity. African Americans without access to prescription pain relievers substituted nonprescription analgesics. A broader view of self-management is valuable for assessing the ways people may move between professionally guided care and self-care. PMID:18287328

  12. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hypoglycemia - self-care ... This helps emergency medical workers know you have diabetes. ... of carbohydrates. Examples are: 3 glucose tablets 1/2 cup (4 ounces) of ... your blood sugar do not work, call your doctor right away.

  13. Dentine hypersensitivity: analysis of self-care products.

    PubMed

    Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Fiorini, Tiago; Liberman, Diego Nique; Cavagni, Juliano

    2009-01-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is a condition that is often present in individuals, leading them to seek dental treatment. It has been described as an acute, provoked pain that is not attributable to other dental problems. Its actual prevalence is unknown, but it is interpreted as very unpleasant by individuals. Several therapeutic alternatives are available to manage dentine hypersensitivity, involving both in-office treatment and home-use products. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate self-care products for managing dentine hypersensitivity. Among the products available, dentifrices and fluorides are the most studied self-care products, with positive effects. However, a high percentage of individuals is affected by the placebo effect. Among dentifrices, those containing potassium salts seem to be the most promising. Dental professionals need to understand the advantages and limitations of these therapies and use this knowledge in a positive approach that might help in decreasing dentine hypersensitivity among patients. PMID:19838559

  14. An Institutional Staff Training and Self-Management Program for Developing Multiple Self-Care Skills in Severely/Profoundly Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Robert C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Staff were taught use of training and self-management skills through a sequence of written instructions, videotaped and live modeling, rehearsal, and videotaped feedback. Results indicated that staff learned to use the training skills appropriately and consistently, applied the skills in the generalization situations, and maintained skills with…

  15. PERCEIVED RISK OF AMPUTATION, EMOTIONS, AND FOOT SELF-CARE AMONG ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Scollan-Koliopoulos, Melissa; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Bleich, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of having a family member who experienced an amputation on one’s own perceived risk and fear of experiencing a diabetes-related amputation. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using paper-and-pencil surveys by mail. Adults with type 2 diabetes and a family history of diabetes attending a self-management education program in the Metropolitan New York/New Jersey area were recruited. Measures were completed about risk perception and fear of amputation, emotional representations of diabetes from the Illness Perception Questionnaire, and the foot self-care behavior component of the Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities Survey. We estimated the variability in foot self-care that was accounted for by risk perception and fearful memories. Results In those who remembered a family member needing an amputation, high perceived risk and fear was associated with less routine foot self-care. For those without family history of amputation, fear was positively associated with foot self-care. Conclusions Motivation for foot self-care behavior may be driven by risk perception and emotional responses. The ways in which risk perception and fear influence motivation for preventive foot self-care behavior is influenced by whether or not one’s family member was affected by an amputation. Probing about the influence of one’s legacy of diabetes may be helpful when customizing education plans. PMID:20181805

  16. Young People's Participation in the Development of a Self-Care Intervention--A Multi-Site Formative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kime, Nicola; McKenna, Jim; Webster, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The poor outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions indicate that current services and self-care programmes are not meeting the needs of young people. How young people self-manage their condition impacts on long-term health outcomes, but there is little published evidence that details the development of self-care programmes and their…

  17. Young People's Participation in the Development of a Self-Care Intervention--A Multi-Site Formative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kime, Nicola; McKenna, Jim; Webster, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The poor outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions indicate that current services and self-care programmes are not meeting the needs of young people. How young people self-manage their condition impacts on long-term health outcomes, but there is little published evidence that details the development of self-care programmes and their

  18. The Influence of Heart Failure Self-Care on Health Outcomes: Hypothetical Cardioprotective Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christopher S.; Tkacs, Nancy C.; Riegel, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Lapses in self-care are commonly cited as a major cause of poor outcomes in persons with heart failure (HF). Not surprisingly, self-care is assumed to be central to improving health outcomes in this patient population. Empirically, however, this assumption is not well supported, and mechanistically, relationships between self-care and outcomes in HF have not yet been described. In this review, it is proposed that effective self-care maintenance (adherence) and self-care management (symptom evaluation and management) practices are complementary to optimal medical management in delaying HF progression and improving health outcomes in this population. Potential mechanisms through which effective HF self-care practices are complementary to pharmacological therapy in improving outcomes include; a) facilitating partial blockade and partial deactivation of deleterious neurohomones, b) limiting inflammatory processes, c) decreasing the need for administration of detrimental pharmacological agents, and d) minimizing myocardial hibernation. As these mechanisms are hypothetical, research findings are required to establish their validity. Several strategic research questions are proposed. PMID:19279494

  19. The influence of heart failure self-care on health outcomes: hypothetical cardioprotective mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S; Tkacs, Nancy C; Riegel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Lapses in self-care are commonly cited as a major cause of poor outcomes in persons with heart failure (HF). Not surprisingly, self-care is assumed to be central to improving health outcomes in this patient population. Empirically, however, this assumption is not well supported, and mechanistically, relationships between self-care and outcomes in HF have not yet been described. In this review, it is proposed that effective self-care maintenance (adherence) and self-care management (symptom evaluation and management) practices are complementary to optimal medical management in delaying HF progression and improving health outcomes in this population. Potential mechanisms through which effective HF self-care practices are complementary to pharmacological therapy in improving outcomes include (a) facilitating partial blockade and partial deactivation of deleterious neurohormones, (b) limiting inflammatory processes, (c) decreasing the need for administration of detrimental pharmacological agents, and (d) minimizing myocardial hibernation. Because these mechanisms are hypothetical, research findings are required to establish their validity. Several strategic research questions are proposed. PMID:19279494

  20. Effective Intervention of Self-Care on Glycaemia Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zareban, Iraj; Niknami, Shamsodina; Hidarnia, Alireza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Karimy, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the most common diseases, which requires lifelong self-care to improve the quality of life. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the impact of self-care education programs on reducing HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: The current experimental study was conducted on 138 female patients with type 2 diabetes in Zahedan city, Iran. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire which included items on demographics, awareness, beliefs, Self-care behaviors. Before the educational intervention, the (HbA1c) test check list was completed for the patients in both groups. Then the training was applied for the intervention group in five 60-minute educational sessions within one month. Three months following the training, the data collection based on the check list was repeated for both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean scores of awareness, beliefs, Self-care behaviors of the educational group, were 46.6 ± 8.57, 46.5 ± 0.86 and 29.06 ± 10.02, respectively; and it was found that after the education, knowledge, attitude, and self-care scores increased significantly (P < 0.001 Before the training, the scores of self-care, beliefs, and awareness were less than average in the intervention and control groups. In addition, the levels of HbA1c in the patients were higher than the normal levels. Following the intervention, the mean of self-care and HbA1c of the intervention group significantly reduced as compared with those of the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-care training instructions led to improve knowledge, attitude, and performance of the subjects under study and also the average HbA1c. Therefore, the nurses and health care staff should be educated accordingly. PMID:25763251

  1. Large-Scale Survey Findings Inform Patients’ Experiences in Using Secure Messaging to Engage in Patient-Provider Communication and Self-Care Management: A Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nitin R; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background Secure email messaging is part of a national transformation initiative in the United States to promote new models of care that support enhanced patient-provider communication. To date, only a limited number of large-scale studies have evaluated users’ experiences in using secure email messaging. Objective To quantitatively assess veteran patients’ experiences in using secure email messaging in a large patient sample. Methods A cross-sectional mail-delivered paper-and-pencil survey study was conducted with a sample of respondents identified as registered for the Veteran Health Administrations’ Web-based patient portal (My HealtheVet) and opted to use secure messaging. The survey collected demographic data, assessed computer and health literacy, and secure messaging use. Analyses conducted on survey data include frequencies and proportions, chi-square tests, and one-way analysis of variance. Results The majority of respondents (N=819) reported using secure messaging 6 months or longer (n=499, 60.9%). They reported secure messaging to be helpful for completing medication refills (n=546, 66.7%), managing appointments (n=343, 41.9%), looking up test results (n=350, 42.7%), and asking health-related questions (n=340, 41.5%). Notably, some respondents reported using secure messaging to address sensitive health topics (n=67, 8.2%). Survey responses indicated that younger age (P=.039) and higher levels of education (P=.025) and income (P=.003) were associated with more frequent use of secure messaging. Females were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, compared with their male counterparts (P=.098). Minorities were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, at least once a month, compared with nonminorities (P=.086). Individuals with higher levels of health literacy reported more frequent use of secure messaging (P=.007), greater satisfaction (P=.002), and indicated that secure messaging is a useful (P=.002) and easy-to-use (P≤.001) communication tool, compared with individuals with lower reported health literacy. Many respondents (n=328, 40.0%) reported that they would like to receive education and/or felt other veterans would benefit from education on how to access and use the electronic patient portal and secure messaging (n=652, 79.6%). Conclusions Survey findings validated qualitative findings found in previous research, such that veterans perceive secure email messaging as a useful tool for communicating with health care teams. To maximize sustained utilization of secure email messaging, marketing, education, skill building, and system modifications are needed. These findings can inform ongoing efforts to promote the sustained use of this electronic tool to support for patient-provider communication. PMID:26690761

  2. College Student Self-Care Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Dintiman, George B.

    The purpose of this docoment is to help college students maintain health by keeping a weekly diary of health related behaviors including diet, exercise, and stress levels. In addition each weekly entry presents a self-care tip for health improvement. Discussions of the college student and health, health and lifestyle, instructions on use of the…

  3. Evolution of Self-Care Education

    PubMed Central

    Ambizas, Emily M.; Bastianelli, Karen M.S.; Ferreri, Stefanie P.; Haines, Seena L.; Stutz, Misty M.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Wilhelm, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the curriculum content for nonprescription medication and self-care therapeutics has expanded significantly. Self-care courses ranging from stand-alone, required courses to therapeutic content and skills laboratories, have evolved in colleges and schools of pharmacy to accommodate rapid changes related to nonprescription medications and to meet the needs of students. The design of and content delivery methods used in self-care courses vary among institutions. Teaching innovations such as team-based learning, role playing/vignettes, videos, and social media, as well as interdisciplinary learning have enhanced delivery of this content. Given that faculty members train future pharmacists, they should be familiar with the new paradigms of Nonprescription Safe Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE) Initiative, nonprescription medications for chronic diseases, and the growing trends of health and wellness in advancing patient-care initiatives. This paper reviews the significant changes that may be impacting self-care curriculums in the United States. PMID:24672061

  4. Helping Your Child Learn Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Corte, Suzanne Della

    1987-01-01

    Practical advice for parents of handicapped children is the focus of this issue on self-care skills including self-feeding, dressing, and personal hygiene. Ten initial tips for teaching skills to children include constant repetition, modeling, and keeping verbal instruction to a minimum. The section on self-feeding addresses the topics of…

  5. Constructing a Self-care Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Krypel, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique challenges presented by a dynamic marketplace when designing a self-care curriculum. As manufacturers seek to satisfy consumer demand and increase market product shares, rapid changes occur with brand name extensions and prescription to nonprescription switches. The US Food and Drug Administration's continuous process of approving ingredients (monographs) add to this changing environment. Thus, developing learning outcomes beyond drug knowledge becomes critical. Learning outcomes must also address the multifaceted nature of self-care, including the development of skills in patient assessment (triage) and education. Determining which content areas to be covered can be difficult when consumer demand and marketplace changes are considered. For example, consumer use of dietary and herbal supplements forces pharmacists to have some basic knowledge of safety and efficacy regarding these products. Ultimately, given the dynamic, multifaceted nature of self-care, developing life-long learning skills/attitudes in students may be the most important outcome necessary for a self-care curriculum. PMID:17332866

  6. Experiences of Burnout, Self-Care, and Recovery of Female University Counsellors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the burnout, self-care, and recovery experiences of female university counsellors working at a university counselling centre in Taiwan. The 9 participants had an average age of 42.44 years and had worked at the centre for an average of 11.3 years. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth…

  7. Complementary Self-Care Strategies for Healthy Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sondra

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on alternative self-care practices in terms of collaboration with the primary care physician and individual exploration of self-care practices such as acupuncture, meditation, and nutrition counseling. (JOW)

  8. Teaching Counselors Self-Care through Mindfulness Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Sandy; Christopher, John Chambers; Dahlen, Penny; Christopher, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Few counseling programs directly address the importance of self-care in reducing stress and burnout in their curricula. A course entitled Mind/Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care was created to address personal and professional growth opportunities through self-care and mindfulness practices (meditation, yoga, gong, and conscious relaxation

  9. Teaching Counselors Self-Care through Mindfulness Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Sandy; Christopher, John Chambers; Dahlen, Penny; Christopher, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Few counseling programs directly address the importance of self-care in reducing stress and burnout in their curricula. A course entitled Mind/Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care was created to address personal and professional growth opportunities through self-care and mindfulness practices (meditation, yoga, gong, and conscious relaxation…

  10. Self-care agency in two groups of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hart, M A; Foster, S N

    1998-01-01

    Self-care agency, a multidimensional concept in Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory, includes motivation, decision-making, energy, and knowledge necessary to perform self-care actions. Basic conditioning factors affect individuals' development and exercise of self-care agency. Secondary analysis of Appraisal of Self-Care Agency (ASA) scores in two groups of pregnant women, (1) a childbirth education group (n = 119) and (2) a clinic group (n = 127) was completed. Group 2 had significantly higher ASA scores. Several basic conditioning factors influenced ASA scores. Results offer implications for Orem's theory and maternity nursing practice. PMID:10214234

  11. Cognitive Function and Self-Care in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Shil; Shim, Jae Lan; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study examined the association of cognitive function with self-care and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among heart failure (HF) patients. Subjects and Methods In this prospective study, 86 outpatients with HF completed face-to-face interviews including neuropsychological testing to evaluate cognitive function and the use of the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index to measure self-care. Functional status was assessed with the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. Follow-up data on MACE were obtained at 24 months after enrollment. Results Compared with the Korean norm values, more than half of the HF patients had cognitive deficits in global function (33.0%), immediate recall (65.1%), delayed recall memory (65.1%), and executive function (60.5%). Patients with symptomatic HF (≥NYHA class II) had the higher risk for substantially poor cognitive function in all areas of cognitive function than asymptomatic HF patients (NYHA class I, p<0.05). Most patients demonstrated poor self-care adequacy in maintenance (84.9%), management of symptoms (100%), and confidence (86.0%). After adjustment for age and gender, memory function was significantly associated with self-care confidence (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.92, p=0.033). No relationship was found between cognition and self-care maintenance. There were 19 MACE's during the 24-month follow-up. Patients without MACE had a significantly higher global cognitive function (p=0.024), while no cognitive domains were significant predictors of MACE when adjusted for age and gender. Conclusion HF patients with memory loss have poorer self-care confidence. Studies are warranted to examine the functional implication of cognitive deficits and adverse outcomes in a larger sample. PMID:26240585

  12. Patients’ Perspectives on Factors that Influence Diabetes Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Shakibazadeh, E; Larijani, B; Shojaeezadeh, D; Rashidian, A; Forouzanfar, MH; Bartholomew, LK

    2011-01-01

    Background Although diabetes mellitus is of high concern in Iran, and the level of control is unacceptable, few qualitative studies have been carried out to reflect the experiences of patients on the barriers and motivators to self-care. This study aimed to explore a culturally based experience of Iranian diabetic patients regarding the personal and environmental barriers to and facilitating factors for diabetes self-care. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted among type 2 diabetic patients in the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases’ diabetes clinic. Purposeful sampling was used. Newly diagnosed patients (less than six months) and all type 1 diabetic patients were excluded. Three focus groups were held on for each sex. A total of 43 patients participated in the study. Frame-work analysis was used to extract the themes from the data. Results: Data analysis showed five main barriers: physical barriers (such as physical effects of diabetes); psychological barriers (such as health beliefs); educational barriers (such as lack of knowledge about diabetes); social barriers (such as group pressure); and care system barriers (such as service availability). Along with the barriers, there were some motivators that the participants mentioned as a stimuli to control their diabetes. They include beliefs about diabetes, perceived responsibility for family, religious beliefs, and the views of significant others. Conclusion: Culturally based interventions are needed to improve diabetes care management in Iran. In addition to personal factors, diabetes health educators should pay attention to the environmental factors when they develop programs. PMID:23113114

  13. A PILOT TEST OF AN INTEGRATED SELF-CARE INTERVENTION FOR PERSONS WITH HEART FAILURE AND CONCOMITANT DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Butts, Brittany; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Melinda K.; Ferranti, Erin P.; Culler, Steven D.; Butler, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Studies show 30-47% of persons with heart failure (HF) have concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). Self-care for persons with both of these chronic conditions is conflicting, complex and often inadequate. This pilot study tested an integrated self-care program for its effects on HF and DM knowledge, self-care efficacy, self-care behaviors and Quality of Life (QOL). Hospitalized HF-DM participants (n=71) were randomized to usual care or intervention using a 1:2 allocation and followed at 30 and 90 days after intervention. Intervention was an integrated education and counseling program focused on HF-DM self-care. Variables included demographic and clinical data, knowledge about HF and DM, HF and DM specific self- efficacy, standard HF and DM QOL scales, and HF and DM self-care behaviors. Analysis included descriptive statistics, multilevel longitudinal models for group and time effects, post-hoc testing and effect size calculations. Sidak adjustments were used to control for Type 1 error inflation. The integrated HF-DM self-care intervention conferred effects on improved HF knowledge (30 days, p=.05), HF self-care maintenance (30 and 90 days, p<.001), self-care management (90 days, p=.05), DM self efficacy (30 days, p=.03; 90 days, p=.004), general diet (30 days, p=.05), HF physical QOL (p=.04) and emotional QOL scores (p=.05) at 90 days within the intervention group. UC also reported increased total and physical QOL. Greater percentages of participants in the intervention group improved self reported exercise between 0-30 days (p=.005 and moderate effect size ES=.47), and foot care between 0-90 days (p=.03, small ES=.36). No group differences or improvements in DM specific QOL were observed. An integrated HF-DM self-care intervention was effective in improving essential components of self-care and had sustained (90 day) effects on selected self-care behaviors. Future studies testing HF-DM integrated self-care interventions in larger samples, with longer follow-up, and on other outcomes such as hospitalization and clinical markers are warranted. PMID:24211112

  14. [Illness knowledge, social support and self care behavior in adolescents with beta-thalassemia major].

    PubMed

    Yang, H C; Chen, Y C; Mao, H C; Lin, K H

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among illness knowledge, social support and self-care behavior in adolescents with beta-thalassemia major. The subjects were 58 beta-thalassemia major adolescents recruited from the pediatric hematology outpatient departments of three hospitals in North Taiwan. All data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, t-test, Pearson correlation, and stepwise multiple regression. The results showed that: (1) Scoring in illness knowledge, the best was treatment knowledge, and the worst was the knowledge of complications and symptoms. (2) The result for social support indicated that the family was the major source of support, and that classmates/friends provided the least support for thalassemic adolescents. (3) Scoring in self care behavior, the best was the medical and chelate therapy, and the worst was the management of problems and coping. (4) Individual characteristic differences, including sex, level of education, length of illness, complications of thalassemia, hospitalization due to thalassemic complications and receiving other treatments were correlated with their illness knowledge, social support or self-care behavior. (5) Illness knowledge, social support which were positively correlated with self-care behavior. (6) 50.0% of the variance in self-care behavior can be explained by emotional support from family, general knowledge of thalassemia, treatment knowledge and appraisal support from family. These findings could provide referential material for nursing research and nursing practice. PMID:11548457

  15. A Concept Analysis: Assuming Responsibility for Self-Care among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Kathleen M.; Decker, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This concept analysis clarifies “assuming responsibility for self-care” by adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods Walker and Avant’s (2005) methodology guided the analysis. Results Assuming responsibility for self-care was defined as a process specific to diabetes within the context of development. It is daily, gradual, individualized to person, and unique to task. The goal is ownership that involves autonomy in behaviors and decision-making. Practice Implications Adolescents with type 1 diabetes need to be assessed for assuming responsibility for self-care. This achievement has implications for adolescents’ diabetes management, short- and long-term health, and psychosocial quality of life. PMID:20367781

  16. Bridging the Self-care Deficit Gap: Remote Patient Monitoring and the Hospital-at-Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafazzo, Joseph A.; Leonard, Kevin; Easty, Anthony C.; Rossos, Peter G.; Chan, Christopher T.

    This study examines the use of a remote patient monitoring intervention to address the challenge of patient self-care in complex hospital-at-home therapies. It was shown that in a home hemodialysis patient group, remote patient monitoring facilitated self-care and was supported by patients and, in particular, family caregivers. This does not come without cost to the patient however, who now has greater personal responsibility and accountability for their health management. Promising results from this study indicate that most patients are willing to assume this cost in exchange for the possibility of improved health outcomes.

  17. Testing a predictive model of the use of HIV/AIDS symptom self-care strategies.

    PubMed

    Chou, Fang-Yu

    2004-02-01

    Several types of self-care strategies have been reported by patients with HIV/AIDS to manage their HIV/AIDS related symptoms. However, little research has examined the factors influencing the use of different HIV symptom self-care strategies. This paper presents the results of testing a predictive model of the use of eight types of symptom self-care strategies: medications, complementary treatments, self-comforting, daily thoughts/activities, changing diet, help-seeking, exercise, and spiritual care. Logistic regression tests were used to examine the likelihood of using the eight types of symptom self-care strategies that were summarized and categorized from the questionnaires reported by patients with HIV/AIDS (n = 359). Sociodemographic variables (age, gender, race, education, injection drug use, insurance status, income status) and disease-related variables (taking antiretroviral medications, symptom intensity, symptom bothersomeness, impact of symptom on daily life) were selected as predictive variables. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that race (white vs. non-white) was a significant predictor for the use of medications (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.92), self-comforting (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.24-3.79), help seeking (OR = 5.71, 95% CI = 2.57-12.70), and spiritual care (OR = 5.09, 95% CI = 1.81-14.30). In addition, symptom intensity significantly predicted the use of medications (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.05-1.40) and gender significantly predicted the use of spiritual care (OR = 3.76, 95% CI = 1.71-8.25). Racial difference is the predominant predictor for the use of symptom self-care strategies. The cultural differences in the use of symptom self-care strategies should be considered in symptom management. PMID:15006185

  18. Omaha company capitalizes on the potential of self-care to drive down costs.

    PubMed

    2006-06-01

    Engage patients in managing their own health now. Why? Because lifestyle-related chronic disease is overburdening the nation's health care system, and behavioral change is key to getting the problem under control. See how one Omaha-based company is leveraging the power of self-care to improve outcomes and lower health care-related costs. PMID:17803177

  19. Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging.

    PubMed

    Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one's health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health). Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions. PMID:23807842

  20. Nurses' lived experience of Reiki for self-care.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experience of nurses who practice Reiki for self-care. In-person interviews were conducted with 11 nurses who met specific study criteria, using open-ended questions to examine the experience of nurses who are Reiki practitioners, to understand their perceptions of Reiki use in self-treatment, and to appreciate its meaning for them. The Colaizzi method was utilized in data analysis and independent decision trail audits were completed to promote study rigor and trustworthiness of results. Thematic categories and major and minor thematic clusters emerged around the topics of daily stress management, self-healing, spirituality, and interconnectedness of self, others, and beyond. Implications of the study findings for nursing practice and nursing education are discussed. Potential applications of study findings to Jean Watson's transpersonal caring theory located within a caring science framework are explored and recommendations for future research are offered. PMID:19411991

  1. Oral Health Self-Care Behaviors of Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Kohrman, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This analysis describes the dental self-care behaviors used by a multi-ethnic sample of older adults, and it delineates the associations of self-care behaviors with personal characteristics and oral health problems. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling rural adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Rural older adults engage in a variety of self-care behaviors, including the use of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicine (12.1%), OTC Dental Products (84.3%), Salt (51.0%), Prayer (6.1%), and Complementary Therapies (18.2%). Some gender and ethnic class differences are apparent, with greater use by women of OTC Medicine and Salt, and greater use by African Americans and American Indians of OTC Medicine and OTC Dental Products. Use of dental self-care behaviors appears to be driven by need. Those reporting oral pain, bleeding gums, and dry mouth have a greater odds of engaging in most of the dental self-care behaviors, including use of complementary therapies. Conclusions The major factor leading to the use of self-care behaviors is need. Although oral pain does increase the use of self-care behaviors, so do bleeding gums and dry mouth. Research and practice should address self-care behaviors used for oral health problems in addition to pain. Investigators should expand analysis of dental self-care behavior and the relationship of self-care behavior to the use of professional services. Further research also should explore the use of complementary therapies in dental self-care. PMID:19486460

  2. Self-Care, Self-Help, and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert N.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines the current status of self-care and self-help as they relate to health, and explores their potential in enhancing the health of the elderly. It is based on a review of the literature, and reports from self-care conferences and interviews with individuals interested and active in the field. (Author)

  3. Self-care behaviour of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, T; Abu-Saad, H H; Dracup, K; Halfens, R

    2000-01-01

    Heart failure-related self-care behaviour is important to optimize outcomes for patients with heart failure. Such behaviours include adherence to medication, diet and exercise, but self-care also refers to such things as seeking assistance when symptoms occur, and daily weighing. The study aim was to describe heart failure-related self-care behaviour, to test the effect of education and support on self-care behaviour and to discuss limitations. Data were collected from 128 heart failure patients during their hospital stay and at 1-, 3-, and 9-month follow-ups. Concepts from Orem's general theory of nursing were used to describe heart failure-related self-care behaviour and its limitations. The effects of intensive systematized and planned education from a nurse in hospital and at home were evaluated in an experimental design. Results showed that education enhanced self-care behaviour significantly at 1 and 3 months after discharge. Despite intensive education and support, patients did not manifest all self-care behaviours that might be expected. Patients in both the intervention and control groups described limitations in knowledge, judgement/decision-making and skills. It can be concluded that supportive-educative intervention is effective in enhancing heart failure-related self-care behaviour early after discharge. To optimize such intervention, more emphasis must be placed on behavioural strategies (e.g. self-medication), social support (e.g. from family members) and reinforcement (e.g. home visits). PMID:12035274

  4. Communication Strategies for Improving Diabetics' Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Burt; Mengel, Marvin C.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on various levels of diabetic patients' involvement in the care of their disease and effects of these levels on how closely they later followed self-care programs. Suggests that by participating in group discussions about excuses for not following a self-care regimen, and offering solutions to counter those excuses, diabetic patients…

  5. Diabetes Self-Care and the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Smaldone, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues which impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients’ self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

  6. Parenting, Autonomy and Self-Care of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dashiff, Carol; Vance, David

    2016-01-01

    Background During adolescence diabetes creates a juncture of very complex disease management demands with developmental needs, including the striving of adolescents for greater autonomy. Parents' concerns and fears about the teen's diabetes self-management abilities during this time can heighten parental attachment behavior and affect the parents' ability to support autonomy development necessary for effective self-care. Maternal parenting processes may be especially important for those adolescents who have Type 1 diabetes because mothers are the primary caregivers. Purpose Based on attachment theory, the aim was to test a model of the influence of mother-adolescent developmental conflict, maternal separation anxiety, and maternal inhibition of autonomy and relatedness on cognitive autonomy and self-care of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Method A total of 131 families with an adolescent, ages 11-15, contributed data annually across three waves. Mothers and adolescents completed paper-and-pencil measures and two interaction scenarios that were coded by trained staff from audio-tapes. The adolescent also completed a structured interview and questionnaire to assess self-care. Results Maternal separation anxiety when adolescents were 11-15 years of age directly predicted cognitive autonomy at one year follow-up, and that cognitive autonomy was directly related to self-care one year later, but did not mediate between separation anxiety and self-care. Conclusions Future investigation of the influence of separation anxiety of parents on adolescent autonomy development is warranted, as well as the contribution of autonomy development to diabetes self-management behaviors of adolescents. PMID:18991978

  7. The changes and factors associated with post-discharge self-care behaviors among Chinese patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaolin; Hu, Xiuying; Su, Yonglin; Qu, Moying; Dolansky, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-care behavior is essential for achieving good outcomes among patients with heart failure. Understanding the factors associated with self-care over time is important for the provision of appropriate and targeted interventions. However, little is known regarding the changes and factors associated with post-discharge self-care behaviors among Chinese patients with heart failure. Objective To investigate the changes and factors of self-care behaviors during the first 3 months following discharge among patients with heart failure in the People’s Republic of China. Methods A descriptive design with a convenience sample was utilized in this study. Patients (N=128) from two hospitals, West China Hospital and Angjin Hospital, in Chengdu, People’s Republic of China, were recruited from June 2013 to June 2014. The instruments used in the study included the following: the Social Support Rating Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item Scale, and the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify the factors related to self-care behaviors at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months following discharge. Results Patients’ self-care behaviors were poor and decreased significantly over time (F=4.09, P<0.05). The factors associated with self-care behaviors at baseline included the following: education level, comorbidities, and social support. The factors related to self-care behaviors at 1 and 3 months following discharge included the following: education level, comorbidities, social support, and self-efficacy. The variances in self-care behaviors attributed to these factors were 43%, 46%, and 42% at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months following discharge, respectively. Conclusion Additional support should be provided to patients with heart failure with low educational levels and patients with multiple comorbidities. Follow-up, continuity of care, and family caregiver integration following discharge are necessary for the said patients to improve their self-care behaviors and obtain better outcomes. PMID:26635468

  8. Informing the development of services supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health conditions: a mixed method study of community based mental health initiatives in England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Supporting self-care is being explored across health care systems internationally as an approach to improving care for long term conditions in the context of ageing populations and economic constraint. UK health policy advocates a range of approaches to supporting self-care, including the application of generic self-management type programmes across conditions. Within mental health, the scope of self-care remains poorly conceptualised and the existing evidence base for supporting self-care is correspondingly disparate. This paper aims to inform the development of support for self-care in mental health by considering how generic self-care policy guidance is implemented in the context of services supporting people with severe, long term mental health problems. Methods A mixed method study was undertaken comprising standardised psychosocial measures, questionnaires about health service use and qualitative interviews with 120 new referrals to three contrasting community based initiatives supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health problems, repeated nine months later. A framework approach was taken to qualitative analysis, an exploratory statistical analysis sought to identify possible associations between a range of independent variables and self-care outcomes, and a narrative synthesis brought these analyses together. Results Participants reported improvement in self-care outcomes (e.g. greater empowerment; less use of Accident and Emergency services). These changes were not associated with level of engagement with self-care support. Level of engagement was associated with positive collaboration with support staff. Qualitative data described the value of different models of supporting self-care and considered challenges. Synthesis of analyses suggested that timing support for self-care, giving service users control over when and how they accessed support, quality of service user-staff relationships and decision making around medication are important issues in supporting self-care in mental health. Conclusions Service delivery components – e.g. peer support groups, personal planning – advocated in generic self-care policy have value when implemented in a mental health context. Support for self-care in mental health should focus on core, mental health specific qualities; issues of control, enabling staff-service user relationships and shared decision making. The broad empirical basis of our research indicates the wider relevance of our findings across mental health settings. PMID:22769593

  9. Self-Care Behaviors among Thai Primigravida Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Panthumas, Suphawadee; Kittipichai, Wirin; Pitikultang, Supachai; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate predictive factors of the self-care behaviors among Thai teenagers with primigravida. The samples of 206 primigravida teenagers attending ANC clinics of six hospitals in the North-Eastern region of Thailand were included. Data collection was done through self administered-questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.72 – 0.92. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that the percentage-mean score of overall self-care behavior was 76.91. The percentage-mean scores of self-care behaviors in specific trimester were found that the score in the second trimester was lower than the scores in the first and third trimesters (57.58, 60.45, and 64.65, respectively). Factors associated with overall self-care behavior were perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support from family, knowledge on self-care during pregnancy, accessibility to health services, self-esteem and age (r = 0.47, 0.34, 0.28, 0.24, 0.19, and 0.15, respectively). Perceived self-efficacy and knowledge on self-care during pregnancy were the two considerable predictors accounted for 25% of the variance in the self-care behaviors of Thai teenagers with primigravida. PMID:22980240

  10. Knowledge expectations, self-care, and health complaints of heart failure patients scheduled for cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ingadottir, Brynja; Thylén, Ingela; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe what knowledge heart failure patients expect to acquire in relation to their upcoming cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation, to describe their self-care and health complaints, and to explore the relationship between knowledge expectations and self-care, health complaints, and background factors. Patients and methods Cross-sectional multicenter study with 104 patients scheduled for a first-time, elective CRT implantation in Swedish and Icelandic hospitals. Data were collected with the Knowledge Expectations of hospital patient Scale, European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale, and Adjusted Postoperative Recovery Profile. Results Patients expected most knowledge related to their disease and its treatment (median 4.0, interquartile range 0.13) and least on social issues (median 3.5, interquartile range 0.83). Their self-care was average (standardized mean 51.0±19.6) before the procedure. Patients had on average 8.2 (±4.7) health complaints and rated fatigue and sexual problems as the most severe. Age was independently associated with knowledge expectations (Expβ 0.049, P=0.033). Conclusion Heart failure patients waiting for a CRT device implantation have high expectations for multiple aspects of knowledge, including self-care issues, before their procedure. These expectations are similar to those of other surgical patients and they increase with age. PMID:26170641

  11. Diabetes Island: Preliminary Impact of a Virtual World Self-Care Educational Intervention for African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Moadsiri, Ada; Quinn, Lauretta T; Riley, Barth B; Danielson, Kirstie K; Monahan, Colleen; Bangs, Valerie A; Gerber, Ben S

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a serious worldwide public health challenge. The burden of diabetes, including prevalence and risk of complications, is greater for minorities, particularly African Americans. Internet-based immersive virtual worlds offer a unique opportunity to reach large and diverse populations with diabetes for self-management education and support. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the acceptability, usage, and preliminary outcome of a virtual world intervention, Diabetes Island, in low-income African Americans with type 2 diabetes. The main hypotheses were that the intervention would: (1) be perceived as acceptable and useful; and (2) improve diabetes self-care (eg, behaviors and barriers) and self-care related outcomes, including glycemic control (A1C), body mass index (BMI), and psychosocial factors (ie, empowerment and distress) over six months. Methods The evaluation of the intervention impact used a single-group repeated measures design, including three assessment time points: (1) baseline, (2) 3 month (mid intervention), and (3) 6 month (immediate post intervention). Participants were recruited from a university primary care clinic. A total of 41 participants enrolled in the 6 month intervention study. The intervention components included: (1) a study website for communication, feedback, and tracking; and (2) access to an immersive virtual world (Diabetes Island) through Second Life, where a variety of diabetes self-care education activities and resources were available. Outcome measures included A1C, BMI, self-care behaviors, barriers to adherence, eating habits, empowerment, and distress. In addition, acceptability and usage were examined. A series of mixed-effects analyses, with time as a single repeated measures factor, were performed to examine preliminary outcomes. Results The intervention study sample (N=41) characteristics were: (1) mean age of 55 years, (2) 71% (29/41) female, (3) 100% (41/41) African American, and (4) 76% (31/41) reported annual incomes below US $20,000. Significant changes over time in the expected direction were observed for BMI (P<.02); diabetes-related distress (P<.02); global (P<.01) and dietary (P<.01) environmental barriers to self-care; one physical activity subscale (P<.04); and one dietary intake (P<.01) subscale. The participant feedback regarding the intervention (eg, ease of use, interest, and perceived impact) was consistently positive. The usage patterns showed that the majority of participants logged in regularly during the first two months, and around half logged in each week on average across the six month period. Conclusions This study demonstrated promising initial results of an immersive virtual world approach to reaching underserved individuals with diabetes to deliver diabetes self-management education. This intervention model and method show promise and could be tailored for other populations. A large scale controlled trial is needed to further examine efficacy. PMID:25584346

  12. Dynamic Power Management for Sensor Node in WSN Using Average Reward MDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kianpisheh, Somayeh; Charkari, Nasrolah Moghadam

    Reducing energy consumption is one of the key challenges in sensor networks. One technique to reduce energy consumption is dynamic power management. In this paper we model power management problem in a sensor node as an average reward Markov Decision Process and solve it using dynamic programming. We achieve an optimal policy that maximizes long-term average of utility per energy consumption. Simulation results show our approach has the ability of reaching to the same amount of utility as always on policy while consuming less energy than always on policy.

  13. The Effect of self-care on the lives of children suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Golchin, Mehri; Sharifi, Najmeh; Ziaee, Shohreh; Taheri, Parvin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute lymphocytic leukemia is one of the common cancers of childhood and currently, 80 percent of these children survive more than 5 years by getting the right treatment. Since long-term treatment is painful and invasive, preventing the side effects and their influence on quality of life is an important issue which introduces consideration for self-care. Consequently, the present study was conducted in 2007-2008 about the effects of self-care on the lives of children suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia, referring to treatment centers in Isfahan City. METHODS: The present study was a two-staged, two-group clinical trial. 48 children aging 5-18 and suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia were selected through convenient sampling method and the training program was administered before them and afterwards, they were divided randomly into two groups of experiment (n = 24) and control (n = 24). The General Scale and Cancer Scale Quality of Life Identification Questionnaires were used to define the quality of life of the children. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were in turn defined by content validity method and Cronbach's alpha test. The experiment group received the self-care checklist after training and was controlled and examined for 3 months. The pre-and-post self care Quality of Life Questionnaire were both filled out in both groups and accordingly, the SPSS software, independent t test, chi-square and paired t tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The findings of the study showed that both groups were homogeneous by virtue of influential factors on quality of life, like age, gender, type, stage and duration of treatment (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the experiment and control groups’ quality of life average scores before administering the self-care training program. The results of paired-t test in the experiment group after administering the self-care program showed a significant difference in General and Cancer Scale Questionnaires Quality of Life with that before administering the program, while no significant difference was observed in the control group. Also, the independent t-test showed a significant difference in the average of quality of life score shift after administering the self care between the experiment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life improved after administering self-care training program in the experiment group while it did not improve in the control group and even the increase in average score of quality of life in Cancer Scale in this group was an indicator of an increase in problems related to disease, treatment and care. The results of this study showed the positive effects of administering self-care on the quality of life of children suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:22039382

  14. Yoga for Self-Care and Burnout Prevention Among Nurses.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina K; Rollins, Kari; Walker, Danielle; Wong, Lily; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2015-10-01

    The promotion of self-care and the prevention of burnout among nurses is a public health priority. Evidence supports the efficacy of yoga to improve physical and mental health outcomes, but few studies have examined the influence of yoga on nurse-specific outcomes. The purpose of this pilot-level randomized controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of yoga to improve self-care and reduce burnout among nurses. Compared with controls (n = 20), yoga participants (n = 20) reported significantly higher self-care as well as less emotional exhaustion and depersonalization upon completion of an 8-week yoga intervention. Although the control group demonstrated no change throughout the course of the study, the yoga group showed a significant improvement in scores from pre- to post-intervention for self-care (p < .001), mindfulness (p = .028), emotional exhaustion (p = .008), and depersonalization (p = .007) outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:26419795

  15. The meaning of actualization of self-care resources among a group of older home-dwelling people—A hermeneutic study

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Self-care is an activity of mature persons who have developed their abilities to take care of themselves. Individuals can choose to actualize their self-care abilities into self-care activities to maintain, restore, or improve health and well-being. It is of importance to understand the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources among older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources, i.e., actions taken to improve, maintain, or restore health and well-being, among a group of older home-dwelling individuals with a high sense of coherence. The design of this study was to reanalyse narratives revealing self-care activities from 11 (five females and six males) Norwegian older home-dwelling people (65 years or older) identified as having a high sense of coherence. In order to reveal the meaning and get an understanding of why these self-care resources were realized or actualized, a Gadamerian-based research method was chosen. The analysis revealed four themes that showed the meaning of actualization of self-care resources in the study group: “Desire to carry on”, “Be of use to others”, “Self-realization”, and “Confidence to manage in the future”. The findings showed what older people found meaningful to strive for, and this information can be used as a guide for health professionals when supporting older people in their self-care. Older people with self-care resources can also be an important resource for others in need of social contact and practical help. These resources have to be asked for in voluntary work among older people in need of help and, thereby, can be a valuable supplement to the community health care system. PMID:23601788

  16. The Effect of Self-Care Education on the Awareness, Attitude, and Adherence to Self-Care Behaviors in Hospitalized Patients Due to Heart Failure with and without Depression

    PubMed Central

    Navidian, Ali; Yaghoubinia, Fariba; Ganjali, Alireza; Khoshsimaee, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are among somatic disorders and psychological factors affect their onset, exacerbation, and treatment. This study was conducted on the hospitalized patients who had heart failure with and without depression. The study criteria was to evaluate the effect of self-care education on awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors on these patients. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, seventy patients with heart failure that met the inclusion criteria were recruited through purposive sampling method. They were assigned in to two equal size groups regarding their depression status. First, the eligible patients were selected; then Beck Depression Inventory was done on the patients followed by examination by the clinical psychologist. Patients with average and higher scores were classified in the depressed group and others who got lower than average scores were classified as the non -depressed group. A questionnaire containing items related to awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors was used to collect the data. First, self-care behavior was determined and then a four-sessions of educational intervention were held individually for both groups. The second round of questionnaires were completed at patients’ home twelve weeks after the discharge. The Collected data was analyzed using independent-samples and paired-sample t tests, Chi square, and statistical analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests through SPSS (version 21, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results After the educational sessions, the statistical analysis showed significant differences in the mean scores of awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors between the two groups (P<0.0001). Conclusion Self-care behavior education had lower effects on the depressed patients with heart failure. Therefore, before providing education for these patients, it is necessary to consider their psychological problems such as depression. PMID:26091101

  17. Taking good care of myself: a qualitative study on self-care behavior among Chinese persons with a permanent colostomy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Songwathana, Praneed; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Wang, Qingxi

    2014-12-01

    In Chinese culture, as a possible consequence of Confucianism, caring for the sick is considered a moral obligation of family members, while self-care is only the basis of fulfilling filial piety. This qualitative study aims to explore the self-care behavior among persons with a permanent colostomy in a Chinese cultural context of emphasizing the role of family caregiving. Data from in-depth interviews with seven Chinese adults at a university hospital in southwest China were analyzed using content analysis. Informants' self-care behavior was characterized by "taking good care of myself," which underlined individuals' efforts to manage colostomy-related impacts involving: (i) taking care of my colostomy with a proper degree of independence; (ii) taking care of my life by dealing with limitations; (iii) taking care of my mood in a positive way. Findings revealed that informants' self-care behavior was linked to their Confucian beliefs in family obligations, and also influenced by a happy-go-lucky outlook of life, a likely product of Taoism. The information is useful for nurses to design a culturally appropriate care plan to improve self-care behavior and proper family caregiving. PMID:25370020

  18. Depression, self-esteem, diabetes care and self-care behaviors among middle-aged and older Mexicans☆

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz

    2016-01-01

    Aims Examine the associations of depression and self-esteem on self-care activities and care received among Mexicans with diabetes. Methods Using data from the Mexican Nutrition and Health Survey 2012, logistic regression models were fit to test the associations between each self-care activity and diabetes care, and self-esteem and depression. Results People with low self-esteem were less likely to follow a diet, but no other associations were found. Contrary to what was expected, there were no relationships between depression and quality of care received or self-care behaviors. Conclusion Current findings support the importance of looking at mental health and emotional state among older adults with diabetes. Future studies should explore the relationship between different psychological barriers to proper diabetes management. PMID:24846446

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Instrument.

