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Sample records for average self-care management

  1. A Workflow Based Self-care Management System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunli; Liu, Zhenkai

    2005-01-01

    Designing and developing computer-based self-care tools faces challenges for modeling self-care decision making processes and monitoring self-care activities. In this paper, a simplified conceptual model for self-care decision making is presented and a workflow based self-care management system is proposed to implement the process-oriented monitoring. Self-care knowledge of specific conditions is derived from consumer guidelines. Consumers' preferences on self-care are taken into consideration through the customization and implementation of the hierarchical self-care workflow. An application of workflow based self-care management system in the implementation of dermatology diagnosis and self-care tool (DDST) is also discussed. The proposed methodology of workflow based self-care management provides the potential for information integration between computer-based self-care tools and hospital information systems. In addition, the detailed self-care records obtained from the workflow management system make it possible for quantitative analysis of self-care activities and critical evaluation of the effect of computer-based self-care tools on healthcare outcomes. PMID:17282241

  2. Determinants of Heart Failure Self-Care Maintenance and Management in Patients and Caregivers: A Dyadic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Julie T; Vellone, Ercole; Lyons, Karen S; D'Agostino, Fabio; Riegel, Barbara; Juárez-Vela, Raúl; Hiatt, Shirin O; Alvaro, Rosaria; Lee, Christopher S

    2015-10-01

    Disease self-management is a critical component of maintaining clinical stability for patients with chronic illness. This is particularly evident in the context of heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization for older adults. HF self-management, commonly known as HF self-care, is often performed with the support of informal caregivers. However, little is known about how a HF dyad manages the patient's care together. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of patient and caregiver contributions to HF self-care maintenance (daily adherence and symptom monitoring) and management (appropriate recognition and response to symptoms), utilizing an approach that controls for dyadic interdependence. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 364 dyads of Italian HF patients and caregivers. Multilevel modeling was used to identify determinants of HF self-care within patient-caregiver dyads. Patients averaged 76.2 (SD?=?10.7) years old, and a slight majority (56.9%) was male, whereas caregivers averaged 57.4 (SD?=?14.6) years old, and about half (48.1%) were male. Most caregivers were adult children (48.4%) or spouses (32.7%) of patients. Both patients and caregivers reported low levels of HF maintenance and management behaviors. Significant individual and dyadic determinants of self-care maintenance and self-care management included gender, quality of life, comorbid burden, impaired ADLs, cognition, hospitalizations, HF duration, relationship type, relationship quality, and social support. These comprehensive dyadic models assist in elucidating the complex nature of patient-caregiver relationships and their influence on HF self-care, leading to more effective ways to intervene and optimize outcomes. PMID:26355702

  3. Self-Care Management among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in East Jerusalem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Nihaya; Osman, Amira; Hart, Trevor A.; Berry, Elliott M.; Adler, Bella

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Little research exists on diabetes self-care management (DSCM) in Arab populations. We examined the contribution of health belief constructs, socioeconomic position (SEP) and clinical factors (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1C] level, type of diabetes treatments, and receiving professional guidance) to DSCM among Arab patients in East…

  4. Self Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chronic Disease Self Assessment Self Care Connections Experiences Research Learning Evaluation Print Email Self Care If you are living with a chronic health condition, having a new set of skills to help you cope can make a real ...

  5. Symptom Perceptions and Self-care Behaviors in Patients Who Self-manage Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Katherine M.; Ercole, Patrick M.; Peek, Gina M.; Smith, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with heart failure (HF) are at heightened risk for acute exacerbation requiring hospitalization. Although timely reporting of symptoms can expedite outpatient treatment and avoid the need for hospitalization, few patients recognize and respond to symptoms until acutely ill. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore patients’ perceptions of symptoms and self-care behaviors for symptom relief, leading up to a HF hospitalization. Methods To examine prehospitalization symptom scenarios, semistructured interviews were conducted with 60 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. Results Thirty-seven patients (61.7%) said that they had a sense that “something just wasn’t quite right” before their symptoms began but were unable to specify further. Signs and symptoms most often recognized by the patients were related to dyspnea (85%), fatigue (53.3%), and edema (41.7%). Few patients interpreted their symptoms as being related to worsening HF and most often attributed symptoms to changes in diet (18.3%) and medications (13.3%). Twenty-six patients (43.3%) used self-care strategies to relieve symptoms before hospital admission. More than 40% of the patients had symptoms at least 2 weeks before hospitalization. Conclusions Despite the wide dissemination of HF evidence-based guidelines, important components of symptom self-management remain suboptimal. Because most of HF self-management occurs in the postdischarge environment, research is needed that identifies how patients interpret symptoms of HF in the specific contexts in which patients self-manage their HF. These findings suggest the need for interventions that will help patients expeditiously recognize, accurately interpret, and use appropriate and safe self-care strategies for symptoms. PMID:24335834

  6. The clinical effectiveness of self-care interventions with an exercise component to manage knee conditions: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Button, Kate; Roos, Paulien E.; Spasi?, Irena; Adamson, Paul; van Deursen, Robert W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Treatment of knee conditions should include approaches to support self-care and exercise based interventions. The most effective way to combine self-care and exercise has however not been determined sufficiently. Therefore the aim was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of self-care programmes with an exercise component for individuals with any type of knee conditions. Methods A keyword search of Medline, CINAHL, Amed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases was conducted up until January 2015. Two reviewers independently assessed manuscript eligibility against inclusion/exclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Downs and Black quality assessment tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Data were extracted about self-care and exercise intervention type, control intervention, participants, length of follow-up, outcome measures, and main findings. Results From the 7392 studies identified through the keyword search the title and abstract of 5498 were screened. The full text manuscripts of 106 studies were retrieved to evaluate their eligibility. Twenty-one manuscripts met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Conclusion The treatment potential of combined self-care and exercise interventions has not been maximised because of limitations in study design and failure to adequately define intervention content. Potentially the most beneficial self-care treatment components are training self-management skills, information delivery, and goal setting. Exercise treatment components could be strengthened by better attention to dose and progression. Modern technology to streamline delivery and support self-care should be considered. More emphasis is required on using self-care and exercise programmes for chronic condition prevention in addition to chronic condition management. PMID:26056046

  7. Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…

  8. Acne - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Acne vulgaris - self-care; Cystic acne - self-care; Pimples - self-care; Zits - self-care ... Acne is a skin condition that causes pimples or "zits." Whiteheads, blackheads, and red, inflamed patches of ...

  9. How Technology in Care at Home Affects Patient Self-Care and Self-Management: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, José M.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Friele, Roland D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of technology in care at home has potential benefits such as improved quality of care. This includes greater focus on the patients’ role in managing their health and increased patient involvement in the care process. The objective of this scoping review is to analyse the existing evidence for effects of technology in home-based care on patients’ self-care and self-management. Using suitable search terms we searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Picarta and NIVEL dating from 2002 to 2012. Thirty-three studies (six review studies and twenty-seven individual studies) were selected. Effects were extracted from each study and were classified. In almost all the studies, the concepts self-care and self-management are not clearly defined or operationalized. Therefore, based on a meta-analysis, we made a new classification of outcome measures, with hierarchical levels: (1) competence (2) illness-management (3) independence (social participation, autonomy). In general, patient outcomes appear to be positive or promising, but most studies were pilot studies. We did not find strong evidence that technology in care at home has (a positive) effect on patient self-care and self-management according to the above classification. Future research is needed to clarify how technology can be used to maximize its benefits. PMID:24173139

  10. How technology in care at home affects patient self-care and self-management: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Peeters, José M; Wiegers, Therese A; Friele, Roland D

    2013-11-01

    The use of technology in care at home has potential benefits such as improved quality of care. This includes greater focus on the patients' role in managing their health and increased patient involvement in the care process. The objective of this scoping review is to analyse the existing evidence for effects of technology in home-based care on patients' self-care and self-management. Using suitable search terms we searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Picarta and NIVEL dating from 2002 to 2012. Thirty-three studies (six review studies and twenty-seven individual studies) were selected. Effects were extracted from each study and were classified. In almost all the studies, the concepts self-care and self-management are not clearly defined or operationalized. Therefore, based on a meta-analysis, we made a new classification of outcome measures, with hierarchical levels: (1) competence (2) illness-management (3) independence (social participation, autonomy). In general, patient outcomes appear to be positive or promising, but most studies were pilot studies. We did not find strong evidence that technology in care at home has (a positive) effect on patient self-care and self-management according to the above classification. Future research is needed to clarify how technology can be used to maximize its benefits. PMID:24173139

  11. Transforming hypertension management using mobile health technology for telemonitoring and self-care support.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G

    2013-05-01

    Achieving and sustaining good blood pressure control continues to be a challenge for many reasons including nonadherence with prescribed treatment and lifestyle measures, shortage of primary care physicians especially in less populated areas, and variations in physicians' practice behaviour. Many strategies have been advocated to improve outcomes with the greatest success being achieved using nurse or pharmacist-led interventions in which they were given the authority to prescribe or alter antihypertensive treatment. However, this treatment approach, which historically involved 1-on-1 visits to a doctor's office or pharmacy, proved costly, was not scalable, and did not actively engage patients in treatment decision-making. Several electronic health interventions have been designed to overcome these limitations. Though more patient-centred and often effective, they required wired connections and a personal computer, and logging on for Internet access and navigating computer screens greatly reduced access for many older patients. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the benefits were related to better case management or technological advances. Mobile health (mHealth) technology circumvents the technical challenges of electronic health systems and provides a more flexible platform to enhance patient self-care. mHealth applications are particularly appropriate for interventions that depend on patients' sustained adherence to monitoring schedules and prescribed treatments. Studies from our group in hypertension and other chronic conditions have shown improved health outcomes using mHealth applications that have undergone rigourous usability testing. Nonetheless, the inability of most electronic medical record systems to receive and process information from mobile devices continues to be a major impediment in realizing the full potential of mHealth technology. PMID:23618506

  12. [Community resources prescription for self-care improvement in chronic illnesses. Clinical case management in Primary Health Care].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vico-Díaz de Rada, Lucía; González-Suárez, Miriam; Duarte-Clíments, Gonzalo; Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymán

    2014-01-01

    A case is presented of a 52 year-old male seen in a Primary Care nursing clinic for a type 2 diabetes mellitus metabolic control. The frequency of the visits increased due to perceived difficulties caused by changing the medical treatment. A focused interview was conducted under functional health patterns framework. The patient was unable to write or read, had not worked for the last 25 years, and expressed a lack of control over his self-care. An action plan was prepared, prioritizing Ineffective Health Maintenance, Powerlessness, and Impaired Social Interaction NANDA-I nursing diagnoses. The goals were set at improving knowledge and control over his disease and participating in leisure activities. To achieve these, the social health resources in the area were contacted, and agreed that the patient could attend activities that could improve his self-care and his quality of life. An improvement in his diabetes control was observed in the following evaluations, with an increase in his level of knowledge and self-care. The Primary Health care nurse should consider available community resources by using a comprehensive approach to chronic diseases for their therapeutic benefit and management, especially in those patients with adverse sociocultural conditions. PMID:24786984

  13. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Renal calculi - self-care; Nephrolithiasis - self-care; Stones - kidney - self-care ... You visited your health care provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps ...

  14. The Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ): development and evaluation of an instrument to assess diabetes self-care activities associated with glycaemic control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though several questionnaires on self-care and regimen adherence have been introduced, the evaluations do not always report consistent and substantial correlations with measures of glycaemic control. Small ability to explain variance in HbA1c constitutes a significant limitation of an instrument’s use for scientific purposes as well as clinical practice. In order to assess self-care activities which can predict glycaemic control, the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ) was designed. Methods A 16 item questionnaire to assess self-care activities associated with glycaemic control was developed, based on theoretical considerations and a process of empirical improvements. Four subscales, ‘Glucose Management’ (GM), ‘Dietary Control’ (DC), ‘Physical Activity’ (PA), and ‘Health-Care Use’ (HU), as well as a ‘Sum Scale’ (SS) as a global measure of self-care were derived. To evaluate its psychometric quality, 261 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes were assessed with the DSMQ and an established analogous scale, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure (SDSCA). The DSMQ’s item and scale characteristics as well as factorial and convergent validity were analysed, and its convergence with HbA1c was compared to the SDSCA. Results The items showed appropriate characteristics (mean item-total-correlation: 0.46 ± 0.12; mean correlation with HbA1c: -0.23 ± 0.09). Overall internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was good (0.84), consistencies of the subscales were acceptable (GM: 0.77; DC: 0.77; PA: 0.76; HU: 0.60). Principal component analysis indicated a four factor structure and confirmed the designed scale structure. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated appropriate fit of the four factor model. The DSMQ scales showed significant convergent correlations with their parallel SDSCA scales (GM: 0.57; DC: 0.52; PA: 0.58; HU: n/a; SS: 0.57) and HbA1c (GM: -0.39; DC: -0.30; PA: -0.15; HU: -0.22; SS: -0.40). All correlations with HbA1c were significantly stronger than those obtained with the SDSCA. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that the DSMQ is a reliable and valid instrument and enables an efficient assessment of self-care behaviours associated with glycaemic control. The questionnaire should be valuable for scientific analyses as well as clinical use in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:23937988

  15. Perspectives on Self-Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Isha D.; Richardson, Tenille A.; Moore, Darren D.; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks; Keeling, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Self-care for clinicians is much needed. To discover ways to implement self-care into our lives, we (four therapists) tried different self-care methods over a span of one to two weeks. After using practices that explored self-care through mindfulness meditation, autohypnosis, music, and spirituality, we wrote about the outcome of these experiences…

  16. iMHere: A Novel mHealth System for Supporting Self-Care in Management of Complex and Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pramana, Gede; Yu, Daihua Xie; Fairman, Andrea D; Dicianno, Brad E; McCue, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with chronic conditions are vulnerable to secondary complications that can be prevented with adherence to self-care routines. They benefit most from receiving effective treatments beyond acute care, usually in the form of regular follow-up and self-care support in their living environments. One such population is individuals with spina bifida (SB), the most common permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. A Wellness Program at the University of Pittsburgh in which wellness coordinators supervise the care of individuals with chronic disease has produced remarkably improved outcomes. However, time constraints and travel costs have limited its scale. Mobile telehealth service delivery is a potential solution for improving access to care for a larger population. Objective The project’s goal was to develop and implement a novel mHealth system to support complex self-care tasks, continuous adherence to regimens, monitoring of adherence, and secure two-way communications between patients and clinicians. Methods We developed and implemented a novel architecture of mHealth system called iMHere (iMobile Health and Rehabilitation) consisting of smartphone apps, a clinician portal, and a two-way communication protocol connecting the two. The process of implementing iMHere consisted of: (1) requirement analysis to identify clinically important functions that need to be supported, (2) design and development of the apps and the clinician portal, (3) development of efficient real-time bi-directional data exchange between the apps and the clinician portal, (4) usability studies on patients, and (5) implementation of the mHealth system in a clinical service delivery. Results There were 9 app features identified as relevant, and 5 apps were considered priority. There were 5 app features designed and developed to address the following issues: medication, skin care, bladder self-catheterization, bowel management, and mental health. The apps were designed to support a patient’s self-care tasks, send adherence data to the clinician portal, and receive personalized regimens from the portal. The Web-based portal was designed for clinicians to monitor patients’ conditions and to support self-care regimens. The two-way communication protocol was developed to facilitate secure and efficient data exchange between the apps and the portal. The 3 phases of usability study discovered usability issues in the areas of self-care workflow, navigation and interface, and communications between the apps and the portal. The system was used by 14 patients in the first 6 months of the clinical implementation, with 1 drop out due to having a poor wireless connection. The apps have been highly utilized consistently by patients, even those addressing complex issues such as medication and skincare. The patterns of utilization showed an increase in use in the first month, followed by a plateau. Conclusions The system was capable of supporting self-care and adherence to regimen, monitoring adherence, supporting clinician engagement with patients, and has been highly utilized. PMID:25100682

  17. What Level of Self-Care Agency in Mental Illness? The Factors Affecting Self-Care Agency and Self-Care Agency in Patients with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Çiftçi, Bahar; Y?ld?r?m, Naci; ?ahin Altun, Özlem; Av?ar, Gülçin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate self-care agency and the factors affecting self-care agency in patients with psychiatric disorders. The population of the study comprised patients diagnosed with mental disorders at the clinics of psychiatry in Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital and Atatürk University Research Hospital. Patient information forms and the Self-Care Agency Scale were used to collect the study data. Psychiatric nurse collected the data from the patients face to face. This study determined that the average age of the patients was determined to be 32.19±1.11. The findings indicated that the mean self-care agency level of the patients was 79.3±23.2. It was also found that the differences between sex, educational status, socio-economic status, and self-care agency levels were statistically significant (p<0.05). In conclusion, the patients' self-care agency levels were determined to be mid-level. The findings suggest that people with mental disorders have difficulty identifying their need for self-care. Thus, periodic training programs are necessary to increase self-care levels and further research studies of this type should be done on larger groups. PMID:26577549

  18. TESTING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR SELF- CARE IN PERSONS WITH DIABETES: THE EFFECT OF DEPRESSION

    E-print Network

    Gharaibeh, Besher

    2012-05-31

    is believed to influence Diabetes Self Care Management (DSCM), self efficacy, and self care agency. Therefore, the main study aim was to examine the relationships among these factors using a cross-sectional model testing design. The secondary aim...

