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1

Self-care management for neuropathy in HIV disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication in HIV and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease, the self-care strategies, and sources of information for self-care utilized by the sample. A convenience sample of

P. K. Nicholas; J. K. Kemppainen; W. L. Holzemer; K. M. Nokes; L. Sanzero Eller; I. B. Corless; E. Haugen Bunch; C. A. Bain; K. M. Kirksey; S. M. Davis; B. K. Goodroad

2002-01-01

2

Promoting Self-Care Management among Persons with Serious Mental Illness and HIV.  

PubMed

People with a serious mental illness (SMI) along with HIV have complex health conditions. This population also has high rates of poverty, difficulty in sustaining regular housing, and limited supportive networks. Typically, the combination of psychotropic and HIV medication regimens is complicated, changes frequently, and requires coordination among multiple providers. Furthermore, fragmented and divided primary health care and mental health care systems present substantial barriers for these individuals and for the public health nurses who care for them. In this paper, we present "real world" case studies of individuals with SMI and HIV and the self-care management strategies used by nurses to address medication and treatment management, build interpersonal skills, and develop sustainable health networks. The case studies can be used for quality improvement discussions among practicing public health nurses and for instructing nursing students in a self-care management approach. PMID:22399840

Hanrahan, Nancy P; Rolin-Kenny, Donna; Roman, June; Kumar, Aparna; Aiken, Linda; Blank, Michael

2011-12-01

3

The self-care series: Part II, stress management.  

PubMed

Inmates have special needs in terms of their emotional and physical health and this second in a series is designed to give inmates living with HIV/AIDS practical advice on handling stress. Stress is a major problem for all who are diagnosed with HIV, particularly for inmates who may have limited access to drugs or health care providers. Several stress management techniques are described, including meditation. The importance of proper nutrition and exercise is addressed. Progressive relaxation and visualization techniques may also be useful in managing the stress associated with HIV diagnoses. PMID:11365548

1998-01-01

4

Biomarkers of Myocardial Stress and Systemic Inflammation in Patients Who Engage in Heart Failure Self-Care Management  

PubMed Central

Background Self-care is believed to improve heart failure (HF) outcomes, but the mechanisms by which such improvement occurs remain unclear. Methods We completed a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected on adults with symptomatic HF to test our hypothesis that effective self-care is associated with less myocardial stress and systemic inflammation. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to determine if better HF self-care reduced the odds of having serum levels of NT proBNP and soluble TNF? receptor type 1 at or above the sample median. HF self-care was measured using the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index. Results The sample (n=168) was predominantly male (65.5%) and most (50.6%) had NYHA III HF (mean LVEF= 34.9%±14.0%); mean age was 58.8±11.5 years. Self-care management was an independent factor in the model (block ?2 =14.74, p=.005) after controlling for pertinent confounders (model ?2 =52.15, p<.001). Each one-point increase in self-care management score (range 15–100) was associated with a 12.7% reduction in the odds of having both biomarkers at or above the sample median (adjusted odds ratio =0.873, 95% CI=0.77–0.99, p=.03). Conclusion Better self-care management was associated with reduced odds of myocardial stress and systemic inflammation over and above pharmacologic therapy and other common confounding factors. Teaching HF patients early symptom recognition and self-care of symptoms may decrease myocardial stress and systemic inflammation. PMID:21263344

Lee, Christopher S.; Moser, Debra K.; Lennie, Terry A.; Tkacs, Nancy C.; Margulies, Kenneth B.; Riegel, Barbara

2010-01-01

5

Development of Common Data Elements to Provide Tele self-Care Management  

PubMed Central

Background: Self-care management could empower patients to management of their health. Tele-health is the remote exchange of data between a patient and medical staff to improve healthcare quality. The aim: The aim of this research was developing common data elements to provide Tele self-care management and improve quality of care. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on Delphi approach was done in 2011. Data was extracted by three sessions’ of conversation with 20 faculty members. Data had more than 75% agreement was inserted in minimum data element list, data with lower than 50% agreement was considered as failed data and whom was agreed between 50%-75% of participants were reconsidered for conversation until three sessions and after re-voting it was failed or accepted. Results: Results showed that self-care divides in three main categories and also some sub-categories including:1-Immunity and Safety with two subcategories (A: Prevention of Disease and B: Awareness and Knowledge about Disease); 2-Health Security and Maintains in six subcategories (A: Labratoary Test Results; B: Vital Data Monitoring; C: Rehabilitation; D: Drug Information; E: Follow up and F: Dental Health), 3- Well-Being Education in four subcategories (A: Nutrition; B: Health Promotion; C: Life Style Improvement and D: Patient Activity). Discussion: Consideration of all aspects of self management including information about prevention of disease, knowledge about disease, laboratory test result, vital signs monitoring, rehabilitation, drug information, follow up, dental health, nutrition, health promotion, life style improvement and patient activities is necessary. PMID:24554797

Rangraz Jeddi, Fatemeh; Rezaiimofrad, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

6

Symptom Perceptions and Self-care Behaviors in Patients Who Self-manage Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with heart failure (HF) are at heightened risk for acute exacerbation requiring hospitalization. Although timely reporting of symptoms can expedite outpatient treatment and avoid the need for hospitalization, few patients recognize and respond to symptoms until acutely ill. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore patients’ perceptions of symptoms and self-care behaviors for symptom relief, leading up to a HF hospitalization. Methods To examine prehospitalization symptom scenarios, semistructured interviews were conducted with 60 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. Results Thirty-seven patients (61.7%) said that they had a sense that “something just wasn’t quite right” before their symptoms began but were unable to specify further. Signs and symptoms most often recognized by the patients were related to dyspnea (85%), fatigue (53.3%), and edema (41.7%). Few patients interpreted their symptoms as being related to worsening HF and most often attributed symptoms to changes in diet (18.3%) and medications (13.3%). Twenty-six patients (43.3%) used self-care strategies to relieve symptoms before hospital admission. More than 40% of the patients had symptoms at least 2 weeks before hospitalization. Conclusions Despite the wide dissemination of HF evidence-based guidelines, important components of symptom self-management remain suboptimal. Because most of HF self-management occurs in the postdischarge environment, research is needed that identifies how patients interpret symptoms of HF in the specific contexts in which patients self-manage their HF. These findings suggest the need for interventions that will help patients expeditiously recognize, accurately interpret, and use appropriate and safe self-care strategies for symptoms. PMID:24335834

Reeder, Katherine M.; Ercole, Patrick M.; Peek, Gina M.; Smith, Carol E.

2014-01-01

7

Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Clients’ Self-Care Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study\\u000a of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and\\u000a depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia. Participants described a range of\\u000a self-care practices for mental health including: self-medication, seeking

Martin Holt; Carla Treloar

2008-01-01

8

Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…

Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

2008-01-01

9

Symptom management and self-care for peripheral neuropathy in HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication in HIV and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease, sociodemographic and disease-related correlates and self-care strategies. A convenience sample of 1,217 respondents was recruited from data

P. K. Nicholas; J. K. Kemppainen; G. E. Canaval; I. B. Corless; E. F. Sefcik; K. M. Nokes; C. A. Bain; K. M. Kirksey; L. Sanzero Eller; P. J. Dole; M. J. Hamilton; C. L. Coleman; W. L. Holzemer; N. R. Reynolds; C. J. Portillo; E. H. Bunch; D. J. Wantland; J. Voss; R. Phillips; Y.-F. Tsai; M. Rivero Mendez; T. G. Lindgren; S. M. Davis; D. M. Gallagher

2007-01-01

10

A clinical trial of a self-care approach to the management of chronic headache in general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a trial which assessed the clinical effectiveness of adding a behavioural self-management programme to the existing management of chronic headache by general practitioners (GPs). Eighty-seven chronic headache sufferers, referred to the study by 35 GPs, were randomly allocated to either a self-care group or a GP-control group. Headaches, drug usage, visits to health-care providers and time off

Robin Winkler; Peter Underwood; Barry Fatovich; Ray James; Dennis Gray

1989-01-01

11

How Technology in Care at Home Affects Patient Self-Care and Self-Management: A Scoping Review  

PubMed Central

The use of technology in care at home has potential benefits such as improved quality of care. This includes greater focus on the patients’ role in managing their health and increased patient involvement in the care process. The objective of this scoping review is to analyse the existing evidence for effects of technology in home-based care on patients’ self-care and self-management. Using suitable search terms we searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Picarta and NIVEL dating from 2002 to 2012. Thirty-three studies (six review studies and twenty-seven individual studies) were selected. Effects were extracted from each study and were classified. In almost all the studies, the concepts self-care and self-management are not clearly defined or operationalized. Therefore, based on a meta-analysis, we made a new classification of outcome measures, with hierarchical levels: (1) competence (2) illness-management (3) independence (social participation, autonomy). In general, patient outcomes appear to be positive or promising, but most studies were pilot studies. We did not find strong evidence that technology in care at home has (a positive) effect on patient self-care and self-management according to the above classification. Future research is needed to clarify how technology can be used to maximize its benefits. PMID:24173139

Peeters, José M.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Friele, Roland D.

2013-01-01

12

Psychosocial factors associated with poor diabetes self-care management in a specialized Center in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relationship between demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables and diabetes self-care management in Mexican type 2 diabetic patients. Cross-sectional study of 176 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30–75 years, attending a tertiary health-care center in Mexico City. A brief medical history and previously validated questionnaires were completed. The study group consisted of 64 males\\/112 females, aged 55

Israel Lerman; Liliana Lozano; Sergio Hernández-Jiménez; Katie Weinger; Carlos Aguilar Salinas; Maria Luisa Velasco; Francisco Javier Gómez-Pérez

2004-01-01

13

Cognitive impairment and self-care in heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent chronic disease in older adults that requires extensive self-care to prevent decompensation and hospitalization. Cognitive impairment may impact the ability to perform HF self-care activities. We examined the association between cognitive impairment and adherence to self-care in patients hospitalized for acute HF. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants A total of 577 patients (mean age = 71 years, 44% female) hospitalized for HF at five medical centers in the United States and Canada. Measurements and methods Participants were interviewed for information on self-reported adherence to self-care using the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale. We assessed cognitive impairment in three domains (memory, processing speed, and executive function) using standardized measures. Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained through medical record review. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between cognitive impairment and self-care practices adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results A total of 453 patients (79%) were impaired in at least one cognitive domain. Average adherence to self-care activities among patients with global cognitive impairment did not differ significantly from those without cognitive impairment (30.5 versus 29.6; 45-point scale). However, impaired memory was associated with lower self-care scores (P = 0.006) in multivariable models. Conclusion Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent among older patients hospitalized for HF. Memory impairment is associated with poorer adherence to self-care practices. Screening for memory impairment in patients with HF may help to identify patients at risk for poor self-care who may benefit from tailored disease management programs. PMID:24187511

Hajduk, Alexandra M; Lemon, Stephenie C; McManus, David D; Lessard, Darleen M; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Spencer, Frederick A; Goldberg, Robert J; Saczynski, Jane S

2013-01-01

14

Genital herpes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ...

15

Self care in patients with chronic heart failure. Pilot study - self care includes problems.  

PubMed

AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to define the scope of therapeutic self-care demand in heart failure (HF) patients according to the concepts of self-care postulated by D.E. Orem and to determine the level of problems experienced and self-care in these patients. METHODS: A questionnaire consisting of 7 areas with closed format questions was developed according to the definition. The level of patient problems and level of self-care actions were mapped in each area. The questionnaire was distributed at the hospital outpatient clinic. The study group consisted of 47 heart failure patients (14 women) with following characteristics: average age 68 years, average BMI 29.4, resynchronization therapy 21%, hypertension 69.8%, diabetes mellitus 25.6%, coronary artery disease 46.5%, dilated cardiomyopathy 46.5%, obesity 46.5%, smoking history 39.5% (present and past smoking together), other cardiac disease 16.28%, condition after myocardial infarction 27.8% (NYHA II 41%, NYHA III 56.8%, NYHA IV 2.2%). RESULTS: The greatest problems were in the area of physical activity, sleep and fatigue, the least were in the area of chest pain and blood circulation. The greatest self-care agency was shown in the area of managing problems with physical activities and sleep, the lowest in the area of liquid intake and output. In the patients' subjective opinion, fatigue and sleep problems had the greatest impact on the quality of life. There were no substantial differences in either area based on gender. CONCLUSIONS: The data can serve as a foundation for modifying the extent and structure of patient education for more comprehensive and more effective out?patient treatment of HF. PMID:23765097

Halmo, Renata; Galuszka, Jan; Langova, Katerina; Galuszkova, Dana

2013-06-12

16

Telehealth for Persons with Severe Functional Disabilities and their Caregivers: Facilitating Self-care Management in the Home Setting  

PubMed Central

Persons with severe functional disabilities are the highest users of health care services. Caring for the needs of this population represents a significant percentage of our national health care costs. A growing body of research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-management strategies and caregiver engagement for effective long-term care for individuals with chronic medical conditions. Economic forces over the past decade have led to new challenges and resulted in major changes in health care delivery resulting in shortened length of inpatient stays and greater limits on the length of outpatient treatment. Telehealth is an innovative method for health care delivery and a means of meeting this new challenge. This paper highlights the findings of three pilot studies on the use of telecommunications technologies in promoting self-care management and enhancing health care outcomes in persons with severe disabilities and their family caregivers. The importance of matching technology to the needs of this population, lessons learned from these investigations, and future directions for research are addressed. PMID:22662729

Forducey, Pamela G.; Glueckauf, Robert L.; Bergquist, Thomas; Maheu, Marlene M.; Yutsis, Maya

2012-01-01

17

Creating 'good' self-managers?: Facilitating and governing an online self care skills training course  

PubMed Central

Background In chronic disease management, patients are increasingly called upon to undertake a new role as lay tutors within self-management training programmes. The internet constitutes an increasingly significant healthcare setting and a key arena for self-management support and communication. This study evaluates how a new quasi-professional health workforce – volunteer tutors – engage, guide and attempt to manage people with long-term conditions in the ways of 'good' self-management within the context of an online self-management course. Methods A qualitative analysis of postings to the discussion centre of 11 online classes (purposively selected from 27) run as part of the Expert Patients Programme. Facilitators (term for tutors online) and participants posted questions, comments and solutions related to self-management of long-term conditions; these were subjected to a textual and discursive analysis to explore: a) how facilitators, through the internet, engaged participants in issues related to self-management; b) how participants responded to and interacted with facilitators. Results Emergent themes included: techniques and mechanisms used to engage people with self-management; the process facilitators followed – 'sharing', 'modelling' and 'confirming'; and the emergence of a policing role regarding online disclosure. Whilst exchanging medical advice was discouraged, facilitators often professed to understand and give advice on psychological aspects of behaviour. Conclusion The study gave an insight into the roles tutors adopt – one being their ability to 'police' subjective management of long-term conditions and another being to attempt to enhance the psychological capabilities of participants. PMID:19505302

Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Gately, Claire; Lee, Victoria

2009-01-01

18

Perspectives on Self-Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-care for clinicians is much needed. To discover ways to implement self-care into our lives, we (four therapists) tried different self-care methods over a span of one to two weeks. After using practices that explored self-care through mindfulness meditation, autohypnosis, music, and spirituality, we wrote about the outcome of these experiences…

Williams, Isha D.; Richardson, Tenille A.; Moore, Darren D.; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks; Keeling, Margaret L.

2010-01-01

19

Self-care confidence mediates the relationship between perceived social support and self-care maintenance in adults with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Social support may be associated with HF self-care; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We examine the association between perceived support and self-care behaviors and whether self-care confidence mediates these relationships. Methods Cross-sectional survey of HF patients seen in outpatient clinic settings. Our outcome (HF self-care maintenance and self-care management) and mediator (HF self-care confidence) variables were assessed using the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index. Perceived emotional/informational support assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study social support survey. We performed regression analyses to examine associations between perceived support and HF self-care behaviors. Mediation analysis was performed according to Baron & Kenny method. Results We surveyed 150 HF patients (mean age 61 yrs; 51% female; 43% African Americans). More emotional/informational support was associated with better self-care maintenance (?=0.13, p=0.04). More emotional/information support was associated with better self-care management (?= 0.23, p=0.04) in unadjusted, but not adjusted analysis (?= 0.20, p=0.10). Self-care confidence mediates the association between perceived support and self-care maintenance (percent change in ? coefficient was 32%) and management (percent change in ? coefficient was 20%). Conclusion Perceived emotional/informational support is associated with better self-care maintenance and possibly better self-care management. Greater self-care confidence is one mediating mechanism. PMID:23482082

Cené, Crystal W.; Haymore, Laura Beth; Dolan-Soto, Diane; Lin, Feng-Chang; Pignone, Michael; DeWalt, Darren A.; Wu, Jia-Rong; Jones, Christine Delong; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

2013-01-01

20

iMHere: A Novel mHealth System for Supporting Self-Care in Management of Complex and Chronic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with chronic conditions are vulnerable to secondary complications that can be prevented with adherence to self-care routines. They benefit most from receiving effective treatments beyond acute care, usually in the form of regular follow-up and self-care support in their living environments. One such population is individuals with spina bifida (SB), the most common permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. A Wellness Program at the University of Pittsburgh in which wellness coordinators supervise the care of individuals with chronic disease has produced remarkably improved outcomes. However, time constraints and travel costs have limited its scale. Mobile telehealth service delivery is a potential solution for improving access to care for a larger population. Objective The project’s goal was to develop and implement a novel mHealth system to support complex self-care tasks, continuous adherence to regimens, monitoring of adherence, and secure two-way communications between patients and clinicians. Methods We developed and implemented a novel architecture of mHealth system called iMHere (iMobile Health and Rehabilitation) consisting of smartphone apps, a clinician portal, and a two-way communication protocol connecting the two. The process of implementing iMHere consisted of: (1) requirement analysis to identify clinically important functions that need to be supported, (2) design and development of the apps and the clinician portal, (3) development of efficient real-time bi-directional data exchange between the apps and the clinician portal, (4) usability studies on patients, and (5) implementation of the mHealth system in a clinical service delivery. Results There were 9 app features identified as relevant, and 5 apps were considered priority. There were 5 app features designed and developed to address the following issues: medication, skin care, bladder self-catheterization, bowel management, and mental health. The apps were designed to support a patient’s self-care tasks, send adherence data to the clinician portal, and receive personalized regimens from the portal. The Web-based portal was designed for clinicians to monitor patients’ conditions and to support self-care regimens. The two-way communication protocol was developed to facilitate secure and efficient data exchange between the apps and the portal. The 3 phases of usability study discovered usability issues in the areas of self-care workflow, navigation and interface, and communications between the apps and the portal. The system was used by 14 patients in the first 6 months of the clinical implementation, with 1 drop out due to having a poor wireless connection. The apps have been highly utilized consistently by patients, even those addressing complex issues such as medication and skincare. The patterns of utilization showed an increase in use in the first month, followed by a plateau. Conclusions The system was capable of supporting self-care and adherence to regimen, monitoring adherence, supporting clinician engagement with patients, and has been highly utilized. PMID:25100682

Pramana, Gede; Yu, Daihua Xie; Fairman, Andrea D; Dicianno, Brad E; McCue, Michael P

2013-01-01

21

Self-Care Behaviors and Adherence in Diabetes Mellitus.  

PubMed

Self-care behaviors are essential in managing diabetes. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) showed that intensive self-care regimens can slow the progression of microangiopathy and delay onset of long-term complications. Increased attention to adherence with specific components of personal regimens is needed to help diabetics achieve maximal benefits. Self-management in terms of medication-taking, self-monitoring, diet, and excercise is inconsistent. Factors contributing to self-care and non-compliance are discussed. Recommendations for enhancing self-care and adherence research are offered. PMID:10320442

Robiner; Keel

1997-01-01

22

Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs  

PubMed Central

Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of women with lymphoedema. The extensive use of injectable, oral and topical antibiotics by indigenous healers and women without medical supervision suggests a need for health education messages related to the risks of such practices. PMID:17187660

Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart

2006-01-01

23

Learning self-care after left ventricular assist device implantation.  

PubMed

The number of heart failure (HF) patients living with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as destination therapy is increasing. Successful long-term LVAD support includes a high degree of self-care by the patient and their caregiver, and also requires long-term support from a multidisciplinary team. All three components of self-care deserve special attention once an HF patient receives an LVAD, including activities regarding self-care maintenance (activities related both to the device and lifestyle), self-care monitoring (e.g., monitoring for complications or distress), and self-care management (e.g., handling alarms or coping with living with the device). For patients to perform optimal self-care once they are discharged, they need optimal education that focuses on knowledge and skills through a collaborative, adult learning approach. PMID:24831883

Kato, Naoko; Jaarsma, Tiny; Ben Gal, Tuvia

2014-09-01

24

TESTING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR SELF- CARE IN PERSONS WITH DIABETES: THE EFFECT OF DEPRESSION  

E-print Network

is believed to influence Diabetes Self Care Management (DSCM), self efficacy, and self care agency. Therefore, the main study aim was to examine the relationships among these factors using a cross-sectional model testing design. The secondary aim...

Gharaibeh, Besher

2012-05-31

25

A Functional Curriculum for Teaching Students with Disabilities. Volume I: Self-Care, Motor Skills, Household Management, and Living Skills. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first of three manuals providing a curriculum for students with disabilities focuses on the development of functional daily living skills. An introductory chapter provides an overview of the functional curriculum and offers guidelines for developing instructional plans for the four units of study which follow. Unit 1 is about self-care

Bender, Michael; And Others

26

The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a national lay-led self care support programme for patients with long-term conditions: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Supporting patients’ self care could have a major effect on the management of long-term conditions, which has led to worldwide interest in effective self care interventions. In England, self care support is being developed through the “Expert Patients Programme”, which provides lay-led generic courses to improve patients’ self care skills. However, the clinical and cost effectiveness of such courses

Anne Kennedy; David Reeves; Peter Bower; Victoria Lee; Elizabeth Middleton; Gerry Richardson; Caroline Gardner; Claire Gately; Anne Rogers

2007-01-01

27

Self-Care Among Chronically Ill African Americans: Culture, Health Disparities, and Health Insurance Status  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the self-care practices of chronically ill African Americans or how lack of access to health care affects self-care. Results from a qualitative interview study of 167 African Americans who had one or more chronic illnesses found that self-care practices were culturally based, and the insured reported more extensive programs of self-care. Those who had some form of health insurance much more frequently reported the influence of physicians and health education programs in self-care regimens than did those who were uninsured. It is concluded that the cultural components of self-care have been underemphasized, and further, that the potential to maximize chronic illness management through self-care strategies is not realized for those who lack access to health care. PMID:15569953

Becker, Gay; Gates, Rahima Jan; Newsom, Edwina

2004-01-01

28

Human bites - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

A human bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. Human bites that break the skin can be very ... Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in two ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ...

29

Teaching Self-Care Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survival skills instruction for latchkey kids with special needs is discussed. Methods for cultivation of skills pertaining to physical well-being, accident prevention, emergency procedures, healthy lifestyles, and mental, social and emotional well-being are described. Sources of model programs and curriculum materials for self-care skills…

Koblinsky, Sally A.; Todd, Christine M.

1991-01-01

30

Animal bites - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

An animal bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. Animal bites that break the skin put you at ... Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ...

31

Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). Design A one-year follow-up study. Setting A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?45%). Main outcome measures Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Results Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p?self-care management (p?self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up. PMID:25396055

Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

2014-01-01

32

Cardiovascular Disease Self-Care Interventions  

PubMed Central

Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n = 34) that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012) were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57%) and Caucasian (67%) dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential. PMID:24223305

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Yoon, Hye-Won; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Chyun, Deborah

2013-01-01

33

g:\\self care\\cold sore throat cough allergy 8/08 SELF CARE CHECK LIST FOR COLD, SORE  

E-print Network

g:\\self care\\cold sore throat cough allergy 8/08 SELF CARE CHECK LIST FOR COLD, SORE THROAT, COUGH a sore throat? Analgesic (as above), cough drops, salt packets for gargling Do you have allergies for more information) #12;g:\\self care\\cold sore throat cough allergy 8/08 SELF CARE INSTRUCTIONS FOR COLDS

Suzuki, Masatsugu

34

Evolution of Self-Care Education  

PubMed Central

During the past 15 years, the curriculum content for nonprescription medication and self-care therapeutics has expanded significantly. Self-care courses ranging from stand-alone, required courses to therapeutic content and skills laboratories, have evolved in colleges and schools of pharmacy to accommodate rapid changes related to nonprescription medications and to meet the needs of students. The design of and content delivery methods used in self-care courses vary among institutions. Teaching innovations such as team-based learning, role playing/vignettes, videos, and social media, as well as interdisciplinary learning have enhanced delivery of this content. Given that faculty members train future pharmacists, they should be familiar with the new paradigms of Nonprescription Safe Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE) Initiative, nonprescription medications for chronic diseases, and the growing trends of health and wellness in advancing patient-care initiatives. This paper reviews the significant changes that may be impacting self-care curriculums in the United States. PMID:24672061

Ambizas, Emily M.; Bastianelli, Karen M.S.; Ferreri, Stefanie P.; Haines, Seena L.; Stutz, Misty M.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Wilhelm, Miranda

2014-01-01

35

Evolution of self-care education.  

PubMed

During the past 15 years, the curriculum content for nonprescription medication and self-care therapeutics has expanded significantly. Self-care courses ranging from stand-alone, required courses to therapeutic content and skills laboratories, have evolved in colleges and schools of pharmacy to accommodate rapid changes related to nonprescription medications and to meet the needs of students. The design of and content delivery methods used in self-care courses vary among institutions. Teaching innovations such as team-based learning, role playing/vignettes, videos, and social media, as well as interdisciplinary learning have enhanced delivery of this content. Given that faculty members train future pharmacists, they should be familiar with the new paradigms of Nonprescription Safe Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE) Initiative, nonprescription medications for chronic diseases, and the growing trends of health and wellness in advancing patient-care initiatives. This paper reviews the significant changes that may be impacting self-care curriculums in the United States. PMID:24672061

Ambizas, Emily M; Bastianelli, Karen M S; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Haines, Seena L; Orr, Katherine Kelly; Stutz, Misty M; Vanamburgh, Jenny A; Wilhelm, Miranda

2014-03-12

36

Experiences of Burnout, Self-Care, and Recovery of Female University Counsellors in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the burnout, self-care, and recovery experiences of female university counsellors working at a university counselling centre in Taiwan. The 9 participants had an average age of 42.44 years and had worked at the centre for an average of 11.3 years. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth…

Lin, Yii-Nii

2012-01-01

37

Complementary Self-Care Strategies for Healthy Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on alternative self-care practices in terms of collaboration with the primary care physician and individual exploration of self-care practices such as acupuncture, meditation, and nutrition counseling. (JOW)

Barrett, Sondra

1993-01-01

38

Teaching Counselors Self-Care through Mindfulness Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few counseling programs directly address the importance of self-care in reducing stress and burnout in their curricula. A course entitled Mind/Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care was created to address personal and professional growth opportunities through self-care and mindfulness practices (meditation, yoga, gong, and conscious relaxation…

Newsome, Sandy; Christopher, John Chambers; Dahlen, Penny; Christopher, Suzanne

2006-01-01

39

Diet and diabetes (i): Assessing dietary self-care in patients with insulin dependent diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet is an important component of the management of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), yet it has been difficult to obtain effective measures of dietary management. Two studies were conducted assessing the frequency and antecedents of problems in dietary self-care in IDDM. In study one the Diet Problem Setting Inventory (DPSI), a self-report inventor assessing the settings in which poor

Tracy A. Goodall; W. Kim Halford

1997-01-01

40

Self-care at the margins: meals and meters in migrants' diabetes tactics.  

PubMed

Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in 2006 and 2007, this article examines Turkish migrants' everyday practices of diabetes self-management in Berlin, Germany. To avoid diabetes complications, Turkish Berliners became self-carers who altered food choices, cooking and eating practices, and made their self-care practices visible with the help of blood sugar self-testing. Rather than representing the common image of the disadvantaged migrant patient they assumed the role of "expert patients" and their self-care was a deliberate practice to make their chronic illness experience manageable and tangible where formal support by the German healthcare system was inadequate. This article thus aims to interrogate both "self" and "care" in the context of "self-care at the margins" and draw on de Certeau's tactics of the ordinary person that make everyday life habitable. PMID:23361883

Guell, Cornelia

2012-12-01

41

Impact of Reinforcement of Diabetes Self-Care on Poorly Controlled Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the study was to assess the value of reinforcing diabetes self-management for improving glycemia and self-care among adults with type 2 diabetes who had at least three hours of prior diabetes education. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 134 participants (75% White, 51% female, 59±9 years old, 13±8 years with diabetes, A1C=8.4±1.2%) were randomized to either a group map-based program (Intervention) or group education on cholesterol and blood pressure (Control). Participants were assessed for A1C levels, diabetes self-care behaviors (3-day pedometer readings, 6-minute walk test, blood glucose checks, frequency of self-care), and psychosocial factors (distress, frustration, quality of life) at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-intervention and health literacy at baseline. Results Groups did not differ on baseline characteristics including A1C levels, health literacy, or self-care; however, the Intervention group had more years of education than Controls. Intervention arm participants modestly improved A1C levels at 3 months post-intervention but did not maintain that improvement at 6 and 12 months while Control patients did not improve A1C levels at any time during follow-up. Importantly, frequency of self-reported self-care, diabetes quality of life, diabetes-related distress and frustration with diabetes self-care improved in both groups over time. Conclusions Reinforcing self-care with diabetes education for patients who have not met glycemic targets helps improve A1C and could be considered a necessary component of ongoing diabetes care. The best method to accomplish reinforcement needs to be established. PMID:23640303

Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Fitzgerald, Shane M.; Brooks, Kelly M.; Hultgren, Brittney A.; Ganda, Om P.; Munshi, Medha; Weinger, Katie

2013-01-01

42

Evaluation of Patients' Education on Foot Self-Care Status in Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Skin problems caused by neuropathy and antipathy are common manifestations of diabetes. The most serious about such problem is the diabetic foot, which may lead to eventual ulceration and amputation, and will decrease a patient’s quality of life dramatically. Objectives The aim of this study is to assess the level of foot self-care and foot conditions in diabetic patients, and to demonstrate the role of self-care education in diabetic foot care. Patients and Methods A total of 80 diabetic patients were included in the study, all of whom had referred to "Yazd Diabetic Research Center." The levels of their foot self-care were recorded in pre-test questionnaires, and then all of the patients were visited and educated by a Dermatologist for their foot self-care on a monthly basis, after which their post-test results were recorded through a second administration of the same questionnaire. Eventually, data from the pre and post-test questionnaires were analyzed to identify the possible effects of education. Results A total of 80 diabetic patients (34 males, 46 females) with a mean average age of 53.53 ± 10.19 and mean average duration of diabetes 12.42 ± 6.73 years were assessed. A significant increase in foot self-care through education was observed (baseline 27.06 ± 8.77, vs. post education 43.12 ± 8.77; P = 0.0001). After education, foot and nail lesions improved completely in 84% and 62.8%. Moreover, 77.8% of patients had suitable shoes and 79.6% had suitable socks. Conclusions Our findings showed that foot self-care education could improve knowledge and performance of patients about various foot problems, and was significantly important in preventing ulcers. PMID:23482390

Kafaie, Parichehr; Noorbala, Mohamad Taghi; Soheilikhah, Sedigheh; Rashidi, Maryam

2012-01-01

43

Bridging the Self-care Deficit Gap: Remote Patient Monitoring and the Hospital-at-Home  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the use of a remote patient monitoring intervention to address the challenge of patient self-care in complex hospital-at-home therapies. It was shown that in a home hemodialysis patient group, remote patient monitoring facilitated self-care and was supported by patients and, in particular, family caregivers. This does not come without cost to the patient however, who now has greater personal responsibility and accountability for their health management. Promising results from this study indicate that most patients are willing to assume this cost in exchange for the possibility of improved health outcomes.

Cafazzo, Joseph A.; Leonard, Kevin; Easty, Anthony C.; Rossos, Peter G.; Chan, Christopher T.

44

Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging  

PubMed Central

Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one’s health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health). Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions. PMID:23807842

Söderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

45

Communication Strategies for Improving Diabetics' Self-Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on various levels of diabetic patients' involvement in the care of their disease and effects of these levels on how closely they later followed self-care programs. Suggests that by participating in group discussions about excuses for not following a self-care regimen, and offering solutions to counter those excuses, diabetic patients…

Pryor, Burt; Mengel, Marvin C.

1987-01-01

46

Children in Self-Care: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before- and after-school care arrangements for third- and fifth-grade students were investigated, with specific attention given to the extent of self-care arrangements, satisfaction levels of parents and children using self-care, and variables contributing to satisfaction. The sample included 675 students attending Newington Elementary School in…

Stewart, Martha

47

A Descriptive Analysis of Self-Care Behaviors in Emerging Adults with Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate diabetes self-care behaviors, metabolic control, and associated demographic and medical correlates in an understudied sample of emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods Participants included 49 individuals (65% female) aged 18–26 years recruited from two major metropolitan areas and staff from a diabetes summer camp. Participants completed two diabetes interviews to assess daily self-care behaviors and self-report measures of psychosocial adjustment and demographic/medical characteristics. Metabolic control was assessed via HbA1c. Results Most participants (82%) utilized three or more daily insulin injections or an insulin pump. Self-care behaviors varied widely with an average of 2.56 daily blood glucose checks and 3.78 meals/snacks per day. Forty-one percent of participants engaged in daily exercise; just over half were active for 30 minutes or more. Across recall interviews, only 8% (n = 4) met American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations for both blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and daily physical activity. Average metabolic control was 8.25% with 81% of HbA1c values above 7.0%. Psychosocial adjustment was within normal limits and unrelated to self-care. Conclusions Daily diabetes care could be improved within this age group, as a significant percentage did not meet minimal ADA recommendations for disease care and metabolic control. Increased BGM and physical activity is recommended, and BGM should correspond to insulin regimen as well as meal and exercise habits. Emerging adults may benefit from targeted education, training, and behavioral support to enhance self-care behaviors during this critical period. PMID:23396184

Hendricks, Melissa C.; Monaghan, Maureen; Soutor, Sari; Chen, Rusan; Holmes, Clarissa S.