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Howard, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Translation of instruments needs to ensure equivalence between the source and the target language to establish the psychometric properties of the translated version. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) instrument. The 12-item English version of the SDSCA was translated into Arabic using back translation on a sample of 140 Lebanese participants with Type 2 diabetes. Construct validity was measured using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation. Multitrait scaling analysis was used to test for item convergent and discriminant validity based on item-scale correlations. Conceptual and content validity were examined by an expert panel in diabetes. Internal consistency reliability R was assessed using interitem correlations. The average interitem correlation for the four subscales ranged between--.05 for Diet and .66 for Glucose Testing. Factor analysis identified four factors which accounted for 60% of the variance. The preliminary results of Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities-Arabic Version (SDSCA-Ar) are comparable to the psychometric properties the original SDSCA. SDSCA-Ar is a valid measure of diabetes self-care in Lebanese patients with diabetes. PMID:27025000

  20. Family Influences on Heart Failure Self-care and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Quinn, Christina; Gary, Rebecca A.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2009-01-01

    Many patient education guidelines for teaching heart failure patients recommend inclusion of the family; however, family-focused interventions to promote self-care in heart failure are few. This article reviews the state of the science regarding family influences on heart failure self-care and outcomes. The literature and current studies suggest that family functioning, family support, problem solving, communication, self-efficacy, and caregiver burden are important areas to target for future research. In addition, heart failure patients without family and those who live alone and are socially isolated are highly vulnerable for poor self-care and should receive focused attention. Specific research questions based on existing science and gaps that need to be filled to support clinical practice are posed. PMID:18437068

  1. Self-care issues from the perspective of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Cicutto, Lisa; Brooks, Dina; Henderson, Katy

    2004-11-01

    This study explored factors that influence self-care from the perspective of individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Seven focus groups were held with individuals who had physician diagnosed COPD and experienced daily symptoms that limited activities. Forty-two subjects participated in the study. All sessions were audiotaped, transcribed and coded independently. The main theme identified was surviving COPD: the context for living and the two sub-themes identified were adjusting physically and emotionally to COPD. Participants discussed their self-care practices within the context of the purpose and meaning of life. Although participants experienced major physical limitations, the issues highlighted were those of individuals striving to survive with COPD and to hold on to some quality of life through adjusting physically and emotionally. Individuals with COPD have developed strategies to adapt to the disease, compensate for limitations, and integrate self-care activities for managing COPD into their daily routine. Health professionals should use approaches that support the whole needs of the individual to achieve the best quality of life for individuals with COPD and their families. PMID:15530751

  2. Adherence to diabetes self-care behaviors in English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic men

    PubMed Central

    Rustveld, Luis O; Pavlik, Valory N; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Kline, Kimberly N; Gossey, J Travis; Volk, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to elicit attitudes, attributions, and self-efficacy related to diabetes self-care in both English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic men. Transcripts from six focus groups (three in English and three in Spanish) were reviewed by the authors to extract principal and secondary themes. Participants could describe their medication and lifestyle regimens and were aware of whether they were adherent or nonadherent to physician recommendations. Lack of skills on how to incorporate diet and regular physical activity into daily living, lack of will power, and reluctance to change culturally rooted behaviors emerged as significant barriers to diabetes self-management. Medication adherence is for some men the principal diabetes self-care behavior. Nonadherence appeared to fit two profiles: 1) intentional, and 2) nonintentional. In both instances low self-efficacy emerged as a significant influence on attainment and maintenance of diabetes self-care goals. Participants also expressed a strong sense of fatalism regarding the course of their disease, and seemed to have little motivation to attempt long-term dietary control. Educational and counseling messages should stress that a diagnosis of diabetes is not a death sentence, and full functional capacity can be maintained with good control. PMID:19936154

  3. Self-care strategies and barriers among kidney transplant recipients: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Elisa J.; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Gallant, Mary; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We investigated kidney transplant recipients self-reported levels of exercise and fluid intake. We also examined attitudes about, barriers to undertaking, and strategies used to initiate and maintain adequate self-care for fluid intake, exercise and dietary practices. Methods A qualitative approach was used and supplemented by quantitative data to examine self-care among kidney transplant recipients (n = 82), including a semi-structured interview and survey of physical activity. Results One-third of patients (33%) reported drinking the recommended 3 L of fluid each day. However, the majority (60%) reported not receiving this or any specific fluid intake recommendation. Twenty percent reported engaging in moderate to regular physical activity while 78% were sedentary. However, many reported that clinicians did not specify the amount of exercise (39%) or did not discuss exercise (15%). Attitudes towards fluid intake, exercise and maintaining a low-salt diet were mostly positive; patients expressed relatively more negative attitudes towards maintaining a low-cholesterol diet. Major barriers to fluid intake were not feeling thirsty, difficulty breaking the habit of limiting fluid intake formed while on dialysis, feeling full and limited access to fluids. Patients devised creative strategies to initiate and maintain appropriate hydration, physical activity and dietary levels, including intentionally drinking when not thirsty, modifying the environment, tracking intake and relying on social supports. Conclusions Few kidney recipients practiced optimal self-care for fluid intake or physical activity. Most patients encountered barriers to self-care that should be ameliorated to assist patients with managing their transplant. Understanding barriers and strategies is essential for developing educational interventions. PMID:19474231

  4. Daily temporal self-care responses to osteoarthritis symptoms by older African Americans and whites

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Myrna; Nutini, Jean; Musa, Donald; King, Jennifer; Albert, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and is among the most prevalent chronic conditions in the United States. Because there is no known cure for OA, treatment is directed towards the alleviation of pain, improving function, and limiting disability. The major burden of care falls on the individual, who tailors personal systems of care to alleviate troublesome symptoms. To date, little has been known about the temporal variations in self-care that older patients with OA develop, nor has it been known to what extent self-care patterns vary with ethnicity and disease severity. This study was designed to demonstrate the self-care strategies used by older African Americans and whites to alleviate the symptoms of OA on a typical day and during specific segments of a typical day over the past 30 days. A sample of 551 older adults participated in in-depth interviews, and the authors clustered their responses into six categories. Findings showed that the frequency of particular behaviors varied by time of day, disease severity, and race. Overall, patterns of self-care behaviors were similar between African-Americans and whites, but African-Americans used them in different proportions than whites and in response to disease severity. Knowledge of what strategies persons with OA use to lessen their symptoms at various times of the day may enable practitioners and their patients to improve management of OA symptoms. Recognition that people may choose their strategies to ameliorate their symptoms by race and disease severity may further enable tailored symptom relief. PMID:18841454

  5. Vector Breathers in an Averaged Dispersion-Managed Birefringent Fiber System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Tao; Han, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Xian-Tu

    2015-07-01

    A variable-coefficient coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an averaged dispersion-managed birefringent fiber is investigated. Based on the one-to-one correspondence between variable-coefficient and constant-coefficient equations, an analytical breather solution is derived. As an example to exhibit dynamical behaviors of solution, its controllable excitations including rear excitation, peak excitation and initial excitation are discussed. Supported by the Science and Technology Department of Henan Province under Grant No. 142300410043, and by the Education Department of Henan Province under Grant No. 13A140113

  6. Teaching Self-Care to Severely Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Philippa H.

    The manual provides guidelines for using the problem-oriented approach to teach the self-care skills of self-feeding, dressing, and toileting to severely handicapped students. The approach consists of identifying the problem that is an obstacle to acquisition of a particular skill, selecting and evaluating intervention techniques, and establishing…

  7. Latchkey Children: Are They Prepared for Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Pat; Simmonds, Audrey

    Although children left at home without adult supervision may function very well, studies have shown potential problems with self-care and latchkey children. This study investigated the attitudes of 30 employed parents in New York whose first or third grade children were regularly left home alone after school. The 20-question survey covered such…

  8. Developing Self-Care Practices in a Trauma Treatment Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patricia J.; Simmelink-McCleary, Jennifer; Im, Hyojin; Becher, Emily; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of self-care practices of social work students who were part of a larger study of students' experiences in a graduate course on the treatment of trauma. Consensual qualitative research methods were used to analyze 17 participant journals submitted at 4 times during the course. Findings indicated that…

  9. Peer Collaboration: A Model to Support Counsellor Self-Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Constance A.; Phelan, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a larger case study on how continuous learning in the workplace could be achieved through the implementation of peer collaboration, the process of how counsellors engaged in self-care within a large health care organization became clearer. This article is based on data derived from a qualitative analysis of nine transcribed…

  10. Averaged dynamics of soliton molecules in dispersion-managed optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamoudi, S. M.; Al Khawaja, U.; Baizakov, B. B.

    2014-05-01

    The existence regimes and dynamics of soliton molecules in dispersion-managed (DM) optical fibers have been studied. Initially we develop a variational approximation to describe the periodic dynamics of a soliton molecule within each unit cell of the dispersion map. The obtained system of coupled equations for the pulse width and chirp allows to find the parameters of DM soliton molecules for the given dispersion map and pulse energy. Then by means of a scaling transformation and averaging procedure we reduce the original nonlinear Schrdinger equation (NLSE) with piecewise-constant periodic dispersion to its counterpart with constant coefficients and additional parabolic potential. The obtained averaged NLSE with expulsive potential can explain the essential features of solitons and soliton molecules in DM fibers related to their energy loss during propagation. Also, the model of averaged NLSE predicts the instability of the temporal position of the soliton, which may lead to difficulty in holding the pulse in the middle of its time slot. All numerical simulations are performed using the parameters of the existing DM fiber setup and illustrated via pertinent examples.

  11. Self-care effectiveness and health outcomes in women with interstitial cystitis: implications for mental health clinicians.

    PubMed

    Webster, D C; Brennan, T

    1998-01-01

    Several researchers have discussed the need to define "outcomes" in health care more holistically, particularly from women's health, chronic illness, and self-care perspectives. Interstitial cystitis (IC), a chronic illness that primarily affects women, is a poorly understood condition that can produce hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Management of IC usually requires behavioral changes in all life dimensions. Multidimensional health outcomes were examined in a survey of 138 women with IC. Item-item and item-factor correlations were used to identify relationships between indicators of health outcomes and self-reported effectiveness of more than 300 self-care strategies used to manage IC. The effectiveness of behavioral and cognitive self-care strategies correlated differentially with dimensions of health. Uncertainty correlated most strongly with the quality of relationships with health care providers. Psychiatric nurses are well prepared to address the complex body-mind phenomena of IC, promoting effective self-care strategies while maintaining a supportive therapeutic relationship. PMID:9782865

  12. Development and Validation of the Hypertension Self-Care Profile: A Practical Tool to Measure Hypertension Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, Hwayun; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Kim, Miyong

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate self-care is crucial for blood pressure (BP) control. A number of hypertension (HBP) self-care instruments are available, but existing tools do not capture all the critical domains of HBP self-care and have limited evidence of reliability and validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new tool—the HBP Self-Care Profile (HBP SCP)—in a sample of inner-city residents. Methods The HBP SCP encompasses comprehensive domains of HBP self-care behaviors. Guided by two validated theoretical approaches—Orem’s self-care model and Motivational Interviewing—the HBP SCP includes three scales that can be used together or independently: Behavior, Motivation, and Self-Efficacy. The sample included 213 English-speaking inner-city residents with HBP (mean age = 68.6 years; 76.1% female; 81.7% African American). Results Item-total correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 for Behavior, 0.46 to 0.70 for Motivation, and 0.40 to 0.74 for Self-Efficacy scales, meeting the cutoff set a priori at 0.15. Internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 0.93. Concurrent and construct validities of the HBP SCP were achieved by significant correlations between HBP SCP scales and theoretically selected study instruments (P <0.05 for all correlation coefficients). The HBP SCP-Behavior scale also successfully discriminated between those with or without BP control (P <0.05). Conclusions The reliability and validity of the HBP SCP were supported in this sample of inner-city residents with HBP. The high reliability estimates and strong evidence of validity should allow researchers to use the HBP SCP to assess and identify gaps in HBP self-care behavior, motivation, and self-efficacy. Future research is warranted to evaluate the HBP SCP in diverse ethnic and age samples of hypertensive patient populations. PMID:24088621

  13. From Doing to Bring: Incorporating Faith into Diabetes Self-Care Education.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Cathy Eden; Harden, Kelly; Mitchell, C Ben

    2015-01-01

    Millions worldwide live with diabetes and are challenged to make lifestyle changes. Nurses help patients learn strategies necessary for successful diabetes management. However, patients frequently view long-term behavior change as unachievable. This article offers educational strategies based on liturgical anthropology that can be incorporated into any diabetic self-care education program, but particularly in faith communities. Lifestyle habits are tightly interwoven with cultural, social, and spiritual belief. Liturgical anthropology explores how cultural and spiritual customs mold us and influence our behavior choices. PMID:26548175

  14. A Health Collaborative Network Focus on Self-care Processes in Personal Assistant Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, Ma Victoria; Ros, Lorenzo

    Public health is oriented to the management of an adequate health atmosphere which acts directly on health, as well as health education work and the supervision of environmental health threats. The work presented in this paper aims to reduce inequality, and give disabled people the tools to be integrated more effectively, reducing social exclusion, removing obstacles and barriers, and facilitating mobility and the use of technology. The work is planned to design a special healthcare collaborative network as the best solution for addressing the needs of the disabled self-care and health care community through the creation and implementation of an interconnected, electronic information infrastructure and adoption of open data standards.

  15. For Low-Back Pain, Yoga More Effective Than Self-Care But Not Stretching

    MedlinePlus

    ... Yoga is more effective than a self-care book, but not more effective than stretching classes, in ... stretching exercises, or to read a self-care book. The yoga and stretching groups were given handouts ...

  16. Effect of self-care education on lifestyle modification, medication adherence and blood pressure in hypertensive adults: Randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Golshahi, Jafar; Ahmadzadeh, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Pourmoghaddas, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-care management has recently been suggested as an effective approach for secondary prevention of hypertension. This study was conducted to examine whether self-care behaviors could modulate blood pressure levels and also comparing the different training methods of self-care on patients’ adherence and controlling hypertension. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, conducted on 180 hypertensive patients referring to four centers in Isfahan, Iran, between July and December 2013. Block randomization method were applied to divide eligible subjects into four equal groups, including group A in which the patients and their family were educated by cardiology resident about self-care behaviors through eight sessions, group B and group C were obtained self-care education through four pamphlets or eight short message services (SMS), respectively and group D were obtained only usual care of hypertension without any training about self-care management. Results: Increasing vegetable intake and frequency of subject who took antihypertensive medication regularly and the reduction in the frequency of subjects who consumed high salt were significantly more in group A than the others (P = 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure had significantly more reduction in the group A than the other groups (−8.18 ± 18.3 and − 3.89 ± 4.1; P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The self-care management education integration into the usual care along with using SMS and other educational materials may improve the efficient and effective adherence strategies. PMID:26601092

  17. Self-care at school: perceptions of 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Chapparo, Christine J; Hooper, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Occupational therapists who work with young children routinely evaluate self-care and consider it an important domain of practice. Little is known about what children perceive is important self-care or what they experience as self-care within a school context. Without knowledge about children's perspectives of self-care, occupational therapists cannot know whether or not they are targeting areas that are central to children's needs. The purpose of this naturalistic study was to explore 6-year-old children's perceptions of self-care in their school day. Participant observation and group interviewing were used to elicit descriptive information from 24 Grade One children, attending an elementary school located in Sydney, Australia. A fishing game, drawing activity, and excerpts from a videotape of their day at school were used as stimuli to explore how the children described and attributed meaning to their self-care occupations. Findings showed that children described self-care at school two ways. First, they named specific self-care tasks that mirrored adult views of self-care and represented culturally shared views of the concept of self-care across ages. Second, children described highly individual views about self-care that were derived from their own experience of doing self-care at school. These views seemed to be based on their personal perceptions of salient factors in operation at the time of self-care performance such as social and physical contexts, perceived skill, and expectations of others. The findings suggest that occupational therapy assessment and intervention for self-care include sensitivity to experiential differences between adult views of self-care and those of children. This sensitivity should include an attempt to understand children's experiences of self-care in specific contexts such as school. PMID:15707125

  18. Oral health knowledge, attitude, and self-care practices among pharmacists in Riyadh, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Baseer, Mohammad Abdual; Mehkari, Mohammed Aleemullah; Al-Marek, Fahad AbdulMohsen Fahad; Bajahzar, Omar Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Identifying and addressing gaps in the oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices of pharmacists is important before they can be considered as a member of the oral health promotion team. The aim of this study was to determine the prevailing oral health knowledge, attitude, and self-care practices among a sample of pharmacists from Riyadh, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 200 pharmacists working in community- and hospital-based pharmacies was conducted using a structured, self-administered, close-ended questionnaire. The responses were collected and descriptive statistics of the mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and self-care practices were calculated. Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests were performed to compare the different groups. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to assess the association among knowledge–attitude, knowledge–practice, and attitude–practice. Results: Overall, the mean scores of oral health knowledge, attitude, and self-care practices were found to be 5.27 ± 1.05, 3.89 ± 0.83, and 2.1 ± 0.61, respectively. Male non-Saudi pharmacists working in chain pharmacies, having 11–15 years of experience with a Master's degree qualification showed significantly higher mean knowledge and practices scores as compared to their counterparts. Spearman's correlation tests revealed a significant positive correlation of knowledge–practice (r = 0.262, P < 0.01), whereas knowledge–attitude (r = -0.149, P < 0.05) as well as attitudes–practices (r = -0.196, P < 0.01) were negatively correlated. Conclusion: Pharmacists exhibited an average knowledge, negative attitude, and inadequate self-care practices toward oral health. However, increasing oral health knowledge can have profound improvement in oral self-care practices. PMID:27114953

  19. Toothache pain: behavioral impact and self-care strategies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Leonard A; Bonito, Arthur J; Akin, Donald R; Manski, Richard J; Macek, Mark D; Edwards, Robert R; Cornelius, Llewellyn J

    2009-01-01

    A computer-assisted telephone interview in Maryland of adults who had low income and were Hispanic, Black, and White and who had experienced a toothache during the previous 12 months was conducted. Respondents reported a high prevalence of toothaches, with 44.3% having experienced more than five toothaches during the preceding 10 years. Pain intensity associated with the most recent toothache was high with 45.1% of the respondents reporting the highest pain possible. Pain interfered with many aspects of normal functioning. Self-care strategies generally took precedence over professional health services. Pain sufferers used a combination of self-care and formal care strategies. Initial strategies most often focused on nonprescription medicines(home remedies and prayer. The majority of respondents ultimately sought pain relief from a dentist. We identified a number of significant differences in the strategies used across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:19284508

  20. Self-care program for inpatients in a mental hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Voineskos, G.; Butler, J. A.; Bullock, L. J.; El-Gaaly, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Summary: A self-care program for selected inpatients in a mental hospital has been developed and has been in operation for more than a year. The 12-bed unit operates without any nursing or other professional staff during the night and weekend. Certain factors, including the mental hospital as an organization, tend to hamper the development of this type of program as well as the progress and growth of other programs in psychiatric hospitals. It is suggested that the much needed progress in the mental hospital would be facilitated by an open-systems approach to its organization. Mental hospitals should consider the introduction of self-care programs for selected patients, mainly in view of their therapeutic potential, but also because of the financial savings such programs offer. PMID:1111874

  1. Integrating Virtual Patients Into a Self-Care Course

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop, implement, and evaluate the use of virtual patients as a teaching tool for third-professional year PharmD students within an advanced elective self-care course. Design Practicing community pharmacists, faculty members, and pharmacy residents with alias e-mail accounts served as virtual patients and corresponded on a weekly basis via e-mail with pharmacy students regarding an assortment of fictional health concerns. Self-care inquiries were e-mailed to the students who replied and then forwarded their response to the course coordinator for evaluation and class discussion. At the end of the course, students were asked to assess the value of the learning activity. Assessment Students demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge, problem-solving, communication, and professional skills upon course completion. Student's assessments of the virtual patient activity have suggested positive feedback on developing self-care skills, patient interactions, and group dynamics. Conclusion This teaching tool was designed to enhance student's knowledge base, assessment, and counseling skills when interacting with patients in various situations. Instructor evaluation of responses, student feedback, and self-evaluation indicated the activity improved overall knowledge and communication skills. PMID:17533439

  2. “We have become doctors for ourselves”: motives for malaria self-care among adults in southeastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria with effective medicines remains necessary if malaria control goals are to be achieved. The theoretical concepts from self-care and the health belief model were used to examine the motivations for malaria self-care among the adult population. Methods A qualitative study was conducted through eight focus group discussions with adult community members to explore their general opinions, views and perceptions of malaria and of its treatments. These groups were followed by 15 in-depth interviews of participants with a recent malaria experience to allow for an in-depth exploration of their self-care practices. The analysis followed principles of grounded theory and was conducted using Nvivo 9 qualitative data management software. Results The self-treatment of malaria at home was found to be a common practice among the study participants. The majority of the participants practiced self-medication with a painkiller as an initial response. The persistence and the worsening of the disease symptoms prompted participants to consider other self-care options. Perceptions that many malaria symptoms are suggestive of other conditions motivated participants to self-refer for malaria test. The accessibility of private laboratory facilities and drug shops motivated their use for malaria tests and for obtaining anti-malarial medicines, respectively. Self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy was common, motivated by their perceived effectiveness and availability. The perceived barriers to using the recommended combination treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, were related to the possible side-effects and to uncertainty about their effectiveness, and these doubts motivated some participants to consider self-medication with local herbs. Several factors were mentioned as motivating people for self-care practices. These included poor patient provider relationship, unavailability of medicine and the costs associated with accessing treatments from the health facilities. Conclusions Malaria self-care and self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy are common among adults, and are motivated by both individual characteristics and the limitations of the existing health care facilities. There is a need for public health interventions to take into account community perceptions and cultural schemas on malaria self-care practices. PMID:24986165

  3. Status and Recommendations for Self-Care Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Zierler-Brown, Seena L.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Casper, Kristin A.; Krypel, Linda L.; Salcido, Amista Lone; Padron, Victor A.; Pray, W. Steven; Wall, Andrea L.; Sobotka, Jenelle L.; Engle, Janet P.

    2006-01-01

    Teachers of pharmacy self-care courses have met annually since 1998 at the Nonprescription Medicines Academy (NMA) held in Cincinnati, Ohio. During these meetings, self-care faculty members discuss methods of enhancing the teaching of self-care in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Self-care courses are taught using a variety of methods and content is woven into pharmacy curricula in many different ways. This manuscript sets forth the current state of self-care instruction in pharmacy curricula including the recommended core curriculum, instructional methodologies, course mechanics, existing standards, and assessment and curricular placement, and makes recommendations for the future. PMID:17332865

  4. Appalachian women: health beliefs, self-care, and basic conditioning factors.

    PubMed

    Slusher, Ida L; Withrow-Fletcher, Cora; Hauser-Whitaker, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (a) describe the health beliefs and self-care of Appalachian women; and (b) describe the relationships among health beliefs, self-care, and the basic conditioning factors of Appalachian women. Orem's SCDNT was used as the theory for this study. This study used qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The study participants included 129 Appalachian women. Health beliefs and self-care were described. Significant correlations were found between components of the basic conditioning factors and definition of health beliefs and self-care. The outcomes from this research study support that Appalachian women do participate in self-care in promoting their health. PMID:20860332

  5. Internalizing motivation to self-care: a multifaceted challenge for young liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Aujoulat, Isabelle; Janssen, Magda; Libion, France; Charles, Anne-Sophie; Struyf, Catherine; Smets, Françoise; Stephenne, Xavier; de Magnée, Catherine; Sokal, Etienne; Lerut, Jan; Ciccarelli, Olga; Reding, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    The transition from parent-controlled care to self-managed care represents an important challenge for adolescents with chronic conditions. We sought to gain a deeper understanding of the factors influencing the internalization of motivation to self-care in adolescent liver transplant recipients. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 18 young patients. We triangulated the data collected from the patients with data from parents and health care providers, and used an inductive approach to analyze the data. Our results illustrate three interrelated challenges that impact on young patients' motivation to self-care: (a) the cognitive challenge of fully understanding one's condition and personal health risks; (b) the behavioral challenge of developing independence regarding self-management issues; and (c) the psychological challenge of building a sense of self-ownership and purpose. The latter involves overcoming the trauma of survival and coming to terms with feelings of obligation, two challenges inherent to transplantation that warrant further investigation. PMID:24572011

  6. Self-care agency and factors related to this agency among patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lukkarinen, H; Hentinen, M

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-care agency and factors related to this agency among patients with coronary heart disease (N = 250) measured with a self-care inventory (Self-as-Carer Inventory, SCI). A secondary aim was to analyze the ability of the SCI inventory based on Orem's self-care deficit theory to measure the self-care agency of patients with coronary heart disease. Factor analysis yielded four factors which represent the key aspects of self-care, such as evaluation, implementation, decision-making, significance of knowledge, attitudes, motivation and physical prerequisites of self-care. The most important precondition for self-care in our study was 'appreciation and motivation to self-care'. This factor had numerous correlations with the background factors. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, employment status, health behavior, such as alcohol use and smoking, other diseases, such as diabetes, and satisfaction with sex life were related to the patients' self-care agency. It can be concluded that the self-care agency of our patients was moderate and many background factors were related to it. The SCI inventory seems to cover the self-care requirements of these patients, but the clinical use of SCI is precarious. The items are still too abstract and the questionnaire is therefore too difficult to fill in for many patients. PMID:9306164

  7. The influence of spiritual growth on adolescents' initiative and responsibility for self-care.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Donna M

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among health-promoting self-care behaviors, self-care self-efficacy, and self-care agency in an adolescent population. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships among these concepts as well as the specific influence of spiritual growth, a component of health-promoting self-care behaviors, on self-care agency. The instruments used in this study included the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII) scale, the Self-Rated Abilities for Health Practices (SRAHP) scale, and the Exercise of Self-Care Agency (ESCA) scale. A canonical correlation identified a significant variate having a correlation of .95 (p < .000) accounting for 90% of the variance explained. The loading variables included the HPLPII subscale of spiritual growth and the ESCA subscale of initiative and responsibility. The study results indicate that spiritual growth is significantly related to an adolescent's initiative and responsibility for self-care. PMID:15934561

  8. The effect of telemonitoring at home on quality of life and self-care behaviors of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Mary Beth; Fedor, Martha; Reeder, Sara; Chernick, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a costly chronic disease that affects 5.7 million people in the United States. Home healthcare agencies are implementing initiatives to reduce hospitalizations and manage HF patients at home. In this study, telemonitoring improved patients' perception of their quality of life and assisted them to sustain critical self-care behaviors. Patients who were monitored had fewer hospitalizations but telemonitoring was not statistically significant in lowering hospitalizations. PMID:23632274

  9. Self-care and Subjectivity among Mexican Diabetes Patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Rebecca; Mendenhall, Emily; Valdovinos, Maria D; Fernandez, Alicia; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is considered a public health crisis, particularly among people of Mexican descent in the United States. Clinical approaches to diabetes management increasingly emphasize self-care, which places responsibility for illness on individuals and mandates self-regulation. Using narrative and free-list data from a two-phase study of low-income first- and second-generation Mexican immigrants living with diabetes, we present evidence that self-care among our participants involves emotion regulation as well as maintenance of and care for family. These findings suggest, in turn, that the ideology of selfhood on which these practices are based does not correspond with the ideology of selfhood cultivated in the U.S. clinical sphere. Divergence between these ideologies may lead to self-conflict for patients and the experience of moral blame. We argue that our participants use their explanations of diabetes causality and control as a form of self-making, which both resists such blame and asserts an alternative form of selfhood that may align more closely with the values held by our Mexican-American participants. PMID:24942832

  10. The Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive Model to Facilitate Self-care of Patients with Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Lombard, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Álvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Menasalva Ruíz, Ernestina

    The patient, in his multiple facets of citizen and user of services of health, needs to acquire during, and later in his majority of age, favorable conditions of health to accentuate his quality of life and it is the responsibility of the health organizations to initiate the process of support for that patient during the process of mature life. The provision of services of health and the relation doctor-patient are undergoing important changes in the entire world, forced to a large extent by the indefensibility of the system itself. Nevertheless decision making requires previous information and, what more the necessity itself of being informed requires having a “culture” of health that generates pro activity and the capacity of searching for instruments that facilitate the awareness of the suffering and the self-care of the same. Therefore it is necessary to put into effect a ICT model (hiPAPD) that has the objective of causing Interaction, Motivation and Persuasion towards the surroundings of the diabetic Patient facilitating his self-care. As a result the patient himself individually manages his services through devices and AmI Systems (Ambient Intelligent).

  11. Self-care and deviance in elementary school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pettine, A; Rosén, L A

    1998-08-01

    Fourth-, fifth- and sixth-grade students were surveyed to investigate whether self-care was related to self-reports of behavioral or attitudinal deviance, liking for school, or both. The Child Self-Care Measure (CSCM), a multiscale self-report instrument, measured self-care as a developmental task with four major dimensions: temporal, physical, structural, and psychological. Self-care in general was not linked to deviance. However, increases in psychological self-care were strongly correlated with reductions in children's liking for school. Additionally, children in self-care who cared for younger siblings for more than a year reported more deviant behaviors than those without responsibility for younger siblings; children in the care of older siblings less than 16 years old for more than 4 years reported more tolerance for deviance than peers in self-care without older sibling caregivers. Findings support earlier speculations that children in self-care may not be developmentally ready to take responsibility for elementary school-aged siblings. Results also indicated that although girls in self-care manifest problems earlier than boys, long term self-care may be more problematic for boys than girls. PMID:9696113

  12. Self-Care Behaviors and Glycemic Control in Low-Income Adults in México With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus May Have Implications for Patients of Mexican Heritage Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Compeán Ortiz, Lidia G; Del Ángel Pérez, Beatriz; Reséndiz González, Eunice; Piñones Martínez, Socorro; González Quirarte, Nora H; Berry, Diane C

    2016-04-01

    This study examined self-care behaviors and their relationship to glycemic control in low-income Mexican adults with type 2 diabetes in Southeastern Tamaulipas, México. A total of 135 patients were enrolled from 17 community health centers. The most frequent self-care behavior was medication management (80%), and the least frequent self-care behavior was self blood glucose monitoring (7%). All the patients demonstrated poor glycemic control, with glycated hemoglobin > 7%. Self-care behaviors were associated with fasting blood glucose (rs = .223, p = .005). Medication management was influenced by cognitive performance, F(1, 130) = 4.49, p = .036, and depression, F(1, 130) = 8.22, p = .005. Dietary behaviors were influenced by previous diabetes education, F(1, 130) = 6.73, p = .011. These findings indicate that education and cognitive behavioral interventions in Spanish for Mexican adults with type 2 diabetes are urgently needed. PMID:26040723

  13. Contingency Management to Increase Grade Point Average among Fraternity Members: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, Ryan A.; Irons, Jessica G.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective for inducing behavior change among a variety of populations and for a variety of behaviors. The current study examined whether contingency management techniques can help students change behaviors in an effort to raise their grade point…

  14. Student Perceptions of and Confidence in Self-Care Course Concepts Using Team-based Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gryka, Rebecca; Kiersma, Mary E.; Todt, Abby L.; Cailor, Stephanie M.; Chen, Aleda M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate changes in student perceptions of and confidence in self-care concepts after completing a team-based learning (TBL) self-care course. Methods. Team-based learning was used at two universities in first professional year, semester-long self-care courses. Two instruments were created and administered before and after the semester. The instruments were designed to assess changes in student perceptions of self-care using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) domains and confidence in learning self-care concepts using Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to evaluate pre/post changes, and Mann Whitney U tests were used to evaluate university differences. Results. Fifty-three Cedarville University and 58 Manchester University students completed both instruments (100% and 92% response rates, respectively). Student self-care perceptions with TPB decreased significantly on nine of 13 items for Cedarville and decreased for one of 13 items for Manchester. Student confidence in self-care concepts improved significantly on all questions for both universities. Conclusion. Data indicate TBL self-care courses were effective in improving student confidence about self-care concepts. Establishing students’ skill sets prior to entering the profession is beneficial because pharmacists will use self-directed learning to expand their knowledge and adapt to problem-solving situations. PMID:27170817

  15. Student Perceptions of and Confidence in Self-Care Course Concepts Using Team-based Learning.

    PubMed

    Frame, Tracy R; Gryka, Rebecca; Kiersma, Mary E; Todt, Abby L; Cailor, Stephanie M; Chen, Aleda M H

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To evaluate changes in student perceptions of and confidence in self-care concepts after completing a team-based learning (TBL) self-care course. Methods. Team-based learning was used at two universities in first professional year, semester-long self-care courses. Two instruments were created and administered before and after the semester. The instruments were designed to assess changes in student perceptions of self-care using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) domains and confidence in learning self-care concepts using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to evaluate pre/post changes, and Mann Whitney U tests were used to evaluate university differences. Results. Fifty-three Cedarville University and 58 Manchester University students completed both instruments (100% and 92% response rates, respectively). Student self-care perceptions with TPB decreased significantly on nine of 13 items for Cedarville and decreased for one of 13 items for Manchester. Student confidence in self-care concepts improved significantly on all questions for both universities. Conclusion. Data indicate TBL self-care courses were effective in improving student confidence about self-care concepts. Establishing students' skill sets prior to entering the profession is beneficial because pharmacists will use self-directed learning to expand their knowledge and adapt to problem-solving situations. PMID:27170817

  16. Do Perceptions of Empowerment Affect Glycemic Control and Self-Care Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Melba Sheila; Karkada, Subrahmanya Nairy; Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh; Amirtharaj, Anandhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Arab adult with T2DM is understudied with less known facts about the perception of empowerment and its relationship with self-care and glycemic control. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which perception of empowerment by Arab adults living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) was associated with better glycemic control and self-care management. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was led among 300 Arab adults living in Oman with T2DM in an outpatient diabetes clinic. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), glycosylated haemaglobin (HbA1c) and Body mass index was assessed. The DES was found to be valid and reliable for the population. ANOVA, Regression analysis, and Structural equation modeling was used for analysis. Results: The composite score and three subscales of DES were a significant and strong predictor of good glycemic control among Omani adults with T2DM (p<0.001). Age, education, duration of DM, prior DM education program and medications were significantly associated with DES. Conclusion: Diabetes nurse educators engaged in the care of adults with T2DM should assess self-empowerment and tailor interventions to increase empowerment for better glycemic control. Patient empowerment plays an essential role in maintaining self-care behaviours and HbA1c. PMID:26156908

  17. Riding the dragon: enhancing resilient leadership and sensible self-care in the healthcare executive.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Robert J; Buck, Tina C

    2013-01-01

    With challenges in the healthcare system growing, strengthened leader and organizational resilience is often overlooked as a factor that can support staff morale and sustain performance improvement and quality. Here we examine resilience-building practices related to self-awareness, alone time, mindfulness, and a healthy perspective. A key aspect of management resilience is weighing the costs and benefits to the executive personally and to the organization if the warning signals of impairment are left untended. To that end, we propose a leader self-care protocol, which even the busy healthcare executive can find time to undertake. Ifimplemented, the protocol will allow leaders to lessen their vulnerability to burnout and help teammates whose resilience may be stretched thin. Finally, we present healthy coping skills for daily stressors and for the sudden and overwhelming situations that can negatively affect resilience. PMID:24409599

  18. Empowering Older Patients to Engage in Self Care: Designing an Interactive Robotic Device

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Priyadarshi; Warren, Jim; Day, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and test an interactive robot mounted computing device to support medication management as an example of a complex self-care task in older adults. Method: A Grounded Theory (GT), Participatory Design (PD) approach was used within three Action Research (AR) cycles to understand design requirements and test the design configuration addressing the unique task requirements. Results: At the end of the first cycle a conceptual framework was evolved. The second cycle informed architecture and interface design. By the end of third cycle residents successfully interacted with the dialogue system and were generally satisfied with the robot. The results informed further refinement of the prototype. Conclusion: An interactive, touch screen based, robot-mounted information tool can be developed to support healthcare needs of older people. Qualitative methods such as the hybrid GT-PD-AR approach may be particularly helpful for innovating and articulating design requirements in challenging situations. PMID:22195203

  19. Self Care Behavior among Patients with Diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: The Health Belief Model Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Girma, Eshetu

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires lifelong medical treatments and a life style adjustment. To prevent serious morbidity and mortality, it requires dedication to demanding self-care behaviors in multiple domains. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. Methods From a total of 425 follow up diabetic patients, a quantitative cross sectional study was conducted among 222 of them from three different hospitals in Harar town, from March to April, 2011. The sample was taken using simple random sampling method. Data was collected using pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics multiple logistic regression analysis were also used to assess the predicators of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. Result Majority of the study respondents 134 (60.4%) were female and the mean age was 49.7 (SD±14.7) years. More than half 147(66.2%) of them were medically diagnosed with type-2 diabetes. 208(93.7%) had general knowledge about diabetes and specific knowledge about diabetes self care 207(93.2%). Large proportion of them had moderate perceived susceptibility 174(78.4%) and severity 112(50.5%). More than half of the respondents 149(67.1%) had less perceived barrier while only 30 (13.5%) of them had high self efficacy to self care practices related to diabetes mellitus. Only 87(39.2%) followed the recommended self care practices on diabetes. Conclusions Patients with less frequent information were less likely to take diabetes self care. Patients who were more educated, middle income, had high perceived severity of diabetes and less perceived barrier to self care were more likely to take diabetes self care. To increase the self care behavior, diabetes messages should focus on severity of diabetes and how to overcome barriers for self care by segmenting the audiences based on income and educational status with increasing the frequency and reach of message on diabetes. PMID:22530039

  20. [Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].

    PubMed

    Poplinger, A

    2010-04-01

    Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rationale behind professional decisions with the patient, and proving several treatment options to choose from, are all methods for recruiting patients to the treatment process and the implementation of health behavior change. 3. Using reminders - the dentist can suggest different ideas for preventing slips and withdrawals in the patient's behavior, mainly through dental calendars or periodic phone calls to prompt patient's persistence in their actions. In addition, it is possible of course to use family and friends as a supportive auxiliary power. PMID:21250405

  1. Impact of Health Literacy, Self-efficacy, and Outcome Expectations on Adherence to Self-care Behaviors in Iranians with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Reisi, Mahnoush; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Javadzade, Homamodin; Mahaki, Behzad; Tavassoli, Elahe; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diabetic patients with higher health literacy (HL) may feel more confident in their ability to perform self-care behaviors and may have strong beliefs that diabetes-related behaviors will lead to specific outcomes. Our study aimed to document the relationships between HL, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and diabetes self-care of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Iran. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 187 patients with T2DM. Participants completed the Functional Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, Outcome Expectations Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results Participants who received diabetes education (t = 5.79, p<0.001) and were married (F = 3.04, p<0.050) had better diabetes self-care behavior. There was a significant positive correlation between self-care behaviors and communicative HL (r = 0.455, p<0.010), critical HL (r = 0.297, p<0.010), self-efficacy (r = 0.512, p<0.010) and outcome expectations (r = 0.387, p<0.010). Diabetes education and marital status accounted for 16.9% of the variance in diabetes self-care. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, communicative, and critical HL explained 28.0%, 1.5%, 3.7%, and 1.4% of the variance, respectively. Conclusions This study revealed that the potential impact of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, communicative, and critical HL should be considered in the education program for patients with diabetes. We found self-efficacy to be the most important predictor of diabetes self-care. Therefore, the use of self-efficacy theory when designing patient education interventions could enhance diabetes self-care. It is essential that health care providers assess patient’s HL levels to tailor health-related information specific to a domain of HL. This would fully inform patients and promote empowerment rather than simple compliance. PMID:26813680

  2. The journey from self-care to GP care: a qualitative interview study of women presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Leydon, Geraldine M; Turner, Sheila; Smith, Helen; Little, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the commonest acute infections presenting to primary care. Little is known of women's experiences of UTI; self-care strategies and key triggers for their consulting behaviour are also little known. Aim To explore women's experiences of self-care and their journey to GP care, when faced with symptoms of a UTI. Design of study Qualitative semi-structured interview study with women recruited to a larger UK trial of different management strategies for UTI. Setting General practices across four counties in southern England. Method Twenty-one women were interviewed about the experiences they had prior to their GP visit, self-care strategies, and triggers for help seeking. Interviews were analysed thematically, using principles of analytic induction. Results Women reported a process of evaluation, monitoring, re-evaluation, and, finally, consulting in order to meet their needs. Four key triggers for consulting were identified: failure to alleviate symptoms through self-care; symptom duration and escalation; impeding normal functioning and the fulfilment of social roles; and concern that it may be or become a serious illness. Conclusion Although UTI is often self-limiting, when taking patient histories and formulating their management strategies clinicians need to take into account women's often painful experience, their efforts to resolve symptoms prior to consulting, and their fears that the symptoms may indicate something more serious than a UTI. PMID:19566988

  3. Learning Self-Care Skills. Functional Programming for People with Autism: A Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Valerie; Wheeler, Marci

    Many individuals with autism need systematic, intensive teaching in self-care skills due to deficits in language and attention skills, interfering behaviors, and/or sensory impairments. Teaching self-care skills should occur naturally during daily routines, in all environments. Assessments are done to determine current abilities, strengths, and…

  4. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  5. Learned helplessness as an interacting variable with self-care agency: testing a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    McDermott, M A

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical development and initial testing of a model outlining the interaction of the concepts of self-care agency and learned helplessness in healthy working adults. Orem's theory of self-care and the reformulated learned helplessness theory are discussed as the theoretical basis for the study. The self-care agency conditioning factors, age and gender, were examined for relationships to the main variables. In a descriptive, correlational design, the hypothesis, that learned helplessness was inversely related to self-care agency, was supported (r = -.57). Neither age nor gender was related to main variables in the population. Implications for nursing research, self-care theory clarification, and nursing practice are discussed. PMID:8455871

  6. Limitations of self-care in reducing the risk of lymphedema: supportive-educative systems.

    PubMed

    Armer, Jane M; Brooks, Constance W; Stewart, Bob R

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patient perceptions of limitations related to self-care measures to reduce lymphedema risk following breast cancer surgery. Secondary analysis of survey data from a companion study to a study piloting a behavioral-educational intervention was conducted to examine the specific limitations in performing lymphedema risk-reduction self-care measures. Findings suggest a more comprehensive approach is needed if patients are to engage in self-care actions to reduce lymphedema risk. Understanding the concepts of self-care and personal support interventions that include motivational interviewing can help nurses design supportive-educative care systems that assist patients in overcoming limitations in the estimative, transitional, and productive phases of self-care necessary to reduce lymphedema risk. PMID:21220577

  7. The evidence base for professional and self-care prevention - caries, erosion and sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this conference paper was to examine the evidence base for primary and secondary prevention of dental caries, erosions and dentin hypersensitivity through professional and self-care measures. Methods A mapping of systematic reviews (SR) of literature was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane library through April 2014 using established MeSH-terms and disease-related search words in various combinations. The search was restricted to SR's published in English or Scandinavian and all age groups were considered. The reference lists of the selected papers were hand-searched for additional review articles of potential interest. Meta-analyses, guidelines and treatment recommendations were considered only when SR's were lacking. In the event of updates or multiple systematic reviews covering the same topic, only the most recent article was included. No quality assessment of the systematic reviews was carried out. The quality of evidence was rated in four levels according to the GRADE scale. Results In total, 39 SR were included. For primary caries prevention, the quality of evidence was high for the use of fluoride toothpaste (with and without triclosan) and moderate for fluoride varnish and fissure sealants. The quality of evidence for fluoride gel, fluoride mouth rinse, xylitol gums and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) was rated as low. For secondary caries prevention and caries arrest, only fluoride interventions and SDF proved consistent benefits, although the quality of evidence was low. Likewise, the GRADE score for preventing erosions located in the enamel with fluoride supplements was low. The quality of evidence for various professional and self-care methods to prevent and manage dentine hypersensitivity was very low. Conclusions There are knowledge gaps in many domains of cariology and preventive dentistry that must be addressed and bridged through clinical research of good quality. PMID:26392204

  8. Overcoming the top 10 tracheotomy self-care learning barriers.

    PubMed

    Rudy, S F; McCullagh, L

    2001-01-01

    Multispecialty inpatient units are the norm in today's acute care settings. Since few units have the luxury of seasoned otorhinolaryngology (ORL) nurses, care of the postoperative patient with a tracheotomy, including discharge teaching and planning are left to the generalists. Generalist nurses and new ORL nurses may find themselves experiencing fear and anxiety along with the tracheotomy patients they care for and teach. Experienced ORL nurses are continually challenged to find ways to share their expertise with patients and less experienced nurses in effective ways. This article presents a unique approach to preparing nurses to teach self-tracheotomy care to their patients. Medical-surgical staff nurses attended a 90-minute inservice program presenting actual clinical scenarios of temporarily learning-impaired patients with tracheotomies, and were asked to role play effective interventions. The program content is designed to address the reluctance of inexperienced, busy nurses to confront learning barriers and motivate patients to accomplish early postoperative involvement in tracheotomy self care. The widespread nature of the challenges faced by nurses and patients regarding tracheotomy care has been confirmed by discussions with colleagues on a national level. It has been confirmed further by the first author's clinical experiences in a wide variety of health care settings. Recommended nursing actions and responses to learning barriers presented here are based on expert opinion and clinical experience. PMID:14694566