  19. Self-care practices of Chinese individuals with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, YUJUAN; LIAO, LI; SUN, MEI; HE, GUOPING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the self-care practices of Chinese individuals with diabetes. Data were collected from 163 Chinese individuals with diabetes using a one-to-one interview approach. The Chinese version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) was used to assess diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices. The majority of participants were aware of the importance of self-care in managing diabetes. However, only 70 participants (43%) scored >50% in the diabetes-related questionnaires. Mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were higher (P<0.04) for participants who had extra meals per day (46%). The majority of participants took oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs; 60.1%) and some were also treated with OHA-insulin combination therapy (17.8%). Participants with medication adherence (52%) tended to have lower FBG levels. Only 13% of participants practiced self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The predictors of a knowledge deficit or poor self-care were a low level of education (P<0.01) or old age (older than 53 years old; P=0.002). Deficits in diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices existed among the majority of patients with suboptimal blood glucose control. The understanding of the importance of self-care practices requires improvement in individuals with diabetes. The development of effective education strategies to improve the awareness of self-care practices by Chinese individuals with diabetes is necessary. PMID:23599736

  20. Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes is a five-class series covering basic nutrition and self-care management

    E-print Network

    Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes is a five-class series covering basic nutrition and self an average of 11 work days each year; women miss about 9 work days. Almost $1 of every $5 spent on health, lower educational and income levels, and poor access to transportation. The annual cost of diabetes

  1. Atopic dermatitis - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Eczema - self-care ... Eczema is a chronic skin disorder that involves scaly and itchy rashes. Atopic dermatitis is the most ... Call for an appointment with your doctor if: Eczema does not respond to moisturizers or avoiding allergens. ...

  2. An integrative literature review on nursing interventions aimed at increasing self-care among heart failure patients 1

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Sophie; Proulx-Belhumeur, Alexandra; Gonçalves, Natalia; Doré, Michel; Francoeur, Julie; Gallani, Maria Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze and summarize knowledge concerning critical components of interventions that have been proposed and implemented by nurses with the aim of optimizing self-care by heart failure patients. Methods: PubMed and CINAHL were the electronic databases used to search full peer-reviewed papers, presenting descriptions of nursing interventions directed to patients or to patients and their families and designed to optimize self-care. Forty-two studies were included in the final sample (n=4,799 patients). Results: this review pointed to a variety and complexity of nursing interventions. As self-care encompasses several behaviors, interventions targeted an average of 3.6 behaviors. Educational/counselling activities were combined or not with cognitive behavioral strategies, but only about half of the studies used a theoretical background to guide interventions. Clinical assessment and management were frequently associated with self-care interventions, which varied in number of sessions (1 to 30); length of follow-up (2 weeks to 12 months) and endpoints. Conclusions: these findings may be useful to inform nurses about further research in self-care interventions in order to propose the comparison of different modalities of intervention, the use of theoretical background and the establishment of endpoints to evaluate their effectiveness. PMID:26444179

  3. Self-Care Among Chronically Ill African Americans: Culture, Health Disparities, and Health Insurance Status

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Gay; Gates, Rahima Jan; Newsom, Edwina

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the self-care practices of chronically ill African Americans or how lack of access to health care affects self-care. Results from a qualitative interview study of 167 African Americans who had one or more chronic illnesses found that self-care practices were culturally based, and the insured reported more extensive programs of self-care. Those who had some form of health insurance much more frequently reported the influence of physicians and health education programs in self-care regimens than did those who were uninsured. It is concluded that the cultural components of self-care have been underemphasized, and further, that the potential to maximize chronic illness management through self-care strategies is not realized for those who lack access to health care. PMID:15569953

  4. Human bites - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    A human bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. Human bites that break the skin can be very ... Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in two ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ...

  5. Animal bites - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    An animal bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. Animal bites that break the skin put you at ... Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ...

  6. Child Indicators: Children in Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerrebrock, Nancy; Lewit, Eugene M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews data on children in self-care, children between the ages of 5 and 14 who are alone at home after school. The best available national surveys indicate that at least 12% of children from kindergarten through middle school experience self-care on a regular basis, with the percentage much lower among younger children. (SLD)

  7. Self-care in people with long term health problems: a community based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Self-care is a key component of current policies to manage long term conditions. Although most people with long-term health problems care for themselves within lay networks, consultation rates for long-term undifferentiated illness remain high. Promotion of self-care in these individuals requires an understanding of their own self-care practices and needs to be understood in the context of health care pluralism. The aim was to investigate the extent and nature of self-care practices in patients experiencing long term health problems, sources of information used for self-care, and use of other forms of health care (conventional health care and complementary and alternative medicine). Methods The study involved a cross-sectional community-based survey set in three general practices in South West England: two in urban areas, one in a rural area. Data were collected using a postal questionnaire sent to a random sample of 3,060 registered adult patients. Respondents were asked to indicate which of six long term health problems they were experiencing, and to complete the questionnaire in reference to a single (most bothersome) problem only. Results Of the 1,347 (45% unadjusted response rate) who responded, 583 reported having one or more of the six long term health problems and 572 completed the survey questionnaire. Use of self-care was notably more prevalent than other forms of health care. Nearly all respondents reported using self-care (mean of four self-care practices each). Predictors of high self-care reported in regression analysis included the reported number of health problems, bothersomeness of the health problem and having received a diagnosis. Although GPs were the most frequently used and trusted source of information, their advice was not associated with greater use of self-care. Conclusions This study reveals both the high level and wide range of self-care practices undertaken by this population. It also highlights the importance of GPs as a source of trusted information and advice. Our findings suggest that in order to increase self-care without increasing consultation rates, GPs and other health care providers may need more resources to help them to endorse appropriate self-care practices and signpost patients to trusted sources of self-care support. PMID:21689455

  8. Mental health nurses' and allied health professionals' perceptions of the role of the Occupational Health Service in the management of work-related stress: how do they self-care?

    PubMed

    Gibb, J; Cameron, I M; Hamilton, R; Murphy, E; Naji, S

    2010-11-01

    Higher rates of stress-related sickness are found in health care professionals when compared with other sectors. The annual direct cost of absence to the National Health Service is £1.7 billion. Increased clinical demand, long hours, low staffing and a lack of support from colleagues and management are contributing to absenteeism, somatic complaints and mental health problems. Mental health work is inherently stressful and levels of work stress experienced by mental health nurses are especially high. The study investigated mental health nurses' and allied health professionals' (AHPs) awareness and knowledge of the service provided by the Occupational Health Service (OHS) and identified work-related stress and self-care strategies within these two groups. Nurses and AHP staff employed in mental health services in a Scottish healthboard area were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Results demonstrated that staff found their contact with the OHS to be a positive experience. They considered direct patient care to be less stressful than the organizational constraints they work under, and they reported a lack of support from both their peer groups and management. There should be recognition of the increased stress that hospital-based nurses and AHPs experience. These areas should be scrutinized and reviewed further to support staff within these environments in accordance with organizational objectives. PMID:21040230

  9. Young People's Participation in the Development of a Self-Care Intervention--A Multi-Site Formative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kime, Nicola; McKenna, Jim; Webster, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The poor outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions indicate that current services and self-care programmes are not meeting the needs of young people. How young people self-manage their condition impacts on long-term health outcomes, but there is little published evidence that details the development of self-care programmes and their…

  10. Helping Your Child Learn Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Corte, Suzanne Della

    1987-01-01

    Practical advice for parents of handicapped children is the focus of this issue on self-care skills including self-feeding, dressing, and personal hygiene. Ten initial tips for teaching skills to children include constant repetition, modeling, and keeping verbal instruction to a minimum. The section on self-feeding addresses the topics of…

  11. College Student Self-Care Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Dintiman, George B.

    The purpose of this docoment is to help college students maintain health by keeping a weekly diary of health related behaviors including diet, exercise, and stress levels. In addition each weekly entry presents a self-care tip for health improvement. Discussions of the college student and health, health and lifestyle, instructions on use of the…

  12. Evolution of Self-Care Education

    PubMed Central

    Ambizas, Emily M.; Bastianelli, Karen M.S.; Ferreri, Stefanie P.; Haines, Seena L.; Stutz, Misty M.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Wilhelm, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the curriculum content for nonprescription medication and self-care therapeutics has expanded significantly. Self-care courses ranging from stand-alone, required courses to therapeutic content and skills laboratories, have evolved in colleges and schools of pharmacy to accommodate rapid changes related to nonprescription medications and to meet the needs of students. The design of and content delivery methods used in self-care courses vary among institutions. Teaching innovations such as team-based learning, role playing/vignettes, videos, and social media, as well as interdisciplinary learning have enhanced delivery of this content. Given that faculty members train future pharmacists, they should be familiar with the new paradigms of Nonprescription Safe Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE) Initiative, nonprescription medications for chronic diseases, and the growing trends of health and wellness in advancing patient-care initiatives. This paper reviews the significant changes that may be impacting self-care curriculums in the United States. PMID:24672061

  13. Complementary Self-Care Strategies for Healthy Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sondra

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on alternative self-care practices in terms of collaboration with the primary care physician and individual exploration of self-care practices such as acupuncture, meditation, and nutrition counseling. (JOW)

  14. Teaching Counselors Self-Care through Mindfulness Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Sandy; Christopher, John Chambers; Dahlen, Penny; Christopher, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Few counseling programs directly address the importance of self-care in reducing stress and burnout in their curricula. A course entitled Mind/Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care was created to address personal and professional growth opportunities through self-care and mindfulness practices (meditation, yoga, gong, and conscious relaxation…

  15. Cognitive Function and Self-Care in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Shil; Shim, Jae Lan; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study examined the association of cognitive function with self-care and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among heart failure (HF) patients. Subjects and Methods In this prospective study, 86 outpatients with HF completed face-to-face interviews including neuropsychological testing to evaluate cognitive function and the use of the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index to measure self-care. Functional status was assessed with the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. Follow-up data on MACE were obtained at 24 months after enrollment. Results Compared with the Korean norm values, more than half of the HF patients had cognitive deficits in global function (33.0%), immediate recall (65.1%), delayed recall memory (65.1%), and executive function (60.5%). Patients with symptomatic HF (?NYHA class II) had the higher risk for substantially poor cognitive function in all areas of cognitive function than asymptomatic HF patients (NYHA class I, p<0.05). Most patients demonstrated poor self-care adequacy in maintenance (84.9%), management of symptoms (100%), and confidence (86.0%). After adjustment for age and gender, memory function was significantly associated with self-care confidence (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.92, p=0.033). No relationship was found between cognition and self-care maintenance. There were 19 MACE's during the 24-month follow-up. Patients without MACE had a significantly higher global cognitive function (p=0.024), while no cognitive domains were significant predictors of MACE when adjusted for age and gender. Conclusion HF patients with memory loss have poorer self-care confidence. Studies are warranted to examine the functional implication of cognitive deficits and adverse outcomes in a larger sample. PMID:26240585

  16. Neighborhood Crime and Self-Care: Risks for Aggression and Lower Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Heather; Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated associations among official rates of neighborhood crime, academic performance, and aggression in a sample of 581 children in 1st-3rd grade (6.3-10.6 years old). It was hypothesized that the influence of crime depends on children's unsupervised exposure to the neighborhood context through self-care. Average weekly…

  17. A pilot test of an integrated self-care intervention for persons with heart failure and concomitant diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Sandra B; Butts, Brittany; Reilly, Carolyn M; Gary, Rebecca A; Higgins, Melinda K; Ferranti, Erin P; Culler, Steven D; Butler, Javed

    2014-01-01

    Studies show 30% to 47% of people with heart failure (HF) have concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). Self-care for persons with both of these chronic conditions is conflicting, complex, and often inadequate. This pilot study tested an integrated self-care program for its effects on HF and DM knowledge, self-care efficacy, self-care behaviors, and quality of life (QOL). Hospitalized HF-DM participants (N = 71) were randomized to usual care or intervention using a 1:2 allocation and followed at 30 and 90 days after intervention. Intervention was an integrated education and counseling program focused on HF-DM self-care. Variables included demographic and clinical data, knowledge about HF and DM, HF- and DM-specific self-efficacy, standard HF and DM QOL scales, and HF and DM self-care behaviors. Analysis included descriptive statistics, multilevel longitudinal models for group and time effects, post hoc testing, and effect size calculations. Sidak adjustments were used to control for type 1 error inflation. The integrated HF-DM self-care intervention conferred effects on improved HF knowledge (30 days, p = .05), HF self-care maintenance (30 and 90 days, p < .001), HF self-care management (90 days, p = .05), DM self-efficacy (30 days, p = .03; 90 days, p = .004), general diet (30 days, p = .05), HF physical QOL (p = .04), and emotional QOL scores (p = .05) at 90 days within the intervention group. The participants in the usual care group also reported increased total and physical QOL. Greater percentages of participants in the intervention group improved self reported exercise between 0 and 30 days (p = .005 and moderate effect size ES = .47) and foot care between 0 and 90 days (p = .03, small ES = .36). No group differences or improvements in DM-specific QOL were observed. An integrated HF-DM self-care intervention was effective in improving essential components of self-care and had sustained (90 day) effects on selected self-care behaviors. Future studies testing HF-DM integrated self-care interventions in larger samples with longer follow-up and on other outcomes such as hospitalization and clinical markers are warranted. PMID:24211112

  18. A PILOT TEST OF AN INTEGRATED SELF-CARE INTERVENTION FOR PERSONS WITH HEART FAILURE AND CONCOMITANT DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Butts, Brittany; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Melinda K.; Ferranti, Erin P.; Culler, Steven D.; Butler, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Studies show 30-47% of persons with heart failure (HF) have concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). Self-care for persons with both of these chronic conditions is conflicting, complex and often inadequate. This pilot study tested an integrated self-care program for its effects on HF and DM knowledge, self-care efficacy, self-care behaviors and Quality of Life (QOL). Hospitalized HF-DM participants (n=71) were randomized to usual care or intervention using a 1:2 allocation and followed at 30 and 90 days after intervention. Intervention was an integrated education and counseling program focused on HF-DM self-care. Variables included demographic and clinical data, knowledge about HF and DM, HF and DM specific self- efficacy, standard HF and DM QOL scales, and HF and DM self-care behaviors. Analysis included descriptive statistics, multilevel longitudinal models for group and time effects, post-hoc testing and effect size calculations. Sidak adjustments were used to control for Type 1 error inflation. The integrated HF-DM self-care intervention conferred effects on improved HF knowledge (30 days, p=.05), HF self-care maintenance (30 and 90 days, p<.001), self-care management (90 days, p=.05), DM self efficacy (30 days, p=.03; 90 days, p=.004), general diet (30 days, p=.05), HF physical QOL (p=.04) and emotional QOL scores (p=.05) at 90 days within the intervention group. UC also reported increased total and physical QOL. Greater percentages of participants in the intervention group improved self reported exercise between 0-30 days (p=.005 and moderate effect size ES=.47), and foot care between 0-90 days (p=.03, small ES=.36). No group differences or improvements in DM specific QOL were observed. An integrated HF-DM self-care intervention was effective in improving essential components of self-care and had sustained (90 day) effects on selected self-care behaviors. Future studies testing HF-DM integrated self-care interventions in larger samples, with longer follow-up, and on other outcomes such as hospitalization and clinical markers are warranted. PMID:24211112

  19. Thermal management in high average power pulsed compression systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R.W.; Reed, K.W.; Harjes, H.C.; Weber, G.J.; Butler, M.; Penn, K.J.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    High average power repetitively pulsed compression systems offer a potential source of electron beams which may be applied to sterilization of wastes, treatment of food products, and other environmental and consumer applications. At Sandia National Laboratory, the Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) program is developing a 7 stage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an electron beam diode load. The RHEPP machine is being design to deliver 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60 ns FWHM, 2.5 MV, 3 kJ pulses at a repetition rate of 120 Hz. In addition to the electrical design considerations, the repetition rate requires thermal management of the electrical losses. Steady state temperatures must be kept below the material degradation temperatures to maximize reliability and component life. The optimum design is a trade off between thermal management, maximizing overall electrical performance of the system, reliability, and cost effectiveness. Cooling requirements and configurations were developed for each of the subsystems of RHEPP. Finite element models that combine fluid flow and heat transfer were used to screen design concepts. The analysis includes one, two, and three dimensional heat transfer using surface heat transfer coefficients and boundary layer models. Experiments were conducted to verify the models as well as to evaluate cooling channel fabrication materials and techniques in Metglas wound cores. 10 refs.

  20. Thermal management in high average power pulsed compression systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R.W.; Reed, K.W.; Harjes, H.C.; Weber, G.J.; Butler, M.; Penn, K.J.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-08-01

    High average power repetitively pulsed compression systems offer a potential source of electron beams which may be applied to sterilization of wastes, treatment of food products, and other environmental and consumer applications. At Sandia National Laboratory, the Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) program is developing a 7 stage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an electron beam diode load. The RHEPP machine is being design to deliver 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60 ns FWHM, 2.5 MV, 3 kJ pulses at a repetition rate of 120 Hz. In addition to the electrical design considerations, the repetition rate requires thermal management of the electrical losses. Steady state temperatures must be kept below the material degradation temperatures to maximize reliability and component life. The optimum design is a trade off between thermal management, maximizing overall electrical performance of the system, reliability, and cost effectiveness. Cooling requirements and configurations were developed for each of the subsystems of RHEPP. Finite element models that combine fluid flow and heat transfer were used to screen design concepts. The analysis includes one, two, and three dimensional heat transfer using surface heat transfer coefficients and boundary layer models. Experiments were conducted to verify the models as well as to evaluate cooling channel fabrication materials and techniques in Metglas wound cores. 10 refs.