2013-01-01

48

Diabetes self-care and the older adult.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues that impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients' self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Smaldone, Arlene

2014-10-01

49

Symptom monitoring and self-care practices among Filipino cancer patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess patient-reported symptoms and self-care methods used during cancer treatments, using checklists. A descriptive study was performed at the cancer institute of a national medical center in Manila on 100 patients undergoing combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, n = 37, or chemotherapy alone, n = 63. Instruments used were (a) 25-item patient-reported Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC), (b) Self-care Methods (with the 25 TRSC items) tool, (c) Karnofsky Scale, (d) Demographic form, and (e) Health form. The TRSC (Philippine version) Cronbach alpha = .83. The TRSC scores inversely, significantly correlated with nurse-rated Karnofsky measure of functional status (r = -0.45; P < .001)-all evidences of internal consistency reliability, construct, and concurrent validity; similar findings were found in Midwestern United States and 2 other Asian settings. Compared with those receiving chemotherapy alone, patients who had combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy reported more symptoms with greater severity on several TRSC subscales. Self-care methods most used were in 2 categories: (a) diet/nutrition/lifestyle change (eg, modify food/eating habits; eat vegetables and fruits (papaya); use nutritional supplements; have naps, rest, sleep) to manage eating, oropharynx, nausea, and fatigue subscale symptoms; and (b) mind/body control (eg, prayer, praying the rosary, music) to relieve fatigue subscale, other symptoms. The TRSC (Philippine version) and Self-care Methods assess patient-reported symptoms and patients' self-care use. Oncology symptom management is enhanced by a valid clinical assessment tool. PMID:19926978

Williams, Phoebe D; Balabagno, Araceli O; Manahan, Lydia; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Ranallo, Lori; Laurente, Cecilia M; Cajucom, Loyda; Guela, Daisy; Kimbrough, Mercedita; Williams, Arthur R

2010-01-01

50

Diabetes Island: Preliminary Impact of a Virtual World Self-Care Educational Intervention for African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is a serious worldwide public health challenge. The burden of diabetes, including prevalence and risk of complications, is greater for minorities, particularly African Americans. Internet-based immersive virtual worlds offer a unique opportunity to reach large and diverse populations with diabetes for self-management education and support. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the acceptability, usage, and preliminary outcome of a virtual world intervention, Diabetes Island, in low-income African Americans with type 2 diabetes. The main hypotheses were that the intervention would: (1) be perceived as acceptable and useful; and (2) improve diabetes self-care (eg, behaviors and barriers) and self-care related outcomes, including glycemic control (A1C), body mass index (BMI), and psychosocial factors (ie, empowerment and distress) over six months. Methods The evaluation of the intervention impact used a single-group repeated measures design, including three assessment time points: (1) baseline, (2) 3 month (mid intervention), and (3) 6 month (immediate post intervention). Participants were recruited from a university primary care clinic. A total of 41 participants enrolled in the 6 month intervention study. The intervention components included: (1) a study website for communication, feedback, and tracking; and (2) access to an immersive virtual world (Diabetes Island) through Second Life, where a variety of diabetes self-care education activities and resources were available. Outcome measures included A1C, BMI, self-care behaviors, barriers to adherence, eating habits, empowerment, and distress. In addition, acceptability and usage were examined. A series of mixed-effects analyses, with time as a single repeated measures factor, were performed to examine preliminary outcomes. Results The intervention study sample (N=41) characteristics were: (1) mean age of 55 years, (2) 71% (29/41) female, (3) 100% (41/41) African American, and (4) 76% (31/41) reported annual incomes below US $20,000. Significant changes over time in the expected direction were observed for BMI (P<.02); diabetes-related distress (P<.02); global (P<.01) and dietary (P<.01) environmental barriers to self-care; one physical activity subscale (P<.04); and one dietary intake (P<.01) subscale. The participant feedback regarding the intervention (eg, ease of use, interest, and perceived impact) was consistently positive. The usage patterns showed that the majority of participants logged in regularly during the first two months, and around half logged in each week on average across the six month period. Conclusions This study demonstrated promising initial results of an immersive virtual world approach to reaching underserved individuals with diabetes to deliver diabetes self-management education. This intervention model and method show promise and could be tailored for other populations. A large scale controlled trial is needed to further examine efficacy. PMID:25584346

Ruggiero, Laurie; Moadsiri, Ada; Quinn, Lauretta T; Riley, Barth B; Danielson, Kirstie K; Monahan, Colleen; Bangs, Valerie A; Gerber, Ben S

2014-01-01

51

The meaning of actualization of self-care resources among a group of older home-dwelling people—A hermeneutic study  

PubMed Central

Self-care is an activity of mature persons who have developed their abilities to take care of themselves. Individuals can choose to actualize their self-care abilities into self-care activities to maintain, restore, or improve health and well-being. It is of importance to understand the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources among older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources, i.e., actions taken to improve, maintain, or restore health and well-being, among a group of older home-dwelling individuals with a high sense of coherence. The design of this study was to reanalyse narratives revealing self-care activities from 11 (five females and six males) Norwegian older home-dwelling people (65 years or older) identified as having a high sense of coherence. In order to reveal the meaning and get an understanding of why these self-care resources were realized or actualized, a Gadamerian-based research method was chosen. The analysis revealed four themes that showed the meaning of actualization of self-care resources in the study group: “Desire to carry on”, “Be of use to others”, “Self-realization”, and “Confidence to manage in the future”. The findings showed what older people found meaningful to strive for, and this information can be used as a guide for health professionals when supporting older people in their self-care. Older people with self-care resources can also be an important resource for others in need of social contact and practical help. These resources have to be asked for in voluntary work among older people in need of help and, thereby, can be a valuable supplement to the community health care system. PMID:23601788

Söderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

52

Self-Care Practices and Perceived Stress Levels Among Psychology Graduate Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that stress among psychology graduate students can negatively impact academic performance, clinical skills, and personal well-being. However, less is known about factors related to stress management among psychology graduate students. The current study examined self-care practices and perceived stress among psychology graduate students Four hundred eighty-eight psychology graduate students from across the United States completed an

Shannon B. Myers; Alison C. Sweeney; Victoria Popick; Kimberly Wesley; Amanda Bordfeld; Randy Fingerhut

2012-01-01

53

The Anatomy of Pervasive Self Care Services George Roussos  

E-print Network

The Anatomy of Pervasive Self Care Services George Roussos Birkbeck College University of London g million people report living with a long term condition (such as diabetes, asthma, adult congenital heart

Roussos, George

54

Taking good care of myself: A qualitative study on self-care behavior among Chinese persons with a permanent colostomy.  

PubMed

In Chinese culture, as a possible consequence of Confucianism, caring for the sick is considered a moral obligation of family members, while self-care is only the basis of fulfilling filial piety. This qualitative study aims to explore the self-care behavior among persons with a permanent colostomy in a Chinese cultural context of emphasizing the role of family caregiving. Data from in-depth interviews with seven Chinese adults at a university hospital in southwest China were analyzed using content analysis. Informants' self-care behavior was characterized by "taking good care of myself," which underlined individuals' efforts to manage colostomy-related impacts involving: (i) taking care of my colostomy with a proper degree of independence; (ii) taking care of my life by dealing with limitations; (iii) taking care of my mood in a positive way. Findings revealed that informants' self-care behavior was linked to their Confucian beliefs in family obligations, and also influenced by a happy-go-lucky outlook of life, a likely product of Taoism. The information is useful for nurses to design a culturally appropriate care plan to improve self-care behavior and proper family caregiving. PMID:25370020

Tao, Hui; Songwathana, Praneed; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Wang, Qingxi

2014-12-01

55

Adequate health literacy is associated with higher heart failure knowledge and self care confidence in hospitalized patients  

PubMed Central

Heart failure (HF) patients with inadequate health literacy are at increased risk for poor self care and negative health outcomes such as hospital readmission. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of inadequate health literacy; reliability of the Dutch HF Knowledge Scale (DHFKS) and Self Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI); and differences in HF knowledge, HF self care, and 30-day readmission rate by health literacy level among patients hospitalized with HF. The convenience sample included adults (N=95) admitted to a large urban teaching hospital with primary diagnosis of HF. Measures included the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, DHFKS, SCHFI, and readmission at 30 days post-discharge. The sample was 59 ± 14 years in age, 51% male, 67% African American; 35% had less than high school education, 35% were employed, 73% lived with someone who helps with their HF care, and 16% were readmitted within 30 days of index admission. Health literacy was inadequate for 42%, marginal for 19%, and adequate for 39%. Reliability of the DHFKS and SCHFI scales was comparable to prior reports. Mean knowledge score was 11.43 ± 2.26, SCHFI subscale scores were 56.82 ± 17.12 for maintenance, 63.64 ± 18.29 for management, and 65.02 ± 16.34 for confidence. Those with adequate health literacy were younger and had higher education level, HF knowledge scores, and HF self care confidence compared to those with marginal or inadequate health literacy. Self care maintenance and management scores and 30-day readmission rate did not differ by health literacy level. These findings demonstrate the high prevalence of inadequate and marginal health literacy and that health literacy is an important consideration in promoting HF knowledge and confidence in self care behaviors, particularly among older adults and those with less than high school education. PMID:21099698

Dennison, Cheryl R.; McEntee, Mindy L.; Samuel, Laura; Johnson, Brandon J.; Rotman, Stacey; Kielty, Alexandra; Russell, Stuart D.

2010-01-01

56

Dimensionality and reliability of the self-care of heart failure index scales: further evidence from confirmatory factor analysis.  

PubMed

The Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) is used widely, but issues with reliability have been evident. Cronbach alpha coefficient is usually used to assess reliability, but this approach assumes a unidimensional scale. The purpose of this article is to address the dimensionality and internal consistency reliability of the SCHFI. This was a secondary analysis of data from 629 adults with heart failure enrolled in three separate studies conducted in the northeastern and northwestern United States. Following testing for scale dimensionality using confirmatory factor analysis, reliability was tested using coefficient alpha and alternative options. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that: (a) the Self-Care Maintenance Scale has a multidimensional four-factor structure; (b) the Self-Care Management Scale has a two-factor structure, but the primary factors loaded on a common higher-order factor; and (c) the Self-Care Confidence Scale is unidimensional. Reliability estimates for the three scales, obtained with methods compatible with each scale's dimensionality, were adequate or high. The results of the analysis demonstrate that issues of dimensionality and reliability cannot be separated. Appropriate estimates of reliability that are consistent with the dimensionality of the scale must be used. In the case of the SCHFI, coefficient alpha should not be used to assess reliability of the self-care maintenance and the self-care management scales, due to their multidimensionality. When performing psychometric evaluations, we recommend testing dimensionality before assessing reliability, as well using multiple indices of reliability, such as model-based internal consistency, composite reliability, and omega and maximal reliability coefficients. PMID:25324013

Barbaranelli, Claudio; Lee, Christopher S; Vellone, Ercole; Riegel, Barbara

2014-12-01

57

Breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema self-care: Education, practices, symptoms, and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The primary purpose of this study was to cross-sectionally examine breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema self-care education,\\u000a self-care practices, and perceived self-care barriers, burdens, and benefits. We also explored the associations among self-care\\u000a education, practices, symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors with known lymphedema.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional design was used to obtain data about lymphedema self-care education, self-care

Sheila H. Ridner; Mary S. Dietrich; Nancy Kidd

2011-01-01

58

A Self-Care Practice Theory of Nursing the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a practice theory of nursing for the elderly which focuses on maintaining the maximum amount of independence of elderly patients through a nursing focus on the full range of human functional abilities. Interrelates varied health related characteristics and requirements of the elderly with theoretical components of self-care nursing…

Sullivan, Toni J.; Munroe, Donna J.

1986-01-01

59

Stress on the Job: Self-Care Resources for Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors often encounter clients who have experienced forms of trauma. As a result, counselors may experience symptoms of secondary traumatic stress due to vicarious traumatization. To help with symptoms of burnout, this article offers a self-care prevention plan based on wellness concepts. Offers 30 references as a starting point for counselors…

O'Halloran, Theresa M.; Linton, Jeremy M.

2000-01-01

60

Student Interest in a Protocol-based System for Self-Care Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-care programs and information sources should serve as a catalyst to facilitate appropriate care seeking behavior in college students and improve communication with health professionals. Health professionals in self-care provide proper encouragement, skills, and resources to enable individuals to involve themselves in appropriate self-care

Coons, Stephen Joel

1989-01-01

61

“We have become doctors for ourselves”: motives for malaria self-care among adults in southeastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria with effective medicines remains necessary if malaria control goals are to be achieved. The theoretical concepts from self-care and the health belief model were used to examine the motivations for malaria self-care among the adult population. Methods A qualitative study was conducted through eight focus group discussions with adult community members to explore their general opinions, views and perceptions of malaria and of its treatments. These groups were followed by 15 in-depth interviews of participants with a recent malaria experience to allow for an in-depth exploration of their self-care practices. The analysis followed principles of grounded theory and was conducted using Nvivo 9 qualitative data management software. Results The self-treatment of malaria at home was found to be a common practice among the study participants. The majority of the participants practiced self-medication with a painkiller as an initial response. The persistence and the worsening of the disease symptoms prompted participants to consider other self-care options. Perceptions that many malaria symptoms are suggestive of other conditions motivated participants to self-refer for malaria test. The accessibility of private laboratory facilities and drug shops motivated their use for malaria tests and for obtaining anti-malarial medicines, respectively. Self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy was common, motivated by their perceived effectiveness and availability. The perceived barriers to using the recommended combination treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, were related to the possible side-effects and to uncertainty about their effectiveness, and these doubts motivated some participants to consider self-medication with local herbs. Several factors were mentioned as motivating people for self-care practices. These included poor patient provider relationship, unavailability of medicine and the costs associated with accessing treatments from the health facilities. Conclusions Malaria self-care and self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy are common among adults, and are motivated by both individual characteristics and the limitations of the existing health care facilities. There is a need for public health interventions to take into account community perceptions and cultural schemas on malaria self-care practices. PMID:24986165

2014-01-01

62

Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise and Self Care for Chronic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is highly prevalent in older individuals and a major cause of morbidity, mortality, hospitalizations and disability. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise training and CHF self-care counseling have each been shown to improve clinical status and clinical outcomes in CHF. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of CR exercise training alone (without counseling) have demonstrated consistent improvements in CHF symptoms in addition to reductions of cardiac mortality and hospitalizations, although individual trials have been less conclusive of the latter two findings. The largest single trial, HF-ACTION, showed a reduction in the adjusted risk for the combined end point of all-cause mortality or hospitalization (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81-0.99; P=0.03). Quality of life and mental depression also improved. CHF-related counseling whether provided in isolation or in combination with CR exercise training improves clinical outcomes and reduces CHF-related hospitalizations We review current evidence on the benefits and risks of CR and self-care counseling in patients with CHF, provide recommendations for patient selection for third party payers, and discuss the role of CR in promoting self-care and behavioral changes. PMID:24622007

Ades, Philip A.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Balady, Gary J; Houston-Miller, Nancy; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Mancini, Donna M.; Rich, Michael W.

2014-01-01

63

Appalachian women: health beliefs, self-care, and basic conditioning factors.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to: (a) describe the health beliefs and self-care of Appalachian women; and (b) describe the relationships among health beliefs, self-care, and the basic conditioning factors of Appalachian women. Orem's SCDNT was used as the theory for this study. This study used qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The study participants included 129 Appalachian women. Health beliefs and self-care were described. Significant correlations were found between components of the basic conditioning factors and definition of health beliefs and self-care. The outcomes from this research study support that Appalachian women do participate in self-care in promoting their health. PMID:20860332

Slusher, Ida L; Withrow-Fletcher, Cora; Hauser-Whitaker, Mary

2010-01-01

64

Do Automated Calls with Nurse Follow-up Improve Self-Care and Glycemic Control among Vulnerable Patients with Diabetes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the effect of automated tele- phone assessment and self-care education calls with nurse follow-up on the management of diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 280 English- or Spanish-speaking adults with diabetes who were using hypogly- cemic medications and who were treated in a county health care system. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care or

John D. Piette; Morris Weinberger; Stephen J. McPhee; Connie A. Mah; Fredric B. Kraemer; Lawrence M. Crapo

2000-01-01

65

Do automated calls with nurse follow-up improve self-care and glycemic control among vulnerable patients with diabetes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the effect of automated telephone assessment and self-care education calls with nurse follow-up on the management of diabetes.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 280 English- or Spanish-speaking adults with diabetes who were using hypoglycemic medications and who were treated in a county health care system. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care or to receive an

John D Piette; Morris Weinberger; Stephen J McPhee; Connie A Mah; Fredric B Kraemer; Lawrence M Crapo

2000-01-01

66

Health Literacy Influences Heart Failure Knowledge Attainment but Not Self-Efficacy for Self-Care or Adherence to Self-Care over Time  

PubMed Central

Background. Inadequate health literacy may be a barrier to gaining knowledge about heart failure (HF) self-care expectations, strengthening self-efficacy for self-care behaviors, and adhering to self-care behaviors over time. Objective. To examine if health literacy is associated with HF knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care adherence longitudinally. Methods. Prior to education, newly referred patients at three HF clinics (N = 51, age: 64.7 ± 13.0 years) completed assessments of health literacy, HF knowledge, self-efficacy, and adherence to self-care at baseline, 2, and 4 months. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted alpha levels was used to test longitudinal outcomes. Results. Health literacy was associated with HF knowledge longitudinally (P < 0.001) but was not associated with self-efficacy self-care adherence. In posthoc analyses, participants with inadequate health literacy had less HF knowledge than participants with adequate (P < 0.001) but not marginal (P = 0.073) health literacy. Conclusions. Adequate health literacy was associated with greater HF knowledge but not self-efficacy or adherence to self-care expectations over time. If nurses understand patients' health literacy level, they may educate patients using methods that promote understanding of concepts. Since interventions that promote self-efficacy and adherence to self-care were not associated with health literacy level, new approaches must be examined. PMID:23984058

Chen, Aleda M. H.; Yehle, Karen S.; Albert, Nancy M.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mason, Holly L.; Murawski, Matthew M.; Plake, Kimberly S.

2013-01-01

67

The Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive Model to Facilitate Self-care of Patients with Diabetes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patient, in his multiple facets of citizen and user of services of health, needs to acquire during, and later in his majority of age, favorable conditions of health to accentuate his quality of life and it is the responsibility of the health organizations to initiate the process of support for that patient during the process of mature life. The provision of services of health and the relation doctor-patient are undergoing important changes in the entire world, forced to a large extent by the indefensibility of the system itself. Nevertheless decision making requires previous information and, what more the necessity itself of being informed requires having a “culture” of health that generates pro activity and the capacity of searching for instruments that facilitate the awareness of the suffering and the self-care of the same. Therefore it is necessary to put into effect a ICT model (hiPAPD) that has the objective of causing Interaction, Motivation and Persuasion towards the surroundings of the diabetic Patient facilitating his self-care. As a result the patient himself individually manages his services through devices and AmI Systems (Ambient Intelligent).

Vargas-Lombard, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Álvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Menasalva Ruíz, Ernestina

68

Self-care and Subjectivity among Mexican Diabetes Patients in the United States.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes is considered a public health crisis, particularly among people of Mexican descent in the United States. Clinical approaches to diabetes management increasingly emphasize self-care, which places responsibility for illness on individuals and mandates self-regulation. Using narrative and free-list data from a two-phase study of low-income first- and second-generation Mexican immigrants living with diabetes, we present evidence that self-care among our participants involves emotion regulation as well as maintenance of and care for family. These findings suggest, in turn, that the ideology of selfhood on which these practices are based does not correspond with the ideology of selfhood cultivated in the U.S. clinical sphere. Divergence between these ideologies may lead to self-conflict for patients and the experience of moral blame. We argue that our participants use their explanations of diabetes causality and control as a form of self-making, which both resists such blame and asserts an alternative form of selfhood that may align more closely with the values held by our Mexican-American participants. PMID:24942832

Seligman, Rebecca; Mendenhall, Emily; Valdovinos, Maria D; Fernandez, Alicia; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

2014-06-19

69

Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Testing of the Brazilian Version of the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index Version 6.2  

PubMed Central

Objective. To adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the SCHFI v 6.2. Methods. With the approval of the original author, we conducted a complete cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument (translation, synthesis, back translation, synthesis of back translation, expert committee review, and pretesting). The adapted version was named Brazilian version of the self-care of heart failure index v 6.2. The psychometric properties assessed were face validity and content validity (by expert committee review), construct validity (convergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis), and reliability. Results. Face validity and content validity were indicative of semantic, idiomatic, experimental, and conceptual equivalence. Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant though moderate correlation (r = ?0.51) on comparison with equivalent question scores of the previously validated Brazilian European heart failure self-care behavior scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original three-factor model as having the best fit, although similar results were obtained for inadequate fit indices. The reliability of the instrument, as expressed by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.40, 0.82, and 0.93 for the self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence scales, respectively. Conclusion. The SCHFI v 6.2 was successfully adapted for use in Brazil. Nevertheless, further studies should be carried out to improve its psychometric properties. PMID:24163765

Ávila, Christiane Wahast; Riegel, Barbara; Pokorski, Simoni Chiarelli; Camey, Suzi; Silveira, Luana Claudia Jacoby; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

2013-01-01

70

Narrated lived experiences of self-care and health among rural-living older persons with a strong sense of coherence  

PubMed Central

Sense of coherence (SOC), with its components comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness, is a major factor in the ability to cope successfully with stressors and is closely related to health. Qualitative studies related to SOC are scarce, and in this phenomenological interview study, self-care is investigated in relation to SOC. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older home-dwelling individuals living in rural areas and who have a strong SOC. Eleven persons with a mean age of 73.5 years and a SOC value in the range of 153–188, measured by Antonovsky’s 29-item SOC scale, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a phenomenological descriptive method. The findings showed that successful self-care involves having, when needed, contact with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and/or others, and being satisfied and positive and looking forward. Formal and informal caregivers should be conscious of the importance of motivating and supporting older individuals with respect to these dimensions of self-care. PMID:22241954

Söderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Olle

2011-01-01

71

Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-care: Results From the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the study:?African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect hypertension self-care of older parents and their adult children.?Design and Methods:?We recruited 95 African American older parent–adult child dyads with hypertension. We constructed separate logistic regression models for older parents and adult children with medication adherence as the outcome. Each model included individual demographic and health characteristics, the partner’s knowledge, and self-efficacy to manage hypertension and dyad-related characteristics.?Results:?Parents were more adherent with medication than adult children (67.4% vs. 49.5%, p < .012). There were no significant factors associated with parent medication adherence. In adjusted models for adult children, medication adherence was associated with child’s gender (odds ratio [OR] = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–8.59), parent beliefs that the child had better hypertension self-care (OR = 4.36, 95% CI = 1.34–14.17), and child reports that the dyad conversed about hypertension (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.18–10.29). Parental knowledge of hypertension and parent’s self-efficacy were weakly associated with adult children’s medication adherence (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.99–1.84 and OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 0.94–7.12, respectively).?Implications:?Interventions should consider targeting African American older adults to increase self-care knowledge and empower them as a primary influencer of hypertension self-care within the family. PMID:20864590

Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

2011-01-01

72

Sex Disparities in Diabetes Process of Care Measures and Self-Care in High-Risk Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic diabetic complications experience high morbidity and mortality. Sex disparities in modifiable factors such as processes of care or self-care activities have not been explored in detail, particularly in these high-risk patients. Sex differences in processes of care and self-care activities were assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of the Pathways Study, an observational cohort of primary care diabetic patients from a managed care organization (N = 4,839). Compared to men, women had decreased odds of dyslipidemia screening (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.62–0.85), reaching low-density lipoprotein goal (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58–0.86), and statin use (AOR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58–0.81); women had 19% greater odds of reaching hemoglobin A1c <7% (95% CI 1.02–1.41). There were no sex differences in hemoglobin A1c testing, microalbuminuria screening, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Women were less likely to report regular exercise but had better adherence to healthy diet, glucose monitoring, and self-foot examination compared to men. Patterns of sex differences were consistent in subjects with diabetic complications. Significant sex disparities exist in diabetes process of care measures and self-care, even amongst patients known to have chronic diabetic complications. PMID:23671877

Yu, Margaret K.; Lyles, Courtney Rees; Bent-Shaw, Luis A.; Young, Bessie A.

2013-01-01

73

Optimization of the average-dispersion range for long-haul dispersion-managed soliton systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider limitations on unfiltered transmission of dispersion-managed solitons, arising from the Gordon-Haus jitter, adjacent pulse interaction, and signal-to-noise degradation. We maximize the range of allowed values of average dispersion, thereby providing the first step in optimization of dispersion maps for wavelength-division-multiplexed lightwave systems. As specific examples, we consider dispersion maps made of several different types of optical fiber and

T. I. Lakoba; G. P. Agrawal

2000-01-01

74

Riding the dragon: enhancing resilient leadership and sensible self-care in the healthcare executive.  

PubMed

With challenges in the healthcare system growing, strengthened leader and organizational resilience is often overlooked as a factor that can support staff morale and sustain performance improvement and quality. Here we examine resilience-building practices related to self-awareness, alone time, mindfulness, and a healthy perspective. A key aspect of management resilience is weighing the costs and benefits to the executive personally and to the organization if the warning signals of impairment are left untended. To that end, we propose a leader self-care protocol, which even the busy healthcare executive can find time to undertake. Ifimplemented, the protocol will allow leaders to lessen their vulnerability to burnout and help teammates whose resilience may be stretched thin. Finally, we present healthy coping skills for daily stressors and for the sudden and overwhelming situations that can negatively affect resilience. PMID:24409599

Wicks, Robert J; Buck, Tina C

2013-01-01

75

Empowering Older Patients to Engage in Self Care: Designing an Interactive Robotic Device  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To develop and test an interactive robot mounted computing device to support medication management as an example of a complex self-care task in older adults. Method: A Grounded Theory (GT), Participatory Design (PD) approach was used within three Action Research (AR) cycles to understand design requirements and test the design configuration addressing the unique task requirements. Results: At the end of the first cycle a conceptual framework was evolved. The second cycle informed architecture and interface design. By the end of third cycle residents successfully interacted with the dialogue system and were generally satisfied with the robot. The results informed further refinement of the prototype. Conclusion: An interactive, touch screen based, robot-mounted information tool can be developed to support healthcare needs of older people. Qualitative methods such as the hybrid GT-PD-AR approach may be particularly helpful for innovating and articulating design requirements in challenging situations. PMID:22195203

Tiwari, Priyadarshi; Warren, Jim; Day, Karen

2011-01-01

76

Elective Self-Care Course Emphasizing Critical Reasoning Principles  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To create, implement, and assess a self-directed online course based on 3 critical reasoning principles to develop pharmacy students’ skills in literature appraisal, content, metacognition, and assessment. Design. Students completed 3 assignments for the course: compile a literature appraisal on a healthcare topic; plan learning objectives and meta-cognitive skills for a learning module; and create a case-based online lesson with multi-structured feedback. Assessment. An online exit survey evaluated students’ perceptions regarding development of ACE (agency, collaboration, expertise) principles and preparation for competency. Students reported acquisition of ACE principles and noted improvements in their learning approaches, sense of responsibility for individual and community learning, skills, and confidence. Conclusions. An online elective course in self-care addressed practice standards for patient safety, maintenance of competency, and interprofessional education by emphasizing critical reasoning skills. PMID:22171110

2011-01-01

77

The journey from self-care to GP care: a qualitative interview study of women presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the commonest acute infections presenting to primary care. Little is known of women's experiences of UTI; self-care strategies and key triggers for their consulting behaviour are also little known. Aim To explore women's experiences of self-care and their journey to GP care, when faced with symptoms of a UTI. Design of study Qualitative semi-structured interview study with women recruited to a larger UK trial of different management strategies for UTI. Setting General practices across four counties in southern England. Method Twenty-one women were interviewed about the experiences they had prior to their GP visit, self-care strategies, and triggers for help seeking. Interviews were analysed thematically, using principles of analytic induction. Results Women reported a process of evaluation, monitoring, re-evaluation, and, finally, consulting in order to meet their needs. Four key triggers for consulting were identified: failure to alleviate symptoms through self-care; symptom duration and escalation; impeding normal functioning and the fulfilment of social roles; and concern that it may be or become a serious illness. Conclusion Although UTI is often self-limiting, when taking patient histories and formulating their management strategies clinicians need to take into account women's often painful experience, their efforts to resolve symptoms prior to consulting, and their fears that the symptoms may indicate something more serious than a UTI. PMID:19566988

Leydon, Geraldine M; Turner, Sheila; Smith, Helen; Little, Paul

2009-01-01

78

How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

2011-01-01

79

Self-Care in the Classroom for Children with Chronic Illness: A Case Study of a Student with Cystic Fibrosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the essential self-care of an eight-year old second-grade student. This study illustrates a school counselor's use of a multimodal, behavioral intervention to increase the level of self-care in the classroom. Relevant reinforcements, individual and group counseling, and peer support, resulted in improved self-care. (RJM)

Cox, Julie Elizabeth Jonson

1994-01-01

80

[Human relationships in the work environment: lack of self-care among nursing professionals].  

PubMed

This is an exploratory descriptive study with a qualitative approach aimed at understanding the meaning of self care (or carelessness) among nursing professionals, as well as the relationship between taking care of others and self-care. The subjects were nursing professionals working in the health sector. Data were collected by structured and semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to the content analysis method. Results revealed that there is a lack of communication among members of the multi-professional team. This situation induces interpersonal dissatisfaction and competition in the work environment, leading to lack of self-care among nursing professionals. PMID:18183703

Baggio, Maria Aparecida

2007-09-01

81

African-Americans' perceptions of health care provider cultural competence that promote HIV medical self-care and antiretroviral medication adherence.  

PubMed

Most studies of cultural competence in healthcare examine healthcare providers' definitions of cultural competence practices. This study is unique in that it examines the relationship between African-American patients' perceptions of the cultural competence of their HIV healthcare providers and the adherence of these patients to medical self-care and antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cross-sectional, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted at the Ruth Rothstein CORE Center in Chicago, Illinois. The sample consisted of 202 HIV-positive African-Americans who completed surveys during clinic visits. Multiple measures were used, including the Patient Assessments of Cultural Competency survey instrument developed by the Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Medical self-care was measured using the advice and instructions scale and the self-care symptom management for people living with HIV/AIDS categorical scale. ART adherence was measured using the Adherence Behaviors Self-Report and Adherence Self-Report scales. The data revealed many significant correlations between variables. The more patients believed that providers should integrate culture in HIV treatment; the better their reported health (F1,138=0.151, P=0.05) and the more they followed their provider's advice and instructions (medical self-care; F1,138=0.029, P=0.05). Participants who trusted their providers engaged in more medical self-care (F1,138=0.280, P=0.01). More shared treatment decisions were reported among participants who had higher levels of education (F1,127=0.337, P=0.05). Findings of this study indicate the need for increased attention to the role of cultural competence in HIV/AIDS care. Understanding patient perceptions of provider cultural competence has the potential to improve HIV treatment adherence and health outcomes. PMID:23356569

Gaston, Gina B

2013-01-01

82

Double Wronskian solutions of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an averaged dispersion-managed fiber system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the presence of chirp and loss terms, which describes the optical solitons in an averaged dispersion-managed (DM) fiber system with fiber losses, is studied via symbolic computation. N-soliton solutions are constructed and verified with the Wronskian technique. Analytic one-, two- and three-soliton solutions are discussed. The soliton has a linear frequency chirp. Soliton width increases exponentially while soliton amplitude, energy and speed decrease exponentially along the DM fiber. As the chirp-loss coefficient increases, soliton width gets wider, while soliton amplitude, energy and speed become smaller. Interactions between the two solitons and among the three solitons are discussed and illustrated. For the larger initial soliton separations, interactions result in some smaller envelopes, which soon disappear due to the chirp-loss effect. When the soliton separations almost reaches zero, solitons interact quasi-periodically along the DM fiber, while each soliton undergoes broadening and decaying.

Liu, Rong-Xiang; Tian, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Zhong, Hui; Zhou, Hui-Ping

2013-07-01

83

A brief structured education programme enhances self-care practices and improves glycaemic control in Malaysians with poorly controlled diabetes.  

PubMed

We assessed the effectiveness of a brief structured diabetes education programme based on the concept of self-efficacy on self-care and glycaemic control using single-blind study design. One hundred and sixty-four participants with poorly controlled diabetes from two settings were randomized using computer-generated list into control (n = 82) and intervention (n = 82) groups, of which 151 completed the study. Monthly interventions over 12 weeks addressed the self-care practices of diet, physical activity, medication adherence and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). These self-care practices were assessed at Weeks 0 and 12 using pre- and post-questionnaires in both groups together with glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and diabetes knowledge. In the intention-to-treat analysis (n = 164), the intervention group improved their SMBG (P = <0.001), physical activity (P = 0.001), HbA1c (P = 0.03), diabetes knowledge (P = <0.001) and medication adherence. At Week 12, HbA1c difference adjusted for SMBG frequency, medication adherence and weight change remained significant (P = 0.03) compared with control group. For within group comparisons, diabetes knowledge (P = <0.001), HbA1c level (P = <0.001), SMBG (P = <0.001) and medication adherence (P = 0.008) improved from baseline in the intervention group. In the control group, only diabetes knowledge improved (P = <0.001). These findings can contribute to the development of self-management diabetes education in Malaysia. PMID:21715653

Tan, M Y; Magarey, J M; Chee, S S; Lee, L F; Tan, M H

2011-10-01

84

Measuring Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Care Behaviors of African Americans  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop and conduct preliminary psychometric assessment of instruments measuring knowledge and self-care practices regarding behaviors needed for blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans. Items were empirically derived and scored on a 7-point, bipolar scale. The instruments were evaluated in a sample of 306 community-dwelling African Americans. Results revealed acceptable reliability and validity of the BP Knowledge Scale. Results for the BP Self-Care Scale were mixed. A structural equation model of these scales, recorded BP, and covariates fit well. There was an unexpected positive correlation between self-care and BP suggesting a potential bi-directional relationship. The scales demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and, with minor revisions, may have clinical utility as measures of BP knowledge and self-care. PMID:18491375

Peters, Rosalind M.; Templin, Thomas N.