  9. Does Smoking Hamper Oral Self-Care Among Dental Professionals?

    PubMed Central

    Khami, Mohammad Reza; Virtanen, Jorma I.; Vehkalahti, Miira M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Smoking may impact oral self-care (OSC). This study aimed to analyze the role of smoking in OSC among Iranian dental health professionals. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional data were collected at two annual dental meetings and seven randomly selected dental schools in Iran. A total of 1,459 respondents composed of 967 general dental practitioners (GDPs), 229 dental educators (DE), and 263 senior dental students (DS) anonymously completed a self-administered questionnaire inquiring about smoking status and OSC. Results: Thirty percent of the male and 12% of the female dental health professionals reported smoking tobacco. There was no difference between their professional status. Women reported better OSC than did men, but only 26% of the women and 17% of the men followed the three most important recommendations for OSC. Smoking was associated with infrequent tooth brushing and flossing, irregular use of fluoride containing toothpaste, consumption of sugary snacks and weak adherence to the recommended OSC guidelines. Conclusion: Dental health education should place more emphasis on smoking counseling and cessation among dental health professionals. PMID:26877728

  10. Understanding barriers to home-based and self-care in-center hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yau, May; Carver, Michelle; Alvarez, Luis; Block, Geoffrey A; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-04-01

    Despite superior outcomes and lower associated costs, relatively few patients with end-stage renal disease undergo self-care or home hemodialysis. Few studies have examined patient- and physician-specific barriers to self-care and home hemodialysis in the modern era. The degree to which innovative technology might facilitate the adoption of these modalities is unknown. We surveyed 250 patients receiving in-center hemodialysis and 51 board-certified nephrologists to identify key barriers to adoption of self-care and home hemodialysis. Overall, 172 (69%) patients reported that they were "likely" or "very likely" to consider self-care hemodialysis if they were properly trained on a new hemodialysis system designed for self-care or home use. Nephrologists believed that patients were capable of performing many dialysis-relevant tasks, including: weighing themselves (98%), wiping down the chair and machine (84%), clearing alarms during treatment (53%), taking vital signs (46%), and cannulating vascular access (41%), but thought that patients would be willing to do the same in only 69%, 34%, 31%, 29%, and 16%, respectively. Reasons that nephrologists believe patients are hesitant to pursue self-care or home hemodialysis do not correspond in parallel or by priority to reasons reported by patients. Self-care and home hemodialysis offer several advantages to patients and dialysis providers. Overcoming real and perceived barriers with new technology, education and coordinated care will be required for these modalities to gain traction in the coming years. PMID:26415746

  11. Depressive Symptoms Effect on Self Care Behavior During the First Month After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Niakan, Maryam; Paryad, Ezzat; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnezhad; Sheikholeslami, Farzane

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of severity of depression symptoms on self care behavior in 15th and 30th day after myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: Gathering data for this cross sectional study was done by Beck depression and self care behavior questionnaires in a heart especial hospital in Rasht in north of Iran. Sample size was 132 after MI patients and data collected from June 2011 to January 2012. Results: Scores of depression symptoms in 15th and 30th day after MI and score of self care behavior in these days had significant difference (P<0.0001). Spearman test showed self care behavior had significant relationship with depression symptoms (P<0.0001). GEE model also showed with control of socio demographic and illness related factors, depression symptoms can decrease self care behavior scores (P<0.001). Conclusion: Severity of depression symptoms increase in 15th to 30th day after MI. This issue can affect on self care behavior. This issue is emphasized on nurses’ notice to plan suitable self care program for these patients. PMID:25946944

  12. Effect of Neighborhood Factors on Diabetes Self-Care Behaviors in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smalls, Brittany L.; Gregory, Chris M.; Zoller, James S.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care and examine the effect of neighborhood factors on diabetes self-care in adults with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods 615 subjects were recruited from an academic medical center and a Veterans affairs medical center in the southeastern United States. Validated scales were used to assess neighborhood factors and diabetes-related self-care. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the latent constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to assess the relationship between neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care. Results Based on a theoretical framework, CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood aesthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care ( including diet, exercise, foot care, blood sugar testing and medication adherence). SEM showed that social support (r=0.28, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.16, p=0.003) were significantly associated with self-care behaviors, while neighborhood violence (r= -0.06, p<0.001) and aesthetics (r=-0.07, p=0.278) were not χ2 (180, N=611)=192, p=0.26, RMSEA=0.01, CFI=0.999). In the final trimmed model, social support (r=0.31, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.20, p<0.001) remained significantly associated with self-care behaviors χ2 (76, N=611)=60, p=0.91, RMSEA=0.00, CFI=1.0). Conclusion This study developed latent factors for neighborhood characteristics and diabetes self-care and found that social support and access to healthy foods were significantly associated with diabetes self-care and should be considered as targets for future interventions. PMID:25451904

  13. Frailty syndrome and self-care ability in elderly patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Wleklik, Marta; Gobbens, Robbert JJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure is a serious medical condition. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in frailty syndrome and self-care levels among patients with cardiovascular conditions. Demonstrating the influence of frailty syndrome on self-care could improve the quality of self-care and prevent the adverse effects of frailty syndrome. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of frailty syndrome on the self-care capabilities of patients with chronic heart failure, and to identify factors associated with frailty. Methods The data were collected between January and July 2014. The study included 110 patients with chronic heart failure who were hospitalized in the cardiology clinic. Frailty syndrome was assessed using the Tilburg Frailty Indicator, a self-report questionnaire, and self-care behavior was assessed using the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale. Results Fifty-four percent of the study patients were male and 46% were female. The mean age was 66±11 years, the mean Tilburg Frailty Indicator score was 7.45±3.02 points, and the mean self-care level was 27.6±7.13 points. Correlation analyses showed that patients with higher scores in the social components of the frailty scale had better self-care capabilities. Frailty was associated with age, education, duration of heart failure, number of hospitalizations, and New York Heart Association class. The effects of these patient characteristics differed across components of frailty (physical, psychological, social). Conclusion The social components of frailty syndrome adversely affect the ability to self-care in elderly patients with heart failure. It is relevant to use a multidimensional measurement of frailty. PMID:26028966

  14. Validation of a New Instrument for Self-care in Spanish Palliative Care Professionals Nationwide.

    PubMed

    Galiana, Laura; Oliver, Amparo; Sansó, Noemí; Benito, Enric

    2015-01-01

    Self-care is a cornerstone issue for those who deal with stressful events, as it is the case of palliative care professionals. It has been related to awareness, coping with death and quality of life, among others, but no measurement instruments have been used in palliative care professionals. This research presents and validates a brief new measure with clinical and psychometric good properties, called Professional Self-Care Scale (PSCS). The PSCS assesses professionals' self-care in three areas: physical self-care, inner self-care, and social self-care. Data come from a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 385 professionals of palliative care. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, the Coping with Death Scale, and the Professional's Quality of Life measure were also used. Results of the CFA showed adequate fit (χ2(24, N = 385) = 140.66, p < .01; CFI = .91; GFI = .93; SRMR = .09; and RMSEA = .10). Evidence pointed better reliability indices for the 3-item physical and inner factors of self-care than for the social dimension (Rho and GLB of .64, .90, and .57, respectively). Evidence regarding validity was consistent with previous literature. When levels of self-care were examined, women showed higher levels of inner and social self-care (F(3, 371) = 3.19, p = .02, η2 = .03, as also did psychologists when compared to doctors and nurses (F(9, 1074) = 2.00, p = .04, η2 = .02. The PSCS has shown adequate psychometric properties, and thus it could be used as diagnostic instrument when studying professionals' health. PMID:26364786

  15. Self-Care in the Classroom for Children with Chronic Illness: A Case Study of a Student with Cystic Fibrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Julie Elizabeth Jonson

    1994-01-01

    Describes the essential self-care of an eight-year old second-grade student. This study illustrates a school counselor's use of a multimodal, behavioral intervention to increase the level of self-care in the classroom. Relevant reinforcements, individual and group counseling, and peer support, resulted in improved self-care. (RJM)

  16. Quality of Recipient-Caregiver Relationship and Psychological Distress are Correlates of Self-Care Agency after Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Terhorst, Lauren; Song, Mi-Kyung; Shellmer, Diana A.; Aubrecht, Jill; Connolly, Mary; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Self-care behaviors are crucial for following the complex regimen after lung transplantation, yet little is known about recipients’ levels of self-care agency (the capability and willingness to engage in self-care behaviors) and its correlates. We examined levels of self-care agency and recipient characteristics (socio-demographics, psychological distress, quality of relationship with primary lay caregiver, and health locus of control) in 111 recipients. Based on Perceived Self-Care Agency scores, recipients were assigned to either the low or high self-care agency comparison group. Characteristics were compared between groups to identify characteristics likely to be associated with lower self-care agency. Mean (S.D.) score for self-care agency (scale range 53–265) was 223.02 (22.46). Recipients with lowest self-care agency scores reported significantly poorer quality of caregiver relationships (p < .001) and greater psychological distress (p < .001). After controlling for psychological distress, the quality of the recipient-caregiver relationship remained significantly associated with self-care agency. Every one-point decrease in the quality of caregiver relationship increased the risk of low self-care agency by 12%. Recipients with poorer caregiver relationships and greater psychological distress may need additional support to perform the self-care behaviors expected after lung transplantation. PMID:23004565

  17. Quality of recipient-caregiver relationship and psychological distress are correlates of self-care agency after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    DeVito Dabbs, Annette; Terhorst, Lauren; Song, Mi-Kyung; Shellmer, Diana A; Aubrecht, Jill; Connolly, Mary; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Self-care behaviors are crucial for following the complex regimen after lung transplantation, yet little is known about recipients' levels of self-care agency (the capability and willingness to engage in self-care behaviors) and its correlates. We examined levels of self-care agency and recipient characteristics (socio-demographics, psychological distress, quality of relationship with primary lay caregiver, and health locus of control) in 111 recipients. Based on Perceived Self-Care Agency scores, recipients were assigned to either the low- or high-self-care agency comparison group. Characteristics were compared between groups to identify characteristics likely to be associated with lower-self-care agency. Mean (SD) score for self-care agency (scale range, 53-265) was 223.02 (22.46). Recipients with lowest-self-care agency scores reported significantly poorer quality of caregiver relationships (p < 0.001) and greater psychological distress (p < 0.001). After controlling for psychological distress, the quality of the recipient-caregiver relationship remained significantly associated with self-care agency. Every one-point decrease in the quality of caregiver relationship increased the risk of low-self-care agency by 12%. Recipients with poorer caregiver relationships and greater psychological distress may need additional support to perform the self-care behaviors expected after lung transplantation. PMID:23004565

  18. Self-care agency: the concept and how it is measured.

    PubMed

    Carter, P A

    1998-01-01

    Self-care agency (SCA) is a phenomenon of great interest. Nevertheless, difficulty comes when attempting to compare results of studies. This difficulty is caused by the multiple conceptual definitions and instruments used across disciplines. Based on the literature, a historical view of the conceptual development of SCA, a description of the extant instruments, and a discussion of the fit between these definitions and instruments are presented. Researchers need to determine if they plan to measure personal abilities for self-care or the actions taken by an individual for self-care and choose their instruments appropriately. PMID:10028783

  19. Teaching Self-care as a Junior Faculty Member: Perspectives and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Sulli, Maria Marzella; Whetsel, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Self-care is an important component of the doctor of pharmacy curriculum due to the expanding nonprescription medication market and the high percentage of pharmacists practicing in community pharmacy. It can be incorporated as a freestanding course or integrated throughout the curriculum. This article presents the experiences of 2 junior faculty members at 2 different pharmacy schools who were charged with coordinating self-care instruction at their institutions. It discusses the “lessons learned” regarding teaching self-care effectively in an integrated curriculum and in a freestanding course. PMID:17332868

  20. Providing support to caregivers and self-care.

    PubMed

    Kalibala, S

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of HIV/AIDS care has resulted in a wide range of caregivers who work out of public and private hospital facilities, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based facilities. Others are volunteers and community health and social workers based at facilities or community sites. Many caregivers are family members or part of a client's close social network. Additionally, people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) themselves engage in self-care and provide support to other PHA through support groups. In the best-case scenario the services of these caregivers are sometimes provided free of charge at one site by a specialized NGO. In many cases, however, a person wishing to gain access to care and social services may need an understanding how the systems and procedures of various institutions operate. Many PHA are unprepared for the administrative, financial, and legal barriers that they may encounter. To cope with this need, a new type of support service called the "buddy" system has emerged. Buddies are individuals who are less directly involved with, but who know about HIV/AIDS, the services available and the rights of PHA. A buddy is close enough for the PHA to approach, has sufficient time to devote to him/her and can be asked almost everything. The article on the Rio de Janeiro Buddy Project provides an example of a project for gay men in Brazil. In other parts of the world where the buddy system is non-existent, the PHA must often rely on support provided by family and friends. PMID:12349766

  1. Examining the Effects of Remote Monitoring Systems on Activation, Self-care, and Quality of Life in Older Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Lee, Jung-Ah; Moore, Alison A.; Motie, Marjan; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Mangione, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of remote monitoring systems (RMSs) in healthcare has grown exponentially and has improved the accessibility to and ability of patients to engage in treatment intensification. However, research describing the effects of RMSs on activation, self-care, and quality of life (QOL) in older patients with heart failure (HF) is limited. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 3-month RMS intervention on activation, self-care, and QOL of older patients versus a reference group matched on age, gender, race, and functional status (ie, New York Heart Association classification) who received standard discharge instructions after an acute episode of HF exacerbation requiring hospitalization. Methods A total of 21 patients (mean age, 72.7 ± 8.9 years; range, 58–83 years; 52.4% women) provided consent and were trained to measure their weight, blood pressure, and heart rate at home with an RMS device and transmit this information every day for 3 months to a centralized information system. The system gathered all data and dispatched alerts when certain clinical conditions were met. Results The baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 groups were comparable. Over time, participants in the RMS group showed greater improvements in activation, self-care, and QOL compared with their counterparts. Data showed moderately strong associations between increased activation, self-care, and QOL. Conclusion Our preliminary data show that the use of an RMS is feasible and effective in promoting activation, self-care, and QOL. A larger-scale randomized clinical trial is warranted to show that the RMS is a new and effective method for improving clinical management of older adults with chronic HF. PMID:24365871

  2. Psychometric Properties of a Moroccan Version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure

    PubMed Central

    Adarmouch, Latifa; Sebbani, Majda; Elyacoubi, Abdelhadi; Amine, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) is a widely used self-report measure for diabetes self-management. It is an interesting tool for practice and research. Objectives. To translate and culturally adapt the SDSCA to the Moroccan context and to assess psychometric properties of the adapted version among type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. The Moroccan version was obtained following forward and backward translations. An expert panel issued a final version. The adapted version was administered to patients aged 30 years and older who have type 2 diabetes. Psychometric evaluation consisted of assessing validity through internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, item-to-scale and interitem correlations) and exploratory factor analysis and reproducibility (test-retest reliability). Results. Seventy-five participants were included. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.20 (diet) to 0.99 (exercise). Moderate to good interitem and item-to-scale correlations were found. Factor analysis resulted in a Moroccan SDSCA version consisting of 8 items, organized in four subscales that explained 89.6% of the variance: diet, exercise, blood sugar testing, and foot-care. Intraclass correlations ranged from 0.27 to 0.52 for subscales. Conclusion. This study provides preliminary evidence for suitability of use of the Moroccan SDSCA among type 2 diabetic patients in order to assess diabetes self-management. PMID:27019853

  3. A pilot study of yoga as self-care for arthritis in minority communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While arthritis is the most common cause of disability, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics experience worse arthritis impact despite having the same or lower prevalence of arthritis compared to non-Hispanic whites. People with arthritis who exercise regularly have less pain, more energy, and improved sleep, yet arthritis is one of the most common reasons for limiting physical activity. Mind-body interventions, such as yoga, that teach stress management along with physical activity may be well suited for investigation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Yoga users are predominantly white, female, and college educated. There are few studies that examine yoga in minority populations; none address arthritis. This paper presents a study protocol examining the feasibility and acceptability of providing yoga to an urban, minority population with arthritis. Methods/design In this ongoing pilot study, a convenience sample of 20 minority adults diagnosed with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis undergo an 8-week program of yoga classes. It is believed that by attending yoga classes designed for patients with arthritis, with racially concordant instructors; acceptability of yoga as an adjunct to standard arthritis treatment and self-care will be enhanced. Self-care is defined as adopting behaviors that improve physical and mental well-being. This concept is quantified through collecting patient-reported outcome measures related to spiritual growth, health responsibility, interpersonal relations, and stress management. Additional measures collected during this study include: physical function, anxiety/depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, social roles, and pain; as well as baseline demographic and clinical data. Field notes, quantitative and qualitative data regarding feasibility and acceptability are also collected. Acceptability is determined by response/retention rates, positive qualitative data, and continuing yoga practice after three months. Discussion There are a number of challenges in recruiting and retaining participants from a community clinic serving minority populations. Adopting behaviors that improve well-being and quality of life include those that integrate mental health (mind) and physical health (body). Few studies have examined offering integrative modalities to this population. This pilot was undertaken to quantify measures of feasibility and acceptability that will be useful when evaluating future plans for expanding the study of yoga in urban, minority populations with arthritis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01617421 PMID:23548052

  4. Premenstrual Distress Among Japanese High School Students: Self-Care Strategies and Associated Physical and Psychosocial Factors.

    PubMed

    Otsuka-Ono, Hiroko; Sato, Iori; Ikeda, Mari; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify self-care strategies and assess physical and psychosocial factors associated with premenstrual distress among high school students. A cross-sectional survey of 217 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years was conducted in October 2009. Most (84.3 percent) had at least one or more symptoms of premenstrual distress. Premenstrual distress interfered with normal school activity in 51.2 percent. Most participants (57.1 percent) did not perform any self-care strategies for premenstrual distress. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. Comprehension of one's own physical and mental states during premenstrual phases mediated the relationship between neuroticism and premenstrual distress. Activity restrictions due to menstrual distress mediated the relationship between the family's understanding of one's behavior during premenstrual phases and premenstrual distress. Findings suggest that, even if girls have neuroticism, it will be important to teach them to address the comprehension of one's own physical and mental states so that perceptions of both premenstruation and menstruation become more positive. Findings also suggest that the family's understanding was associated with alleviation of premenstrual distress. This study suggests the need for education to help adolescent girls and their families manage premenstrual distress and increase awareness of the benefit of managing its associated symptoms. PMID:26086453

  5. Self-efficacy and self-care: missing ingredients in health and healthcare among adults with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Schmutte, Timothy; Flanagan, Elizabeth; Bedregal, Luis; Ridgway, Priscilla; Sells, Dave; Styron, Thomas; Davidson, Larry

    2009-03-01

    To help inform the design of a self-management intervention for improving the physical health of adults with serious mental illnesses, we conducted focus groups about their perceived medical care and physical health needs. Adults with serious mental illnesses participated in four semi-structured focus groups conducted at a transitional living facility, a social club, and a Hispanic outpatient mental health clinic. Questions included their recent experiences of seeking medical care, the effect of having a mental illnesses diagnosis, strategies for active self-care, and perceived barriers to better physical health. In addition to various systemic barriers to better medical care, participants articulated limited knowledge and self-efficacy regarding active self-management of their physical health. Despite their interest in learning more about health promotion, most participants expressed a sense of personal futility and powerlessness in improving their health. These data suggest that any effort to improve the wellbeing of these adults will need to address self-efficacy in the hope of improving self-care for their physical health needs. PMID:19048375

  6. Unsupervised self-care predicts conduct problems: The moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Olivia E; Schofield, Thomas J; Sitka, Angela; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2016-04-01

    Despite widespread speculation about the detrimental effect of unsupervised self-care on adolescent outcomes, little is known about which children are particularly prone to problem behaviors when left at home without adult supervision. The present research used data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin children residing in the United States to examine the prospective effect of unsupervised self-care on conduct problems, and the moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender. Results showed that unsupervised self-care was related to increases over time in conduct problems such as lying, stealing, and bullying. However, unsupervised self-care only led to conduct problems for boys and for children with an aggressive temperament. The main and interactive effects held for both mother-reported and observational-rated hostile aggression and after controlling for potential confounds. PMID:26820648

  7. Self-care ability in a group of elderly Swedish people: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Söderhamn, O

    1998-10-01

    The aims of this study were to describe self-care ability in a group of Swedish elderly and to elucidate the meaning of actualizing this self-care ability into self-care activity. Two different phenomenological methods were applied in the analyses of 11 self-reports written by home dwelling elderly in the community. The eidetic structure of self-care ability was twofold; it entailed, first, being present to the opportunity to act on certain perceived influences on the body and, second, alone or with support from somebody else to be able to bring about a change in attitude towards one's personal lifestyle or life situation. The meaning of actualizing this ability was interpreted as self-realization or self-transcendence. PMID:9829662

  8. Potential Benefits of Companion Animals for Self-Care Children. Reviews of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, D. Terry; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the potential benefits of having pets for self-care children. Researchers suggest that companion animals can lower blood pressure, show up high on a list of children's helpers and indirectly increase feelings of safety. (RJC)

  9. Effectiveness of a School- and Community-based Academic Asthma Health Education Program on Use of Effective Asthma Self-care Behaviors in Older School-age Students

    PubMed Central

    Kintner, Eileen K.; Cook, Gwendolyn; Marti, C. Nathan; Allen, April; Stoddard, Debbie; Harmon, Phyllis; Gomes, Melissa; Meeder, Linda; Van Egeren, Laurie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of SHARP, an academic asthma health education and counseling program, on fostering use of effective asthma self-care behaviors. Design and Methods This was a phase III, two-group, cluster randomized, single-blinded, longitudinal design guided the study. Caregivers of 205 fourth- and fifth-grade students completed the asthma health behaviors survey at pre-intervention and 1, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. Analysis involved multilevel modeling. Results All students demonstrated improvement in episode management, risk-reduction/prevention, and health promotion behaviors; SHARP students demonstrated increased improvement in episode management and risk-reduction/prevention behaviors. Practice Implications Working with schoolteachers, nurses can improve use of effective asthma self-care behaviors. PMID:25443867

  10. Effect of healing touch training on self-care awareness in nurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Pegi

    Nursing focuses on supporting clients' health and health behaviors; however, they tend to exhibit unproductive behaviors when it comes to caring for themselves. As nurses' self-neglect can undermine client care, supporting nurses' self-care practices are expected to translate into clients' self-care. Healing Touch (HT) is one option for supporting nurses' self-care, as it is an accepted nursing practice and studies suggest that HT may have beneficial effects for those delivering it. This study examined the impact of a 2-day HT training on awareness of the need for self-care in nurses. HT training was offered as continuing education for 45 nurses at a Veteran's Administration hospital in Long Beach, CA. This mixed-methods study used a pre/post-test design to measure the effects of HT Level 1 training on nurses' self-care self-awareness. Independent samples t-tests and analyses of variance were used to detect whether any significant differences emerged based on participant demographic data. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests to determine whether participants' self-awareness changed over the study period. Effect size for any differences were calculated using Cohen's d. Open-ended responses were reviewed and common themes were identified related to what participants believed they learned and how it affected their care for themselves and their clients. Two increases were found to be significant and of sufficient power when comparing pre- to delayed post-test scores: physical self-care awareness (mean difference = 0.956, t(44) = 5.085, p = .000, r = .61) and professional self-care awareness (mean difference = .955, t(43) = 5.277, p = .000, r = .63). Qualitative findings suggested that changes in their awareness, self-directed practices, and patient care practices are anticipated, evident, and sustained based upon themes across the three tests. Nurses are advised to take a course that teaches specific self-care techniques and strategies and continue practicing, monitoring, and adapting the practice of self-care. Administrators are advised to recognize the importance of self-care for healthcare staff, institute programs that encourage such activities, and model their own self-care.

  11. Nutritional self-care in two older Norwegian males: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about how to support nutritional self-care in the vulnerable elderly living in their own homes is an important area for health care professionals. The aim of this case study was to evaluate the effects of nutritional intervention by comparing perceived health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and nutritional risk in two older home-dwelling individuals before, during, and after intervention and to describe their experiences of nutritional self-care before and after intervention. Methods: A study circle was established to support nutritional self-care in two older home-dwelling individuals (≥65 years of age), who participated in three meetings arranged by health professionals over a period of six months. The effects of this study circle were evaluated using the Nutritional Form For the Elderly, the Self-care Ability Scale for the Elderly (SASE), the Appraisal of Self-care Agency scale, the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and responses to a number of health-related questions. Qualitative interviews were performed before and after intervention to interpret the changes that occurred during intervention. Results: A reduced risk of undernutrition was found for both participants. A higher total score on the SASE was obtained for one participant, along with a slightly stronger preference for self-care to maintain sufficient food intake, was evident. For the other participant, total score on the SASE decreased, but the SOC score improved after intervention. Decreased mobility was reported, but this did not influence his food intake. The study circle was an opportunity to express personal views and opinions about food intake and meals. Conclusion: An organized meeting place for dialogue between older home-dwelling individuals and health care professionals can stimulate the older person’s engagement, consciousness, and learning about nutritional self-care, and thereby be of importance in reducing the risk of undernutrition. PMID:23807843

  12. Effects of Mobile Phone Usage in Supporting Leg Lymphedema Self-care

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Ayako; Koiyabashi, Kikuyo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to implement self-care support for leg lymphedema patients using mobile phones and to investigate the effects thereof. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with lymphedema following female genital cancer surgery (stages I to II) who were referred from a nearby gynecologist were randomly divided into groups for routine self-care support (control group) and mobile telephone-assisted support (intervention group) and received the self-care support appropriate to their group. The (total) circumference of the leg with edema, FACT-G (cancer patient QOL), MHP (mental health status), and self-care self-assessment were comparatively investigated at three months after the initial interview. Results: No significant reduction in the (total) circumferences of legs with edema was confirmed in either the control or intervention group. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of the activity circumstances and FACT-G mental status at three months after the initial interview. The intervention group was also significantly better in psychological, social, and physical items in the MHP. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of circumstances of self-care implementation at three months after the initial interview. Additionally, comparison of the circumstances of implementation for different aspects of self-care content showed that the intervention group was significantly better at selecting shoes, observing edema, moisturizing, self-drainage, wearing compression garments, and implementing bandaging. Conclusion: Compared with routine self-care support, mobile telephone-assisted support is suggested to be effective for leg lymphedema patients’ QOL and mental health status as well as their self-care behaviors. PMID:25648778

  13. Determinants of Self-Care in Diabetic Patients Based on Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani-Tafti, Abbasali; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Ardakani, Mohammad Afkhami; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine self-care predictors in diabetic patients based on health belief model. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 diabetic patients referred to health service centers in Ardakan city, Yazd, Iran. The data was collected by a questionnaire including perceived benefits, barriers, severity, susceptibility, self-efficacy, social support, self-care behaviors and demographic variables. Results: Regularly medicine use (mean= 6.48 times per week) and shoes checking (mean= 1.17 times per week) were reported as the highest and the lowest self-care behaviors respectively. Health belief model constructs including perceived benefits, barriers, severity, susceptibility, self-efficacy and social support predicted 33.5% of the observed variance of self-care behaviors. Perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy had positive effect on self-care behavior; whereas perceived barrier’s has negative effect. Self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and barriers were most powerful predictor respectively. Conclusion: The findings approved the efficiency of health belief model in prediction of self-care behaviors among diabetic patients. The findings realized the health belief model structure; therefore, it can be used as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions in diabetes control plans. PMID:26156902

  14. Diabetes Self-care among a Multiethnic Sample of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Traywick, LaVona S.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy; Kart, Cary S.

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes constitutes a leading and increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults, particularly African Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and rural dwellers. To understand diabetes self-care, an essential determinant of diabetic and overall health outcomes, 80 middle aged and older adults from these four disproportionately affected racial/ethnic/residential groups engaged in in-depth interviews, focusing on approaches to and explanations for diabetes self-care. Certain self-care activities (medication-taking, diet, foot care) were performed regularly while others (blood glucose monitoring, exercise) were practiced less frequently. Despite research suggestions to the contrary, only one in four elders used unconventional diabetes therapies, and only one-third listed someone other than a health care provider as a primary information source. Few self-care differences emerged according to race/ethnicity/residence, perhaps because of the influential and common circumstance of low income. Thematic analyses suggest that inadequate resources, perceived efficacy of medication, great respect for biomedical authority, and lack of familiarity with and concerns about unconventional therapies are influential in establishing these patterns of self-care. We discuss the similarity of self-care practices and perspectives irrespective of race/ethnicity/residence and the predominance of biomedical acceptability. PMID:18369715

  15. Diabetes self-care among a multiethnic sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Traywick, Lavona S; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy; Kart, Cary S

    2008-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes constitutes a leading and increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults, particularly African Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and rural dwellers. To understand diabetes self-care, an essential determinant of diabetic and overall health outcomes, 80 middle aged and older adults from these four disproportionately affected racial/ethnic/residential groups engaged in in-depth interviews, focusing on approaches to and explanations for diabetes self-care. Certain self-care activities (medication-taking, diet, foot care) were performed regularly while others (blood glucose monitoring, exercise) were practiced less frequently. Despite research suggestions to the contrary, only one in four elders used unconventional diabetes therapies, and only one-third listed someone other than a health care provider as a primary information source. Few self-care differences emerged according to race/ethnicity/residence, perhaps because of the influential and common circumstance of low income. Thematic analyses suggest that inadequate resources, perceived efficacy of medication, great respect for biomedical authority, and lack of familiarity with and concerns about unconventional therapies are influential in establishing these patterns of self-care. We discuss the similarity of self-care practices and perspectives irrespective of race/ethnicity/residence and the predominance of biomedical acceptability. PMID:18369715

  16. The Health Deviation of Post-Breast Cancer Lymphedema: Symptom Assessment and Impact on Self-Care Agency.

    PubMed

    Armer, Jane M; Henggeler, Mary H; Brooks, Constance W; Zagar, Eris A; Homan, Sherri; Stewart, Bob R

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women world-wide, affecting 1 of 8 women during their lifetimes. In the US alone, some 2 million breast cancer survivors comprise 20% of all cancer survivors. Conservatively, it is estimated that some 20-40% of all breast cancer survivors will develop the health deviation of lymphedema or treatment-related limb swelling over their lifetimes. This chronic accumulation of protein-rich fluid predisposes to infection, leads to difficulties in fitting clothing and carrying out activities of daily living, and impacts self-esteem, self-concept, and quality of life. Lymphedema is associated with self-care deficits (SCD) and negatively impacts self-care agency (SCA) and physiological and psychosocial well-being. Objectives of this report are two-fold: (1) to explore four approaches of assessing and diagnosing breast cancer lymphedema, including self-report of symptoms and the impact of health deviations on SCA; and (2) to propose the development of a clinical research program for lymphedema based on the concepts of Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT). Anthropometric and symptom data from a National-Institutes-of-Health-funded prospective longitudinal study were examined using survival analysis to compare four definitions of lymphedema over 24 months post-breast cancer surgery among 140 of 300 participants (all who had passed the 24-month measurement). The four definitions included differences of 200 ml, 10% volume, and 2 cm circumference between pre-op baseline and/or contralateral limbs, and symptom self-report of limb heaviness and swelling. Symptoms, SCA, and SCD were assessed by interviews using a validated tool. Estimates of lymphedema occurrence varied by definition and time since surgery. The 2 cm girth change provided the highest estimation of lymphedema (82% at 24 months), followed by 200 ml volume change (57% at 24 months). The 10% limb volume change converged with symptom report of heaviness and swelling at 24 months (38-39% lymphedema occurrence), with symptom report being the earliest predictor of lymphedema occurrence than any other measurement. Findings verify the importance of subjective assessment by symptom report of limb changes and SCD following breast cancer treatment as an essential tool in early detection and treatment of lymphedema. Findings also support the importance of pre-operative baseline measurements, symptom history, and SCA for later post-op comparisons. These preliminary findings underscore the importance of strengthening SCA by educating breast cancer survivors. Self assessment, early detection, and early treatment hold the best promise for optimal management of this chronic condition, limiting detrimental effects on SCA, and improving quality of life and physiological and psychosocial well-being. These findings lay the foundation for a clinical research program in breast cancer lymphedema based on SCDNT in which education in and awareness for self-report of lymphedema-associated symptoms is a first step in screening. Increasing patient knowledge through education will increase SCA by identifying ane providing information to meet self-care requisites (SCR) related to the health deviation of lymphedema. The nurse has the opportunity to assist patients in developing self-care actions as needed to meet universal and health deviation therapeutic requisites to address self-care demands following breast cancer treatment. PMID:22844654

  17. Developing Compassionate Self-care Skills in Persons Living with HIV: a Pilot Study to Examine Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Price, Cynthia J.; Diana, Taibi M.; Smith-DiJulio, Kathleen L.; Voss, Joachim G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-care skills for persons living with HIV (PLWH) are needed to better cope with the common symptoms and emotional challenges of living with this chronic illness. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy (MABT) for individuals receiving medical management for HIV at an outpatient program. Setting A nonprofit outpatient day program that provided medical management to low-income individuals with HIV. Research Design A one group pre–post study design, nine participants were recruited to receive eight weekly MABT sessions of 1.25 hours each. Intervention MABT is designed to facilitate emotion regulation through teaching somatically-based self-care skills to respond to daily stressors. Main Outcome Measures To assess participant characteristics and study feasibility, a battery of health questionnaires and one week of wrist actigraphy was administered pre- and postintervention. A satisfaction survey and written questionnaire was administered postintervention to assess MABT acceptability. Results The results demonstrated recruitment and retention feasibility. The sample had psychological and physical health symptoms that are characteristic of PLWH. MABT acceptability was high, and participants perceived that they learned new mind-body self-care skills that improved HIV symptoms and their ability to manage symptoms. Conclusion The positive findings support a larger future study to examine MABT efficacy to improve coping with HIV symptoms among PLWH. PMID:23730396

  18. Holistic self-care for rehabilitation experienced by thai buddhist trauma patients in areas of political and social unrest.

    PubMed

    Songwathana, Praneed; Watanasiriwanich, Wachiraya; Kitrungrote, Luppana

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the meaning and practice of holistic self-care for rehabilitation among Thai Buddhist trauma patients living in areas of political unrest where acts of terrorism occur. Eleven Thai Buddhist trauma patients were selected as specified. The data were collected by in-depth interviews between November 2011 and April 2012, and analyzed using the Van Manen method.Those interviewed described "holistic self-care for rehabilitation" as learning (1) to acquire a new life and (2) to bear the increased demands of care as a chronic disease. Health care responses fell into 3 categories: (1) improving physical self-sufficiency and rehabilitation by increasing muscle strength, pain management, and pressure sores; (2) improving psychological well-being by applying positive thinking, making an effort to live independently, and following a set of religious practices; and (3) finding harmony in life through caution and a willingness to adjust one's lifestyle. Although the participants seemed to adapt well to their new lifestyles, extensive support from health care professionals was necessary. This study promotes better understanding of the holistic health care experiences the survivors of trauma have as a result of an unstable political situation that includes aspects of social unrest and terrorism. PMID:24305082

  19. The effect of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zareban, Iraj; Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Haidarnia, Alireza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes as the most common diseases caused by metabolic disorders is an important global challenge. This is a disease that requires lifelong self-care because self-care and improved quality of life is cost effective. This study is aimed to determine the impact of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c, type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental study done on 138 diabetic female patients in Zahedan city, in 2011 (1390). This sampling method of patients was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of the Diabetes Center, at Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital (AS) in Zahedan. Samples were divided randomly in to two groups: 69 cases and 69 controls. Data collected included validity and reliability confirmed questionnaire. Checklist was based on patients ‘performance of reporting and (HbA1c) testing. Before the educational intervention, the checklist of questions for recording the (HbA1c) test for both the groups were completed, and study samples received 5 sessions of education (with the group discussion and film show) for a month. However, the control group received only routine training. Three months after the educational intervention, both groups completed the questionnaire and the check list and data using SPSS software and the appropriate tests were analyzed. Results: Findings showed that the mean domain scores of area of knowledge, attitude and practice educational groups, were recorded as (46.6 ± 8.57, 46.5 ± 0.86 and 29.06 ± 10.02), respectively. And after education scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were recorded as (52.80 ± 2.20, 12.98 ± 1.02 and 39.69 ± 4.74), respectively, and in study group significant difference (P < 0/001) was seen. Conclusion: Self-care training in striation leads to improve knowledge, attitude and self-care performance of the study samples and also improves the average (HbA1c). Because it seems to increase the active participation of learners in their care that they have experienced with this training method and their motivation enhanced them to learn better self-care. So this type of care education should be given to the attention of nurses and healthcare's staff. PMID:25540796

  20. Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Idongesit L.; Adibe, Maxwell O.; Okonta, Matthew J.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Methods Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30) was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s) to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05. Results A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%). The majority of the study sample (79.5%) had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001), monthly income (p<0.001) and duration of diabetes (p=0.008). Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013). Conclusion Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level. PMID:25243026

  1. Evaluation of Internet-Based Technology for Supporting Self-Care: Problems Encountered by Patients and Caregivers When Using Self-Care Applications

    PubMed Central

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia; Boer, Henk; Steehouder, Michaël F; Seydel, Erwin R

    2008-01-01

    Background Prior studies have shown that many patients are interested in Internet-based technology that enables them to control their own care. As a result, innovative eHealth services are evolving rapidly, including self-assessment tools and secure patient-caregiver email communication. It is interesting to explore how these technologies can be used for supporting self-care. Objective The aim of this study was to determine user-centered criteria for successful application of Internet-based technology used in primary care for supporting self-care. Methods We conducted scenario-based tests combined with in-depth interviews among 14 caregivers and 14 patients/consumers to describe the use of various self-care applications and the accompanying user problems. We focused on the user-friendliness of the applications, the quality of care provided by the applications, and the implementation of the applications in practice. Results Problems with the user-friendliness of the self-care applications concerned inadequate navigation structures and search options and lack of feedback features. Patients want to retrieve health information with as little effort as possible; however, the navigation and search functionalities of the applications appeared incapable of handling patients’ health complaints efficiently. Among caregivers, the lack of feedback and documentation possibilities caused inconvenience. Caregivers wanted to know how patients acted on their advice, but the applications did not offer an adequate feedback feature. Quality of care problems were mainly related to insufficient tailoring of information to patients’ needs and to efficiency problems. Patients expected personalized advice to control their state of health, but the applications failed to deliver this. Language (semantics) also appeared as an obstacle to providing appropriate and useful self-care advice. Caregivers doubted the reliability of the computer-generated information and the efficiency and effectiveness of secure email consultation. Legal or ethical issues with respect to possible misuse of email consultation also caused concerns. Implementation problems were mainly experienced by caregivers due to unclear policy on email consultation and the lack of training for email consultations. Conclusions Patients’ and caregivers’ expectations did not correspond with their experiences of the use of the Internet-based applications for self-care. Patients thought that the applications would support them in solving their health problems. Caregivers were more reserved about the applications because of medico-legal concerns about misuse. However, the applications failed to support self-care because eHealth is more than just a technological intervention. The design of the applications should include a way of thinking about how to deliver health care with the aid of technology. The most powerful application for self-care was secure email consultation, combined with a suitable triage mechanism to empower patients’ self-awareness. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of such Web-based triage mechanisms for medical complaints and on the development of interactive features to enhance patients’ self-care. PMID:18487137

  2. A preliminary study of a cloud-computing model for chronic illness self-care support in an underdeveloped country

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O.; Ganser, Martha; Mohamed, Muhima; Marinec, Nicolle; Krishnan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Background Although interactive voice response (IVR) calls can be an effective tool for chronic disease management, many regions of the world lack the infrastructure to provide these services. Objective This study evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of an IVR program using a cloud-computing model to improve diabetes management in Honduras. Methods A single group, pre-post study was conducted between June and August 2010. The telecommunications infrastructure was maintained on a U.S. server, and calls were directed to patients’ cell phones using VoIP. Eighty-five diabetes patients in Honduras received weekly IVR disease management calls for six weeks, with automated follow-up emails to clinicians, and voicemail reports to family caregivers. Patients completed interviews at enrollment and a six week follow-up. Other measures included patients’ glycemic control (A1c) and data from the IVR calling system. Results 55% of participants completed the majority of their IVR calls and 33% completed 80% or more. Higher baseline blood pressures, greater diabetes burden, greater distance from the clinic, and better adherence were related to higher call completion rates. Nearly all participants (98%) reported that because of the program, they improved in aspects of diabetes management such as glycemic control (56%) or foot care (89%). Mean A1c’s decreased from 10.0% at baseline to 8.9% at follow-up (p<.01). Most participants (92%) said that if the service were available in their clinic they would use it again. Conclusions Cloud computing is a feasible strategy for providing IVR services globally. IVR self-care support may improve self-care and glycemic control for patients in under-developed countries. PMID:21565655

  3. Self-care practices and experiences of people living with HIV not receiving antiretroviral therapy in an urban community of Lusaka, Zambia: implications for HIV treatment programmes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the increasingly wider availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), some people living with HIV (PLHIV) and eligible for treatment have opted to adopt self-care practices thereby risking early AIDS-related mortality. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in urban Zambia to gain insights into PLHIV self-care practices and experiences and explore the implications for successful delivery of ART care. Between March 2010 and September 2011, in-depth interviews were conducted with PLHIV who had dropped out of treatment (n=25) and those that had opted not to initiate medication (n=37). Data was entered into and managed using Atlas ti, and analysed inductively using latent content analysis. Results PHIV used therapeutic and physical health maintenance, psychological well-being and healthy lifestyle self-care practices to maintain physical health and mitigate HIV-related symptoms. Herbal remedies, faith healing and self-prescription of antibiotics and other conventional medicines to treat HIV-related ailments were used for therapeutic and physical health maintenance purposes. Psychological well-being self-care practices used were religiosity/spirituality and positive attitudes towards HIV infection. These practices were modulated by close social network relationships with other PLHIV, family members and peers, who acted as sources of emotional, material and financial support. Cessations of sexual relationships, adoption of safe sex to avoid re-infections and uptake of nutritional supplements were the commonly used risk reduction and healthy lifestyle practices respectively. Conclusions While these self-care practices may promote physical and psychosocial well-being and mitigate AIDS-related symptoms, at least in the short term, they however undermine PLHIV access to ART care thereby putting PLHIV at risk of early AIDS-related mortality. The use of scientifically unproven herbal remedies raises health and safety concerns; faith healing may create fatalism and resignation with death while the reported self-prescription of antibiotics to treat HIV-related infections raises concerns about future development of microbial drug resistance amongst PLHIV. Collectively, these self-care practices undermine efforts to effectively abate the spread and burden of HIV and reduce AIDS-related mortality. Therefore, there is need for sensitization campaigns on the benefits of ART and the risks associated with widespread self-prescription of antibiotics and use of scientifically unproven herbal remedies. PMID:23675734

  4. Common colds. Reported patterns of self-care and health care use.

    PubMed Central

    Vingilis, E.; Brown, U.; Hennen, B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the self-reported prevalence and patterns of self-care and health care use for colds and flu. DESIGN: Using the expert panel method, a questionnaire was developed to explore self-care practices, attitudes, pharmaceutical use, and health care use for a range of cold and flu symptoms. SETTING: London and Windsor, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Using a random-digit-dialing survey method, 210 residents were interviewed between November and December 1993. Of 1484 telephone numbers called, 1179 calls were ineligible. Two hundred ten questionnaires were completed for 305 eligible respondents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic data, typical self-care practices, actual practice during respondents' last cold, opinions on appropriate practices, and knowledge of how to treat colds. RESULTS: Self-care was respondents' treatment of choice, and most respondents use over-the-counter drugs. Prescription drug use was low. Only 1% reported seeing a physician for their last cold. As the number of symptoms increased, however, reported use of over-the-counter drugs and calls or visits to doctors increased. CONCLUSIONS: Results are congruent with other studies showing that the health care practices of most respondents are consistent with low use of the health care system and high levels of self-care for colds and flu. PMID:10587772

  5. Health locus of control and self-care behaviors in diabetic foot patients

    PubMed Central

    Abredari, Hamid; Bolourchifard, Fariba; Rassouli, Maryam; Nasiri, Navideh; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic foot affects more than 25% of diabetic patients and finally up to 20% of cases result in amputation. The most important factor resulting in severe complications or even death is lack of self-care. Health locus of control has been introduced as one of health factors and predicting factors of self-care. This research was performed for analyzing the correlation between self-care behaviors and health locus of control in diabetic foot patients. Methods: In this descriptive study, 120 patients with diabetic foot were chosen using convenience sampling from endocrine clinic and wards of endocrine and vascular surgery of Teleqani Hospital of Shahid Beheshti Medical University. The data were gathered by demographic, self-care behavior, and health locus of control questionnaires. The t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and spearman coefficient were used to analyze the data. Results: Results of this research showed that there is a direct and significant relation between selfcare behaviors and internal health locus of control (p<0.001), and also in contrast with chance health locus of control (p<0.001). Conclusion: We have to consider these factors’ role in nursing interventions and patient-care education programs and plans. Probably, interventions and programs that will lead to the strengthening of internal health locus of control improve and strengthen patients’ self-care behaviors and their involvement in treatment. PMID:26913246

  6. Measuring Self-Care in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Xu, Jiayun; Zhao, Weigang; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines the characteristics and psychometric properties of the instruments used to assess self-care behaviors among persons with type 2 diabetes. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published in English within the past 20 years. Thirty different instruments were identified in 75 articles: 18 original instruments on type 2 diabetes mellitus self-care, 8 translated or revised version, and 4 not specific but relevant to diabetes. Twenty-one instruments were multidimensional and addressed multiple dimensions of self-care behavior. Nine were unidimensional: three focusing exclusively on medication taking, three on diet, one on physical activity, one on self-monitoring of blood glucose, and one on oral care. Most instruments (22 of 30) were developed during the last decade. Only 10 were repeated more than once. Nineteen of the 30 instruments reported both reliability and validity information but with varying degrees of rigor. In conclusion, most instruments used to measure self-care were relatively new and had been applied to only a limited number of studies with incomplete psychometric profiles. Rigorous psychometric testing, operational definition of self-care, and sufficient explanation of scoring need to be considered for further instrument development. PMID:26130465

  7. Quaternion Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  8. An empirical test of a self-care model of women's responses to battering.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J C; Weber, N

    2000-01-01

    A model of women's responses to battering was constructed based on Orem's theory of self-care deficit and on empirical and clinical observations. The model proposed that the age, educational level, and cultural influences as basic conditioning factors would all be directly related to relational conflict, which would be negatively related to self-care agency (as a mediator) and indirectly related to both outcomes of health and well-being. Using simultaneous structural equation modeling with specification searching, a modified model was derived that eliminated the mediation path but supported direct effects of both abuse and self-care agency on health. The derived model was found to be only a borderline fit with the data, probably due to measurement problems, lack of inclusion of important variables, and small sample size (N = 117). However, there was support for several of the relationships deduced from and/or congruent with Orem's theory. PMID:11847780

  9. Self-Reported Sleep Difficulties and Self-Care Strategies Among Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Joanne C.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Quandt, Sara A.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Nguyen, Ha T.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the use of self-care strategies to address difficulty sleeping among community-dwelling older adults. Data were collected from a series of 18 questionnaires administered to 195 rural African American and white older adults in North Carolina. Participants reported whether they had experienced difficulty sleeping and strategies used to respond to the symptom. The most widely used strategies included ignoring the symptom, staying in bed or resting, and praying. Herb and supplement use were not reported. Ethnicity, income, and education were associated with use of specific self-care strategies for sleep. This variation suggests that older adults may draw on cultural understandings to interpret the significance of difficulty sleeping and influence their use of self-care strategies, including complementary and alternative medicine use. This information may enable health care providers to communicate with the older patients about sleep difficulty strategies to minimize sleep problems. PMID:24647377

  10. Integration of Problem-based Learning and Innovative Technology Into a Self-Care Course

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the integration of problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course. Design. Problem-based learning (PBL) activities were developed and implemented in place of lectures in a self-care course. Students used technology, such as computer-generated virtual patients and iPads, during the PBL sessions. Assessments. Students’ scores on post-case quizzes were higher than on pre-case quizzes used to assess baseline knowledge. Student satisfaction with problem-based learning and the use of technology in the course remained consistent throughout the semester. Conclusion. Integrating problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course enabled students to become active learners. PMID:23966730

  11. Caring for oneself to care for others: physicians and their self-care

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Morrison, Laura J.; Carey, Elise; Bernacki, Rachelle; O'Neill, Lynn; Kapo, Jennifer; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S.; Thomas, Jane deLima

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that clinicians experience distress and grief in response to their patients' suffering. Oncologists and palliative care specialists are no exception since they commonly experience patient loss and are often affected by unprocessed grief. These emotions can compromise clinicians' personal well-being, since unexamined emotions may lead to burnout, moral distress, compassion fatigue, and poor clinical decisions which adversely affect patient care. One approach to mitigate this harm is self-care, defined as a cadre of activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain personal well-being throughout life. This article emphasizes the importance of having a self-care and self-awareness plan when caring for patients with life-limiting cancer and discusses validated methods to increase self-care, enhance self-awareness and improve patient care. PMID:23967495

  12. Being old and living alone in urban areas: the meaning of self-care and health on the perception of life situation and identity

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background Living alone in urban areas when getting old is an important and necessary field for research as the growth of the urban population worldwide increases, and due to the fact that people live longer. How older people manage their self-care and health, and how this might influence their identity and life situation may be very important to understand when planning for a new, upcoming older generation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. Methods A phenomenological–hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur was applied. Nine single-living older persons in urban areas, 70–82 years of age, and identified to be in good health were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a phenomenological–hermeneutic method. Results Strength and a time dimension characterized the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity as narrated by the group of single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. The informants were, as older individuals, caring, autonomous, and robust characters, who had gone through difficult times in life, and in a resilient way moved towards a new future. They valued and were grateful for what they had learned in their lives and could go forward and still experience and explore. Conclusion Self-care is significant in the perception of life situation and identity among single urban older people in this study, and characterized by strength, temporality, gratitude, autonomy, and natality. Society needs to acknowledge the strengths and capabilities of older people to a greater extent. PMID:23847434

  13. Self-Care Guide for the Heart Failure Patient

    MedlinePlus

    ... doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003991 Extract Free » Full Text Free PDF Free Classifications Cardiology Patient Page Services ... manager Request Permissions Metrics Total Downloads Abstract: 26126 Full-text: 14126 PDF: 2290 Citing Articles Load citing article ...