  1. Correlates of Self-Care in Low-Income African American and Latino Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Rosalba; Ruggiero, Laurie; Riley, Barth B.; Wang, Yamin; Chavez, Noel; Quinn, Lauretta T.; Gerber, Ben S.; Choi, Young-Ku

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine diabetes self-care (DSC) patterns in low-income African American and Latino patients with type 2 diabetes attending primary care clinics, and identify patient-related, biomedical/disease-related, and psychosocial correlates of DSC. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from African Americans and Latinos aged ?18 years with type 2 diabetes (n=250) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention at four primary care clinics. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities captured the subcomponents of healthy eating, physical activity, blood sugar testing, foot care and smoking. Correlates included patient-related attributes, biomedical/disease-related factors, and psychosocial constructs, with their multivariable influence assessed with a three-step model building procedure using regression techniques. Results Sample baseline characteristics were: Mean age of 53 years (SD=12.4); 69% female; 53% African American and 47% Hispanic; 74% with incomes below $20,000; and 60% with less than a high school education. DSC performance levels were highest for foot care (4.5/7 days) and lowest for physical activity (2.5/7 days). Across racial/ethnic subgroups, diabetes-related distress was the strongest correlate for diabetes self-care when measured as a composite score. Psychosocial factors (e.g., diabetes distress) accounted for 14–33% of variance in self-care areas for both racial/ethnic groups. Patient characteristics were more salient correlates in Hispanic/Latinos when examining the self-care subscales, particularly those requiring monetary resources (e.g., glucose monitoring). Conclusions Important information is provided on specific DSC patterns in a sample of ethnic/racial minorities with type 2 diabetes. Significant correlates found may help with identification and intervention of patients who may benefit from strategies aimed at increasing self-care adherence. PMID:24364373

  2. Oral Health Self-Care Behaviors of Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Kohrman, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This analysis describes the dental self-care behaviors used by a multi-ethnic sample of older adults, and it delineates the associations of self-care behaviors with personal characteristics and oral health problems. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling rural adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Rural older adults engage in a variety of self-care behaviors, including the use of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicine (12.1%), OTC Dental Products (84.3%), Salt (51.0%), Prayer (6.1%), and Complementary Therapies (18.2%). Some gender and ethnic class differences are apparent, with greater use by women of OTC Medicine and Salt, and greater use by African Americans and American Indians of OTC Medicine and OTC Dental Products. Use of dental self-care behaviors appears to be driven by need. Those reporting oral pain, bleeding gums, and dry mouth have a greater odds of engaging in most of the dental self-care behaviors, including use of complementary therapies. Conclusions The major factor leading to the use of self-care behaviors is need. Although oral pain does increase the use of self-care behaviors, so do bleeding gums and dry mouth. Research and practice should address self-care behaviors used for oral health problems in addition to pain. Investigators should expand analysis of dental self-care behavior and the relationship of self-care behavior to the use of professional services. Further research also should explore the use of complementary therapies in dental self-care. PMID:19486460

  3. Preferences for self-care or professional advice for minor illness: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Porteous, Terry; Ryan, Mandy; Bond, Christine M; Hannaford, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the relative importance of factors that influence decision making in the management of minor illness, and how people trade between these factors. Design of study Discrete choice experiment. Setting Scottish electoral roll. Method Six hundred and fifty-two responders of a previous national survey were invited to complete a discrete choice experiment questionnaire. This was used to measure relative preferences for managing symptoms of minor illness often associated with analgesic use. Three attributes were identified as important to participants: type of management, availability, and cost of managing symptoms. Trade-offs between these attributes were examined. Results A 57% response rate was achieved (51% valid response rate). People preferred to manage symptoms by self-care and were willing to pay almost £23 to do so. Community pharmacy was the preferred source of advice. Responders preferred less waiting time and paying less money when managing symptoms, and were willing to trade between factors. A less preferred type of management became more attractive when waiting times and cost were reduced. Conclusion Findings suggest that self-care is the preferred method of managing symptoms of minor illness. When developing services to support self-care, policy makers should invest in services that reduce waiting times and incur least cost to users. PMID:17132378

  4. Communication Strategies for Improving Diabetics' Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Burt; Mengel, Marvin C.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on various levels of diabetic patients' involvement in the care of their disease and effects of these levels on how closely they later followed self-care programs. Suggests that by participating in group discussions about excuses for not following a self-care regimen, and offering solutions to counter those excuses, diabetic patients…

  5. The Anatomy of Pervasive Self Care Services George Roussos

    E-print Network

    Roussos, George

    The Anatomy of Pervasive Self Care Services George Roussos Birkbeck College University of London g.roussos@birkbeck.ac.uk Abstract Self Care is a recent initiative by the Department of Health in the UK that aims to treat patients, it places the point-of-care in the community and often at the patients' own home. In this paper we discuss

  6. The changes and factors associated with post-discharge self-care behaviors among Chinese patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaolin; Hu, Xiuying; Su, Yonglin; Qu, Moying; Dolansky, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-care behavior is essential for achieving good outcomes among patients with heart failure. Understanding the factors associated with self-care over time is important for the provision of appropriate and targeted interventions. However, little is known regarding the changes and factors associated with post-discharge self-care behaviors among Chinese patients with heart failure. Objective To investigate the changes and factors of self-care behaviors during the first 3 months following discharge among patients with heart failure in the People’s Republic of China. Methods A descriptive design with a convenience sample was utilized in this study. Patients (N=128) from two hospitals, West China Hospital and Angjin Hospital, in Chengdu, People’s Republic of China, were recruited from June 2013 to June 2014. The instruments used in the study included the following: the Social Support Rating Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item Scale, and the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify the factors related to self-care behaviors at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months following discharge. Results Patients’ self-care behaviors were poor and decreased significantly over time (F=4.09, P<0.05). The factors associated with self-care behaviors at baseline included the following: education level, comorbidities, and social support. The factors related to self-care behaviors at 1 and 3 months following discharge included the following: education level, comorbidities, social support, and self-efficacy. The variances in self-care behaviors attributed to these factors were 43%, 46%, and 42% at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months following discharge, respectively. Conclusion Additional support should be provided to patients with heart failure with low educational levels and patients with multiple comorbidities. Follow-up, continuity of care, and family caregiver integration following discharge are necessary for the said patients to improve their self-care behaviors and obtain better outcomes. PMID:26635468

  7. Diabetes self-care and the older adult.

    PubMed

    Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Smaldone, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues that impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients' self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

  8. The Effect of self-care on the lives of children suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Golchin, Mehri; Sharifi, Najmeh; Ziaee, Shohreh; Taheri, Parvin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute lymphocytic leukemia is one of the common cancers of childhood and currently, 80 percent of these children survive more than 5 years by getting the right treatment. Since long-term treatment is painful and invasive, preventing the side effects and their influence on quality of life is an important issue which introduces consideration for self-care. Consequently, the present study was conducted in 2007-2008 about the effects of self-care on the lives of children suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia, referring to treatment centers in Isfahan City. METHODS: The present study was a two-staged, two-group clinical trial. 48 children aging 5-18 and suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia were selected through convenient sampling method and the training program was administered before them and afterwards, they were divided randomly into two groups of experiment (n = 24) and control (n = 24). The General Scale and Cancer Scale Quality of Life Identification Questionnaires were used to define the quality of life of the children. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were in turn defined by content validity method and Cronbach's alpha test. The experiment group received the self-care checklist after training and was controlled and examined for 3 months. The pre-and-post self care Quality of Life Questionnaire were both filled out in both groups and accordingly, the SPSS software, independent t test, chi-square and paired t tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The findings of the study showed that both groups were homogeneous by virtue of influential factors on quality of life, like age, gender, type, stage and duration of treatment (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the experiment and control groups’ quality of life average scores before administering the self-care training program. The results of paired-t test in the experiment group after administering the self-care program showed a significant difference in General and Cancer Scale Questionnaires Quality of Life with that before administering the program, while no significant difference was observed in the control group. Also, the independent t-test showed a significant difference in the average of quality of life score shift after administering the self care between the experiment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life improved after administering self-care training program in the experiment group while it did not improve in the control group and even the increase in average score of quality of life in Cancer Scale in this group was an indicator of an increase in problems related to disease, treatment and care. The results of this study showed the positive effects of administering self-care on the quality of life of children suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:22039382

  9. The meaning of actualization of self-care resources among a group of older home-dwelling people—A hermeneutic study

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Self-care is an activity of mature persons who have developed their abilities to take care of themselves. Individuals can choose to actualize their self-care abilities into self-care activities to maintain, restore, or improve health and well-being. It is of importance to understand the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources among older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources, i.e., actions taken to improve, maintain, or restore health and well-being, among a group of older home-dwelling individuals with a high sense of coherence. The design of this study was to reanalyse narratives revealing self-care activities from 11 (five females and six males) Norwegian older home-dwelling people (65 years or older) identified as having a high sense of coherence. In order to reveal the meaning and get an understanding of why these self-care resources were realized or actualized, a Gadamerian-based research method was chosen. The analysis revealed four themes that showed the meaning of actualization of self-care resources in the study group: “Desire to carry on”, “Be of use to others”, “Self-realization”, and “Confidence to manage in the future”. The findings showed what older people found meaningful to strive for, and this information can be used as a guide for health professionals when supporting older people in their self-care. Older people with self-care resources can also be an important resource for others in need of social contact and practical help. These resources have to be asked for in voluntary work among older people in need of help and, thereby, can be a valuable supplement to the community health care system. PMID:23601788

  10. Yoga for Self-Care and Burnout Prevention Among Nurses.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina K; Rollins, Kari; Walker, Danielle; Wong, Lily; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2015-10-01

    The promotion of self-care and the prevention of burnout among nurses is a public health priority. Evidence supports the efficacy of yoga to improve physical and mental health outcomes, but few studies have examined the influence of yoga on nurse-specific outcomes. The purpose of this pilot-level randomized controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of yoga to improve self-care and reduce burnout among nurses. Compared with controls (n = 20), yoga participants (n = 20) reported significantly higher self-care as well as less emotional exhaustion and depersonalization upon completion of an 8-week yoga intervention. Although the control group demonstrated no change throughout the course of the study, the yoga group showed a significant improvement in scores from pre- to post-intervention for self-care (p < .001), mindfulness (p = .028), emotional exhaustion (p = .008), and depersonalization (p = .007) outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:26419795

  11. The Effect of Self-Care Education on the Awareness, Attitude, and Adherence to Self-Care Behaviors in Hospitalized Patients Due to Heart Failure with and without Depression

    PubMed Central

    Navidian, Ali; Yaghoubinia, Fariba; Ganjali, Alireza; Khoshsimaee, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are among somatic disorders and psychological factors affect their onset, exacerbation, and treatment. This study was conducted on the hospitalized patients who had heart failure with and without depression. The study criteria was to evaluate the effect of self-care education on awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors on these patients. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, seventy patients with heart failure that met the inclusion criteria were recruited through purposive sampling method. They were assigned in to two equal size groups regarding their depression status. First, the eligible patients were selected; then Beck Depression Inventory was done on the patients followed by examination by the clinical psychologist. Patients with average and higher scores were classified in the depressed group and others who got lower than average scores were classified as the non -depressed group. A questionnaire containing items related to awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors was used to collect the data. First, self-care behavior was determined and then a four-sessions of educational intervention were held individually for both groups. The second round of questionnaires were completed at patients’ home twelve weeks after the discharge. The Collected data was analyzed using independent-samples and paired-sample t tests, Chi square, and statistical analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests through SPSS (version 21, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results After the educational sessions, the statistical analysis showed significant differences in the mean scores of awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors between the two groups (P<0.0001). Conclusion Self-care behavior education had lower effects on the depressed patients with heart failure. Therefore, before providing education for these patients, it is necessary to consider their psychological problems such as depression. PMID:26091101

  12. Prescription and Adherence to Lymphedema Self-Care Modalities among Women with Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Cheville, Andrea L.; Tchou, Julia C.; Harris, Susan R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To profile the prescription for and adherence to breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) self-care modalities among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors with BCRL in a 12-month randomized weightlifting trial. Methods We developed a questionnaire that assessed prescription for and adherence to 10 BCRL self-care modalities that included physical therapy exercise, pneumatic compression pump, medication, lymphedema bandaging, arm elevation, self-administered lymphatic drainage, therapist-administered lymphatic drainage, compression garments, skin care, and taping. We measured prescription for and adherence to BCRL self-care modalities at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months. Longitudinal logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) associated with prescription for and adherence to BCRL modalities over time. Results This study included 141 BrCa survivors with BCRL. Women were prescribed an average of 3.6±2.1 BCRL self-care modalities during the study. The prescription of therapistadministered lymphatic drainage (OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.88–0.96), pneumatic compression pump use (OR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98), and bandaging (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–0.99) decreased over 12-months of follow-up. No other prescribed BCRL self-care modalities changed during the study. Over 12-months, the average adherence to all BCRL self-care modalities varied with 13%, 24%, 32%, and 31% of women reporting <25%, 25–49%, 50–74%, and ?75% adherence, respectively. Over 12-months, there was a noticeable change from high to low adherence in self-administered lymphatic drainage, such that there was a 15% increased likelihood of adherence <25% compared to ?75% (OR=1.15 (95% CI: 1.05–1.26); p=0.002). The adherence patterns of all other modalities did not change over follow-up. Conclusions Our findings suggest the prescription of BCRL self-care modalities is variable. The average adherence to BCRL self-care was non-optimal. Future research is necessary to prepare BrCa survivors with the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources necessary to care for this lifelong condition. PMID:24013569

  13. The meaning of self-care in persons with cervical spinal cord injury in Japan: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Professionals in Japan tend to regard the individual contexts of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) as the cause of their passive participation in self-care activities or self-management. However, the meaning of self-care involves variables that interrelate with sociocultural factors. Thus, it is necessary to uncover its meaning in the perceptions of persons with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) in order not only to implement better rehabilitation but also to understand the sociocultural constraints that determine the injured person’s attitudes to self-care and long-term health outcomes. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 29 CSCI participants from fourteen municipalities of Osaka, Hyogo, and Ehime prefectures were conducted. Participants contributed diverse perspectives on rehabilitation, lay-professional and family relationships, health promotion, and body conceptions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using the grounded theory approach to inter-relate categories and to develop theoretical constructions. Results Four main themes emerged from the data: rehabilitation for independence in ADLs; detachment from the body and self; embodiment; and self-management. From the participants’ point of view, rehabilitation programs in Japan aim at improving body functions for ADL performance, but provide little health education. These rehabilitation values might hinder some participants from developing self-esteem for their bodies. Moreover, socially-shaped family caregivers’ active engagement in the participants’ self-care allowed many participants to entirely rely on them for care. Through embodiment, participants found that self-care was not merely a means of independence in ADLs but also of self-management to enhance health and well-being, requiring collaborative relationships with caregivers. Conclusion Personal factors such as low motivation for self-care might be in part a reflection of social expectations of dependence for persons with CSCI. However, the shift in the meaning of self-care from ADLs to self-management implies more active participation in health care needs, shaped through social exchanges. Not only personal factors but also sociocultural factors influence the injured person’s valuation of self-care. There is a need for further research to better understand sociocultural influences on illness behaviors among persons with CSCI, so that clinical and community practice can develop accordingly. PMID:24134554

  14. A Smartphone Application Significantly Improved Diabetes Self-Care Activities with High User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Byun, Jong Kyu; Park, So Young; Hong, Soo Min; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Oh, Seungjoon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung Woon; Kim, Young Seol

    2015-01-01

    Background We developed for the first time a smartphone application designed for diabetes self-management in Korea and registered a patent for the relevant algorithm. We also investigated the user satisfaction with the application and the change in diabetes related self-care activities after using the application. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey on volunteers with diabetes who were using the application. Ninety subjects responded to the questionnaire between June 2012 and March 2013. A modified version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) was used in this study. Results The survey results exhibited a mean subject age of 44.0 years old, and males accounted for 78.9% of the subjects. Fifty percent of the subjects had diabetes for less than 3 years. The majority of respondents experienced positive changes in their clinical course after using the application (83.1%) and were satisfied with the structure and completeness of the application (86.7%). Additionally, the respondents' answers indicated that the application was easy to use (96.7%) and recommendable to others (97.7%) and that they would continue using the application to manage their diabetes (96.7%). After using the Diabetes Notepad application, diabetes related self-care activities assessed by SDSCA displayed statistically significant improvements (P<0.05), except for the number of days of drinking. Conclusion This smartphone-based application can be a useful tool leading to positive changes in diabetes related self-care activities and increase user satisfaction. PMID:26124991

  15. Average dynamics of the optical soliton in communication lines with dispersion management: Analytical results

    E-print Network

    Zharnitsky, Vadim

    Average dynamics of the optical soliton in communication lines with dispersion management¨sseldorf, 40225 Du¨sseldorf, Germany Alejandro B. Aceves Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University-similar breathing pulses propagating in fiber links with dispersion management. We derive asymptotic averaged

  16. Self-care issues from the perspective of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Cicutto, Lisa; Brooks, Dina; Henderson, Katy

    2004-11-01

    This study explored factors that influence self-care from the perspective of individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Seven focus groups were held with individuals who had physician diagnosed COPD and experienced daily symptoms that limited activities. Forty-two subjects participated in the study. All sessions were audiotaped, transcribed and coded independently. The main theme identified was surviving COPD: the context for living and the two sub-themes identified were adjusting physically and emotionally to COPD. Participants discussed their self-care practices within the context of the purpose and meaning of life. Although participants experienced major physical limitations, the issues highlighted were those of individuals striving to survive with COPD and to hold on to some quality of life through adjusting physically and emotionally. Individuals with COPD have developed strategies to adapt to the disease, compensate for limitations, and integrate self-care activities for managing COPD into their daily routine. Health professionals should use approaches that support the whole needs of the individual to achieve the best quality of life for individuals with COPD and their families. PMID:15530751

  17. Family Influences on Heart Failure Self-care and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Quinn, Christina; Gary, Rebecca A.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2009-01-01

    Many patient education guidelines for teaching heart failure patients recommend inclusion of the family; however, family-focused interventions to promote self-care in heart failure are few. This article reviews the state of the science regarding family influences on heart failure self-care and outcomes. The literature and current studies suggest that family functioning, family support, problem solving, communication, self-efficacy, and caregiver burden are important areas to target for future research. In addition, heart failure patients without family and those who live alone and are socially isolated are highly vulnerable for poor self-care and should receive focused attention. Specific research questions based on existing science and gaps that need to be filled to support clinical practice are posed. PMID:18437068

  18. Stress on the Job: Self-Care Resources for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Halloran, Theresa M.; Linton, Jeremy M.