2008-01-01

85

Effects of a Safe Patient Handling and Mobility Program on Patient Self-Care Outcomes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) program on patient self-care outcomes. METHOD. We used a retrospective cohort design. Data were obtained from the electronic medical records of 1,292 patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation services. Self-care scores from the FIM™ for patients who participated in rehabilitation before implementation of an SPHM program were compared with the scores of patients who participated after implementation of the program. RESULTS. Patients who received inpatient rehabilitation services with an SPHM program were as likely to achieve at least modified independence in self-care as those who received inpatient rehabilitation services without an SPHM program. CONCLUSION. SPHM programs may not affect self-care performance in adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation services. However, more work must be done to define specific and effective methods for integrating patient handling technologies into occupational therapy practice. PMID:25184472

Shiyko, Mariya; Margulis, Heather; Campo, Marc

2014-01-01

86

Effect of healing touch training on self-care awareness in nurses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nursing focuses on supporting clients' health and health behaviors; however, they tend to exhibit unproductive behaviors when it comes to caring for themselves. As nurses' self-neglect can undermine client care, supporting nurses' self-care practices are expected to translate into clients' self-care. Healing Touch (HT) is one option for supporting nurses' self-care, as it is an accepted nursing practice and studies suggest that HT may have beneficial effects for those delivering it. This study examined the impact of a 2-day HT training on awareness of the need for self-care in nurses. HT training was offered as continuing education for 45 nurses at a Veteran's Administration hospital in Long Beach, CA. This mixed-methods study used a pre/post-test design to measure the effects of HT Level 1 training on nurses' self-care self-awareness. Independent samples t-tests and analyses of variance were used to detect whether any significant differences emerged based on participant demographic data. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests to determine whether participants' self-awareness changed over the study period. Effect size for any differences were calculated using Cohen's d. Open-ended responses were reviewed and common themes were identified related to what participants believed they learned and how it affected their care for themselves and their clients. Two increases were found to be significant and of sufficient power when comparing pre- to delayed post-test scores: physical self-care awareness (mean difference = 0.956, t(44) = 5.085, p = .000, r = .61) and professional self-care awareness (mean difference = .955, t(43) = 5.277, p = .000, r = .63). Qualitative findings suggested that changes in their awareness, self-directed practices, and patient care practices are anticipated, evident, and sustained based upon themes across the three tests. Nurses are advised to take a course that teaches specific self-care techniques and strategies and continue practicing, monitoring, and adapting the practice of self-care. Administrators are advised to recognize the importance of self-care for healthcare staff, institute programs that encourage such activities, and model their own self-care.

Black, Pegi

87

Effects of Mobile Phone Usage in Supporting Leg Lymphedema Self-care  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to implement self-care support for leg lymphedema patients using mobile phones and to investigate the effects thereof. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with lymphedema following female genital cancer surgery (stages I to II) who were referred from a nearby gynecologist were randomly divided into groups for routine self-care support (control group) and mobile telephone-assisted support (intervention group) and received the self-care support appropriate to their group. The (total) circumference of the leg with edema, FACT-G (cancer patient QOL), MHP (mental health status), and self-care self-assessment were comparatively investigated at three months after the initial interview. Results: No significant reduction in the (total) circumferences of legs with edema was confirmed in either the control or intervention group. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of the activity circumstances and FACT-G mental status at three months after the initial interview. The intervention group was also significantly better in psychological, social, and physical items in the MHP. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of circumstances of self-care implementation at three months after the initial interview. Additionally, comparison of the circumstances of implementation for different aspects of self-care content showed that the intervention group was significantly better at selecting shoes, observing edema, moisturizing, self-drainage, wearing compression garments, and implementing bandaging. Conclusion: Compared with routine self-care support, mobile telephone-assisted support is suggested to be effective for leg lymphedema patients’ QOL and mental health status as well as their self-care behaviors. PMID:25648778

Okutsu, Ayako; Koiyabashi, Kikuyo

2014-01-01

88

Young Children's Self?care and Independence Tasks: Applying Self?Efficacy Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Psychologist, Albert Bandura, defines self?efficacy as the individual's belief in his or her own ability to perform a behavior. Self?efficacy for some self?care and independence tasks occurs in an early stage of young children's development. As caregivers take more responsibility for young children they must be aware of the child's need to become self?efficacious. Several self?care and independence tasks

Verna Hildebrand

1988-01-01

89

Nutritional self-care in two older Norwegian males: a case study  

PubMed Central

Background: Knowledge about how to support nutritional self-care in the vulnerable elderly living in their own homes is an important area for health care professionals. The aim of this case study was to evaluate the effects of nutritional intervention by comparing perceived health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and nutritional risk in two older home-dwelling individuals before, during, and after intervention and to describe their experiences of nutritional self-care before and after intervention. Methods: A study circle was established to support nutritional self-care in two older home-dwelling individuals (?65 years of age), who participated in three meetings arranged by health professionals over a period of six months. The effects of this study circle were evaluated using the Nutritional Form For the Elderly, the Self-care Ability Scale for the Elderly (SASE), the Appraisal of Self-care Agency scale, the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and responses to a number of health-related questions. Qualitative interviews were performed before and after intervention to interpret the changes that occurred during intervention. Results: A reduced risk of undernutrition was found for both participants. A higher total score on the SASE was obtained for one participant, along with a slightly stronger preference for self-care to maintain sufficient food intake, was evident. For the other participant, total score on the SASE decreased, but the SOC score improved after intervention. Decreased mobility was reported, but this did not influence his food intake. The study circle was an opportunity to express personal views and opinions about food intake and meals. Conclusion: An organized meeting place for dialogue between older home-dwelling individuals and health care professionals can stimulate the older person’s engagement, consciousness, and learning about nutritional self-care, and thereby be of importance in reducing the risk of undernutrition. PMID:23807843

Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

90

The Health Deviation of Post-Breast Cancer Lymphedema: Symptom Assessment and Impact on Self-Care Agency  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women world-wide, affecting 1 of 8 women during their lifetimes. In the US alone, some 2 million breast cancer survivors comprise 20% of all cancer survivors. Conservatively, it is estimated that some 20-40% of all breast cancer survivors will develop the health deviation of lymphedema or treatment-related limb swelling over their lifetimes. This chronic accumulation of protein-rich fluid predisposes to infection, leads to difficulties in fitting clothing and carrying out activities of daily living, and impacts self-esteem, self-concept, and quality of life. Lymphedema is associated with self-care deficits (SCD) and negatively impacts self-care agency (SCA) and physiological and psychosocial well-being. Objectives of this report are two-fold: (1) to explore four approaches of assessing and diagnosing breast cancer lymphedema, including self-report of symptoms and the impact of health deviations on SCA; and (2) to propose the development of a clinical research program for lymphedema based on the concepts of Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT). Anthropometric and symptom data from a National-Institutes-of-Health-funded prospective longitudinal study were examined using survival analysis to compare four definitions of lymphedema over 24 months post-breast cancer surgery among 140 of 300 participants (all who had passed the 24-month measurement). The four definitions included differences of 200 ml, 10% volume, and 2 cm circumference between pre-op baseline and/or contralateral limbs, and symptom self-report of limb heaviness and swelling. Symptoms, SCA, and SCD were assessed by interviews using a validated tool. Estimates of lymphedema occurrence varied by definition and time since surgery. The 2 cm girth change provided the highest estimation of lymphedema (82% at 24 months), followed by 200 ml volume change (57% at 24 months). The 10% limb volume change converged with symptom report of heaviness and swelling at 24 months (38-39% lymphedema occurrence), with symptom report being the earliest predictor of lymphedema occurrence than any other measurement. Findings verify the importance of subjective assessment by symptom report of limb changes and SCD following breast cancer treatment as an essential tool in early detection and treatment of lymphedema. Findings also support the importance of pre-operative baseline measurements, symptom history, and SCA for later post-op comparisons. These preliminary findings underscore the importance of strengthening SCA by educating breast cancer survivors. Self assessment, early detection, and early treatment hold the best promise for optimal management of this chronic condition, limiting detrimental effects on SCA, and improving quality of life and physiological and psychosocial well-being. These findings lay the foundation for a clinical research program in breast cancer lymphedema based on SCDNT in which education in and awareness for self-report of lymphedema-associated symptoms is a first step in screening. Increasing patient knowledge through education will increase SCA by identifying ane providing information to meet self-care requisites (SCR) related to the health deviation of lymphedema. The nurse has the opportunity to assist patients in developing self-care actions as needed to meet universal and health deviation therapeutic requisites to address self-care demands following breast cancer treatment. PMID:22844654

Armer, Jane M.; Henggeler, Mary H; Brooks, Constance W.; Zagar, Eris A.; Homan, Sherri; Stewart, Bob R.

2010-01-01

91

Developing Compassionate Self-care Skills in Persons Living with HIV: a Pilot Study to Examine Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy Feasibility and Acceptability  

PubMed Central

Background Self-care skills for persons living with HIV (PLWH) are needed to better cope with the common symptoms and emotional challenges of living with this chronic illness. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy (MABT) for individuals receiving medical management for HIV at an outpatient program. Setting A nonprofit outpatient day program that provided medical management to low-income individuals with HIV. Research Design A one group pre–post study design, nine participants were recruited to receive eight weekly MABT sessions of 1.25 hours each. Intervention MABT is designed to facilitate emotion regulation through teaching somatically-based self-care skills to respond to daily stressors. Main Outcome Measures To assess participant characteristics and study feasibility, a battery of health questionnaires and one week of wrist actigraphy was administered pre- and postintervention. A satisfaction survey and written questionnaire was administered postintervention to assess MABT acceptability. Results The results demonstrated recruitment and retention feasibility. The sample had psychological and physical health symptoms that are characteristic of PLWH. MABT acceptability was high, and participants perceived that they learned new mind-body self-care skills that improved HIV symptoms and their ability to manage symptoms. Conclusion The positive findings support a larger future study to examine MABT efficacy to improve coping with HIV symptoms among PLWH. PMID:23730396

Price, Cynthia J.; Diana, Taibi M.; Smith-DiJulio, Kathleen L.; Voss, Joachim G.

2013-01-01

92

The effect of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes as the most common diseases caused by metabolic disorders is an important global challenge. This is a disease that requires lifelong self-care because self-care and improved quality of life is cost effective. This study is aimed to determine the impact of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c, type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental study done on 138 diabetic female patients in Zahedan city, in 2011 (1390). This sampling method of patients was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of the Diabetes Center, at Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital (AS) in Zahedan. Samples were divided randomly in to two groups: 69 cases and 69 controls. Data collected included validity and reliability confirmed questionnaire. Checklist was based on patients ‘performance of reporting and (HbA1c) testing. Before the educational intervention, the checklist of questions for recording the (HbA1c) test for both the groups were completed, and study samples received 5 sessions of education (with the group discussion and film show) for a month. However, the control group received only routine training. Three months after the educational intervention, both groups completed the questionnaire and the check list and data using SPSS software and the appropriate tests were analyzed. Results: Findings showed that the mean domain scores of area of knowledge, attitude and practice educational groups, were recorded as (46.6 ± 8.57, 46.5 ± 0.86 and 29.06 ± 10.02), respectively. And after education scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were recorded as (52.80 ± 2.20, 12.98 ± 1.02 and 39.69 ± 4.74), respectively, and in study group significant difference (P < 0/001) was seen. Conclusion: Self-care training in striation leads to improve knowledge, attitude and self-care performance of the study samples and also improves the average (HbA1c). Because it seems to increase the active participation of learners in their care that they have experienced with this training method and their motivation enhanced them to learn better self-care. So this type of care education should be given to the attention of nurses and healthcare's staff. PMID:25540796

Zareban, Iraj; Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Haidarnia, Alireza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

93

Unhealthy Substance Use Behaviors as Symptom-Related Self-Care in HIV/AIDS  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430

Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen

2014-01-01

94

A preliminary study of a cloud-computing model for chronic illness self-care support in an underdeveloped country  

PubMed Central

Background Although interactive voice response (IVR) calls can be an effective tool for chronic disease management, many regions of the world lack the infrastructure to provide these services. Objective This study evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of an IVR program using a cloud-computing model to improve diabetes management in Honduras. Methods A single group, pre-post study was conducted between June and August 2010. The telecommunications infrastructure was maintained on a U.S. server, and calls were directed to patients’ cell phones using VoIP. Eighty-five diabetes patients in Honduras received weekly IVR disease management calls for six weeks, with automated follow-up emails to clinicians, and voicemail reports to family caregivers. Patients completed interviews at enrollment and a six week follow-up. Other measures included patients’ glycemic control (A1c) and data from the IVR calling system. Results 55% of participants completed the majority of their IVR calls and 33% completed 80% or more. Higher baseline blood pressures, greater diabetes burden, greater distance from the clinic, and better adherence were related to higher call completion rates. Nearly all participants (98%) reported that because of the program, they improved in aspects of diabetes management such as glycemic control (56%) or foot care (89%). Mean A1c’s decreased from 10.0% at baseline to 8.9% at follow-up (p<.01). Most participants (92%) said that if the service were available in their clinic they would use it again. Conclusions Cloud computing is a feasible strategy for providing IVR services globally. IVR self-care support may improve self-care and glycemic control for patients in under-developed countries. PMID:21565655

Piette, John D.; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O.; Ganser, Martha; Mohamed, Muhima; Marinec, Nicolle; Krishnan, Sheila

2013-01-01

95

Changes in Habits Related to Self-care in Dementia: The Nursing Home Versus Adult Day Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the changes that occur for older persons with dementia in the practice of self-care routines. This study assesses the concordance of past and current self-care practices of day care and nursing home persons using spouse reports, the degree of spouse awareness of these changes, and spouse perception of how important self-care practices had been to their

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Barbara Jensen

2007-01-01

96

Being old and living alone in urban areas: the meaning of self-care and health on the perception of life situation and identity  

PubMed Central

Background Living alone in urban areas when getting old is an important and necessary field for research as the growth of the urban population worldwide increases, and due to the fact that people live longer. How older people manage their self-care and health, and how this might influence their identity and life situation may be very important to understand when planning for a new, upcoming older generation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. Methods A phenomenological–hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur was applied. Nine single-living older persons in urban areas, 70–82 years of age, and identified to be in good health were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a phenomenological–hermeneutic method. Results Strength and a time dimension characterized the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity as narrated by the group of single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. The informants were, as older individuals, caring, autonomous, and robust characters, who had gone through difficult times in life, and in a resilient way moved towards a new future. They valued and were grateful for what they had learned in their lives and could go forward and still experience and explore. Conclusion Self-care is significant in the perception of life situation and identity among single urban older people in this study, and characterized by strength, temporality, gratitude, autonomy, and natality. Society needs to acknowledge the strengths and capabilities of older people to a greater extent. PMID:23847434

Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

97

Caring for oneself to care for others: physicians and their self-care  

PubMed Central

It is well known that clinicians experience distress and grief in response to their patients' suffering. Oncologists and palliative care specialists are no exception since they commonly experience patient loss and are often affected by unprocessed grief. These emotions can compromise clinicians' personal well-being, since unexamined emotions may lead to burnout, moral distress, compassion fatigue, and poor clinical decisions which adversely affect patient care. One approach to mitigate this harm is self-care, defined as a cadre of activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain personal well-being throughout life. This article emphasizes the importance of having a self-care and self-awareness plan when caring for patients with life-limiting cancer and discusses validated methods to increase self-care, enhance self-awareness and improve patient care. PMID:23967495

Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Morrison, Laura J.; Carey, Elise; Bernacki, Rachelle; O'Neill, Lynn; Kapo, Jennifer; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S.; Thomas, Jane deLima

2014-01-01

98

Pediatric perspectives on diabetes self-care: a process of achieving acceptance.  

PubMed

We conducted this qualitative study to explore children's and adolescents' perspectives about diabetes self-care, their knowledge of diabetes, and their emotions associated with having the disease. Drawing on the new sociological approach that acknowledges children's competence in discussing complex issues that concern them, we conducted individual interviews with a cross-sectional sample of 48 patients between the ages of 5 and 18 years. We recruited participants from a diabetes outpatient clinic within a large pediatric hospital in one of Canada's major urban centers. In this article, we present data from the following major themes: self-care, knowledge, and emotions. Through an in-depth analysis of these integrated themes, we offer validation that emotional support, along with disease education, provides supportive conditions for engaging in self-care and a process of acceptance. PMID:25267509

Koller, Donna; Khan, Noshin; Barrett, Shaun

2015-02-01

99

Caring for oneself to care for others: physicians and their self-care.  

PubMed

It is well known that clinicians experience distress and grief in response to their patients' suffering. Oncologists and palliative care specialists are no exception since they commonly experience patient loss and are often affected by unprocessed grief. These emotions can compromise clinicians' personal well-being, since unexamined emotions may lead to burnout, moral distress, compassion fatigue, and poor clinical decisions which adversely affect patient care. One approach to mitigate this harm is self-care, defined as a cadre of activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain personal well-being throughout life. This article emphasizes the importance of having a self-care and self-awareness plan when caring for patients with life-limiting cancer and discusses validated methods to increase self-care, enhance self-awareness and improve patient care. PMID:23967495

Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Morrison, Laura J; Carey, Elise; Bernacki, Rachelle; O'Neill, Lynn; Kapo, Jennifer; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S; Thomas, Jane de Lima

2013-06-01

100

Self-Reported Sleep Difficulties and Self-Care Strategies Among Rural Older Adults  

PubMed Central

This study examined the use of self-care strategies to address difficulty sleeping among community-dwelling older adults. Data were collected from a series of 18 questionnaires administered to 195 rural African American and white older adults in North Carolina. Participants reported whether they had experienced difficulty sleeping and strategies used to respond to the symptom. The most widely used strategies included ignoring the symptom, staying in bed or resting, and praying. Herb and supplement use were not reported. Ethnicity, income, and education were associated with use of specific self-care strategies for sleep. This variation suggests that older adults may draw on cultural understandings to interpret the significance of difficulty sleeping and influence their use of self-care strategies, including complementary and alternative medicine use. This information may enable health care providers to communicate with the older patients about sleep difficulty strategies to minimize sleep problems. PMID:24647377

Sandberg, Joanne C.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Quandt, Sara A.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Nguyen, Ha T.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

101

Self-care and yoga-academic-practice collaboration for occupational health.  

PubMed

High rates of stress and burnout among nurses and other health care providers justify the exploration of innovative interventions designed to reduce stress and promote self-care among this population. A growing body of evidence supports the physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga and suggests the potential for yoga to support self-care and reduce stress among health care providers. This article describes the formation of an academic-practice collaboration to use yoga as a model for occupational health and wellness among nurses employed at a tax-supported urban health system. In addition, recommendations for program sustainability over time are discussed. PMID:24328918

Alexander, Gina

2013-12-01

102

The multiple-scale averaging and dynamics of dispersion-managed optical solitons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-scale averaging is applied to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with rapidly varying coefficients, and use the results to analyze pulse propagation in an optical fiber when a periodic dispersion map is employed. The effects of fiber loss and repeated amplification are taken into account by use of a coordinate transformation to relate the pulse dynamics in lossy fibers to that

Tian-Shiang Yang; William L. Kath; Sergei K. Turitsyn

1999-01-01

103

Teaching Self-Care Through Mindfulness Practices: The Application of Yoga, Meditation, and Qigong to Counselor Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faculty in counseling training programs often give voice to the importance of self-care for students during the training period and into practice after training is completed. However, few programs specifically address this issue in their curricula. To address this perceived need, a course was developed to provide students with (a) personal growth opportunities through self-care practices and (b) professional growth

John Chambers Christopher; Suzanne E. Christopher; Tim Dunnagan; Marc Schure

2006-01-01

104

Basic need status and health-promoting self-care behavior in adults.  

PubMed

Health-promoting self-care behavior emphasizing positive lifestyle practices may improve the health and quality of life of adults. One variable that may influence health-related decisions is the status of basic needs as described by Maslow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among basic need satisfaction, health-promoting self-care behavior, and selected demographic variables in a sample of community-dwelling adults. A convenience sample of 84 community-dwelling adults was recruited to complete the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and demographic information. Results of the study indicated that self-actualization, physical, and love/belonging need satisfaction accounted for 64% of the variance in health-promoting self-care behavior. The findings of this study are consistent with Maslow's theory of human motivation and suggest that persons who are more fulfilled and content with themselves and their lives, have physical need satisfaction, and have positive connections with others may be able to make better decisions regarding positive health-promoting self-care behaviors. PMID:11077548

Acton, G J; Malathum, P

2000-11-01

105

Symptom monitoring, alleviation, and self-care among Mexican Americans during cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Monitoring the occurrence and severity of symptoms among Mexican American adults undergoing cancer treatments, along with their self-care to alleviate symptoms, are understudied; the current study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. A total of 67 Mexican Americans receiving outpatient oncology treatments in the southwestern United States participated. Instruments included a patient-report checklist, the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC), the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods tool, and a demographic and health information form. At least 40% of participants reported the occurrence of 12 symptoms: hair loss, feeling sluggish, nausea, taste change, loss of appetite, depression, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, difficulty concentrating, constipation, skin changes, and numb fingers and toes. More than a third also reported pain, vomiting, decreased interest in sexual activity, cough, and sore throat. The helpful self-care strategies reported included diet and nutrition changes; lifestyle changes; and mind, body control, and spiritual activities. Patient report of symptoms during cancer treatments was facilitated by the use of the TRSC. Patients use symptom alleviation strategies to help relieve symptoms during their cancer treatment. The ability to perform appropriate, effective self-care methods to alleviate the symptoms may influence adherence to the treatment regimen. PMID:25253108

Williams, Phoebe D; Lantican, Leticia S; Bader, Julia O; Lerma, Daniela

2014-10-01

106

Effect of nursing care on self-care efficiency of patients with hemiparesis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the role of a nurse in rehabilitation of patients with hemiparesis. The study covered 60 patients--21 males and 39 females, aged 39-65, who underwent cerebral stroke and retained good verbal contact. While the patients were performing various instrumental-manual activities they were trained for self-care activities, and the effects were analysed. Self-care activities included hygienic activities and control of the body functions, such as: control of cardiovascular parameters, consumption of meals, control of sphincter muscles, prevention of muscular contractures and atrophy, as well as bed-sores and hemi-neglect syndrome. At Stage 1 of the study a considerable percentage of patients (approx. 50%) represented a lower category of self-care, while at Stage 2 the greatest number of patients attained a higher category (approx. 73.0%). In general, a considerable increase was noted in the percentage of patients who were efficient with respect to self-care, i.e. by 23.0%. PMID:12898817

Adamczyk, Kazimiera; Lorencowicz, Regina; Zajko, Anna; Rejszel, Elzbieta

2002-01-01

107

Heart Failure Symposium: Promoting Knowledge and Self-Care: The Keys to  

E-print Network

Heart Failure Symposium: Promoting Knowledge and Self-Care: The Keys to a Woman's Healthy Heart This is the Fourth Annual UConn Health Center Heart Failure Symposium. This year we will focus on women and heart disease. The program will include presentations on heart disease and healthy living for women

Kim, Duck O.

108

Self Care Resource Corner: Its Impact on Appropriate Health Service Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to intervene before students enter the medical care system at the University of Michigan, a Self Care Resource Corner and accompanying materials were developed and implemented. The objective was to encourage students to view themselves as the primary decision makers for health-related conditions before seeking care from clinicians.…

McClaran, Diane M.; Breakey, Robin Sarris

109

Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

2008-01-01

110

Self-Care and the Qualitative Researcher: When Collecting Data Can Break Your Heart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducting qualitative research on topics that are emotionally laden can have a powerful impact on the researcher. Recent literature addresses the essential nature of the emotional connection that must be part of the qualitative research process. However, for the most part, it neglects the issue of self-care strategies for the researcher that are…

Rager, Kathleen B.

2005-01-01

111

Adherence to Self-Care Interventions for Depression or Anxiety: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesise and describe adherence to intervention in published studies of supported self-care for depression or anxiety, and to identify participant characteristics associated with higher adherence. Methods: We searched the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PSYCINFO for the period from January…

Simco, Russell; McCusker, Jane; Sewitch, Maida

2014-01-01

112

Embodied Learning and Patient Education: From Nurses' Self-Awareness to Patient Self-Caring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is intended as a clear and practical introduction to use of a scientific perspective on embodied learning. It looks to embodied cognition and embodied cognitive science to explore education for self-care. The author presents a neurobiologic understanding of embodied learning to bridge adult education to the science-driven world of…

Swartz, Ann L.

2012-01-01

113

Self-Care Strategies Are Critical to Disease Manaagment in Home Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate improvement in 6 self-care data points in patients admited to home care with a primary diagnosis of heart failure and whether improvement of these data points would lead to the endpoint of decrease in hospitalization and emergent visit rates. Background: Heart Failure is one of the greatest social and economic burdens

B. K. Papasifakis; S. Vanderveen

2009-01-01

114

Effect of Self - Care Education on Quality of Life in Patients With Primary Hypertension: Comparing Lecture and Educational Package  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypertension is a dangerous risk factor for public health. It profoundly affects the patients’ quality of life. However, there is lack of agreement on the best method for self-care management in patients with hypertension. Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the effect of lecture and educational pamphlets on quality of life (QOL) in patients with primary hypertension. Patients and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed on 90 patients with chronic primary hypertension referred to two outpatient clinics in Kashan city. Patients were randomly divided into three groups including lecture group, educational package group, and control group. The participants’ quality of life was measured using the SF-36 questionnaire at the beginning of the study, and two months later. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Chi-Square tests. Results: No significant differences were observed between the three groups for demographics characteristics and QOL before the intervention except for marital status. Mean scores of QOL dimensions of the intervention groups were increased at the end of the study, except for the dimension of bodily pain. Tukey post-Hoc test showed that except for general health, the two intervention groups were not significantly different in other dimensions, and significant differences were observed between the control group and the two intervention groups (P < 0.05). At start and the end of the study, the mean differences in the general health dimension in three groups were 2.25 ± 0.1, 0.07 ± 0.01, and -1.70 ± 0.01 respectively. There were significant differences among groups (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Lecture and educational package can both improve some dimensions of the QOL in patients with hypertension. However, as pamphlets are cheap and easy to use, this method may be used as an effective method for self-care education in health care settings in Iran, where the system is faced with nursing shortage. PMID:25414882

Aghajani, Mohamad; Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Neda; Kafaei Atrian, Mahbube; Raofi, Zahra; Abedi, Fatemeh; Naeimi Vartoni, Sajad; Soleimani, Akbar

2013-01-01

115

Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active. Methods Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi. Results Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They acknowledged physical and mental limitations, yet they felt they were in good health. Conclusion Health professionals and politicians should identify places where fellowship and relationships can be built, as well as encourage older people to use their competence by engagement in volunteering. These interventions are important to support older people’s self-care and health. This may also be a way to reduce ageism in Western societies. PMID:23390363

Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

116

The impact of education on chronic kidney disease patients' plans to initiate dialysis with self-care dialysis: A randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of education on chronic kidney disease patients' plans to initiate dialysis with self-care dialysis: A randomized trial.BackgroundCompared with in-center hemodialysis, self-care dialysis (including home and self-care hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) is less resource intensive and associated with similar clinical outcomes. However, utilization of self-care dialysis has been very low. We performed a randomized controlled trial in predialysis patients

BRADEN J MANNS; KEN TAUB; CARMEN VANDERSTRAETEN; HEATHER JONES; CYNTHIA MILLS; MARILYN VISSER; KEVIN MCLAUGHLIN

2005-01-01

117

Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural dwelling women and men. Method Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results Both older women and men rely heavily on over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies self-care; professional health care is typically sought when self-care is not effective. However, relative to men, women were more knowledgeable about different approaches to self-care, especially home remedies, they used a wider range of self-care activities, and they placed greater priority on self-care over professional health care. Discussion The structure of older women’s and men’s self-care domain of health lifestyle is similar. However, there are subtle differences in health lifestyle that are likely embedded in gendered role behavior and may contribute to women’s greater health complaints. PMID:21632439

Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

118

Effect of psycho-educative intervention on knowledge about illness and self-care in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

In view of growing incidences of schizophrenia, a common mental disorder, present study enrolled 60 such patients (30 each in experimental and control groups) to evaluate pre- and post-intervention knowledge of schizophrenic patients and their self-care performance among in-patients of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health in Tejpur (Assam). An association between knowledge and self-care performance was also studied. The findings revealed deficiencies in self-care performance and areas of knowledge among schizophrenic patients. However, the psycho-education intervention was effective on both the counts. PMID:23534179

Baruah, Arunjyoti; Bhaduri, Aparna; Deuri, S K

2012-01-01

119

[Self-care in family caregiver of dependent adults or elderly persons after hospital discharge].  

PubMed

This article presents an understanding concerning self-care in family caregivers according to Dorothea Orem's theory. Resulting from a qualitative research based on Grounded Theory, this work uses the techniques of home visiting, field notes and semistructured interviews with 11 caregivers after the hospitalization of a family member in a teaching Hospital located in Minas Gerais. Four categories were found and among them a central category is highlighted from which some facilities, difficulties and strategies for selfcare in caregiver were analyzed. Considering the difficulties, insufficient time for healthcare was noticed whereas the support from other family members appeared as a facility. The main strategies were: faith as a support; shift work in healthcare and community resources. This study demonstrated that hospital discharge guidelines and nursing follow-up after discharge were responsible for positive contributions to self-care in caregivers helping them to overcome their difficulties and enhancing their potentialities. PMID:25590890

Costa, Sibely Rabaça Dias da; Castro, Edna Aparecida Barbosa de

2014-12-01

120

Posthospital setting, resource utilization, and self-care outcome in older women with hip fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare posthospital rehabilitation resource utilization and self-care outcome of women with hip fracture discharged to three types of setting (home, inpatient rehabilitation, skilled nursing).Design: Prospective cohort study. Patient interviews in the hospital, 2 and 6 months after fracture; hospital record reviews.Setting: Two general community and two teaching hospitals.Patients: Consecutive sample of community-living women with hip fracture, aged 65

Sandra J. Levi

1997-01-01

121

Cardiac rehabilitation exercise and self-care for chronic heart failure.  

PubMed

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is highly prevalent in older individuals and is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, hospitalizations, and disability. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise training and CHF self-care counseling have each been shown to improve clinical status and clinical outcomes in CHF. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of CR exercise training alone (without counseling) have demonstrated consistent improvements in CHF symptoms in addition to reductions in cardiac mortality and number of hospitalizations, although individual trials have been less conclusive of the latter 2 findings. The largest single trial, HF-ACTION (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training), showed a reduction in the adjusted risk for the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality or hospitalization (hazard ratio: 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 0.99; p = 0.03). Quality of life and mental depression also improved. CHF-related counseling, whether provided in isolation or in combination with CR exercise training, improves clinical outcomes and reduces CHF-related hospitalizations. We review current evidence on the benefits and risks of CR and self-care counseling in patients with CHF, provide recommendations for patient selection for third-party payers, and discuss the role of CR in promoting self-care and behavioral changes. PMID:24622007

Ades, Philip A; Keteyian, Steven J; Balady, Gary J; Houston-Miller, Nancy; Kitzman, Dalane W; Mancini, Donna M; Rich, Michael W

2013-12-01

122

Self-care and anticipated transition into retirement and later life in a Nordic welfare context  

PubMed Central

Few studies have appeared in the health care literature on the meaning of transition into retirement and later life. However, this predictable-involuntary transition may influence personal health and well-being, and studying it from a self-care perspective could be useful. The aim of this study was to illuminate aspects of self-care in a group of middle-aged individuals in relation to their anticipated transition into retirement in the Nordic welfare context. A total of 13 individuals, aged 55 to 65 years, were randomly chosen from the total number of inhabitants in three municipalities in mid-west Sweden. Conversational interviews took place, during which the informants shared important events in their lives that had occurred from early childhood until the present time, together with thoughts about their anticipated future developmental transition into later life. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. After content analyses and interpretation, a comprehensive picture of the phenomenon was revealed. The results showed that there were opportunities, expectations, wishes, concerns, and worries related to the transition into retirement and old age among informants from both rural and urban municipalities. Self-care, in connection with this, depended on motivating and demotivating factors. Autonomy and mature dependence seemed to be positive driving forces for reaching a successful transition into later life. Supporting autonomy should be a way of facilitating the transition into retirement and later life. PMID:21847349

Söderhamn, Olle; Skisland, Anne; Herrman, Margaretha

2011-01-01

123

Self-Care Associated with Home Exercises in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to verify self-care guidelines together with lower limb home exercises alter ankle and foot plantar pressure and alignment in patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) measuring health and sociodemographic factors. The health factors analyzed were sensitivity and circulation aspects, risk rating, and neuropathy symptom score, ankle and foot alignment (photogrammetry), plantar pressures, and postural stability (baropodometry) before and after administering these guidelines and home exercises in 97 patients type 2 DM during 10 months. The self-care guidelines and exercises changed the forefoot alignment (Right Foot – Initial vs Final, p?=?0.04; Left Foot, P<0.01), the center of the force displacement in the mediolateral (Right Foot - Initial versus Final, p?=?0.02; Left Foot, P<0.01), and the anterior-posterior (Right foot - Initial versus Final, p?=?0.01) direction, and body balance (Initial versus Final, p?=?0.02). There was no change in the remaining assessed parameters. Self-care associated with the guidelines for home exercises for the lower limbs in patients with type 2 DM are effective in maintaining and improving the alignment of the feet, mediolateral stability and prevention of complications. Trial Registration The Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry RBR-8854CD PMID:25479542

Iunes, Denise H.; Rocha, Carmélia B. J.; Borges, Nathália C. S.; Marcon, Caroline O.; Pereira, Valéria M.; Carvalho, Leonardo C.