  14. Taking Care of You: Self-Care for Family Caregivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... well-being while managing caregiving responsibilities. They report: sleep deprivation poor eating habits failure to exercise failure to ... your caregiving situation. That you are grieving a loss. That you are experiencing increased stress. That you ...

  15. Self-care and yoga-academic-practice collaboration for occupational health.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina

    2013-12-01

    High rates of stress and burnout among nurses and other health care providers justify the exploration of innovative interventions designed to reduce stress and promote self-care among this population. A growing body of evidence supports the physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga and suggests the potential for yoga to support self-care and reduce stress among health care providers. This article describes the formation of an academic-practice collaboration to use yoga as a model for occupational health and wellness among nurses employed at a tax-supported urban health system. In addition, recommendations for program sustainability over time are discussed. PMID:24328918

  16. Self-Efficacy, Planning and Action Control in an Oral Self-Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline…

  17. Adherence to Self-Care Interventions for Depression or Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Russell; McCusker, Jane; Sewitch, Maida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesise and describe adherence to intervention in published studies of supported self-care for depression or anxiety, and to identify participant characteristics associated with higher adherence. Methods: We searched the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PSYCINFO for the period from January…

  18. Reflexivity and Self-Care for Creative Facilitators: Stepping outside the Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffatt, Amanda; Ryan, Mary; Barton, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Those who work with others to explore new and creative ways of thinking about community and organizational participation, ways of engaging with others, individual well-being and creative solutions to problems, have a significant role in a cohesive society. Creative forms of learning can stimulate reflexive practices of self-care and lead to…

  19. A comparison of self-reported self-care practices of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Grubbs, L M

    1993-09-01

    Recent research has suggested that effective prenatal care is significantly related to positive outcomes for the teen mother and her infant. One aspect of prenatal care is the efforts of the pregnant teen to care for herself, often called self-care practices. The purpose of this article is to compare the self-reported self-care activities of pregnant teenagers who sought prenatal care during the first trimester of their pregnancies with those of pregnant teens who delayed prenatal care until the third trimester. The subjects were adolescent girls who were enrolled in prenatal care programs or who had recently delivered in Florida. Interview analysis suggested that both groups had an adequate knowledge level regarding diet, exercise, and other topics related to self-care during pregnancy. Although pregnant teens practice similar self-care behaviors regardless of when they enter prenatal care, there are many problems that may lead to poor pregnancy outcomes and can remain undetected when prenatal care is delayed. PMID:8414231

  20. The Effect of Gender and Self-Care Behaviors on Counselors' Perceptions of Colleagues with Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Lynne; Gilroy, Paula J.; Murra, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of gender and self-care behaviors on counselors' perceptions of depressed colleagues. Target counselors who took antidepressants were perceived as more competent than counselors who practiced holistic measures and those who chose no course of action. Target counselors who sought personal counseling were perceived as more…

  1. Self-Care and the Qualitative Researcher: When Collecting Data Can Break Your Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rager, Kathleen B.

    2005-01-01

    Conducting qualitative research on topics that are emotionally laden can have a powerful impact on the researcher. Recent literature addresses the essential nature of the emotional connection that must be part of the qualitative research process. However, for the most part, it neglects the issue of self-care strategies for the researcher that are…

  2. Young Cancer Patients' Perceptions of a Video Game Used to Promote Self Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Ivan L.; Marin-Bowling, Veronica M.; Guthrie, Nicole: Kato, Pamela M.

    2006-01-01

    A video game called "Re-Mission" has recently been investigated with adolescent and young adult cancer patients enrolled in a multi-site randomized controlled evaluation of the game as a psycho-educational intervention. The main focus of the trial was to determine effects of the game on self-care and other health-related outcomes. It was also…

  3. Self-Efficacy, Planning and Action Control in an Oral Self-Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline

  4. Self Care Resource Corner: Its Impact on Appropriate Health Service Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClaran, Diane M.; Breakey, Robin Sarris

    In an effort to intervene before students enter the medical care system at the University of Michigan, a Self Care Resource Corner and accompanying materials were developed and implemented. The objective was to encourage students to view themselves as the primary decision makers for health-related conditions before seeking care from clinicians.…

  5. Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

  6. The relationships among self-care, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Slonim, Jessica; Kienhuis, Mandy; Di Benedetto, Mirella; Reece, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207) aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62) across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being. PMID:26112354

  7. Support and Self-Care: Professional Reflections of Six New Zealand High School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Yvonne A.; Payne, Monica A.

    2008-01-01

    In many Western societies there is increasing demand for counselling; in turn, heightened levels of support needs have been identified for counsellors themselves. Despite calls for practitioners to adopt a more proactive approach to self-care, research suggests many still pay insufficient attention to alleviating on-the-job stress or achieving…

  8. Measures of Self-Care Independence for Children with Osteochondrodysplasia: A Clinimetric Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates the validity, reliability, and clinical utility of outcome measures used to assess self-care skills among children with congenital musculoskeletal conditions and assesses the applicability of these measures for children with osteochondrodysplasia aged 0-12 years. Electronic databases were searched to identify…

  9. A Program Design To Motivate Individuals with SCI for Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotzin, Martha

    The report compares a skin care education program with a standard rehabilitation program to determine whether the program improved the self care motivations of spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegic and quadriplegic inpatients (N=42). Study findings suggest that the skin care educational program was successful in changing patients' thinking about…

  10. Adherence to Self-Care Interventions for Depression or Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Russell; McCusker, Jane; Sewitch, Maida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesise and describe adherence to intervention in published studies of supported self-care for depression or anxiety, and to identify participant characteristics associated with higher adherence. Methods: We searched the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PSYCINFO for the period from January

  11. Embodied Learning and Patient Education: From Nurses' Self-Awareness to Patient Self-Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a clear and practical introduction to use of a scientific perspective on embodied learning. It looks to embodied cognition and embodied cognitive science to explore education for self-care. The author presents a neurobiologic understanding of embodied learning to bridge adult education to the science-driven world of…

  12. Testing Self-Efficacy as a Pathway that Supports Self-Care among Family Caregivers in a Psychoeducational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Brintnall-Peterson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which a psychoeducational intervention supports family-centered care by influencing health risk and self-care behaviors of caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (N = 325). Moreover, this study investigated the extent to which changes in self-efficacy explained changes in health risk and self-care

  13. Barriers and Facilitators to Self-Care Communication during Medical Appointments in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ritholz, Marilyn D; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Brooks, Kelly M; Abrahamson, Martin J; Weinger, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diabetes self-care is challenging and requires effective patient-provider communication to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. This study explored perceptions of barriers and facilitators to diabetes self-care communication during medical appointments. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with a semi-structured interview guide. Participants 34 patients with type 2 diabetes and 19 physicians who treat type 2 diabetes. Results Physicians described some patients as reluctant to discuss their self-care behaviors primarily because of fear of being judged, guilt, and shame. Similarly, patients described reluctant communication resulting from fear of being judged and shame, particularly shame surrounding food intake and weight. Physicians and patients recommended trust, non-judgmental acceptance, open/honest communication, and providing patients hope for living with diabetes as important factors for improving self-care communication. Further, patients stressed the clinical benefits of physicians directly addressing poor self-care behaviors while physicians described having few strategies to address these difficulties. Conclusions Physician-patient self-care communication barriers included patients' reluctance to discuss self-care behaviors and physicians’ perceptions of few options to address this reluctance. Treatment recommendations stressed the importance of establishing trusting, non-judgmental and open patient-provider communication for optimal diabetes treatment. Medical education is needed to improve physicians' strategies for addressing self-care communication during medical appointments. PMID:24567195

  14. Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active. Methods Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi. Results Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They acknowledged physical and mental limitations, yet they felt they were in good health. Conclusion Health professionals and politicians should identify places where fellowship and relationships can be built, as well as encourage older people to use their competence by engagement in volunteering. These interventions are important to support older people’s self-care and health. This may also be a way to reduce ageism in Western societies. PMID:23390363

  15. Cancer treatment, symptom monitoring, and self-care in adults: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe Dauz; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Ducey, Kathleen; Badura, Jody; Boltz, Kristin D; Olberding, Karmen; Wingate, Anita; Williams, Arthur R

    2006-01-01

    A descriptive study was conducted on self-reported symptoms and self-care by 37 adults receiving chemotherapy primarily for leukemia, lymphomas, or breast cancer or radiation therapy for head and neck or lung cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist and demographic and interview forms on self-care for identified symptoms were used. Severe symptoms on the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist subscales fatigue, eating, nausea, pain, numbness in fingers/toes, hair loss, and constipation were reported by patients on chemotherapy. Those on radiation therapy reported severe symptoms on the eating, fatigue, skin changes, oropharynx, and constipation subscales.Self-care strategies were in the following categories, using complementary medicine as framework: diet/nutrition/lifestyle change (eg, use of nutritional supplements; modifications of food and of eating habits; naps, sleep, and rest); mind/body control (eg, relaxation methods, prayer, music, attending granddaughter's sports events); biologic treatments (vitamins); herbal treatments (green mint tea); and ethnomedicine (lime juice and garlic). The first category was predominantly used by patients in both treatment types. Medications were prescribed also to help control symptoms (eg, pain and nausea). Symptom monitoring and self-care for symptoms identified may be facilitated by the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist; based on reported symptom severity, care providers may prioritize interventions. A larger study needs to be done on (a) the use of the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist as a clinical tool to assess symptoms that oncology patients experience during therapy; (b) whether care providers, based on patient-reported symptom severity, can prioritize interventions--and how this influences the efficiency of care; (c) the self-care strategies used by patients on chemotherapy or radiation therapy or both; and (d) how useful these strategies are in alleviating symptoms. PMID:17006107

  16. How effective is an in-hospital heart failure self-care program in a Japanese setting? Lessons from a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Naoko P; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Sano, Miho; Kogure, Asuka; Sakuragi, Fumika; Kobukata, Kihoko; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Wakita, Sanae; Jaarsma, Tiny; Kazuma, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the effectiveness of heart failure (HF) disease management programs has been established in Western countries, to date there have been no such programs in Japan. These programs may have different effectiveness due to differences in health care organization and possible cultural differences with regard to self-care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot HF program in a Japanese setting. Methods We developed an HF program focused on enhancing patient self-care before hospital discharge. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive the new HF program or usual care. The primary outcome was self-care behavior as assessed by the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). Secondary outcomes included HF knowledge and the 2-year rate of HF hospitalization and/or cardiac death. Results A total of 32 patients were enrolled (mean age, 63 years; 31% female). There was no difference in the total score of the EHFScBS between the two groups. One specific behavior score regarding a low-salt diet significantly improved compared with baseline in the intervention group. HF knowledge in the intervention group tended to improve more over 6 months than in the control group (a group-by-time effect, F=2.47, P=0.098). During a 2-year follow-up, the HF program was related to better outcomes regarding HF hospitalization and/or cardiac death (14% vs 48%, log-rank test P=0.04). In Cox regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, and logarithmic of B-type natriuretic peptide, the program was associated with a reduction in HF hospitalization and/or cardiac death (hazard ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.03–0.90; P=0.04). Conclusion The HF program was likely to increase patients’ HF knowledge, change their behavior regarding a low-salt diet, and reduce HF hospitalization and/or cardiac events. Further improvement focused on the transition of knowledge to self-care behavior is necessary. PMID:26937177

  17. Symptomatology and Coping Resources Predict Self-Care Behaviors in Middle to Older Age Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Graven, Lucinda J.; Grant, Joan S.; Gordon, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of heart failure (HF) and coping resources, such as social support and social problem-solving, may influence self-care behaviors. Research regarding the influence of HF symptomatology characteristics and components of social support and social problem-solving on self-care is limited. Objective. To identify predictors of HF self-care behaviors using characteristics of HF symptomatology, components of social support and social problem-solving, and demographic and clinical factors. Methods. Using a cross-sectional, correlational predictive design, a convenience sample (N = 201) of outpatients with HF answered self-report surveys. Multiple linear regression with stepwise variable selection was conducted. Results. Six predictors of HF self-care were identified: race, symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, New York Heart Association Class HF, rational problem-solving style, and social network (β = 34.265, R2 = 0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Assessing the influence of race on self-care behaviors in middle to older age patients with HF is important. Clinical assessment that focuses on symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, and HF Class might also impact self-care behaviors in this population. Rational problem-solving skills used and evaluation of the size of and satisfaction with one's social network may be appropriate when assessing self-care. PMID:26618000

  18. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural dwelling women and men. Method Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results Both older women and men rely heavily on over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies self-care; professional health care is typically sought when self-care is not effective. However, relative to men, women were more knowledgeable about different approaches to self-care, especially home remedies, they used a wider range of self-care activities, and they placed greater priority on self-care over professional health care. Discussion The structure of older women’s and men’s self-care domain of health lifestyle is similar. However, there are subtle differences in health lifestyle that are likely embedded in gendered role behavior and may contribute to women’s greater health complaints. PMID:21632439

  19. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SELF-CARE BEHAVIORS AND SELF-ESTEEM OF RURAL ELDERLIES; NECESSITY OF HEALTH PROMOTION

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Mirani, Hesam; Jouybari, Sina Sabourian; Nasiri, Davoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in the modern medical science caused significant reduction of mortality and every day increase of the elderly in the world. According to prevalence of physical and mental problems in elderly, it is necessary to take some actions. Self care in one of the best way to improve elderly health and life satisfaction that seems have a relation to self-esteem. Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was performed on 180 elderly in rural areas of the Sari city. Elderly selected by multi-stage randomize sampling method. Data were gathered by using standard questionnaires of self-care and Rosenberg self-esteem. Data were analyzed by Spearman and Pearson’s correlation using SPSS software (V16). Findings: The mean±SD of the ages of the elderly were 66.85±7.661. The score of self-care varies between 99 to 155 and most of them (66.7%) had good level of self-care. Also, most of elderly (52.2%) had high level of self-esteem. Also there was a significant relationship, between self-care and self-esteem (P<0.001, r=0.426). Conclusion: According to significant relationship between self-care and self-esteem of elderly, by the planning for improving the self care of elderly, can increase their health and significantly reduce from physical and mental complications. PMID:27047266

  20. Development and formative evaluation of a foot self-care program for African Americans with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ledda, M A; Walker, E A; Basch, C E

    1997-01-01

    African Americans with diabetes have a higher rate of lower-extremity amputation due to diabetic foot complications than the general public. Education about proper foot care can help prevent serious diabetic foot complications and assist in early detection of problems. The purpose of this project was to develop, formatively evaluate, and pilot test a self-care, take-home program for the prevention of foot problems in African Americans with diabetes. The program included a brief, one-on-one orientation session and a take-home foot self-care packet. Through telephone follow-up subjects reported the following: good to excellent overall rating of the program, favorable reactions to the patient instruction booklet, an overwhelming positive response to the large hand mirror, and a positive effect on their daily foot-care practices. The Afrocentricity of the patient education materials was preferred by younger subjects; older subjects found this approach too restrictive. PMID:9052054

  1. Facilitating a self-care practicum experience in consumer health education.

    PubMed

    Ozias, J M; Peterson, F L

    1984-11-01

    There has been an increasing public interest in health care issues such as wellness, self-care, and the importance of taking personal responsibility for one's health. In addition to learning preventive health lifestyle measures, this growing consumer interest involves decisions regarding the purchase and use of health products and health services. There is a significant need for effective consumer health education in the schools that focuses not only on transmission of information, but on the development of decision-making skills and on opportunities for practical application. This paper describes an approach to facilitate the development of a self-care practicum experience in consumer health instruction, making use of the resources and expertise of both the school health educator and the school nurse. The approach describes how a planned practicum can move consumer instruction from an information-receiving experience to a participatory experience that facilitates the development of consumer decision-making skills. PMID:6569275

  2. Self-care programme to prevent leprosy-related problems in a leprosy colony in Champa, Chattisgarh.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, A; Mahato, M; Rao, P S S S

    2006-01-01

    A self-care programme aimed at preventing leprosy-related physical disabilities in a leprosy colony in Champa, Chattisgarh, India, is described. Once the initial resistance was overcome through persistent and caring attitudes, the residents accepted the challenges for self-care. The outcome at the end of one year showed significant decline (41%) in ulcer rates, significant use of MCR footwear (43%), and significant proportion (over 90%) of patients and their families practising and helping in self-care activities. PMID:17402344

  3. A feasibility study of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among adults with a comorbid chronic physical illness in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective We assessed the feasibility and acceptability to patients of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among adults aged 40 years or over with one of six targeted chronic physical illnesses and comorbid depressive symptoms in family practice settings. Methods An open, uncontrolled trial (feasibility study) was conducted among patients treated in Montreal family practices. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or over, had one or more of the targeted chronic physical illnesses for at least 6 months (arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and were evaluated as having at least mild depressive symptoms (a score of ≥ 5 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9). Participants received a package of six self-care tools (information booklet, video, Internet programme, action plan, workbook and mood-monitoring tool) with telephone support by a lay coach for up to 6 months. Results In total, 63 eligible patients provided written consent and completed the baseline interview; 57 (90%) and 55 (87%) patients completed 2-month and 6-month follow-up interviews, respectively. The mean number of telephone calls made by coaches to participants was 10.5 (SD 4.0), and the average length of these calls was 10.6 minutes. At the 6-month follow-up, 83.6% of the participants reported that one or more of the tools were helpful. Clinically significant improvements were seen in depressive symptoms (as assessed by the PHQ-9) at 6 months, with an effect size of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.55, 1.14). Conclusion A telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression was feasible, was acceptable to patients, and was associated with a significant 6-month improvement in depressive symptoms. A randomised trial of this intervention is justified. PMID:24294301

  4. Role of the Lebanese family caregivers in cardiac self-care: a collective approach

    PubMed Central

    Dumit, Nuhad Y; Abboud, Sarah; Massouh, Angela; Magilvy, Joan K

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of cardiac self-care among Lebanese family caregivers of cardiac patients. The specific aims were to describe the cultural context of cardiac care-giving in Lebanon and to explore the roles of family caregivers in enhancing self-care practices in patients with cardiac diseases. Background The role of family caregivers in Lebanon, a country in the Middle East, is assumed to extend beyond care-giving to making decisions on behalf of the patient and assuming responsibility for patient care. To date, there has been no study done to empirically validate this impression. Design The design of the study is qualitative descriptive that used semi-structured individual interviews with family caregivers of Lebanese cardiac patients. Method Thirteen family caregivers of cardiac patients were recruited from a referral medical centre in Lebanon. The participants were designated by their patients and interviewed in a place of their choice. Results One overarching and three themes emerged from data analysis describing roles of family care givers in cardiac self-care. The overarching theme was: Family caregivers of Lebanese cardiac patients were unfamiliar with the term, concept and meaning of Self-Care. The moral and emotional duty to care for the family member stemmed from obligation and responsibility towards patients (theme I). Interdependent care (theme II) between cardiac patients and their families emerged as a significant cultural role. Family members play multiple supportive roles in care-giving namely emotional, informational and instrumental role (theme III). Conclusion In this study, family caregiver role is shown to be based in the sense of obligation and duty towards the sick family member who collectively provide different types of supportive care. Relevance to clinical practice Nurses have to give significant importance to the family caregiver role as an integral part of any culturally sensitive patient/family intervention. PMID:26249817

  5. Accessibility of mHealth Self-Care Apps for Individuals with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Daihua X.; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E.; Pramana, Gede

    2015-01-01

    As the smartphone becomes ubiquitous, mobile health is becoming a viable technology to empower individuals to engage in preventive self-care. An innovative mobile health system called iMHere (Internet Mobile Health and Rehabilitation) has been developed at the University of Pittsburgh to support self-care and adherence to self-care regimens for individuals with spina bifida and other complex conditions who are vulnerable to secondary complications. The goal of this study was to explore the accessibility of iMHere apps for individuals with spina bifida. Six participants were asked to perform tasks in a lab environment. Though all of the participants were satisfied with the iMHere apps and would use them again in the future, their needs and preferences to access and use iMHere apps differed. Personalization that provides the ability for a participant to modify the appearance of content, such as the size of the icons and the color of text, could be an ideal solution to address potential issues and barriers to accessibility. The importance of personalization—and potential strategies—for accessibility are discussed. PMID:26755902

  6. Self-Care Associated with Home Exercises in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Iunes, Denise H.; Rocha, Carmélia B. J.; Borges, Nathália C. S.; Marcon, Caroline O.; Pereira, Valéria M.; Carvalho, Leonardo C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify self-care guidelines together with lower limb home exercises alter ankle and foot plantar pressure and alignment in patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) measuring health and sociodemographic factors. The health factors analyzed were sensitivity and circulation aspects, risk rating, and neuropathy symptom score, ankle and foot alignment (photogrammetry), plantar pressures, and postural stability (baropodometry) before and after administering these guidelines and home exercises in 97 patients type 2 DM during 10 months. The self-care guidelines and exercises changed the forefoot alignment (Right Foot – Initial vs Final, p = 0.04; Left Foot, P<0.01), the center of the force displacement in the mediolateral (Right Foot - Initial versus Final, p = 0.02; Left Foot, P<0.01), and the anterior-posterior (Right foot - Initial versus Final, p = 0.01) direction, and body balance (Initial versus Final, p = 0.02). There was no change in the remaining assessed parameters. Self-care associated with the guidelines for home exercises for the lower limbs in patients with type 2 DM are effective in maintaining and improving the alignment of the feet, mediolateral stability and prevention of complications. Trial Registration The Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry RBR-8854CD PMID:25479542

  7. Developing an appropriate model for self-care of hypertensive patients: first experience from EMRO

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shiri, Mansoor; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute 53% of deaths above the age of 30; 54% of these deaths are attributed to high blood pressure. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of mortality in the world. Hypertension accounts for 13% of mortalities and 6% of morbidities and is one of the main risk factors that cause loss of healthy life years. Blood pressure is not optimally controlled even among those who are aware of their disease. Previous studies showed that apart from pharmacological treatment, lifestyle improvement can also play a significant role in the prevention of high blood pressure CVDs. Self-care among them has been addressed in several previous studies. There are few self-care programs in Iran, but no study has been conducted on blood pressure. METHODS In this study the primary model is designed and then revised, and in the pilot study the feasibility of the project was approved and the final model presented. RESULTS The current project proposes a model for self-care of hypertensive patients and their families, and is based on education of health care providers and patients in such a way that patients can control their illness. CONCLUSION The model can be implemented at a national scale. PMID:23970918

  8. Self-care and adherence to medication: a survey in the hypertension outpatient clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gohar, Faekah; Greenfield, Sheila M; Beevers, D Gareth; Lip, Gregory YH; Jolly, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Background Self-care practices for patients with hypertension include adherence to medication, use of blood pressure self-monitoring and use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) The prevalence of CAM use and blood pressure self-monitoring have not been described in a UK secondary care population of patients with hypertension and their impact on adherence to medication has not been described. Adherence to medication is important for blood pressure control, but poor adherence is common. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-care behaviours in patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. 196 patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic in a teaching hospital serving a multiethnic population, Birmingham, UK. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of use of CAM, home monitors, adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Results CAM use in previous 12 months was reported by 66 (43.1%) respondents. CAM users did not differ statistically from non-CAM users by age, gender, marital status or education. Vitamins, prayer a dietary supplements were the most commonly used CAM. Nine (12.7%) women reported using herbal CAM compared to one man (1.2%), (p = 0.006). Ten (6.7%) respondents reported ever being asked by a doctor about CAM use. Perfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication was reported by 26 (44.8%) CAM-users and 46 (60.5%) non-CAM users (p = 0.07). Being female and a CAM user was significantly associated with imperfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Older and white British respondents were significantly more likely to report perfect adherence. Blood pressure monitors were used by 67 (43.8%) respondents, which was not associated with gender, CAM use or adherence to medication. Conclusion Hypertensive patients use a variety of self-care methods, including CAM, home blood pressure monitors, and adherence to prescribed medication. This study found the prevalence of CAM use in hypertensive patients was higher than in the UK population. It is important to acknowledge the self-care behaviour of hypertensive patients, in order to assess potential harm, and encourage effective methods of self-care. PMID:18261219

  9. Ability for self-care in urban living older people in southern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of older people living in urban environments throughout the world will increase in the coming years. There is a trend in most European countries towards improved health among older people, and increased life expectancy for both women and men. Norway has experienced less increase in life expectancy than some other European countries, and it is therefore important to investigate older urban Norwegian people’s health and ways of living in a self-care environment, with special regard to health promotion. Aim The aim of this study was to describe self-care ability among home-dwelling older (65+ years) individuals living in urban areas in southern Norway in relation to general living conditions, sense of coherence (SOC), screened nutritional state, physical activity, perceived self-reported health, mental health, and perceived life situation. Methods In 2010, a randomized sample of 1044 men and women aged 65+ years who were living in urban areas in southern Norway answered a postal questionnaire consisting of five instruments, some background variables, and 17 health-related questions. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used in the analyses of the data. Results The mean age of the participants was 74.8 years (SD = 7.1). Eighty-three percent of the participants had higher abilities to care for themselves. Self-care agency, perceived good health, being active, being frequently active, good mental health, not being at risk of undernutrition, and satisfaction with life were all positively related to self-care ability. Negative factors were perceived helplessness, receiving home nursing, being anxious, and being at a more advanced age. People aged 85+ years had worse mental health, were less physically active, and more at risk of undernutrition. Conclusion Health professionals should focus on the health-promoting factors that reinforce older people’s ability to care for themselves, and be aware of important symptoms and signs associated with a reduction in a person’s self-care ability. Politicians should assume responsibility for health care with a special regard to senior citizens. PMID:22536079

  10. Urban and Suburban Differences in Hypertension Trends and Self-Care: Three Population-Based Cross-Sectional Studies from 2005-2011

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Hu, Huanhuan; Dong, Zhong; Xie, Jin; Zhou, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare hypertension trends in the urban and suburban population, and to examine the use of several self-care behaviors among patients who were aware of their hypertension. Methods We examined the data from three cross-sectional adult populations obtained in 2005, 2008, and 2011, in Beijing. Results Our analyses indicated that from 2005 to 2011 the standardized rate of hypertension increased from 31.9% to 36.0% (P <0.001) among urban adults, and was relatively stable (40.8% -40.2%) among suburban adults (P = 0.02). About 10% of the patients reported having taken measures to control their weight for hypertension management. As compared to the other patients, the female patients in the urban areas reported the highest rate of regular BP measurement (52.6%). In addition, the patients who reported taking medication regularly increased among the males and females. Most of the women reported nonsmoking (≥95%) and alcohol abstinence (≥90%). The trend of nonsmoking decreased among the urban males. In contrast, the prevalence of nonsmoking increased among the suburban males, though the trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.055). Further, the patient-reported alcohol abstinence was found to exhibit a decreasing trend among the males. Conclusions We observed an increase in the hypertension prevalence from 2005 to 2011. The rates remained higher for suburban adults than for urban adults. Females generally had better self-care ability as compared to male patients. Further research is needed to promote self-care behaviors in hypertensive patients, especially for male patients. PMID:25665069

  11. Does Telephone Follow-Up and Education Affect Self-Care and Metabolic Control in Diabetic Patients?

    PubMed

    Aytekin Kanadli, Keriman; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ovayolu, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    The major goal of diabetes control is to assist patients to perform self-care and metabolic control. One possible way to achieve this goal is education and regular monitoring of patients by telephone. Thus, the present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the impact of education and telephone follow-up on self-care and metabolic control in diabetic patients. This experimental study was conducted at a hospital in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, with 88 diabetic patients including 44 intervention subjects and 44 control subjects. After an initial discussion, patients in the intervention group received education and telephone follow-up for 3 months. Required approvals were obtained before initiation of the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire form and the Diabetes Self-Care Scale. The Diabetes Self-Care Scale scores ranged between 140 and 210, where higher scores indicated increased self-care activities of patients. At the end of the study, the self-care score was found to increase from 61.3 ± 10.9 to 89.9 ± 12.3 in the intervention group (P < .005), but it showed a reduction from 56.5 ± 7.6 to 54.7 ± 9.3 after 3-month period in the control group. Education and telephone follow-up was also found to reduce the values of several variables of metabolic control including hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure. In conclusion, education and telephone follow-up of diabetic patients led to increased self-care scores and had a positive impact on metabolic control variables. In light of these findings, we suggest that education and tele-health home monitoring may be provided on a continuous basis to help patients sustain self-care behaviors that they have adopted during the study period. PMID:26871245

  12. Do health literacy and patient empowerment affect self-care behaviour? A survey study among Turkish patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eyüboğlu, Ezgi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of health literacy and patient empowerment on diabetes self-care behaviour in patients in metropolitan Turkish diabetes centres. The conceptual background is provided by the psychological health empowerment model, which holds that health literacy without patient empowerment comes down to wasting health resources, while empowerment without health literacy can lead to dangerous or suboptimal health behaviour. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study was conducted with 167 patients over the age of 18 from one of two diabetes clinics in a major Turkish City. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to eligible outpatients who had an appointment in one of the clinics. Health literacy was measured by a newly translated Turkish version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) and the Chew self-report scale. Patient empowerment was measured by a 12-item scale based on Spreitzer's conceptualisation of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Self-care behaviour was measured by the Self-care behaviours were measured by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure (SDSCA). Level of diabetes knowledge was measured by Diabetes Knowledge Test. Results Two subscales of empowerment, impact and self-determination, predicted self-reported frequency of self-care behaviours. Neither health literacy nor diabetes knowledge had an effect on self-care behaviours. Conclusions Health literacy might be more effective in clinical decisions while empowerment might exert a stronger influence on habitual health behaviours. PMID:26975936

  13. Association of Online Health Information–Seeking Behavior and Self-Care Activities Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlHumud, Ahmed; Al-Duhyyim, Abdulaziz; Alrashed, Mohammed; Bin Shabr, Faisal; Alteraif, Alwalid; Almuziri, Abdullah; Househ, Mowafa; Qureshi, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Health information obtained from the Internet has an impact on patient health care outcomes. There is a growing concern over the quality of online health information sources used by diabetic patients because little is known about their health information–seeking behavior and the impact this behavior has on their diabetes-related self-care, in particular in the Middle East setting. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the online health-related information–seeking behavior among adult type 2 diabetic patients in the Middle East and the impact of their online health-related information–seeking behavior on their self-care activities. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 344 patients with type 2 diabetes attending inpatient and outpatient primary health care clinics at 2 teaching hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The main outcome measures included the ability of patients to access the Internet, their ability to use the Internet to search for health-related information, and their responses to Internet searches in relation to their self-care activities. Further analysis of differences based on age, gender, sociodemographic, and diabetes-related self-care activities among online health-related information seekers and nononline health-related information seekers was conducted. Results Among the 344 patients, 74.1% (255/344) were male with a mean age of 53.5 (SD 13.8) years. Only 39.0% (134/344) were Internet users; 71.6% (96/134) of them used the Internet for seeking health-related information. Most participants reported that their primary source of health-related information was their physician (216/344, 62.8%) followed by television (155/344, 45.1%), family (113/344, 32.8%), newspapers (100/344, 29.1%), and the Internet (96/344, 27.9%). Primary topics participants searched for were therapeutic diet for diabetes (55/96, 57%) and symptoms of diabetes (52/96, 54%) followed by diabetes treatment (50/96, 52%). Long history of diabetes, familial history of the disease, unemployment, and not seeking diabetes education were the most common barriers for online health-related information–seeking behavior. Younger age, female, marital status, higher education, higher income, and longer duration of Internet usage were associated with more online health-related information–seeking behaviors. Most (89/96, 93%) online health-related information seekers reported positive change in their behaviors after seeking online health information. Overall odds ratio (OR 1.56, 95% CI 0.63-3.28) for all self-care responses demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between those seeking health-related information online and non–health-related information seekers. However, health-related information seekers were better in testing their blood glucose regularly, taking proper action for hyperglycemia, and adopting nonpharmacological management. Conclusions Physicians and television are still the primary sources of health-related information for adult diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia whether they seek health-related information online or not. This study demonstrates that participants seeking online health-related information are more conscious about their diabetes self-care compared to non–health-related information seekers in some aspects more than the others. PMID:26268425

  14. Power, self-care and health in women living in urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan: a test of Orem's theory.