    2000-01-01

    Counselors often encounter clients who have experienced forms of trauma. As a result, counselors may experience symptoms of secondary traumatic stress due to vicarious traumatization. To help with symptoms of burnout, this article offers a self-care prevention plan based on wellness concepts. Offers 30 references as a starting point for counselors…

  19. Developing Self-Care Practices in a Trauma Treatment Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patricia J.; Simmelink-McCleary, Jennifer; Im, Hyojin; Becher, Emily; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of self-care practices of social work students who were part of a larger study of students' experiences in a graduate course on the treatment of trauma. Consensual qualitative research methods were used to analyze 17 participant journals submitted at 4 times during the course. Findings indicated that…

  20. Improving Adherence to Oral Cancer Agents and Self Care of Symptoms Using an IVR | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Improving Adherence to Oral Cancer Agents and Self Care of Symptoms Using an IVR The goals of this study are to improve adherence to oral chemotherapeutic medications and self-management of symptoms among cancer patients. More than 40 oral agents currently are on the market with projections that in three years 30% of the cancer treatment agents will be delivered in oral form. As a result, patients must assume responsibility for taking medications and self-management of associated side effects.

  1. Effect of self-care education on lifestyle modification, medication adherence and blood pressure in hypertensive adults: Randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Golshahi, Jafar; Ahmadzadeh, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Pourmoghaddas, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-care management has recently been suggested as an effective approach for secondary prevention of hypertension. This study was conducted to examine whether self-care behaviors could modulate blood pressure levels and also comparing the different training methods of self-care on patients’ adherence and controlling hypertension. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, conducted on 180 hypertensive patients referring to four centers in Isfahan, Iran, between July and December 2013. Block randomization method were applied to divide eligible subjects into four equal groups, including group A in which the patients and their family were educated by cardiology resident about self-care behaviors through eight sessions, group B and group C were obtained self-care education through four pamphlets or eight short message services (SMS), respectively and group D were obtained only usual care of hypertension without any training about self-care management. Results: Increasing vegetable intake and frequency of subject who took antihypertensive medication regularly and the reduction in the frequency of subjects who consumed high salt were significantly more in group A than the others (P = 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure had significantly more reduction in the group A than the other groups (?8.18 ± 18.3 and ? 3.89 ± 4.1; P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The self-care management education integration into the usual care along with using SMS and other educational materials may improve the efficient and effective adherence strategies. PMID:26601092

  2. From Doing to Bring: Incorporating Faith into Diabetes Self-Care Education.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Cathy Eden; Harden, Kelly; Mitchell, C Ben

    2015-01-01

    Millions worldwide live with diabetes and are challenged to make lifestyle changes. Nurses help patients learn strategies necessary for successful diabetes management. However, patients frequently view long-term behavior change as unachievable. This article offers educational strategies based on liturgical anthropology that can be incorporated into any diabetic self-care education program, but particularly in faith communities. Lifestyle habits are tightly interwoven with cultural, social, and spiritual belief. Liturgical anthropology explores how cultural and spiritual customs mold us and influence our behavior choices. PMID:26548175

  3. Self-care program for inpatients in a mental hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Voineskos, G.; Butler, J. A.; Bullock, L. J.; El-Gaaly, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Summary: A self-care program for selected inpatients in a mental hospital has been developed and has been in operation for more than a year. The 12-bed unit operates without any nursing or other professional staff during the night and weekend. Certain factors, including the mental hospital as an organization, tend to hamper the development of this type of program as well as the progress and growth of other programs in psychiatric hospitals. It is suggested that the much needed progress in the mental hospital would be facilitated by an open-systems approach to its organization. Mental hospitals should consider the introduction of self-care programs for selected patients, mainly in view of their therapeutic potential, but also because of the financial savings such programs offer. PMID:1111874

  4. Status and Recommendations for Self-Care Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Zierler-Brown, Seena L.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Casper, Kristin A.; Krypel, Linda L.; Salcido, Amista Lone; Padron, Victor A.; Pray, W. Steven; Wall, Andrea L.; Sobotka, Jenelle L.; Engle, Janet P.

    2006-01-01

    Teachers of pharmacy self-care courses have met annually since 1998 at the Nonprescription Medicines Academy (NMA) held in Cincinnati, Ohio. During these meetings, self-care faculty members discuss methods of enhancing the teaching of self-care in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Self-care courses are taught using a variety of methods and content is woven into pharmacy curricula in many different ways. This manuscript sets forth the current state of self-care instruction in pharmacy curricula including the recommended core curriculum, instructional methodologies, course mechanics, existing standards, and assessment and curricular placement, and makes recommendations for the future. PMID:17332865

  5. The Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive Model to Facilitate Self-care of Patients with Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Lombard, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Álvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Menasalva Ruíz, Ernestina

    The patient, in his multiple facets of citizen and user of services of health, needs to acquire during, and later in his majority of age, favorable conditions of health to accentuate his quality of life and it is the responsibility of the health organizations to initiate the process of support for that patient during the process of mature life. The provision of services of health and the relation doctor-patient are undergoing important changes in the entire world, forced to a large extent by the indefensibility of the system itself. Nevertheless decision making requires previous information and, what more the necessity itself of being informed requires having a “culture” of health that generates pro activity and the capacity of searching for instruments that facilitate the awareness of the suffering and the self-care of the same. Therefore it is necessary to put into effect a ICT model (hiPAPD) that has the objective of causing Interaction, Motivation and Persuasion towards the surroundings of the diabetic Patient facilitating his self-care. As a result the patient himself individually manages his services through devices and AmI Systems (Ambient Intelligent).

  6. Self-care and Subjectivity among Mexican Diabetes Patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Rebecca; Mendenhall, Emily; Valdovinos, Maria D; Fernandez, Alicia; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is considered a public health crisis, particularly among people of Mexican descent in the United States. Clinical approaches to diabetes management increasingly emphasize self-care, which places responsibility for illness on individuals and mandates self-regulation. Using narrative and free-list data from a two-phase study of low-income first- and second-generation Mexican immigrants living with diabetes, we present evidence that self-care among our participants involves emotion regulation as well as maintenance of and care for family. These findings suggest, in turn, that the ideology of selfhood on which these practices are based does not correspond with the ideology of selfhood cultivated in the U.S. clinical sphere. Divergence between these ideologies may lead to self-conflict for patients and the experience of moral blame. We argue that our participants use their explanations of diabetes causality and control as a form of self-making, which both resists such blame and asserts an alternative form of selfhood that may align more closely with the values held by our Mexican-American participants. PMID:24942832

  7. The Relationship between Coping Styles in Response to Unfair Treatment and Understanding of Diabetes Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, Michelle L.; Cuffee, Yendelela L.; Halanych, Jewell H.; McManus, Richard H.; Curtin, Carol; Allison, Jeroan J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationship between coping style and understanding of diabetes self-care among African American and white elders in a southern Medicare managed care plan. Methods Participants were identified through a diabetes-related pharmacy claim or ICD-9 code and completed a computer-assisted telephone survey in 2006-7. Understanding of diabetes self-care was assessed using the Diabetes Care Profile Understanding (DCP-U) scale. Coping styles were classified as active (talk about it/take action) or passive (keep it to yourself). Linear regression was used to estimate the associations between coping style with the DCP-U, adjusting for age, sex, education, and comorbidities. Based on the conceptual model, four separate categories were established for African American and white participants who displayed active and passive coping styles. Results Of 1,420 participants, the mean age was 73 years, 46% were African-American, and 63% were female. Most respondents (77%) exhibited active coping in response to unfair treatment. For African American participants in the study, active coping was associated with higher adjusted mean DCP-U scores when compared to participants with a passive coping style. No difference in DCP-U score was noted among white participants on the basis of coping style. Conclusions Active coping was more strongly associated with understanding of diabetes self-care among older African Americans than whites. Future research on coping styles may give new insights into reducing diabetes disparities among racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:24096805

  8. Patient-Reported Selective Adherence to Heart Failure Self-Care Recommendations, a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Catherine N.; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V.; Giamouzis, Grigorios; Cole, Robert T.; Deka, Anjan; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Smith, Andrew L.; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P.; Butler, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Background Simultaneous adherence with multiple self-care instructions among heart failure (HF) patients is not well described. Methods Patient-reported adherence to eight recommendations related to exercise, alcohol, medications, smoking, diet, weight, and symptoms was assessed among 308 HF patients using the Medical Outcomes Study Specific Adherence Scale questionnaire (0=‘never’, 5=‘always’; maximum score=40). A baseline cumulative score of ?32/40 (average ?80%) defined good adherence. Clinical events (death/transplantation/ventricular assist device), resource utilization, functional capacity (6-minute walk distance), and health status (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ]) were compared among patients with and without good adherence. Results Mean follow-up 2.0±1.0 years. Adherence ranged from 26.3% (exercise) to 89.9% (medications). A cumulative score indicating good adherence was reported by 35.7%, whereas good adherence with every behavior was reported by 9.1% of patients. Good adherence was associated with fewer hospitalizations (all-cause 87.8 vs. 107.6; P=0.018; HF 29.6 vs. 43.8; P=0.007), and hospitalized days (all-cause 422 vs. 465; P=0.015; HF 228 vs. 282; P<0.001) per 100 person-years; and better health status (KCCQ overall score 70.1±24.6 vs. 63.8±22.8; P=0.011). Adherence was not associated with clinical events or functional capacity. Conclusions Patient-reported adherence with HF self-care recommendations is alarmingly low and selective. Good adherence was associated with lower resource utilization and better health status. PMID:22958604

  9. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  10. Evaluation of a hand-held, computer-based intervention to promote early self-care

    E-print Network

    Myers, Brad A.

    are prescribed a complex medical regimen that in- cludes self-monitoring (e.g., home-based spirome- try, symptomsEvaluation of a hand-held, computer-based intervention to promote early self-care behaviors after self- care behaviors that enhance prevention and early detection of complications (6). Thus, LTR

  11. A Blueprint for Pervasive Self-Care Infrastructures George Roussos Andy Marsh

    E-print Network

    Roussos, George

    A Blueprint for Pervasive Self-Care Infrastructures George Roussos Andy Marsh Birkbeck College, University of London g.roussos@bbk.ac.uk VMW Solutions Ltd a.marsh@vmwsolutions.com Abstract Self Care the point-of-care in the community and often at the patients' own home. In this paper we discuss

  12. For Low-Back Pain, Yoga More Effective Than Self-Care But Not Stretching

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about external links Menu For Low-Back Pain, Yoga More Effective Than Self-Care But Not Stretching Yoga is more effective than a self-care book, ... Results from previous smaller studies had suggested that yoga may have benefits for chronic low-back pain— ...

  13. Vector Breathers in an Averaged Dispersion-Managed Birefringent Fiber System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Tao; Han, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Xian-Tu

    2015-07-01

    A variable-coefficient coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an averaged dispersion-managed birefringent fiber is investigated. Based on the one-to-one correspondence between variable-coefficient and constant-coefficient equations, an analytical breather solution is derived. As an example to exhibit dynamical behaviors of solution, its controllable excitations including rear excitation, peak excitation and initial excitation are discussed. Supported by the Science and Technology Department of Henan Province under Grant No. 142300410043, and by the Education Department of Henan Province under Grant No. 13A140113

  14. The evidence base for professional and self-care prevention - caries, erosion and sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this conference paper was to examine the evidence base for primary and secondary prevention of dental caries, erosions and dentin hypersensitivity through professional and self-care measures. Methods A mapping of systematic reviews (SR) of literature was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane library through April 2014 using established MeSH-terms and disease-related search words in various combinations. The search was restricted to SR's published in English or Scandinavian and all age groups were considered. The reference lists of the selected papers were hand-searched for additional review articles of potential interest. Meta-analyses, guidelines and treatment recommendations were considered only when SR's were lacking. In the event of updates or multiple systematic reviews covering the same topic, only the most recent article was included. No quality assessment of the systematic reviews was carried out. The quality of evidence was rated in four levels according to the GRADE scale. Results In total, 39 SR were included. For primary caries prevention, the quality of evidence was high for the use of fluoride toothpaste (with and without triclosan) and moderate for fluoride varnish and fissure sealants. The quality of evidence for fluoride gel, fluoride mouth rinse, xylitol gums and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) was rated as low. For secondary caries prevention and caries arrest, only fluoride interventions and SDF proved consistent benefits, although the quality of evidence was low. Likewise, the GRADE score for preventing erosions located in the enamel with fluoride supplements was low. The quality of evidence for various professional and self-care methods to prevent and manage dentine hypersensitivity was very low. Conclusions There are knowledge gaps in many domains of cariology and preventive dentistry that must be addressed and bridged through clinical research of good quality. PMID:26392204

  15. Self-Care in the Classroom for Children with Chronic Illness: A Case Study of a Student with Cystic Fibrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Julie Elizabeth Jonson

    1994-01-01

    Describes the essential self-care of an eight-year old second-grade student. This study illustrates a school counselor's use of a multimodal, behavioral intervention to increase the level of self-care in the classroom. Relevant reinforcements, individual and group counseling, and peer support, resulted in improved self-care. (RJM)

  16. Effect of Neighborhood Factors on Diabetes Self-Care Behaviors in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smalls, Brittany L.; Gregory, Chris M.; Zoller, James S.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care and examine the effect of neighborhood factors on diabetes self-care in adults with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods 615 subjects were recruited from an academic medical center and a Veterans affairs medical center in the southeastern United States. Validated scales were used to assess neighborhood factors and diabetes-related self-care. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the latent constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to assess the relationship between neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care. Results Based on a theoretical framework, CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood aesthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care ( including diet, exercise, foot care, blood sugar testing and medication adherence). SEM showed that social support (r=0.28, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.16, p=0.003) were significantly associated with self-care behaviors, while neighborhood violence (r= -0.06, p<0.001) and aesthetics (r=-0.07, p=0.278) were not ?2 (180, N=611)=192, p=0.26, RMSEA=0.01, CFI=0.999). In the final trimmed model, social support (r=0.31, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.20, p<0.001) remained significantly associated with self-care behaviors ?2 (76, N=611)=60, p=0.91, RMSEA=0.00, CFI=1.0). Conclusion This study developed latent factors for neighborhood characteristics and diabetes self-care and found that social support and access to healthy foods were significantly associated with diabetes self-care and should be considered as targets for future interventions. PMID:25451904

  17. Examining the Effects of Remote Monitoring Systems on Activation, Self-care, and Quality of Life in Older Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Lee, Jung-Ah; Moore, Alison A.; Motie, Marjan; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Mangione, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of remote monitoring systems (RMSs) in healthcare has grown exponentially and has improved the accessibility to and ability of patients to engage in treatment intensification. However, research describing the effects of RMSs on activation, self-care, and quality of life (QOL) in older patients with heart failure (HF) is limited. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 3-month RMS intervention on activation, self-care, and QOL of older patients versus a reference group matched on age, gender, race, and functional status (ie, New York Heart Association classification) who received standard discharge instructions after an acute episode of HF exacerbation requiring hospitalization. Methods A total of 21 patients (mean age, 72.7 ± 8.9 years; range, 58–83 years; 52.4% women) provided consent and were trained to measure their weight, blood pressure, and heart rate at home with an RMS device and transmit this information every day for 3 months to a centralized information system. The system gathered all data and dispatched alerts when certain clinical conditions were met. Results The baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 groups were comparable. Over time, participants in the RMS group showed greater improvements in activation, self-care, and QOL compared with their counterparts. Data showed moderately strong associations between increased activation, self-care, and QOL. Conclusion Our preliminary data show that the use of an RMS is feasible and effective in promoting activation, self-care, and QOL. A larger-scale randomized clinical trial is warranted to show that the RMS is a new and effective method for improving clinical management of older adults with chronic HF. PMID:24365871

  18. Educational Needs for Improving Self-care in Heart Failure Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Seok; Clark, Patricia C.; Reilly, Carolyn Miller; Higgins, Melinda; Lobb, Maureen; Smith, Andrew L.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore the need for self-monitoring and self-care education in heart failure patients with diabetes (HF-DM patients) by describing cognitive and affective factors to provide guidance in developing effective self- management education. Method A cross-sectional correlation design was employed using baseline patient data from a study testing a 12 week patient and family dyad intervention to improve dietary and medication-taking self-management behaviors in HF patients. Data from 116 participants recruited from metropolitan Atlanta area were used. Demographic and co-morbidities, physical function, psychological distress, relationship with health care provider, self-efficacy (medication taking and low sodium diet), and behavioral outcomes (medications, dietary habits) were assessed. Descriptive statistics and a series of chi-square tests, t-tests or Mann Whitney tests were performed to compare HF patients with and without DM. Results HF-DM patients were older, heavier, had more co- morbidities, and took more daily medications than HF patients. High self-efficacy on medication and low sodium diet was reported in both groups with no significant difference. Although HF-DM patients took more daily medications than HF, both groups exhibited high HF medication taking behaviors. The HF-DM patients consumed significantly lower total sugar than HF patients, but clinically higher levels of sodium. Conclusions Diabetes educators need to be aware of potential conflicts of treatment regimens to manage two chronic diseases. Special and integrated diabetes self-management education programs which incorporate principles of HF self-management should be developed to improve self-management behavior in HF-DM patients. PMID:22722611

  19. The association of patient trust and self-care among patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Denise E; Camacho, Fabian; Bell, Ronny A; Duren-Winfield, Vanessa T; Anderson, Roger T; Goff, David C