2014-01-01

124

Urban and Suburban Differences in Hypertension Trends and Self-Care: Three Population-Based Cross-Sectional Studies from 2005-2011  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to compare hypertension trends in the urban and suburban population, and to examine the use of several self-care behaviors among patients who were aware of their hypertension. Methods We examined the data from three cross-sectional adult populations obtained in 2005, 2008, and 2011, in Beijing. Results Our analyses indicated that from 2005 to 2011 the standardized rate of hypertension increased from 31.9% to 36.0% (P <0.001) among urban adults, and was relatively stable (40.8% -40.2%) among suburban adults (P = 0.02). About 10% of the patients reported having taken measures to control their weight for hypertension management. As compared to the other patients, the female patients in the urban areas reported the highest rate of regular BP measurement (52.6%). In addition, the patients who reported taking medication regularly increased among the males and females. Most of the women reported nonsmoking (?95%) and alcohol abstinence (?90%). The trend of nonsmoking decreased among the urban males. In contrast, the prevalence of nonsmoking increased among the suburban males, though the trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.055). Further, the patient-reported alcohol abstinence was found to exhibit a decreasing trend among the males. Conclusions We observed an increase in the hypertension prevalence from 2005 to 2011. The rates remained higher for suburban adults than for urban adults. Females generally had better self-care ability as compared to male patients. Further research is needed to promote self-care behaviors in hypertensive patients, especially for male patients. PMID:25665069

Li, Gang; Hu, Huanhuan; Dong, Zhong; Xie, Jin; Zhou, Ying

2015-01-01

125

Ability for self-care in urban living older people in southern Norway  

PubMed Central

Background The number of older people living in urban environments throughout the world will increase in the coming years. There is a trend in most European countries towards improved health among older people, and increased life expectancy for both women and men. Norway has experienced less increase in life expectancy than some other European countries, and it is therefore important to investigate older urban Norwegian people’s health and ways of living in a self-care environment, with special regard to health promotion. Aim The aim of this study was to describe self-care ability among home-dwelling older (65+ years) individuals living in urban areas in southern Norway in relation to general living conditions, sense of coherence (SOC), screened nutritional state, physical activity, perceived self-reported health, mental health, and perceived life situation. Methods In 2010, a randomized sample of 1044 men and women aged 65+ years who were living in urban areas in southern Norway answered a postal questionnaire consisting of five instruments, some background variables, and 17 health-related questions. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used in the analyses of the data. Results The mean age of the participants was 74.8 years (SD = 7.1). Eighty-three percent of the participants had higher abilities to care for themselves. Self-care agency, perceived good health, being active, being frequently active, good mental health, not being at risk of undernutrition, and satisfaction with life were all positively related to self-care ability. Negative factors were perceived helplessness, receiving home nursing, being anxious, and being at a more advanced age. People aged 85+ years had worse mental health, were less physically active, and more at risk of undernutrition. Conclusion Health professionals should focus on the health-promoting factors that reinforce older people’s ability to care for themselves, and be aware of important symptoms and signs associated with a reduction in a person’s self-care ability. Politicians should assume responsibility for health care with a special regard to senior citizens. PMID:22536079

Sundsli, Kari; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

2012-01-01

126

Health promotion through self-care and community participation: Elements of a proposed programme in the developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during 1970s, primarily out of concerns about the limitation of professional health system. Since then there have been rapid growth in these areas in the developed world, and there is evidence of effectiveness of such interventions. These areas are still in infancy in the developing countries. There is a window of opportunity for promoting self care and community participation for health promotion. Discussion A broad outline is proposed for designing a health promotion programme in developing countries, following key strategies of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion and principles of self care and community participation. Supportive policies may be framed. Self care clearinghouses may be set up at provincial level to co-ordinate the programme activities in consultation with district and national teams. Self care may be promoted in the schools and workplaces. For developing personal skills of individuals, self care information, generated through a participatory process, may be disseminated using a wide range of print and audio-visual tools and information technology based tools. One such potential tool may be a personally held self care manual and health record, to be designed jointly by the community and professionals. Its first part may contain basic self care information and the second part may contain outlines of different personally-held health records to be used to record important health and disease related events of an individual. Periodic monitoring and evaluation of the programme may be done. Studies from different parts of the world indicate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of self care interventions. The proposed outline has potential for health promotion and cost reduction of health services in the developing countries, and may be adapted in different situations. Summary Self care, community participation and health promotion are emerging but dominant areas in the developed countries. Elements of a programme for health promotion in the developing countries following key principles of self care and community participation are proposed. Demonstration programmes may be initiated to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this programme before large scale implementation. PMID:15086956

Bhuyan, Khanindra Kumar

2004-01-01

127

A Study of the Relationship Between Self-Care, Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout Among Hospice Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice care professionals (HCPs) experience a large number of stressors in their work settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-care, compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among HCPs. Thirty-seven HCPs were surveyed regarding their levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. Respondents also reported the types of self-care activities in which they took

Karen Alkema; Jeremy M. Linton; Randall Davies

2008-01-01

128

Mobile app self-care versus in-office care for stress reduction: a cost minimization analysis.  

PubMed

We calculated the cost of providing stress reduction care with a mobile phone app (Breathe2Relax) in comparison with normal in-person care, the standard method for managing stress in military and civilian populations. We conducted a cost-minimization analysis. The total cost to the military healthcare system of treating 1000 patients with the app was $106,397. Treating 1000 patients with in-office care cost $68,820. Treatment using the app became less expensive than in-office treatment at approximately 1600 users. From the perspective of the civilian healthcare system, treatment using the app became less expensive than in-office treatment at approximately 1500 users. An online tool was used to obtain data about the number of app downloads and usage sessions. A total of 47,000 users had accessed the app for 10-30?min sessions in the 2.5 years since the release of the app. Assuming that all 47,000 users were military beneficiaries, the savings to the military healthcare system would be $2.7 million; if the 47,000 users were civilian, the savings to the civilian healthcare system would be $2.9 million. Because of the large number of potential users, the total societal savings resulting from self-care using the app may be considerable. PMID:25316037

Luxton, David D; Hansen, Ryan N; Stanfill, Katherine

2014-12-01

129

Mobile Phone-Based Video Messages for Diabetes Self-Care Support  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether mobile phone-based, one-way video messages about diabetes self-care improve hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Methods This was a 1-year prospective randomized trial with two groups. The active intervention lasted 6 months. The study enrolled 65 people with A1C >8.0% who were established (>6 months) patients in the endocrinology clinics of the Walter Reed Health Care System. Participants were randomized to receive “usual care” or self-care video messages from their diabetes nurse practitioner. Video messages were sent daily to cell phones of study participants. Hemoglobin A1c and SMBG data were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results Participants who received the messages had a larger rate of decline in A1C than people who received usual care (0.2% difference over 12 months, adjusting for covariates; p = .002 and p = .004 for the interaction between time and group and for the quadratic effect of time by group, respectively). Hemoglobin A1c decline was greatest among participants who received video messages and viewed >10 a month (0.6% difference over 12 months, adjusting for covariates; p < .001 for the interaction between time and group and the quadratic effect). Self-monitoring of blood glucose metrics were not related to the intervention. Conclusions A one-way intervention using mobile phone-based video messages about diabetes self-care can improve A1C. Engagement with the technology is an important predictor of its success. This intervention is simple to implement and sustain. PMID:22538140

Bell, Amanda M.; Fonda, Stephanie J.; Walker, M. Susan; Schmidt, Virginia; Vigersky, Robert A.

2012-01-01

130

Factors associated with self-care activities among adults in the United Kingdom: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The Government has promoted self-care. Our aim was to review evidence about who uses self-tests and other self-care activities (over-the-counter medicine, private sector, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), home blood pressure monitors). Methods During April 2007, relevant bibliographic databases (Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Sociological Abstracts, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Arthritis and Complementary Medicine Database, Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Pain Database) were searched, and potentially relevant studies were reviewed against eligibility criteria. Studies were included if they were published during the last 15 years and identified factors, reasons or characteristics associated with a relevant activity among UK adults. Two independent reviewers used proformas to assess the quality of eligible studies. Results 206 potentially relevant papers were identified, 157 were excluded, and 49 papers related to 46 studies were included: 37 studies were, or used data from questionnaire surveys, 36 had quality scores of five or more out of 10, and 27 were about CAM. Available evidence suggests that users of CAM and over-the-counter medicine are female, middle-aged, affluent and/or educated with some measure of poor health, and that people who use the private sector are affluent and/or educated. Conclusion People who engage in these activities are likely to be affluent. Targeted promotion may, therefore, be needed to ensure that use is equitable. People who use some activities also appear to have poorer measures of health than non-users or people attending conventional services. It is, therefore, also important to ensure that self-care is not used as a second choice for people who have not had their needs met by conventional services. PMID:19344526

Ryan, Angela; Wilson, Sue; Taylor, Aliki; Greenfield, Sheila

2009-01-01

131

The Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Inventory: Development and Psychometric Testing with Mexican Americans  

PubMed Central

Context Type 2 diabetes is prevalent throughout the world. In previous studies of Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes, 95-97% of those sampled reported having symptoms they believe were caused by diabetes and most self-treated their symptoms. To more accurately capture Mexican Americans’ symptom prevalence and their self-treatments, the Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Instrument (DSSCI) was adapted from the Diabetes Self-Care Instrument. Objectives This paper describes the modification process used to perfect the DSSCI for use in improving self-care among people with Type 2 diabetes. Methods This instrumentation study used qualitative and quantitative methods. The study was completed in four phases that used focus groups, cognitive interviews, and survey administration. Four convenience samples were drawn from community-based Mexican American adults, aged 25-75, with type 2 diabetes in an urban area and a rural location in Texas. Results Phase I: Seven focus groups (n=45) generated data for revising items. Phase II: Cognitive interviews with 16 participants were used to evaluate four revisions of the questionnaire. Phase III: Surveys were administered to 81 participants. Total number of symptoms on the DSSCI correlated with scores on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (r=.65, p < .001), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised Diabetes symptom subscale (r=.57, p < .001), and Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life scale (r= -.42, p < .001). Minor revisions followed. Phase IV: Test-retest stability was demonstrated (n = 44). Conclusion The DSSCI is a culturally-relevant, sound measure of Mexican Americans’ diabetes symptoms and the actions they take to address them. PMID:21276705

García, Alexandra A.

2010-01-01

132

Pronounced impairment of everyday skills and self-care in posterior cortical atrophy.  

PubMed

Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visual dysfunction and parietal, occipital, and occipitotemporal atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of PCA and typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) on everyday functional abilities and neuropsychiatric status. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised was given to carers of 32 PCA and 71 tAD patients. PCA patients showed significantly greater impairment in everyday skills and self-care while the tAD group showed greater impairment in aspects of memory and orientation, and motivation. We suggest that PCA poses specific challenges for those caring for people affected by the condition. PMID:25096622

Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Foxe, David; Hodges, John; Crutch, Sebastian J

2015-01-01

133

An Internet-Based Counseling Intervention With Email Reminders that Promotes Self-Care in Adults With Chronic Heart Failure: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a public health priority. Its age-standardized prevalence has increased over the past decade. A major challenge for the management of CHF is to promote long-term adherence to self-care behaviors without overtaxing available health care resources. Counseling by multidisciplinary health care teams helps to improve adherence to self-care behaviors and to reduce the rate of death and hospitalization. In the absence of intervention, adherence to self-care is below recommended standards. Objective This trial aims to establish and evaluate a Canadian e-platform that will provide a core, standardized protocol of behavioral counseling and education to facilitate long-term adherence to self-care among patients with CHF. Methods Canadian e-Platform to Promote Behavioral Self-Management in Chronic Heart Failure (CHF-CePPORT) is a multi-site, double blind, randomized controlled trial with a 2 parallel-group (e-Counseling + Usual Care vs e-Info Control + Usual Care) by 3 assessments (baseline, 4-, and 12-month) design. We will identify subjects with New York Heart Association Class II or III systolic heart failure from collaborating CHF clinics and then recruit them (n=278) by phone. Subjects will be randomized in blocks within each site (Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver). The primary outcome will be improved quality of life, defined as an increased number of subjects with an improvement of ?5 points on the summary score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We will also assess the following secondary outcomes: (1) diet habits, depression, anxiety, smoking history, stress level, and readiness for change using self-report questionnaires, (2) physical activity level, current smoking status, and vagal-heart rate modulation by physiological tests, and (3) exercise capacity, prognostic indicators of cardiovascular functioning, and medication adherence through medical chart review. The primary outcome will be analyzed using generalized estimation equations with repeated measures on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes will be analyzed using repeated-measures linear mixed models with a random effects intercept. All significant main effects or interactions in the statistical models will be followed up with post hoc contrasts using a Bonferroni correction with a 2-sided statistical significance criterion of P<.05. Results This 3.5-year, proof-of-principle trial will establish the e-infrastructure for a pan-Canadian e-platform for CHF that is comprised of a standardized, evidence-based protocol of e-Counseling. Conclusions CHF-CePPORT is designed to improve long-term adherence to self-care behaviors and quality of life among patients with CHF. It will demonstrate a distinct Canadian initiative to build capacity for preventive eHealth services for patients with CHF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01864369; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01864369 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Iiv6so7E). PMID:24480783

Payne, Ada YM; Ross, Heather; White, Michel; D'Antono, Bianca; Chan, Sammy; Barr, Susan I; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Nigam, Anil; Perreault, Sylvie; Farkouh, Michael; McDonald, Michael; Goodman, Jack; Thomas, Scott; Zieroth, Shelley; Isaac, Debra; Oh, Paul; Rajda, Miroslaw; Chen, Maggie; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liu, Sam; Zbib, Ahmad

2014-01-01

134

Evaluation of two self-care treatments for prevention of vaginal candidiasis in women with HIV.  

PubMed

Vaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common concern for women living with HIV infection. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of two self-care approaches to prophylaxis of VC among HIV-infected women, weekly intravaginal application of Lactobacillus acidophilus or weekly intravaginal application of clotrimazole tablets, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. VC was defined as a vaginal swab positive for Candida species in the presence of signs/symptoms of vaginitis and the absence of a diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis or bacterial vaginosis. Thirty-four episodes of VC occurred among 164 women followed for a median of 21 months. The relative risk of experiencing an episode of VC was 0.4 (95% CI = 0.2, 0.9) in the clotrimazole arm and 0.5 (95% CI = 0.2, 1.1) in the Lactobacillus acidophilus arm. The estimated median time to first episode VC was longer for clotrimazole (p = .03, log rank test) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (p = .09, log rank test) compared with placebo. Vaginal yeast infections can be prevented with local therapy. Education about self-care for prophylaxis of VC should be offered to HIV-infected women. PMID:11486720

Williams, A B; Yu, C; Tashima, K; Burgess, J; Danvers, K

2001-01-01

135

An Active Learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine Session in a Self-Care Therapeutics Class  

PubMed Central

Objective. To provide an interactive, non-supplement based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) session in a self-care therapeutics class and to evaluate the effect of the session on pharmacy students’ perceptions and knowledge of CAM. Design. Second professional year pharmacy students enrolled in a required 3-credit course titled Self-Care Therapeutics participated in an active learning session on CAM. Students physically engaged in 5 separate active learning CAM sessions including massage therapy, Tai Chi, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, and Reiki. Assessment. Students were assessed on both knowledge and perception of CAM. Concept mastery was assessed using a written examination and individual readiness assurance tests (iRAT) and team readiness assurance tests (tRAT). Perception of CAM was measured using both a presession and a postsession survey. Conclusion. Participating in an intensive, active learning CAM session provided an opportunity to increase students’ knowledge of CAM and an effective strategy for providing the learner with the experience to better envision incorporation into patient therapies. PMID:25258446

Nemec, Eric C.

2014-01-01

136

Chronic Illness Self-care and the Family Lives of Older Adults: A Synthetic Review Across Four Ethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on family and social ties among older ethnic minority men and women with the literature on chronic illness self-care among elders in these groups, in order to increase understanding of social influences on self-care behavior, raise questions for future research, and inform culturally appropriate interventions to maximize the health-promoting potential of social relationships. The paper presents demographic and chronic illness prevalence information, and then summarizes literature about patterns of chronic illness self-care behaviors for older African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, and American Indians in the U.S. For each group, the sociological literature about residential, cultural, and socioeconomic patterns, family lives, and other social ties is then reviewed, and the self-care literature that has accounted for these patterns is discussed. Finally, six themes are outlined and related questions are identified to further illuminate the social context of older adults’ chronic illness self-care. PMID:20177963

Gallant, Mary P.; Spitze, Glenna; Grove, Joshua G.

2010-01-01

137

Occupational conditions, self-care, and obesity among clergy in the United States.  

PubMed

Prior research has shown that a variety of occupational conditions such as long work hours are associated with increased likelihood of obesity. In this study, we use the specific case of the clergy to explore how occupational conditions are linked to increased or decreased odds of being obese. We hypothesize that stressful conditions are associated with increased odds of obesity and that self-care practices are associated with decreased odds. Using the 2008/9 U.S. Congregational Life Survey's national sample of clergy from multiple religious traditions, we find support for our hypotheses. Clergy who experience more stress, work more hours, or are bi-vocational have higher odds of obesity. Those who take a day off each week, have taken a sabbatical, or are involved in a support group experience lower odds. For Protestant clergy, being involved in a support group or taking a day off moderates the association between certain stressful occupational conditions and obesity. PMID:25432617

Ferguson, Todd W; Andercheck, Brita; Tom, Joshua C; Martinez, Brandon C; Stroope, Samuel

2015-01-01

138

Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

2009-01-01

139

A Competency-Based Approach to Teaching Professional Self-Care: An Ethical Consideration for Social Work Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating material on professional self-care into social work course content is valuable to the education of neophyte social work practitioners. This article presents a review of the literature on professional burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue, including the risk factors associated with the experience of these…

Newell, Jason M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

2014-01-01

140

The Use of Self-Care Agency To Meet the Need for Solitude and Social Interaction by Chronically Ill Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of chronic illness on the individual's ability to meet his or her need for solitude and for social interaction by exploring how chronically ill individuals used their own ability (self-care agency) to meet these needs. Subjects were 90 chronically ill older persons, 30 of whom were living at home, 30 who lived in a…

Burns, Margaret A.

141

Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

142

Self-care among caregivers of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kakola location, Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out in Kakola Location of Nyando District in Kenya. The aim of study was to determine the factors influencing the practice of self-care among caregivers for person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) as well as their practice of self-care. A study by World Health Organization approximated that in developing countries, the need for long-term care will increase by as much as 40% in the coming years. HIV/AIDS has been cited as one of the challenges in long-term care. As demand for long-term care increases, the assumption that extended family networks can meet all the needs of their members deteriorates. The community-based survey employed descriptive cross-sectional design, involving primary caregivers of PLWHAs in Kakola location who had practiced care giving for more than 3 months. A household survey was conducted with 150 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 11.0. Simple frequencies and cross tabulations to compare variables were produced. Microsoft Excel was used to produce tables and graphs. Majority of the respondents 124 (82.7%) were female, while 26 (17.3%) were male. Self-care elements most practiced by the respondents in all the age categories were infection prevention and nutritional care. Female respondents had the highest proportions in all the practices of self-care. The results also showed that gender, relationship of patient to caregiver and marital status were the main demographic factors that significantly influenced the practice of self-care among caregivers. There was a significant relationship between main sources of income of caregivers with the practice of self-care. The study also revealed that respondents with no education had the lowest number of respondents practicing all the six practices of self-care and belonging to a support group. Recommendations for the study included, forging partnerships among stakeholders, training of caregivers and review of the home-based care policy. PMID:24090080

Geteri, Leila Moraa; Angogo, Evelyn Mandela

2013-01-01

143

Quaternion Averaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

2007-01-01

144

Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care. Methods An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons’ own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks. Results The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care. Conclusion Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health. PMID:25670905

Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika

2015-01-01

145

PS3-51: Variation in the Self-Care Behaviors of Healthcare Personnel: Physicians, Nurses, and Others  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The personal self-care and health habits of healthcare personnel may influence patients’ own health-related behaviors including smoking, physical activity, weight management, and alcohol consumption. This study describes the degree to which healthcare providers adhere to recommended health-enhancing behaviors, and whether adherence differs by occupation. Methods A prospective cohort of healthcare personnel was enrolled in fall 2010 from two large health care organizations: Scott & White Healthcare, and Kaiser Permanente Northwest. Participants were physicians, nurses, and other healthcare personnel providing direct patient care and working full time. Potential participants were invited to take part in a study of “respiratory illness and healthcare workers.” Participation was voluntary. The study tool was a self-administered internet-based questionnaire which participants completed at home or on facility computers. The questionnaire included items on demographic information, occupational factors, and health-related behaviors. Upon completion of the enrollment questionnaire, participants received a small incentive in the form of cash or gift card. Results Data are presented for 1701 participants who completed the enrollment survey. Participants were grouped in three occupational categories: Physicians (n = 175), Nurses (n = 484), and Other Providers (n = 404). Significant differences emerged in demographic characteristics, with physicians being younger, more likely to be male, married, having a higher median household income, and higher level of education (P <0.001). In terms of body mass index (BMI) physicians were more likely to report a normal weight (55%), and were the least likely group to be obese (10%; P <0.001). By contrast, nurses and other healthcare providers were evenly distributed along three BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, obese). Physicians were more likely to report engaging in exercise at least once per week (85%) than the other two occupational categories (74%; p < 0.005). Approximately 5% of nurses and nearly 10% of other healthcare providers reported smoking, compared to less than 1% of physicians (P <0.001). No differences were found in the self-report alcohol consumption by occupational category. Conclusions Results suggest the need to target healthcare personnel in health promotion interventions, particularly those focused on weight management and physical activity.

Lindberg, Nangel; Naleway, Allison; Ball, Sarah; Gaglani, Manjusha

2013-01-01

146

Average Speed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is not an inquiry activity but will help students understand the meaning of average velocity. Students do not easily understand from a textbook that an object's velocity changes over a period of acceleration. They have difficulty understanding wh

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

147

The role of information in supporting self-care in vascular conditions: a conceptual and empirical review.  

PubMed

Self-care has the potential to make a significant contribution to vascular conditions, but engagement with self-care support has been limited. Lack of relevant information is highlighted by patients and policy-makers as an important barrier to effective self-care, and information provides a potentially efficient platform for changing behaviour. However, work within the social sciences has generally seen information as a necessary but insufficient driver of health behaviours. Furthermore, some groups (such as the socially disadvantaged) are expected to be less amenable to information interventions. We conducted an integrated conceptual and empirical review on information-based interventions for people with vascular disease (diabetes, heart disease and kidney disease). We reviewed conceptual and empirical work concerning the role and impact of information in self-care support to generate an explanatory framework to determine why information was effective or ineffective in encouraging self-care in patients with vascular conditions. This involved mapping relevant theories and models linking information and self-care. We also explored published systematic reviews of educational interventions in diabetes, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease to examine the role of information and evidence concerning its effectiveness and impact in different patient populations. The conceptual review identified variation among information interventions in terms of type, function, and their relationship to behaviour change techniques and psychological mediators of behaviour change. Key moderators of the effect of information included types of disorder, and patient capacity and resources. A wealth of educational interventions exists for diabetes and heart conditions, but the precise components of these interventions that are effective are difficult to identify. There is little evidence concerning optimal ways of tailoring interventions for socially disadvantaged groups other than ethnic minorities. A focus on printed information may not provide access to effective methods of information delivery (e.g. tailored information, use of narratives and user generated content). Developing a framework for the effective use of information needs to take account the full range of the factors identified. PMID:21158998

Blickem, Christian; Bower, Peter; Protheroe, Joanne; Kennedy, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne

2011-09-01

148

Does participatory decision making improve hypertension self-care behaviors and outcomes?  

PubMed

This study examined patients' perceptions of their providers' participatory decision making (PDM) style and hypertension self-care behaviors and outcomes. Five hundred fifty-four veterans with hypertension enrolled in the Veterans' Study to Improve the Control of Hypertension rated providers' PDM styles using a validated 3-item instrument. Behaviors assessed included presence of a home blood pressure monitor, monitoring frequency, and self-reported antihypertensive medication adherence. Overall, veterans with hypertension rated providers as highly participatory. In adjusted analyses, a lower PDM score was associated with decreased odds of having a home monitor (odds ratio, 0.90 per 10-point decrement in PDM score; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.98) but not with monitoring frequency, adherence, or blood pressure control. Providers' involvement of patients in decision making, reflected in ratings of PDM style, may be important to securing patients' participation in their own care, but alone this factor seems insufficient. No relationship between PDM score and blood pressure control was observed. PMID:17485968

Cho, Alex H; Voils, Corrine I; Yancy, William S; Oddone, Eugene Z; Bosworth, Hayden B

2007-05-01

149

A Randomized Trial Comparing Yoga, Stretching, and a Self-care Book for Chronic Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic low back pain is a common problem lacking highly effective treatment options. Small trials suggest that yoga may have benefits for this condition. This trial was designed to determine whether yoga is more effective than conventional stretching exercises or a self-care book for primary care patients with chronic low back pain. Methods 228 adults with chronic low back pain were randomized to 12 weekly classes of yoga (n=92) or conventional stretching exercises (n=91) or a self-care book (n=45). Back-related functional status (modified Roland Disability Questionnaire, 23-point scale) and bothersomeness of pain (11-point numerical scale) at 12 weeks were the primary outcomes. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 26 weeks by interviewers unaware of treatment group. Results After adjustment for baseline values, 12-week outcomes for the yoga group were superior to those for the self-care group (mean difference for function = ?2.5 [95% CI= ?3.7 to ?1.3; P<0.001]; mean difference for symptoms = ?1.1 [95% CI= ?1.7 to ?0.4; P<0.001]). At 26 weeks, function for the yoga group remained superior (mean difference = ?1.8 [95% CI= ? 3.1 to ?0.5; P<0.0001]). Yoga was not superior to conventional stretching exercises at any time point. Conclusions Yoga classes were more effective than a self-care book, but not stretching classes, in improving function and reducing symptoms due to chronic low back pain, with benefits lasting at least several months. PMID:22025101

Sherman, Karen J.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Wellman, Robert D.; Cook, Andrea J.; Hawkes, Rene J.; Delaney, Kristin; Deyo, Richard A.

2012-01-01

150

The chemistry laboratory. Development of average, fixed, and variable costs for incorporation into a management control system.  

PubMed

In order to estimate real cost savings achievable from reductions in laboratory test volume and in order to provide a management tool to help achieve such savings, we developed a management system for our chemistry laboratory. The system estimates the fixed costs (i.e., equipment, direct overhead, and indirect overhead costs), the variable costs (i.e., labor and supplies), and the total costs for each of the 81 tests performed in our hospital's chemistry laboratory. A monthly management report compares predicted changes in total variable costs (based on test volume) to actual variable cost changes. One useful insight from the system is that substantial savings may be realized from reducing low-volume, high-variable cost tests that are not normally the target of test-reducing strategies. The savings per test not ordered was estimated to be $5.24 for the low-volume, high-variable cost tests but only $0.45 for the high-volume, low-variable cost tests, nearly a 12-fold difference. A 10% volume reduction of the former (a reduction of only 6,400 tests annually) would achieve 63% of the savings from a 10% volume reduction of the latter (a reduction of 120,000 tests annually). An effective management reporting system, which tracks actual cost savings, is probably necessary to achieve these savings. PMID:3695648

Trisolini, M G; McNeil, B J; Komaroff, A L

1987-04-01

151

Relationships Among Symptoms, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Daily Activities, Self-Care, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors  

E-print Network

cancer survivors and their relationship to the BDNF Val66Met SNP (a biomarker), daily activities, quality of life and other selected subject characteristics and health variables. In addition, self-care methods used by survivors to alleviate symptoms...

Heinze, Sylvia B.

2012-08-31

152

Feasibility of Mobile Phone-Based Management of Chronic Illness  

PubMed Central

According to the CDC, chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes cause 75% of healthcare spending in the United States and contribute to nearly seven in ten American deaths. However, despite the prevalence and high-cost of chronic disease, they are also among the most preventable of health problems1. How can we use technology to improve self-care, reduce costs, and lessen the burden on medical professionals? Devices to help manage chronic illness have been marketed for years, but are these specialized devices really necessary? In this paper, the authors identify the aspects of the major chronic illnesses that most need to be controlled and monitored in the US today and explore the feasibility of using current mobile phone technology to improve the management of chronic illness. Here we show that even the average mobile phone is capable of improving the management of all relevant health features in some way. PMID:21347080

Smith, Joshua C.; Schatz, Bruce R.

2010-01-01

153

Estimation of AOFP and average reservoir pressure from transient flow-after-flow test data: A reservoir management practice  

SciTech Connect

A method for analyzing transient flow-after-flow (FAF) deliverability test data from both gas and oil wells is presented. The paper describes the derivation and application of this method to several field and synthetic cases. The method solves the transient absolute open flow potential (AOFP) and average reservoir pressure ({bar p}) by evaluating the parameters of the Forchheimer (a and b) and the empirical backpressure (C and n) equations together with {bar p}. Consequently, this new method allows one to describe the stabilized deliverability equation from transient test data, given reasonable estimates of the reservoir drainage area and shape. All the resulting formulations are flexible enough to handle the pressure, pressure-squared, and pseudopressure approach for gas wells. This methodology is not restricted to gas wells as oil wells also lend themselves to the proposed analysis procedures. For oil wells, the authors used the pressure approach for single-phase flow and the pressure-squared approach for two-phase flow. In the proposed technique, a well`s orientation is unimportant. For example, a horizontal well`s deliverability may also be characterized using the new method. In addition, layered reservoirs may be analyzed with the proposed technique. They also show that this method can be extended to injection wells. Synthetic data were initially used to verify the method. Field data from several gas and oil wells, including a horizontal well and gas injector, were then used to demonstrate the method`s application. In all cases, the new method shows good agreement with the results obtained from conventional methods, both in terms of AOFP and {bar p}.

Kabir, C.S.; King, G.R.

1995-12-31

154

Cognitive status and foot self care practice in overweight diabetics, engaged in different levels of physical activity  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes along with chronic hyperglycemia may result in cognitive impairment. This can negatively affect the patient’s adherence to diabetes treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive status and foot self care practice in overweight type 2 diabetic patients who exercised regularly and those who did not. Methods The comparative study was conducted on 160 consecutive patients from an outpatient diabetes clinic. They were divided into two groups: The active group comprised of 80 patients engaged in regular exercise for at least 15–30 minutes, three times per week during the past 6 months. The control group included 80 patients who had not exercised regularly for the past 12 months, matched for sex, age, education, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1C and body mass index (BMI: 25–29.9Kg/m2). Data on the patients’ demographic information, foot care practice and physical activity habits were gathered using a questionnaire. The Mini Mental Status examination (MMSE) was applied to assess cognitive status. Results MMSE score was significantly higher in the active group. A significant negative correlation was noted between MMSE scores and BMI in the control group (r =??0.2, P =?0.03). A significant difference was noted in the four domains of foot self care practice between the active (4.77?±?0.77) and control (4.45?±?0.83) groups (P self care practice in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24495364

2014-01-01

155

A multiple case study of rape victim advocates' self-care routines: the influence of organizational context.  

PubMed

This study assumes that rape victim advocates who provide community outreach services to victimized women must adjust to a heightened awareness of sexual violence to do their jobs. Using qualitative methodology, this multiple case study explored rape victim advocates' strategies for incorporating repeated exposure to sexual assault into their daily lives as well as ways that organizations can support such endeavors. Findings suggest that advocates' self-care routines draw upon various personal resources (i.e., cognitive, physical, social, spiritual, verbal), and serve 2 roles for coping with rape-related pain: (a) cathartic releasing of traumatic material, and (b) improving capacity to integrate the traumatic material into one's life. Additionally, over 20 organizational characteristics that workers perceive to be supportive (e.g., weekly meetings, flexible hours) were identified. Nonparametric and categorical statistical analyses were used to analyze the relationship between organizational support and self-care routines, finding that advocates working in organizations with higher levels of support utilize more strategies that are integrative in nature. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12188058

Wasco, Sharon M; Campbell, Rebecca

2002-10-01

156

Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts—Cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum  

PubMed Central

Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others’ anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice. PMID:22053162

Martin Salzmann-Erikson, R.N.; Henrik Eriksson, R.N.T.

2011-01-01

157

Strategies for self-management of HIV-related anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the frequency and effectiveness of commonly used strategies for self management of anxiety in an international sample of 502 participants from Norway (n=42, 8%), Taiwan (n=35, 7%), and the US (n=426, 85%). An activities checklist summarized into five categories of self-care behaviours including activities\\/thoughts, exercise, medications, complementary therapies, and substance use determined self-care behaviours. Ratings of frequency

J. K. Kemppainen; L. S. Eller; E. Bunch; M. J. Hamilton; P. Dole; W. Holzemer; K. Kirksey; P. K. Nicholas; I. B. Corless; C. Coleman; K. M. Nokes; N. Reynolds; L. Sefcik; D. Wantland; Y-F Tsai

2006-01-01

158

"When it's just me at home, it hits me that I'm completely alone": an online survey of adolescents in self-care.  

PubMed

The present study examined adolescents' experiences of loneliness and solitude in their responses to an online survey on self-care. Both quantitative (n = 272) and qualitative (n = 150) responses were coded for these feelings when home alone. Results indicate that adolescents experience the duality of aloneness, including both positive solitude and negative loneliness. Adolescents' responses range from embraced solitude and self-care to feelings of loneliness and rejection of time by themselves. Adolescents reporting loneliness were significantly less likely to enjoy being home alone during the day and at night (p < or = .001). Also, gender, age, and emotions such as fear, boredom, and separation anxiety are associated with loneliness among adolescents in self-care. Interventions to increase connectedness and combat loneliness during out-of-school hours are recommended. PMID:22303617

Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

2012-01-01

159

Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)  

PubMed Central

Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

Uchmanowicz, Izabella; ?oboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; ?oboz-Grudzie?, Krystyna

2014-01-01

160

Stability of parent report on Mobility and Self-Care item scores of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory.  

PubMed

Secondary analysis using data from a clinical trial was performed to evaluate the stability of individual items of the Mobility and Self-Care functional skills scales of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Parents of 113 children aged 1-6 years old with cerebral palsy completed the PEDI twice by questionnaire 6 months apart. An item was classified "unstable" if the score changed from capable to unable. The number of children with more than five unstable items and the number of items with more than five children having unstable scoring patterns were calculated. Nineteen children (17%) and 13 items had unstable scoring patterns. The majority of PEDI items demonstrated stability of parent scoring. Examination of unstable items suggests that parents may need assistance in understanding the difference between "usual" and "best" performance, interpreting descriptors such as "thoroughly," and maintaining the same context reference for outdoor mobility items. PMID:23931334

Worth, Melanie; Darrah, Johanna; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Wiart, Lesley; Law, Mary

2014-08-01

161

A Small Group Assignment Gives Students a Novel Opportunity to Demonstrate Current Clinical Controversies in a Self-Care Course  

PubMed Central

Objective. To design and implement a small-group assignment on current event, nonprescription drug therapy questions in a self-care course, and to evaluate student performance in predefined areas. Design. Students self-identified a current clinical question in nonprescription therapy, searched primary literature, and presented their findings to peers in class. Assessment. Students were evaluated using a grading rubric on communication skills, ability to retrieve and analyze biomedical literature, and ability to formulate and defend an evidence-based recommendation. Overall, students performed well in all competencies, with grades ranging from 84% to 100% (median=92%). Faculty members completing a postassignment survey gave positive feedback regarding the educational value of the assignment and the ease of use of the designed rubric. Conclusion. A course assignment that involved peer-to-peer presentations and dealt exclusively with applicable, relevant, clinical questions regarding nonprescription drug therapy gave students a novel opportunity to practice drug information skills.

2014-01-01

162

Breathing Words Slowly: Creative Writing and Counselor Self-Care--The Writing Workout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional counselors work daily with compassion and connection, yet must also manage trauma and pain. Clients' stories of loneliness, fear, abuse, and anger frequently fill the landscape of a counselor's work. Counselors may experience burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious trauma by failing to recognize and adequately address the negative…

Warren, Jane; Morgan, Michael M.; Morris, Lay-Nah Blue; Morris, Tanaya Moon

2010-01-01

163

“Any Movement at All Is Exercise”: A Focused Ethnography of Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults' Perceptions and Experiences of Exercise as Self-Care  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To understand rural community-dwelling older adult participants' shared values, beliefs, and behaviours related to exercise as self-care. Methods: We conducted a constructivist-focused ethnography involving semi-structured interviews and participant observation with 17 individuals 65 years and older. Interviews were transcribed and inductively coded to develop themes related to exercise, self-care, and exercise as self-care. Field notes were triangulated with follow-up interviews and dialogue between authors to enhance interpretation. Results: Participants described exercise broadly as movement and not as a central self-care behaviour. However, awareness of the importance and health-related benefits of exercise increased after a significant personal health-related event. Participants preferred exercise that was enjoyable and previously experienced. Conclusions: Prescribing exercise for older adults may be particularly effective if the focus is on enjoyable and previously experienced physical activity and if it incorporates interpretation of exercise guidelines and training principles in relation to chronic conditions and potential health benefits. PMID:24396160

Connelly, Denise M.