    PubMed

    Lee, M B

    1999-07-01

    This was a study of health in women living in urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. The study grew out of the author's concern for the generally poor health status of Pakistani women. Orem's nursing theory was selected to examine health in these women. The purpose of the study was to examine relationships among basic conditioning factors, self-care agency (specifically, perception of power as a foundational capability of self-care agency and the enabling capabilities of self-care agency), self-care, and selected health outcomes of Pakistani women. Four hypotheses were developed and tested. They were that in a group of Pakistani women: (1) perception of power as a foundational capability and enabling capabilities of self-care agency and self-care will be related to selected basic conditioning factors; (2) perception of power, as a foundational capability of self-care agency, will be directly and positively related to enabling capabilities of self-care agency; (3) perception of power as a foundational capability and enabling capabilities of self-care agency will have a direct and positive relationship with self-care; and (4) self-care will be related to selected health outcomes. Hypotheses one, two and three were supported. Findings indicate that the basic conditioning factors, socioeconomic variables, ethnicity and roles, were predictive of perception of power, enabling capabilities of self-care agency, self-care and health. Hypothesis four was not supported; basic conditioning factors had more influence on health than self-care. PMID:10404002

  15. Managing the rate of increase in average co-ancestry in a rolling front tree breeding strategy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R J; McRae, T A; Dutkowski, G W; Tier, B

    2015-04-01

    In breeding forest trees, as for livestock, the goal is to capture as much genetic gain as possible for the breeding objective, while limiting long- and short-term inbreeding. The Southern Tree Breeding Association (STBA) is responsible for breeding Australia's two main commercial forest tree species and has adopted algorithms and methods commonly used in animal breeding to achieve this balance. Discrete generation breeding is the norm for most tree breeding programmes. However, the STBA uses an overlapping generation strategy, with a new stream of breeding initiated each year. A feature of the species bred by the STBA (Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus) is the long interval (up to 7 years) between when an individual is mated and when its progeny is first assessed in field trials and performance data included in the national performance database. Mate selection methods must therefore recognize the large pool of unmeasured progeny generated over recent years of crossing. In addition, the substantial delay between when an individual is selected in a field trial and when it is clonally copied into a mating facility (breeding arboretum) means that selection and mating must occur as a two-step process. In this article, we describe modifications to preselection and mate selection algorithms that allow unmeasured progeny (juveniles) to be recognized. We also demonstrate that the addition of hypothetical new progeny to the juvenile pool is important for computing the increase in average co-ancestry in the population. Methods outlined in this article may have relevance to animal breeding programmes where between mating and progeny measurement, new rounds of mating are initiated. PMID:25823837

  16. Health Status and Self-care Outcomes Following an Education-Support Intervention for People with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Angela P.; McDougall, Graham; Riegel, Barbara; Joiner-Rogers, Glenda; Innerarity, Sheri; Meraviglia, Martha; Delville, Carol; Davila, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising cost of hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) care mandates intervention models to address education for self-care success. The effectiveness of memory enhancement strategies to improve self-care and learning needs further examination. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an education-support intervention delivered in the home setting, using strategies to improve health status and self-care in adults/older adults with class I-III HF. Our secondary purpose was to explore participants’ subjective perceptions of the intervention. Methods This study used a randomized, 2 group design. Fifty people were enrolled for 9 months and tested at 4 time points—baseline; following a 3-month education-support intervention; at 6 months, following 3-months of telephone/email support; and 9 months, following a 3-month period of no contact. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) delivered the intervention. Memory enhancement methods were built into the teaching materials and delivery of the intervention. We measured the intervention’s effectiveness on health status outcomes (functional status, self-efficacy, quality of life, emotional state/depressive symptoms, and metamemory) and self-care outcomes (knowledge/knowledge retention, self-care ability). Subjects evaluated the usefulness of the intervention at the end of the study. Results The mean age of the sample was 62.4 years, with a slight majority of female participants. Participants were well educated and had other concomitant diseases, including diabetes (48%), and an unexpected degree of obesity. The intervention group showed significant improvements in functional status, self-efficacy and quality of life (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-KCCQ); metamemory Change and Capacity subscales (Metamemory in Adulthood Questionnaire-MIA); self-care knowledge (HF Knowledge Test-HFKT); and self-care (Self-Care in Heart Failure Index—SCHFI). Participants in both groups improved in depressive scores (Geriatric Depression Scale-GDS). Conclusions An in-home intervention delivered by APRNs was successful in several health status and self-care outcomes, including self-efficacy, quality of life, metamemory, self-care status, and HF knowledge. PMID:24978157

  17. Impact of a First-Year Student Pharmacist Diabetes Self-Care Education Program

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Melissa; Luu, Linda; Kobayashi, Shawna; Mutrux, Brandon; Best, Brookie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a first-year diabetes self-care education program by measuring student pharmacists confidence and knowledge retention, and the clinical applicability of the skills learned. Design. Integrated into a Pharmacy Practice Course, a 9-hour program consisting of lectures, a home glucose monitor assignment, and active-learning workshops was completed by 2 cohorts of first-year student pharmacists. Three survey instruments were developed and administered to the student pharmacists prior to the program, immediately after the program, and 9 months after the program to assess confidence, knowledge retention, and the clinical applicability of the knowledge and skills learned. Assessment. In cohort 1, 54 student pharmacists (response rate 90%) perceived that their confidence and ability improved significantly (increased by 88% and 110%, respectively, from baseline, p<0.001). Overall knowledge of diabetes increased as well as indicated by a 40% increase in test scores (p<0.001). About two-thirds of student pharmacists used their training to assist patients with diabetes within 9 months of completing the program. Findings in cohort 2 mirrored those observed with cohort 1, indicating good generalizability. Conclusions. An innovative first-year diabetes self-care education program significantly improved student pharmacists knowledge and confidence in providing diabetes self-care education, and the majority immediately used their leaned skills to assist diabetes patients and caregivers. Training first-year student pharmacists in diabetes care so they are prepared to use these skills as early as their first year of pharmacy school may be an effective approach to increasing the number of providers available to counsel and care for this expanding patient population. PMID:24371339

  18. Assessment on self-care, mobility and social function of children with spina bifida in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sirzai, Hulya; Dogu, Beril; Demir, Selamet; Yilmaz, Figen; Kuran, Banu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the functional performance in children with spina bifida, using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) to look into capacity of twenty-eight children with spina bifida with lesions at different levels in different dimensions of self-care, mobility and social function. Mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 2.3 (1–10) years. In the muscle test carried out, 13 patients (44.8%) had no movements including pelvic elevation in lower extremity muscles and they were at level 5. Sixteen patients (54%) were non-ambulatory according to the Hoofer ambulation classification. Raw and scale scores in the self-care, mobility and social function domains both in the functional skill scale and in the caregiver scale were found to be lower compared to the data of the normal population. A statistically significant correlation was observed in the self-care values of the Functional Skills Scales and the Caregiver Assistance Scale measurements, which was positive for age and negative for Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.05). A positive relation was found between the Functional Skills Scales-mobility area and age while a negative relation was observed between Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.005). A negative relation was also found between Caregiver Assistance Scale-mobility and Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.005). In our study, the functional performance of the children was found to be low. Low-level lesions, encouraging muscular strength and independence in mobility are all very important factors for functional independence. PMID:25206788

  19. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate. PMID:25915603

  20. Self Care Activities, Diabetic Distress and other Factors which Affected the Glycaemic Control in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Sekhar TVD; Kodali, Madhavi; Burra, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Muppala, Baby Shalini; Gutta, Parvathi; Bethanbhatla, Murali Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interventions which were made to promote a better self-management have produced improvements in the glycaemic control in patients with Diabetes mellitus. An improved glycaemic control is known to prevent the long term complications. Method: This study was conducted at the Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, which is a rural tertiary health care centre. 546 patients were included in our study and they were assessed for the glycaemic control (HbA1c), diabetes distress (DDs), and self care activities. Results: Of the total 546 patients, 49% had a poor glycaemic control, as was indicated by HbA1c levels of >7%. The factors which are significantly associated with a poor glycaemic control are age (p=0.03 ), sex (p= 0.0415), literacy (p=0.0422), duration of the disease (p=0.0006), diabetic distress (p=0.0001) and self care activities like diet ( p=0.0001), medication (p=0.0001) and exercise (p=0.0001), whereas there was no significant effect of the BM I (p=0.094) on the glycaemic control. Conclusion: This study revealed the factors that could predict the glycaemic control in the diabetic patients who attended our tertiary care teaching hospital. The barriers that prevent these patients from meeting their goals must be explored, to improve their health outcomes. PMID:23814728

  1. Pronounced impairment of everyday skills and self-care in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Foxe, David; Hodges, John; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visual dysfunction and parietal, occipital, and occipitotemporal atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of PCA and typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) on everyday functional abilities and neuropsychiatric status. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised was given to carers of 32 PCA and 71 tAD patients. PCA patients showed significantly greater impairment in everyday skills and self-care while the tAD group showed greater impairment in aspects of memory and orientation, and motivation. We suggest that PCA poses specific challenges for those caring for people affected by the condition. PMID:25096622

  2. Ibuprofen: a model medicine for self-care of common conditions.

    PubMed

    Maguire, T A

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and development of the self-care agenda across Europe and beyond has the potential to realise huge efficiencies for national health services. Self-medication of common ailments is one of the themes being developed by community pharmacy in several European countries. In the UK, as part of this development, ibuprofen was one of the first Prescription Only Medicines switched to Pharmacy Only (P) status and, arguably, the most successful. Within 4 years of switching, ibuprofen had 25% of the over-the-counter analgesic market and was a main choice for community pharmacists when recommending treatment for mild-to-moderate pain and fever in both adults and children over 6 months (now permitted from 3 months). However, self-care of minor conditions appears not to be developing in line with the objectives of the self-care agenda. The reliance on national health systems for these conditions is still a major and unnecessary burden on health service resources. Taking ibuprofen use as a marker of this, whereas initially it was widely used for the effective and well-tolerated treatment of minor conditions, pharmacists now appear to offer significant barriers to its wider use. One reason for this could be criticism of community pharmacists' competence when dealing with and treating common conditions. For example, in the UK in the early 1980s, pharmacists have contributed to a risk averse approach. Another is that certain restrictions that may have been justified in 1983 when ibuprofen was granted P status (e.g. caution in asthmatic patients and patients with history of severe gastrointestinal complaints), have acted as a barrier to wider treatment with ibuprofen. However, there is currently little evidence to support the continued maintenance of all these barriers. Regulators may need to revisit the Summary of Product Characteristics and community pharmacists to update their knowledge of ibuprofen, and possibly other switched medicines, where unjustified barriers to use exist if pharmacists are to contribute more successfully to the self-care agenda. PMID:23163548

  3. Pre-chirping management of a self-similar Yb-fiber amplifier towards 80 W average power with sub-40 fs pulse generation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Wenxue; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Heping

    2014-12-29

    We report on the generation of 80-W average power 38-fs laser pulse from a 2-m polarization-maintaining large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier with high pump absorption coefficient. The pre-chirping management was demonstrated to play a key role on the self-similar amplification. The achieved spectral bandwidth and compressed pulse duration were determined by the interplay between self-phase modulation and finite gain bandwidth. The power scaling in the self-similar fiber amplifier system was eventually limited by the onset of stimulated Raman scattering. PMID:25607187

  4. An Internet-Based Counseling Intervention With Email Reminders that Promotes Self-Care in Adults With Chronic Heart Failure: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ada YM; Ross, Heather; White, Michel; D'Antono, Bianca; Chan, Sammy; Barr, Susan I; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Nigam, Anil; Perreault, Sylvie; Farkouh, Michael; McDonald, Michael; Goodman, Jack; Thomas, Scott; Zieroth, Shelley; Isaac, Debra; Oh, Paul; Rajda, Miroslaw; Chen, Maggie; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liu, Sam; Zbib, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a public health priority. Its age-standardized prevalence has increased over the past decade. A major challenge for the management of CHF is to promote long-term adherence to self-care behaviors without overtaxing available health care resources. Counseling by multidisciplinary health care teams helps to improve adherence to self-care behaviors and to reduce the rate of death and hospitalization. In the absence of intervention, adherence to self-care is below recommended standards. Objective This trial aims to establish and evaluate a Canadian e-platform that will provide a core, standardized protocol of behavioral counseling and education to facilitate long-term adherence to self-care among patients with CHF. Methods Canadian e-Platform to Promote Behavioral Self-Management in Chronic Heart Failure (CHF-CePPORT) is a multi-site, double blind, randomized controlled trial with a 2 parallel-group (e-Counseling + Usual Care vs e-Info Control + Usual Care) by 3 assessments (baseline, 4-, and 12-month) design. We will identify subjects with New York Heart Association Class II or III systolic heart failure from collaborating CHF clinics and then recruit them (n=278) by phone. Subjects will be randomized in blocks within each site (Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver). The primary outcome will be improved quality of life, defined as an increased number of subjects with an improvement of ?5 points on the summary score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We will also assess the following secondary outcomes: (1) diet habits, depression, anxiety, smoking history, stress level, and readiness for change using self-report questionnaires, (2) physical activity level, current smoking status, and vagal-heart rate modulation by physiological tests, and (3) exercise capacity, prognostic indicators of cardiovascular functioning, and medication adherence through medical chart review. The primary outcome will be analyzed using generalized estimation equations with repeated measures on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes will be analyzed using repeated-measures linear mixed models with a random effects intercept. All significant main effects or interactions in the statistical models will be followed up with post hoc contrasts using a Bonferroni correction with a 2-sided statistical significance criterion of P<.05. Results This 3.5-year, proof-of-principle trial will establish the e-infrastructure for a pan-Canadian e-platform for CHF that is comprised of a standardized, evidence-based protocol of e-Counseling. Conclusions CHF-CePPORT is designed to improve long-term adherence to self-care behaviors and quality of life among patients with CHF. It will demonstrate a distinct Canadian initiative to build capacity for preventive eHealth services for patients with CHF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01864369; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01864369 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Iiv6so7E). PMID:24480783

  5. Motivational Interviewing (MI) to Change Type 2DM Self Care Behaviors: A Nursing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Dellasega, Cheryl; Gabbay, Robert; Durdock, Kendra; Martinez-King, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Aims This paper evaluates a novel nursing intervention designed to improve physical and psychological outcomes for adult patients with Type 2 DM. Background Self care behaviors are an important component of diabetes treatment, yet for many reasons, patients do not adhere to suggested plans. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a patient centered strategy that helps overcome ambivalence to change. Nurses, who frequently educate patients with diabetes about self care, can use MI as a way to improve health behaviors. Methods As a component of a large RCT, focus groups were used to evaluate the impact of an MI nursing intervention. Nineteen patients (8% of treatment group) participated in four different groups. IPA was used to explore patient response to the intervention. Results/Findings Patients were able to reflect on and identify responses to sessions with the study nurses that differed from “typical” health care provider visits. Many of their descriptions captured the essence of MI practice. Conclusion MI is a viable and useful technique for nurses to use in educating and caring for persons with Type 2 DM. PMID:24817822

  6. Knowledge, Awareness and Self-Care Practices of Hypertension among Cardiac Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Muhammad; Haseeb, Abdul; Lashkerwala, Sehan Siraj; Zahid, Ibrahim; Siddiq, Khadijah; Saad, Muhammad; Dar, Mudassir Iqbal; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Shahnawaz, Waqas; Ahmed, Bilal; Yaqub, Aimen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most prevalent form of hypertension is systolic blood pressure (SBP) and it is considered to be predisposing risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to assess self-care practices, knowledge and awareness of hypertension, especially related to SBP among cardiac hypertensive patients. Methodology: A Cross sectional study was conducted on 664 cardiac hypertensive patients, which were selected by non-probability convenience sampling from cardiology outpatient department of three tertiary care hospitals. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pre designed questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed by SPSS (V17). Results: 81.8%, did not know that hypertension is defined as high blood pressure. 97.1% of the sample population did not know that top measurement of blood pressure was referred to as systolic and only 25.0% correctly recognized normal systolic blood pressure to be less than 140mmHg. 7.4% of the patients consulted their doctor for hypertension once or twice in a month. Risk factor for high blood pressure most commonly identified by the participants was too much salt intake Conclusions: The results state that there is an inadequate general knowledge of hypertension among cardiac patients and they do not recognise the significance of elevated SBP levels. There is a need to initiate programs that create community awareness regarding long term complications of uncontrolled hypertension, particularly elevated SBP levels so that there is an improvement in self-care practices of the cardiacpatients. PMID:26383212

  7. An Active Learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine Session in a Self-Care Therapeutics Class

    PubMed Central

    Nemec, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To provide an interactive, non-supplement based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) session in a self-care therapeutics class and to evaluate the effect of the session on pharmacy students’ perceptions and knowledge of CAM. Design. Second professional year pharmacy students enrolled in a required 3-credit course titled Self-Care Therapeutics participated in an active learning session on CAM. Students physically engaged in 5 separate active learning CAM sessions including massage therapy, Tai Chi, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, and Reiki. Assessment. Students were assessed on both knowledge and perception of CAM. Concept mastery was assessed using a written examination and individual readiness assurance tests (iRAT) and team readiness assurance tests (tRAT). Perception of CAM was measured using both a presession and a postsession survey. Conclusion. Participating in an intensive, active learning CAM session provided an opportunity to increase students’ knowledge of CAM and an effective strategy for providing the learner with the experience to better envision incorporation into patient therapies. PMID:25258446

  8. Chronic Illness Self-care and the Family Lives of Older Adults: A Synthetic Review Across Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Mary P.; Spitze, Glenna; Grove, Joshua G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on family and social ties among older ethnic minority men and women with the literature on chronic illness self-care among elders in these groups, in order to increase understanding of social influences on self-care behavior, raise questions for future research, and inform culturally appropriate interventions to maximize the health-promoting potential of social relationships. The paper presents demographic and chronic illness prevalence information, and then summarizes literature about patterns of chronic illness self-care behaviors for older African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, and American Indians in the U.S. For each group, the sociological literature about residential, cultural, and socioeconomic patterns, family lives, and other social ties is then reviewed, and the self-care literature that has accounted for these patterns is discussed. Finally, six themes are outlined and related questions are identified to further illuminate the social context of older adults’ chronic illness self-care. PMID:20177963

  9. Motivational interviewing by podiatric physicians: a method for improving patient self-care of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Robert A; Kaul, Shailja; Ulbrecht, Jan; Scheffler, Neil M; Armstrong, David G

    2011-01-01

    Foot ulceration and lower-extremity amputation are devastating end-stage complications of diabetes. Despite agreement that diabetic foot self-care is a key factor in prevention of ulcers and amputation, there has only been limited success in influencing these behaviors among patients with diabetes. While most efforts have focused on increasing patient knowledge, knowledge and behavior are poorly correlated. Knowledge is necessary but rarely sufficient for behavior change. A key determinant to adherence to self-care behavior is clinician counseling style. Podiatrists are the ideal providers to engage in a brief behavioral intervention with a patient. Motivational interviewing is a well-accepted, evidence-based teachable approach that enhances self-efficacy and increases intrinsic motivation for change and adherence to treatment. This article summarizes some key strategies that can be employed by podiatrists to improve foot self-care. PMID:21242475

  10. Facilitators of the transition process for the self-care of the person with stoma: subsidies for Nursing.

    PubMed

    Mota, Marina Soares; Gomes, Giovana Calcagno; Petuco, Vilma Madalosso; Heck, Rita Maria; Barros, Edaiane Joana Lima; Gomes, Vera Lúcia de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To know the facilitating factors of the transition process from dependency to the self-care of people with a stoma. METHOD This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach, including 27 people with permanent stomas due to cancer. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and submitted to content analysis based on the Transition Theory as theoretical reference. RESULTS The self-care facilitators related to the person were the positive significance of ostomy; the preparation for this experience already in the preoperative period; emotional stability; faith; religiousness; and a sense of normalcy acquired from a next image similar to the previous one. The facilitators related to the community were the following: receiving equipment for free from the government; support from family and the multidisciplinary team, especially the nurses; and having contact with other people with stomata. CONCLUSION The results allow that nurses develop strategies to help people with stomata to resume their self-care. PMID:25789646

  11. The effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngju; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; An, Duk-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity unction and self-care in stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n=15) or a control group (n=15). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group received mirror therapy with tasks, and those in the control group received a sham therapy; both therapies were administered, five times per week for six weeks. The main outcome measures were the Manual Function Test for the paralyzed upper limb and the Functional Independence Measure for self-care performance. [Results] The experimental group had more significant gains in change scores compared with the control group after the intervention. [Conclusion] We consider mirror therapy with tasks to be an effective form of intervention for upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients. PMID:26157249

  12. Cross-cultural testing of the "appraisal of self-care agency: ASA scale" in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lorensen, M; Holter, I M; Evers, G C; Isenberg, M A; van Achterberg, T

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the discriminant validity and interrater reliability of an instrument that measures aspects of self-care agency using Norwegian populations. The ASA scale forms A and B, which had been tested in the Netherlands previously, were translated into Norwegian and administered to two groups of elderly subjects and to a sample of geriatric nurses and nursing assistants in Norway. The subjects, one group from two geriatric rehabilitation units, and another from those living independently who were attending activity centres, completed the ASA-A scale. The nurses filled out the ASA-B scale. The results were supportive of the validity and reliability. Discriminant validity of the ASA scales was demonstrated. PMID:8449655

  13. Choosing and using contraception: toward a theory of women's contraceptive self-care.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, D J

    1991-01-01

    Thirty women of varying ethnicity and socioeconomic status, who were actively seeking to avoid pregnancy, were interviewed concerning their lifetime experience with contraceptive use. The resulting description, Women's Contraceptive Self-Care, was divided into four processes: the central process, Choosing and Using Contraception, and three contextual processes. Forestalling Pregnancy was defined as using contraceptive methods or behaviors to prevent or delay childbearing. Assigning the Burden of Contraceptive Responsibility was defined as assuming responsibility for contraception or shifting that responsibility to a partner. Negotiating with Those who Control Contraception was defined as maneuvering among individuals and agencies that permit or hinder access to contraceptive methods and behaviors. Each process is comprised of thematic clusters and/or themes that are defined and illustrated. PMID:1896325

  14. CE: Using Essential Oils to Enhance Nursing Practice and for Self-Care.

    PubMed

    Allard, Melissa E; Katseres, Julie

    2016-02-01

    With the growing popularity of integrative medicine, essential oils have found their way back into health care. Essential oils provide a simple way to alleviate certain physical symptoms, promote emotional well-being, and provide comfort. This article, the last in a five-part series on holistic nursing, discusses the administration and common uses of essential oils; their reported benefits, potential risks, and contraindications; and the current state of associated research. The authors focus specifically on the inhalation, both direct and by diffusion, as well as the topical application of essential oils, providing guidance for their use in acute care, self-care, community nursing, and long-term care that will enable readers to incorporate this modality into nursing practice. PMID:26771667

  15. Self-care activities of women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Sowell, R L; Moneyham, L; Guillory, J; Seals, B; Cohen, L; Demi, A

    1997-01-01

    The article describes a qualitative focus group study exploring the self-care activities undertaken by women testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to promote and maintain their health. The sample included 27 women who participated in one of four focus group sessions. Participants represented women from both rural and urban settings in the South. Subjects talked about and described the ways in which they took care of themselves. Content analysis was used to code the data and to determine major categories of activities. Seven categories were identified: special dietary and nutrition practices, choosing not to use medically prescribed therapies, spiritual reliance and rituals, staying active, cognitive strategies, self-education, and adopting healthy life styles. These findings support the value of developing a holistic approach to health care of women infected with HIV. PMID:9035618

  16. Shared Care Contributions to Self-Care and Quality of Life in Chronic Cardiac Patients.

    PubMed

    Sebern, Margaret; Brown, Roger; Flatley-Brennan, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    Shared care is an interpersonal interaction system composed of communication, decision making, and reciprocity; it is used by patients and family caregivers (care dyads) to exchange social support. This study's purpose was to describe the contributions of shared care to outcomes for individuals with cardiac disease. A secondary data analysis was used to answer the following questions. What is the association between elements of shared care and patient outcomes? Do dyad perceptions of shared care differentially contribute to patient outcomes? Participants in this study were 93 individuals with a cardiac disease and 93 family caregivers. Composite index structured equation modeling was the analytic tool. Caregiver communication and reciprocity were related to patient mental quality of life. Patient communication and reciprocity were related to their own mental and physical quality of life and self-care confidence. Findings from this study contribute a better understanding of how care dyads are integral to patient outcomes. PMID:26864996

  17. Oral self-care practices among university students in Port Harcourt, Rivers State

    PubMed Central

    Bashiru, Braimoh Omoigberai; Anthony, Ilochonwu Nzube

    2014-01-01

    Background: The maintenance of optimum oral health is dependent on the efficacy of oral self-care. The objective of the present study was to evaluate oral self-care practices and knowledge among non-medical students at the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students at the University of Port Harcourt Nigeria, in January, 2014. Self-administered questionnaire elicited information on demography, frequency of tooth brushing, type of tooth brush, use of dental floss and previous visit to the dentist. Results: A total of 360 young adults, 188 males and 172 females, aged 18-33 years participated in the study. Brushing habits of the study population was at least once a day (90%). Approximately half (52.5 %) of the samples used medium-sized bristles and about 28.8% of the students replaced their toothbrush every 3 months. Regarding oral hygiene aids, few students, 5.8% and 4.2% used dental floss and mouthwash, respectively, as oral cleaning aid. Most of the students (71.6%) had never visited the dentist, 18.1% visited due to dental pain and 8.1% for extraction. Regarding knowledge on oral hygiene practice, approximately 60% of students knew that we have to brush our teeth twice daily, 31% knew we need to visit the dentist twice a year and only 18% knew what was dental floss. Conclusion: Oral hygiene practices among the students were poor. Therefore, oral health education and promotion is required to improve oral hygiene practices and health among young adults and the general population. PMID:25538367

  18. Glaucoma Awareness and Self-Care Practices among the Health Professionals in a Medical College Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Uma D

    2015-01-01

    Background Awareness and self-care practices concerning glaucoma, the silent thief of sight, is poor. This study was conducted to assess the same among health professionals in a medical college. Materials and Methods Institutional Ethics Committee Clearance was obtained and a descriptive semi-structured-questionnaire-based study was conducted. Informed written consent was taken from 114 (convenience sampling) health professionals (doctors/paramedicals) and a questionnaire were administered. Participants were questioned about the awareness of glaucoma, what are the features of glaucoma etc. Non-medical hospital workers were excluded. Data was analysed using Microsoft excel, descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results Respondents included clinicians, non-clinician-doctors and paramedicals (36:30:48) {mean age: 37 years, males:females::58:56}. Glaucoma awareness was statistically similar in the three study groups: high IOP (82.4%, p=0.55); optic nerve damage (32.4%, p=0.79); normal/low IOP (38.6%, p=0.2); irreversible blindness (47.1%, p=0.29); risk factors like corticosteroids (57%, p=0.11), family history of glaucoma (74.5%, p=0.17) and diabetes (77.1%, p=0.84). Over 13% thought that screening is done after 60 years. Few had undertaken screening for themselves (16.60%) and family members (21.05%). Few knew tests (41.2%, p=0.04) and treatment modalities (41.2%, p=0.0516). Conclusion The study revealed unsatisfactory awareness and self-care practices concerning glaucoma among health professionals including clinicians despite studying ophthalmology, although it is presumed and predicted to be the contrary. This alarming revelation warrants the need for enrichment of glaucoma awareness programs. PMID:26816927

  19. Effectiveness of Parent and Therapist Collaboration Program (PTCP) for Teaching Self-Care and Domestic Skills to Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavkaytar, Atilla; Pollard, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and determine the effectiveness of a Parent and Therapist Collaboration Program for teaching self care and domestic skills to individuals with autism with varying educational needs, age, and severity of disability. Three individuals with autism, one habilitation provider, and three parents participated in…

  20. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on

  1. More Than Needles: The Importance of Explanations and Self-Care Advice in Treating Primary Dysmenorrhea with Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Primary dysmenorrhea is a common gynaecological condition. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) acupuncturists commonly treat primary dysmenorrhea and dispense specific self-care advice for this condition. The impact of self-care advice on primary dysmenorrhea is unknown. Methods. 19 TCM acupuncture practitioners from New Zealand or Australia and 12 New Zealand women who had recently undergone acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea as part of a randomised controlled trial participated in this qualitative, pragmatic study. Focus groups and semistructured interviews were used to collect data. These were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using thematic analysis. Results. The overarching theme was that an acupuncture treatment consisted of “more than needles” for both practitioners and participants. Practitioners and participants both discussed the partnership they engaged in during treatment, based on openness and trust. Women felt that the TCM self-care advice was related to positive outcomes for their dysmenorrhea and increased their feelings of control over their menstrual symptoms. Conclusions. Most of the women in this study found improved symptom control and reduced pain. A contributing factor for these improvements may be an increased internal health locus of control and an increase in self-efficacy resulting from the self-care advice given during the clinical trial.

  2. The Use of Self-Care Agency To Meet the Need for Solitude and Social Interaction by Chronically Ill Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Margaret A.

    This study examined the effect of chronic illness on the individual's ability to meet his or her need for solitude and for social interaction by exploring how chronically ill individuals used their own ability (self-care agency) to meet these needs. Subjects were 90 chronically ill older persons, 30 of whom were living at home, 30 who lived in a

  3. Work-related factors associated with self-care and psychological health among people with type 2 diabetes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miho; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2012-12-01

    This study on individuals with type 2 diabetes living in Japan aimed to examine work-related factors that influence self-care and psychological health among people. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 121 working adults with type 2 diabetes. A self-report questionnaire assessed demographics, work characteristics, self-disclosure of diabetes, support in the workplace, work-related difficulties due to diabetes, and workplace conformity. Dietary self-care, exercise, depression, and emotional distress were also evaluated. The results indicated statistically significant influence of working night shifts, self-disclosure of diabetes, and workplace conformity on dietary self-care. Work-related difficulties due to diabetes had negative effects on depression and emotional distress, and job control and support in the workplace were found to be correlated with emotional distress. These findings suggest that work-related factors have an impact on some forms of self-care activities and psychological health and that it is important to increase understanding of these issues and provide appropriate support for workers through education and counseling and adjustments in the workplace. PMID:22957813

  4. From activated patient to pacified activist: a study of the self-care movement in the United States.

    PubMed

    DeFriese, G H; Woomert, A; Guild, P A; Steckler, A B; Konrad, T R

    1989-01-01

    Self-care education programs in operation in the United States during the mid-1980s are surveyed by mailed questionnaire to determine the nature and content of the curricula of these programs, their organizational sponsorship, the level and types of staff working in them, and their principal prevention emphases. Results indicate that over 75% of these programs offer instruction or sponsored activities intended to help individuals or their families to: (1) increase wellness or health status through lifestyle change; (2) reduce an established risk factor; and/or (3) prevent the onset of illness or injury. Fifty-five percent of the organizations offering these services classified themselves as health services delivery organizations. A surprising finding, given the American popular media treatment of self-care as a 'movement', is that relatively few laypersons function as instructors in these programs. The paper describes the way in which self-care has been absorbed into the mainstream of American health care, even though the concept of self-care has tended to drop from scholarly attention in the socio-medical sciences in the United States. PMID:2749301

  5. The Development of an ICF-Oriented, Adaptive Physician Assessment Instrument of Mobility, Self-care, and Domestic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Erik; Fleitz, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and psychometric testing of an adaptive, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-oriented questionnaire to be processed by the rehabilitation physician that aids in assessing mobility, self-care, and domestic life (Moses-Physician). The intent is to develop a physician…

  6. The Development of an ICF-Oriented, Adaptive Physician Assessment Instrument of Mobility, Self-care, and Domestic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Erik; Fleitz, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and psychometric testing of an adaptive, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-oriented questionnaire to be processed by the rehabilitation physician that aids in assessing mobility, self-care, and domestic life (Moses-Physician). The intent is to develop a physician

  7. A Competency-Based Approach to Teaching Professional Self-Care: An Ethical Consideration for Social Work Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Jason M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating material on professional self-care into social work course content is valuable to the education of neophyte social work practitioners. This article presents a review of the literature on professional burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue, including the risk factors associated with the experience of these…

  8. Increasing Independence in Self-Care Tasks for Children with Autism Using Self-Operated Auditory Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole McGaha; Heflin, L. Juane

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of self-operated auditory prompting systems (SOAPs) on independent self-care task completion of elementary-school-aged children with autism and intellectual disabilities. Prerecorded verbal prompts on a student-operated tape recorder were employed to facilitate independence in washing hands and…

  9. Relationship between the users' contact time in educational programs on diabetes mellitus and self-care skills and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Maia, Mariana Almeida; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Check the relationship between the users' contact time in educational programs and self-care and knowledge variables in diabetes mellitus. METHOD A longitudinal study with a quantitative approach with the participation, in the initial phase, of 263 users linked to Basic Health Units in Belo Horizonte, Brazil during the years 2012 and 2013. The data were collected with respect to the total contact time of the users' participation in the educational program as regards knowledge and self-care in acquired diabetes mellitus. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test for comparison of means, considering a 0.05 significance level. RESULTS The final sample included 151 users. The analysis showed that the improvement in self-care scores was statistically higher during an educational intervention of eight hours or more (p-value <0.05). In relation to the scores for knowledge, there was a statistically significant improvement at the end of the educational program. It was not possible to identify a value for the contact time from which there was an increase in mean scores for the ability of knowledge. CONCLUSION To improve the effectiveness of the promotion of skills related to knowledge and self-care in diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to consider the contact time as a relevant factor of the educational program. PMID:27007421

  10. A Competency-Based Approach to Teaching Professional Self-Care: An Ethical Consideration for Social Work Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Jason M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating material on professional self-care into social work course content is valuable to the education of neophyte social work practitioners. This article presents a review of the literature on professional burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue, including the risk factors associated with the experience of these

  11. Testing Self-Efficacy as a Pathway that Supports Self-Care among Family Caregivers in a Psychoeducational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Brintnall-Peterson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which a psychoeducational intervention supports family-centered care by influencing health risk and self-care behaviors of caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (N = 325). Moreover, this study investigated the extent to which changes in self-efficacy explained changes in health risk and self-care…

  12. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

  13. The Use of Self-Care Agency To Meet the Need for Solitude and Social Interaction by Chronically Ill Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Margaret A.

    This study examined the effect of chronic illness on the individual's ability to meet his or her need for solitude and for social interaction by exploring how chronically ill individuals used their own ability (self-care agency) to meet these needs. Subjects were 90 chronically ill older persons, 30 of whom were living at home, 30 who lived in a…

  14. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  15. Self-care among caregivers of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kakola location, Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Geteri, Leila Moraa; Angogo, Evelyn Mandela

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in Kakola Location of Nyando District in Kenya. The aim of study was to determine the factors influencing the practice of self-care among caregivers for person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) as well as their practice of self-care. A study by World Health Organization approximated that in developing countries, the need for long-term care will increase by as much as 40% in the coming years. HIV/AIDS has been cited as one of the challenges in long-term care. As demand for long-term care increases, the assumption that extended family networks can meet all the needs of their members deteriorates. The community-based survey employed descriptive cross-sectional design, involving primary caregivers of PLWHAs in Kakola location who had practiced care giving for more than 3 months. A household survey was conducted with 150 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 11.0. Simple frequencies and cross tabulations to compare variables were produced. Microsoft Excel was used to produce tables and graphs. Majority of the respondents 124 (82.7%) were female, while 26 (17.3%) were male. Self-care elements most practiced by the respondents in all the age categories were infection prevention and nutritional care. Female respondents had the highest proportions in all the practices of self-care. The results also showed that gender, relationship of patient to caregiver and marital status were the main demographic factors that significantly influenced the practice of self-care among caregivers. There was a significant relationship between main sources of income of caregivers with the practice of self-care. The study also revealed that respondents with no education had the lowest number of respondents practicing all the six practices of self-care and belonging to a support group. Recommendations for the study included, forging partnerships among stakeholders, training of caregivers and review of the home-based care policy. PMID:24090080

  16. Self-care among caregivers of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kakola location, Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Geteri, Leila Moraa; Angogo, Evelyn Mandela

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in Kakola Location of Nyando District in Kenya. The aim of study was to determine the factors influencing the practice of self-care among caregivers for person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) as well as their practice of self-care. A study by World Health Organization approximated that in developing countries, the need for long-term care will increase by as much as 40% in the coming years. HIV/AIDS has been cited as one of the challenges in long-term care. As demand for long-term care increases, the assumption that extended family networks can meet all the needs of their members deteriorates. The community-based survey employed descriptive cross-sectional design, involving primary caregivers of PLWHAs in Kakola location who had practiced care giving for more than 3 months. A household survey was conducted with 150 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 11.0. Simple frequencies and cross tabulations to compare variables were produced. Microsoft Excel was used to produce tables and graphs. Majority of the respondents 124 (82.7%) were female, while 26 (17.3%) were male. Self-care elements most practiced by the respondents in all the age categories were infection prevention and nutritional care. Female respondents had the highest proportions in all the practices of self-care. The results also showed that gender, relationship of patient to caregiver and marital status were the main demographic factors that significantly influenced the practice of self-care among caregivers. There was a significant relationship between main sources of income of caregivers with the practice of self-care. The study also revealed that respondents with no education had the lowest number of respondents practicing all the six practices of self-care and belonging to a support group. Recommendations for the study included, forging partnerships among stakeholders, training of caregivers and review of the home-based care policy. PMID:24090080

  17. Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Findings Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life. Conclusion Health care professionals should be aware of these findings in order to support self-care in older people, and they should pay attention to the social aspects at meals. PMID:23271914

  18. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Background Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care. Methods An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons’ own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks. Results The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care. Conclusion Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health. PMID:25670905

  19. Effects of self-care on quality of life in adults with heart failure and their spousal caregivers: testing dyadic dynamics using the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Vellone, Ercole; Chung, Misook L; Cocchieri, Antonello; Rocco, Gennaro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Riegel, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Emotions are contagious in couples. The purpose of this study was to analyze the manner in which adults with chronic heart failure (HF) and their informal caregivers influence each other's self-care behavior and quality of life (QOL). A sample of 138 HF patients and spouses was enrolled from ambulatory centers across Italy. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to analyze dyadic data obtained with the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), the Caregivers Contribution to the SCHFI, and the Short Form 12. Both actor and partner effects were found. Higher self-care was related to lower physical QOL in patients and caregivers. Higher self-care maintenance in patients was associated with better mental QOL in caregivers. In caregivers, confidence in the ability to support patients in self-care was associated with improved caregivers' mental QOL, but worsened physical QOL in patients. Interventions that build the caregivers' confidence are needed. PMID:24189325

  20. Patient Compliance in Home-Based Self-Care Telehealth Projects.

    PubMed

    Maeder, Anthony; Poultney, Nathan; Morgan, Gary; Lippiatt, Robert

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the findings of a literature review on patient compliance in home-based self-care telehealth monitoring situations, intended to establish a knowledge base for this aspect which is often neglected alongside more conventional clinical, economic and service evaluations. A systematic search strategy led to 72 peer-reviewed published scientific papers being selected as most relevant to the topic, 58 of which appeared in the last 10 years. Patient conditions in which most evidence for compliance was found were blood pressure, heart failure and stroke, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory diseases. In general, good compliance at the start of a study was found to drop off over time, most rapidly in the period immediately after the start. Success factors identified in the study included the extent of patient health education, telehealth system implementation style, user training and competence in system usage, active human support from the healthcare provider and maintaining strong participant motivation. PMID:26556057

  1. Sustainable Reduction of Sleepiness through Salutogenic Self-Care Procedure in Lunch Breaks: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stappert, Sarah; Takahashi, Masaya; Fricchione, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory sleepiness reducing effects of a salutogenic self-care procedure called progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), during lunch breaks. The second exploratory aim deals with determining the onset and long-term time course of sleepiness changes. In order to evaluate the intraday range and interday change of the proposed relaxation effects, 14 call center agents were assigned to either a daily 20-minute self-administered PMR or a small talk (ST) group during a period of seven months. Participants' levels of sleepiness were analyzed in a controlled trial using anticipatory, postlunchtime, and afternoon changes of sleepiness as indicated by continuously determined objective reaction time measures (16,464 measurements) and self-reports administered five times per day, once per month (490 measurements). Results indicate that, in comparison to ST, the PMR break (a) induces immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory reductions in sleepiness; (b) these significant effects remarkably show up after one month, and sleepiness continues to decrease for at least another five months. Although further research is required referring to the specific responsible mediating variables, our results suggest that relaxation based lunch breaks are both accepted by employees and provide a sustainable impact on sleepiness. PMID:24381633

  2. Sustainable Reduction of Sleepiness through Salutogenic Self-Care Procedure in Lunch Breaks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Schnieder, Sebastian; Stappert, Sarah; Takahashi, Masaya; Fricchione, Gregory L; Esch, Tobias; Krajewski, Jarek

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory sleepiness reducing effects of a salutogenic self-care procedure called progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), during lunch breaks. The second exploratory aim deals with determining the onset and long-term time course of sleepiness changes. In order to evaluate the intraday range and interday change of the proposed relaxation effects, 14 call center agents were assigned to either a daily 20-minute self-administered PMR or a small talk (ST) group during a period of seven months. Participants' levels of sleepiness were analyzed in a controlled trial using anticipatory, postlunchtime, and afternoon changes of sleepiness as indicated by continuously determined objective reaction time measures (16,464 measurements) and self-reports administered five times per day, once per month (490 measurements). Results indicate that, in comparison to ST, the PMR break (a) induces immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory reductions in sleepiness; (b) these significant effects remarkably show up after one month, and sleepiness continues to decrease for at least another five months. Although further research is required referring to the specific responsible mediating variables, our results suggest that relaxation based lunch breaks are both accepted by employees and provide a sustainable impact on sleepiness. PMID:24381633

  3. What "Dr. Mom" ordered: a community-based exploratory study of parental self-care responses to children's ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bussing, Regina; E Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Williamson, Pamela; Gary, Faye A; Wilson Garvan, Cynthia

    2006-08-01

    Little is known about family initiated self-care interventions in response to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and how self-care may co-exist with professional treatments. This paper explores parental self-care strategies for children with hyperactivity or attention problems, and examines factors and domains that influence their use from the mixed method perspective. As part of a longitudinal cohort study of ADHD detection and service use, caregivers of a representative US community sample of 266 children at high risk for ADHD completed a questionnaire that assessed five self-care strategies (behavior modification, coping, diet, over-the-counter medication use and religious practices), and made open-ended inquiry about discipline changes in response to behavioral concerns. Questionnaire responses were analyzed using logistic regression approaches. Open-ended answers were open coded; secondary analysis followed Spradley's model of domain analysis. Quantitative findings showed that behavior modification was the most commonly tried self-care strategy, followed by coping, diet, and religious practices. Over-the-counter trial was least common. The parents of professionally treated children were more likely to have employed behavior modification, coping strategies and over-the-counter medications than the parents of untreated children. Two-thirds of parents had changed their disciplinary action within three domains that were identified through qualitative analysis, including changes related to (a) the prevention of disciplinary problems (e.g., sustain eye contact, activation, consistency, clear instructions), (b) the solution of disciplinary problems (e.g., time-outs; privilege removal), and (c) parental coping associated with disciplinary problems (e.g., control own emotions, become less judgmental and more tolerant, and develop more appropriate expectations). These findings suggest that self-care strategies are commonly employed and appear to co-exist with professional treatment. Therefore, healthcare providers should actively explore parents' use of such strategies as some of them may interfere with prescribed treatments (e.g., over-the-counter) or absorb parental resources without likely benefit (e.g., diet). PMID:16644078

  4. The role of information in supporting self-care in vascular conditions: a conceptual and empirical review.

    PubMed

    Blickem, Christian; Bower, Peter; Protheroe, Joanne; Kennedy, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Self-care has the potential to make a significant contribution to vascular conditions, but engagement with self-care support has been limited. Lack of relevant information is highlighted by patients and policy-makers as an important barrier to effective self-care, and information provides a potentially efficient platform for changing behaviour. However, work within the social sciences has generally seen information as a necessary but insufficient driver of health behaviours. Furthermore, some groups (such as the socially disadvantaged) are expected to be less amenable to information interventions. We conducted an integrated conceptual and empirical review on information-based interventions for people with vascular disease (diabetes, heart disease and kidney disease). We reviewed conceptual and empirical work concerning the role and impact of information in self-care support to generate an explanatory framework to determine why information was effective or ineffective in encouraging self-care in patients with vascular conditions. This involved mapping relevant theories and models linking information and self-care. We also explored published systematic reviews of educational interventions in diabetes, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease to examine the role of information and evidence concerning its effectiveness and impact in different patient populations. The conceptual review identified variation among information interventions in terms of type, function, and their relationship to behaviour change techniques and psychological mediators of behaviour change. Key moderators of the effect of information included types of disorder, and patient capacity and resources. A wealth of educational interventions exists for diabetes and heart conditions, but the precise components of these interventions that are effective are difficult to identify. There is little evidence concerning optimal ways of tailoring interventions for socially disadvantaged groups other than ethnic minorities. A focus on printed information may not provide access to effective methods of information delivery (e.g. tailored information, use of narratives and user generated content). Developing a framework for the effective use of information needs to take account the full range of the factors identified. PMID:21158998

  5. Development and evaluation of a self care program on breastfeeding in Japan: A quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the importance of breastfeeding is well known in Japan, in recent years less than 50% of mothers were fully breastfeeding at one month after birth. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-care program for breastfeeding aimed at increasing mothers' breastfeeding confidence and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was conducted in Japan. The intervention, a breastfeeding self-care program, was created to improve mothers' self-efficacy for breastfeeding. This Breastfeeding Self-Care Program included: information on the advantages and basics of breastfeeding, a breastfeeding checklist to evaluate breastfeeding by mothers and midwives, and a pamphlet and audiovisual materials on breastfeeding. Mothers received this program during their postpartum hospital stay. A convenience sample of 117 primiparous women was recruited at two clinical sites from October 2007 to March 2008. The intervention group (n = 55), who gave birth in three odd-numbered months, received standard care and the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program while the control group (n = 62) gave birth in three even numbered months and received standard breastfeeding care. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program, breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastfeeding rate were measured early postpartum, before the intervention, and after the intervention at one month postpartum. The study used the Japanese version of The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) to measure self-efficacy. Results The BSES-SF score of the intervention group rose significantly from 34.8 at early postpartum to 49.9 at one month after birth (p < 0.01). For the control group, the score rose from 39.5 at early postpartum to 46.5 at one month after birth (p = 0.03). The early postpartum fully breastfeeding rate was 90% for the intervention group and 89% for the control group. At one month postpartum, the fully breastfeeding rate declined significantly to 65% for the control group compared to 90% for the intervention group (p = 0.02). Conclusion Results indicate that the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program increased mothers' self-efficacy for breastfeeding and had a positive effect on the continuation of breastfeeding. Trial Registration Number UMIN000003517 PMID:20731820

  6. Type 2 diabetes–related foot care knowledge and foot self-care practice interventions in the United States: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Timethia; Foster, Margaret; Spears-Lanoix, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this systematic literature review is to review published studies on foot care knowledge and foot care practice interventions as part of diabetic foot care self-management interventions. Methods Medline, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched. References from the included studies were reviewed to identify any missing studies that could be included. Only foot care knowledge and foot care practice intervention studies that focused on the person living with type 2 diabetes were included in this review. Author, study design, sample, intervention, and results were extracted. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria and were classified according to randomized controlled trial (n=9), survey design (n=13), cohort studies (n=4), cross-sectional studies (n=2), qualitative studies (n=2), and case series (n=1). Improving lower extremity complications associated with type 2 diabetes can be done through effective foot care interventions that include foot care knowledge and foot care practices. Conclusion Preventing these complications, understanding the risk factors, and having the ability to manage complications outside of the clinical encounter is an important part of a diabetes foot self-care management program. Interventions and research studies that aim to reduce lower extremity complications are still lacking. Further research is needed to test foot care interventions across multiple populations and geographic locations. PMID:26899439

  7. Self-Care Practices for Common Colds by Primary Care Patients: Study Protocol of a European Multicenter Survey-The COCO Study.

    PubMed

    Weltermann, Birgitta M; Gerasimovska-Kitanovska, Biljana; Thielmann, Anika; Chambe, Juliette; Lingner, Heidrun; Pirrotta, Enzo; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Tekiner, Selda; Czachowski, Slawomir; Edirne, Tamer; Zielinski, Andrzej; Yikilkan, Hülya; Koskela, Tuomas; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Hoffman, Robert D; Petek Šter, Marija; Guede Fernández, Clara; Uludağ, Ayşegül; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Mevsim, Vildan; Kreitmayer Pestic, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-care for common colds is frequent, yet little is known about the spectrum, regional differences, and potential risks of self-care practices in patients from various European regions. Methods/Design. We describe the study protocol for a cross-sectional survey in 27 primary care centers from 14 European countries. At all sites, 120 consecutive adult patients, who visit their general practitioner for any reason, filled in a self-administered 27-item questionnaire. This addresses patients' self-care practices for common colds. Separately, the subjective level of discomfort when having a common cold, knowing about the diseases' self-limited nature, and medical and sociodemographic data are requested. Additionally, physicians are surveyed on their use of and recommendations for self-care practices. We are interested in investigating which self-care practices for common colds are used, whether the number of self-care practices used is influenced by knowledge about the self-limited nature of the disease, and the subjective level of discomfort when having a cold and to identify potential adverse interactions with chronic physician-prescribed medications. Further factors that will be considered are, for example, demographic characteristics, chronic conditions, and sources of information for self-care practices. All descriptive and analytical statistics will be performed on the pooled dataset and stratified by country and site. Discussion. To our knowledge, COCO is the first European survey on the use of self-care practices for common colds. The study will provide new insight into patients' and general practitioners' self-care measures for common colds across Europe. PMID:26421048

  8. Self-Care Practices for Common Colds by Primary Care Patients: Study Protocol of a European Multicenter Survey—The COCO Study

    PubMed Central

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Gerasimovska-Kitanovska, Biljana; Thielmann, Anika; Chambe, Juliette; Lingner, Heidrun; Pirrotta, Enzo; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Tekiner, Selda; Czachowski, Slawomir; Edirne, Tamer; Zielinski, Andrzej; Yikilkan, Hülya; Koskela, Tuomas; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Hoffman, Robert D.; Petek Šter, Marija; Guede Fernández, Clara; Uludağ, Ayşegül; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Mevsim, Vildan; Kreitmayer Pestic, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-care for common colds is frequent, yet little is known about the spectrum, regional differences, and potential risks of self-care practices in patients from various European regions. Methods/Design. We describe the study protocol for a cross-sectional survey in 27 primary care centers from 14 European countries. At all sites, 120 consecutive adult patients, who visit their general practitioner for any reason, filled in a self-administered 27-item questionnaire. This addresses patients' self-care practices for common colds. Separately, the subjective level of discomfort when having a common cold, knowing about the diseases' self-limited nature, and medical and sociodemographic data are requested. Additionally, physicians are surveyed on their use of and recommendations for self-care practices. We are interested in investigating which self-care practices for common colds are used, whether the number of self-care practices used is influenced by knowledge about the self-limited nature of the disease, and the subjective level of discomfort when having a cold and to identify potential adverse interactions with chronic physician-prescribed medications. Further factors that will be considered are, for example, demographic characteristics, chronic conditions, and sources of information for self-care practices. All descriptive and analytical statistics will be performed on the pooled dataset and stratified by country and site. Discussion. To our knowledge, COCO is the first European survey on the use of self-care practices for common colds. The study will provide new insight into patients' and general practitioners' self-care measures for common colds across Europe. PMID:26421048

  9. Impact of chronic disease self-management programs on type 2 diabetes management in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G; Jiang, Luohua; Vuong, Ann M; Bolin, Jane N

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) on glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and selected self-reported measures. METHODS: We compared patients who received a diabetes self-care behavioral intervention, the CDSMP developed at the Stanford University, with controls who received usual care on their HbA1c and selected self-reported measures, including diabetes self-care activities, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), pain and fatigue. The subjects were a subset of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that took place at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated integrated healthcare system of a multi-specialty group practice between January 2009 and June 2011. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 mo. Data were analyzed using multilevel statistical models and linear mixed models to provide unbiased estimates of intervention effects. RESULTS: Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were generally comparable between the two groups. The average baseline HbA1c values in the CDSMP and control groups were 9.4% and 9.2%, respectively. Significant reductions in HbA1c were seen at 12 mo for the two groups, with adjusted changes around 0.6% (P < 0.0001), but the reductions did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.885). Few significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. No significant differences were observed in the participants’ HRQOL, pain, or fatigue measures. CONCLUSION: The CDSMP intervention may not lower HbA1c any better than good routine care in an integrated healthcare system. More research is needed to understand the benefits of self-management programs in primary care in different settings and populations. PMID:24936263

  10. Incorporating positive body image into the treatment of eating disorders: A model for attunement and mindful self-care.