    2004-01-01

    Background Diabetes requires significant alterations to lifestyle and completion of self management tasks to obtain good control of disease. The objective of this study was to determine if patient trust is associated with reduced difficulty and hassles in altering lifestyle and completing self care tasks. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey and medical record review was performed to measure patient trust and difficulty in completing diabetes tasks among 320 medically underserved patients attending diabetes programs in rural North Carolina, USA. Diabetes tasks were measured three ways: perceived hassles of diabetic care activities, difficulty in completing diabetes-related care activities, and a global assessment of overall ability to complete diabetes care activities. The association of patient trust with self-management was examined after controlling for patient demographics, physical functioning, mental health and co-morbidities. Results Level of patient trust was high (median 22, possible max 25). Higher trust levels were associated with lower levels of hassles (p = 0.006) and lower difficulty in completing care activities (p = 0.001). Patients with higher trust had better global assessments of overall ability to complete diabetes care activities (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Higher patient trust in physicians is associated with reduced difficulty in completing disease specific tasks by patients. Further studies are needed to determine the causal relationship of this association, the effect of trust on other outcomes, and the potential modifiability of trust PMID:15546482

  20. Providing support to caregivers and self-care.

    PubMed

    Kalibala, S

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of HIV/AIDS care has resulted in a wide range of caregivers who work out of public and private hospital facilities, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based facilities. Others are volunteers and community health and social workers based at facilities or community sites. Many caregivers are family members or part of a client's close social network. Additionally, people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) themselves engage in self-care and provide support to other PHA through support groups. In the best-case scenario the services of these caregivers are sometimes provided free of charge at one site by a specialized NGO. In many cases, however, a person wishing to gain access to care and social services may need an understanding how the systems and procedures of various institutions operate. Many PHA are unprepared for the administrative, financial, and legal barriers that they may encounter. To cope with this need, a new type of support service called the "buddy" system has emerged. Buddies are individuals who are less directly involved with, but who know about HIV/AIDS, the services available and the rights of PHA. A buddy is close enough for the PHA to approach, has sufficient time to devote to him/her and can be asked almost everything. The article on the Rio de Janeiro Buddy Project provides an example of a project for gay men in Brazil. In other parts of the world where the buddy system is non-existent, the PHA must often rely on support provided by family and friends. PMID:12349766

  1. Science: In Sickness and in Health: A Self-Care Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A physician presents teachers with some classroom activities in medical self-care, including anatomy, measuring pulse, relaxation, biofeedback, yoga, and throat examinations. For a related article by the same author, see pages 66-72 of this issue. (SJL)

  2. Potential Benefits of Companion Animals for Self-Care Children. Reviews of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, D. Terry; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the potential benefits of having pets for self-care children. Researchers suggest that companion animals can lower blood pressure, show up high on a list of children's helpers and indirectly increase feelings of safety. (RJC)

  3. Effect of healing touch training on self-care awareness in nurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Pegi

    Nursing focuses on supporting clients' health and health behaviors; however, they tend to exhibit unproductive behaviors when it comes to caring for themselves. As nurses' self-neglect can undermine client care, supporting nurses' self-care practices are expected to translate into clients' self-care. Healing Touch (HT) is one option for supporting nurses' self-care, as it is an accepted nursing practice and studies suggest that HT may have beneficial effects for those delivering it. This study examined the impact of a 2-day HT training on awareness of the need for self-care in nurses. HT training was offered as continuing education for 45 nurses at a Veteran's Administration hospital in Long Beach, CA. This mixed-methods study used a pre/post-test design to measure the effects of HT Level 1 training on nurses' self-care self-awareness. Independent samples t-tests and analyses of variance were used to detect whether any significant differences emerged based on participant demographic data. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests to determine whether participants' self-awareness changed over the study period. Effect size for any differences were calculated using Cohen's d. Open-ended responses were reviewed and common themes were identified related to what participants believed they learned and how it affected their care for themselves and their clients. Two increases were found to be significant and of sufficient power when comparing pre- to delayed post-test scores: physical self-care awareness (mean difference = 0.956, t(44) = 5.085, p = .000, r = .61) and professional self-care awareness (mean difference = .955, t(43) = 5.277, p = .000, r = .63). Qualitative findings suggested that changes in their awareness, self-directed practices, and patient care practices are anticipated, evident, and sustained based upon themes across the three tests. Nurses are advised to take a course that teaches specific self-care techniques and strategies and continue practicing, monitoring, and adapting the practice of self-care. Administrators are advised to recognize the importance of self-care for healthcare staff, institute programs that encourage such activities, and model their own self-care.

  4. Effects of Mobile Phone Usage in Supporting Leg Lymphedema Self-care

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Ayako; Koiyabashi, Kikuyo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to implement self-care support for leg lymphedema patients using mobile phones and to investigate the effects thereof. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with lymphedema following female genital cancer surgery (stages I to II) who were referred from a nearby gynecologist were randomly divided into groups for routine self-care support (control group) and mobile telephone-assisted support (intervention group) and received the self-care support appropriate to their group. The (total) circumference of the leg with edema, FACT-G (cancer patient QOL), MHP (mental health status), and self-care self-assessment were comparatively investigated at three months after the initial interview. Results: No significant reduction in the (total) circumferences of legs with edema was confirmed in either the control or intervention group. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of the activity circumstances and FACT-G mental status at three months after the initial interview. The intervention group was also significantly better in psychological, social, and physical items in the MHP. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of circumstances of self-care implementation at three months after the initial interview. Additionally, comparison of the circumstances of implementation for different aspects of self-care content showed that the intervention group was significantly better at selecting shoes, observing edema, moisturizing, self-drainage, wearing compression garments, and implementing bandaging. Conclusion: Compared with routine self-care support, mobile telephone-assisted support is suggested to be effective for leg lymphedema patients’ QOL and mental health status as well as their self-care behaviors. PMID:25648778

  5. Developing Compassionate Self-care Skills in Persons Living with HIV: a Pilot Study to Examine Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Price, Cynthia J.; Diana, Taibi M.; Smith-DiJulio, Kathleen L.; Voss, Joachim G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-care skills for persons living with HIV (PLWH) are needed to better cope with the common symptoms and emotional challenges of living with this chronic illness. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy (MABT) for individuals receiving medical management for HIV at an outpatient program. Setting A nonprofit outpatient day program that provided medical management to low-income individuals with HIV. Research Design A one group pre–post study design, nine participants were recruited to receive eight weekly MABT sessions of 1.25 hours each. Intervention MABT is designed to facilitate emotion regulation through teaching somatically-based self-care skills to respond to daily stressors. Main Outcome Measures To assess participant characteristics and study feasibility, a battery of health questionnaires and one week of wrist actigraphy was administered pre- and postintervention. A satisfaction survey and written questionnaire was administered postintervention to assess MABT acceptability. Results The results demonstrated recruitment and retention feasibility. The sample had psychological and physical health symptoms that are characteristic of PLWH. MABT acceptability was high, and participants perceived that they learned new mind-body self-care skills that improved HIV symptoms and their ability to manage symptoms. Conclusion The positive findings support a larger future study to examine MABT efficacy to improve coping with HIV symptoms among PLWH. PMID:23730396

  6. Self-care practices and experiences of people living with HIV not receiving antiretroviral therapy in an urban community of Lusaka, Zambia: implications for HIV treatment programmes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the increasingly wider availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), some people living with HIV (PLHIV) and eligible for treatment have opted to adopt self-care practices thereby risking early AIDS-related mortality. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in urban Zambia to gain insights into PLHIV self-care practices and experiences and explore the implications for successful delivery of ART care. Between March 2010 and September 2011, in-depth interviews were conducted with PLHIV who had dropped out of treatment (n=25) and those that had opted not to initiate medication (n=37). Data was entered into and managed using Atlas ti, and analysed inductively using latent content analysis. Results PHIV used therapeutic and physical health maintenance, psychological well-being and healthy lifestyle self-care practices to maintain physical health and mitigate HIV-related symptoms. Herbal remedies, faith healing and self-prescription of antibiotics and other conventional medicines to treat HIV-related ailments were used for therapeutic and physical health maintenance purposes. Psychological well-being self-care practices used were religiosity/spirituality and positive attitudes towards HIV infection. These practices were modulated by close social network relationships with other PLHIV, family members and peers, who acted as sources of emotional, material and financial support. Cessations of sexual relationships, adoption of safe sex to avoid re-infections and uptake of nutritional supplements were the commonly used risk reduction and healthy lifestyle practices respectively. Conclusions While these self-care practices may promote physical and psychosocial well-being and mitigate AIDS-related symptoms, at least in the short term, they however undermine PLHIV access to ART care thereby putting PLHIV at risk of early AIDS-related mortality. The use of scientifically unproven herbal remedies raises health and safety concerns; faith healing may create fatalism and resignation with death while the reported self-prescription of antibiotics to treat HIV-related infections raises concerns about future development of microbial drug resistance amongst PLHIV. Collectively, these self-care practices undermine efforts to effectively abate the spread and burden of HIV and reduce AIDS-related mortality. Therefore, there is need for sensitization campaigns on the benefits of ART and the risks associated with widespread self-prescription of antibiotics and use of scientifically unproven herbal remedies. PMID:23675734

  7. A preliminary study of a cloud-computing model for chronic illness self-care support in an underdeveloped country

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O.; Ganser, Martha; Mohamed, Muhima; Marinec, Nicolle; Krishnan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Background Although interactive voice response (IVR) calls can be an effective tool for chronic disease management, many regions of the world lack the infrastructure to provide these services. Objective This study evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of an IVR program using a cloud-computing model to improve diabetes management in Honduras. Methods A single group, pre-post study was conducted between June and August 2010. The telecommunications infrastructure was maintained on a U.S. server, and calls were directed to patients’ cell phones using VoIP. Eighty-five diabetes patients in Honduras received weekly IVR disease management calls for six weeks, with automated follow-up emails to clinicians, and voicemail reports to family caregivers. Patients completed interviews at enrollment and a six week follow-up. Other measures included patients’ glycemic control (A1c) and data from the IVR calling system. Results 55% of participants completed the majority of their IVR calls and 33% completed 80% or more. Higher baseline blood pressures, greater diabetes burden, greater distance from the clinic, and better adherence were related to higher call completion rates. Nearly all participants (98%) reported that because of the program, they improved in aspects of diabetes management such as glycemic control (56%) or foot care (89%). Mean A1c’s decreased from 10.0% at baseline to 8.9% at follow-up (p<.01). Most participants (92%) said that if the service were available in their clinic they would use it again. Conclusions Cloud computing is a feasible strategy for providing IVR services globally. IVR self-care support may improve self-care and glycemic control for patients in under-developed countries. PMID:21565655

  8. Evaluation of Internet-Based Technology for Supporting Self-Care: Problems Encountered by Patients and Caregivers When Using Self-Care Applications

    PubMed Central

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia; Boer, Henk; Steehouder, Michaël F; Seydel, Erwin R

    2008-01-01

    Background Prior studies have shown that many patients are interested in Internet-based technology that enables them to control their own care. As a result, innovative eHealth services are evolving rapidly, including self-assessment tools and secure patient-caregiver email communication. It is interesting to explore how these technologies can be used for supporting self-care. Objective The aim of this study was to determine user-centered criteria for successful application of Internet-based technology used in primary care for supporting self-care. Methods We conducted scenario-based tests combined with in-depth interviews among 14 caregivers and 14 patients/consumers to describe the use of various self-care applications and the accompanying user problems. We focused on the user-friendliness of the applications, the quality of care provided by the applications, and the implementation of the applications in practice. Results Problems with the user-friendliness of the self-care applications concerned inadequate navigation structures and search options and lack of feedback features. Patients want to retrieve health information with as little effort as possible; however, the navigation and search functionalities of the applications appeared incapable of handling patients’ health complaints efficiently. Among caregivers, the lack of feedback and documentation possibilities caused inconvenience. Caregivers wanted to know how patients acted on their advice, but the applications did not offer an adequate feedback feature. Quality of care problems were mainly related to insufficient tailoring of information to patients’ needs and to efficiency problems. Patients expected personalized advice to control their state of health, but the applications failed to deliver this. Language (semantics) also appeared as an obstacle to providing appropriate and useful self-care advice. Caregivers doubted the reliability of the computer-generated information and the efficiency and effectiveness of secure email consultation. Legal or ethical issues with respect to possible misuse of email consultation also caused concerns. Implementation problems were mainly experienced by caregivers due to unclear policy on email consultation and the lack of training for email consultations. Conclusions Patients’ and caregivers’ expectations did not correspond with their experiences of the use of the Internet-based applications for self-care. Patients thought that the applications would support them in solving their health problems. Caregivers were more reserved about the applications because of medico-legal concerns about misuse. However, the applications failed to support self-care because eHealth is more than just a technological intervention. The design of the applications should include a way of thinking about how to deliver health care with the aid of technology. The most powerful application for self-care was secure email consultation, combined with a suitable triage mechanism to empower patients’ self-awareness. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of such Web-based triage mechanisms for medical complaints and on the development of interactive features to enhance patients’ self-care. PMID:18487137

  9. Common colds. Reported patterns of self-care and health care use.

    PubMed Central

    Vingilis, E.; Brown, U.; Hennen, B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the self-reported prevalence and patterns of self-care and health care use for colds and flu. DESIGN: Using the expert panel method, a questionnaire was developed to explore self-care practices, attitudes, pharmaceutical use, and health care use for a range of cold and flu symptoms. SETTING: London and Windsor, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Using a random-digit-dialing survey method, 210 residents were interviewed between November and December 1993. Of 1484 telephone numbers called, 1179 calls were ineligible. Two hundred ten questionnaires were completed for 305 eligible respondents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic data, typical self-care practices, actual practice during respondents' last cold, opinions on appropriate practices, and knowledge of how to treat colds. RESULTS: Self-care was respondents' treatment of choice, and most respondents use over-the-counter drugs. Prescription drug use was low. Only 1% reported seeing a physician for their last cold. As the number of symptoms increased, however, reported use of over-the-counter drugs and calls or visits to doctors increased. CONCLUSIONS: Results are congruent with other studies showing that the health care practices of most respondents are consistent with low use of the health care system and high levels of self-care for colds and flu. PMID:10587772

  10. Being old and living alone in urban areas: the meaning of self-care and health on the perception of life situation and identity

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background Living alone in urban areas when getting old is an important and necessary field for research as the growth of the urban population worldwide increases, and due to the fact that people live longer. How older people manage their self-care and health, and how this might influence their identity and life situation may be very important to understand when planning for a new, upcoming older generation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. Methods A phenomenological–hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur was applied. Nine single-living older persons in urban areas, 70–82 years of age, and identified to be in good health were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a phenomenological–hermeneutic method. Results Strength and a time dimension characterized the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity as narrated by the group of single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. The informants were, as older individuals, caring, autonomous, and robust characters, who had gone through difficult times in life, and in a resilient way moved towards a new future. They valued and were grateful for what they had learned in their lives and could go forward and still experience and explore. Conclusion Self-care is significant in the perception of life situation and identity among single urban older people in this study, and characterized by strength, temporality, gratitude, autonomy, and natality. Society needs to acknowledge the strengths and capabilities of older people to a greater extent. PMID:23847434

  11. A survey of lay and professional interest in self-care

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Maria Bremer; Richardson, Ann

    1987-01-01

    This article describes a survey of the extent of interest among medical professionals and representatives and members of patient organizations in expanding the use of self-care by people with chronic complaints. Patient organizations are essentially `interest' groups, generally centred around a particular handicap or disease. From interviews with representatives from 52 patient organizations and with a random sample of 20 general practitioners, 21 specialists, 20 community nurses and 20 members of patient organizations, considerable interest was found in extending the practice of self-care. There was, however, some uncertainty about how to do this effectively. This study is part of a wider programme of research on the area between conventional health care and self-care. PMID:3449634

  12. Self-Reported Sleep Difficulties and Self-Care Strategies Among Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Joanne C.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Quandt, Sara A.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Nguyen, Ha T.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the use of self-care strategies to address difficulty sleeping among community-dwelling older adults. Data were collected from a series of 18 questionnaires administered to 195 rural African American and white older adults in North Carolina. Participants reported whether they had experienced difficulty sleeping and strategies used to respond to the symptom. The most widely used strategies included ignoring the symptom, staying in bed or resting, and praying. Herb and supplement use were not reported. Ethnicity, income, and education were associated with use of specific self-care strategies for sleep. This variation suggests that older adults may draw on cultural understandings to interpret the significance of difficulty sleeping and influence their use of self-care strategies, including complementary and alternative medicine use. This information may enable health care providers to communicate with the older patients about sleep difficulty strategies to minimize sleep problems. PMID:24647377

  13. Integration of Problem-based Learning and Innovative Technology Into a Self-Care Course

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the integration of problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course. Design. Problem-based learning (PBL) activities were developed and implemented in place of lectures in a self-care course. Students used technology, such as computer-generated virtual patients and iPads, during the PBL sessions. Assessments. Students’ scores on post-case quizzes were higher than on pre-case quizzes used to assess baseline knowledge. Student satisfaction with problem-based learning and the use of technology in the course remained consistent throughout the semester. Conclusion. Integrating problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course enabled students to become active learners. PMID:23966730

  14. Determinants of dietary self-care behaviours among Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Dwyer, Johanna T; Jacques, Paul F; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Haas, Catherine F; Weinger, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The effects of patient characteristics on reported adherence to dietary self-care behaviours in 184 Taiwanese outpatients 40 years or older with type 2 diabetes was assessed. Patient characteristics included the presence of predisposing factors affecting diabetes adherence (knowledge and attitudes about the disease, self-efficacy, and the absence of psychological problems), enabling factors (understanding of diabetes and environmental factors affecting it), and reinforcing factors (presence of medical and social support) which were evaluated using a 72 item self-administered questionnaire with 8 subscales. Adherence was assessed by patients' reports of carrying out 7 self-care behaviours (following a diabetic meal plan, following the diabetes exchange system, eating meals providing the same amount of carbohydrate every day, counting carbohydrates, reducing dietary fat, consuming high fiber foods, and keeping a daily food record). Reported adherence ranged from 17% to 74%. No single predisposing, enabling, or reinforcing factor predicted adherence to all of the dietary self-care behaviours. However, more self-efficacy, better understanding, and a better attitude toward diabetes were associated with performing five or more of the dietary self-care behaviours examined. With respect to specific self-care behaviours, women were more likely than men to count carbohydrates (OR=5.75) and reduce fat in their diets (OR=2.57). Patients who attended more nutrition education sessions were more likely to follow diabetes meal plans (OR=2.11) and the diabetes exchange system (OR=3.07). Efforts are needed to encourage providers to teach diabetes self-care behaviours to patients and to capitalize upon demographic and psychosocial characteristics that can enhance patient adherence. PMID:26420183

  15. Self-care and yoga-academic-practice collaboration for occupational health.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina

    2013-12-01

    High rates of stress and burnout among nurses and other health care providers justify the exploration of innovative interventions designed to reduce stress and promote self-care among this population. A growing body of evidence supports the physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga and suggests the potential for yoga to support self-care and reduce stress among health care providers. This article describes the formation of an academic-practice collaboration to use yoga as a model for occupational health and wellness among nurses employed at a tax-supported urban health system. In addition, recommendations for program sustainability over time are discussed. PMID:24328918

  16. Contingency Management to Increase Grade Point Average among Fraternity Members: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, Ryan A.; Irons, Jessica G.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective for inducing behavior change among a variety of populations and for a variety of behaviors. The current study examined whether contingency management techniques can help students change behaviors in an effort to raise their grade point…

  17. Self-Care Guide for the Heart Failure Patient

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003991 Extract Free » Full Text Free PDF Free Classifications Cardiology Patient Page Services ... manager Request Permissions Metrics Total Downloads Abstract: 25428 Full-text: 10620 PDF: 1872 Citing Articles Load citing article ...