2013-01-01

164

“When It's Just Me at Home, It Hits Me That I'm Completely Alone”: An Online Survey of Adolescents in Self-Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined adolescents' experiences of loneliness and solitude in their responses to an online survey on self-care. Both quantitative (n = 272) and qualitative (n = 150) responses were coded for these feelings when home alone. Results indicate that adolescents experience the duality of aloneness, including both positive solitude and negative loneliness. Adolescents' responses range from embraced solitude

Mónica Ruiz-Casares

2012-01-01

165

A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

2011-01-01

166

PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF AN INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING, DISABILITY AND HEALTH (ICF)ORIENTED, ADAPTIVE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MOBILITY, SELF-CARE AND DOMESTIC LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Development of an adaptive, International Classi- fication of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)-oriented patient questionnaire on mobility and self-care based on an item response theory model (MOSES questionnaire). Methods: Using item reconstruction rules, items were de- veloped for the ICF chapters \\

Erik Farin; Annette Fleitz; Christian Frey

167

Laparoscopic pyeloplasty, initial experience in the management of UPJO.  

PubMed Central

AIM: Laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) has emerged in the last 8 years as an alternative to open surgery. We here present the results of our series of patients and evaluate LP in the management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with UPJO confirmed by renogram and/or symptoms were offered surgical correction by LP. The risks, alternatives, and novelty of the technique at our centre were explained to obtain informed consent. Patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively and data including operative time, analgesic requirements, time to self care and full activity were recorded. Fifteen patients with a mean age of 38.4 years were recruited in whom 13 successful Anderson Hayes transperitoneal LPs were performed in 12 patients. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 261 min and blood loss was minimal. Analgesic requirements were also minimal with patients requiring PCA for an average of 1.1 days. Average days to free fluids were 1.5 days and the mean hospital stay was 4.4 days. Average number of days to self care and full activity were 3.2 and 12.2 days, respectively. Patients in employment returned to work after an average of 4.4 weeks, In 9/10 cases with pre-operative loin pain, patients had symptom relief following surgery. Postoperative renogram at 6 months confirmed improved drainage in 12 LP procedures. At a mean follow up of 20 months, 11/12 patients remain symptomatically well. CONCLUSIONS: In this series, LP operative times and outcome closely match those of larger series and the functional results are comparable to open pyeloplasty. We conclude that LP is a suitable first line option for UPJO surgery provided standard laparoscopic equipment and a trained urologist are available. PMID:11806564

Gnanapragasam, V. J.; Armitage, T. G.

2001-01-01

168

The effects of an interventional program based on self-care model on health-related quality of life outcomes in hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Hemodialysis patients have lower quality of life and one of the ways to improve their quality of life is providing self-care education to them using some models including self-care model. This study aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of using self-care model on health and quality of life outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in 2012 on the patients who were referred to a military hospital in Tehran, Iran to be treated with hemodialysis. All 32 patients referred to this hospital in 2012 were selected and studied. Required data were collected using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) standard questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire. The educational intervention was implemented using self-care model. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 18.0 and some statistical tests including paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon and McNemar tests. Results: The results showed that the mean and standard deviation (SD) of patients’ parameters including weight and blood pressure improved significantly after the educational intervention compared to before the intervention (P < 0.001). Also, all dimensions of the quality of life of hemodialysis patients, including physical function, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social function, mental health, and role emotional improved compared to those before the intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Implementing the self-care model increased the quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the use of this model in hemodialysis patients is recommended.

Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ghavidel, Fatemeh; Mohammadzadeh, Shahla; Ravangard, Ramin

2014-01-01

169

[Living older in the family context: dependency in self-care].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to help improve nursing care to dependent people and their families. The study objectives were: to describe the degree of dependency of the elderly in the family context; to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of the dependent elderly in the family context; to describe the main cause of dependency in the aged at home. This is a exploratory, descriptive study with a quantitative approach. In the period comprised between October 2007 and June 2008, 108 families from a northern region of Portugal were selected, with an elderly dependent. It was a convenience sample. For the collection of information, we used a questionnaire with the Barthel Index. Results showed that older people are predominantly women, widows, in average 81 years old, with severe level of dependence, and the leading cause of dependence was circulatory system diseases. PMID:21876886

Araújo, Isabel; Paúl, Constança; Martins, Manuela

2011-08-01

170

Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES) trial  

PubMed Central

Background Back pain, one of the most prevalent conditions afflicting American adults, is the leading reason for using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Yoga is an increasingly popular "mind-body" CAM therapy often used for relieving back pain and several small studies have found yoga effective for this condition. This study will assess whether yoga is effective for treating chronic low back pain compared with self care and exercise and will explore the mechanisms responsible for any observed benefits. Methods/Design A total of 210 participants with low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Seattle. They will be randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive 12 weekly yoga classes, 12 weekly conventional therapeutic exercise classes of comparable physical exertion, or a self-care book. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group will assess outcomes at baseline and 6, 12 and 26 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes will be back-related dysfunction and symptom bothersomeness. In addition, data will be collected on physical measurements (e.g., flexion) at baseline and 12 weeks and saliva samples will be obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Information will be collected on specific physical, psychological, and physiological factors to allow exploration of possible mechanisms of action through which yoga could relieve back pain and dysfunction. The effectiveness of yoga will be assessed using analysis of covariance (using general estimating equations - GEE) within an intention-to-treat context. If yoga is found effective, further analyses will explore whether yoga's benefits are attributable to physical, psychological and/or physiological factors. Conclusions This study will provide the clearest evidence to date about the value of yoga as a therapeutic option for treating chronic back pain, and if the results are positive, will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study. Trial registration This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT00447668. PMID:20356395

2010-01-01

171

Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

2012-01-01

172

Machines, medication, modulation: circuits of dependency and self-care in Las Vegas.  

PubMed

The intensive entertainment infrastructure of Las Vegas is overlaid with a robust therapeutic network for those who become addicted to its technologies. Although the objectives of gambling machines and addiction therapeutics are seemingly at odds--the first work to encourage play, the second to stop it--both gear their interventions around a model of the self as a continuum of behavioral potentials that can be externally modulated. For compulsive gamblers implicated in this circuit of modulation, pharmaceutical drugs that have been prescribed to dampen cravings for machine play sometimes function as intensifiers of its effects. Caught in an intractable play between technologies of harm and technologies of care, recovering gambling addicts are challenged to assemble a technical array through which they can maintain balance; health itself, for these individuals, becomes a state of managed dependency. This essay explores the shifting terms and changing stakes of subjectivity and health in the contemporary United States by way of ethnographic research on compulsive gamblers who live and work in Las Vegas. The analysis draws on interviews with gamblers as well as on observations in local self-help groups, directed group therapy sessions, and chat rooms of Internet recovery Web sites. PMID:16944328

Schüll, Natasha Dow

2006-06-01

173

Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785

Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

2015-01-01

174

Evaluation of Self-Care Practices and Emotional Distress Among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine self-care practices and diabetes related emotional distress among people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross sectional survey-involving 121 Types 2 diabetics was conducted in 4 diabetic clinics located in Dar es Salaam. Anthropometric and biomedical measurements namely weight, height, waist, hip, mid-upper arm circumference, blood pressure and fasting

Theobald C. E. Mosha; Heri Rashidi

2009-01-01

175

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

176

Improving foot self-care knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes at low risk for foot ulceration: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The pilot study aimed to explore the effects of an educational intervention on patients' foot self-care knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors in adult patients with type 2 diabetes at low risk for foot ulceration. The intervention consisted of three sessions and was given over a 3-week period. A total of 70 eligible consenting participants were recruited for this pilot study. Fifty-six participants completed the study. The outcomes were assessed at pretest, following the first two sessions, and 3-month follow-up. The findings indicated that the foot self-care educational intervention was effective in improving foot self-care knowledge, self-efficacy and behaviors in adult patients with type 2 diabetes at low risk for foot ulceration. The findings support the effects of the intervention. Future research should evaluate its efficacy using a randomized clinical trial design, and a large sample of patients with type 2 diabetes at low risk for foot ulcerations. PMID:23823459

Fan, Lifeng; Sidani, Souraya; Cooper-Brathwaite, Angela; Metcalfe, Kelly

2014-12-01

177

Self care integrative treatment demonstrated in rural community setting improves health related quality of life of lymphatic filariasis patients in endemic villages.  

PubMed

This study assessed impact of community based self care integrative treatment provided through mass camps in villages of three districts of Kerala, India endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Two most endemic Primary Health centres (PHCs) were selected from each of the three districts, where maximum concentration of LF patients is recorded. Fourteen one day LF camps, each attended by 30-40 patients were conducted. Trained Accredited Social Health Activists encouraged LF patients to attend camps. Skin wash and drying, care of bacterial entry points using dermatology drugs, and simple yoga and breathing exercises were demonstrated in these camps. Patients were advised to continue these self care activities daily at home for six months. The quality of life (QoL) of LF patients was determined for Indian life style domains using validated and pretested specific questionnaire (LF-specific QoL questionnaire-LFSQQ). It addressed conditions and state of individuals with reference to LF. The questionnaire had 7 domains and each domain consisted of a series of questions with likert scale (no problem, mild, moderate, severe, most severe). 446 patients attended one day camps to get training on integrative self care treatment. 425 patients (95.3%) were followed up after six months and QoL was reassessed. Each patient's QoL in mobility, self care, usual activity, pain and discomfort and social relationship significantly improved (P value <0.01). Psychological health showed no significant change. The disease burden, for the purpose of the study was measured by asking questions about history of painful redness, swelling and cellulitis of legs (filarial fever), foul smell (odor), itching (eczema/discharge from limb), wound (non healing ulcer) and weight/size of the limb. The difference in disease burden as recorded during the sixth month follow up was measured using dependent t test, reduced significantly (P value <0.01) in 409 (96.2%) patients. 103 (24.2%) patients experienced fever during follow up. Severity of inflammatory episodes reduced from severe problem to no problem, after six months of home based self care. There was significant relation between treatment regularity and QoL status (P value=0.003). The community based one day camps that trained LF patients on skin care and daily yoga and breathing practices improved QoL. PMID:23499714

Aggithaya, Madhur Guruprasad; Narahari, Saravu R; Vayalil, Sudha; Shefuvan, Mohammed; Jacob, Neethu K; Sushma, Kandathu Valappil

2013-06-01

178

Acne - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... water-based or "noncomedogenic." A small amount of sun exposure may improve acne slightly. But tanning mostly hides it. Too much exposure to sun or in tanning booths increases the risk for skin cancer. Some acne medicines can make your skin more sensitive to ...

179

Self Care for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trauma takes a toll on children, families, schools, and communities. Trauma can also take a toll on school professionals. Any educator who works directly with traumatized children and adolescents is vulnerable to the effects of trauma--referred to as "compassion fatigue" or "secondary traumatic stress"--being physically, mentally, or emotionally…

National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

2008-01-01

180

Breastfeeding - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... and mineral supplements are not a substitute for healthy eating. Know about food portions, so that you ... drink 8 cups of fluid each day. Choose healthy fluids such as water, milk, juice, or soup. ...

181

Vaginitis - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... thoroughly before and after using the bathroom Always practice safe sex. And use condoms to avoid catching or ... other stores. Treating yourself at home is probably safe if: You ... recent sexual contact. Follow the directions that came with the ...

182

Neutron resonance averaging  

SciTech Connect

The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

Chrien, R.E.

1986-10-01

183

A Medical Student Elective Promoting Humanism, Communication Skills, Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Physician Self-Care: An Evaluation of the HEART Program  

PubMed Central

Objective In 2002 AMSA created a fourth year medical student elective known as HEART that provided the opportunity for students to explore humanism in medicine, self-care, complementary and alternative medicine modalities, communication, activism, and community building in a four week immersion experience. The educational effects of this elective, and whether it has met its stated goals, are unknown. Method The authors conducted a web-based, cross-sectional survey of the first eight cohorts of HEART graduates in 2010. Survey questions assessed respondents’ demographics and perspectives on the educational impact of the elective. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and qualitative analyses were guided by grounded theory. Results Of 168 eligible alumni, 122 (73%), completed the survey. The majority were female (70%), age ?35 (77%), and trained in primary care specialties (66%). Half were attendings in practice. The majority of respondents felt the elective taught professionalism (89%) and communication skills (92%) well or very well. The majority highly agreed that the elective helped them better cope with stress during residency training (80%), taught them self-care skills (75%), and improved their ability to empathize and connect with patients (71%). Qualitative analysis of the personal and professional impact of the elective identified twelve common themes with self-discovery, self-care, and collegial development/community most frequently cited. Conclusions The majority of HEART graduates endorse learning important skills and benefiting from the experience both personally and professionally. Aspects of the HEART curriculum may help training programs teach professionalism and improve trainee well-being. PMID:24021470

Dossett, Michelle L.; Kohatsu, Wendy; Nunley, William; Mehta, Darshan; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Yeh, Gloria

2013-01-01

184

How does gender influence the recognition of cardiovascular risk and adherence to self-care recommendations?: a study in polish primary care  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown a correlation between gender and an ability to change lifestyle to reduce the risk of disease. However, the results of these studies are ambiguous, especially where a healthy lifestyle is concerned. Additionally, health behaviors are strongly modified by culture and the environment. Psychological factors also substantially affect engagement with disease-related lifestyle interventions. This study aimed to examine whether there are differences between men and women in the frequency of health care behavior for the purpose of reducing cardiovascular risk (CVR), as well as cognitive appraisal of this type of risk. We also aimed to identify the psychological predictors of engaging in recommended behavior for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease after providing information about this risk in men and women. Methods A total of 134 consecutive eligible patients in a family practice entered a longitudinal study. At initial consultation, the individual’s CVR and associated health burden was examined, and preventive measures were recommended by the physician. Self-care behavior, cognitive appraisal of risk, and coping styles were then assessed using psychological questionnaires. Six months after the initial data collection, the frequency of subjects’ self-care behavior was examined. Results We found an increase in health care behavior after providing information regarding the rate of CVR in both sexes; this increase was greater for women than for men. Women followed self-care guidelines more often than men, particularly for preventive measures and dietary advice. Women were more inclined to recognize their CVR as a challenge. Coping style, cognitive appraisal, age, level of health behaviors at baseline and CVR values accounted for 48% of the variance in adherence to self-care guidelines in women and it was 52% in men. In women, total risk of CVD values were most important, while in men, cognitive appraisal of harm/loss was most important. Conclusions Different predictors of acquisition of health behavior are encountered in men and women. Our results suggest that gender-adjusted motivation models influencing the recognition process need to be considered to optimize compliance in patients with CVR. PMID:24175983

2013-01-01

185

Effect of a self-care program on oxidative stress and cognitive function in an older Mexican urban-dwelling population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine the effect of a self-care program on oxidative stress (OxS) and cognitive function in an older, Mexican, urban-dwelling\\u000a population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  A longitudinal and pre-experimental study was carried out in a sample of 79 older healthy, urban-dwelling individuals residing\\u000a in Mexico City, (62 females and 17 males), of which 71 of them (59 women and 12 males) complied with the

M. A. Sánchez-Rodríguez; A. Arronte-Rosales; V. M. Mendoza-Núñez

2009-01-01

186

Supporting Self-Care for Families of Children With Eczema With a Web-Based Intervention Plus Health Care Professional Support: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood eczema, or childhood atopic dermatitis, causes significant distress to children and their families through sleep disturbance and itch. The main cause of treatment failure is nonuse of prescribed treatments. Objective The objective of this study was to develop and test a Web-based intervention to support families of children with eczema, and to explore whether support from a health care professional (HCP) is necessary to engage participants with the intervention. Methods We followed the PRECEDE-PROCEED model: regular emollient use was the target behavior we were seeking to promote and we identified potential techniques to influence this. LifeGuide software was used to write the intervention website. Carers of children with eczema were invited through primary care mail-out and randomized to 3 groups: (1) website only, (2) website plus HCP support, or (3) usual care. Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) scores were measured online by carer report at baseline and at 12 weeks. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 13 HCPs (primarily practice nurses) and 26 participants to explore their experiences of taking part in the study. Results A total of 143 carers were recruited through 31 practices. We found a decrease of ?2 in follow-up compared with baseline POEM score in 23 of 42 (55%) participants in the website only group, 16 of 49 (33%) in the usual care group, and 18 of 47 (38%) in the website plus HCP group. Website use data showed that 75 of 93 (81%) participants allocated to the website groups completed the core modules, but less than half used other key components (videos: 35%; regular text reminders: 39%). There were no consistent differences in website use between the website only or the website plus HCP groups. Qualitative feedback showed that most HCPs had initial concerns about providing support for eczema self-care because this was not a condition that they felt expert in. However, HCPs reported productive consultations and that they found it helpful to use the website in consultations, while observing that some participants seemed to need more support than others. Qualitative interviews with participants suggested that HCP support was valued highly only by a minority, generally those who were less confident in their management of eczema or less confident using the Internet. Conclusions Our pilot trial demonstrated the potential for greater improvements in POEM scores in both website intervention groups and that a full-scale trial is feasible. Such a trial would quantify the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this intervention to determine whether it should be widely promoted to families of children with newly diagnosed eczema. In this study population, HCP support was not strongly valued by participants and did not lead to better outcomes or website use than use of the Web-based intervention alone. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 98560867; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN98560867 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NcxvMtgN). PMID:24594972

Muller, Ingrid; Yardley, Lucy; Burgess, Hana; Selinger, Hannah; Stuart, Beth L; Little, Paul

2014-01-01

187

Effects of a community-based intervention on cardio-metabolic risk and self-care behaviour in older adults with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

This pilot study was performed to investigate the effects of a community-based intervention (CBI) on cardio-metabolic risk and self-care behaviour in 92 older adults with metabolic syndrome at public health centres in Suwon, Korea. A prospective, pretest and posttest, controlled, quasi-experimental design was used. The older adults in the intervention group participated in an 8-week intensive lifestyle counselling, whereas those in the control group received usual care. The mean (standard deviation) age of the participants was 71.4 (4.43) years ranging from 60 to 84, and 75.0% of the participants were female. The intervention group at 8 weeks showed significant reduction in waist circumference by -1.35 cm (P<0.001) and improved self-care behaviour (+5.17 score, P<0.05) and self-efficacy (+4.84 score, P<0.001) when compared with the control group. The percentages of those who successfully completed the targeted behavioural modification were 71.7% for exercise and 52.2% for dietary control in the intervention group at 8 weeks. This pilot study provided evidence of the beneficial impact of the CBI for Korean older adults with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24713018

Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Hyung-Ran

2014-04-01

188

Temperature: Decadal Averages Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map allows students to experiment with decadal average temperature projections. Overall temperatures are expected to rise throughout the century and this tool demonstrates those projected measurements.

Commission, California E.

189

Home visits in brain tumor patient: how nurse and family members cooperate in tumor patient’s family self-care  

PubMed Central

Purposes We reported the roles and functions of nurses in home visits for brain tumor patients using the family health assessment guide in the study. Methods One patient of brain glioma was chosen as the case illustration. The nurses assessed the patients’ situation, their families and living environment individually. All these factors were analyzed together. Results The nurses then implemented their knowledge and skills to adopt different measures in different conditions, investigated the patients’ health problems and carried out personalized effective actions. Conclusions Nurses should put effort into community nursing to allow patients to live in a safe environment, to satisfy the health needs of human being and their needs for health knowledge, and enhance their self-care abilities. PMID:24385701

Yan, Zhiyue

2013-01-01

190

A randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual for depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

Abstract Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), and are associated with poorer health outcomes. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of the HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual self-care symptom management strategies compared with a nutrition manual on depressive symptoms in an international sample of PLWH. The sample consisted of a sub-group (N=222) of participants in a larger study symptom management study who reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms of the intervention (n=124) and control (n=98) groups were compared over three months: baseline, one-month, and two-months. Use and effectiveness of specific strategies were examined. Depressive symptom frequency at baseline varied significantly by country (? (2) 12.9; p=0.04). Within the intervention group there were significant differences across time in depressive symptom frequency [F(2, 207) = 3.27, p=0.05], intensity [F(2, 91) = 4.6, p=0.01], and impact [F(2, 252) = 2.92, p= 0.05), and these were significantly lower at one month but not at two months, suggesting that self-care strategies are effective in reducing depressive symptoms, however effects may be short term. Most used and most effective self-care strategies were distraction techniques and prayer. This study suggests that people living with HIV can be taught and will employ self-care strategies for management of depressive symptoms and that these strategies are effective in reducing these symptoms. Self-care strategies are noninvasive, have no side-effects, and can be readily taught as an adjunct to other forms of treatment. Studies are needed to identify the most effective self-care strategies and quantify optimum dose and frequency of use as a basis for evidence-based practice. PMID:22880943

Eller, Lucille S; Kirksey, Kenn M; Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Holzemer, William L; Wantland, Dean J; Willard, Suzanne S; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie

2013-01-01

191

Case Study of American Healthways' Diabetes Disease Management Program  

PubMed Central

Disease management has been defined as a system of coordinated health care interventions and communications for populations with conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant (Disease Management Association of America, 2005). The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the diabetes disease management program offered by American Healthways (AMHC) and highlight recently reported results of this program (Villagra, 2004a; Espinet et al., 2005). PMID:17288077

Pope, James E.; Hudson, Laurel R.; Orr, Patty M.

2005-01-01

192

Effects of educational intervention based on PRECEDE model on self care behaviors and control in patients with type 2 diabetes in 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is a chronic disease and its control requires essential change in patients' life style. The aim of this study was survey of effects of educational intervention based on PRECEDE Model on self care behaviors and control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study carried out in 78 patients with type 2 diabetes who have referred to Minoodasht clinic of diabetes. The educational program has been designed according to the PRECEDE Model. Prior to perform the educational intervention, the patients filled a questionnaire which was designed according to the structure of PRECEDE Model for type 2 diabetes patients. The diabetes education program was performed on three target groups (patients, their families and Health care personnel). After four weeks, the effects of the educational program have been evaluated through the same questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by SPSS version 16 and p-value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The mean age of participants was 49 years, 87.2% were married and 19.2% was illiterate. The rate of income of 44.9% was low. 66% had a family history of diabetes and 64% had been afflicted with diabetes more than 5 years. The Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between formation of a file in diabetes clinic and on-time presence to receive services and participation in the educational classes with the marital status variable. The results also showed that there is a significant relationship between observing food diet and job. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude, practice, reinforcing factors and enabling factors has increased after educational intervention. The Chi-square test shows a significant difference before and after of education intervention in stages of the model. Conclusion The obtained results based on PRECEDE Model would support the positive effect of the educational intervention and its major elements (predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors) on diabetes self-care behaviors. PMID:25075380

2014-01-01

193

Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-Care: Results from the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect…

Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

2011-01-01

194

Average Rate of Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

Roberts, Lila F.

2005-04-21

195

Your Average Nigga  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…

Young, Vershawn Ashanti

2004-01-01

196

Self-Care Fact Sheet for Influenza A & Influenza-Like Illness This fact sheet provides members of the University community who have been diagnosed with an influenza-like  

E-print Network

Self-Care Fact Sheet for Influenza A & Influenza-Like Illness This fact sheet provides members of the University community who have been diagnosed with an influenza-like illness (ILI) or Influenza of ILI and Influenza A are similar to seasonal influenza and include fever, cough, sore throat, body

Bou-Zeid, Elie

197

Title: Self-Care Information Protocol # _________ Version 1 Date: 09-29-11 Thank you so very much for completing the National College Health Assessment survey! If taking this survey has raised some questions  

E-print Network

for completing the National College Health Assessment survey! If taking this survey has raised some questions to http://www.uic.edu/depts/wellctr/ COLLEGE HEALTH: SELF CARE Be responsible about your drinking. Alcohol.rec.uic.edu/ Avoid tobacco. Cigarette smoking is the single most important preventable cause of illness and early

Dai, Yang

198

Covariant approximation averaging  

E-print Network

We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

Eigo Shintani; Rudy Arthur; Thomas Blum; Taku Izubuchi; Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner

2014-02-02

199

An Average Lunch?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This statistics activity requires students to find the mean using their TI-10 or TI-15 Explorer calculators. The task asks students to read part of Sideways Stories of Wayside School by Louis Sachar and find different combinations of lunches that would give an average price of $1.85. This resource includes a three-page PDF lesson plan with guiding questions, data collection page, and calculator instructions.

2008-06-09

200

Toward a Middle-Range Theory of Weight Management.  

PubMed

The authors of this paper present the middle-range theory of weight management that focuses on cultural, environmental, and psychosocial factors that influence behaviors needed for weight control. The theory of weight management was developed deductively from Orem's theory of self-care, a constituent theory within the broader self-care deficit nursing theory and from research literature. Linkages between the conceptual and middle-range theory concepts are illustrated using a substruction model. The development of the theory of weight management serves to build nursing science by integrating extant nursing theory and empirical knowledge. This theory may help predict weight management in populations at risk for obesity-related disorders. PMID:24951526

Pickett, Stephanie; Peters, Rosalind M; Jarosz, Patricia A

2014-06-19

201

Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

2002-01-01

202

Disease management programs: program intervention, behavior modification, and dosage effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease management programs provide highly personalized self-\\u0009management support to consumers afflicted with chronic illnesses. Program interventions include the provision of health information, ongoing motivation, and support for behavior change, adherence to pharmacotherapy, development of self-efficacy, and the distribution of self-care tools. Interactions between program and patients are structured and repetitive over time. Consumer behavior change can result in measurable

Tamim Ahmed; Victor G. Villagra

2006-01-01

203

Development of Service Systems to Support Diabetes Patient Self-Management Using a Personalized Service Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient self-management is an important component in improving quality of chronic disease healthcare. The promising benefits of the Interactive Behavior Change Technology (IBCT) on diabetes patient self-management are increasingly recognized. In this paper, we describe a service framework and two service systems designed to support self- care activities among type-2 diabetes patients: an automated telephone disease management (ATDM) service and

Marut Buranarach; Nattanun Thatphithakkul; Asanee Kawtrakul; Suwaree Wongrochananan; Nittayawan Kulnawan; Wiroj Jiamjarasrangsi

2011-01-01

204

The effectiveness of selected Tai Chi exercises in a program of strategic rehabilitation aimed at improving the self-care skills of patients aroused from prolonged coma after severe TBI  

PubMed Central

Background Difficulties in self-care constitute a very common problem for patients recovering from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, and a major factor reducing their quality of life. Effective new rehabilitation programs that would help solve this problem are urgently needed. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate improvement in this respect in a group of patients aroused from prolonged coma who participated in a goal-oriented rehabilitation program (Rehab-3), enhanced with selected elements of Tai-Chi. Material/Methods We examined 40 patients aroused from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, undergoing long-term rehabilitation according to a standard phased rehabilitation program. These patients were divided into two numerically even groups: a control group treated according to the standard program, and an experimental group, who received an additional goal oriented program enhanced with selected Tai-Chi exercises. The research methods included analysis of documentation (MRI, CT), a structured clinical interview, and the Standard Self-Care Scale. Results The experimental group achieved significant improvement of self-care skills, whereas in the control group the improvement was slight and not statistically significant. The value of co-efficient j (0.64) indicates a very strong association between the rehabilitation procedure and improved self-care in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Conclusions Our results confirmed that a goal-oriented rehabilitation program enhanced with elements of Tai-Chi was more effective than the standard program in improving the performance of activities of daily living. PMID:24036691

Ma?ko, Grzegorz; Zió?kowski, Artur; Mirski, Andrzej; K?osi?ski, Micha?

2013-01-01

205

Engagement with Automated Patient Monitoring and Self-Management Support Calls: Experience with a Thousand Chronically-Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Patient self-care support via Interactive Voice Response (IVR) can improve disease management. However little is known about the factors affecting program engagement. Methods We compiled data on IVR program engagement for 1,173 patients with: heart failure, depression, diabetes, and cancer who were followed for 28,962 person-weeks. Patients in programs for diabetes or depression (N=727) had the option of participating along with an informal caregiver who received electronic feedback based on the patient’s IVR assessments. Analyses focused on factors associated with completing weekly IVR calls. Results Patients were on average 61 years old, 37% had at most a high school education, and 48% reported incomes < $30,000. Among patients given the option of participating with an informal caregiver, 65% chose to do so. Patients completed 83% of attempted IVR assessments, with rates higher for heart failure (90%) and cancer programs (90%) than for the diabetes (81%) or depression programs (71%) (p<0.001). Among patients in diabetes or depression programs, those opting to have feedback provided to an informal caregiver were more likely to complete assessments (adjusted odds ratio: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.75). Older patients had higher call completion rates, even among patients > 75 years of age. Missed clinic appointments, prior hospitalizations, depression program participation, and poorer mental health were associated with lower completion rates. Conclusions Patients with a variety of chronic conditions will complete IVR self-care support calls regularly. Risk factors for missed IVR calls overlap with those for missed appointments. Involvement of informal caregivers may significantly increase engagement. PMID:23222527

Piette, John D.; Rosland, Ann-Marie; Marinec, Nicolle Stec; Striplin, Dana; Bernstein, Steven J.; Silveira, Maria J.

2013-01-01

206

Ischemic ulcers - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... these steps can improve blood flow and aid healing. Quit smoking. Smoking can lead to clogged arteries. If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar levels under control. This will help you heal faster. Exercise as much as you can. Staying active can ...

207

Rotator cuff - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... the bursa (a normally smooth layer) lining these tendons A tear, which occurs when one of the tendons is ... Leggin BG, Williams GR. Rotator cuff tendinopathies and tears: surgery and therapy. In: Skirven TM, Osterman AL, Fedorczyk JM, Amadio ...

208

Self-Care After Disasters  

MedlinePLUS

... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training Find a Job with VA Health Care Jobs (VA Careers) Travel Nurses Get Job ...

209

Menopause, a Self Care Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for women from the three main cultural groups in New Mexico (Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo), this pamphlet discusses the causes and symptoms, some remedies for the symptoms of menopause, and presents ideas for organizing support groups to help middle-aged women and their families deal with menopausal problems. Explanations of the…

Lopez, Maria Cristina; And Others

210

Kidney stones - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... you have calcium kidney stones: Eat less salt. Chinese and Mexican food, tomato juice, regular canned foods, ... leeks, summer squash, sweet potatoes, spinach, and tomato soup Drinks: tea and instant coffee Other foods: grits, ...

211

Anal itching - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... foods and beverages Scents or dyes in toilet paper or soap Diarrhea Hemorrhoids , which are swollen veins ... wipes, a wet washcloth, or wet unscented toilet paper. Avoid soaps with dyes or fragrances. Pat dry ...

212

Venous ulcers - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... When these valves become weak, blood can flow backward and pool in your legs. This is called ... are at risk for venous ulcers, take these steps to help prevent problems. Raise your feet above ...

213

Prevalence, correlates, and self-management of HIV-related depressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent yet undertreated in people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLHAs). As part of a larger study of symptom self-management (N=1217), this study examined the prevalence, correlates, and characteristics (intensity, distress, and impact) of depressive symptoms, and the self-care strategies used to manage those symptoms in PLHAs in five countries. The proportion of respondents from each country in

L. S. Eller; E. H. Bunch; D. J. Wantland; C. J. Portillo; N. R. Reynolds; K. M. Nokes; C. L. Coleman; J. K. Kemppainen; K. M. Kirksey; I. B. Corless; M. J. Hamilton; P. J. Dole; P. K. Nicholas; W. L. Holzemer; Y.-F. Tsai

2010-01-01

214

Modular Approach to Physics: Average Speed versus Average Velocity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is an interactive demonstration of average speed and velocity. The user can move the object, while average speed and velocity is calculated and available through the Data panel. A full lesson plan is available through the Help menu. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-05-24

215

Spacetime Averaged Null Energy Condition  

E-print Network

The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even if one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

Douglas Urban; Ken D. Olum

2010-02-25

216

Effect of Orem Self-Care Program on the Life Quality of Burn Patients Referred to Ghotb-al-Din-e-Shirazi Burn Center, Shiraz, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Advances in treatment and critical care have largely improved the survival following burns; therefore, the importance of quality of life in burn patients is an issue beyond question. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Orem self-care program on Quality of Life of burn patients. Methods: A randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 110 eligible burn patients who were selected using easy sampling method and allocated randomly into two groups of experiment and control. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, containing demographic and burn information and burn-specific health scale–brief (BSHS-B) questionnaire. For the experiment group, 5 sessions of theoretical training and 75-90 minutes of practical training were accomplished. The quality of life of the patients with burns was assessed in three phases by the BSHS-B questionnaire. The data were analyzed in SPSS-17 using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Independent t-test and repeated measurement multivariate test. Results: After one month and two months of the use of self-care model, the quality of life of the cases improved from 73.33% to 83.78% and 98.12%, respectively (P<0.001). But the changes in the quality of life of the patients in the control group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the obtained results of this study, designing and implementing a self-care program based on Orem’s model and the needs of burn patients will improve their quality of life. Therefore, it is recommended that this program should be considered as a part of treatment program for these patients. Trial Registration Number: 2013042112129N1 PMID:25349844

Hashemi, Fatemeh; Rahimi Dolatabad, Fatemeh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Ayaz, Mehdi; Zare, Najaf; Mansouri, Parisa

2014-01-01

217

Average Speed and Unit Conversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will determine average speeds from data collected and convert units for speed problems. Students try to roll the ball with a prescribed average speed based on intuition. Then, based on unit conversion we will see how accurate the rolls really were.

2009-01-01

218

Exponential Moving Average Stock Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A primary application of econophysics is using digital signal processing techniques to filter and predict market data, which is theorized to exhibit random walk motion. An exponential moving average is one tool that physicists use to smooth data from an input signal to identify its trends. The Exponential Moving Average Stock Model implements three types of exponential moving averages and allows the user to change the parameters of each. The model allows the user to view the results of exponential moving averages computed on the New York Stock Exchange daily closing price of six familiar companies. It demonstrates one way that traders use causal filters to smooth market data and forecast the next day's price.

Mohorn, Matthew

2013-02-14

219

High average power pockels cell  

DOEpatents

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1991-01-01

220

Evaluations of average level spacings  

SciTech Connect

The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

Liou, H.I.

1980-01-01

221

Obesity in the Kaiser Permanente Patient Population and Positive Outcomes of Online Weight-Management Programs  

PubMed Central

We review what is known about the effects of obesity in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) population and discuss outcomes for two nationally available effective online programs, HealthMedia Balance® (Balance) and 10,000 Steps®. Obese KP patients often have health problems related to overweight and report difficulties with self-care, yet with the proper support, they can avail themselves of effective treatment to manage both obesity and associated conditions that affect quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of potential problems with functional status and self-care in their obese patients, provide brief assessment and advice, and refer obese patients to effective national and regional weight-management programs. PMID:21461090

Bachman, Keith H; Histon, Trina M; Remmers, Carol

2007-01-01

222

High average power excimer laser  

SciTech Connect

An excimer laser developed at Los Alamos produces an ultraviolet (308 nm) output power of 200 W average at a repetition rate of 500 Hz. This electrical-discharge-pumped XeCl laser uses x-ray preionization and active gas cleanup.