    PubMed

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine P

    2015-06-01

    This article provides a model for understanding the role positive body image can play in the treatment of eating disorders and methods for guiding patients away from symptoms and toward flourishing. The Attuned Representational Model of Self (Cook-Cottone, 2006) and a conceptual model detailing flourishing in the context of body image and eating behavior (Cook-Cottone et al., 2013) are discussed. The flourishing inherent in positive body image comes hand-in-hand with two critical ways of being: (a) having healthy, embodied awareness of the internal and external aspects of self (i.e., attunement) and (b) engaging in mindful self-care. Attunement and mindful self-care thus are considered as potential targets of actionable therapeutic work in the cultivation of positive body image among those with disordered eating. For context, best-practices in eating disorder treatment are also reviewed. Limitations in current research are detailed and directions for future research are explicated. PMID:25886712

  11. Podiatrists' perspectives on their role in promoting self-care in high-risk patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Robert; Tinloy, Jennifer; Kaul, Shailja; Ulbrecht, Jan; Schaefer, Eric

    2014-06-25

    Abstract Self-foot care is key in preventing morbidity in high-risk diabetic patients. Motivational interviewing (MI) is an approach to encouraging behavioral change by patients that can be utilized in medical settings. Our goal was to explore how podiatrists promote self-care in such patients and if they use MI techniques. A 19 question online survey of US-based practicing podiatrists. Most answers were on a 5 point scale. MI index was the sum of answers to 5 relevant questions. Of 843 podiatrists, 86% considered foot self-care to be very important for high-risk diabetic patients and 90% felt it was their role to discuss self-foot care with them; 49% felt that they had training and were successful in promoting behavioral change, but the majority were definitely (38%) or possibly (46%) interested in learning more. Only 24% scored >15 / 20 on the MI index. Higher MI scores were associated with more face time and more time discussing foot self-care, but were not related to the podiatrist's age, gender, geographic location, % time in surgery, or years in practice. Reported barriers to counseling were lack of reimbursed time and poor patient engagement. Most podiatrists view self-care behavior among high-risk diabetic patients and their role in promoting it as very important; most feel already proficient but only a minority demonstrate MI skills; fortunately the majority are willing to learn more. Success in behavioral counseling, such as MI, is likely to require more time and may be encouraged by a move from fee-for-service to outcome based reimbursement. PMID:24964268

  12. Effect of Sleep Disturbances on Quality of Life, Diabetes Self-Care Behavior, and Patient-Reported Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chasens, Eileen R; Luyster, Faith S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Poor sleep quality and sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome, are prevalent among people with type 2 diabetes. Evidence suggests that coexisting diabetes and sleep disturbances are associated with decreases in quality of life, diabetes self-care behaviors, and patient-reported outcomes. Additional research is required to determine the effect of treatment of sleep disorders on patient-centered outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26912961

  13. Health Literacy, Physician Trust, and Diabetes-related Self-care Activities in Hispanics with Limited Resources

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard O.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hispanics with diabetes often have deficits in health literacy (HL). We examined the association among HL, psychosocial factors, and diabetes-related self-care activities. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 149 patients. Data included patient demographics and validated measures of HL, physician trust, self-efficacy, acculturation, self-care behaviors, and A1c. Results Participants (N=60) with limited HL were older and less educated, and had more years with diabetes compared with adequate HL participants (N=89). Limited HL participants reported greater trust in their physician, greater self-efficacy, and better diet, foot care, and medication adherence. Health literacy status was not associated with acculturation or A1c. In adjusted analyses, HL status remained associated with physician trust, and we observed a notable but nonsignificant trend between HL status and medication adherence. Discussion Lower HL was associated with greater physician trust and better medication adherence. Further research is warranted to clarify the role of HL and physician trust in optimizing self-care for Hispanics. PMID:24185168

  14. The role of email guidance in internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-care treatment for bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Varinia C; Munro, Calum; Startup, Helen; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Email has been progressively used as a means for providing therapeutic guidance and support for cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) self-care programmes. Many aspects of the use of email in self-care need to be explored such as the content of therapists' emails. Such information would optimise the delivery of self-care treatments. To date no study has looked at the content of the therapists' emails. We analysed the content of emails (n = 712) sent by therapists to participants (n = 71) of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of internet-based CBT with email support for bulimic disorders. 14.7% of the emails therapists sent contained at least one CBT comment, while 95.4% had at least one supportive comment and 13.6% had at least one technical comment. The mean time spent on providing email support to each participant across the complete programme was 45 minutes. Emails sent by therapists were mainly supportive in content, with only a small amount of time being required by therapists to provide email support. PMID:21394832

  15. Enhancing Diabetes Self-care Among Rural African Americans With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ishan C.; Utz, Sharon W.; Hinton, Ivora; Yan, Guofen; Jones, Randy; Reid, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of conducting a community-based randomized controlled trial evaluating a culturally tailored community-based group diabetes self-management education (DSME) program among rural African Americans. Methods Thirty-two African American rural adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited and 25 adults were retained and participated in an interventional study designed to test the effectiveness of the “Taking Care of Sugar” DSME program for the 2-year follow-up. Participants were selected from rural central Virginia. Primary outcomes variables included average blood sugar levels, cardiovascular risk factors, and general physical and mental health. These outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months post baseline. Results From baseline to 3-month follow-up assessment, participants exhibited significant improvement on several physiological and behavioral measures. Given the small sample size, hypothesis testing was limited. Results show change from baseline over time, illustrating that the primary outcome of A1C decreased, although not significant. Additionally, participants reported more knowledge about diabetes self-management and personal care skills (ie, exercise and foot care) that persisted over time. The feasibility of the culturally tailored DSME was established, and participation with the program was high. Conclusions A community-based group DSME program using storytelling is feasible. This research will help to inform clinicians and health policymakers as to the types of interventions that are feasible in a larger rural population. If such a program is carried out, we can improve knowledge, reduce complications, and improve quality of life among rural African Americans. PMID:24478047

  16. Feasibility of mobile phone-based management of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua C; Schatz, Bruce R

    2010-01-01

    According to the CDC, chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes cause 75% of healthcare spending in the United States and contribute to nearly seven in ten American deaths. However, despite the prevalence and high-cost of chronic disease, they are also among the most preventable of health problems1. How can we use technology to improve self-care, reduce costs, and lessen the burden on medical professionals? Devices to help manage chronic illness have been marketed for years, but are these specialized devices really necessary? In this paper, the authors identify the aspects of the major chronic illnesses that most need to be controlled and monitored in the US today and explore the feasibility of using current mobile phone technology to improve the management of chronic illness. Here we show that even the average mobile phone is capable of improving the management of all relevant health features in some way. PMID:21347080

  17. A policy analysis of the Expert Patient in the United Kingdom: self-care as an expression of pastoral power?

    PubMed

    Wilson, P M

    2001-05-01

    The rise in chronic illness and comorbidity in Western society has resulted in an increasing emphasis on self-care initiatives. In the United Kingdom this is exemplified by the Expert Patient policy. This paper discusses the Expert Patient initiative as an example of the State's third way approach to public health. The extent to which this policy challenges conventional power relationships between professional and patient, and fosters equal partnership is examined. In particular, how expert is defined and whether a professional understanding of the term is reconcilable with a patient's expertise is debated. The paper argues that the Expert Patient initiative is unlikely to reconstruct chronic illness and may further complicate the State's responsibility in meeting the needs of those with chronic illness. Issues of power within self-care are explored to illuminate the policy, and this paper argues that the Expert Patient initiative is an example of Foucault's notion of pastoral power. Although the Expert Patient policy focuses on the rights and responsibilities of those with chronic illness, this paper concludes that there is no corresponding strategy to challenge professionals' assumptions toward those with chronic illness. PMID:11560729

  18. Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts-Cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum.

    PubMed

    Martin Salzmann-Erikson, R N; Henrik Eriksson, R N T

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others' anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice. PMID:22053162

  19. Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts—Cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum

    PubMed Central

    Martin Salzmann-Erikson, R.N.; Henrik Eriksson, R.N.T.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others’ anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice. PMID:22053162

  20. Effectiveness of Self-Care Education on the Enhancement of the Self-Esteem of Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Poorgholami, Farzad; Javadpour, Shohreh; Saadatmand, Vahid; Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: The assessment of self-esteem in hemodialysis people is becoming increasingly important and necessary. Low self-esteem as a problem in patients undergoing hemodialysis decreases adherence to treatment. The researcher intends to carry out a study in order to investigate the effect of self-care education on enhancement of the self-esteem of patients undergoing hemodialysis in Iran. Method and material: This is a quasi-experimental study. The subjects of the study who were selected based on purposive sampling method consisted of 50 patients with advanced chronic renal disease treated with hemodialysis. Before the intervention, two questionnaires were completed by patients. There was no intervention in the control group and the patients received only routine care in the hospital. In the experimental group, the hemodialysis patients received 5 consecutive one-hour training sessions by the researcher. Then the Rosenberg scale was filled out by the patients 2 month later. Result: According to the results, Paired t-test showed a significant difference between the mean self-esteem score in both groups before and after intervention. Conclusion: Increasing the knowledge and awareness of hemodialysis patients must constitute a cornerstone of therapy and an integral part of nursing responsibilities. Nurses should educate the patients about self-care behaviors and remind them of the dangerous complications of abandoning these. PMID:26383201

  1. The Role of Narrative and Other-Referencing in Attenuating Psychological Reactance to Diabetes Self-Care Messages.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Liz; Leshner, Glenn

    2016-06-01

    This study charts pathways through message resistance to enhance the persuasiveness of diabetes self-care messages. A 2 (narrative) × 2 (other-referencing) × 2 (message) × 4 (order) experiment with adult diabetics (N = 58) tested whether packaging overt recommendations as a story rather than an informational argument (i.e., narrative structure) and highlighting the impact of health decisions on family and friends rather than the individual (i.e., other-referencing) can effectively attenuate psychological reactance to messages encouraging healthy diet and physical activity. Narrative and other-referencing each led to lower perceived threat to choice, less state anger and counterarguing, less negative cognitive responses, more positive attitudes toward the ad and the behaviors promoted, and greater intended compliance with message recommendations. Findings illustrate two strategies that communicators may employ in order to benefit from clear, direct health messages while avoiding the reactance they may provoke. Moreover, findings inform message design for diabetes self-care education. PMID:26528578

  2. States' Average College Tuition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglin, Joseph J., Jr.; And Others

    This report presents statistical data on trends in tuition costs from 1980-81 through 1995-96. The average tuition for in-state undergraduate students of 4-year public colleges and universities for academic year 1995-96 was approximately 8.9 percent of median household income. This figure was obtained by dividing the students' average annual…

  3. Comparison of the role of self-efficacy and illness representations in relation to dietary self-care and diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nouwen, Arie; Urquhart Law, G; Hussain, Shakir; McGovern, Steven; Napier, Heidi

    2009-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the joint effects of self-efficacy and illness representations on dietary self-care and diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by comparing two theoretical models: the Self-regulation Model (Leventhal, H., Meyer, D., & Nerenz, D. (1980). The common-sense representations of illness danger. In S. Rachman (Ed.), Medical Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 7-30). New York: Pergamon.) and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. (1997). Self efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.). One hundred and fifty-one adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed self-report measures of dietary self-efficacy, illness representations, dietary self-care and diabetes distress. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The model best supported by the data (Leventhal's Self-regulation Model) showed that dietary self-efficacy, perceived consequences and treatment effectiveness had direct and independent effects on both dietary self-care and diabetes distress. Together with dietary self-efficacy, perceived short-term treatment effectiveness was a significant predictor of dietary self-care. Age was found to be a negative predictor of short-term treatment effectiveness beliefs. Diabetes distress was best predicted by self-efficacy and perceived consequences. It can be concluded that to target effectively dietary self-care and distress, clinicians should focus on key illness representation variables (perceived short-term treatment effectiveness and perceived consequences) in conjunction with self-efficacy. PMID:20205046

  4. Motivation and dietary self-care in adults with diabetes: are self-efficacy and autonomous self-regulation complementary or competing constructs?

    PubMed

    Senécal, C; Nouwen, A; White, D

    2000-09-01

    This study examined constructs drawn from social-cognitive theory (A. Bandura, 1986) and self-determination theory (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 1985, 1991) in relation to dietary self-care and life satisfaction among 638 individuals with diabetes. A motivational model of diabetes dietary self-care was proposed, which postulates direct links between self-efficacy/autonomous self-regulation, and adherence/ life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling showed that both self-efficacy and autonomous self-regulation were associated with adherence (betas = .54 and .21, respectively) and with life satisfaction (betas = .15 and .34, respectively). Constraint analyses confirmed that self-efficacy was significantly more associated with adherence, whereas autonomous self-regulation was significantly more associated with life satisfaction. According to the model, interventions for dietary self-care and life satisfaction should focus on increasing self-efficacy and autonomous self-regulation. PMID:11007153

  5. "You teach us to listen,… but you don't teach us about suffering": self-care and resilience strategies in medical school curricula.

    PubMed

    Outram, Sue; Kelly, Brian

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the pre-vocational preparation of doctors to cope with the demands of clinical practice, drawing on literature from across a number of domains: mental health, psychological stress among medical students and medical practitioners; and self-care strategies in medicine curricula. High rates of psychological distress in medical students and medical practitioners were consistently reported. A number of questions remain pertinent to medical education: how does the experience of medical education impact on this level of distress, and possibly exacerbate pre-existing student vulnerabilities? What will help future doctors respond to, and cope with, suffering in their patients? Can the formal curriculum build resilience? Medical schools and educators have a responsibility to address these questions and to provide effective self-care curricula. In this review promising interventions such as mindfulness training are reported, frameworks to guide self-awareness in medical students are suggested, and recommendations for a self-care curriculum are made. PMID:25395229

  6. Effects of gender, age, and diabetes duration on dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a Self-Determination Theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Austin, Stéphanie; Senécal, Caroline; Guay, Frédéric; Nouwen, Arie

    2011-09-01

    This study tests a model derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci and Ryan, 2000) to explain the mechanisms by which non-modifiable factors influence dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 289). SEM analyses adjusted for HbA1c levels revealed that longer diabetes duration and female gender were indicative of poorer dietary self-care. This effect was mediated by contextual and motivational factors as posited by SDT. Poorer autonomy support from practitioners was predominant in girls with longer diabetes duration. Perceived autonomous motivation and self-efficacy were indicative of greater autonomy support, and led to better dietary self-care. PMID:21430132

  7. Improving of Type 2 Diabetic Patients’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Diabetes Self-care by Implementing Community-Based Interactive Approach-Diabetes Mellitus Strategy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community Based Interactive Approach-diabetes mellitus (CBIA-DM) is an active self-learning method. This study is aimed at improving type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care by implementing the CBIA-DM strategy. Time series, pre and post quasi-experimental design, Intervention group underwent CBIA-DM, DM-club and Normal-care group acted as control. Data were collected in pre-intervention, immediately, one, three and six months post intervention. Ranging scores for pre and post test questionnaires were: knowledge (0–18) and attitude (9–45); categorizing as rational scales of the scores in good, fair and poor. Practicing in diabetes self-care was assessed using 12 questionnaires, and categorized as adhere and not adhere to DM self-care. Effectiveness of CBIA-DM was evaluated based on the increasing number of participants in good knowledge and attitude levels, and adherence in practicing diabetes self-care. Results CBIA-DM group shows increasing number of participants in good level of knowledge from 40 % (n = 30) up to 80 % at M + 3 with scores significantly improved from 13.1 ± 2.4 up to 15.4 ± 2.0 (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05), attitude from 20 % up to 50 % at M + 3, with scores significantly improved from 33.5 ± 4.1 up to 34.9 ± 6.2 (p = 0.031) and increasing number of participants’ adherence to all variables of DM self-care at M + 6 post intervention. Conclusions CBIA-DM strategy is effective to improve diabetic patients’ knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care. Repeating and improving the strategy program is needed to sustain the impact. PMID:22721433

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Perceived Social Support on Promoting Self-Care Behaviors of Heart Failure Patients Referred to The Cardiovascular Research Center of Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Khaledi, Gholam Hassan; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rooh Afza, Hamidreza; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Akbar, Hassanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-care is one of the most important aspects of treatment in patients with heart failure and ranks among the most important coping strategies against the events and stresses of life. Perceived social support plays an important role in performing self-care behaviors in these patients. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of perceived social support on promoting self-care behaviors among heart failure patients. Patients and Methods: This educational intervention with a randomized control group was performed on 64 heart failure patients referred to The Cardiovascular Research Center of Isfahan. The study population was divided randomly into two groups of intervention and control. The indicators of self-care behavior and perceived social support (before, immediately after, and 2 months after the intervention) were completed by the two groups. The intervention group received educational interventions in 120-minute sessions once a week for 4 weeks. SPSS software (version 20) was used for data analysis in addition to methods of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Based on the obtained results, educational intervention was effective in the improvement of perceived social support among our heart failure patients. The results also showed that an increase in perceived social support significantly promoted self-care behaviors in the case group after the intervention compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Perceived social support played an important role in improving the performance of self-care behaviors in our heart failure patients. Given the strengths of the present study, these findings can be considered in future research in this domain. PMID:26328063

  9. Psychometric analysis of the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care inventory-revised version questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Jansà, Margarida; Vidal, Mercè; Giménez, Marga; Conget, Ignacio; Galindo, Mercedes; Roca, Daria; Colungo, Cristina; Esmatjes, Enric; Salamero, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory-Revised Version (SCI-R) questionnaire to assess the degree of adherence to self-care among adults with diabetes. Methods We validated the Spanish and Catalan translation from, and back translation to, English and cultural adaptation of the SCI-R in type 1 diabetes patients on multiple insulin doses or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and in type 2 diabetes patients on oral agents and/or insulin. Internal reliability, structural validity, and external validity (correlation with glycated hemoglobin) were evaluated. Responsiveness to change was assessed in patients 1 year after onset of type 1 diabetes and following a structured education program. Results The SCI-R presented good internal reliability Cronbach’s α: 0.75, test-retest reliability (r = 0.82) and structural validity (r > 0.40). The external validity was also good; the SCI-R correlated with HbA1c in patients with type 1 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = −0.50) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (r = −0.66) and in patients with type 2 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = −0.62). However, it was not satisfactory in patients on oral agents (r = −0.20) and/or bedtime insulin (r = −0.35). Responsiveness to change was analyzed in 54 patients (age 27.3±7.4 years, 26% men, HbA1c 6.8% ±1.1%); the SCI-R score was 72.3% ±13.7% and correlated negatively with glycated hemoglobin (r = −0.42) and 3 scales of the Diabetes Quality of Life questionnaire (lower score indicating better perception): Impact (r = −0.37), Social Worry (r = −0.36) and Diabetes Worry (r = −0.38), all at P < 0.05. Conclusion The Spanish and Catalan versions of the SCI-R questionnaire show good psychometric properties and both could be considered as useful tools for evaluating self-care behavior in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, there are still some subgroups of patients with type 2 diabetes in which the validity of this questionnaire needs further evaluation. PMID:24124352

  10. Teaching an insulin-dependent blind patient about self-care.

    PubMed

    Camporeale, J

    2001-04-01

    Today's home care nurse faces many challenges in providing patient-centered care while working within the guidelines set forth by the payor. A patient with Type 1 diabetes who was blind and lived alone was referred to our agency. A multidisciplinary approach for diabetes education along with tools for the visually impaired led our patient to independent diabetes management while keeping within the managed care guidelines. PMID:11985257

  11. On the Berdichevsky average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rung-Arunwan, Tawat; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Through a large number of magnetotelluric (MT) observations conducted in a study area, one can obtain regional one-dimensional (1-D) features of the subsurface electrical conductivity structure simply by taking the geometric average of determinant invariants of observed impedances. This method was proposed by Berdichevsky and coworkers, which is based on the expectation that distortion effects due to near-surface electrical heterogeneities will be statistically smoothed out. A good estimation of a regional mean 1-D model is useful, especially in recent years, to be used as a priori (or a starting) model in 3-D inversion. However, the original theory was derived before the establishment of the present knowledge on galvanic distortion. This paper, therefore, reexamines the meaning of the Berdichevsky average by using the conventional formulation of galvanic distortion. A simple derivation shows that the determinant invariant of distorted impedance and its Berdichevsky average is always downward biased by the distortion parameters of shear and splitting. This means that the regional mean 1-D model obtained from the Berdichevsky average tends to be more conductive. As an alternative rotational invariant, the sum of the squared elements (ssq) invariant is found to be less affected by bias from distortion parameters; thus, we conclude that its geometric average would be more suitable for estimating the regional structure. We find that the combination of determinant and ssq invariants provides parameters useful in dealing with a set of distorted MT impedances.

  12. A Small Group Assignment Gives Students a Novel Opportunity to Demonstrate Current Clinical Controversies in a Self-Care Course

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design and implement a small-group assignment on current event, nonprescription drug therapy questions in a self-care course, and to evaluate student performance in predefined areas. Design. Students self-identified a current clinical question in nonprescription therapy, searched primary literature, and presented their findings to peers in class. Assessment. Students were evaluated using a grading rubric on communication skills, ability to retrieve and analyze biomedical literature, and ability to formulate and defend an evidence-based recommendation. Overall, students performed well in all competencies, with grades ranging from 84% to 100% (median=92%). Faculty members completing a postassignment survey gave positive feedback regarding the educational value of the assignment and the ease of use of the designed rubric. Conclusion. A course assignment that involved peer-to-peer presentations and dealt exclusively with applicable, relevant, clinical questions regarding nonprescription drug therapy gave students a novel opportunity to practice drug information skills. PMID:25657380

  13. A controlled study of oral self-care and self-perceived oral health in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, G E; Sundberg, H E; Wikblad, K F

    2001-02-01

    A controlled study was carried out in mid-Sweden with the aim of comparing oral self-care and self-perceived oral health in 102 randomly sampled type 2 diabetic patients with that of 102 age-and-gender-matched non-diabetic controls. Oral health variables were also related to glycemic control (HbA1c), duration, anti-diabetic treatment, and late complications. Questionnaires were used to collect data on oral self-care and self-perceived oral health. Diabetes-related variables were extracted from medical records. Eighty-five percent of the diabetic subjects had never received information about the relation between diabetes and oral health, and 83% were unaware of the link. Forty-eight percent believed that the dentist/ dental hygienist did not know of their having diabetes. Most individuals, but fewer in the diabetic group, were regular visitors to dental care and the majority felt unaffected when confronted with dental services. More than 90% in both groups brushed their teeth daily and more than half of those with natural teeth did proximal cleaning. Subjects in the diabetic group as well as in the control group were content with their teeth and mouth (83% vs 85%. Those with solely natural teeth and those with complete removable dentures expressed most satisfaction. Sensation of dry mouth was common among diabetic patients (54%) and subjects with hypertension exhibited dry mouth to a greater extent (65%) than those who were normotensive. Our principal conclusion is that efforts should be made to give information about diabetes as a risk factor for oral health from dental services to diabetic patients and diabetes staff. PMID:11318042

  14. The development of an ICF-oriented, adaptive physician assessment instrument of mobility, self-care, and domestic life.

    PubMed

    Farin, Erik; Fleitz, Annette

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was development and psychometric testing of an adaptive, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-oriented questionnaire to be processed by the rehabilitation physician that aids in assessing mobility, self-care, and domestic life (Moses-Physician). The intent is to develop a physician version, analogous in content to the existing patient questionnaire 'Moses-Patient'. The 58 items of Moses-Patient were converted to an external assessment format without altering the content. The data were compiled for 549 patients with musculoskeletal diseases, 212 patients with cardiac diseases, and 259 neurology rehabilitation patients. Analyses were carried out on the basis of the one-parameter item response theory (Rasch model). Effect sizes and the reliable change index were calculated to test responsiveness. Differential item functioning (DIF) was tested using DIF contrasts, equivalent to Mantel-Haenszel DIF sizes. After the item response theory analysis, 47 of 58 items remained, distributed over 12 scales. The scales are more homogeneous in content than in the patient version because of the omission of 11 items and thus do not cover the ICF categories as broadly. Model fit indices (infit and outfit mean square statistics) were in an acceptable range for all items. Cronbach's alpha was between 0.73 and 0.95. Moreover, there is clear evidence of unidimensionality and sensitivity to change of the scales of Moses-Physician. The item parameters of Moses-Physician are invariant with respect to sex and age for all scales. However, there are clear differences regarding disease groups. The Moses-Physician questionnaire is an adaptive, Rasch-scaled assessment instrument that, to a great extent, covers the contents of the ICF chapters 'mobility', 'self-care', and 'domestic life'. PMID:19458523

  15. Topology and mental distress: self-care in the life spaces of home.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ian; Smith, Lesley-Ann

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a topological approach derived from Kurt Lewin to analyse the psychological life space/s produced in a mental health service user's home. Drawing on arguments that space plays an important part in the organisation and management of mental distress, photographs of a service user's home are analysed as topological spaces. The article argues that topological theory can contribute to community health psychology through framing psychological distress as spatially distributed, meaning individual bodies, environments and action are conceptualised as equally contributing to the organisation and management of health-related experience and activity. PMID:24155185

  16. Estimating Average Domain Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; Nicewander, W. Alan

    A simulation study was performed to determine whether a group's average percent correct in a content domain could be accurately estimated for groups taking a single test form and not the entire domain of items. Six Item Response Theory (IRT) -based domain score estimation methods were evaluated, under conditions of few items per content area per…

  17. Using a Web-Based Approach to Assess Test-Retest Reliability of the "Hypertension Self-Care Profile" Tool in an Asian Population: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Lua, Yi Hui Adela; Hong, Liyue; Bong, Huey Shin Shirley; Yeo, Ling Sui Jocelyn; Tsang, Li Ping Marianne; Ong, Kai Zhi; Wong, Sook Wai Samantha; Tan, Ngiap Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Essential hypertension often requires affected patients to self-manage their condition most of the time. Besides seeking regular medical review of their life-long condition to detect vascular complications, patients have to maintain healthy lifestyles in between physician consultations via diet and physical activity, and to take their medications according to their prescriptions. Their self-management ability is influenced by their self-efficacy capacity, which can be assessed using questionnaire-based tools. The "Hypertension Self-Care Profile" (HTN-SCP) is 1 such questionnaire assessing self-efficacy in the domains of "behavior," "motivation," and "self-efficacy." This study aims to determine the test-retest reliability of HTN-SCP in an English-literate Asian population using a web-based approach.Multiethnic Asian patients, aged 40 years and older, with essential hypertension were recruited from a typical public primary care clinic in Singapore. The investigators guided the patients to fill up the web-based 60-item HTN-SCP in English using a tablet or smartphone on the first visit and refilled the instrument 2 weeks later in the retest. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated using Cronbach's Alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), respectively. The t test was used to determine the relationship between the overall HTN-SCP scores of the patients and their self-reported self-management activities.A total of 160 patients completed the HTN-SCP during the initial test, from which 71 test-retest responses were completed. No floor or ceiling effect was found for the scores for the 3 subscales. Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were 0.857, 0.948, and 0.931 for "behavior," "motivation," and "self-efficacy" domains respectively, indicating high internal consistency. The item-total correlation ranges for the 3 scales were from 0.105 to 0.656 for Behavior, 0.401 to 0.808 for Motivation, 0.349 to 0.789 for Self-efficacy. The corresponding ICC scores of 0.671, 0.762, and 0.720 for these respective domains showed good test-retest reliability. The correlation of the HTN-SCP scores and patients' reported self-management measures were significant, except for keeping their food diary.HTN-SCP showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability in an English literate Asian population. A web-based approach is feasible if similar studies are needed to validate its translated versions of the tool for wider application in the local multilingual population. PMID:26945410

  18. Breathing Words Slowly: Creative Writing and Counselor Self-Care--The Writing Workout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane; Morgan, Michael M.; Morris, Lay-Nah Blue; Morris, Tanaya Moon

    2010-01-01

    Professional counselors work daily with compassion and connection, yet must also manage trauma and pain. Clients' stories of loneliness, fear, abuse, and anger frequently fill the landscape of a counselor's work. Counselors may experience burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious trauma by failing to recognize and adequately address the negative

  19. Breathing Words Slowly: Creative Writing and Counselor Self-Care--The Writing Workout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane; Morgan, Michael M.; Morris, Lay-Nah Blue; Morris, Tanaya Moon

    2010-01-01

    Professional counselors work daily with compassion and connection, yet must also manage trauma and pain. Clients' stories of loneliness, fear, abuse, and anger frequently fill the landscape of a counselor's work. Counselors may experience burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious trauma by failing to recognize and adequately address the negative…

  20. Synchronous Boxcar Averager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    Digital electronic filtering system produces series of moving-average samples of fluctuating signal in manner resulting in removal of undesired periodic signal component of known frequency. Filter designed to pass steady or slowly varying components of fluctuating pressure, flow, pump speed, and pump torque in slurry-pumping system. Concept useful for monitoring or control in variety of applications including machinery, power supplies, and scientific instrumentation.

  1. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services

  2. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  3. Social Participation of Diabetes and Ex-Leprosy Patients in the Netherlands and Patient Preference for Combined Self-Care Groups

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Henry J. C.; de Groot, Roos; van Brakel, Wim H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Earlier, we showed that neuropathic complications limit social participation of ex-leprosy patients, even in a non-endemic leprosy setting like the Netherlands. Self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients can strengthen self-worth of participants, prevent further handicap, and enable the exchange of coping strategies. For non-endemic leprosy settings with a very low rate of leprosy patients, a self-care group exclusively for (ex)leprosy patients is not likely to be feasible. A combined group with patients facing comparable morbidity would be more efficient than disease-specific self-care groups. Here, we studied the comparability in social constraints of diabetic patients and ex-leprosy patients. Moreover, we investigated if combined self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients and diabetic patients would be desirable and acceptable for possible participants. Methods: Social participation was studied based on in-depth interviews and Participation Scale information collected from 41 diabetic patients and compared with the data of 31 ex-leprosy patients from a prior study. Moreover, we made an inventory of potential strengths and limitations and attitudes toward combined self-care groups for diabetic patients with neuropathy. Results: The following themes emerged among diabetic patients: disease confrontation, dependency, conflict with partner or relatives, feelings of inferiority, stigma, abandoning social activities, fear of the future, lack of information, and hiding the disease. These themes were very similar to those voiced by the previously interviewed ex-leprosy patients. The latter more often mentioned stigma and disease ignorance among Dutch health care workers. Whereas ex-leprosy patients perceived stigma on multiple fronts, diabetic patients only mentioned feeling inferior. Diabetic patients experienced some form of participation restriction in 39% of the cases as opposed to 71% of the ex-leprosy patients. Diabetic patients did acknowledge the comparability with leprosy as far as their neuropathic complaints concerned. Yet only 17% showed interest in combined self-care groups. The majority preferred disease-specific self-care groups only focused on diabetic patients. This might have been caused partly by the perception that a self-care group is yet another disease-related demand on their time, rather than an opportunity to become less dependent on health care services. Conclusion: The physical complications and social problems in ex-leprosy and diabetic patients with neuropathy are similar. Both groups show social participation limitations, yet in contrast to diabetic patients, ex-leprosy patients perceive stigma in more domains in life. Despite the fact that diabetic patients preferred disease-specific, homogeneous self-care groups, we believe that the option of combined groups with ex-leprosy patients and possibly even other people needing chronic wound care is a promising strategy. Therefore, further research is warranted into the acceptance and impact of self-care groups as a strategy to reduce social constraints by diseases causing neuropathy. PMID:25767800

  4. The effects of an interventional program based on self-care model on health-related quality of life outcomes in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ghavidel, Fatemeh; Mohammadzadeh, Shahla; Ravangard, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis patients have lower quality of life and one of the ways to improve their quality of life is providing self-care education to them using some models including self-care model. This study aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of using self-care model on health and quality of life outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in 2012 on the patients who were referred to a military hospital in Tehran, Iran to be treated with hemodialysis. All 32 patients referred to this hospital in 2012 were selected and studied. Required data were collected using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) standard questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire. The educational intervention was implemented using self-care model. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 18.0 and some statistical tests including paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon and McNemar tests. Results: The results showed that the mean and standard deviation (SD) of patients’ parameters including weight and blood pressure improved significantly after the educational intervention compared to before the intervention (P < 0.001). Also, all dimensions of the quality of life of hemodialysis patients, including physical function, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social function, mental health, and role emotional improved compared to those before the intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Implementing the self-care model increased the quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the use of this model in hemodialysis patients is recommended. PMID:25540783

  5. Effect of Orem’s Self-Care Model on Self-Esteem of Adolescents with Asthma Referred to an Asthma and Allergy Clinic in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Hemati, Zeinab; Mosaviasl, Fatemeh Sadat; Abasi, Samira; Ghazavi, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquisition of chronic diseases such as asthma leads to psychological, mental and physical complications in adolescents, and hence their self-esteem may be compromised. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of Orem’s self-care model on self-esteem of adolescents with asthma. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study enrolled 64 asthmatic adolescents referred to Shariati Hospital, Isfahan. Subjects were assigned to two groups of control and intervention consecutively. Then, the self-care training program was conducted according to Orem’s self-care model in eight two-hour sessions based on self-care needs, and self-esteem was measured in the two groups prior to and two months after the last training session. The data were collected by a questionnaire of demographic characteristics and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventories (CSEI) and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean score of self-esteem between the intervention and control groups after the training (P<0.05), but the difference was not statistically significant prior to the intervention. Paired t-test showed a significant difference in the mean score of self-esteem before and after the training in the intervention group (P<0.01), but this difference was not statistically significant in the control group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Regarding the effect of Orem’s self-care model on self-esteem of adolescents with asthma, we recommend the use of this model as a care intervention in healthcare centers to promote adolescents’ health. PMID:27114724

  6. Association between self-stigma and self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Asuka; Fujimaki, Yuko; Fujimori, Shin; Isogawa, Akihiro; Onishi, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Growing qualitative evidence reveals that many patients with chronic illnesses struggle to rebuild a positive self-image after diagnosis while attempting to find a balance between their current physical status and their ongoing social duties. One factor destabilizing patients’ identities is self-stigma, which seems to affect their behavioral goals through decreased self-efficacy. We hypothesized that self-stigma would be an independent factor, distinct from self-efficacy, for developing self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We used a consecutive sample of 209 outpatients with type 2 diabetes treated by endocrinologists at two university hospitals, one general hospital and one clinic. We performed multiple linear regression analyses to test the relationship between the patients’ activation levels for self-care behaviors (dependent variable) and self-stigma, self-efficacy, and depression symptoms (independent variables), adjusting for covariates involving sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results In a multiple linear regression model adjusted for prior covariates, there was significant association between self-stigma and activation levels for self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes (adjusted R2=0.26, F (12,196)=7.20, p<0.001). The standardized partial regression coefficient of self-stigma was −0.23 (p=0.001), whereas that of self-efficacy was 0.19 (p=0.007). Conclusions Self-stigma is a negative independent factor, separate from self-efficacy, affecting the self-care behaviors of patients with type 2 diabetes. Self-stigma also has, at least, a similar impact on self-care behaviors to that of self-efficacy. To optimize treatment outcomes, patients’ self-stigma should be minimized, whereas their self-efficacy should be enhanced. PMID:26835138

  7. Design and development of a scale of perceived barriers to self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an exploratory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramezankhani, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Alhani, Fatemeh; Goudarzi, Ali Moazemi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the importance of perceived barriers against self-care in diabetic patients, the role of this factor is rarely addressed in the improvement of self-care behaviors of Iranian patients. The lack of appropriate instruments that fit demographic properties of Iranian society is one reason. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the scale of perceived barriers to self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This cross-sectional study conducted on 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who were covered by the health centers in Isfahan (Iran) in 2015. A 22-item, researcher-made instrument was designed; the face and content validities of the instrument were examined through obtaining the opinions of an expert panel before administering the instrument in the study. Also, the exploratory factor analysis was used to investigate the instrument’s validity. Cronbach’s alpha was employed to measure its internal consistency (reliability). To examine the validity of the final scale, the mean scores of perceived barriers in patients with appropriate and inappropriate self-care behaviors were compared. Results The research sample was comprised of 240 women (60%) and 160 men (40%). The mean value of the content validity index was 0.84. The results of factor analysis confirmed the validity of the 11 items and 3 factors of the developed scale. The factor loading ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. These three factors together explained 40.28% of the total variance. The overall reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.79, ranging from 0.82 to 0.93 for three factors. Conclusion According to the results, the developed scale was a valid and reliable instrument for examining the barriers perceived by the patients. The findings of this research can help health policy makers in planning to facilitate the self-care behaviors as the most vital factor in diabetes control. PMID:26767102

  8. Perceiving the average color.

    PubMed

    Srivatsav, Siddhart; Webster, Jacquelyn; Webster, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The average color in a scene is a potentially important cue to the illuminant and thus for color constancy, but it remains unknown how well and in what ways observers can estimate the mean chromaticity. We examined this by measuring the variability in "achromatic" settings for stimuli composed of different distributions of colors. The displays consisted of a 15 by 15 palette of colors shown on a gray background on a monitor, with each chip subtending 0.5 deg. Individual colors were randomly sampled from varying contrast ranges along the luminance, S and LM cardinal axes. Observers were instructed to adjust the chromaticity of the palette so that the mean was gray, with variability estimated from 20 or more repeated settings. This variability increased progressively with increasing contrast in the distributions, with large increases for chromatic contrast but also weak effects for added luminance contrast. Signals along the cardinal axes are relatively independent in many detection and discrimination tasks, but showed strong interference in the white estimates. Specifically, adding S contrast increased variability in the white settings along both the S and LM axes, and vice versa. This "cross-masking" and the effects of chromatic variance in general may occur because observers cannot explicitly perceive or represent the mean of a set of qualitatively different hues (e.g. that red and green hues average to gray), and thus may infer the mean only indirectly (e.g. from the relative saturation of different hues). Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326088

  9. Living with joint hypermobility syndrome: patient experiences of diagnosis, referral and self-care

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Rohini H; Rimes, Katharine A; Clark, Carol J; Simmonds, Jane V; Horwood, Jeremy P

    2015-01-01

    Background. Musculoskeletal problems are common reasons for seeking primary health care. It has been suggested that many people with ‘everyday’ non-inflammatory musculoskeletal problems may have undiagnosed joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS), a complex multi-systemic condition. JHS is characterized by joint laxity, pain, fatigue and a wide range of other symptoms. Physiotherapy is usually the preferred treatment option for JHS, although diagnosis can be difficult. The lived experience of those with JHS requires investigation. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine patients’ lived experience of JHS, their views and experiences of JHS diagnosis and management. Methods. Focus groups in four locations in the UK were convened, involving 25 participants with a prior diagnosis of JHS. The focus groups were audio recorded, fully transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method to inductively derive a thematic account of the data. Results. Pain, fatigue, proprioception difficulties and repeated cycles of injury were among the most challenging features of living with JHS. Participants perceived a lack of awareness of JHS from health professionals and more widely in society and described how diagnosis and access to appropriate health-care services was often slow and convoluted. Education for patients and health professionals was considered to be essential. Conclusions. Timely diagnosis, raising awareness and access to health professionals who understand JHS may be particularly instrumental in helping to ameliorate symptoms and help patients to self-manage their condition. Physiotherapists and other health professionals should receive training to provide biopsychosocial support for people with this condition. PMID:25911504

  10. Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES) trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Back pain, one of the most prevalent conditions afflicting American adults, is the leading reason for using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Yoga is an increasingly popular "mind-body" CAM therapy often used for relieving back pain and several small studies have found yoga effective for this condition. This study will assess whether yoga is effective for treating chronic low back pain compared with self care and exercise and will explore the mechanisms responsible for any observed benefits. Methods/Design A total of 210 participants with low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Seattle. They will be randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive 12 weekly yoga classes, 12 weekly conventional therapeutic exercise classes of comparable physical exertion, or a self-care book. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group will assess outcomes at baseline and 6, 12 and 26 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes will be back-related dysfunction and symptom bothersomeness. In addition, data will be collected on physical measurements (e.g., flexion) at baseline and 12 weeks and saliva samples will be obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Information will be collected on specific physical, psychological, and physiological factors to allow exploration of possible mechanisms of action through which yoga could relieve back pain and dysfunction. The effectiveness of yoga will be assessed using analysis of covariance (using general estimating equations - GEE) within an intention-to-treat context. If yoga is found effective, further analyses will explore whether yoga's benefits are attributable to physical, psychological and/or physiological factors. Conclusions This study will provide the clearest evidence to date about the value of yoga as a therapeutic option for treating chronic back pain, and if the results are positive, will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study. Trial registration This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT00447668. PMID:20356395

  11. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  12. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  13. Managing menopause at home

    MedlinePlus

    Perimenopause - self-care; Hormone replacement therapy - self-care; HRT- self-care ... Your health care provider may have prescribed hormone therapy to relieve symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, sleep problems, and ...