  18. What Kind of Self-Care Strategies Do People Report Using and Is There an Association with Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Anna; Hilleras, Pernilla; Forsell, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe what kind of self-care strategies people report using to improve or maintain their well-being. Furthermore, we also wanted to investigate whether reports of using self-care strategies were associated with well-being. Methods: A selected sample (n = 871), aged between 20 and 64 years, living in…

  19. Testing Self-Efficacy as a Pathway that Supports Self-Care among Family Caregivers in a Psychoeducational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Brintnall-Peterson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which a psychoeducational intervention supports family-centered care by influencing health risk and self-care behaviors of caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (N = 325). Moreover, this study investigated the extent to which changes in self-efficacy explained changes in health risk and self-care

  20. Adherence to Self-Care Interventions for Depression or Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Russell; McCusker, Jane; Sewitch, Maida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesise and describe adherence to intervention in published studies of supported self-care for depression or anxiety, and to identify participant characteristics associated with higher adherence. Methods: We searched the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PSYCINFO for the period from January…

  1. Young Cancer Patients' Perceptions of a Video Game Used to Promote Self Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Ivan L.; Marin-Bowling, Veronica M.; Guthrie, Nicole: Kato, Pamela M.

    2006-01-01

    A video game called "Re-Mission" has recently been investigated with adolescent and young adult cancer patients enrolled in a multi-site randomized controlled evaluation of the game as a psycho-educational intervention. The main focus of the trial was to determine effects of the game on self-care and other health-related outcomes. It was also…

  2. A Program Design To Motivate Individuals with SCI for Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotzin, Martha

    The report compares a skin care education program with a standard rehabilitation program to determine whether the program improved the self care motivations of spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegic and quadriplegic inpatients (N=42). Study findings suggest that the skin care educational program was successful in changing patients' thinking about…

  3. Healthcare Compunetics: An End-to-End Architecture for Self-Care Service Provision

    E-print Network

    Roussos, George

    of the new self- care infrastructures will be wearable or implantable sensors and actuators that monitor to include non-verified data collection by the sensors; i-WAND is a wearable device that offers pluggable will be at the heart of the health service with access to better information and will expect to be fully involved

  4. Self Care Resource Corner: Its Impact on Appropriate Health Service Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClaran, Diane M.; Breakey, Robin Sarris

    In an effort to intervene before students enter the medical care system at the University of Michigan, a Self Care Resource Corner and accompanying materials were developed and implemented. The objective was to encourage students to view themselves as the primary decision makers for health-related conditions before seeking care from clinicians.…

  5. The relationships among self-care, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Slonim, Jessica; Kienhuis, Mandy; Di Benedetto, Mirella; Reece, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207) aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62) across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being. PMID:26112354

  6. A comparison of self-reported self-care practices of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Grubbs, L M

    1993-09-01

    Recent research has suggested that effective prenatal care is significantly related to positive outcomes for the teen mother and her infant. One aspect of prenatal care is the efforts of the pregnant teen to care for herself, often called self-care practices. The purpose of this article is to compare the self-reported self-care activities of pregnant teenagers who sought prenatal care during the first trimester of their pregnancies with those of pregnant teens who delayed prenatal care until the third trimester. The subjects were adolescent girls who were enrolled in prenatal care programs or who had recently delivered in Florida. Interview analysis suggested that both groups had an adequate knowledge level regarding diet, exercise, and other topics related to self-care during pregnancy. Although pregnant teens practice similar self-care behaviors regardless of when they enter prenatal care, there are many problems that may lead to poor pregnancy outcomes and can remain undetected when prenatal care is delayed. PMID:8414231

  7. Self-Care and Self-Help Groups for the Elderly: A Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This document notes that, as health care costs continue to rise, the elderly are monitoring themselves as a means of cost containment, and as a way of enhancing their sense of well-being and their ability to lead active lives. It points out that more and more organizations are sponsoring health programs that promote the concept of self-care and…

  8. Self-Efficacy, Planning and Action Control in an Oral Self-Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline…

  9. The Effect of Gender and Self-Care Behaviors on Counselors' Perceptions of Colleagues with Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Lynne; Gilroy, Paula J.; Murra, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of gender and self-care behaviors on counselors' perceptions of depressed colleagues. Target counselors who took antidepressants were perceived as more competent than counselors who practiced holistic measures and those who chose no course of action. Target counselors who sought personal counseling were perceived as more…

  10. Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

  11. Embodied Learning and Patient Education: From Nurses' Self-Awareness to Patient Self-Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a clear and practical introduction to use of a scientific perspective on embodied learning. It looks to embodied cognition and embodied cognitive science to explore education for self-care. The author presents a neurobiologic understanding of embodied learning to bridge adult education to the science-driven world of…

  12. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural dwelling women and men. Method Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results Both older women and men rely heavily on over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies self-care; professional health care is typically sought when self-care is not effective. However, relative to men, women were more knowledgeable about different approaches to self-care, especially home remedies, they used a wider range of self-care activities, and they placed greater priority on self-care over professional health care. Discussion The structure of older women’s and men’s self-care domain of health lifestyle is similar. However, there are subtle differences in health lifestyle that are likely embedded in gendered role behavior and may contribute to women’s greater health complaints. PMID:21632439

  13. Symptomatology and Coping Resources Predict Self-Care Behaviors in Middle to Older Age Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Graven, Lucinda J.; Grant, Joan S.; Gordon, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of heart failure (HF) and coping resources, such as social support and social problem-solving, may influence self-care behaviors. Research regarding the influence of HF symptomatology characteristics and components of social support and social problem-solving on self-care is limited. Objective. To identify predictors of HF self-care behaviors using characteristics of HF symptomatology, components of social support and social problem-solving, and demographic and clinical factors. Methods. Using a cross-sectional, correlational predictive design, a convenience sample (N = 201) of outpatients with HF answered self-report surveys. Multiple linear regression with stepwise variable selection was conducted. Results. Six predictors of HF self-care were identified: race, symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, New York Heart Association Class HF, rational problem-solving style, and social network (? = 34.265, R2 = 0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Assessing the influence of race on self-care behaviors in middle to older age patients with HF is important. Clinical assessment that focuses on symptom frequency, symptom-related interference with enjoyment of life, and HF Class might also impact self-care behaviors in this population. Rational problem-solving skills used and evaluation of the size of and satisfaction with one's social network may be appropriate when assessing self-care. PMID:26618000

  14. A feasibility study of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among adults with a comorbid chronic physical illness in primary care.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin; Yaffe, Mark; Sussman, Tamara; Lavoie, Kim L; Strumpf, Erin; Sewitch, Maida; Sahin, Deniz; de Raad, Manon

    2012-12-01

    Objective We assessed the feasibility and acceptability to patients of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among adults aged 40 years or over with one of six targeted chronic physical illnesses and comorbid depressive symptoms in family practice settings. Methods An open, uncontrolled trial (feasibility study) was conducted among patients treated in Montreal family practices. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or over, had one or more of the targeted chronic physical illnesses for at least 6 months (arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and were evaluated as having at least mild depressive symptoms (a score of ? 5 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9). Participants received a package of six self-care tools (information booklet, video, Internet programme, action plan, workbook and mood-monitoring tool) with telephone support by a lay coach for up to 6 months. Results In total, 63 eligible patients provided written consent and completed the baseline interview; 57 (90%) and 55 (87%) patients completed 2-month and 6-month follow-up interviews, respectively. The mean number of telephone calls made by coaches to participants was 10.5 (SD 4.0), and the average length of these calls was 10.6 minutes. At the 6-month follow-up, 83.6% of the participants reported that one or more of the tools were helpful. Clinically significant improvements were seen in depressive symptoms (as assessed by the PHQ-9) at 6 months, with an effect size of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.55, 1.14). Conclusion A telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression was feasible, was acceptable to patients, and was associated with a significant 6-month improvement in depressive symptoms. A randomised trial of this intervention is justified. PMID:24294301

  15. Self-care and anticipated transition into retirement and later life in a Nordic welfare context

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Olle; Skisland, Anne; Herrman, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have appeared in the health care literature on the meaning of transition into retirement and later life. However, this predictable-involuntary transition may influence personal health and well-being, and studying it from a self-care perspective could be useful. The aim of this study was to illuminate aspects of self-care in a group of middle-aged individuals in relation to their anticipated transition into retirement in the Nordic welfare context. A total of 13 individuals, aged 55 to 65 years, were randomly chosen from the total number of inhabitants in three municipalities in mid-west Sweden. Conversational interviews took place, during which the informants shared important events in their lives that had occurred from early childhood until the present time, together with thoughts about their anticipated future developmental transition into later life. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. After content analyses and interpretation, a comprehensive picture of the phenomenon was revealed. The results showed that there were opportunities, expectations, wishes, concerns, and worries related to the transition into retirement and old age among informants from both rural and urban municipalities. Self-care, in connection with this, depended on motivating and demotivating factors. Autonomy and mature dependence seemed to be positive driving forces for reaching a successful transition into later life. Supporting autonomy should be a way of facilitating the transition into retirement and later life. PMID:21847349

  16. Enhancing creativity to improve palliative care: the role of an experiental self-care workshop.

    PubMed

    de Vries, K

    2001-10-01

    Creativity plays an important part in all aspects of life. Although the nature of creativity is hypothesized in a variety of ways, there is no common agreement as to how or why it manifests. In the USA and UK, creative ability is often restricted by education, and nursing education programmes appear to be no exception. This article discusses the development of a weekend workshop programme for health professionals working with older people and in palliative care, using Alligood's (1991) hypotheses, that there are positive correlations between creativity, self-actualization and empathy. Actualization and creativity are closely related to self-care and there is evidence that 'selfishness' is an essential ingredient in the actualizing process. There is also evidence that an empathic relationship between health workers and their patients has a significant positive impact on interpersonal care processes. If the creative potential of nurses and carers can be enhanced through self-care, their ability to empathize may be increased. The focus of the workshops is on creative methods of self-care, using experiential exercises in relaxation, music, touch, massage and silence. Evaluation of the workshops revealed that the potential of using this method to develop care practices is worthy of investigation and development. PMID:11923753

  17. Self-efficacy, planning and action control in an oral self-care intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline and 1 month later. The self-regulation intervention improved levels of oral self-care, dental planning and action control. Moreover, a moderated mediation model with planning as the mediator between experimental conditions and dental outcome, and self-efficacy as well as action control as moderators elucidated the mechanism of change. More self-efficacious participants in the self-regulation condition benefitted in terms of more planning, and those who monitored their actions yielded higher levels of oral hygiene. Dental self-efficacy, dental planning and action control are involved in the improvement of oral self-care. Their joint consideration may contribute to a better understanding of health behavior change. PMID:26187914

  18. Urban and Suburban Differences in Hypertension Trends and Self-Care: Three Population-Based Cross-Sectional Studies from 2005-2011

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Hu, Huanhuan; Dong, Zhong; Xie, Jin; Zhou, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare hypertension trends in the urban and suburban population, and to examine the use of several self-care behaviors among patients who were aware of their hypertension. Methods We examined the data from three cross-sectional adult populations obtained in 2005, 2008, and 2011, in Beijing. Results Our analyses indicated that from 2005 to 2011 the standardized rate of hypertension increased from 31.9% to 36.0% (P <0.001) among urban adults, and was relatively stable (40.8% -40.2%) among suburban adults (P = 0.02). About 10% of the patients reported having taken measures to control their weight for hypertension management. As compared to the other patients, the female patients in the urban areas reported the highest rate of regular BP measurement (52.6%). In addition, the patients who reported taking medication regularly increased among the males and females. Most of the women reported nonsmoking (?95%) and alcohol abstinence (?90%). The trend of nonsmoking decreased among the urban males. In contrast, the prevalence of nonsmoking increased among the suburban males, though the trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.055). Further, the patient-reported alcohol abstinence was found to exhibit a decreasing trend among the males. Conclusions We observed an increase in the hypertension prevalence from 2005 to 2011. The rates remained higher for suburban adults than for urban adults. Females generally had better self-care ability as compared to male patients. Further research is needed to promote self-care behaviors in hypertensive patients, especially for male patients. PMID:25665069

  19. Self-care and adherence to medication: a survey in the hypertension outpatient clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gohar, Faekah; Greenfield, Sheila M; Beevers, D Gareth; Lip, Gregory YH; Jolly, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Background Self-care practices for patients with hypertension include adherence to medication, use of blood pressure self-monitoring and use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) The prevalence of CAM use and blood pressure self-monitoring have not been described in a UK secondary care population of patients with hypertension and their impact on adherence to medication has not been described. Adherence to medication is important for blood pressure control, but poor adherence is common. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-care behaviours in patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. 196 patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic in a teaching hospital serving a multiethnic population, Birmingham, UK. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of use of CAM, home monitors, adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Results CAM use in previous 12 months was reported by 66 (43.1%) respondents. CAM users did not differ statistically from non-CAM users by age, gender, marital status or education. Vitamins, prayer a dietary supplements were the most commonly used CAM. Nine (12.7%) women reported using herbal CAM compared to one man (1.2%), (p = 0.006). Ten (6.7%) respondents reported ever being asked by a doctor about CAM use. Perfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication was reported by 26 (44.8%) CAM-users and 46 (60.5%) non-CAM users (p = 0.07). Being female and a CAM user was significantly associated with imperfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Older and white British respondents were significantly more likely to report perfect adherence. Blood pressure monitors were used by 67 (43.8%) respondents, which was not associated with gender, CAM use or adherence to medication. Conclusion Hypertensive patients use a variety of self-care methods, including CAM, home blood pressure monitors, and adherence to prescribed medication. This study found the prevalence of CAM use in hypertensive patients was higher than in the UK population. It is important to acknowledge the self-care behaviour of hypertensive patients, in order to assess potential harm, and encourage effective methods of self-care. PMID:18261219

  20. Health promotion through self-care and community participation: Elements of a proposed programme in the developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Khanindra Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Background The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during 1970s, primarily out of concerns about the limitation of professional health system. Since then there have been rapid growth in these areas in the developed world, and there is evidence of effectiveness of such interventions. These areas are still in infancy in the developing countries. There is a window of opportunity for promoting self care and community participation for health promotion. Discussion A broad outline is proposed for designing a health promotion programme in developing countries, following key strategies of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion and principles of self care and community participation. Supportive policies may be framed. Self care clearinghouses may be set up at provincial level to co-ordinate the programme activities in consultation with district and national teams. Self care may be promoted in the schools and workplaces. For developing personal skills of individuals, self care information, generated through a participatory process, may be disseminated using a wide range of print and audio-visual tools and information technology based tools. One such potential tool may be a personally held self care manual and health record, to be designed jointly by the community and professionals. Its first part may contain basic self care information and the second part may contain outlines of different personally-held health records to be used to record important health and disease related events of an individual. Periodic monitoring and evaluation of the programme may be done. Studies from different parts of the world indicate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of self care interventions. The proposed outline has potential for health promotion and cost reduction of health services in the developing countries, and may be adapted in different situations. Summary Self care, community participation and health promotion are emerging but dominant areas in the developed countries. Elements of a programme for health promotion in the developing countries following key principles of self care and community participation are proposed. Demonstration programmes may be initiated to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this programme before large scale implementation. PMID:15086956