Butcher, R.R.; Tennant, R.A.; Erickson, G.F.; Swisher, S.L.; Willis, W.L.

1983-01-01

223

Averaging procedures for flow within vegetation canopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most one-dimensional models of flow within vegetation canopies are based on horizontally averaged flow variables. This paper formalizes the horizontal averaging operation. Two averaging schemes are considered: pure horizontal averaging at a single instant, and time averaging followed by horizontal averaging. These schemes produce different forms for the mean and turbulent kinetic energy balances, and especially for the ‘wake production’

M. R. Raupach; R. H. Shaw

1982-01-01

224

28 CFR 505.2 - Annual determination of average cost of incarceration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...determination of average cost of incarceration. 505.2 Section 505.2...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE § 505.2 Annual determination of average cost of incarceration. Pursuant to 28 CFR...

2013-07-01

225

28 CFR 505.2 - Annual determination of average cost of incarceration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determination of average cost of incarceration. 505.2 Section 505.2...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE § 505.2 Annual determination of average cost of incarceration. Pursuant to 28 CFR...

2010-07-01

226

28 CFR 505.2 - Annual determination of average cost of incarceration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...determination of average cost of incarceration. 505.2 Section 505.2...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE § 505.2 Annual determination of average cost of incarceration. Pursuant to 28 CFR...

2011-07-01

227

28 CFR 505.2 - Annual determination of average cost of incarceration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...determination of average cost of incarceration. 505.2 Section 505.2...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE § 505.2 Annual determination of average cost of incarceration. Pursuant to 28 CFR...

2012-07-01

228

28 CFR 505.2 - Annual determination of average cost of incarceration.  

...determination of average cost of incarceration. 505.2 Section 505.2...MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE § 505.2 Annual determination of average cost of incarceration. Pursuant to 28 CFR...

2014-07-01

229

Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Behrend, Juliane, E-mail: I.Brown@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: Juliane.Behrend@uni-ulm.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2009-04-15

230

Ensemble averaging of acoustic data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called Ensemble Averaging of Acoustic Data is documented. The program samples analog data, analyzes the data, and displays them in the time and frequency domains. Hard copies of the displays are the program's output. The documentation includes a description of the program and detailed user instructions for the program. This software was developed for use on the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel's Dynamic Analysis System consisting of a PDP-11/45 computer, two RK05 disk drives, a tektronix 611 keyboard/display terminal, and FPE-4 Fourier Processing Element, and an analog-to-digital converter.

Stefanski, P. K.

1982-01-01

231

Criticality and Averaging in Cosmology  

E-print Network

We propose comparing cosmological solutions in terms of their total spatial volumes $V(\\tau)$ as functions of proper time $\\tau$, assuming synchronous gauge, and with this intention evaluate the variations of $V(\\tau)$ about the Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) solutions for dust. This can be done successfully in a simple manner without solving perturbation equations. In particular, we find that first variations vanish with respect to all directions which do not possess homogeneity and isotropy preserving components; in other words, every FLRW solution is a {\\it critical point} for $V(\\tau)$ in the properly restricted subspace of the space of solutions. This property may support a validity of the interpretation of the FLRW solutions as constituting an averaged model. We also briefly investigate the second variations of $V(\\tau)$.

Masayuki Tanimoto

1999-07-29

232

Delivering the WISE (Whole Systems Informing Self-Management Engagement) training package in primary care: learning from formative evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The WISE (Whole System Informing Self-management Engagement) approach encompasses creating, finding, and implementing appropriate self-care support for people with long-term conditions. A training package for primary care to introduce the approach was developed and underwent formative evaluation. This entailed exploring the acceptability of the WISE approach and its effectiveness in changing communication within consultations. The study aimed to refine

Anne Kennedy; Carolyn Chew-Graham; Thomas Blakeman; Andrew Bowen; Caroline Gardner; Joanne Protheroe; Anne Rogers; Linda Gask

2010-01-01

233

[Evaluation of the educational practices in promoting self-management in type 2 diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

The objective of this is study to evaluate the educational practices in promoting the self-management of diabetes mellitus. Subjects were twenty-six individuals with type 2 diabetes, who participated in the educational program at a teaching hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The subjects were followed for four months in 2008. The educational group practices consisted of three monthly meetings, in which recreational and interactive dynamics were performed, and individual sessions were held using dialogic education. The evaluation was performed using a specific questionnaire: self-care and clinical exams in the beginning and four months after the intervention. The mean age of the subjects was 60.9 ±8.4 years; the mean time of disease was 8.7±6.7 years; most (55.6% or 27 individuals) had incomplete primary education and a family income between 1 and 3 minimum salaries. Satisfactory results were found in the self-care test. It was also observed that HbA1c levels dropped down and the educational practices improved self-care and self-management of the disease. PMID:22031366

Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho; Pereira, Flávia Rodrigues Lobo; Alexandre, Luciana Rodrigues

2011-10-01

234

Monthly Average Temperature for Boston, MA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is monthly average temperature data for Boston, MA from March 1872 until September 2000. In addition to monthly averages, the National Weather Service table also shows the yearly average temperature.

235

Conceptual model for heart failure disease management.  

PubMed

The objective of this review is to propose a conceptual model for heart failure (HF) disease management (HFDM) and to define the components of an efficient HFDM plan in reference to this model. Articles that evaluated 1 or more of the following aspects of HFDM were reviewed: (1) outpatient clinic follow-up; (2) self-care interventions to enhance patient skills; and (3) remote evaluation of worsening HF either using structured telephone support (STS) or by monitoring device data (telemonitoring). The success of programs in reducing readmissions and mortality were mixed. Outpatient follow-up programs generally resulted in improved outcomes, including decreased readmissions. Based on 1 meta-analysis, specialty clinics improved outcomes and nonspecialty clinics did not. Results from self-care programs were inconsistent and might have been affected by patient cognitive status and educational level, and intervention intensity. Telemonitoring, despite initially promising meta-analyses demonstrating a decrease in the number and duration of HF-related readmissions and all-cause mortality rates at follow-up, has not been shown in randomized trials to consistently reduce readmissions or mortality. However, evidence from device monitoring trials in particular might have been influenced by technology and design issues that might be rectified in future trials. Results from the literature suggest that the ideal HFDM plan would include outpatient follow-up at an HF specialty clinic and continuous education to improve patient self-care. The end result of this plan would lead to better understanding on the part of the patient and improved patient ability to recognize and respond to signs of decompensation. PMID:24565255

Andrikopoulou, Efstathia; Abbate, Kariann; Whellan, David J

2014-03-01

236

Management  

E-print Network

Research has indicated that, depending upon driver and passenger characteristics, passengers can have either a positive or negative influence upon driver behaviour. In conclusion to a recent study investigating the roles that passengers can play to influence, positively and negatively, driver behaviour, Regan and Mitsopoulos (2001) recommended, among other things, that the principles of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training may increase passengers ’ ability to positively influence driver behaviour and also drivers ’ ability to accept constructive feedback. The present study investigated the potential application of CRM training within young driver training in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). This involved a literature review, an analysis of the differences between the driving and aviation domains, an analysis of the team-based activities and the knowledge, skills and attitudes required during driving to perform those activities, consultation with CRM experts from the aviation and medicine domains and the conduct of six focus groups involving young learner drivers, provisional licence drivers and course teachers. The findings indicate that CRM training as part of young driver training in the ACT is a viable concept to pursue. The application of CRM training within young driver training has potential to significantly enhance the positive and reduce the negative effects of passengers on young driver behaviour, and thus the safety of young drivers and passengers alike. The outcomes of this study formed the basis for a set of recommendations for the development of a young driver CRM training program in the ACT.

Young Drivers; Eve Mitsopoulos; Michael Regan; Janet Anderson; Paul Salmon; Jessica Edquist; Ii Report Documentation Page

2005-01-01

237

Family influences on self-management among functionally independent adults with diabetes or heart failure: do family members hinder as much as they help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Among functionally independent patients with diabetes or heart failure, we examined family member support and family-related barriers to self-care. We then identified patient characteristics associated with family support and family barriers and how each was associated with self-management adherence.Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 439 patients with diabetes or heart failure (74% response rate).Results: 75% of respondents reported supportive family involvement

Ann-Marie Rosland; Michele Heisler; Hwa-Jung Choi; Maria J. Silveira; John D. Piette

2010-01-01

238

A pilot study of a chiropractic intervention for management of chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Temporomandibular pain has multiple etiologies and a range of therapeutic options. In this pilot study, the authors assessed the feasibility of conducting a larger trial to evaluate chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Methods The authors assigned 80 participants randomly into one of the following four groups, all of which included a comprehensive self-care program: reversible interocclusal splint therapy (RIST), Activator Method Chiropractic Technique (AMCT) (Activator Methods International, Phoenix), sham AMCT and self-care only. They made assessments at baseline and at month 2 and month 6, including use of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Results The authors screened 721 potential participants and enrolled 80 people; 52 participants completed the six-month assessment. The adjusted mean change in current pain over six months, as assessed on the 11-point numerical rating scale, was 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1-3.0) for RIST, 1.7 (0.9-2.5) for self-care only, 1.5 (0.7-2.4) for AMCT and 1.6 (0.7-2.5) for sham AMCT. The authors also assessed bothersomeness and functionality. Conclusions The authors found the study design and methodology to be manageable. They gained substantial knowledge to aid in conducting a larger study. AMCT, RIST and self-care should be evaluated in a future comparative effectiveness study. Practical Implications. This pilot study was a necessary step to prepare for a larger study that will provide clinicians with information that should be helpful when discussing treatment options for patients with TMD. PMID:24080932

DeVocht, James W.; Goertz, Christine M.; Hondras, Maria A.; Long, Cynthia R.; Schaeffer, Wally; Thomann, Lauren; Spector, Michael; Stanford, Clark M.

2014-01-01

239

The Kennedy Krieger Independence Scales–Spina Bifida Version: A Measure of Executive Components of Self-Management  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objective Successful implementation of functional self-care skills depends upon adequate executive functioning; however, many scales assessing adaptive skills do not address the inherent executive burden of these tasks. This omission is especially relevant for individuals with spina bifida, for whom medical self-care tasks impose a significant burden requiring initiation and prospective memory. The Kennedy Krieger Independence Scales–Spina Bifida Version (KKIS–SB) is a caregiver-reported measure designed to address this gap; it assesses skills for managing both typical and spina bifida-related daily self-care demands, with a focus on the timely and independent initiation of adaptive skills. Research Method/Design Parents of 100 youth and young adults with spina bifida completed the KKIS–SB. Exploratory factor analysis and Pearson's correlations were used to assess the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the KKIS–SB. Results The scale demonstrates excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .891). Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors, explaining 65.1% of the total variance. Two primary subscales were created, initiation of routines and prospective memory, which provide meaningful clinical information regarding management of a variety of typical (e.g., get up on time, complete daily hygiene routines on time) and spina bifida-specific self-care tasks (e.g., begin self-catheterization on time, perform self-examination for pressure sores). Conclusions/Implications Based upon internal consistency estimates and correlations with measures of similar constructs, initial data suggest good preliminary reliability and validity of the KKIS–SB. PMID:23438006

Jacobson, Lisa A.; Tarazi, Reem A.; McCurdy, Mark D.; Schultz, Scott; Levey, Eric; Mahone, E. Mark; Zabel, T. Andrew

2014-01-01

240

RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations  

SciTech Connect

RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

2009-05-04

241

Averaging in LRS class II spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize Buchert's averaged equations (Gen Relativ Gravit 32; 105, 2000; Gen Relativ Gravit 33; 1381, 2001) to LRS class II dust model in the sense that all Einstein equations are averaged, not only the trace part. We derive the relevant averaged equations and we investigate backreaction on expansion and shear scalars in an approximate LTB model. Finally we propose a way to close the system of averaged equations.

Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar

2015-02-01

242

Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

2012-01-01

243

Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

244

Colic and crying - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... down when your baby is tired or when gas or stool is passed. Even though colicky babies ... Pain from gas Hunger Overfeeding Baby cannot tolerate certain foods or certain proteins in breast milk or formula Sensitivity to certain ...

245

Type 2 diabetes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercise can even help you handle stress. Try walking, jogging, or biking for 30 - 60 minutes every day. Bring food or juice with you in case your blood sugar gets too low. Drink extra water. Wear a ...

246

Student Affairs HEALTH SELF-CARE KIT  

E-print Network

/paper tape · tissues · ICE (In Case of Emergency) entry in cell phone #12;HEALTH.BINGHAMTON.EDU 13 get on campus to program the telephone number for Harpur's Ferry into your phone. MINOR EMERGENCIES is your responsibility). LOURDES HOSPITAL'S EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT includes the Fast Track for minor

Suzuki, Masatsugu

247

Generalized anxiety disorder - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... 15-minute walk, can help. Stay away from alcohol and street drugs. Talk with friends or family when you feel nervous or frightened. Find out about different types of group activities you can join.

248

AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors Handouts  

MedlinePLUS

... My Profile My Memberships My Purchases MY AADE NETWORK My Open Invoices Join Online Online Store Events Make a Donation Access My Learning Access AADE7 System Find a Diabetes Educator Questions, ...

249

Staph infections - self-care at home  

MedlinePLUS

... colonized with staph. These persons are known as carriers. They can spread staph to others. Some people ... thoroughly with soap and water. Or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Keep cuts and scrapes clean ...

250

Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... 5 or 6 hard candies 1 tablespoon of sugar, plain or dissolved in water 1 tablespoon of honey or syrup Wait about 15 minutes before eating any more. Be careful not to eat too much. This can cause high blood sugar and weight gain. Check your blood sugar again. ...

251

Carotid artery stenosis - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... waxy deposit, from building up in the carotid arteries. Blood pressure medicines relax your blood vessels, make your ... the blood flow in your neck Check your blood pressure Check your ... if the blockages in your carotid arteries are becoming worse.

252

Average-cost based robust structural control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

Hagood, Nesbitt W.

1993-01-01

253

Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

2013-07-01

254

Undergraduate Office of Career Management Undergraduate Newark -Office of Career Management  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Office of Career Management Undergraduate Newark - Office of Career Management --15% (34) Management and Global Business--11% (24) Management Information Systems--4% (10) Average, Finance, and Management Information Systems PricewaterhouseCoopers 8 Accounting Ernst and Young 7

Lin, Xiaodong

255

Modular Approach to Physics: Weighted Average  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a multi-exercise module relating to average speed. It contains an interactive Java simulation featuring a car that the user controls for speed. Graphs of instantaneous and average velocities are simultaneously displayed, helping the user to understand the concept of time-weighted average. The lesson plan available through the Help menu explains how to calculate a weighted average, first with two speeds, and then with multiple. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics models sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-13

256

A microcomputer-based information management system for a nurse-managed clinic.  

PubMed

A project team from a nurse-managed health care center designed and used a microcomputer-based information management system to document the activities of their clinic. Commercial software, dBase III Plus, was used to program the system, called Nurse Education Link to Aged Center (NELAC). NELAC reflects the center's philosophy of helping clients attain maximum satisfaction of their health care needs through self care. NELAC's specific purposes include 1) matching student nurses with potential clients for clinical experiences; 2) providing an efficient reminder system to improve follow-up care for clients; 3) maintaining longitudinal client records; 4) producing reports of services and activities of the center; and 5) providing aggregate data for research. PMID:1600467

Pulliam, L

1992-01-01

257

Clarifying the Relationship between Average Excesses and Average Effects of Allele Substitutions  

PubMed Central

Fisher’s concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance. PMID:22509178

Álvarez-Castro, José M.; Yang, Rong-Cai

2012-01-01

258

Averaging with B-series Ander Murua  

E-print Network

, ^q2 = cos()q2 - -1 sin()p2, (note that at stroboscopic times n = 2n, that change of variables reduces possibly a (2)-periodic -dependent change of variables that is the identity map at stroboscopic times n = 2 is called stroboscopic averaging. High order averaging There exists a formal (2)-periodic change

Murua, Ander

259

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

260

Average brightness temperature of antenna aperture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presented an idea for the average brightness temperature of lossless antenna aperture, gave its expression for\\u000a matched and dismatched noise source. This expression showed that the average brightness temperature of antenna aperture related\\u000a with three factors: the noise temperature of noise source, the reflection coefficient of noise source, and the aperture efficiency.

Li Zongqian

1997-01-01

261

Determinants of College Grade Point Averages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…

Bailey, Paul Dean

2012-01-01

262

40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary TF monthly average emissions with...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary POM quarterly average emissions...

2013-07-01

263

40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary TF monthly average emissions with...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary POM quarterly average emissions...

2010-07-01

264

40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary TF monthly average emissions with...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary POM quarterly average emissions...

2011-07-01

265

Small scale magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

By relaxing exact magnetic flux conservation below a scale [lambda] a system of flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived from Hamilton's principle with modified constraints. An energy principle can be derived from the linearized averaged system because the total system energy is conserved. This energy principle is employed to treat the resistive tearing instability and the exact growth rate is recovered when [lambda] is identified with the resistive skin depth. A necessary and sufficient stability criteria of the tearing instability with line tying at the ends for solar coronal loops is also obtained. The method is extended to both spatial and temporal averaging in Hamilton's principle. The resulting system of equations not only allows flux reconnection but introduces irreversibility for appropriate choice of the averaging function. Except for boundary contributions which are modified by the time averaging process total energy and momentum are conserved over times much longer than the averaging time [tau] but not for less than [tau]. These modified boundary contributions correspond to the existence, also, of damped waves and shock waves in this theory. Time and space averaging is applied to electron magnetohydrodynamics and in one-dimensional geometry predicts solitons and shocks in different limits.

Pfirsch, D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-8046 Garching (Germany)); Sudan, R.N. (Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States))

1994-08-01

266

Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.  

PubMed

If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

2008-10-31

267

Average-passage flow model development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

1989-04-01

268

Convergence speed in distributed consensus and averaging  

E-print Network

We propose three new algorithms for the distributed averaging and consensus problems: two for the fixed-graph case, and one for the dynamic-topology case. The convergence times of our fixed-graph algorithms compare favorably ...

Olshevsky, Alexander

2006-01-01

269

Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures  

E-print Network

The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

Don N. Page

2014-06-02

270

Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor  

E-print Network

Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

271

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2014-07-01

272

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2012-07-01

273

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2010-07-01

274

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2011-07-01

275

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2013-07-01

276

Total pressure averaging in pulsating flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a non-steady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered within the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure, and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles. The experiments were performed at a pressure level of 1 bar, for Mach number up to near 1, and frequencies up to 3 kHz.

Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.

1972-01-01

277

Total-pressure averaging in pulsating flows.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a nonsteady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered with the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles.

Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.

1972-01-01

278

Pleasing the Masses: Messages for Daily Life Management in African American Women's Popular Media Sources  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the “strong Black woman” (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Methods. Using the search term “strong Black woman,” we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Results. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management (“please the masses”), emotional suppression (“game face”), and postponement of self-care (“last on the list”) incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Conclusions. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources. PMID:21088274

Peacock, Nadine

2011-01-01

279

Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1995-01-01

280

Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.  

PubMed

The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images. PMID:18662790

Fernando, K Vince

2008-10-01

281

Model-Based Average Reward Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Reinforcement Learning (RL) is the study of programs that improve their performanceby receiving rewards and punishments from the environment. Most RL methodsoptimize the discounted total reward received by an agent, while, in many domains,the natural criterion is to optimize the average reward per time step. In this paper,we introduce a model-based Average-reward Reinforcement Learning method calledH-learning and show that

Prasad Tadepalli

1998-01-01

282

Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

283

Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations  

E-print Network

The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

2014-10-20

284

Rheumatoid Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... vertebrae to prevent slippage of the vertebrae. Self-Care Rheumatoid arthritis cannot be cured but it can be managed through medications and self-care. The following are important self-care tips: Exercise ...

285

Changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and northern hemisphere snow cover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Key figure from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that shows changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and Northern Hemisphere snow cover from as far back as 1850.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR4 Synthesis Report

286

Improved averaging for non-null interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arithmetic averaging of interferometric phase measurements is a well-established method for reducing the effects of time varying disturbances, such as air turbulence and vibration. Calculating a map of the standard deviation for each pixel in the average map can provide a useful estimate of its variability. However, phase maps of complex and/or high density fringe fields frequently contain defects that severely impair the effectiveness of simple phase averaging and bias the variability estimate. These defects include large or small-area phase unwrapping artifacts, large alignment components, and voids that change in number, location, or size. Inclusion of a single phase map with a large area defect into the average is usually sufficient to spoil the entire result. Small-area phase unwrapping and void defects may not render the average map metrologically useless, but they pessimistically bias the variance estimate for the overwhelming majority of the data. We present an algorithm that obtains phase average and variance estimates that are robust against both large and small-area phase defects. It identifies and rejects phase maps containing large area voids or unwrapping artifacts. It also identifies and prunes the unreliable areas of otherwise useful phase maps, and removes the effect of alignment drift from the variance estimate. The algorithm has several run-time adjustable parameters to adjust the rejection criteria for bad data. However, a single nominal setting has been effective over a wide range of conditions. This enhanced averaging algorithm can be efficiently integrated with the phase map acquisition process to minimize the number of phase samples required to approach the practical noise floor of the metrology environment.

Fleig, Jon F.; Murphy, Paul E.

2013-09-01

287

Pain Management in Ambulatory Surgery—A Review  

PubMed Central

Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional ?-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3–5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures. PMID:25061796

Jakobsson, Jan G.

2014-01-01

288

Neutron average cross sections of Np237  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports Np237 neutron resonance parameters obtained from the simultaneous analysis of time-of-flight data measured at the GELINA, ORELA, KURRI, and LANSCE facilities. A statistical analysis of these resonances relying on average R-matrix and optical model calculations was used to establish consistent l-dependent average resonance parameters involved in the description of the unresolved resonance range of the Np237 neutron cross sections. For neutron orbital angular momentum l=0, we obtained an average radiation width =39.3±1.0 meV, a neutron strength function 104S0=1.02±0.14, a mean level spacing D0=0.60±0.03 eV, and a potential scattering length R'=9.8±0.1 fm.

Noguere, G.

2010-04-01

289

Books average previous decade of economic misery.  

PubMed

For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

2014-01-01

290

Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

2008-11-01

291

Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

2014-09-01

292

Average Annual Rainfall Over the Globe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74×1017 J of solar radiation per second and it is divided over various channels as given in Table 1. It keeps our planet warm and maintains its average temperature2 of 288 K with the help of the atmosphere in such a way that life can survive. It also recycles the water in the oceans/rivers/ lakes by initial evaporation and subsequent precipitation; the average annual rainfall over the globe is around one meter. According to M. King Hubbert the amount of solar power going into the evaporation and precipitation channel is 4.0×1016 W. Students can verify the value of average annual rainfall over the globe by utilizing this part of solar energy. This activity is described in the next section.

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-12-01

293

Error estimates on averages of correlated data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe how the true statistical error on an average of correlated data can be obtained with ease and efficiency by a renormalization group method. The method is illustrated with numerical and analytical examples, having finite as well as infinite range correlations.

Flyvbjerg, H.; Petersen, H. G.

1989-07-01

294

Average Rate Speed Scaling Nikhil Bansal  

E-print Network

is to minimize the energy used. They proposed an online speed scaling algorithm Average Rate (AVR) that runs each of AVR is at most (2) /2 if a processor running at speed s uses power s . We show the competitive ratio of AVR is at least ((2 - )) /2, where is a function of that approaches zero as approaches infinity

Bunde, David

295

Average Rate Speed Scaling Nikhil Bansal1  

E-print Network

is to minimize the energy used. They proposed an online speed scaling algorithm Average Rate (AVR) that runs each of AVR is at most (2) /2 if a processor running at speed s uses power s . We show the competitive ratio of AVR is at least ((2-)) /2, where is a function of that approaches zero as approaches infinity

Bunde, David

296

A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

2014-01-01

297

Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-01-01

298

Average formation length in string model  

E-print Network

The space-time scales of the hadronization process in the framework of string model are investigated. It is shown that the average formation lengths of pseudoscalar mesons, produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of leptons on different targets, depend from their electrical charges. In particular the average formation lengths of positively charged hadrons are larger than of negatively charged ones. This statement is fulfiled for all using scaling functions, for $z$ (the fraction of the virtual photon energy transferred to the detected hadron) larger than 0.15, for all nuclear targets and any value of the Bjorken scaling variable $x_{Bj}$. In all cases, the main mechanism is direct production of pseudoscalar mesons. Including in consideration additional mechanism of production in result of decay of resonances, leads to decrease of average formation lengths. It is shown that the average formation lengths of positively (negatively) charged mesons are slowly rising (decreasing) functions of $x_{Bj}$. The obtained results can be important, in particular, for the understanding of the hadronization process in nuclear environment.

L. Grigoryan

2010-02-04

299

Distributed Averaging via Lifted Markov Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algo- rithms for computing the average of numbers in a network. Speciflcally, our interest is in designing such an algorithm with the fastest rate of convergence given the topological constraints of the network. As the main result of this paper,

Kyomin Jung; Devavrat Shah; Jinwoo Shin

2009-01-01

300

Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation  

PubMed Central

Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

2014-01-01

301

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21

302

Quiet-time average auroral configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial pattern of auroral electron precipitation during magnetically quiet intervals was studied. The result is compared with the Feldstein (1963) auroral oval and other reported configurations of auroral optical emission. The precipitation of auroral electrons takes place in an irregularly shaped annular belt encircling the pole. The belt is composed of two parts: the equatorial part (average energy greater

K. Lassen; C. Danielsen; C.-I. Meng

1988-01-01

303

Credibilistic Markov decision processes: The average case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a concept of random fuzzy variables in credibility theory, we formulate a credibilistic model for unichain Markov decision processes under average criteria. And a credibilistically optimal policy is defined and obtained by solving the corresponding non-linear mathematical programming. Also we give a computational example to illustrate the effectiveness of our new model.

Kageyama, Masayuki

2009-02-01

304

The Longitudinal Development of Understanding of Average.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the development of understanding of the concept of average with students from grades 3 to 9 through interviews. Observed six levels of response based on an hierarchical model of cognitive functioning. Documents usage of ideas associated with the three standard measures of central tendency and representation as strategies for problem…

Watson, Jane M.; Moritz, Jonathan B.

2000-01-01

305

Development and evaluation of a nurse-led hypertension management model in a community: a pilot randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

This study aims to develop a nurse-led hypertension management model in the community setting and pilot it to an experimental trial. A total of 73 recruited participants were randomly allocated into two groups. The study group received a home visit and 2-4 telephone follow-ups from the trained community nurses assisted by nursing student volunteers. The control group received doctor-led hypertension management. Data was collected at recruitment and immediately after the 8-week program. Outcome measures included blood pressure readings, self-care adherence, self-efficacy, quality of life, and patient satisfaction. Participants from the study group led by nurses had significant improvement in self-care adherence, patient satisfaction post-intervention than those from the control group led by doctors. However, there were no statistical significant differences in blood pressure readings, quality of life and self-efficacy between the two groups. The findings show that the nurse-led hypertension management appears to be a promising way to manage hypertensive patients at the community level, particularly when the healthcare system is better integrated.

Zhu, Xuejiao; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Wu, Lai Har

2014-01-01

306

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

SciTech Connect

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

2013-11-07

307

Slater Averaged Pseudopotential and Its Inprovements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that the optimized effective potential method(OEP), which can be viewed as a way for constructing orbital independent potential from the known orbital dependent potentials, is valid for pseudopotentials. It is further on proved that for most group I and II elements as well as the elements with large radius, the Slater averaged pseudopotential, which is local and orbital independent, is applicable with very good transferability. A Heine-Abarenkov(HA) correction is proposed to make the pseudopotential workable for other elements, especially the first row atoms. Further on, the combination of the Slater averaged potential and the Bachelet-Hamman-Schluter(BHS) construction produces a new family of first principle norm-conserving pseudopotentials.

Miao, Maosheng

2001-03-01

308

Averaging of Temporal Memories by Rats  

PubMed Central

Rats were trained on a mixed fixed-interval schedule in which stimulus A (tone or light) indicated food availability after 10 s and stimulus B (the other stimulus) indicated food availability after 20 s. Testing consisted of non-reinforced probe trials in which the stimulus was A, B, or the compound AB. On single-stimulus trials, rats responded with a peak of activity around the programmed reinforced time. On compound-stimulus trials, rats showed a single scalar peak of responding at a time midway between those for stimulus A and B. These results suggest that when provided with discrepant information regarding the temporal predictability of reinforcement, rats compute an average of the scheduled reinforcement times for the A and B stimuli and use this average to generate an expectation of reward for the compound stimuli. PMID:19594288

Swanton, Dale N.; Gooch, Cynthia M.; Matell, Matthew S.

2009-01-01

309

Cosmological backreaction and spatially averaged spatial curvature  

E-print Network

It has been suggested that the accelerated expansion of the Universe is due to backreaction of small scale density perturbations on the large scale spacetime geometry. While evidence against this suggestion has accumulated, it has not yet been definitively ruled out. Many investigations of this issue have focused on the Buchert formalism, which computes spatial averages of quantities in synchronous comoving gauge. We argue that, for the deceleration parameter of this formalism to agree with observations, the spatial average of the three dimensional Ricci scalar (spatial curvature) must be large today, with an $\\Omega_k$ in the range of $1 \\le \\Omega_k \\le 1.3$. We argue that this constraint is difficult to reconcile with observations of the location of the first Doppler peak of the CMBR. We illustrate the argument with a simple toy model for the effect of backreaction, which we show is generically incompatible with observations.

Eran Rosenthal; Éanna É. Flanagan

2008-09-11

310

New applications for high average power beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL's, and ICF drivers from the early 60's through the late 80's is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

Neau, E. L.; Turman, B. N.; Patterson, E. L.

1993-06-01

311

Models of space averaged energetics of plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of high frequency vibrations in plates is of particular interest in the study of structure borne noise in aircrafts. The current methods of analysis are either too expensive (finite element method) or may have a confidence band wider than desirable (Statistical Energy Analysis). An alternative technique to model the space and time averaged response of structural acoustics problems with enough detail to include all significant mechanisms of energy generation, transmission, and absorption is highly desirable. The focus of this paper is the development of a set of equations which govern the space and time averaged energy density in plates. To solve this equation, a new type of boundary value problem must be treated in terms of energy density variables using energy and intensity boundary conditions. A computer simulation verification study of the energy governing equation is performed. A finite element formulation of the new equations is also implemented and several test cases are analyzed and compared to analytical solutions.

Bouthier, O. M.; Bernhard, R. J.

1990-01-01

312

jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.  

PubMed

jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:18397919

Posada, David

2008-07-01

313

High average power free-electron lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since the first free-electron laser (FEL) was both conceived and demonstrated in the 1970s at Stanford, it has attracted much attention as a promising foundation for a high average power light source. Since its light is produced from free electrons, an FEL can be designed to lase at virtually any wavelength. Furthermore, since its light is generated from a relativistic beam that is continually replenished, its gain medium cannot be damaged by any conventional means. Accordingly, as there have been several ambitious attempts to design and construct high average power FELs over the past several decades, we chronicle some of these efforts. Additionally, we provide an overview of FEL technology and theory, discuss some of the obstacles that remain in the construction of a high-power FEL, and provide a road map toward a megawatt-class device.

Blau, Joseph; Cohn, Keith; Colson, William B.

2013-02-01

314

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion  

SciTech Connect

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

315

Piezoelectrically actuated time-averaged atomic microtraps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a scheme for creating tight and adiabatic time-averaged atom-traps through the piezoelectric actuation of nanomagnetic structures. We show that potentials formed by the circular translation of magnetic structures have several advantages over conventional rotating-field techniques, particularly for high trap frequencies. As the magnitude of the actuation is changed, the trapping potential can be changed adiabatically between harmonic 3D confinement and a toroidal trap.

West, A. D.; Wade, C. G.; Weatherill, K. J.; Hughes, I. G.

2012-07-01

316

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, MANAGEMENT/  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON RISK MANAGEMENT/ ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ANNUAL REPORT June & INSTRUCTIONAL SAFETY T-1400 714-278-SAFE #12;2007 ­ 2008 Risk Management Annual Report Page 2 I. Executive management costs against the System average. In 2008-09, the University's risk pool contributions for CSURMA

de Lijser, Peter

317

Terrestrial kilometric radiation: 3-average spectral properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented of the average spectral properties of terrestrial kilometric radiation (TKR) derived from observations made by radio astronomy experiments onboard the IMP-6 and RAE-2 spacecraft. As viewed from near the equatorial plane, TKR is most intense and most often observed in the 21-24 hr local time zone and is rarely seen in the 09-12 hr zone. The peak flux density usually occurs near 240 kHz, but there is evidence that the peak occurs at a somewhat lower frequency on the dayside. The frequency of the peak in the average flux spectrum varies inversely with increasing substorm activity as inferred from the auroral electrojet index (AE) from a maximum near 300 kHz during very quiet times to a minimum below 200 kHz during very disturbed times. The absolute flux levels in the 100-600 kHz TKR band increase significantly with increasing AE. The average power associated with a particular source region seems to decrease rapidly with increasing source altitude.

Kaiser, M. L.; Alexander, J. K.

1976-01-01

318

Modern average global sea-surface temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1993-01-01

319

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?av, is found to be significantly lower (20-30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?av/?0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

Zhang, S.; Lin, W.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z.; Chen, Z.; Keutgen, T.; Kowalski, S.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P. K.; Schmidt, K. J.; Wang, J.

2013-05-01

320

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

...false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2014-07-01

321

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2013-07-01

322

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2012-07-01

323

Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport  

E-print Network

This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

2009-02-19

324

Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.  

PubMed

Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171

Caponi, Sandra

2013-08-14

325

[Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.  

PubMed

Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:24141918

Caponi, Sandra

2013-01-01

326

Averaging Spherically Symmetric Spacetimes in General Relativity  

E-print Network

We discuss the averaging problem in general relativity, using the form of the macroscopic gravity equations in the case of spherical symmetry in volume preserving coordinates. In particular, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. On cosmological scales, the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background is found to be of the form of a spatial curvature. On astrophysical scales the correlation tensor can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. We briefly discuss the physical implications of these results.

A. A. Coley; N. Pelavas

2006-06-21

327

Are Telehealth Technologies for Hypertension Care and Self-management Effective or Simply Risky and Costly?  