  14. Navigating the poverty of heroin addiction treatment and recovery opportunity in Kenya: access work, self-care and rationed expectations.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Tim; Ndimbii, James; Guise, Andy; Cullen, Lucy; Ayon, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the analyses of qualitative interview accounts of people who inject heroin in Kenya, we describe the narration of addiction treatment access and recovery desire in conditions characterised by a 'poverty of drug treatment opportunity'. We observe the performance of addiction recovery narrative in the face of heavy social constraints limiting access to care. Fee-based residential rehabilitation ('rehab') is the only treatment locally available and inaccessible to most. Its recovery potential is doubted, given normative expectations of relapse. Treating drug use is a product of tightly bounded agency. Individuals enact strategies to maximise their slim chances of treatment access ('access work'), develop self-care alternatives when these fail to materialise and ration their care expectations. The use of rehab as a primary means of respite and harm reduction rather than recovery and the individuation of care in the absence of an enabling recovery environment are key characteristics of drug treatment experience. The recent incorporation of 'harm reduction' into policy discourses may trouble the primacy of recovery narrative in addiction treatment and in how treatment desires are voiced. The diversification of drug treatments in combination with social interventions enabling their access are fundamental. PMID:26089184

  15. Improving self-care for heart failure for seniors: the impact of video and written education and decision aids.

    PubMed

    Veroff, David R; Sullivan, Lisa A; Shoptaw, E J; Venator, Benjamin; Ochoa-Arvelo, Tamara; Baxter, Jonathan R; Manocchia, Michael; Wennberg, David

    2012-02-01

    Heart failure poses a substantial burden on health care expenditures and quality of life; therefore, strategies to improve health behaviors for heart failure are essential. Highly effective medical decision aids can enable health improvements for people with heart failure. In this randomized controlled study, individuals with heart failure in a private Medicare plan were randomized into either an intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group received basic program information and a simple fact sheet about heart failure, plus a medical decision aid, Living with Heart Failure DVD and booklet; patients randomized to the control group received the basic written materials only. The study was powered to detect a 5% difference in the primary outcome measure (daily weight monitoring). Participants were surveyed 4 weeks after outreach materials were mailed. There were 480 survey respondents: 246 in the intervention group; 234 in the control group. Intervention group respondents were significantly more likely to weigh themselves daily (P=0.05) than control group respondents (44% versus 38%). The intervention group was more likely than the control group to monitor fluid intake (47% versus 44%) and follow a low-sodium diet (83% versus 77%). Other health behavior differences were not statistically significant. The DVD decision aid increased levels of daily weight monitoring and other important health behaviors. Broad application of inexpensive behavior change interventions, such as a DVD/booklet program, should help to facilitate important, routine self-care behaviors for individuals with heart failure. PMID:22004181

  16. Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785

  17. A Comparison of Face to Face and Video-Based Self Care Education on Quality of Life of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati Maslakpak, Masumeh; Shams, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease negatively affects the patients’ quality of life. There are different educational methods to help these patients. This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of self-care education in two methods, face to face and video educational, on the quality of life in patients under treatment by hemodialysis in education-medical centers in Urmia. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 120 hemodialysis patients were selected randomly; they were then randomly allocated to three groups: the control, face to face education and video education. For face to face group, education was given individually in two sessions of 35 to 45 minutes. For video educational group, CD was shown. Kidney Disease Quality Of Life- Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire was filled out before and two months after the intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS software by using one-way ANOVA. Results ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference in the quality of life scores among the three groups after the intervention (P=0.024). After the intervention, Tukey’s post-hoc test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of video and face to face education regarding the quality of life (P>0.05). Conclusion Implementation of the face to face and video education methods improves the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. So, it is suggested that video educational should be used along with face to face education. PMID:26171412

  18. Living in a misty marsh: A qualitative study on the experiences of self-care suffering of patients with thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Pouraboli, Batool; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Kazemi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia major is the most common hereditary anemia in Iran. Thalassemia major patients require lifelong care and suffer much pain during self-care. Knowledge of the nature, meaning, and impact of suffering from the perspective of patients is needed to determine which interventions are helpful. This study was designed to understand the experience of suffering in patients with thalassemia. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted with content analysis method. In the present study, 21 patients with thalassemia were selected by purposive sampling. The research was performed at Kerman Samen Alhojaj Medical Center, Iran, in 2013. Data collection method was conducting unstructured interviews using open-ended questions and field notes. In addition, data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and conventional approach. Results: Data analysis resulted in the emergence of the four central categories of physical exhaustion, mental and spiritual restlessness, society's behaviors and beliefs, and surviving a hard life, which were the suffering themes of the patients. Conclusions: Results showed that thalassemia in the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects is very stressful for patients. Moreover, culture plays an important role in the patients’ experience of suffering. Results of this study can help nurses improve nursing care to alleviate suffering based on these experiences. PMID:25949257

  19. Real-Time Support of Pediatric Diabetes Self-Care by a Transport Team

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Brandi E.; Crisler, S. Crile; Shappley, Rebekah; Armour, Meri M.; McCommon, Dana T.; Ferry, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The study seeks to improve access for underserved patients via novel integration of Pedi-Flite (a critical care transport team) and to validate whether this safely enhances diabetes care and effectively expands the endocrine workforce. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study retrospectively analyzed pager service use in a cohort of established diabetic patients (n = 979) after inception of Pedi-Flite support. Outcomes included incidence and severity of recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and cost savings generated from reduced referrals to the emergency department (ED) and on-call endocrinologist. We generated descriptive statistics to characterize the study population and ED visits for DKA and constructed logistic regression models to examine associations of pager use and likelihood of ED visitation and nonelective inpatient admission from an ED for DKA. RESULTS Pager users comprised 30% of the patient population. They were younger but had more established diabetes than nonusers. While pager users were 2.75 times more likely than nonusers to visit the ED for DKA (P < 0.0001), their visits were less likely to lead to inpatient admissions (odds ratio 0.58; P < 0.02). More than half (n = 587) of all calls to the pager were resolved without need for further referral. Estimates suggest that 439 ED visits and 115 admissions were avoided at a potential cost savings exceeding 760,000 USD. CONCLUSIONS Integration of a transport service provides a novel, cost-effective approach to reduce disparities in diabetes care. Advantages include scalability, applicability to other disease areas and settings, and low added costs. These findings enrich an emerging evidence base for telephonic care-management models supported by allied health personnel. PMID:23959568

  20. Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…

  1. The Counseling, Self-Care, Adherence Approach to Person-Centered Care and Shared Decision Making: Moral Psychology, Executive Autonomy, and Ethics in Multi-Dimensional Care Decisions.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, Anders; Munthe, Christian; Törner, Marianne; Forsander, Gun

    2016-08-01

    This article argues that standard models of person-centred care (PCC) and shared decision making (SDM) rely on simplistic, often unrealistic assumptions of patient capacities that entail that PCC/SDM might have detrimental effects in many applications. We suggest a complementary PCC/SDM approach to ensure that patients are able to execute rational decisions taken jointly with care professionals when performing self-care. Illustrated by concrete examples from a study of adolescent diabetes care, we suggest a combination of moral and psychological considerations to support the claim that standard PCC/SDM threatens to systematically undermine its own goals. This threat is due to a tension between the ethical requirements of SDM in ideal circumstances and more long-term needs actualized by the context of self-care handled by patients with limited capacities for taking responsibility and adhere to their own rational decisions. To improve this situation, we suggest a counseling, self-care, adherence approach to PCC/SDM, where more attention is given to how treatment goals are internalized by patients, how patients perceive choice situations, and what emotional feedback patients are given. This focus may involve less of a concentration on autonomous and rational clinical decision making otherwise stressed in standard PCC/SDM advocacy. PMID:26756477

  2. Predictors of adherence with self-care guidelines among persons with type 2 diabetes: results from a logistic regression tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kart, Cary S; Noe, Douglas A

    2012-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is known to contribute to health disparities in the U.S. and failure to adhere to recommended self-care behaviors is a contributing factor. Intervention programs face difficulties as a result of patient diversity and limited resources. With data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, this study employs a logistic regression tree algorithm to identify characteristics of sub-populations with type 2 diabetes according to their reported frequency of adherence to four recommended diabetes self-care behaviors including blood glucose monitoring, foot examination, eye examination and HbA1c testing. Using Andersen's health behavior model, need factors appear to dominate the definition of which sub-groups were at greatest risk for low as well as high adherence. Findings demonstrate the utility of easily interpreted tree diagrams to design specific culturally appropriate intervention programs targeting sub-populations of diabetes patients who need to improve their self-care behaviors. Limitations and contributions of the study are discussed. PMID:22160934

  3. Short-term improvement in oral self-care of adolescents with social-cognitive theory-guided intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall-Scullin, Emma P

    2015-12-01

    DesignCluster randomised controlled trial.InterventionClusters of adolescents (classrooms of 15- to 16-year-olds) in each school were allocated either into a control group or into an intervention group. The interventions consisted of peer cooperation (peer support) and peer interactive learning (observational learning) facilitated through feedback from a dentist (professional support). Three intervention sessions with preselected pairs of adolescents were delivered in the first three weeks. Gender, family socio-economic status (baseline) and different social-cognitive domain variables (baseline, six, and 12 months) were assessed using a questionnaire.Outcome measureDental plaque levels were the primary outcome measure and they were measured at baseline, after the intervention measured only in the social-cognitive theory-guided group, at six and 12 months.ResultsAt the six-month follow-up there was a statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 19.4) and the control group (35.1 ± 20.0). At the 12-month follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 18.5) and the control group (31.9 ± 17.8). Variations in dental plaque levels at different time periods were explained by the following predictors: family's socio-economic status, social-cognitive domain variables, group affiliation and baseline plaque levels.ConclusionsSocial-cognitive theory-guided interventions improved oral self-care of adolescents in the short term. This improvement lasted only for five months after the intervention was discontinued. PMID:26680519

  4. Using a Web-Based Approach to Assess Test–Retest Reliability of the “Hypertension Self-Care Profile” Tool in an Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Lua, Yi Hui Adela; Hong, Liyue; Bong, Huey Shin Shirley; Yeo, Ling Sui Jocelyn; Tsang, Li Ping Marianne; Ong, Kai Zhi; Wong, Sook Wai Samantha; Tan, Ngiap Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Essential hypertension often requires affected patients to self-manage their condition most of the time. Besides seeking regular medical review of their life-long condition to detect vascular complications, patients have to maintain healthy lifestyles in between physician consultations via diet and physical activity, and to take their medications according to their prescriptions. Their self-management ability is influenced by their self-efficacy capacity, which can be assessed using questionnaire-based tools. The “Hypertension Self-Care Profile” (HTN-SCP) is 1 such questionnaire assessing self-efficacy in the domains of “behavior,” “motivation,” and “self-efficacy.” This study aims to determine the test–retest reliability of HTN-SCP in an English-literate Asian population using a web-based approach. Multiethnic Asian patients, aged 40 years and older, with essential hypertension were recruited from a typical public primary care clinic in Singapore. The investigators guided the patients to fill up the web-based 60-item HTN-SCP in English using a tablet or smartphone on the first visit and refilled the instrument 2 weeks later in the retest. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were evaluated using Cronbach's Alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), respectively. The t test was used to determine the relationship between the overall HTN-SCP scores of the patients and their self-reported self-management activities. A total of 160 patients completed the HTN-SCP during the initial test, from which 71 test–retest responses were completed. No floor or ceiling effect was found for the scores for the 3 subscales. Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were 0.857, 0.948, and 0.931 for “behavior,” “motivation,” and “self-efficacy” domains respectively, indicating high internal consistency. The item-total correlation ranges for the 3 scales were from 0.105 to 0.656 for Behavior, 0.401 to 0.808 for Motivation, 0.349 to 0.789 for Self-efficacy. The corresponding ICC scores of 0.671, 0.762, and 0.720 for these respective domains showed good test–retest reliability. The correlation of the HTN-SCP scores and patients’ reported self-management measures were significant, except for keeping their food diary. HTN-SCP showed satisfactory internal consistency and test–retest reliability in an English literate Asian population. A web-based approach is feasible if similar studies are needed to validate its translated versions of the tool for wider application in the local multilingual population. PMID:26945410

  5. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection. To prevent infection: Avoid bumping or cutting your access. DO NOT lift anything heavy with ... Check the pulse in your access arm. You should feel blood rushing through that feels like a vibration. This vibration is ...

  6. Self Care for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Trauma takes a toll on children, families, schools, and communities. Trauma can also take a toll on school professionals. Any educator who works directly with traumatized children and adolescents is vulnerable to the effects of trauma--referred to as "compassion fatigue" or "secondary traumatic stress"--being physically, mentally, or emotionally…

  7. Breastfeeding - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Small amounts of caffeine will not hurt your baby. Limit your caffeine intake. Keep your coffee or tea at 1 cup per day. If you drink larger amounts of caffeine, your baby may get agitated and have trouble ...

  8. Constipation - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... beans, chickpeas, soybeans, and lentils), peanuts, walnuts, and almonds will also add fiber to your diet. Other ... at bedtime. You can mix powder laxatives with milk or fruit juice to make them taste better. ...

  9. Vaginitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 543. Eckert LO, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract: vulva, vagina, ... toxic shock syndrome,endometritis, and salpingitis. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive ...

  10. Self care integrative treatment demonstrated in rural community setting improves health related quality of life of lymphatic filariasis patients in endemic villages.

    PubMed

    Aggithaya, Madhur Guruprasad; Narahari, Saravu R; Vayalil, Sudha; Shefuvan, Mohammed; Jacob, Neethu K; Sushma, Kandathu Valappil

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed impact of community based self care integrative treatment provided through mass camps in villages of three districts of Kerala, India endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Two most endemic Primary Health centres (PHCs) were selected from each of the three districts, where maximum concentration of LF patients is recorded. Fourteen one day LF camps, each attended by 30-40 patients were conducted. Trained Accredited Social Health Activists encouraged LF patients to attend camps. Skin wash and drying, care of bacterial entry points using dermatology drugs, and simple yoga and breathing exercises were demonstrated in these camps. Patients were advised to continue these self care activities daily at home for six months. The quality of life (QoL) of LF patients was determined for Indian life style domains using validated and pretested specific questionnaire (LF-specific QoL questionnaire-LFSQQ). It addressed conditions and state of individuals with reference to LF. The questionnaire had 7 domains and each domain consisted of a series of questions with likert scale (no problem, mild, moderate, severe, most severe). 446 patients attended one day camps to get training on integrative self care treatment. 425 patients (95.3%) were followed up after six months and QoL was reassessed. Each patient's QoL in mobility, self care, usual activity, pain and discomfort and social relationship significantly improved (P value <0.01). Psychological health showed no significant change. The disease burden, for the purpose of the study was measured by asking questions about history of painful redness, swelling and cellulitis of legs (filarial fever), foul smell (odor), itching (eczema/discharge from limb), wound (non healing ulcer) and weight/size of the limb. The difference in disease burden as recorded during the sixth month follow up was measured using dependent t test, reduced significantly (P value <0.01) in 409 (96.2%) patients. 103 (24.2%) patients experienced fever during follow up. Severity of inflammatory episodes reduced from severe problem to no problem, after six months of home based self care. There was significant relation between treatment regularity and QoL status (P value=0.003). The community based one day camps that trained LF patients on skin care and daily yoga and breathing practices improved QoL. PMID:23499714

  11. A Modified User-Oriented Heuristic Evaluation of a Mobile Health System for Diabetes Self-management Support

    PubMed Central

    Georgsson, Mattias; Staggers, Nancy; Weir, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health platforms offer significant opportunities for improving diabetic self-care, but only if adequate usability exists. Expert evaluations such as heuristic evaluation can provide distinct usability information about systems. The purpose of this study was to complete a usability evaluation of a mobile health system for diabetes patients using a modified heuristic evaluation technique of (1) dual-domain experts (healthcare professionals, usability experts), (2) validated scenarios and user tasks related to patients’ self-care, and (3) in-depth severity factor ratings. Experts identified 129 usability problems with 274 heuristic violations for the system. The categories Consistency and Standards dominated at 24.1% (n = 66), followed by Match Between System and Real World at 22.3% (n = 61). Average severity ratings across system views were 2.8 (of 4), with 9.3% (n = 12) rated as catastrophic and 53.5% (n = 69) as major. The large volume of violations with severe ratings indicated clear priorities for redesign. The modified heuristic approach allowed evaluators to identify unique and important issues, including ones related to self-management and patient safety. This article provides a template for one type of expert evaluation adding to the informaticists’ toolbox when needing to conduct a fast, resource-efficient and user-oriented heuristic evaluation. PMID:26657618

  12. A Modified User-Oriented Heuristic Evaluation of a Mobile Health System for Diabetes Self-management Support.

    PubMed

    Georgsson, Mattias; Staggers, Nancy; Weir, Charlene

    2016-02-01

    Mobile health platforms offer significant opportunities for improving diabetic self-care, but only if adequate usability exists. Expert evaluations such as heuristic evaluation can provide distinct usability information about systems. The purpose of this study was to complete a usability evaluation of a mobile health system for diabetes patients using a modified heuristic evaluation technique of (1) dual-domain experts (healthcare professionals, usability experts), (2) validated scenarios and user tasks related to patients' self-care, and (3) in-depth severity factor ratings. Experts identified 129 usability problems with 274 heuristic violations for the system. The categories Consistency and Standards dominated at 24.1% (n = 66), followed by Match Between System and Real World at 22.3% (n = 61). Average severity ratings across system views were 2.8 (of 4), with 9.3% (n = 12) rated as catastrophic and 53.5% (n = 69) as major. The large volume of violations with severe ratings indicated clear priorities for redesign. The modified heuristic approach allowed evaluators to identify unique and important issues, including ones related to self-management and patient safety. This article provides a template for one type of expert evaluation adding to the informaticists' toolbox when needing to conduct a fast, resource-efficient and user-oriented heuristic evaluation. PMID:26657618

  13. Effect of a Self-care Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model on Reducing Low Birth Weight Among Pregnant Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ekhtiari, Yalda Soleiman; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Shakibazadeh, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is considered as an important outcome of birth and pregnancy, which is associated with long-term consequences and health-care problems. Maternal lifestyle and health care during pregnancy are powerful predictors of BW of infants. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a self-care educational program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on reducing LBW among a sample of pregnant Iranian women. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, we recruited 270 pregnant women referred to prenatal clinics in the south of Tehran, Iran. The participants were randomly allocated to two intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group received an educational program to promote self-care behaviors during pregnancy. The control group received routine care. BW was compared between the two groups. Baseline demographic characteristics and knowledge and attitude scores before the intervention in both groups were compared using the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to control the effect of demographic variables on BW. Results: The results showed that LBW was reduced significantly in the intervention group at the follow-up measurement (5.6 vs. 13.2%, P = 0.03). After controlling for demographic characteristics, we found a significant decrease in the risk of LBW in the intervention group [odds ratio (OR): 0.333; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.88, P = 0.02]. Conclusions: Implementation of a self-care educational program designed on the basis of an HBM on pregnant women was effective in reducing the rate of LBW. PMID:24554995

  14. A Medical Student Elective Promoting Humanism, Communication Skills, Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Physician Self-Care: An Evaluation of the HEART Program

    PubMed Central

    Dossett, Michelle L.; Kohatsu, Wendy; Nunley, William; Mehta, Darshan; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Yeh, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Objective In 2002 AMSA created a fourth year medical student elective known as HEART that provided the opportunity for students to explore humanism in medicine, self-care, complementary and alternative medicine modalities, communication, activism, and community building in a four week immersion experience. The educational effects of this elective, and whether it has met its stated goals, are unknown. Method The authors conducted a web-based, cross-sectional survey of the first eight cohorts of HEART graduates in 2010. Survey questions assessed respondents’ demographics and perspectives on the educational impact of the elective. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and qualitative analyses were guided by grounded theory. Results Of 168 eligible alumni, 122 (73%), completed the survey. The majority were female (70%), age ≤35 (77%), and trained in primary care specialties (66%). Half were attendings in practice. The majority of respondents felt the elective taught professionalism (89%) and communication skills (92%) well or very well. The majority highly agreed that the elective helped them better cope with stress during residency training (80%), taught them self-care skills (75%), and improved their ability to empathize and connect with patients (71%). Qualitative analysis of the personal and professional impact of the elective identified twelve common themes with self-discovery, self-care, and collegial development/community most frequently cited. Conclusions The majority of HEART graduates endorse learning important skills and benefiting from the experience both personally and professionally. Aspects of the HEART curriculum may help training programs teach professionalism and improve trainee well-being. PMID:24021470

  15. Development, validation and psychometric analysis of the diabetic foot self-care questionnaire of the University of Malaga, Spain (DFSQ-UMA).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Flores, Emmanuel; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Cervera-Marín, José Antonio; Labajos-Manzanares, María Teresa; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    This paper assessed the reliability and construct validity of a tool to evaluate the foot self-care of diabetic patients. The education of diabetic patients about their foot care is a major issue to avoid complications like amputations and ulcers. Specific tools aimed to assess patient's knowledge in this area are needed. The study had two phases: in Phase 1, item-generation was carried out through a literature review, expert review by a Delphi technique and cognitive interviews with diabetic patients for testing readability and comprehension. In Phase 2, diabetic patients participated in a cross-sectional study for a psychometric evaluation (reliability and construct validity) was carried out on a sample of type I and II diabetic patients. The study was conducted at the University of Malaga (Spain), podiatric clinics and a Diabetic Foot Unit between October 2012 and March 2013. After psychometric-test analyses on a sample of 209 diabetic patients, the questionnaire resulted in 16 questions. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 after removing 4 items because of their low reliability. Inter-item correlations gave a mean value of 0.34 (range: 0.06-0.74). The rotated solution showed a 3-factor structure (self-care, foot care, and footwear and socks) that jointly accounted for 60.88% of the variance observed. The correlation between the questionnaire scores and HbA1c was significant and inverse, (r = -0.15; p < 0.01). The findings show that the questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating foot self-care behavior in diabetic patients. PMID:25523014

  16. How does gender influence the recognition of cardiovascular risk and adherence to self-care recommendations?: a study in polish primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown a correlation between gender and an ability to change lifestyle to reduce the risk of disease. However, the results of these studies are ambiguous, especially where a healthy lifestyle is concerned. Additionally, health behaviors are strongly modified by culture and the environment. Psychological factors also substantially affect engagement with disease-related lifestyle interventions. This study aimed to examine whether there are differences between men and women in the frequency of health care behavior for the purpose of reducing cardiovascular risk (CVR), as well as cognitive appraisal of this type of risk. We also aimed to identify the psychological predictors of engaging in recommended behavior for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease after providing information about this risk in men and women. Methods A total of 134 consecutive eligible patients in a family practice entered a longitudinal study. At initial consultation, the individual’s CVR and associated health burden was examined, and preventive measures were recommended by the physician. Self-care behavior, cognitive appraisal of risk, and coping styles were then assessed using psychological questionnaires. Six months after the initial data collection, the frequency of subjects’ self-care behavior was examined. Results We found an increase in health care behavior after providing information regarding the rate of CVR in both sexes; this increase was greater for women than for men. Women followed self-care guidelines more often than men, particularly for preventive measures and dietary advice. Women were more inclined to recognize their CVR as a challenge. Coping style, cognitive appraisal, age, level of health behaviors at baseline and CVR values accounted for 48% of the variance in adherence to self-care guidelines in women and it was 52% in men. In women, total risk of CVD values were most important, while in men, cognitive appraisal of harm/loss was most important. Conclusions Different predictors of acquisition of health behavior are encountered in men and women. Our results suggest that gender-adjusted motivation models influencing the recognition process need to be considered to optimize compliance in patients with CVR. PMID:24175983

  17. Virtual Averaging Making Nonframe-Averaged Optical Coherence Tomography Images Comparable to Frame-Averaged Images

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Developing a novel image enhancement method so that nonframe-averaged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images become comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Methods Twenty-one eyes of 21 healthy volunteers were scanned with noneye-tracking nonframe-averaged OCT device and active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT device. Virtual averaging was applied to nonframe-averaged images with voxel resampling and adding amplitude deviation with 15-time repetitions. Signal-to-noise (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), and the distance between the end of visible nasal retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the foveola were assessed to evaluate the image enhancement effect and retinal layer visibility. Retinal thicknesses before and after processing were also measured. Results All virtual-averaged nonframe-averaged images showed notable improvement and clear resemblance to active eye-tracking frame-averaged images. Signal-to-noise and CNR were significantly improved (SNR: 30.5 vs. 47.6 dB, CNR: 4.4 vs. 6.4 dB, original versus processed, P < 0.0001, paired t-test). The distance between the end of visible nasal RNFL and the foveola was significantly different before (681.4 vs. 446.5 μm, Cirrus versus Spectralis, P < 0.0001) but not after processing (442.9 vs. 446.5 μm, P = 0.76). Sectoral macular total retinal and circumpapillary RNFL thicknesses showed systematic differences between Cirrus and Spectralis that became not significant after processing. Conclusion The virtual averaging method successfully improved nontracking nonframe-averaged OCT image quality and made the images comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Translational Relevance Virtual averaging may enable detailed retinal structure studies on images acquired using a mixture of nonframe-averaged and frame-averaged OCT devices without concerning about systematic differences in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. PMID:26835180

  18. Supporting Self-Care for Families of Children With Eczema With a Web-Based Intervention Plus Health Care Professional Support: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Ingrid; Yardley, Lucy; Burgess, Hana; Selinger, Hannah; Stuart, Beth L; Little, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood eczema, or childhood atopic dermatitis, causes significant distress to children and their families through sleep disturbance and itch. The main cause of treatment failure is nonuse of prescribed treatments. Objective The objective of this study was to develop and test a Web-based intervention to support families of children with eczema, and to explore whether support from a health care professional (HCP) is necessary to engage participants with the intervention. Methods We followed the PRECEDE-PROCEED model: regular emollient use was the target behavior we were seeking to promote and we identified potential techniques to influence this. LifeGuide software was used to write the intervention website. Carers of children with eczema were invited through primary care mail-out and randomized to 3 groups: (1) website only, (2) website plus HCP support, or (3) usual care. Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) scores were measured online by carer report at baseline and at 12 weeks. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 13 HCPs (primarily practice nurses) and 26 participants to explore their experiences of taking part in the study. Results A total of 143 carers were recruited through 31 practices. We found a decrease of ≥2 in follow-up compared with baseline POEM score in 23 of 42 (55%) participants in the website only group, 16 of 49 (33%) in the usual care group, and 18 of 47 (38%) in the website plus HCP group. Website use data showed that 75 of 93 (81%) participants allocated to the website groups completed the core modules, but less than half used other key components (videos: 35%; regular text reminders: 39%). There were no consistent differences in website use between the website only or the website plus HCP groups. Qualitative feedback showed that most HCPs had initial concerns about providing support for eczema self-care because this was not a condition that they felt expert in. However, HCPs reported productive consultations and that they found it helpful to use the website in consultations, while observing that some participants seemed to need more support than others. Qualitative interviews with participants suggested that HCP support was valued highly only by a minority, generally those who were less confident in their management of eczema or less confident using the Internet. Conclusions Our pilot trial demonstrated the potential for greater improvements in POEM scores in both website intervention groups and that a full-scale trial is feasible. Such a trial would quantify the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this intervention to determine whether it should be widely promoted to families of children with newly diagnosed eczema. In this study population, HCP support was not strongly valued by participants and did not lead to better outcomes or website use than use of the Web-based intervention alone. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 98560867; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN98560867 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NcxvMtgN). PMID:24594972

  19. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  20. Self-care practice and glycaemic control amongst adults with diabetes at the Jimma University Specialized Hospital in south-west Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Endalew; Mariam, Wudineh H.; Belachew, Tefera

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The main goal in diabetes care is to improve the patient's quality of life, to maintain satisfactory metabolic control and to retain minimal complications caused by diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, this study has assessed self-care practice and glycaemic control amongst adults with diabetes mellitus. Setting A facility-based study amongst the diabetic follow-up clinic at Jimma University Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from 01 April to 30 April 30 2010. A total of 343 diabetic patients were selected using a systematic sampling method. The data were collected by structured questionnaires and a medical card review; anthropometric measurement was done by trained nurses. Results The study showed that 53% of the respondents had diabetes related knowledge. The study also found that 64% of the respondents were physically less active, and 17% of the respondents were walking on foot for less than 30 minutes per a day. Only 18.1% of the respondents were able to control their Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) to level below 126 mg/dL. Conclusion The present study illustrates that the level of knowledge about diabetes and self-care practices amongst diabetic patients were meager. In addition, it showed that respondents’ level of physical activity, their educational status, and the dose of oral hypoglycaemic agents taken by the respondents significantly affected glycaemic control.

  1. High average power pockels cell

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  2. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  3. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  4. Stimulating Healthy Aging with a Model Nurse-Managed Free Clinic in a Senior Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ruth H.

    As part of a Geriatric Education and Health Management program, a model nurse-managed free clinic has been established at an urban senior center by faculty and students of the University of New Mexico College of Nursing. Funded by a 3-year grant from the Department of Health and Human Services, the weekly clinic is based on Orem's self-care theory…

  5. Vibrational averages along thermal lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed for the calculation of vibrational quantum and thermal expectation values of physical properties from first principles. Thermal lines are introduced: these are lines in configuration space parametrized by temperature, such that the value of any physical property along them is approximately equal to the vibrational average of that property. The number of sampling points needed to explore the vibrational phase space is reduced by up to an order of magnitude when the full vibrational density is replaced by thermal lines. Calculations of the vibrational averages of several properties and systems are reported, namely, the internal energy and the electronic band gap of diamond and silicon, and the chemical shielding tensor of L-alanine. Thermal lines pave the way for complex calculations of vibrational averages, including large systems and methods beyond semilocal density functional theory.

  6. On generalized averaged Gaussian formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalevic, Miodrag M.

    2007-09-01

    We present a simple numerical method for constructing the optimal (generalized) averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas which are the optimal stratified extensions of Gauss quadrature formulas. These extensions exist in many cases in which real positive Kronrod formulas do not exist. For the Jacobi weight functions w(x)equiv w^{(alpha,beta)}(x)D(1-x)^alpha(1+x)^beta ( alpha,beta>-1 ) we give a necessary and sufficient condition on the parameters alpha and beta such that the optimal averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas are internal.

  7. Home visits in brain tumor patient: how nurse and family members cooperate in tumor patient’s family self-care

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhiyue

    2013-01-01

    Purposes We reported the roles and functions of nurses in home visits for brain tumor patients using the family health assessment guide in the study. Methods One patient of brain glioma was chosen as the case illustration. The nurses assessed the patients’ situation, their families and living environment individually. All these factors were analyzed together. Results The nurses then implemented their knowledge and skills to adopt different measures in different conditions, investigated the patients’ health problems and carried out personalized effective actions. Conclusions Nurses should put effort into community nursing to allow patients to live in a safe environment, to satisfy the health needs of human being and their needs for health knowledge, and enhance their self-care abilities. PMID:24385701

  8. The patient work system: An analysis of self-care performance barriers among elderly heart failure patients and their informal caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.; Schubert, Christiane C.; Mickelson, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics approaches have been successfully applied to study and improve the work performance of healthcare professionals. However, there has been relatively little work in “patient-engaged human factors,” or the application of human factors to the health-related work of patients and other nonprofessionals. This study applied a foundational human factors tool, the systems model, to investigate the barriers to self-care performance among chronically ill elderly patients and their informal (family) caregivers. A Patient Work System model was developed to guide the collection and analysis of interviews, surveys, and observations of patients with heart failure (n=30) and their informal caregivers (n=14). Iterative analyses revealed the nature and prevalence of self-care barriers across components of the Patient Work System. Person-related barriers were common and stemmed from patients’ biomedical conditions, limitations, knowledge deficits, preferences, and perceptions as well as the characteristics of informal caregivers and healthcare professionals. Task barriers were also highly prevalent and included task difficulty, timing, complexity, ambiguity, conflict, and undesirable consequences. Tool barriers were related to both availability and access of tools and technologies and their design, usability, and impact. Context barriers were found across three domains—physical-spatial, social-cultural, and organizational—and multiple “spaces” such as “at home,” “on the go,” and “in the community.” Barriers often stemmed not from single factors but from the interaction of several work system components. Study findings suggest the need to further explore multiple actors, context, and interactions in the patient work system during research and intervention design, as well as the need to develop new models and measures for studying patient and family work. PMID:25479983

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes and Self-care Practices associated with Glaucoma among Hospital Personnel in a Tertiary Care Center in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Shibal; Kataria, Manisha; Topiwala, Prateek

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the level of correct knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes toward blindness prevention and treatment and how these factors influence self-care practices among hospital personnel. Methods: In this tertiary hospital based, cross-sectional study, a random sample of 119 staff members including 23 physicians (nonophthalmologists) and 96 nursing staff were administered a self-designed knowledge, attitudes, practice (KAP) questionnaire about glaucoma. Results: All 119 personnel [34 (28.57%) males; 85 (71.42%) females] were aware of glaucoma. Most physicians (80.76%) and nurses (65.26%) understood that glaucoma was associated with a high intraocular pressure and had an effect on the optic nerve. Twenty-four percent of physicians and nurses did not know that it is important for family members of glaucoma patients to be more concerned about getting the disease. As regards ‘treatment priority’ between cataract, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy; 76.91% physicians and 60% nurses placed glaucoma first. Out of total blindness, stroke or paralysis, cancer, schizophrenia and heart disease, blindness prevention was first priority for 9 (34.60%) physicians and 15 (15.78%) nurses. A recent visit to an eye practitioner (p = 0.012) was a significant predictor of knowledge of glaucoma as a blinding disease. Conclusion: Educating hospital workers on the symptoms of glaucoma and visual impairment can be an important step toward preventive ophthalmic care. How to cite this article: Ichhpujani P, Bhartiya S, Kataria M, Topiwala P. Knowledge, Attitudes and Self-care Practices associated with Glaucoma among Hospital Personnel in a Tertiary Care Center in North India. J Current Glau Prac 2012;6(3):108-112.

  10. The patient work system: an analysis of self-care performance barriers among elderly heart failure patients and their informal caregivers.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Schubert, Christiane C; Mickelson, Robin S

    2015-03-01

    Human factors and ergonomics approaches have been successfully applied to study and improve the work performance of healthcare professionals. However, there has been relatively little work in "patient-engaged human factors," or the application of human factors to the health-related work of patients and other nonprofessionals. This study applied a foundational human factors tool, the systems model, to investigate the barriers to self-care performance among chronically ill elderly patients and their informal (family) caregivers. A Patient Work System model was developed to guide the collection and analysis of interviews, surveys, and observations of patients with heart failure (n = 30) and their informal caregivers (n = 14). Iterative analyses revealed the nature and prevalence of self-care barriers across components of the Patient Work System. Person-related barriers were common and stemmed from patients' biomedical conditions, limitations, knowledge deficits, preferences, and perceptions as well as the characteristics of informal caregivers and healthcare professionals. Task barriers were also highly prevalent and included task difficulty, timing, complexity, ambiguity, conflict, and undesirable consequences. Tool barriers were related to both availability and access of tools and technologies and their design, usability, and impact. Context barriers were found across three domains-physical-spatial, social-cultural, and organizational-and multiple "spaces" such as "at home," "on the go," and "in the community." Barriers often stemmed not from single factors but from the interaction of several work system components. Study findings suggest the need to further explore multiple actors, contexts, and interactions in the patient work system during research and intervention design, as well as the need to develop new models and measures for studying patient and family work. PMID:25479983

  11. Averaging facial expression over time

    PubMed Central

    Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time. PMID:20053064

  12. Exact averaging of laminar dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnakar, Ram R.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

    2011-02-01

    We use the Liapunov-Schmidt (LS) technique of bifurcation theory to derive a low-dimensional model for laminar dispersion of a nonreactive solute in a tube. The LS formalism leads to an exact averaged model, consisting of the governing equation for the cross-section averaged concentration, along with the initial and inlet conditions, to all orders in the transverse diffusion time. We use the averaged model to analyze the temporal evolution of the spatial moments of the solute and show that they do not have the centroid displacement or variance deficit predicted by the coarse-grained models derived by other methods. We also present a detailed analysis of the first three spatial moments for short and long times as a function of the radial Peclet number and identify three clearly defined time intervals for the evolution of the solute concentration profile. By examining the skewness in some detail, we show that the skewness increases initially, attains a maximum for time scales of the order of transverse diffusion time, and the solute concentration profile never attains the Gaussian shape at any finite time. Finally, we reason that there is a fundamental physical inconsistency in representing laminar (Taylor) dispersion phenomena using truncated averaged models in terms of a single cross-section averaged concentration and its large scale gradient. Our approach evaluates the dispersion flux using a local gradient between the dominant diffusive and convective modes. We present and analyze a truncated regularized hyperbolic model in terms of the cup-mixing concentration for the classical Taylor-Aris dispersion that has a larger domain of validity compared to the traditional parabolic model. By analyzing the temporal moments, we show that the hyperbolic model has no physical inconsistencies that are associated with the parabolic model and can describe the dispersion process to first order accuracy in the transverse diffusion time.

  13. Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-Care: Results from the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect

  14. Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-Care: Results from the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect…

  15. Case Study of American Healthways' Diabetes Disease Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Pope, James E.; Hudson, Laurel R.; Orr, Patty M.

    2005-01-01

    Disease management has been defined as a system of coordinated health care interventions and communications for populations with conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant (Disease Management Association of America, 2005). The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the diabetes disease management program offered by American Healthways (AMHC) and highlight recently reported results of this program (Villagra, 2004a; Espinet et al., 2005). PMID:17288077

  16. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-04-15

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  17. Model averaging in linkage analysis.

    PubMed

    Matthysse, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Methods for genetic linkage analysis are traditionally divided into "model-dependent" and "model-independent," but there may be a useful place for an intermediate class, in which a broad range of possible models is considered as a parametric family. It is possible to average over model space with an empirical Bayes prior that weights models according to their goodness of fit to epidemiologic data, such as the frequency of the disease in the population and in first-degree relatives (and correlations with other traits in the pleiotropic case). For averaging over high-dimensional spaces, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) has great appeal, but it has a near-fatal flaw: it is not possible, in most cases, to provide rigorous sufficient conditions to permit the user safely to conclude that the chain has converged. A way of overcoming the convergence problem, if not of solving it, rests on a simple application of the principle of detailed balance. If the starting point of the chain has the equilibrium distribution, so will every subsequent point. The first point is chosen according to the target distribution by rejection sampling, and subsequent points by an MCMC process that has the target distribution as its equilibrium distribution. Model averaging with an empirical Bayes prior requires rapid estimation of likelihoods at many points in parameter space. Symbolic polynomials are constructed before the random walk over parameter space begins, to make the actual likelihood computations at each step of the random walk very fast. Power analysis in an illustrative case is described. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:16652369

  18. Ensemble averaging of acoustic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program called Ensemble Averaging of Acoustic Data is documented. The program samples analog data, analyzes the data, and displays them in the time and frequency domains. Hard copies of the displays are the program's output. The documentation includes a description of the program and detailed user instructions for the program. This software was developed for use on the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel's Dynamic Analysis System consisting of a PDP-11/45 computer, two RK05 disk drives, a tektronix 611 keyboard/display terminal, and FPE-4 Fourier Processing Element, and an analog-to-digital converter.

  19. KinoHaptics: An Automated, Wearable, Haptic Assisted, Physio-therapeutic System for Post-surgery Rehabilitation and Self-care.

    PubMed

    Rajanna, Vijay; Vo, Patrick; Barth, Jerry; Mjelde, Matthew; Grey, Trevor; Oduola, Cassandra; Hammond, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    A carefully planned, structured, and supervised physiotherapy program, following a surgery, is crucial for the successful diagnosis of physical injuries. Nearly 50 % of the surgeries fail due to unsupervised, and erroneous physiotherapy. The demand for a physiotherapist for an extended period is expensive to afford, and sometimes inaccessible. Researchers have tried to leverage the advancements in wearable sensors and motion tracking by building affordable, automated, physio-therapeutic systems that direct a physiotherapy session by providing audio-visual feedback on patient's performance. There are many aspects of automated physiotherapy program which are yet to be addressed by the existing systems: a wide classification of patients' physiological conditions to be diagnosed, multiple demographics of the patients (blind, deaf, etc.), and the need to pursue patients to adopt the system for an extended period for self-care. In our research, we have tried to address these aspects by building a health behavior change support system called KinoHaptics, for post-surgery rehabilitation. KinoHaptics is an automated, wearable, haptic assisted, physio-therapeutic system that can be used by a wide variety of demographics and for various physiological conditions of the patients. The system provides rich and accurate vibro-haptic feedback that can be felt by the user, irrespective of the physiological limitations. KinoHaptics is built to ensure that no injuries are induced during the rehabilitation period. The persuasive nature of the system allows for personal goal-setting, progress tracking, and most importantly life-style compatibility. The system was evaluated under laboratory conditions, involving 14 users. Results show that KinoHaptics is highly convenient to use, and the vibro-haptic feedback is intuitive, accurate, and has shown to prevent accidental injuries. Also, results show that KinoHaptics is persuasive in nature as it supports behavior change and habit building. The successful acceptance of KinoHaptics, an automated, wearable, haptic assisted, physio-therapeutic system proves the need and future-scope of automated physio-therapeutic systems for self-care and behavior change. It also proves that such systems incorporated with vibro-haptic feedback encourage strong adherence to the physiotherapy program; can have profound impact on the physiotherapy experience resulting in higher acceptance rate. PMID:26660691

  20. Attention shifts and memory averaging.

    PubMed

    Kerzel, Dirk

    2002-04-01

    When observers are asked to localize the final position of a moving stimulus, judgements may be influenced by additional elements that are presented in the visual scene. Typically, judgements arc biased toward a salient non-target element. It has been assumed that the non-target element acts as a landmark and attracts the remembered final target position. The present study investigated the effects of briefly flashed non-target elements on localization performance. Similar to landmark attraction, localization was biased toward these elements. However, an influence was only noted if the distractor was presented at the time of target disappearance or briefly thereafter. It is suggested that memory traces of distracting elements are only averaged with the final target position if they are highly activated at the time the target vanishes. PMID:12047052

  1. Achronal averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D.

    2007-09-15

    The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

  2. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  3. Toward a Middle-Range Theory of Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Stephanie; Peters, Rosalind M; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2014-06-19

    The authors of this paper present the middle-range theory of weight management that focuses on cultural, environmental, and psychosocial factors that influence behaviors needed for weight control. The theory of weight management was developed deductively from Orem's theory of self-care, a constituent theory within the broader self-care deficit nursing theory and from research literature. Linkages between the conceptual and middle-range theory concepts are illustrated using a substruction model. The development of the theory of weight management serves to build nursing science by integrating extant nursing theory and empirical knowledge. This theory may help predict weight management in populations at risk for obesity-related disorders. PMID:24951526

  4. Social recovery and the move beyond deficit models of depression: a feminist analysis of mid-life women's self-care practices.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Simone; O'Brien, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    In Australia, like other advanced liberal democracies, the adoption of a recovery orientation was hailed as a major leap forward in mental health policy and service provision. We argue that this shift in thinking about the meaning of recovery requires further analysis of the gendered dimension of self-identity and relationships with the social world. In this article we focus on how mid-life women constructed meaning about recovery through their everyday practices of self-care within the gendered context of depression. Findings from our qualitative research with 31 mid-life women identified how the recovery process was complicated by relapses into depression, with many women critically questioning the limitations of biomedical treatment options for a more relational understanding of recovery. Participant stories revealed important tacit knowledge about recovery that emphasised the process of realising and recognising capacities and self-knowledge. We identify two central themes through which women's tacit knowledge of this changing relation to self in recovery is made explicit: the disciplined self of normalised recovery, redefining recovery and depression. The findings point to the need to reconsider how both recovery discourses and gendered expectations can complicate women's experiences of moving through depression. We argue for a different conceptualisation of recovery as a social practice through which women realise opportunities to embody different 'beings and doings'. A gendered understanding of what women themselves identify is important to their well-being, can contribute to more effective recovery oriented policies based on capability rather than deficit. PMID:25063967

  5. A pilot study to test psychophonetics methodology for self-care and empathy in compassion fatigue, burnout and secondary traumatic stress

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Home-based care is recognised as being a stressful occupation. Practitioners working with patients experiencing high levels of trauma may be susceptible to compassion fatigue, with the sustained need to remain empathic being a contributing factor. Objectives The aim of this research was to evaluate psychophonetics methodology for self-care and empathy skills as an intervention for compassion fatigue. Objectives were to measure levels of compassion fatigue pre-intervention, then to apply the intervention and retest levels one month and six months post-intervention. Method The research applied a pilot test of a developed intervention as a quasi-experiment. The study sample comprised home-based carers working with HIV-positive patients at a hospice in Grabouw, a settlement in the Western Cape facing socioeconomic challenge. Results The result of the pilot study showed a statistically-significant improvement in secondary traumatic stress, a component of compassion fatigue, measured with the ProQOL v5 instrument post-intervention. Conclusion The results gave adequate indication for the implementation of a larger study in order to apply and test the intervention. The study highlights a dire need for further research in this field.