  1. Health Status and Self-care Outcomes Following an Education-Support Intervention for People with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Angela P.; McDougall, Graham; Riegel, Barbara; Joiner-Rogers, Glenda; Innerarity, Sheri; Meraviglia, Martha; Delville, Carol; Davila, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising cost of hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) care mandates intervention models to address education for self-care success. The effectiveness of memory enhancement strategies to improve self-care and learning needs further examination. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an education-support intervention delivered in the home setting, using strategies to improve health status and self-care in adults/older adults with class I-III HF. Our secondary purpose was to explore participants’ subjective perceptions of the intervention. Methods This study used a randomized, 2 group design. Fifty people were enrolled for 9 months and tested at 4 time points—baseline; following a 3-month education-support intervention; at 6 months, following 3-months of telephone/email support; and 9 months, following a 3-month period of no contact. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) delivered the intervention. Memory enhancement methods were built into the teaching materials and delivery of the intervention. We measured the intervention’s effectiveness on health status outcomes (functional status, self-efficacy, quality of life, emotional state/depressive symptoms, and metamemory) and self-care outcomes (knowledge/knowledge retention, self-care ability). Subjects evaluated the usefulness of the intervention at the end of the study. Results The mean age of the sample was 62.4 years, with a slight majority of female participants. Participants were well educated and had other concomitant diseases, including diabetes (48%), and an unexpected degree of obesity. The intervention group showed significant improvements in functional status, self-efficacy and quality of life (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-KCCQ); metamemory Change and Capacity subscales (Metamemory in Adulthood Questionnaire-MIA); self-care knowledge (HF Knowledge Test-HFKT); and self-care (Self-Care in Heart Failure Index—SCHFI). Participants in both groups improved in depressive scores (Geriatric Depression Scale-GDS). Conclusions An in-home intervention delivered by APRNs was successful in several health status and self-care outcomes, including self-efficacy, quality of life, metamemory, self-care status, and HF knowledge. PMID:24978157

  2. The Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Inventory: Development and Psychometric Testing with Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    García, Alexandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Context Type 2 diabetes is prevalent throughout the world. In previous studies of Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes, 95-97% of those sampled reported having symptoms they believe were caused by diabetes and most self-treated their symptoms. To more accurately capture Mexican Americans’ symptom prevalence and their self-treatments, the Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Instrument (DSSCI) was adapted from the Diabetes Self-Care Instrument. Objectives This paper describes the modification process used to perfect the DSSCI for use in improving self-care among people with Type 2 diabetes. Methods This instrumentation study used qualitative and quantitative methods. The study was completed in four phases that used focus groups, cognitive interviews, and survey administration. Four convenience samples were drawn from community-based Mexican American adults, aged 25-75, with type 2 diabetes in an urban area and a rural location in Texas. Results Phase I: Seven focus groups (n=45) generated data for revising items. Phase II: Cognitive interviews with 16 participants were used to evaluate four revisions of the questionnaire. Phase III: Surveys were administered to 81 participants. Total number of symptoms on the DSSCI correlated with scores on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (r=.65, p < .001), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised Diabetes symptom subscale (r=.57, p < .001), and Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life scale (r= -.42, p < .001). Minor revisions followed. Phase IV: Test-retest stability was demonstrated (n = 44). Conclusion The DSSCI is a culturally-relevant, sound measure of Mexican Americans’ diabetes symptoms and the actions they take to address them. PMID:21276705

  3. Impact of a First-Year Student Pharmacist Diabetes Self-Care Education Program

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Melissa; Luu, Linda; Kobayashi, Shawna; Mutrux, Brandon; Best, Brookie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a first-year diabetes self-care education program by measuring student pharmacists’ confidence and knowledge retention, and the clinical applicability of the skills learned. Design. Integrated into a Pharmacy Practice Course, a 9-hour program consisting of lectures, a home glucose monitor assignment, and active-learning workshops was completed by 2 cohorts of first-year student pharmacists. Three survey instruments were developed and administered to the student pharmacists prior to the program, immediately after the program, and 9 months after the program to assess confidence, knowledge retention, and the clinical applicability of the knowledge and skills learned. Assessment. In cohort 1, 54 student pharmacists (response rate 90%) perceived that their confidence and ability improved significantly (increased by 88% and 110%, respectively, from baseline, p<0.001). Overall knowledge of diabetes increased as well as indicated by a 40% increase in test scores (p<0.001). About two-thirds of student pharmacists used their training to assist patients with diabetes within 9 months of completing the program. Findings in cohort 2 mirrored those observed with cohort 1, indicating good generalizability. Conclusions. An innovative first-year diabetes self-care education program significantly improved student pharmacists’ knowledge and confidence in providing diabetes self-care education, and the majority immediately used their leaned skills to assist diabetes patients and caregivers. Training first-year student pharmacists in diabetes care so they are prepared to use these skills as early as their first year of pharmacy school may be an effective approach to increasing the number of providers available to counsel and care for this expanding patient population. PMID:24371339

  4. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate. PMID:25915603

  5. The effects of self-care training on quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sahebalzamani, Mohammad; Zamiri, Maryam; Rashvand, Farnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive disease of the central nervous system with debilitating symptoms and complications. Therefore, education and appropriate interventions, including self-care education, are necessary to increase the quality of life in these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-care education on quality of life in MS patients affiliated to Iranian MS Association. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study assessed a single group of MS patients before and after training. Totally, 50 MS patients were selected non-randomly from the patients referring to Iranian MS Association. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first part included demographic information and the second part consisted of a quality of life questionnaire (MSQOL-54) including 54 items in 3 sections and 14 subgroups. The scores ranges from zero to a hundred in each subgroup. The reliability of the questionnaire has been confirmed (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96). The questionnaires were filled out by the patients before training. After at least six 50-minute training sessions during three months, the same questionnaire was again completed by the participants. Statistical analyses, including absolute and relative frequency tables and mean and standard deviation for descriptive analysis, and t-test and Pearson correlation for descriptive analysis, were performed by SPSS. Findings: The mean values of quality of life in physical health, pain, fatigue, health conception, changes in health status, sexual activities, as well as overall quality of life scores differed significantly after training. Moreover, except for cognitive activity, there were significant differences in values of mental health before and after training. Conclusions: Designing and applying the self-care programs based on the educational needs of MS patients has a positive effect on physical and psychological aspects of their quality of life. PMID:23493483

  6. Assessing and managing pain in AIDS care: the patient perspective.

    PubMed

    Holzemer, W L; Henry, S B; Reilly, C A

    1998-01-01

    Although the prevalence and complexity of pain management in HIV/AIDS has been described in the literature, little is known about the management of pain from the patient perspective. This study used a set of standardized instruments, a medication chart audit, and a semistructured interview to elicit patients' self-reports of pain and patients' perceptions of nursing and self-care pain management strategies and examined potential physiological and psychosocial correlates of pain. The sample of 249 AIDS patients from three types of care settings (hospital, home care, skilled nursing facility) reported a modest overall current pain intensity (M = .14, range = 0-1). They reported experiencing pain in all body parts as measured by a body outline and characterized their pain with an average of 8.96 words from a list of 67 words. A lower pain rating was correlated with higher ratings on quality of life and perceived psychological support. An audit of the medication record revealed that the study sample received the following medications: narcotic analgesics (49%), nonnarcotic analgesics (47%), and antidepressants (22%). In a semistructured interview, medications were rated as effective by 80% of patients experiencing pain who stated that their health care providers included pain medications as part of the patient's pain management plan. Patients reported few nonpharmacologic self-care or health care provider interventions to manage their pain, and the effectiveness ratings of the interventions demonstrated wide variability. The study findings suggest that because pain was related to quality of life ratings and the pain management strategies reported by patients were not completely effective, further work is needed to examine pain management strategies that incorporate both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions with particular attention to self-care interventions. In addition, the data suggest that nursing assessments should include questions aimed at eliciting potentially harmful (e.g., street drugs, self-prescribed medications) strategies that patients may be using to manage their pain. PMID:9436165

  7. Diabetes self-care behaviours and clinical outcomes among Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Dwyer, Johanna T; Jacques, Paul F; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Haas, Catherine F; Weinger, Katie

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influences of patients' background characteristics on the frequency of performing five diabetes self-care behaviours that 185 Taiwanese outpatients reported. All patients had type 2 diabetes diagnosed for more than a year and attended an outpatient clinic at a large university hospital where they had received at least one dietitian-led individual nutrition education session and one nurse-led diabetes education session during the course of their care. Seventy nine percent of the patients regularly (defined as responses often or always on the questionnaire) took their medications and over half followed recommended meal plans and exercised, but fewer performed foot care (38%) or checked their blood glucose levels (20%) regularly. The associations between patients' demographics and disease-related characteristics and their performance of self-care behaviours were assessed with logistic regression. Although checking blood glucose levels and performing diabetes foot care were unrelated to any clinical outcome examined, patients who took their diabetes medications had lower hemoglobin A1c levels and fewer chronic complications than those who did not. Furthermore, patients who followed a diabetes meal plan also had lower hemoglobin A1c levels, and those who exercised regularly had healthier body mass indices (BMI) than those who did not. PMID:26420184

  8. Self-care behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chourdakis, Michael; Kontogiannis, Vasileios; Malachas, Konstantinos; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Kritis, Aristidis

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine self-care behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in the Metropolitan Area of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care behaviors measurement was administered to 215 patients, out of which 177 were eligible to participate (87 males). Patients, aged 30 years or more, were recruited through a university hospital day-clinic. Older patients (>65 years), as well as those with "higher educational level" did not distribute their daily carbohydrate intake equally. Nevertheless, they were more likely to adapt to their physician's recommendations regarding medication and to regularly perform suggested blood glucose checking. Exercise patterns were more often found for higher educated, earlier diagnosed males. Younger patients were less likely to follow their healthcare professional's recommendations, regarding diet, medication intake, blood glucose checking, foot care and exercise compared to older patients. These results pose a higher risk for complications and morbidity in younger patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who most possibly will require intensive treatment in the future. PMID:24519180

  9. An Active Learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine Session in a Self-Care Therapeutics Class

    PubMed Central

    Nemec, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To provide an interactive, non-supplement based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) session in a self-care therapeutics class and to evaluate the effect of the session on pharmacy students’ perceptions and knowledge of CAM. Design. Second professional year pharmacy students enrolled in a required 3-credit course titled Self-Care Therapeutics participated in an active learning session on CAM. Students physically engaged in 5 separate active learning CAM sessions including massage therapy, Tai Chi, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, and Reiki. Assessment. Students were assessed on both knowledge and perception of CAM. Concept mastery was assessed using a written examination and individual readiness assurance tests (iRAT) and team readiness assurance tests (tRAT). Perception of CAM was measured using both a presession and a postsession survey. Conclusion. Participating in an intensive, active learning CAM session provided an opportunity to increase students’ knowledge of CAM and an effective strategy for providing the learner with the experience to better envision incorporation into patient therapies. PMID:25258446

  10. The effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngju; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; An, Duk-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity unction and self-care in stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n=15) or a control group (n=15). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group received mirror therapy with tasks, and those in the control group received a sham therapy; both therapies were administered, five times per week for six weeks. The main outcome measures were the Manual Function Test for the paralyzed upper limb and the Functional Independence Measure for self-care performance. [Results] The experimental group had more significant gains in change scores compared with the control group after the intervention. [Conclusion] We consider mirror therapy with tasks to be an effective form of intervention for upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients. PMID:26157249

  11. The effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngju; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; An, Duk-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity unction and self-care in stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n=15) or a control group (n=15). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group received mirror therapy with tasks, and those in the control group received a sham therapy; both therapies were administered, five times per week for six weeks. The main outcome measures were the Manual Function Test for the paralyzed upper limb and the Functional Independence Measure for self-care performance. [Results] The experimental group had more significant gains in change scores compared with the control group after the intervention. [Conclusion] We consider mirror therapy with tasks to be an effective form of intervention for upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients. PMID:26157249

  12. Quaternion Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  13. Choosing and using contraception: toward a theory of women's contraceptive self-care.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, D J

    1991-01-01

    Thirty women of varying ethnicity and socioeconomic status, who were actively seeking to avoid pregnancy, were interviewed concerning their lifetime experience with contraceptive use. The resulting description, Women's Contraceptive Self-Care, was divided into four processes: the central process, Choosing and Using Contraception, and three contextual processes. Forestalling Pregnancy was defined as using contraceptive methods or behaviors to prevent or delay childbearing. Assigning the Burden of Contraceptive Responsibility was defined as assuming responsibility for contraception or shifting that responsibility to a partner. Negotiating with Those who Control Contraception was defined as maneuvering among individuals and agencies that permit or hinder access to contraceptive methods and behaviors. Each process is comprised of thematic clusters and/or themes that are defined and illustrated. PMID:1896325

  14. Racial Differences in Clinical Treatment and Self?Care Behaviors of Adults With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Knafl, George J.; Wald, Joyce; Riegel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background In the United States, the highest prevalence of heart failure (HF) is in blacks followed by whites. Compared with whites, blacks have a higher risk of HF?related morbidity and mortality and HF?related hospitalization. Little research has focused on explaining the reasons for these disparities. The purpose of this study was to examine racial differences in demographic and clinical characteristics in blacks and whites with HF and to determine if these characteristics influenced treatment, or together with treatment, influenced self?care behaviors. Methods and Results This was a secondary analysis of existing data collected from adults (n=272) with chronic HF enrolled from outpatient sites in the northeastern United States and followed for 6 months. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics within reduced (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) groups, there were 2 significant racial differences in clinical treatment. Blacks with HFrEF were prescribed ACE inhibitors and hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate (H?ISDN) more often than whites. In the HFpEF group, blacks were taking more medications and were prescribed digoxin and a diuretic when symptomatic. Deficits in HF knowledge and decreased medication adherence, objectively measured, were more prominent in blacks. These racial differences were not explained by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics or clinical treatment variables. Premorbid intellect and the quality of support received contributed to clinical treatment and self?care. Conclusion Although few differences in clinical treatment could be attributed solely to race, knowledge about HF and medication adherence is lower in blacks than whites. Further research is needed to explain these observations, which may be targets for future intervention research. PMID:25870187

  15. Analyzing Short Message Services Application Effect on Diabetic Patients’ Self-caring

    PubMed Central

    Naghibi, Seyed Abolhassan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Zhyanifard, Akram; Jafari Makrani, Zoreh; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the most prevalent metabolic disease with a growing spread rate in word wide. Short message service (SMS) is of the most common public communication networks, which have brought about a broad spectrum of applications like social, cultural and service products in the late decade. The objective of this research is, the investigate of using SMS on diabetes patients self-caring. Methods: In an interventional study, 228 diabetes patients have been selected from a community charity. With using of random sampling method, they were divided into two groups of 114 subjects as the control and case. The case group was sent messages reminding them about sports, caring foot, taking insulin and oral tablet for 4 weeks via mobile phone. After 4 weeks, a posttest questionnaire was completed. The data analysis was performed using a descriptive statistic, Chi-square, independent t-test, and paired t-test. Results: There are not significant differences between case and control groups before intervention by studied dependent variables (P > 0.05). Performance score mean of taking care of foot, sport and taking oral tablet and insulin in case group before intervention were 29.90, 10, 11.16 and 3.75 respectively and after intervention were 20.11, 41.36, 13.09 and 4.90, respectively. Furthermore, the performance scores mean difference after intervention, taking care of foot (P < 0.001), sport (P < 0.001), taking oral tablet (P = 0.020) was meaningful in case and control groups. Conclusions: Regarding the study results on using cell phone, to utilize virtual training methods is recommended as an appropriate procedure for different health care, self-caring and follow-up training plans for various groups in society, especially diabetic and chronic patients. PMID:26425330

  16. Common Cold Self Care The "common cold" is inflammation of the upper respiratory tract caused a variety of different viruses. Antibiotics do not

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Common Cold Self Care The "common cold" is inflammation of the upper respiratory tract caused by allergies, try one of the newer non-sedating antihistamines (see details box). If from a common cold period of time (see details box next page). #12;Common Cold Self Care Continued Approved by the UHS

  17. The Use of Self-Care Agency To Meet the Need for Solitude and Social Interaction by Chronically Ill Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Margaret A.