PubMed

Abstract Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease that requires ongoing management and self-care. The disease affects 31% of American adults and contributed to or caused the deaths of 348,000 Americans in 2008, fewer than 50% of whom effectively self-managed the disease. However, self-management is complex, with patients requiring ongoing support and easy access to care. Telehealth may help foster the knowledge and skills necessary for those with hypertension to engage in successful self-management. This paper considers the applicability, efficacy, associated risks, and cost-effectiveness of telehealth for individuals and populations with hypertension. Telehealth is a broad term, encompassing telemedicine and mobile health that is used for physician-patient interactions, diagnostics, care delivery, education, information sharing, monitoring, and reminders. Telemedicine may have considerable utility for people diagnosed with hypertension who have poor access or social barriers that constrain access, but potential risks exist. Telehealth technology is evolving rapidly, even in the absence of fully proven cost-effectiveness and efficacy. Considering the cost of inpatient and emergency department care for patients with hypertension, telehealth is a highly attractive alternative, but there are risks to consider. Incorporating telehealth, which is increasingly characterized by mobile health, can increase both the capacity of health care providers and the reach of patient support, clinical management, and self-care. Telehealth studies need improvement; long-term outcome data on cardiovascular events must be obtained, and robust risk analyses and economic studies are needed to prospectively evaluate the safety and cost savings for hypertension self-management. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25290443

McKoy, June; Fitzner, Karen; Margetts, Miranda; Heckinger, Elizabeth; Specker, James; Roth, Laura; Izenberg, Maxwell; Siegel, Molly; McKinney, Shannon; Moss, Gail

2014-10-01

328

Adaptive common average filtering for myocontrol applications.  

PubMed

The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage for optimal subsequent information extraction. The aim of this filter is to improve both the quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and the selectivity of the EMG recordings. The filter is based on the classic common average reference (CAR), often used in EEG processing. However, while CAR is stationary, the proposed filter, which is referred to as adaptive common average reference (ACAR), is signal-dependent and its spatial transfer function is adapted over time. The ACAR filter is evaluated in this study for noise reduction and selectivity. Furthermore, it is proven that its application improves the performance of both pattern recognition and regression methods for myoelectric control. It is concluded that the proposed novel filter for EMG conditioning is a useful preprocessing tool in myocontrol applications. PMID:25388778

Rehbaum, Hubertus; Farina, Dario

2015-02-01

329

Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

1987-01-01

330

Averaging in the presence of sliding errors  

SciTech Connect

In many cases the precision with which an experiment can measure a physical quantity depends on the value of that quantity. Not having access to the true value, experimental groups are forced to assign their errors based on their own measured value. Procedures which attempt to derive an improved estimate of the true value by a suitable average of such measurements usually weight each experiment`s measurement according to the reported variance. However, one is in a position to derive improved error estimates for each experiment from the average itself, provided an approximate idea of the functional dependence of the error on the central value is known. Failing to do so can lead to substantial biases. Techniques which avoid these biases without loss of precision are proposed and their performance is analyzed with examples. These techniques are quite general and can bring about an improvement even when the behavior of the errors is not well understood. Perhaps the most important application of the technique is in fitting curves to histograms.

Yost, G.P. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1991-08-01

331

Motional averaging in a superconducting qubit.  

PubMed

Superconducting circuits with Josephson junctions are promising candidates for developing future quantum technologies. Of particular interest is to use these circuits to study effects that typically occur in complex condensed-matter systems. Here we employ a superconducting quantum bit--a transmon--to perform an analogue simulation of motional averaging, a phenomenon initially observed in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. By modulating the flux bias of a transmon with controllable pseudo-random telegraph noise we create a stochastic jump of its energy level separation between two discrete values. When the jumping is faster than a dynamical threshold set by the frequency displacement of the levels, the initially separate spectral lines merge into a single, narrow, motional-averaged line. With sinusoidal modulation a complex pattern of additional sidebands is observed. We show that the modulated system remains quantum coherent, with modified transition frequencies, Rabi couplings, and dephasing rates. These results represent the first steps towards more advanced quantum simulations using artificial atoms. PMID:23361011

Li, Jian; Silveri, M P; Kumar, K S; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Vepsäläinen, A; Chien, W C; Tuorila, J; Sillanpää, M A; Hakonen, P J; Thuneberg, E V; Paraoanu, G S

2013-01-01

332

The 2009 World Average of $?_s$  

E-print Network

Measurements of $\\alpha_s$, the coupling strength of the Strong Interaction between quarks and gluons, are summarised and an updated value of the world average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ is derived. Building up on previous reviews, special emphasis is laid on the most recent determinations of $\\alpha_s$. These are obtained from $\\tau$-decays, from global fits of electroweak precision data and from measurements of the proton structure function $\\F_2$, which are based on perturbative QCD calculations up to $O(\\alpha_s^4)$; from hadronic event shapes and jet production in $\\epem$ annihilation, based on $O(\\alpha_s^3) $ QCD; from jet production in deep inelastic scattering and from $\\Upsilon$ decays, based on $O(\\alpha_s^2) $ QCD; and from heavy quarkonia based on unquenched QCD lattice calculations. Applying pragmatic methods to deal with possibly underestimated errors and/or unknown correlations, the world average value of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ results in $\\alpha_s (M_Z) = 0.1184 \\pm 0.0007$. The measured values of $\\alpha_s (Q)$, covering energy scales from $Q \\equiv \\mtau = 1.78$ GeV to 209 GeV, exactly follow the energy dependence predicted by QCD and therefore significantly test the concept af Asymptotic Freedom.

Siegfried Bethke

2009-08-10

333

Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p T broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Boer, Daniël

2015-01-01

334

Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition  

PubMed Central

The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

2014-01-01

335

Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-03-01

336

Application of the moving averaging technique in surplus production models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surplus production models are the simplest analytical methods effective for fish stock assessment and fisheries management. In this paper, eight surplus production estimators (three estimation procedures) were tested on Schaefer and Fox type simulated data in three simulated fisheries (declining, well-managed, and restoring fisheries) at two white noise levels. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to verify the utility of moving averaging (MA), which was an important technique for reducing the effect of noise in data in these models. The relative estimation error (REE) of maximum sustainable yield (MSY) was used as an indicator for the analysis, and one-way ANOVA was applied to test the significance of the REE calculated at four levels of MA. Simulation results suggested that increasing the value of MA could significantly improve the performance of the surplus production model (low REE) in all cases when the white noise level was low (coefficient of variation ( CV)=0.02). However, when the white noise level increased ( CV=0.25), adding the value of MA could still significantly enhance the performance of most models. Our results indicated that the best model performance occurred frequently when MA was equal to 3; however, some exceptions were observed when MA was higher.

Wang, Yu; Liu, Qun

2014-08-01

337

18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301.7 Section...ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE...ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a)...

2013-04-01

338

18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.  

...2014-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301.7 Section...ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE...ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a)...

2014-04-01

339

18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301.7 Section...ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE...ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a)...

2012-04-01

340

18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301.7 Section...ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE...ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a)...

2011-04-01

341

Problems in the use of statistical average atom potentials for estimating average degree of ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consequences of a simple integral definition of electron charge bound to an ion are examined for Thomas-Fermi (TF) and Debye-Huckel-Thomas-Fermi (DHTF) average atom statistical potentials used to describe high temperature high density plasmas. A self-consistent scheme for calculating average degree of ionization within the DHTF approach is described. With the simple integral definition of bound charge the DHTF model, unlike the TF model, exhibits the anomalous behavior that degree of ionization can decrease as temperature increases. It is shown that this results from inclusion in the integration of electron charge density too extended and too near continuum energies to be physically considered as bound.

Zakowicz, W.; Feng, I. J.; Pratt, R. H.

1982-03-01

342

Network Management Network Management  

E-print Network

"From Networks and Network Management into Services and Service Management". J. of Network ans System · Operation deals with keeping the network up (and the service provided by the network) · Administration ­ Network management ­ System management ­ Application management ­ Service management Network Management

343

Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

344

24is the average age of our MSc in Real Estate Investment students  

E-print Network

24is the average age of our MSc in Real Estate Investment students The Cass advantage Located exciting stage of your career journey. About the course The MSc in Real Estate Investment is aimed at students wishing to enter or advance their careers in the fields of real estate investment management, real

Weyde, Tillman

345

Use of Averaged Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire Scores  

PubMed Central

Background. Averaged Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ) support scores remove the influence of network size variability but may unduly lower scores for participants with large networks. Objectives. To evaluate the use of averaged NSSQ scores. Method. Pearson correlations determined if averaged scores decreased as network size increased across three samples. Then, Pearson correlations between a criterion variable and both averaged and raw support scores were computed along with the resultant power to detect a true effect. Results. Neither averaged total functional support nor averaged affect and affirmation scores decreased as sample size increased. However, averaged aid scores did decrease as network size increased. Power also increased markedly in all averaged versus raw scores except in averaged aid scores. Discussion and Conclusions. Use of averaged aid scores is not recommended. Use of all other averaged scores appears acceptable. PMID:22007323

Gigliotti, Eileen; Samuels, William Ellery

2011-01-01

346

APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are  

E-print Network

for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data

Oregon, University of

347

Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation of global 21-cm signal measurements are detections of Lyman Alpha Emitters at high redshifts and constraints on the midpoint of reionization, both of which are among the primary science objectives of ongoing or near-future experiments.

Mirocha, Jordan

2015-01-01

348

Arithmetic averaging: A versatile technique for smoothing and trend removal  

SciTech Connect

Arithmetic averaging is simple, stable, and can be very effective in attenuating the undesirable components in a complex signal, thereby providing smoothing or trend removal. An arithmetic average is easy to calculate. However, the resulting modifications to the data, in both the time and frequency domains, are not well understood by many experimentalists. This paper discusses the following aspects of averaging: (1) types of averages -- simple, cumulative, and moving; and (2) time and frequency domain effects of the averaging process.

Clark, E.L.

1993-12-31

349

Constrained Semi-Markov decision processes with average rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with constrained average reward Semi-Markov Decision Processes (SMDPs) with finite state and action sets. We consider two average reward criteria. The first criterion is time-average rewards, which equal the lower limits of the expected average rewards per unit time, as the horizon tends to infinity. The second criterion is ratio-average rewards, which equal the lower limits of

Eugene A. Feinberg; W. A. Harriman

1994-01-01

350

Smart energy management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on

Aniruddha Desai; Jugdutt Singh

2010-01-01

351

Temporal spectrum of atmospheric scintillation and the effects of aperture averaging and time averaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general analytic expression for the temporal spectrum of atmospheric scintillation under weak turbulence condition is derived. It was employed to study the characteristics of the temporal spectra for horizontal uniform path and whole layer atmospheric non-uniform path. In the non-uniform path, the H-V turbulence model and the Gaussian wind speed model are utilized. It has been found that when the receiver diameter is larger than Fresnel scale (?L)1/2, the temporal spectrum of the plane wave have a power law behavior with a scaling index - 17/3 in high-frequency range. The change of the turbulence strength has little influence on the shape of the temporal spectrum. Based on the characteristics of the temporal spectrum, the aperture-averaging and time-averaging effects on scintillation were analyzed in the frequency domain.

Shen, Hong; Yu, Longkun; Fan, Chengyu

2014-11-01

352

To quantum averages through asymptotic expansion of classical averages on infinite-dimensional space  

SciTech Connect

We study asymptotic expansions of Gaussian integrals of analytic functionals on infinite-dimensional spaces (Hilbert and nuclear Frechet). We obtain an asymptotic equality coupling the Gaussian integral and the trace of the composition of scaling of the covariation operator of a Gaussian measure and the second (Frechet) derivative of a functional. In this way we couple classical average (given by an infinite-dimensional Gaussian integral) and quantum average (given by the von Neumann trace formula). We can interpret this mathematical construction as a procedure of 'dequantization' of quantum mechanics. We represent quantum mechanics as an asymptotic projection of classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. This space can be represented as the space of classical fields, so quantum mechanics is represented as a projection of 'prequantum classical statistical field theory'.

Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, University of Vaexjoe, Vaexjoe S-35195 (Sweden)

2007-01-15

353

How to Define Average Class Size (and Deviations from the Average Class Size) in a Way Which Is  

E-print Network

of the important parameters is the average class size. This average is usually estimated as an arithmetic average size. However, if we want to describe the effect of deviations from the average class size on the teaching effectiveness, then, instead of the standard deviation of the class size, a more complex

Kreinovich, Vladik

354

Effects of being uninsured on ethnic minorities' management of chronic illness  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effectiveness with which insured and uninsured persons with chronic illnesses managed their health care. Design Recruited volunteers diagnosed with a variety of chronic illnesses who underwent 3 semistructured interviews in a 1-year period. Setting Volunteers were recruited through referrals, flyers, and face-to-face contacts from community health clinics, senior centers, acute care hospitals, and home care services in 2 urban counties in California between December 1997 and December 2000. Participants A total of 297 persons between the ages of 23 and 97 years (35% African American, 33% Latino, and 32% Filipino American), of whom 42 (14%) had no health insurance. Main outcome measures Qualitative analysis of interview data compared insured and uninsured respondents on a series of components of chronic illness management, including control over illness, frequency of health crises, procuring medication, use of medication, understanding of the illness, knowledge of self-care measures, and awareness of risk factors. Whether respondents were under the care of a regular physician was also assessed. Results Compared with insured respondents, uninsured respondents were much less effective at managing their illnesses. The uninsured had poorly controlled illnesses, frequent health crises, difficulty procuring medication, used medication incorrectly, demonstrated poor understanding of their illness, and displayed little knowledge of self-care measures or risk awareness. They rarely had a regular physician or attended a specific health clinic. Conclusions The findings suggest that not only did uninsured persons with chronic health conditions lack adequate health care, their illnesses were also poorly controlled. Inadequately educated about their health, uninsured persons lacked the information, insight, and tools that would have allowed them to manage their illnesses more effectively. PMID:11431394

Becker, Gay

2001-01-01

355

Reach-averaged sediment routing model of a canyon river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial complexity in channel geometry indicates that accurate prediction of sediment transport requires modeling in at least two dimensions. However, a one-dimensional model may be the only practical or possible alternative, especially for longer river reaches of practical concern in river management or landscape modeling. We have developed a one-dimensional model of the Colorado River through upper Grand Canyon that addresses this problem by reach averaging the channel properties and predicting changes in sand storage using separate source and sink functions coupled to the sand routing model. The model incorporates results from the application of a two-dimensional model of flow, sand transport, and bed evolution, and a new algorithm for setting the near-bed sand boundary condition for sand transported over an exposed bouldery bed. Model predictions were compared to measurements of sand discharge during intermittent tributary inputs and varying discharges controlled by dam releases. The model predictions generally agree well with the timing and magnitude of measured sand discharges but tend to overpredict sand discharge during the early stages of a high release designed to redistribute sand to higher-elevation deposits.

Wiele, S.M.; Wilcock, P.R.; Grams, P.E.

2007-01-01

356

Managing Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes the skills necessary for managing resources, including planning, project management, budget management, information management, change management, and organizational performance assessment.

ITU Leadership Development (George Mason University)

2012-01-20

357

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, RISK MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

SAFETY 2009 ANNUAL REPORTS #12;2009 Annual Report Page 2 RISK MANAGEMENT I. Program Cost One method management costs against the System average. In 2009-10, the University's risk pool contributions for CSURMACALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON RISK MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & INSTRUCTIONAL

de Lijser, Peter

358

7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content...

2010-01-01

359

7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content...

2012-01-01

360

7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

2013-01-01

361

7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.  

...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

2014-01-01

362

7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content...

2013-01-01

363

7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.  

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content...

2014-01-01

364

7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content...

2011-01-01

365

7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

2010-01-01

366

7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

2011-01-01

367

7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

2012-01-01

368

18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization...and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS FOR FEDERAL...MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR...

2010-04-01

369

Network Management Network Management  

E-print Network

, operational and QOS requirements...... ­ From:Saydam, Magendaz "From Networks and Network Management into Services and Service Management". J. of Network ans System Management #12;Network Management Pag. 3 Network · Provisioning means resource configuration to enable a given service Network management and QoS provisioning - 5

370

Scaling of average weighted shortest path and average receiving time on weighted expanded Koch networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterministic network models have been attractive media for discussing dynamical processes' dependence on network structural features. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of weights affect dynamical processes taking place on networks. In this paper, we present a family of weighted expanded Koch networks based on Koch networks. They originate from a r-polygon, and each node of current generation produces m r-polygons including the node and whose weighted edges are scaled by factor w in subsequent evolutionary step. We derive closed-form expressions for average weighted shortest path length (AWSP). In large network, AWSP stays bounded with network order growing (0 < w < 1). Then, we focus on a special random walks and trapping issue on the networks. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average receiving time (ART). ART exhibits a sub-linear dependence on network order (0 < w < 1), which implies that nontrivial weighted expanded Koch networks are more efficient than un-weighted expanded Koch networks in receiving information. Besides, efficiency of receiving information at hub nodes is also dependent on parameters m and r. These findings may pave the way for controlling information transportation on general weighted networks.

Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan; Jin, Feng

2014-04-01

371

Stroboscopic averaging for the nonlinear Schrodinger F. Castella  

E-print Network

Stroboscopic averaging for the nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation F. Castella , Ph. Chartier , F. M with an averaging procedure, namely Stroboscopic aver- aging, for highly-oscillatory evolution equations posed-oscillatory evolution equation, stroboscopic averaging, Hamiltonian PDEs, invariants, nonlinear Schr¨odinger, SAM. MSC

Murua, Ander

372

Stroboscopic averaging for the nonlinear Schrodinger F. Castella  

E-print Network

Stroboscopic averaging for the nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation F. Castella , Ph. Chartier , F. M, ­ namely Stroboscopic averaging [SVM07, CMSS10] ­, for highly-oscillatory evolution equations posed-oscillatory evolution equation, stroboscopic averaging, Hamiltonian PDEs, invariants, nonlinear Schr¨odinger. MSC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Higher-order averaging, formal series and numerical integration II  

E-print Network

to obtain a variety of averaged systems. In particular we study the quasi-stroboscopic averaged system at the initial time. We show that quasi-stroboscopic averaging is a geometric procedure because it is independent of the particular choice of co-ordinates used to write the given system. As a consequence, quasi-stroboscopic

Murua, Ander

374

Stroboscopic averaging for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation F. Castella  

E-print Network

Stroboscopic averaging for the nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation F. Castella , Ph. Chartier , F. M, ­namely Stroboscopic averaging [SVM07, CMSS10]­, for highly-oscillatory evolution equations posed the recent literature. Keywords: highly-oscillatory evolution equation, stroboscopic averaging, Hamiltonian

Chartier, Philippe

375

The Invisibility of the "Average" Child in the Early Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores teachers' tendency to adopt the "average" student as a reference point on personal and interpersonal dimensions of classroom life. Suggests that while reliance on this average might seem a solution to the problems of organizing learning for large groups, at a personal level, average children may be experiencing school life as a mere…

Waterhouse, Stephen

1995-01-01

376

78 FR 49770 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice...The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year...a fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates. We...

2013-08-15

377

76 FR 57081 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice...The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year...a fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates. We...

2011-09-15

378

78 FR 16711 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice...The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year...a fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates. We...

2013-03-18

379

76 FR 6161 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice...The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year...a fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates. We...

2011-02-03

380

Total Reward Stochastic Games and Sensitive Average Reward Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, total reward stochastic games are surveyed. Total reward games are motivated as a refinement of average reward games. The total reward is defined as the limiting average of the partial sums of the stream of payoffs. It is shown that total reward games with finite state space are strategically equivalent to a class of average reward games

F. Thuijsman; O. J. Vrieze

1998-01-01

381

Depth-averaged turbulence k ? – w ? model and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the developments and applications of a turbulence depth-averaged (depth-integrated) two-equation closure model, symbolised by k?–w? model (k?:depth-averaged turbulent kinetic energy parameter; w?:depth-averaged vorticity fluctuation parameter of turbulence). The k?–w? model, different from the well-known turbulence depth-averaged k?–?? model (??:depth-averaged dissipation rate parameter of turbulent kinetic energy), was stemmed from the revised version of k–w model (k: turbulent

L. Yu; A. M. Righetto

2001-01-01

382

Lee-Yang Theorems and the Complexity of Computing Averages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the complexity of computing average quantities related to spin systems, such as the mean magnetization and susceptibility in the ferromagnetic Ising model, and the average dimer count (or average size of a matching) in the monomer-dimer model. By establishing connections between the complexity of computing these averages and the location of the complex zeros of the partition function, we show that these averages are #P-hard to compute, and hence, under standard assumptions, computationally intractable. In the case of the Ising model, our approach requires us to prove an extension of the famous Lee-Yang Theorem from the 1950s.

Sinclair, Alistair; Srivastava, Piyush

2014-08-01

383

Robust Morphological Averages in Three Dimensions for Anatomical Atlas Construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present original methods for obtaining robust, anatomical shape-based averages of features of the human head anatomy from a normal population. Our goals are computerized atlas construction with representative anatomical features and morphopometry for specific populations. A method for true-morphological averaging is proposed, consisting of a suitable blend of shape-related information for N objects to obtain a progressive average. It is made robust by penalizing, in a morphological sense, the contributions of features less similar to the current average. Morphological error and similarity, as well as penalization, are based on the same paradigm as the morphological averaging.

Márquez, Jorge; Bloch, Isabelle; Schmitt, Francis

2004-09-01

384

Note: Sensitivity enhancement in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance: adaptive signal averaging versus a moving average.  

PubMed

We compare improvements in signal-to-noise in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW EPR) spectra resulting from adaptive signal averaging and a simple moving average. An adaptive filter module that uses a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm was incorporated into a CW EPR data acquisition program. After optimization, the RLS filter produces a significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio over conventional digital signal (spectral) averaging alone. However, conventional averaging of spectra combined with a central moving average of the data points provided equal or greater signal-to-noise improvement in the CW EPR spectra. PMID:20192519

Brinton, Christopher G; Hirsh, Donald J

2010-02-01

385

Note: Sensitivity enhancement in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance: Adaptive signal averaging versus a moving average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare improvements in signal-to-noise in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW EPR) spectra resulting from adaptive signal averaging and a simple moving average. An adaptive filter module that uses a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm was incorporated into a CW EPR data acquisition program. After optimization, the RLS filter produces a significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio over conventional digital signal (spectral) averaging alone. However, conventional averaging of spectra combined with a central moving average of the data points provided equal or greater signal-to-noise improvement in the CW EPR spectra.

Brinton, Christopher G.; Hirsh, Donald J.

2010-02-01

386

5) Management 5) Management  

E-print Network

a third qualitative factor #12;5) Management c) Control Prioritizing control ­ From Hiebert in Luken5) Management c) Control #12;5) Management c) Control Prioritizing control ­ From Hiebert in Luken & Thieret (1997) · Types of information utilized Ecological impacts #12;5) Management c) Control

Nowak, Robert S.

387

Averaging VMAT treatment plans for multi-criteria navigation  

E-print Network

The main approach to smooth Pareto surface navigation for radiation therapy multi-criteria treatment planning involves taking real-time averages of pre-computed treatment plans. In fluence-based treatment planning, fluence maps themselves can be averaged, which leads to the dose distributions being averaged due to the linear relationship between fluence and dose. This works for fluence-based photon plans and proton spot scanning plans. In this technical note, we show that two or more sliding window volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans can be combined by averaging leaf positions in a certain way, and we demonstrate that the resulting dose distribution for the averaged plan is approximately the average of the dose distributions of the original plans. This leads to the ability to do Pareto surface navigation, i.e. interactive multi-criteria exploration of VMAT plan dosimetric tradeoffs.

Craft, David; Unkelbach, Jan

2013-01-01

388

Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator  

SciTech Connect

A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.

Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

2009-10-15

389

An average interstellar extinction curve for the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LMC regions located more than 0.5 deg from the center of the 30 Doradus nebula have an average UV extinction curve that is about 2 units higher in the far UV than the average Galactic curve. Within the 30 Doradus region, the normalized far-UV extinction is much steeper than the average Galactic or average LMC curves, yet has been considered to be representative of the LMC in general in the past. The present results show typical LMC extinction properties to have much more in common with those in the Milky Way.

Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

1986-01-01

390

Power averaging and inverse smoothing: implications for porous media flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extremely large data set of Venus elevation is used to study the behavior of spatial statistics (eg. variance) under power averaging (eg. geometric averaging over blocks). It is shown that a model of univariate and bivariate Gaussianity can be adopted for this data set. Multivariate Gaussianity, however, is clearly disproved by comparing the multiple point statistics of high and low indicator values with those from the multivariate Gaussian distribution. Power averaging is performed on the data set over increasing block sizes using a wide power parameter range going from -40 to +40. The spatial variance of each of these power averages is plotted against increasing averaging volume. Geostatistical theory predicts a decreasing trend for the variance of linear averages. This is the classical smoothing effect. However, for this elevation data set, the variance of power averages shows a significant non-decreasing trend for a range of power values from -4 to -0.5. The cause behind such ``inverse smoothing" is linked to the spatial clustering of extreme values. Note that the block-effective permeability of porous media lies, in general (but, not necessarily), within the two limiting power averages -1 (harmonic average) and +1 (linear average). Since the observed power range for inverse smoothing overlaps this interval, the consequences of inverse smoothing for permeability averaging are discussed. This inverse smoothing arises because of spatial clustering of extreme values in non-Gaussian and finite sized fields. Therefore, this bodes caution for techniques resorting to such assumptions which simplify the analytical and numerical computation of effective permeability, but, possibly, at some unexpected risk.

Krishnan, S.; Journel, A.

2004-12-01

391

Stroboscopic averaging for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation F. Castella  

E-print Network

Stroboscopic averaging for the nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation F. Castella , Ph. Chartier , F. M Stroboscopic averaging, for highly-oscillatory evolution equations posed in a (possibly infinite dimensional borrowed from the recent literature. Keywords: highly-oscillatory evolution equation, stroboscopic

Méhats, Florian

392

Numerical stroboscopic averaging for ODEs and M. P. Calvo  

E-print Network

Numerical stroboscopic averaging for ODEs and DAEs M. P. Calvo , Ph. Chartier , A. Murua , and J. M. Sanz-Serna§ November 2, 2010 Abstract The stroboscopic averaging method (SAM) is a technique. The method may be seen as a purely numerical way of implementing the analytical technique of stroboscopic

Murua, Ander

393

Numerical stroboscopic averaging for ODEs and M. P. Calvo,  

E-print Network

Numerical stroboscopic averaging for ODEs and DAEs M. P. Calvo, Ph. Chartier, A. Murua, and J. M. Sanz-Serna§ October 29, 2010 Abstract The stroboscopic averaging method (SAM) is a technique. The method may be seen as a purely numerical way of implementing the analytical technique of stroboscopic

Boyer, Edmond

394

Object detection by correlation coefficients using azimuthally averaged reference projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of computing correlation coefficients for object detection that takes advantage of using azimuthally averaged reference projections is described and compared with two alternative methods-computing a cross-correlation function or a local correlation coefficient versus the azimuthally averaged reference projections. Two examples of an application from structural biology involving the detection of projection views of biological macromolecules in electron micrographs

William V. Nicholson

2004-01-01

395

THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN-BAPTISTE POMET Abstract. For control systems that either have an explicit periodic dependence on time or have periodic solutions and small controls, we define an average control system that takes into account all

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

BAYESIAN MODEL AVERAGING AND MODEL SELECTION FOR MARKOV EQUIVALENCE  

E-print Network

BAYESIAN MODEL AVERAGING AND MODEL SELECTION FOR MARKOV EQUIVALENCE CLASSES OF ACYCLIC DIGRAPHS uncertainty; model averaging; Markov equivalence; Markov chain Monte Carlo. ABSTRACT Acyclic digraphs (ADGs by the graph. The recent books by Whittaker (1990) and Lauritzen (1996) conveniently summarize the statistical

Volinsky, Chris

397

Average Fill Rate And Horizon Length Arunava Banerjee  

E-print Network

Average Fill Rate And Horizon Length Arunava Banerjee Anand Paul September 2004 Abstract Given that average fill rate is monotonically decreasing in the number of periods in the planning horizon. This was conjectured to be true in a recent issue of this journal. Keywords: Inventory theory, finite horizon, fill

Banerjee, Arunava

398

The Number "c" in Cauchy's Average Value Theorem. Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The location of the number "c" arising from Cauchy's Average Value Theorem is described when the size of the interval is small. This article discusses various generalizations of theorem 1, to the context of Cauchy?s Average Value Theorem--but without appealing to theorem 1. Obviously, hypotheses involving the functions "f" and "g" will be…

Mercer, Peter R.

2004-01-01

399

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Outgoing Longwave Radiation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Tom Bridgman

2001-06-20

400

Renormalon Subtraction from the Average Plaquette and the Gluon Condensate  

E-print Network

A Borel resummation scheme of subtracting the perturbative contribution from the average plaquette is proposed using the bilocal expansion of Borel transform. It is shown that the remnant of the average plaquette, after subtraction of the perturbative contribution, scales as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review of the existing procedure of renormalon subtraction is presented.

Taekoon Lee

2011-01-03

401

Five-Year Average Global Temperature Anomalies 1880 - 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color-coded map displays a progression of changing five-year average global surface temperatures anomalies from 1880 through 2010. The final frame represents global temperature anomalies averaged from 2006 to 2010. The temperature anomalies are computed relative to the base period 1951-1980.

Schmunk, Robert B.; Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, Mki; Lo, K.; Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

402

Measurement of the average lifetime of b hadrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average lifetime of b hadrons has been measured using the L3 detector at LEP, running at &surd;s ~ MZ. A b-enriched sample was obtained from 432538 hadronic Z events collected in 1990 and 1991 by tagging electrons and muons from semileptonic b hadron decays. From maximum likelihood fits to the electron and muon impact parameter distributions, the average b

O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S. P. Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; Q. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; T. Angelescu; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; A G Atamanchuk; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; J. Bao; R. Barillère; L. Barone; A. Baschirotto; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; J. Bechtluft; R. Becker; U. Becker; F. Behner; J. Behrens; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; A. Biland; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; Gerjan J Bobbink; R K Böck; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; M. Bosetti; D. Bourilkov; Maurice Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B T Bouwens; Elena Brambilla; J. G. Branson; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; A T Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; J K Busenitz; A O Buytenhuijs; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; M. Caria; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; R. Castello; M Cerrada-Canales; F. Cesaroni; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; W. Y. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. T. Choi; S. Chung; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; A. Contin; S. Costantini; F. Cotorobai; X. T. Cui; X. Y. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; R. de Asmundis; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; M. Dhina; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; M. Ditmarr; L. Djambazov; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Easo; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; F. C. Erné; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; S. J. Fan; O. Fackler; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; W. Friebel; M. Fukushima; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; D. Gele; S. Gentile; N. Gheordanescu; S Goldfarb; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; M. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; J. K. Guo; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; K. Hangarter; B. Hartmann; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; C. F. He; J. T. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H Hoorani; G Q Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; S. Jezequel; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; I. Josa-Mutuberria; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; S. C. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; R. Klöckner; A. C. König; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kramer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; A. Krivshich; H. Kuijten; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; A. Lebedev; P Lecomte; P. Lecoq; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; J. S. Lee; K. Y. Lee; I. Leedom; C. Leggett; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; C. Li; H. T. Li; P. J. Li; J. Y. Liao; W. T. Lin; Z. Y. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; J. M. Ma; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; M. Maolinbay; P. Marchesini; F. Marion; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; L. Martinez-Laso; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McMahon; D. McNally; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; A. Mihul; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; A. Nadtochy; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; C. Neyer; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G. Organtini; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; J. Perrier; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; P. A. Piroué; F. Plasil; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; Z. D. Qi; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; B. C. Riemers; K. Riles; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; S. Ro; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; M. Sachwitz; J M Salicio; G. S. Sanders; A. Santocchia; M. S. Sarakinos; G. Sartorelli; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; V. Schegelsky; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; H. J. Schreiber; J. Shukla; R. Schulte; S. Schulte; K. Schultze; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; I. Scott; R. Sehgal; P. G. Seiler; J. C. Sens; L. Servoli; I. Sheer; D. Z. Shen; S. Shevchenko; X. R. Shi; E. Shumilov; V. Shoutko

1993-01-01

403

Generalized averaging and noise levels in evoked responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formal relationship between the mean square noise level in an evoked potential experiment, the number of averages and the autocorrelation function of the noise is derived. The generalized averaging process is recast as a filter applied to the noise signal. This filter is computed for a number of different types of evoked potential experiments in which various weighting factors

Mark M. Stecker

2000-01-01

404

Local linear convergence for alternating and averaged nonconvex projections  

E-print Network

Local linear convergence for alternating and averaged nonconvex projections A.S. Lewis D.R. Luke J. Malick September 16, 2008 Key words: alternating projections, averaged projections, linear conver- gence collection of closed sets having "linearly regular intersection" at a point is crucial in variational

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Optimal average of regional temperature with sampling error estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an optimal averaging scheme that yields the area average of a climate field over a region. The scheme consists of two steps: fitting the observation data to a priori covariance functions and computing the weights for each of the observation stations. A surface air temperature dataset of 23 stations in Northeast China from 1961 to 1990 is

Samuel S. Shen; Xiaochun Wang

1997-01-01

406

Optimal Average of Régional Température with Sampling Error Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper présents an optimal averaging scheme that yields thé area average of a climate field over a région. The scheme consists oftwo steps: fitting thé observation data to a priori covariance functions and Computing thé weightsfor each ofthe observation stations. A surface air température dataset of23 stations in Northeast China from 1961 to 1990 is used to demonstrate thé

Samuel S. Shen; Xiaochun Wang

407

Self-similarity of higher-order moving averages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, higher-order moving average polynomials are defined by straightforward generalization of the standard moving average. The self-similarity of the polynomials is analyzed for fractional Brownian series and quantified in terms of the Hurst exponent H by using the detrending moving average method. We prove that the exponent H of the fractional Brownian series and of the detrending moving average variance asymptotically agree for the first-order polynomial. Such asymptotic values are compared with the results obtained by the simulations. The higher-order polynomials correspond to trend estimates at shorter time scales as the degree of the polynomial increases. Importantly, the increase of polynomial degree does not require to change the moving average window. Thus trends at different time scales can be obtained on data sets with the same size. These polynomials could be interesting for those applications relying on trend estimates over different time horizons (financial markets) or on filtering at different frequencies (image analysis).

Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna; Türk, Christian

2011-10-01

408

Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?  