  6. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2002-01-01

    In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

  7. A Survey of Self-Management and Intrusiveness of Illness in Native Americans with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ann F.; Page, Evaren E.; Norris, Ann I.; Kim, Sue E.; Thompson, David M.; Roswell, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has emerged as an important focus of national public health efforts because of the rapid increase in the burden of this disease. In particular, DM disproportionately affects Native Americans. Adequate management of DM requires that patients participate as active partners in their own care and much of patient activation and empowerment can be attributed to their experience with DM and self-care. That is, the degree to which the patient feels the disease intrudes on his or her daily life would impact the motivation for self-care. We conducted a study in collaboration with 2 tribal nations in Oklahoma, collecting data on survey questions regarding intrusiveness of illness and self-management behaviors from a sample of 159 members of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations. Previously validated variables measuring intrusiveness of illness and self-care were included in the survey. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses illustrated the distribution of these variables and identified possible tribal and gender differences. Our findings showed that our sample adjusted well to DM and in general exhibited high compliance to self-care. However, our findings also revealed striking gender differences where female respondents were better adjusted to their disease, whereas male respondents reported higher adherence to self-management. Findings from our study, particularly those that describe tribal differences and gender disparities, can inform strategies for case management and patient interactions with providers and the health care system. PMID:26294898

  8. Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…

  9. Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt

  10. Engagement with Automated Patient Monitoring and Self-Management Support Calls: Experience with a Thousand Chronically-Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Rosland, Ann-Marie; Marinec, Nicolle Stec; Striplin, Dana; Bernstein, Steven J.; Silveira, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient self-care support via Interactive Voice Response (IVR) can improve disease management. However little is known about the factors affecting program engagement. Methods We compiled data on IVR program engagement for 1,173 patients with: heart failure, depression, diabetes, and cancer who were followed for 28,962 person-weeks. Patients in programs for diabetes or depression (N=727) had the option of participating along with an informal caregiver who received electronic feedback based on the patient’s IVR assessments. Analyses focused on factors associated with completing weekly IVR calls. Results Patients were on average 61 years old, 37% had at most a high school education, and 48% reported incomes < $30,000. Among patients given the option of participating with an informal caregiver, 65% chose to do so. Patients completed 83% of attempted IVR assessments, with rates higher for heart failure (90%) and cancer programs (90%) than for the diabetes (81%) or depression programs (71%) (p<0.001). Among patients in diabetes or depression programs, those opting to have feedback provided to an informal caregiver were more likely to complete assessments (adjusted odds ratio: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.75). Older patients had higher call completion rates, even among patients > 75 years of age. Missed clinic appointments, prior hospitalizations, depression program participation, and poorer mental health were associated with lower completion rates. Conclusions Patients with a variety of chronic conditions will complete IVR self-care support calls regularly. Risk factors for missed IVR calls overlap with those for missed appointments. Involvement of informal caregivers may significantly increase engagement. PMID:23222527

  11. Effectiveness of the Smart Care Service for Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-Soon; Lee, Chang Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Smart Care service for the diabetes management. Methods Fifty-six patients with diabetes mellitus were recruited in Daegu, Korea. All participants completed a diabetes management education course (diet, exercise, and complications) for their self-care and received access to a care management website through a netbook and smartphone. The website accepts uploads of glucose level, body weight, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and blood pressure. Participants communicated with the care manager through the internal management system of the website. The intervention was applied for 6 months. Results Participants receiving the Smart Care service had lower blood glucose and HbA1c during 6 months follow-up when 1-month values (p < 0.001) were compared. There was no significant difference in body weight and body mass index between 1 month and 6 months. The average number of remote consultation with the Smart Care service per person was 10.4 by nurses, 3.0 by nutritionists, and 1.6 by sports curers. Regression analysis indicated that the number of times counseling was offered by nurses influences body weight and that the number of minutes of telephone counseling influences both body weight and body mass index. Conclusions We have confirmed that the Smart Care service might be an effective system for reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c. We expect that the Smart Care service will contribute to delaying diabetes complications and improving the quality of life of patients with diabetes. PMID:25405065

  12. Parvalbumin Cell Ablation of NMDA-R1 Causes Increased Resting Network Excitability with Associated Social and Self-Care Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Billingslea, Eddie N; Tatard-Leitman, Valerie M; Anguiano, Jaynie; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Suh, Jimmy; Saunders, John A; Morita, Susumu; Featherstone, Robert E; Ortinski, Pavel I; Gandal, Michael J; Lin, Robert; Liang, Yuling; Gur, Raquel E; Carlson, Gregory C; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Siegel, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that net excitation propagated by impaired NMDAR signaling on GABAergic interneurons may be of particular interest in mediating several aspects of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which behavioral domains are governed by a net increase of excitation and whether modulating downstream GABAergic signaling can reverse neural and thus behavioral deficits. The current study determines the selective contributions of NMDAR dysfunction on PV-containing interneurons to electrophysiological, cognitive, and negative-symptom-related behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia using mice with a PVcre-NR1flox-driven ablation of NR1 on PV-containing interneurons. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of one agent that directly modulates GABAergic signaling (baclofen) and one agent that indirectly modifies NMDAR-mediated signaling through antagonism of mGluR5 receptors (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP)). The data indicate that loss of NMDAR function on PV interneurons impairs self-care and sociability while increasing N1 latency and baseline gamma power, and reducing induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation. Baclofen normalized baseline gamma power without corresponding effects on behavior. MPEP further increased N1 latency and reduced social behavior in PVcre/NR1+/+ mice. These two indices were negatively correlated before and following MPEP such that as N1 latency increases, sociability decreases. This finding suggests a predictive role for N1 latency with respect to social function. Although previous data suggest that MPEP may be beneficial for core features of autism spectrum disorders, current data suggest that such effects require intact function of NMDAR on PV interneurons. PMID:24525709

  13. Going mobile with diabetes support: a randomized study of a text message-based personalized behavioral intervention for type 2 diabetes self-care.

    PubMed

    Capozza, Korey; Woolsey, Sarah; Georgsson, Mattias; Black, Jeff; Bello, Nelly; Lence, Clare; Oostema, Steve; North, Christie

    2015-05-01

    Objective. Patients with type 2 diabetes often fail to achieve self-management goals. This study tested the impact on glycemic control of a two-way text messaging program that provided behavioral coaching, education, and testing reminders to enrolled individuals with type 2 diabetes in the context of a clinic-based quality improvement initiative. The secondary aim examined patient interaction and satisfaction with the program. Methods. Ninety-three adult patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (A1C >8%) were recruited from 18 primary care clinics in three counties for a 6-month study. Patients were randomized by a computer to one of two arms. Patients in both groups continued with their usual care; patients assigned to the intervention arm also received from one to seven diabetes-related text messages per day depending on the choices they made at enrollment. At 90 and 180 days, A1C data were obtained from the electronic health record and analyzed to determine changes from baseline for both groups. An exit survey was used to assess satisfaction. Enrollment behavior and interaction data were pulled from a Web-based administrative portal maintained by the technology vendor. Results. Patients used the program in a variety of ways. Twenty-nine percent of program users demonstrated frequent engagement (texting responses at least three times per week) for a period of ≥90 days. Survey results indicate very high satisfaction with the program. Both groups' average A1C decreased from baseline, possibly reflecting a broader quality improvement effort underway in participating clinics. At 90 and 180 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of change in A1C (P >0.05). Conclusions. This study demonstrated a practical approach to implementing and monitoring a mobile health intervention for self-management support across a wide range of independent clinic practices. PMID:25987806

  14. Going Mobile With Diabetes Support: A Randomized Study of a Text Message–Based Personalized Behavioral Intervention for Type 2 Diabetes Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Woolsey, Sarah; Georgsson, Mattias; Black, Jeff; Bello, Nelly; Lence, Clare; Oostema, Steve; North, Christie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Patients with type 2 diabetes often fail to achieve self-management goals. This study tested the impact on glycemic control of a two-way text messaging program that provided behavioral coaching, education, and testing reminders to enrolled individuals with type 2 diabetes in the context of a clinic-based quality improvement initiative. The secondary aim examined patient interaction and satisfaction with the program. Methods. Ninety-three adult patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (A1C >8%) were recruited from 18 primary care clinics in three counties for a 6-month study. Patients were randomized by a computer to one of two arms. Patients in both groups continued with their usual care; patients assigned to the intervention arm also received from one to seven diabetes-related text messages per day depending on the choices they made at enrollment. At 90 and 180 days, A1C data were obtained from the electronic health record and analyzed to determine changes from baseline for both groups. An exit survey was used to assess satisfaction. Enrollment behavior and interaction data were pulled from a Web-based administrative portal maintained by the technology vendor. Results. Patients used the program in a variety of ways. Twenty-nine percent of program users demonstrated frequent engagement (texting responses at least three times per week) for a period of ≥90 days. Survey results indicate very high satisfaction with the program. Both groups’ average A1C decreased from baseline, possibly reflecting a broader quality improvement effort underway in participating clinics. At 90 and 180 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of change in A1C (P >0.05). Conclusions. This study demonstrated a practical approach to implementing and monitoring a mobile health intervention for self-management support across a wide range of independent clinic practices. PMID:25987806

  15. Venous ulcers - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Risk factors for venous ulcers include: Varicose veins History of blood clots in the legs ( deep vein thrombosis ) Leg swelling Age Being female (related to levels of the hormone progesterone) Being tall Family history of venous insufficiency ...

  16. Atopic dermatitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 5. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Atopic dermatitis, eczema, and noninfectious immunodeficiency disordersIn: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology . ...

  17. Rotator cuff - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your positions and posture during the day and night can also help relieve some of your shoulder pain: When you sleep, lie either on the side that is not in pain or on your back. Resting your painful shoulder on a couple of ...

  18. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... stones: Eat less salt. Chinese and Mexican food, tomato juice, regular canned foods, and processed foods are ... beets, leeks, summer squash, sweet potatoes, spinach, and tomato soup Drinks: tea and instant coffee Other foods: ...

  19. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... or no sleepiness or learning problems. Antihistamine nasal sprays work well for treating allergic rhinitis. They are ... They come as pills, liquids, capsules, or nasal sprays. You can buy them over-the-counter (OTC), ...

  20. Ischemic ulcers - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... ischemic wounds. Other conditions that can cause ischemic wounds include: Diabetes Diseases that cause inflammation, such as lupus High blood pressure Kidney failure Lymphedema, which causes fluid to build up in the legs Smoking

  1. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... feels rough Skin tightness, especially after bathing Itching Cracks in the skin that may bleed You can get dry skin anywhere on your body. But it commonly shows up on the hands, feet, arms, and lower legs.

  2. Prostatitis- bacterial - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    You have been diagnosed with bacterial prostatitis . This is an infection of the prostate gland. ... If you have acute prostatitis, your symptoms started quickly. You may still feel ill, with fever, chills, and flushing (skin redness). It may hurt a ...

  3. Anal itching - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods and beverages Scents or dyes in toilet paper or soap Diarrhea Hemorrhoids , which are swollen veins ... wipes, a wet washcloth, or wet unscented toilet paper. Avoid soaps with dyes or fragrances. Pat dry ...

  4. Premenstrual syndrome - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... may help. During the second half of your cycle: Eat a balanced diet that includes lots of whole grains, vegetables, and fruit. Have little or no salt or sugar. Drink plenty of fluids like water or juice. Avoid soft drinks, alcohol, or anything ...

  5. Spitting up - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... So baby's stomach cannot hold in milk. The valve at the bottom of the stomach may be too tight. So the stomach gets too full and milk comes out. Your baby may drink too much milk too fast, and take in a lot of air in the process. These air bubbles fill up ...

  6. Menopause, a Self Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria Cristina; And Others

    Written for women from the three main cultural groups in New Mexico (Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo), this pamphlet discusses the causes and symptoms, some remedies for the symptoms of menopause, and presents ideas for organizing support groups to help middle-aged women and their families deal with menopausal problems. Explanations of the

  7. Kegel exercises - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... E, Ingber MJ, et al. National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference statement: prevention of fecal and urinary incontinence in adults. Ann Intern Med . 2008;148:449-58. Epub 2008 ...

  8. Menopause, a Self Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria Cristina; And Others

    Written for women from the three main cultural groups in New Mexico (Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo), this pamphlet discusses the causes and symptoms, some remedies for the symptoms of menopause, and presents ideas for organizing support groups to help middle-aged women and their families deal with menopausal problems. Explanations of the…

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT...

  10. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP

  11. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…

  12. 40 CFR 91.1304 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Averaging. (a) A manufacturer may use averaging across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive... credits obtained through trading. (b) Beginning in model year 2004, credits used to demonstrate a zero...

  13. 40 CFR 91.1304 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Averaging. (a) A manufacturer may use averaging across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive... credits obtained through trading. (b) Beginning in model year 2004, credits used to demonstrate a zero...

  14. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  15. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  16. RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

    2009-05-04

    RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

  17. Designing Digital Control Systems With Averaged Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Beale, Guy O.

    1990-01-01

    Rational criteria represent improvement over "cut-and-try" approach. Recent development in theory of control systems yields improvements in mathematical modeling and design of digital feedback controllers using time-averaged measurements. By using one of new formulations for systems with time-averaged measurements, designer takes averaging effect into account when modeling plant, eliminating need to iterate design and simulation phases.

  18. Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

  19. Managing venous leg ulcers and oedema using compression hosiery.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Joy

    2015-10-21

    Increasing demand for services and rising costs in the NHS have resulted in reduced consultation times and resources for clinicians when treating patients with compression therapy. This article emphasises the importance of considering alternative treatment approaches, while encouraging patient choice, independence and self-care. One alternative treatment is the use of compression hosiery kits for the management of venous leg ulceration and oedema. PMID:26488996

  20. Assessing self-care and social function using a computer adaptive testing version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory Accepted for Publication, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Coster, Wendy J.; Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine score agreement, validity, precision, and response burden of a prototype computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Self-Care and Social Function scales of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) compared to the full-length version of these scales. Design Computer simulation analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal retrospective data; cross-sectional prospective study. Settings Pediatric rehabilitation hospital, including inpatient acute rehabilitation, day school program, outpatient clinics; community-based day care, preschool, and children’s homes. Participants Four hundred sixty-nine children with disabilities and 412 children with no disabilities (analytic sample); 38 children with disabilities and 35 children without disabilities (cross-validation sample). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Summary scores from prototype CAT applications of each scale using 15-, 10-, and 5-item stopping rules; scores from the full-length Self-Care and Social Function scales; time (in seconds) to complete assessments and respondent ratings of burden. Results Scores from both computer simulations and field administration of the prototype CATs were highly consistent with scores from full-length administration (all r’s between .94 and .99). Using computer simulation of retrospective data, discriminant validity and sensitivity to change of the CATs closely approximated that of the full-length scales, especially when the 15- and 10-item stopping rules were applied. In the cross-validation study the time to administer both CATs was 4 minutes, compared to over 16 minutes to complete the full-length scales. Conclusions Self-care and Social Function score estimates from CAT administration are highly comparable to those obtained from full-length scale administration, with small losses in validity and precision and substantial decreases in administration time. PMID:18373991

  1. Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Average-cost based robust structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

  3. Cost-savings analysis of an outpatient management program for women with pregnancy-related hypertensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Barton, John R; Istwan, Niki B; Rhea, Debbie; Collins, Ann; Stanziano, Gary J

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost savings of outpatient management services for women with pregnancy-related hypertensive conditions. The outpatient management program included verbal and written patient education related to the hypertensive disease process during pregnancy as well as self-care procedures. Biometric data (ie, automated blood pressure measurement, qualitative urine protein) were collected at least daily by the patient and transmitted telephonically to a nursing call center. Data were evaluated and subjective symptoms assessed daily. Electronic records were maintained and reports provided to the prescribing physician and case manager. Included for analysis were: patients with pregnancy-related hypertensive conditions receiving outpatient services between January 1999 and November 2003, singleton gestation, no history of chronic hypertension, and gestational age of 20.0-36.9 weeks at start of outpatient program (n = 1,140). Maternal characteristics, antenatal hospitalization and length of stay, progression of disease, and neonatal outcome were analyzed. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, a model was developed to compare the cost of the program plus adjunctive antenatal hospitalization, to control data. The mean gestational age at program start was 32.6 weeks. Antenatal hospital admission was required for 24.8% of patients, with a mean length of stay of 2.3 days per admission. Progression to severe preeclampsia occurred in 14.3% of patients. Mean gestational age at delivery was 37.0 weeks. Antepartum charges averaged 10,327 US dollars per control patient and 4,888 US dollars per program patient, a difference of 5,439 US dollars. For each dollar spent on outpatient management, an average of 2.50 US dollars was saved. Utilizing outpatient management services for women with pregnancy-related hypertension reduces the need for inpatient care and is cost-effective. PMID:16893336

  4. Spectral and parametric averaging for integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Serota, R. A.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos, spectral averaging (SA) and parametric averaging (PA). For SA, we introduce a new procedure, namely, rescaled spectral averaging (RSA). Unlike traditional SA, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase (CFSS) and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance (IV). PA while not as accurate as RSA for the CFSS and IV, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance (GV) and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

  5. General periodic average structures of decagonal quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Cervellino, Antonio; Steurer, Walter

    2002-03-01

    The concept of periodic average structure is mutated from the theory of incommensurately modulated structures. For quasicrystals, this concept (up to now explored only in few cases) is becoming increasingly useful to understand their properties and to interpret some important structural features. The peculiar property of quasicrystals is that they admit not one but many (infinite) possible different average structures. Few of them, however, will be meaningful. Here are given a simple method (based on reciprocal space) for generating all the possible periodic average structures of decagonal quasicrystals and some new ideas about their meaning. By this method, the most significant average structures can be recognized from the diffraction pattern. PMID:11832588

  6. Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

    1990-01-01

    A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

  7. Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.

    1994-02-01

    A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

  8. Characteristics of patients with diabetes who accept referrals for care management services

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Bree; Annis, Ann M; Morrish, Wendy; Davis Burns, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with chronic conditions can improve their health through participation in self-care programs. However, awareness of and enrollment in these programs are generally low. Objective: We sought to identify factors influencing patients’ receptiveness to a referral for programs and services supporting chronic disease management. Methods: We analyzed data from 541 high-risk diabetic patients who completed an assessment between 2010 and 2013 from a computer-based, nurse-led Navigator referral program within a large primary care clinic. We compared patients who accepted a referral to those who declined. Results: A total of 318 patients (75%) accepted 583 referrals, of which 52% were for self-care programs. Patients who accepted a referral had more primary care visits in the previous year, were more likely to be enrolled in another program, expressed more interest in using the phone and family or friends for support, and were more likely to report recent pain than those who declined a referral. Discussion: Understanding what factors influence patients’ decisions to consider and participate in self-care programs has important implications for program design and development of strategies to connect patients to programs. This work informs outreach efforts to identify and engage patients who are likely to benefit from self-care activities. PMID:26835018

  9. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

  10. Demonstration of a Model Averaging Capability in FRAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, P. D.; Castleton, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in model structure can be incorporated in risk assessment using multiple alternative models and model averaging. To facilitate application of this approach to regulatory applications based on risk or dose assessment, a model averaging capability was integrated with the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) version 2 software. FRAMES is a software platform that allows the non-parochial communication between disparate models, databases, and other frameworks. Users have the ability to implement and select environmental models for specific risk assessment and management problems. Standards are implemented so that models produce information that is readable by other downstream models and accept information from upstream models. Models can be linked across multiple media and from source terms to quantitative risk/dose estimates. Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools are integrated. A model averaging module was implemented to accept output from multiple models and produce average results. These results can be deterministic quantities or probability distributions obtained from an analysis of parameter uncertainty. Output from alternative models is averaged using weights determined from user input and/or model calibration results. A model calibration module based on the PEST code was implemented to provide FRAMES with a general calibration capability. An application illustrates the implementation, user interfaces, execution, and results of the FRAMES model averaging capabilities.

  11. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by

  12. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…

  13. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Averaging. 90.204 Section 90.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification Averaging, Banking,...

  14. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging. 90.204 Section 90.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification Averaging, Banking,...

  15. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Averaging. 90.204 Section 90.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification Averaging, Banking,...

  16. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Averaging. 90.204 Section 90.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification Averaging, Banking,...

  17. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Averaging. 90.204 Section 90.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification Averaging, Banking,...

  18. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  19. A note on generalized averaged Gaussian formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalevic, Miodrag

    2007-11-01

    We have recently proposed a very simple numerical method for constructing the averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas. These formulas exist in many more cases than the real positive Gauss?Kronrod formulas. In this note we try to answer whether the averaged Gaussian formulas are an adequate alternative to the corresponding Gauss?Kronrod quadrature formulas, to estimate the remainder term of a Gaussian rule.

  20. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  1. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  2. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  3. 40 CFR 91.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging. 91.204 Section 91.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.204...

  4. Flexibility of spatial averaging in visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Lombrozo, Tania; Judson, Jeff; MacLeod, Donald I.A

    2005-01-01

    The classical receptive field (RF) concept—the idea that a visual neuron responds to fixed parts and properties of a stimulus—has been challenged by a series of recent physiological results. Here, we extend these findings to human vision, demonstrating that the extent of spatial averaging in contrast perception is also flexible, depending strongly on stimulus contrast and uniformity. At low contrast, spatial averaging is greatest (about 11 min of arc) within uniform regions such as edges, as expected if the relevant neurons have orientation-selective RFs. At high contrast, spatial averaging is minimal. These results can be understood if the visual system is balancing a trade-off between noise reduction, which favours large areas of averaging, and detail preservation, which favours minimal averaging. Two distinct populations of neurons with hard-wired RFs could account for our results, as could the more intriguing possibility of dynamic, contrast-dependent RFs. PMID:15870034

  5. The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Umeh, Obinna; Larena, Julien; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: julien.larena@gmail.com

    2011-03-01

    The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H{sub 0}, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.

  6. Evaluating template bias when synthesizing population averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Blake L.; Christensen, Gary E.; Johnson, Hans J.; Vannier, Michael W.

    2001-07-01

    Establishing the average shape and spatial variability for a set of similar anatomical objects is important for detecting and discriminating morphological differences between populations. This may be done using deformable templates to synthesize a 3D CT/MRI image of the average anatomy from a set of CT/MRI images collected from a population of similar anatomical objects. This paper investigates the error associated with the choice of template selected from the population used to synthesize the average population shape. Population averages were synthesized for a population of five infant skulls with sagittal synostosis and a population of six normal adult brains using a consistent linear-elastic image registration algorithm. Each data set from the populations was used as the template to synthesize a population average. This resulted in five different population averages for the skull population and six different population averages for the brain population. The displacement variance distance from a skull within the population to the other skulls in the population ranged from 5.5 to 9.9 mm2 while the displacement variance distance from the synthesized average skulls to the population ranged from 2.2 to 2.7 mm2. The displacement variance distance from a brain within the population to the other brains in the population ranged from 9.3 to 14.2 mm2 while the displacement variance distance from the synthesized average brains to the population ranged from 3.2 to 3.6 mm2. These results suggest that there was no significant difference between the choice of template with respect to the shape of the synthesized average data set for these two populations.

  7. Short-Term Auditory Memory of Above-Average and Below-Average Grade Three Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruk, Joan Marie

    To determine if performance on short term auditory memory tasks is influenced by reading ability or sex differences, 62 third grade reading students (16 above average boys, 16 above average girls, 16 below average boys, and 14 below average girls) were administered four memory tests--memory for consonant names, memory for words, memory for…

  8. Effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for women with menstrual pain compared to usual care alone: using stakeholder engagement to design a pragmatic randomized trial and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-care acupressure might be successful in treating menstrual pain, which is common among young women. There is a need for comparative effectiveness research with stakeholder engagement in all phases seeking to address the needs of decision-makers. Our aim was to design a study on the effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for menstrual pain comparing usual care alone using different methods of stakeholder engagement. Methods The study was designed using multiple mixed methods for stakeholder engagement. Based on the results of a survey and focus group discussion, a stakeholder advisory group developed the study design. Results Stakeholder engagement resulted in a two-arm pragmatic randomized trial. Two hundred and twenty women aged 18 to 25 years with menstrual pain will be included in the study. Outcome measurement will be done using electronic questionnaires provided by a study specific mobile application (App). Primary outcome will be the mean pain intensity at the days of pain during the third menstruation after therapy start. Conclusion Stakeholder engagement helped to develop a study design that better serves the needs of decision makers, including an App as a modern tool for both intervention and data collection in a young target group. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier http://NCT01582724 PMID:24499425

  9. Light propagation in the averaged universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Samae; Schwarz, Dominik J. E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2014-10-01

    Cosmic structures determine how light propagates through the Universe and consequently must be taken into account in the interpretation of observations. In the standard cosmological model at the largest scales, such structures are either ignored or treated as small perturbations to an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. This isotropic and homogeneous model is commonly assumed to emerge from some averaging process at the largest scales. We assume that there exists an averaging procedure that preserves the causal structure of space-time. Based on that assumption, we study the effects of averaging the geometry of space-time and derive an averaged version of the null geodesic equation of motion. For the averaged geometry we then assume a flat Friedmann-Lemaître (FL) model and find that light propagation in this averaged FL model is not given by null geodesics of that model, but rather by a modified light propagation equation that contains an effective Hubble expansion rate, which differs from the Hubble rate of the averaged space-time.

  10. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

  11. Modeling Plants With Moving-Average Outputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    Three discrete-state-variable representations derived. Paper discusses mathematical modeling of digital control systems for plants in which outputs include combinations of instantaneous and moving-average-prefiltered measurements.

  12. Averaging of Fourier-Haar coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery-Smith, S; Semenov, E M

    1999-10-31

    An operator defined by averaging of the Fourier-Haar coefficients of a function is studied. A criterion for the boundedness of such an operator acting in a pair of rearrangement-invariant spaces is derived.

  13. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  14. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  15. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  16. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Daniel H. Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  17. Orbit-averaged implicit particle codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. I.; Freis, R. P.; Thomas, V.

    1982-03-01

    The merging of orbit-averaged particle code techniques with recently developed implicit methods to perform numerically stable and accurate particle simulations are reported. Implicitness and orbit averaging can extend the applicability of particle codes to the simulation of long time-scale plasma physics phenomena by relaxing time-step and statistical constraints. Difference equations for an electrostatic model are presented, and analyses of the numerical stability of each scheme are given. Simulation examples are presented for a one-dimensional electrostatic model. Schemes are constructed that are stable at large-time step, require fewer particles, and, hence, reduce input-output and memory requirements. Orbit averaging, however, in the unmagnetized electrostatic models tested so far is not as successful as in cases where there is a magnetic field. Methods are suggested in which orbit averaging should achieve more significant improvements in code efficiency.

  18. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  19. Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1995-01-01

    The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  20. Instrument to average 100 data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction burn rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-averaging instrument has been produced which will generate the average curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the average curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-averaging instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for averaging as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to average any cyclically varying waveform.

  1. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second, a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the circular unitary ensemble (CUE) average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like 1/\\sqrt{N} as the dimension N of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as N\\to ∞ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order 1/{{N}2}) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE-type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  2. Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, Valentin

    2010-04-01

    Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained allow one to readily predict the redshift above which the direction-averaged fluctuation in the Hubble diagram falls below a required precision and suggest a method to extract the background Hubble constant from low redshift data without the need to correct for peculiar velocities.

  3. Conditional simulation of geologically averaged block permeabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journel, A. G.

    1996-08-01

    Currently available hardware and software for flow simulation can handle up to hundreds of thousands of blocks, or more comfortably tens of thousands of blocks. This limits the discretization of the reservoir model to an extremely coarse grid, say 200 × 200 × 25 for 10 6 blocks. Such a coarse grid cannot represent the structural and petrophysical variability at the resolution provided to geologists by well logs and outcrops. Thus there is no alternative to averaging the impact of all small-scale, within-block, heterogeneities into block 'pseudos' or average values. The flow simulator will account for geological description only through those pseudos, hence detailed modelling of geological heterogeneity should not go beyond the information that block pseudos can carry, at least for flow simulation purposes. It is suggested that the present drive in outcrop sampling be clearly redirected at evaluating 'geopseudos', i.e. at evaluating how small-scale variability (both structural and petrophysical) of typical depositional units averages out into large blocks' effective transmissivities and relative permeabilities. Outcrop data would allow the building of generic, high-resolution, numerical models of the geo-variability within a typical depositional unit: this is where geology intervenes. Then, this numerical model would be input into a generic flow simulator, single or multiphase, yielding genetic block averages, for blocks of various sizes and geometries: this is where the reservoir engineer intervenes. Next, the spatial statistics of these block averages (histograms, variograms, …) would be inferred: this is where the geostatistician intervenes. Last comes the problem of filling-in the actual reservoir volume with simulated block averages specific to each depositional unit. Because each reservoir is unique, random drawing of block average values from the previously inferred generic distributions would not be enough. The placement of block average values in the specific reservoir volume must be made conditional on local data whether well log, seismic or production-derived. This non-trivial task of 'conditional simulation' of block average is the challenge of both the reservoir geologist and geostatistician. This paper proposes an avenue of approach that draws from the pioneering works of Steve Begg at BP-Alaska (1992, 1994) and Jaime Gomez-Hernandez at Universidad of Valencia (1990, 1991).

  4. When Is the Local Average Treatment Close to the Average? Evidence from Fertility and Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenstein, Avraham

    2009-01-01

    The local average treatment effect (LATE) may differ from the average treatment effect (ATE) when those influenced by the instrument are not representative of the overall population. Heterogeneity in treatment effects may imply that parameter estimates from 2SLS are uninformative regarding the average treatment effect, motivating a search for…

  5. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  6. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  7. Comparison of averages of flows and maps.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Z; Lustfeld, H

    2001-11-01

    It is shown that in transient chaos there is no direct relation between averages in a continuous time dynamical system (flow) and averages using the analogous discrete system defined by the corresponding Poincaré map. In contrast to permanent chaos, results obtained from the Poincaré map can even be qualitatively incorrect. The reason is that the return time between intersections on the Poincaré surface becomes relevant. However, after introducing a true-time Poincaré map, quantities known from the usual Poincaré map, such as conditionally invariant measure and natural measure, can be generalized to this case. Escape rates and averages, e.g., Liapunov exponents and drifts, can be determined correctly using these measures. Significant differences become evident when we compare with results obtained from the usual Poincaré map. PMID:11736004

  8. Model Averaging Method for Supersaturated Experimental Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaki, Deiby T.; Kurnia, Anang; Sartono, Bagus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new modified model averaging method was proposed. The candidate model construction was performed by distinguishing the covariates into focus variables and auxiliary variables whereas the weights selection was implemented using Mallows criterion. In addition, the illustration result shows that the applied model averaging method could be considered as a new alternative method for supersaturated experimental design as a typical form of high dimensional data. A supersaturated factorial design is an experimental series in which the number of factors exceeds the number of runs, so its size is not enough to estimate all the main effect. By using the model averaging method, the estimation or prediction power is significantly enhanced. In our illustration, the main factors are regarded as focus variables in order to give more attention to them whereas the lesser factors are regarded as auxiliary variables, which is along with the hierarchical ordering principle in experimental research. The limited empirical study shows that this method produces good prediction.

  9. Obesity in the Kaiser Permanente Patient Population and Positive Outcomes of Online Weight-Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Keith H; Histon, Trina M; Remmers, Carol

    2007-01-01

    We review what is known about the effects of obesity in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) population and discuss outcomes for two nationally available effective online programs, HealthMedia Balance® (Balance) and 10,000 Steps®. Obese KP patients often have health problems related to overweight and report difficulties with self-care, yet with the proper support, they can avail themselves of effective treatment to manage both obesity and associated conditions that affect quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of potential problems with functional status and self-care in their obese patients, provide brief assessment and advice, and refer obese patients to effective national and regional weight-management programs. PMID:21461090

  10. The modulated average structure of mullite.

    PubMed

    Birkenstock, Johannes; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82 (3))Si(1.18 (1))O(9.59 (5))) and by average structure refinements. 8 (5) to 20 (13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137 (2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021 (5) 0.1834 (2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009 (5) -0.1834 (2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real structure of mullite is locally ordered (as previously known), but on the long-range its average is not completely disordered, the modulated structure of mullite may be denoted the true 'average structure of mullite'. PMID:26027012

  11. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

  12. An improved moving average technical trading rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papailias, Fotis; Thomakos, Dimitrios D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a modified version of the widely used price and moving average cross-over trading strategies. The suggested approach (presented in its 'long only' version) is a combination of cross-over 'buy' signals and a dynamic threshold value which acts as a dynamic trailing stop. The trading behaviour and performance from this modified strategy are different from the standard approach with results showing that, on average, the proposed modification increases the cumulative return and the Sharpe ratio of the investor while exhibiting smaller maximum drawdown and smaller drawdown duration than the standard strategy.

  13. Average model for the galactic absorbtion

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, D.K.; Aller, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    It is found from a comparison of optical and radio emission that planetary nebulae south of the galactic plane exhibit lower average extinction at H..beta.. than those to the north. Suggestions are that either (i) the absorbing material is distributed with a scale height higher in the north than in the south, or (ii) a large absorbing cloud immediately above the Sun has increased the average extinction in the north. In either case the the z-distribution of absorbing material is close to an exponential model, with extinction of 0.7 bel kpc/sup -1/ along the galactic plane and scale height approx.100 pc.

  14. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the new FEL. Manufacturers must test the motorcycles according to 40 CFR part 1051, subpart D...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 Averaging provisions. (a) This section describes...

  15. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Averaging provisions. 86.449 Section 86.449 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions...

  16. Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Alan

    1997-01-01

    During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

  17. Averaging models for linear piezostructural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Kurdila, A. J.; Stepanyan, V.; Inman, D. J.; Vignola, J.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a linear piezoelectric structure which employs a fast-switched, capacitively shunted subsystem to yield a tunable vibration absorber or energy harvester. The dynamics of the system is modeled as a hybrid system, where the switching law is considered as a control input and the ambient vibration is regarded as an external disturbance. It is shown that under mild assumptions of existence and uniqueness of the solution of this hybrid system, averaging theory can be applied, provided that the original system dynamics is periodic. The resulting averaged system is controlled by the duty cycle of a driven pulse-width modulated signal. The response of the averaged system approximates the performance of the original fast-switched linear piezoelectric system. It is analytically shown that the averaging approximation can be used to predict the electromechanically coupled system modal response as a function of the duty cycle of the input switching signal. This prediction is experimentally validated for the system consisting of a piezoelectric bimorph connected to an electromagnetic exciter. Experimental results show that the analytical predictions are observed in practice over a fixed "effective range" of switching frequencies. The same experiments show that the response of the switched system is insensitive to an increase in switching frequency above the effective frequency range.

  18. Ultrahigh-average-power solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrovec, John

    2002-09-01

    This work presents an improved disk laser concept, where a diode- pumped disk is hydrostatically clamped to a rigid substrate and continuously cooled by a microchannel heat exchanger. Effective reduction of thermo-optical distortions makes this laser suitable for continuous operation at ultrahigh-average power.

  19. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ׅ

  20. The periodic average structure of particular quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Steurer; Haibach

    1999-01-01

    The non-crystallographic symmetry of d-dimensional (dD) quasiperiodic structures is incompatible with lattice periodicity in dD physical space. However, dD quasiperiodic structures can be described as irrational sections of nD (n > d) periodic hypercrystal structures. By appropriate oblique projection of particular hypercrystal structures onto physical space, discrete periodic average structures can be obtained. The boundaries of the projected atomic surfaces give the maximum distance of each atom in a quasiperiodic structure from the vertices of the reference lattice of its average structure. These maximum distances turn out to be smaller than even the shortest atomic bond lengths. The metrics of the average structure of a 3D Ammann tiling, for instance, with edge lengths of the unit tiles equal to the bond lengths in elemental aluminium, correspond almost exactly to the metrics of face-centred-cubic aluminium. This is remarkable since most stable quasicrystals contain aluminium as the main constitutent. The study of the average structure of quasicrystals can be a valuable aid to the elucidation of the geometry of quasicrystal-to-crystal transformations. It can also contribute to the derivation of the physically most relevant Brillouin (Jones) zone. PMID:10927229

  1. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  2. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  3. Averaging on Earth-Crossing Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronchi, G. F.; Milani, A.

    The orbits of planet-crossing asteroids (and comets) can undergo close approaches and collisions with some major planet. This introduces a singularity in the N-body Hamiltonian, and the averaging of the equations of motion, traditionally used to compute secular perturbations, is undefined. We show that it is possible to define in a rigorous way some generalised averaged equations of motion, in such a way that the generalised solutions are unique and piecewise smooth. This is obtained, both in the planar and in the three-dimensional case, by means of the method of extraction of the singularities by Kantorovich. The modified distance used to approximate the singularity is the one used by Wetherill in his method to compute probability of collision. Some examples of averaged dynamics have been computed; a systematic exploration of the averaged phase space to locate the secular resonances should be the next step. `Alice sighed wearily. ``I think you might do something better with the time'' she said, ``than waste it asking riddles with no answers'' (Alice in Wonderland, L. Carroll)

  4. Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Alan

    1997-01-01

    During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines

  5. Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal functionthe subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challengethat of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averagingwhich says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidenceprovides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

  6. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  7. Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Neil S.

    1988-01-01

    Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.

  8. Reformulation of Ensemble Averages via Coordinate Mapping.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Andrew J; Moustafa, Sabry G; Lin, Weisong; Weinstein, Steven J; Kofke, David A

    2016-04-12

    A general framework is established for reformulation of the ensemble averages commonly encountered in statistical mechanics. This "mapped-averaging" scheme allows approximate theoretical results that have been derived from statistical mechanics to be reintroduced into the underlying formalism, yielding new ensemble averages that represent exactly the error in the theory. The result represents a distinct alternative to perturbation theory for methodically employing tractable systems as a starting point for describing complex systems. Molecular simulation is shown to provide one appealing route to exploit this advance. Calculation of the reformulated averages by molecular simulation can proceed without contamination by noise produced by behavior that has already been captured by the approximate theory. Consequently, accurate and precise values of properties can be obtained while using less computational effort, in favorable cases, many orders of magnitude less. The treatment is demonstrated using three examples: (1) calculation of the heat capacity of an embedded-atom model of iron, (2) calculation of the dielectric constant of the Stockmayer model of dipolar molecules, and (3) calculation of the pressure of a Lennard-Jones fluid. It is observed that improvement in computational efficiency is related to the appropriateness of the underlying theory for the condition being simulated; the accuracy of the result is however not impacted by this. The framework opens many avenues for further development, both as a means to improve simulation methodology and as a new basis to develop theories for thermophysical properties. PMID:26950263

  9. Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

  10. World average top-quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

  11. Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

    Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

  12. Orbit Averaging in Perturbed Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2015-11-01

    The orbital period is typically much shorter than the time scale for dynamical evolution of large-scale structures in planetary rings. This large separation in time scales motivates the derivation of reduced models by averaging the equations of motion over the local orbit period (Borderies et al. 1985, Shu et al. 1985). A more systematic procedure for carrying out the orbit averaging is to use Lie transform perturbation theory to remove the dependence on the fast angle variable from the problem order-by-order in epsilon, where the small parameter epsilon is proportional to the fractional radial distance from exact resonance. This powerful technique has been developed and refined over the past thirty years in the context of gyrokinetic theory in plasma physics (Brizard and Hahm, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 2007). When the Lie transform method is applied to resonantly forced rings near a mean motion resonance with a satellite, the resulting orbit-averaged equations contain the nonlinear terms found previously, but also contain additional nonlinear self-gravity terms of the same order that were missed by Borderies et al. and by Shu et al. The additional terms result from the fact that the self-consistent gravitational potential of the perturbed rings modifies the orbit-averaging transformation at nonlinear order. These additional terms are the gravitational analog of electrostatic ponderomotive forces caused by large amplitude waves in plasma physics. The revised orbit-averaged equations are shown to modify the behavior of nonlinear density waves in planetary rings compared to the previously published theory. This reserach was supported by NASA's Outer Planets Reserach program.

  13. Patient outcomes and experiences of an acupuncture and self-care service for persistent low back pain in the NHS: a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Supported self-management, acupuncture and information can help reduce the symptoms of low back pain. These approaches are currently recommended by NICE guidance as treatment options for patients with persistent low back pain. However, there has been no previous evaluation of a service providing them together for this common problem. The purpose of this service evaluation was to report patient outcomes and experiences of the Beating Back Pain Service (BBPS), a pilot service based in a primary and community care setting, delivering acupuncture, self-management and information to patients with chronic low back pain. Methods Patients completed a questionnaire at three time points: pre-BBPS, immediately post-BBPS and three months post-BBPS. Outcome measures included the Bournemouth Questionnaire (measuring musculoskeletal, MSK, problems), EuroQoL-5D (measuring quality of life), Pain and Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and additional questions on medication use, physical activity, understanding of pain and positive well-being. Additionally, the STarT Back (measuring risk of developing chronic pain) was collected at BBPS information sessions. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate pre- and post- variables. Questionnaires also collected qualitative data (open-text responses) regarding patient views and experiences of the BBPS, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Results 80 (out of 108) patients who attended the initial BBPS information session agreed to participate in the service evaluation (mean age 47 years, 65% female). 65 patients attended subsequent BBPS acupuncture and/or self-management sessions and were asked to complete post-treatment questionnaires; complete datasets were available for 61 patients. There were statistically significant improvements over time for pain (p <0.0001), quality of life (p = 0.006), understanding of pain (p <0.001), physical activity (p = 0.047) and relaxation (p = 0.012). Post-hoc analysis revealed that scores improved between baseline and post-treatment, these improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up (except relaxation). Patients receiving a combination of acupuncture and self-management sessions produced the most positive results. Patient satisfaction with the BBPS was high. Conclusions The BBPS provided a MSK pain management service that many patients found effective and valuable. Combining self-management with acupuncture was found to be particularly effective, although further consideration is required regarding how best to engage patients in self-management. PMID:24180515

  14. Rigid shape matching by segmentation averaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Oliensis, John

    2010-04-01

    We use segmentations to match images by shape. The new matching technique does not require point-to-point edge correspondence and is robust to small shape variations and spatial shifts. To address the unreliability of segmentations computed bottom-up, we give a closed form approximation to an average over all segmentations. Our method has many extensions, yielding new algorithms for tracking, object detection, segmentation, and edge-preserving smoothing. For segmentation, instead of a maximum a posteriori approach, we compute the "central" segmentation minimizing the average distance to all segmentations of an image. For smoothing, instead of smoothing images based on local structures, we smooth based on the global optimal image structures. Our methods for segmentation, smoothing, and object detection perform competitively, and we also show promising results in shape-based tracking. PMID:20224119

  15. Models of space averaged energetics of plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouthier, O. M.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of high frequency vibrations in plates is of particular interest in the study of structure borne noise in aircrafts. The current methods of analysis are either too expensive (finite element method) or may have a confidence band wider than desirable (Statistical Energy Analysis). An alternative technique to model the space and time averaged response of structural acoustics problems with enough detail to include all significant mechanisms of energy generation, transmission, and absorption is highly desirable. The focus of this paper is the development of a set of equations which govern the space and time averaged energy density in plates. To solve this equation, a new type of boundary value problem must be treated in terms of energy density variables using energy and intensity boundary conditions. A computer simulation verification study of the energy governing equation is performed. A finite element formulation of the new equations is also implemented and several test cases are analyzed and compared to analytical solutions.

  16. Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Andersson, Lars E-mail: larsa@math.miami.edu

    2008-10-15

    In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having {Lambda} = 0 have volume deceleration parameter q{sup vol}<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated q{sup vol} in some Lemaitre-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that q{sup vol}>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit q{sup vol}<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

  17. Average gluon and quark jet multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotikov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    We show the results in [1, 2] for computing the QCD contributions to the scale evolution of average gluon and quark jet multiplicities. The new results came due a recent progress in timelike small-x resummation obtained in the M S ¯ factorization scheme. They depend on two nonperturbative parameters with clear and simple physical interpretations. A global fit of these two quantities to all available experimental data sets demonstrates by its goodness how our results solve a longstandig problem of QCD. Including all the available theoretical input within our approach, αs(5 ) (Mz)= 0.1199±0.0026 has been obtained in the M S ¯ scheme in an approximation equivalent to next-to-next-to-leading order enhanced by the resummations of ln x terms through the NNLL level and of ln Q2 terms by the renormalization group. This result is in excellent agreement with the present world average.

  18. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  19. The Average Velocity in a Queue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frette, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean

  20. Average chemical composition of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The available data on the chemical composition of the lunar surface at eleven sites (3 Surveyor, 5 Apollo and 3 Luna) are used to estimate the amounts of principal chemical elements (those present in more than about 0.5% by atom) in average lunar surface material. The terrae of the moon differ from the maria in having much less iron and titanium and appreciably more aluminum and calcium.