SciTech Connect

Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-06-17

409

Structuring Collaboration in Mixed-Ability Groups to Promote Verbal Interaction, Learning, and Motivation of Average-Ability Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Average-ability students often do not take full advantage of learning in mixed-ability groups because they hardly engage in the group interaction. This study examined whether structuring collaboration by group roles and ground rules for helping behavior might help overcome this participatory inequality. In a plant biology course, heterogeneously…

Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, Ton de

2007-01-01

410

Achievement, Underachievement and Cortical Activation: A Comparative EEG Study of Adolescents of Average and Above-Average Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the "neural efficiency" phenomenon (more efficient brain function in brighter as compared to less intelligent individuals) was investigated regarding differences in intelligence (average vs. above-average intelligence) and scholastic achievement (achievers vs. underachievers). The cortical activation (assessed by event-related…

Staudt, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

2006-01-01

411

Programmable noise bandwidth reduction by means of digital averaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predetection noise bandwidth reduction is effected by a pre-averager capable of digitally averaging the samples of an input data signal over two or more symbols, the averaging interval being defined by the input sampling rate divided by the output sampling rate. As the averaged sample is clocked to a suitable detector at a much slower rate than the input signal sampling rate the noise bandwidth at the input to the detector is reduced, the input to the detector having an improved signal to noise ratio as a result of the averaging process, and the rate at which such subsequent processing must operate is correspondingly reduced. The pre-averager forms a data filter having an output sampling rate of one sample per symbol of received data. More specifically, selected ones of a plurality of samples accumulated over two or more symbol intervals are output in response to clock signals at a rate of one sample per symbol interval. The pre-averager includes circuitry for weighting digitized signal samples using stored finite impulse response (FIR) filter coefficients. A method according to the present invention is also disclosed.

Poklemba, John J. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

412

Double exposure time-averaged in-line digital holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory, analysis and applications of digital in-line holography are presented for metrological applications. Particularly time averaged in-line digital holography is explored for dynamic characterization of membranes and MEMS diaphragms. The analysis and capability of numerically reconstructed amplitude and phase information from time averaged holograms is presented. Reconstructed amplitude provides the vibration mode shapes by showing the time average fringes that are modulated by zero-order Bessel function, same as in conventional time-averaged holography. However the numerical phase information divided in two parts, the first part represents the surface roughness information of object and is a source of noise for single exposure, and the second part called the time average phase. By using a novel double exposure method, the reconstructed phase information from time averaged holograms can be used for mean static deformation as well for better visualization of time averaged fringes. In case of the vibrating objects with simultaneous mean static deformation, the phase information mixes together and used for precise analysis of vibration behaviors. The use of double exposure method also suppress the noise from the real image wave, caused by overlapping of zero-order term and twin image wave because of in-line geometry. The experimental results are presented for vibrations of aluminum membrane with 10mm in size, and also for a MEMS diaphragm with 6mm in size.

Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, Anand; Miao, Jianmin

2007-06-01

413

Experimental demonstration of squeezed-state quantum averaging  

SciTech Connect

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement-induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean yields a lower value than the corresponding value obtained for the standard arithmetic-mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested for squeezed and thermal states as well as for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources. The harmonic-mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of squeezed-light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels.

Lassen, Mikael; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Sabuncu, Metin [Max-Planck-Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Filip, Radim [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17 Listopadu 50, CZ-772 07 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

2010-08-15

414

Definition of average path and relativity parameter computation in CASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System CASA (computer-assisted semen analysis) is a medical applicable system which gets the sperm motility and its parameters using image processing method. But there is no any authoritative administration or academic organization gives a set of criterion for CASA now result in lowering the effective compare of work between the labs or researchers. The average path and parameters relative to it as average path velocity, amplitude of lateral head displacement and beat cross frequency are often unable to compare between systems because of different algorithm. The paper presents a new algorithm that could define the average path uniquely and compute those 3 parameters above quickly and handy from any real path.

Wu, Dawei; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xiaohua; Yu, Chang

2001-09-01

415

Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping.  

PubMed

Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ~10(7) 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels varied with averaging time. Mean sound pressure levels averaged in linear space, though susceptible to strong bias from outliers, are most relevant to cumulative impact assessment metrics. PMID:23039575

Merchant, Nathan D; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D Tom; Dorocicz, John

2012-10-01

416

Time average vibration fringe analysis using Hilbert transformation  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative phase information from a single interferogram can be obtained using the Hilbert transform (HT). We have applied the HT method for quantitative evaluation of Bessel fringes obtained in time average TV holography. The method requires only one fringe pattern for the extraction of vibration amplitude and reduces the complexity in quantifying the data experienced in the time average reference bias modulation method, which uses multiple fringe frames. The technique is demonstrated for the measurement of out-of-plane vibration amplitude on a small scale specimen using a time average microscopic TV holography system.

Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

2010-10-20

417

Cascade of failures in interdependent networks with different average degree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of modern systems are coupled by two sub-networks and therefore should be modeled as interdependent networks. The study towards robustness of interdependent networks becomes interesting and significant. In this paper, mainly by numerical simulations, the robustness of interdependent Erdös-Rényi (ER) networks and interdependent scale-Free (SF) networks coupled by two sub-networks with different average degree are investigated. First, we study the robustness of interdependent networks under random attack. Second, we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes, and find that interdependent networks with different average degree are significantly different from those interdependent networks with equal average degree.

Cheng, Zunshui; Cao, Jinde; Hayat, Tasawar

2014-12-01

418

Service Directories: Reinvigorating a Community Resource for Self-Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the development, distribution, and effectiveness of a free, comprehensive mass-mailed community service directory designed for older people. Recipients who remembered receiving it (about 50%) indicated it increased service awareness and prompted various types of use. (JBJ)

Cherry, Ralph L.; And Others

1995-01-01

419

Taking Care of You: Self-Care for Family Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... too much as a result? Sometimes caregivers have misconceptions that increase their stress and get in the ... behavior on our thoughts and beliefs, attitudes and misconceptions like those noted above can cause caregivers to ...

420

Teaching self-care: taking charge of your health.  

PubMed

Content on integrative healthcare and complementary and alternative medicine is being taught in hundreds of educational programs across the country. Nursing, medical, osteopathic, chiropractic, acupuncture, naturopathic, and other programs are finding creative and innovative ways to include these approaches in new models of education and practice. This column spotlights such innovations in integrative healthcare and CAM education and presents readers with specific educational interventions they can adapt into new or ongoing educational efforts at their institution or programs. We invite readers to submit brief descriptions of efforts in their institutions that reflect the creativity, diversity, and interdisciplinary nature of the field. Please submit to Dr Sierpina at vssierpi@utmb.edu or Dr Kreitzer at kreit003@umn.edu. Submissions should be no more than 500 to 1,500 words. Please include any Web site or other resource that is relevant, as well as contact information. PMID:19608116

Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Sierpina, Victor; Delagran, Louise

2009-01-01

421

Varicose and other vein problems - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... you stand. As a result, you may have: Varicose veins Swelling in your legs Skin changes or even ... at home to: Slow down the development of varicose veins Decrease any discomfort Prevent skin ulcers

422

Self Help/Self Care as a Prevention Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite differential gender findings in the epidemiology of substance use, only a limited amount of research focuses on the differences in initiation into drug use and antecedent conditions. As part of the awareness of the need for mutual support among African American women, the National Black Women's Health Project, in conjunction with the…

Harrison, Murelle G.

423

Stroboscopic averaging in Banach spaces: Application to NLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider general, highly-oscillatory evolution equations, posed in a Banach space (more precisely high- frequency systems, with one frequency in an infinite-dimensional setting) and we describe an averaging procedure (namely stroboscopic averaging) for which the obtained averaged system respects the intrinsic geometric properties of the original equation. The typical example we have in mind in that of nonlinear PDE's in a high-frequency regime, where only one frequency is present, and the averaged effect of the oscillations in the nonlinearities is to be computed at high order. We apply our results to general nonlinear Schrödinger equations in a high-frequency regime and show that, up to a simple and standard filtering procedure, the obtained results provide a hierarchy of models that approximate the original equations.

Castella, F.; Chartier, Ph.; Méhats, F.; Murua, A.

2012-09-01

424

Gastroschisis: what is the average gestational age of spontaneous delivery?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeTo consolidate what is known about pregnancies complicated by fetal gastroschisis through analysis of one of the largest series yet reported and to define the average gestational age of spontaneous delivery.

Andrea Y. Lausman; Jacob C. Langer; Melissa Tai; P. Gareth R. Seaward; Rory C. Windrim; Edmond N. Kelly; Greg Ryan

2007-01-01

425

Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

1993-01-01

426

Tamiflu Cuts 1 Day Off Average Flu Bout, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Tamiflu Cuts 1 Day Off Average Flu Bout, Study Finds Researchers reviewed ... the length of flu symptoms by about a day, and reduces the risk of flu-related complications ...

427

Metric structures in L1: Dimension, snowflakes, and average distortion  

E-print Network

Metric structures in L1: Dimension, snowflakes, and average distortion James R. Lee U.C. Berkeley for the non-linear case. This is accomplished by exhibiting constant-distortion embeddings of snowflaked

Naor, Assaf

428

Does subduction zone magmatism produce average continental crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether present day subduction zone magmatism produces material of average continental crust composition, which perhaps most would agree is andesitic, is addressed. It was argued that modern andesitic to dacitic rocks in Andean-type settings are produced by plagioclase fractionation of mantle derived basalts, leaving a complementary residue with low Rb/Sr and a positive Eu anomaly. This residue must be removed, for example by delamination, if the average crust produced in these settings is andesitic. The author argued against this, pointing out the absence of evidence for such a signature in the mantle. Either the average crust is not andesitic, a conclusion the author was not entirely comfortable with, or other crust forming processes must be sought. One possibility is that during the Archean, direct slab melting of basaltic or eclogitic oceanic crust produced felsic melts, which together with about 65 percent mafic material, yielded an average crust of andesitic composition.

Ellam, R. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

1988-01-01

429

Average Annual Pay by State and Industry, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Average annual pay levels by industry varied widely across the nation according to this BLS release for 1997, with high average incomes of $49,995 recorded in mining areas and a low average pay of $15,877 recorded in retail trade, an industry largely populated by part-time workers. Regionally, The District of Columbia held the greatest annual pay level at $46,775 in 1997, while South and North Dakota, Montana, Mississippi, and Arkansas retained low annual salaries of $21,645, $22,047, $21,947, $22,772, and $23,268 respectively. Additional comparisons of annual incomes by state and industry for 1996 and 1997 are available at this Average Annual Pay by State and Industry page with four detailed statistical tables.

430

Pasture diversity and management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists at the USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit have been collecting pasture plant biodiversity data for over ten years and across the northeastern United States. We have identified more than three hundred species of vascular plants. The average pasture in this regi...

431

The AGC total knee prosthesis at average 11 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study of a series of 126 consecutive primary cemented total knee replacements using the AGC prosthesis is reported. Sixty-two knees were available for long-term review with an average clinical follow-up of 11.4 years (range, 8.4-13.6 years). The survivorship was 95%, defining the endpoint as revision of all components for any reason except sepsis. The average knee flexion was

Roger H Emerson; Linda L Higgins; William C Head

2000-01-01

432

MOVIE DENOISING BY AVERAGE OF WARPED LINES Marcelo Bertalmio  

E-print Network

MOVIE DENOISING BY AVERAGE OF WARPED LINES By Marcelo Bertalm´io Vicent Caselles and ´Alvaro Pardo/624-6066 Fax: 612/626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;1 Movie Denoising by Average of Warped Lines Marcelo Bertalm´io, Vicent Caselles and ´Alvaro Pardo Abstract Here we present an efficient method for movie

433

Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)  

DOE Data Explorer

The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

434

An Average-Degree Based Method for Protein Complexes Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an average-degree based cluster mining algorithm (ACM) for complexes detection in PPI networks. ACM method contains of three stages. Firstly, we make use of PPI network topology, i.e., average degree, to present a new quantitative function and then present a hierarchical algorithm to identify protein complexes. Finally, post-processing is applied to the predicted results to

Liang Yu; Lin Gao; Kui Li

2010-01-01

435

Average Power Effects in Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally induced phase mismatch and thermally induced lensing will limit the average power available from a parametric oscillator or amplifier. Expressions are derived that describe both of these average power effects for the commonly used radial heat extraction as well as for longitudinal heat extraction. It is shown that the effects of thermally induced phase mismatch can be mitigated by a judicious selection of the phase-matching conditions.

Barnes, Norman P.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.

1995-01-01

436

Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime  

E-print Network

We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

Douglas Urban; Ken D. Olum

2009-10-30

437

Invariant Poisson Realizations and the Averaging of Dirac Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an averaging procedure on a Dirac manifold, with respect to a class of compatible actions of a compact Lie group. Some averaging theorems on the existence of invariant realizations of Poisson structures around (singular) symplectic leaves are derived. We show that the construction of coupling Dirac structures (invariant with respect to locally Hamiltonian group actions) on a Poisson foliation is related with a special class of exact gauge transformations.

Vallejo, José A.; Vorobiev, Yurii

2014-09-01

438

Kinetic description of average trajectories in turbulent plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of one- and two-particle dynamical functions in a turbulent plasma is studied by means of a propagator formalism. The relevant average propagators are derived, both for forward and for backward motion, in the 'weak-coupling RQL approximation', i.e., the simplest nontrivial approximation taking turbulent effects into account. Explicit results are given for various averages and correlation functions of interest,

J. H. Misguich; R. Balescu

1977-01-01

439

The Average Height of Binary Trees and Other Simple Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average height of a binary tree with n internal nodes is shown to be asymptotic to 2 6. This represents the average stack height of the simplest recursive tree traversal algorithm. The method used in this estimation is also applicable to the analysis of traversal algorithms of unary-binary trees, unbalanced 2-3 trees, t-ary trees for any t, and other

Philippe Flajolet; Andrew M. Odlyzko

1982-01-01

440

Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness.  

PubMed

External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed. PMID:24274582

Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M

2014-03-01

441

Sample size bias in judgments of perceptual averages.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative, positive, and neutral events (Price, 2001; Price, Smith, & Lench, 2006) and also for estimates of the mean of sets of numbers (Smith & Price, 2010). The present research focuses on whether this effect is observed for judgments of average on a perceptual dimension. In 5 experiments we show that people's judgments of the average size of the squares in a set increase as the number of squares in the set increases. This effect occurs regardless of whether the squares in each set are presented simultaneously or sequentially; whether the squares in each set are different sizes or all the same size; and whether the response is a rating of size, an estimate of area, or a comparative judgment. These results are consistent with a priming account of the sample size bias, in which the sample size activates a representation of magnitude that directly biases the judgment of average. PMID:24749965

Price, Paul C; Kimura, Nicole M; Smith, Andrew R; Marshall, Lindsay D

2014-09-01

442

Time-averaged quadratic functionals of a Gaussian process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of a stochastic process from its single random realization is a challenging problem for most single-particle tracking techniques which survey an individual trajectory of a tracer in a complex or viscoelastic medium. We consider two quadratic functionals of the trajectory: the time-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD) and the time-averaged squared root mean-square displacement (SRMS). For a large class of stochastic processes governed by the generalized Langevin equation with arbitrary frictional memory kernel and harmonic potential, the exact formulas for the mean and covariance of these functionals are derived. The formula for the mean value can be directly used for fitting experimental data, e.g., in optical tweezers microrheology. The formula for the variance (and covariance) allows one to estimate the intrinsic fluctuations of measured (or simulated) time-averaged MSD or SRMS for choosing the experimental setup appropriately. We show that the time-averaged SRMS has smaller fluctuations than the time-averaged MSD, in spite of much broader applications of the latter one. The theoretical results are successfully confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations of the Langevin dynamics. We conclude that the use of the time-averaged SRMS would result in a more accurate statistical analysis of individual trajectories and more reliable interpretation of experimental data.

Grebenkov, Denis S.

2011-06-01

443

Challenges of self-management when living with multiple chronic conditions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore the perspectives of patients who live with multiple chronic conditions as they relate to the challenges of self-management. Data sources On September 30, 2013, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL using relevant key words including chronic disease, comorbidity, multimorbidity, multiple chronic conditions, self-care, self-management, perspective, and perception. Study selection Three reviewers assessed and extracted the data from the included studies after study quality was rated. Qualitative thematic synthesis method was then used to identify common themes. Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria, with most coming from the United States. Synthesis Important themes raised by people living with multiple chronic conditions related to their ability to self-manage included living with undesirable physical and emotional symptoms, with pain and depression highlighted. Issues with conflicting knowledge, access to care, and communication with health care providers were raised. The use of cognitive strategies, including reframing, prioritizing, and changing beliefs, was reported to improve people’s ability to self-manage their multiple chronic conditions. Conclusion This study provides a unique view into patients’ perspectives of living with multiple chronic conditions, which are clearly linked to common functional challenges as opposed to specific diseases. Future policy and programming in self-management support should be better aligned with patients’ perspectives on living with multiple chronic conditions. This might be achieved by ensuring a more patient-centred approach is adopted by providers and health service organizations.

Liddy, Clare; Blazkho, Valerie; Mill, Karina

2014-01-01

444

Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography  

SciTech Connect

Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2011-01-01

445

Bounds on Average Delays and Queue Size Averages and Variances in Input-Queued Cell-Based Switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a general methodology, mainly based upon Lyapunov functions, to derive bounds on average delays, and on queue size averages and variances of complex systems of queues. We then apply this methodology to input-buffered, cell-based switch and router ar- chitectures. These architectures require a scheduling algorithm to select at each slot a subset of input-buffered cells

Emilio Leonardi; Marco Mellia; Fabio Neri; Marco Ajmone Marsan

2001-01-01

446

Exact solution to the averaging problem in cosmology.  

PubMed

The exact solution of a two-scale Buchert average of the Einstein equations is derived for an inhomogeneous universe that represents a close approximation to the observed universe. The two scales represent voids, and the bubble walls surrounding them within which clusters of galaxies are located. As described elsewhere [New J. Phys. 9, 377 (2007)10.1088/1367-2630/9/10/377], apparent cosmic acceleration can be recognized as a consequence of quasilocal gravitational energy gradients between observers in bound systems and the volume-average position in freely expanding space. With this interpretation, the new solution presented here replaces the Friedmann solutions, in representing the average evolution of a matter-dominated universe without exotic dark energy, while being observationally viable. PMID:18233512

Wiltshire, David L

2007-12-21

447

Simultaneous Inference for Model Averaging of Derived Parameters.  

PubMed

Model averaging is a useful approach for capturing uncertainty due to model selection. Currently, this uncertainty is often quantified by means of approximations that do not easily extend to simultaneous inference. Moreover, in practice there is a need for both model averaging and simultaneous inference for derived parameters calculated in an after-fitting step. We propose a method for obtaining asymptotically correct standard errors for one or several model-averaged estimates of derived parameters and for obtaining simultaneous confidence intervals that asymptotically control the family-wise Type I error rate. The performance of the method in terms of coverage is evaluated using a simulation study and the applicability of the method is demonstrated by means of three concrete examples. PMID:24952957

Jensen, Signe M; Ritz, Christian

2014-06-20

448

Error Estimates in Horocycle Averages Asymptotics: Challenges from String Theory  

E-print Network

There is an intriguing connection between the dynamics of the horocycle flow in the modular surface $SL_{2}(\\pmb{Z}) \\backslash SL_{2}(\\pmb{R})$ and the Riemann hypothesis. It appears in the error term for the asymptotic of the horocycle average of a modular function of rapid decay. We study whether similar results occur for a broader class of modular functions, including functions of polynomial growth, and of exponential growth at the cusp. Hints on their long horocycle average are derived by translating the horocycle flow dynamical problem in string theory language. Results are then proved by designing an unfolding trick involving a Theta series, related to the spectral Eisenstein series by Mellin integral transform. We discuss how the string theory point of view leads to an interesting open question, regarding the behavior of long horocycle averages of a certain class of automorphic forms of exponential growth at the cusp.

Matteo A. Cardella

2010-12-13

449

Time-average TV holography for vibration fringe analysis  

SciTech Connect

Time-average TV holography is widely used method for vibration measurement. The method generates speckle correlation time-averaged J0 fringes that can be used for full-field qualitative visualization of mode shapes at resonant frequencies of an object under harmonic excitation. In order to map the amplitudes of vibration, quantitative evaluation of the time-averaged fringe pattern is desired. A quantitative evaluation procedure based on the phase-shifting technique used in two beam interferometry has also been adopted for this application with some modification. The existing procedure requires a large number of frames to be recorded for implementation. We propose a procedure that will reduce the number of frames required for the analysis. The TV holographic system used and the experimental results obtained with it on an edge-clamped, sinusoidally excited square aluminium plate sample are discussed.

Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Kalyani, Yanam; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

2009-06-01

450

INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS  

SciTech Connect

I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-11-10

451

Hospitality Management Hospitality Management  

E-print Network

of the global hospitality industry. Academic Offerings HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR Students pursuing programs in other areas of study may choose a minor Service Operations 4 OR NSD 225 Nutrition in Health 3 12 credits needed: HPM 300 Selected Topics: Advanced

McConnell, Terry

452

Creating "Intelligent" Ensemble Averages Using a Process-Based Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMIP5 archive contains future climate projections from over 50 models provided by dozens of modeling centers from around the world. Individual model projections, however, are subject to biases created by structural model uncertainties. As a result, ensemble averaging of multiple models is used to add value to individual model projections and construct a consensus projection. Previous reports for the IPCC establish climate change projections based on an equal-weighted average of all model projections. However, individual models reproduce certain climate processes better than other models. Should models be weighted based on performance? Unequal ensemble averages have previously been constructed using a variety of mean state metrics. What metrics are most relevant for constraining future climate projections? This project develops a framework for systematically testing metrics in models to identify optimal metrics for unequal weighting multi-model ensembles. The intention is to produce improved ("intelligent") unequal-weight ensemble averages. A unique aspect of this project is the construction and testing of climate process-based model evaluation metrics. A climate process-based metric is defined as a metric based on the relationship between two physically related climate variables—e.g., outgoing longwave radiation and surface temperature. Several climate process metrics are constructed using high-quality Earth radiation budget data from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument in combination with surface temperature data sets. It is found that regional values of tested quantities can vary significantly when comparing the equal-weighted ensemble average and an ensemble weighted using the process-based metric. Additionally, this study investigates the dependence of the metric weighting scheme on the climate state using a combination of model simulations including a non-forced preindustrial control experiment, historical simulations, and several radiative forcing Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Ultimately, the goal of the framework is to advise better methods for ensemble averaging models and create better climate predictions.

Baker, Noel; Taylor, Patrick

2014-05-01

453

Calculations of canonical averages from the grand canonical ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grand canonical and canonical ensembles become equivalent in the thermodynamic limit, but when the system size is finite the results obtained in the two ensembles deviate from each other. In many important cases, the canonical ensemble provides an appropriate physical description but it is often much easier to perform the calculations in the corresponding grand canonical ensemble. We present a method to compute averages in the canonical ensemble based on calculations of the expectation values in the grand canonical ensemble. The number of particles, which is fixed in the canonical ensemble, is not necessarily the same as the average number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble.

Kosov, D. S.; Gelin, M. F.; Vdovin, A. I.

2008-02-01

454

Analytical solution of average path length for Apollonian networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the help of recursion relations derived from the self-similar structure, we obtain the solution of average path length, dmacr t , for Apollonian networks. In contrast to the well-known numerical result dmacr t?(lnNt)3/4 [J. S. Andrade, Jr. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 018702 (2005)], our rigorous solution shows that the average path length grows logarithmically as dmacr t?lnNt in the infinite limit of network size Nt . The extensive numerical calculations completely agree with our closed-form solution.

Zhang, Zhongzhi; Chen, Lichao; Zhou, Shuigeng; Fang, Lujun; Guan, Jihong; Zou, Tao

2008-01-01

455

High-speed signal averaging system for periodic signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-speed emitter coupled logic system for fast averaging is described. This system may be used to extract signals from broadband background noise, while preserving harmonic content. Each captured waveform may consist of up to 1024 sample points, and up to 16 kilowaveforms may be accumulated in one cycle. A 20 kilowaveform per second averaging rate is achieved on signals in a 20-kHz to 10-MHz band. The system is used to process the intermediate frequency output of an electro-optic sampling probe in order to recover 14.4-GHz, nonsinusoidal, periodic waveforms from a GaAs integrated circuit.

Black, A.; Apte, R. B.; Bloom, D. M.

1992-05-01

456

Compact expressions for spherically averaged position and momentum densities.  

PubMed

Compact expressions for spherically averaged position and momentum density integrals are given in terms of spherical Bessel functions (j(n)) and modified spherical Bessel functions (i(n)), respectively. All integrals required for ab initio calculations involving s, p, d, and f-type Gaussian functions are tabulated, highlighting a neat isomorphism between position and momentum space formulae. Spherically averaged position and momentum densities are calculated for a set of molecules comprising the ten-electron isoelectronic series (Ne-CH(4)) and the eighteen-electron series (Ar-SiH(4), F(2)-C(2)H(6)). PMID:19673554

Crittenden, Deborah L; Bernard, Yves A

2009-08-01

457

Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.

2001-01-01

458

An averaging analysis of discrete-time indirect adaptive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An averaging analysis of indirect, discrete-time, adaptive control systems is presented. The analysis results in a signal-dependent stability condition and accounts for unmodeled plant dynamics as well as exogenous disturbances. This analysis is applied to two discrete-time adaptive algorithms: an unnormalized gradient algorithm and a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm with resetting. Since linearization and averaging are used for the gradient analysis, a local stability result valid for small adaptation gains is found. For RLS with resetting, the assumption is that there is a long time between resets. The results for the two algorithms are virtually identical, emphasizing their similarities in adaptive control.

Phillips, Stephen M.; Kosut, Robert L.; Franklin, Gene F.

1988-01-01

459

Probing turbulence intermittency via autoregressive moving-average models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest an approach to probing intermittency corrections to the Kolmogorov law in turbulent flows based on the autoregressive moving-average modeling of turbulent time series. We introduce an index ? that measures the distance from a Kolmogorov-Obukhov model in the autoregressive moving-average model space. Applying our analysis to particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry measurements in a von Kármán swirling flow, we show that ? is proportional to traditional intermittency corrections computed from structure functions. Therefore, it provides the same information, using much shorter time series. We conclude that ? is a suitable index to reconstruct intermittency in experimental turbulent fields.

Faranda, Davide; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Daviaud, François; Pons, Flavio Maria Emanuele

2014-12-01

460

High average power scaleable thin-disk laser  

DOEpatents

Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Powell, Howard (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

2002-01-01

461

Self-averaging of Wigner transforms in random media  

E-print Network

We establish the self-averaging properties of the Wigner transform of a mixture of states in the regime when the correlation length of the random medium is much longer than the wave length but much shorter than the propagation distance. The main ingredients in the proof are the error estimates for the semiclassical approximation of the Wigner transform by the solution of the Liouville equations, and the limit theorem for two-particle motion along the characteristics of the Liouville equations. The results are applied to a mathematical model of the time-reversal experiments for the acoustic waves, and self-averaging properties of the re-transmitted wave are proved.

G. Bal; T. Komorowski; L. Ryzhik

2002-10-08

462

Fiber averaged dynamics associated with the Lorentz force equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the Lorentz force equation is equivalent to the auto-parallel condition L?? x ? = 0 of a linear connection L ? defined on a convenient pull-back vector bundle. By using a geometric averaging method, an associated averaged Lorentz connection and the corresponding auto-parallel equation are obtained. After this, it is shown that in the ultra-relativistic limit and for narrow one-particle probability distribution functions, the auto-parallel curves of remain nearby close to the auto-parallel curves of L ?. Applications of this result in beam dynamics and plasma physics are briefly described.

Gallego Torromé, Ricardo

2014-12-01

463

Electronic averaging of one-dimensional television pictures.  

PubMed

Often the data which one would like to record by means of a television system are only one-dimensional, for example, optical spectra or, in this case, picosecond light pulse measurement by the nonlinear photoelectric effect. For such data, a significant increase in signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic range can be obtained by averaging over the redundant dimension. A box-car system has been developed for performing such an average using the standard television raster. Particular attention was paid to the problem of accurate dc restoration of the video signal. PMID:20094307

Burnham, D C

1970-11-01

464

Managing Fault Management Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the complexity of space missions grows, development of Fault Management (FM) capabilities is an increasingly common driver for significant cost overruns late in the development cycle. FM issues and the resulting cost overruns are rarely caused by a lack of technology, but rather by a lack of planning and emphasis by project management. A recent NASA FM Workshop brought together FM practitioners from a broad spectrum of institutions, mission types, and functional roles to identify the drivers underlying FM overruns and recommend solutions. They identified a number of areas in which increased program and project management focus can be used to control FM development cost growth. These include up-front planning for FM as a distinct engineering discipline; managing different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; ensuring the necessary resources for a disciplined, coordinated approach to end-to-end fault management engineering; and monitoring FM coordination across all mission systems.

McDougal, John M.

2010-01-01

465

Practice network-based care management for patients with type 2 diabetes and multiple comorbidities (GEDIMAplus): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Care management interventions in the German health-care system have been evaluated with promising results, but further research is necessary to explore their full potential in the context of multi-morbidity. Our aim in this trial is to assess the efficacy of a primary care practice network–based care management intervention in improving self-care behaviour among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and multiple co-occurring chronic conditions. Methods/Design The study is designed as a prospective, 18-month, multicentre, investigator-blinded, two-arm, open-label, individual-level, randomized parallel-group superiority trial. We will enrol 582 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and at least two severe chronic conditions and one informal caregiver per patient. Data will be collected at baseline (T0), at the primary endpoint after 9 months (T1) and at follow-up after 18 months (T2). The primary outcome will be the differences between the intervention and control groups in changes of diabetes-related self-care behaviours from baseline to T1 using a German version of the revised Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA-G). The secondary outcomes will be the differences between the intervention and control groups in: changes in scores on the SDSCA-G subscales, glycosylated haemoglobin A level, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, differences in (severe) symptomatic hypoglycaemia, cost-effectiveness and financial family burden. The intervention will be delivered by trained health-care assistants as an add-on to usual care and will consist of three main elements: (1) three home visits, including structured assessment of medical and social needs; (2) 24 structured telephone monitoring contacts; and (3) self-monitoring of blood glucose levels after T1 in 3-month intervals. The control group will receive usual care. The confirmatory primary analysis will be performed following the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle. The efficacy of the intervention will be quantified using two-level linear regression stratified by type of medical treatment adjusted for baseline values on the SDSCA-G. Secondary analyses will be performed according to the ITT principle. In health economic evaluations, we will estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Discussion We hope that the results of this study will provide insights into the efficacy of practice network–based care management among patients with complex health-care needs. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 83908315 (ISRCTN assigned 25 February 2014). PMID:24952740

2014-01-01

466

Concepts of diabetes self-management in Mexican American and African American low-income patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

The goal of the study was to explore low-income minority patients' concepts of diabetes self-management and assess the extent to which patient beliefs correspond to evidence-based recommendations. African American and Mexican American patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from safety net clinics that serve the uninsured and under-insured in Chicago and San Francisco to participate in focus group discussions. Grounded theory was used to identify themes related to diabetes self-management. Strategies participants mentioned for diabetes self-care were medication use, diet, weight loss and exercise. Eating more fruit and vegetables and consuming smaller portions were the most commonly mentioned dietary behaviors to control diabetes. African Americans expressed skepticism about taking medications. Mexican Americans discussed barriers to acquiring medications and use of herbal remedies. Mexican Americans frequently mentioned intentional exercise of long duration as a management strategy, whereas African Americans more frequently described exercise as regular activities of daily living. Blood glucose self-monitoring and reducing risks of diabetes complications were rarely mentioned as diabetes self-management behaviors. African American and Mexican American patients have different concepts of diabetes self-management, especially with regard to medication use and physical activity. Consideration of these differences may facilitate design of effective self-management interventions for these high-risk populations. PMID:22641792

Lynch, E B; Fernandez, A; Lighthouse, N; Mendenhall, E; Jacobs, E

2012-10-01

467

Monte Carlo Tree Search with Bayesian Model Averaging for the  

E-print Network

Monte Carlo Tree Search with Bayesian Model Averaging for the Game of Go John Jeong You A subthesis;#12;Abstract Computer Go is the next grand challenge for AI games research and in recent years, Monte Carlo, there has been little effort to learn from local simi- larities between search tree nodes (i.e., Go boards

Sanner, Scott

468

Time-averaged shadow-moiré method for studying vibrations.  

PubMed

A time-averaged shadow-moiré method is presented which permits the determination of the amplitude distribution of the deflection of a plate in steady state vibration. No stroboscope is required, and the recording is done statically. The method is less sensitive than holographic methods and is therefore suitable for studying relatively large amplitudes. PMID:20168777

Hung, Y Y; Liang, C Y; Hovanesian, J D; Durelli, A J

1977-06-01

469

Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection  

SciTech Connect

The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

Tiszauer, Detlev H. (Tracy, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA)

1998-03-17

470

Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection  

DOEpatents

The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

1998-03-17

471

On the Average Value of Divisor Sums in Arithmetic Progressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider very short sums of the divisor function in arithmetic progressions prime to a flxed modulus and show that, on average, such sums are close to the expected value. We also give some applications of our result to sums of the divisor function twisted with characters (both additive and multiplicative) taken on the values of various functions, such as

William D. Banks; Igor E. Shparlinski

472

WINDINGS OF PLANAR RANDOM WALKS AND AVERAGED DEHN FUNCTION  

E-print Network

WINDINGS OF PLANAR RANDOM WALKS AND AVERAGED DEHN FUNCTION BRUNO SCHAPIRA AND ROBERT YOUNG Abstract. We prove sharp estimates on the expected number of windings of a simple random walk on the square area needed to fill a random curve with a disc. 1. Introduction The winding numbers of random curves

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

473

Stuck Schools Revisited: Beneath the Averages. K-12 Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Stuck Schools Revisited: Beneath the Averages" shows why a national focus on turning around the lowest performing schools, while needed, is not enough to raise achievement and close gaps. The report analyzes student achievement data from Maryland and Indiana, which reflect the outcomes seen in other states. The results confirm a troubling…

Ushomirsky, Natasha

2011-01-01

474

HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB  

SciTech Connect

Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

2012-07-01

475

High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the generation of a high average power, flat supercontinuum using a compact ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier. The femto- and picosecond pulses delivered by the amplifier are coupled into two different photonic crystal fibers. By using picosecond pulses the highest output power of 5 W with a spectrum ranging from below 500 nm up to above 1800 nm is

T. Schreiber; J. Limpert; H. Zellmer; A. Tünnermann; K. P. Hansen

2003-01-01

476

Assessment of frame-averaging algorithms in OCT image analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and objective To evaluate frame registration and averaging algorithms for optical coherence tomography. Patients and Methods Normal and glaucoma eyes (n=20 each) were imaged. Objective differences were measured by comparing noise variance (NV), spread of edge (SE), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subjective image quality was also evaluated. Results Two frame-averaging algorithms (FA400 and FA407) had better NV and CNR, but worse SE than did single frames (p<0.01). Additionally, both algorithms provided better subjective assessments of structure boundaries than did single images (p<0.001). Algorithm FA407 had significantly lower SE and better ILM visualization than did FA400. Conclusion Frame-averaging significantly suppressed speckle noise and increased the visibility of retinal structures. However, imperfect image registration caused edge blurring that could be detected by the SE parameter. In frame-averaging algorithms, higher CNR and lower NV indicated better noise suppression, but SE was most sensitive in comparing edge preservation between algorithms. PMID:23510042