    This study examined the effect of chronic illness on the individual's ability to meet his or her need for solitude and for social interaction by exploring how chronically ill individuals used their own ability (self-care agency) to meet these needs. Subjects were 90 chronically ill older persons, 30 of whom were living at home, 30 who lived in a…

  18. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

  19. Effect of Telehealth on Self-Care Behavior of Heart Failure Patients Carolina Varon1,2

    E-print Network

    Effect of Telehealth on Self-Care Behavior of Heart Failure Patients Carolina Varon1,2 , Morenikeji Abstract Telehealth systems to monitor heart failure patients have become a very important tool in the last Telehealth helps improving patients compli- ance. Daily measurements of blood pressure, pulse, SpO2

  20. A Competency-Based Approach to Teaching Professional Self-Care: An Ethical Consideration for Social Work Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Jason M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating material on professional self-care into social work course content is valuable to the education of neophyte social work practitioners. This article presents a review of the literature on professional burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue, including the risk factors associated with the experience of these…

  1. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Background Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care. Methods An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons’ own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks. Results The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care. Conclusion Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health. PMID:25670905

  2. Patient Compliance in Home-Based Self-Care Telehealth Projects.

    PubMed

    Maeder, Anthony; Poultney, Nathan; Morgan, Gary; Lippiatt, Robert

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the findings of a literature review on patient compliance in home-based self-care telehealth monitoring situations, intended to establish a knowledge base for this aspect which is often neglected alongside more conventional clinical, economic and service evaluations. A systematic search strategy led to 72 peer-reviewed published scientific papers being selected as most relevant to the topic, 58 of which appeared in the last 10 years. Patient conditions in which most evidence for compliance was found were blood pressure, heart failure and stroke, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory diseases. In general, good compliance at the start of a study was found to drop off over time, most rapidly in the period immediately after the start. Success factors identified in the study included the extent of patient health education, telehealth system implementation style, user training and competence in system usage, active human support from the healthcare provider and maintaining strong participant motivation. PMID:26556057

  3. Self-care practices and the need for influenza vaccination in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, Candice; Klopper, Hester C

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether self-care practices in healthy individuals reduce the need for trivalent influenza vaccination and whether naturopathic influenza prevention reduces rate, duration and severity of influenza, absenteeism from work due to influenza and side-effects, as compared to trivalent influenza vaccination. A survey design was followed using exploratory, descriptive and comparative methods. The method of study was an open-label, two-group, parallel study. The data collection tool was a self-administered questionnaire. A two-group sample was obtained through non-probability, purposeful sampling. Data was analysed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics at the 0.05 level of significance. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between the rates of influenza infection of the naturopathic group as compared with the trivalent vaccination group but there was a marginal reduction in the duration of febrile illness in the former group. The naturopathic group were less likely to visit a medical practitioner in order to resolve the influenza, however, they were as likely as the trivalent vaccinated group to commence a new treatment plan. Neither method of influenza prevention resulted in a significant reduction in absenteeism from work. The trivalent vaccinated group had significantly more side-effects than the naturopathic group. PMID:14984075

  4. Self-Care Practices for Common Colds by Primary Care Patients: Study Protocol of a European Multicenter Survey—The COCO Study

    PubMed Central

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Gerasimovska-Kitanovska, Biljana; Thielmann, Anika; Chambe, Juliette; Lingner, Heidrun; Pirrotta, Enzo; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Tekiner, Selda; Czachowski, Slawomir; Edirne, Tamer; Zielinski, Andrzej; Yikilkan, Hülya; Koskela, Tuomas; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Hoffman, Robert D.; Petek Šter, Marija; Guede Fernández, Clara; Uluda?, Ay?egül; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Mevsim, Vildan; Kreitmayer Pestic, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-care for common colds is frequent, yet little is known about the spectrum, regional differences, and potential risks of self-care practices in patients from various European regions. Methods/Design. We describe the study protocol for a cross-sectional survey in 27 primary care centers from 14 European countries. At all sites, 120 consecutive adult patients, who visit their general practitioner for any reason, filled in a self-administered 27-item questionnaire. This addresses patients' self-care practices for common colds. Separately, the subjective level of discomfort when having a common cold, knowing about the diseases' self-limited nature, and medical and sociodemographic data are requested. Additionally, physicians are surveyed on their use of and recommendations for self-care practices. We are interested in investigating which self-care practices for common colds are used, whether the number of self-care practices used is influenced by knowledge about the self-limited nature of the disease, and the subjective level of discomfort when having a cold and to identify potential adverse interactions with chronic physician-prescribed medications. Further factors that will be considered are, for example, demographic characteristics, chronic conditions, and sources of information for self-care practices. All descriptive and analytical statistics will be performed on the pooled dataset and stratified by country and site. Discussion. To our knowledge, COCO is the first European survey on the use of self-care practices for common colds. The study will provide new insight into patients' and general practitioners' self-care measures for common colds across Europe. PMID:26421048

  5. A Randomized Trial Comparing Yoga, Stretching, and a Self-care Book for Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Karen J.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Wellman, Robert D.; Cook, Andrea J.; Hawkes, Rene J.; Delaney, Kristin; Deyo, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain is a common problem lacking highly effective treatment options. Small trials suggest that yoga may have benefits for this condition. This trial was designed to determine whether yoga is more effective than conventional stretching exercises or a self-care book for primary care patients with chronic low back pain. Methods 228 adults with chronic low back pain were randomized to 12 weekly classes of yoga (n=92) or conventional stretching exercises (n=91) or a self-care book (n=45). Back-related functional status (modified Roland Disability Questionnaire, 23-point scale) and bothersomeness of pain (11-point numerical scale) at 12 weeks were the primary outcomes. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 26 weeks by interviewers unaware of treatment group. Results After adjustment for baseline values, 12-week outcomes for the yoga group were superior to those for the self-care group (mean difference for function = ?2.5 [95% CI= ?3.7 to ?1.3; P<0.001]; mean difference for symptoms = ?1.1 [95% CI= ?1.7 to ?0.4; P<0.001]). At 26 weeks, function for the yoga group remained superior (mean difference = ?1.8 [95% CI= ? 3.1 to ?0.5; P<0.0001]). Yoga was not superior to conventional stretching exercises at any time point. Conclusions Yoga classes were more effective than a self-care book, but not stretching classes, in improving function and reducing symptoms due to chronic low back pain, with benefits lasting at least several months. PMID:22025101

  6. The importance of health literacy in the development of 'Self Care’' cards for community pharmacies in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Diarmuid; Sahm, Laura; Byrne, Stephen

    Objective 'Self Care’'cards play a significant role in delivering health education via community pharmacies in Australia and New Zealand. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether such an initiative could have a similar impact in an Irish context. The secondary objective was to understand the importance of health literacy to this initiative. Methods Ten cards were developed for the Irish healthcare setting and trialed as a proof of concept study. The pilot study ran in ten community pharmacies in the greater Cork area for a six-month period. Using a mixed methods approach (Questionnaires & focus group) staff and patient reactions to the initiative were obtained. Concurrent to the pilot study, readability scores of cards (Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, SMOG methods) and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) health literacy screening tool was administered to a sample of patients. Results 88.7% of patient respondents (n=53) liked the concept of the 'Self Care’' cards and 83% of respondents agreed that the use of the card was beneficial to their understanding of their ailment. Focus groups with Pharmacy staff highlighted the importance of appropriate training for the future development of this initiative. An emerging theme from designing the cards was health literacy. The pilot 'Self Care’'cards were pitched at too high a literacy level for the general Irish public to understand as determined by readability score methods. It was found that 19.1% of a sample population (n=199) was deemed to have low health literacy skills. Conclusions The 'Self Care’'initiative has the potential to be Pharmacy’s contribution to health education in Ireland. The initiative needs to be cognizant of the health literacy framework that equates the skills of individuals to the demands placed upon them. PMID:24155830

  7. The influence of family and friends' basic conditioning factors and self-care agency on unmarried teenage primiparas' engagement in contraceptive practice.

    PubMed

    Mapanga, K G; Andrews, C M

    1995-01-01

    Orem's 1991 self-care deficit theory states that basic conditioning factors influence self-care agency and self-care, and that self-care agency is necessary for self-care. The authors explored the influence of emotional support from family and friends upon unmarried teenage primiparas' self-care agency and the influence of self-care agency on the use of contraceptives. 75 unmarried teenage primiparas aged 13 (1.3%) to 18 (42%) years, of mean age 17.013 years, were randomly selected from a major urban hospital's children outpatient program for the care of their children for participation in the study. The young women had given birth at the hospital in the preceding 24 months. 73 were Black, 15 lived alone, 37 lived with their mother, 49 had some high school education, 19 graduated from high school, 15 were unemployed, and 40 were students. Public assistance was the main source of income for 46 of the young women. 70 participants were sexually active. 33 (44%) of them used some form of contraception every time they had sexual intercourse, 13.3% almost every time, 21.3% sometimes, 5.3% almost never, and 9.3% never. 18.7% were using condoms alone, while another 18.7% used condoms and oral contraceptive pills together. 12% used either Norplant or Depo-Provera and 9.3% used birth control pills. Multiple regression analysis found emotional support from both family and friends to have a positive effect upon self-care agency, but no positive effect upon contraceptive practice. Emotional support from family was more important than emotional support from friends in predicting self-care agency. Self-care agency did not have a positive effect upon contraceptive practice. These findings support the need for community health nurses to encourage emotional support from family and friends in the interest of promoting self-care agency, but caution must be exercised in using the health promotion model to affect contraceptive practice. PMID:7602339

  8. Enhancing Diabetes Self-care Among Rural African Americans With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ishan C.; Utz, Sharon W.; Hinton, Ivora; Yan, Guofen; Jones, Randy; Reid, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of conducting a community-based randomized controlled trial evaluating a culturally tailored community-based group diabetes self-management education (DSME) program among rural African Americans. Methods Thirty-two African American rural adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited and 25 adults were retained and participated in an interventional study designed to test the effectiveness of the “Taking Care of Sugar” DSME program for the 2-year follow-up. Participants were selected from rural central Virginia. Primary outcomes variables included average blood sugar levels, cardiovascular risk factors, and general physical and mental health. These outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months post baseline. Results From baseline to 3-month follow-up assessment, participants exhibited significant improvement on several physiological and behavioral measures. Given the small sample size, hypothesis testing was limited. Results show change from baseline over time, illustrating that the primary outcome of A1C decreased, although not significant. Additionally, participants reported more knowledge about diabetes self-management and personal care skills (ie, exercise and foot care) that persisted over time. The feasibility of the culturally tailored DSME was established, and participation with the program was high. Conclusions A community-based group DSME program using storytelling is feasible. This research will help to inform clinicians and health policymakers as to the types of interventions that are feasible in a larger rural population. If such a program is carried out, we can improve knowledge, reduce complications, and improve quality of life among rural African Americans. PMID:24478047

  9. Self Care and Medication Adherence among Type 2 Diabetics in Puducherry, Southern India: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    S., Arulmozhi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Micro and macro-vascular complications of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) could be decreased by maintaining a good glycaemic control, which is dependent on adherence to medication and self care. Aim: (1) To assess medication adherence and adherence to self care among type 2 diabetics who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital (2) To identify factors which were associated with medication adherence. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study involved 150 in-patients of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital (SMVMCH), a teaching hospital in Puducherry, southern India. Subjects who had type 2 DM for more than 1 month were included in the study, irrespective of their diagnoses at admission. They were interviewed within 24 hours of their admissions by using a pre-designed, pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) and questions for assessing adherence to self care activities. The factors which were associated with medication adherence were identified by Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 54 years. Only 49.3% (95% CI: 41% to 57%) of the diabetics had high medication adherence (MMAS score = 8). Only 22.7% of the diabetics were involved in physical exercise for at least 30 minutes, for at least 4 days in a week. Only 16.7% of them regularly inspected their feet. Around 67.3% of the subjects reported about consuming a diabetic diet for at least 4 days/week. Poor family support showed a significant association with low medication adherence. Conclusion: Only 49.3% of the subjects adhered to anti-diabetic medications. Less than 25% of the diabetics adhered to self care activities such as exercising/walking for 30 minutes on at least 4 days in a week, regularly inspected their feet and provided feet care. Family support played a vital role in medication adherence among the diabetic subjects. Hence, it is important to regularly assess patients for medication adherence and include their families also in counseling sessions. PMID:24959496

  10. Popular medicine and self-care in a Mexican migrant community: toward an explanation of an epidemiological paradox.

    PubMed

    Waldstein, Anna

    2010-01-01

    While Hispanics are among the most economically disadvantaged groups in the United States, immigrants from Latin America have health profiles equal to or better than Americans of European descent. Research on this epidemiological paradox suggests that aspects of Hispanic culture prevent negative health outcomes associated with poverty, poor education, and barriers to professional care. However, little attention has been given to the ethnomedical beliefs and practices of any Hispanic subgroup. Here I present an ethnographic study of women's popular medicine in a Mexican migrant community in Athens, Georgia. Migrant women promote healthy behaviors, diagnose sick family members, and prescribe home remedies. These practices stem from long traditions of self-medication and family care, which have experienced less disruption by the biomedical profession than have other North American popular medical systems. Examining Mexican popular medicine within the context of scientific literature suggests that these self-care practices protect health and should be considered by investigators of the "Hispanic health paradox." The study also suggests that directing more attention to self-care will be fruitful for medical anthropology. PMID:20391159

  11. Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts—Cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum

    PubMed Central

    Martin Salzmann-Erikson, R.N.; Henrik Eriksson, R.N.T.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others’ anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice. PMID:22053162

  12. Non-adherence to self-care practices & medication and health related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to lifestyle modification among diabetic patients develops the short-term risks and the long-term complications as well as declines the quality of life. This study aimed to find out the association between non-adherence to self-care practices, medication and health related quality of life (HR-QoL) among type 2 diabetic patients. Methods At least 1 year diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (N?=?500), age>25 years were conveniently selected from the Out-Patient Department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences Hospital. Patients’ self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using an analytical cross-sectional design. HRQoL was assessed by an adapted and validated Bangla version of the EQ-5D (EuroQol Group, 2009) questionnaire which has five domains- mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression and two levels on each dimension. EQ-5D responses were further translated into single summery EQ-5D index using UK TTO value set. Patients’ were considered as non-adhered to self-care practices according to the guidelines of Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association between non-adherence towards self-care practices and HRQoL. Results Among the study patients, 50.2% were females and mean ± SD age was 54.2 (±11.2) years. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: blood glucose monitoring (37%), diet (44.8%), foot care (43.2%), exercise (33.2%) and smoking (37.2%). About 50.4% patients had problem in mobility, 28.2% in self-care, 47.6% in usual activities, 72.8% in pain/discomfort and 73.6% in anxiety/depression. On chi-squared test, significant association was found between non adherence to foot care and problem with mobility, self-care and usual activities (p?self- care, usual activities, pain and anxiety (p?

  13. Relationship of a pelvic floor rehabilitation program for urinary incontinence to Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Francie

    2002-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is considered a significant social problem affecting many individuals' quality of life. Nursing theory is a set of concepts or propositions derived from philosophical beliefs about the phenomena of interest to the discipline. The ability to use theory to guide nursing practice brings reasoning and logic to professional nursing practice. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing gets to the heart of what nursing is and how continence nursing care can be offered and delivered as a broadly inclusive professional, rather than narrowly procedural, practice offering individual care targeting the self-care agent (client) rather than the medical diagnosis. PMID:12593228

  14. The Effect of Educating Health Promotion Strategies on Self-Care Self-Efficacy in Patients Undergoing Kidney Transplantation: A Double Blind Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soltannezhad, Fateme; Farsi, Zahra; Jabari Moroei, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-care self-efficacy in patients with end stage renal disease, waiting for kidney transplantation, probably decreases due to facing new conditions and side effects of treatment. Objectives: The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of educating health promotion strategies on self-care self-efficacy in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods: A double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 52 patients undergoing kidney transplantation in Baqiyatallah Hospital in 2012. Patients were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. The questionnaire of Strategies Used by People to Promote Health (SUPPH) was employed to measure self-care self-efficacy. At first, the two groups filled the questionnaire. Then, the intervention group was trained regarding health promotion strategies within 4 sessions before the transplantation. The control group was trained according to routine protocol of the transplantation unit. Then, the two groups were followed up for two months, and reassessed at the end of the first and second months after the transplantation. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics including independent samples T test, Chi square and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: In the intervention group, the mean of total self-care self-efficacy was 106.96 ± 25.1 at first, and changed to 135.81 ± 9.65 and 111.19 ± 12.45 after the first and second post-test respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, the mean of total self-care self-efficacy was 112.73 ± 14.33 at first, and changed to 118.58 ± 17.59 and 108.73 ± 15.93 after the first and second post-test respectively (P = 0.001). Significant differences were observed between the two groups in the first post-test regarding total score of self-care self-efficacy (P = 0.001) and dimensions of reduction of stress (P = 0.001), enjoying life (P = 0.01), and coping (P = 0.001). The mean scores of the intervention group were higher than those of the controls in all domains of self-care self-efficacy in the second post-test. However, the difference was only significant in decision-making dimension (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Educating health promotion strategies was effective in improving self-care self-efficacy in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Establishment of a holistic caring program is suggested to integrate the pre-transplantation educations with a continual post discharge follow-up. PMID:25414881

  15. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  16. Medical assistant coaching to support diabetes self-care among low-income racial/ethnic minority populations: Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Laurie; Riley, Barth B.; Hernandez, Rosalba; Quinn, Lauretta T.; Gerber, Ben S.; Castillo, Amparo; Day, Joseph; Ingram, Diana; Wang, Yamin; Butler, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Innovative, culturally tailored strategies are needed to extend diabetes education and support efforts in low-resourced primary care practices serving racial/ethnic minority groups. A randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a diabetes self-care coaching intervention delivered by medical assistants and the joint effect of intervention and ethnicity over time. The randomized repeated-measures design included 270 low-income African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes. The one-year clinic- and telephone-based medical assistant coaching intervention was culturally tailored and guided by theoretical frameworks. A1C was obtained, and a self-care measure was completed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models with and without adjustment for covariates. There was significant overall improvement in mean self-care scores across time, but no intervention effect. Results revealed differences in self-care patterns across racial/ethnic subgroups. No differences were found for A1C levels across time or group. PMID:24569698

  17. Influenza-Like Illness Self-Care Instructions Let your Dean and professors know that you have been instructed to go into self-isolation

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Influenza-Like Illness Self-Care Instructions Let your Dean and professors know that you have been instructed to go into self-isolation for an influenza-like illness. For more information on Flu, see: http to report a flu- like illness. Call the Flu-line (860/685-2653) Mon-Fri 9-4. · For urgent problems

  18. Breathing Words Slowly: Creative Writing and Counselor Self-Care--The Writing Workout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane; Morgan, Michael M.; Morris, Lay-Nah Blue; Morris, Tanaya Moon

    2010-01-01

    Professional counselors work daily with compassion and connection, yet must also manage trauma and pain. Clients' stories of loneliness, fear, abuse, and anger frequently fill the landscape of a counselor's work. Counselors may experience burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious trauma by failing to recognize and adequately address the negative…

  19. The context of empowerment and self-care within the field of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Scambler, Sasha; Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula

    2014-11-01

    There is a growing emphasis within the diabetes literature on the importance of empowerment as a way of encouraging people to take control of and responsibility for the successful management of their disease. Patients are actively encouraged to become active participants in their care, and there is an expectation that health-care professionals will facilitate this process. This article uses Bourdieu's concept of field, as a bounded social space in which actors conduct their lives day-to-day, to explore the context within which issues of empowerment are addressed and negotiated. The practice of empowerment within the biologically defined and biomedically 'policed' field of diabetes is explored using empirical data from a study of diabetes health-care professionals' understanding and practices around empowerment. It is concluded that rather than promoting active self-management and empowerment, the nature of the field of diabetes, and in particular its privileging of the biomedical, can mitigate against people with diabetes negotiating the field effectively and taking control of the disease and its management. PMID:24695383

  20. Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES) trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Back pain, one of the most prevalent conditions afflicting American adults, is the leading reason for using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Yoga is an increasingly popular "mind-body" CAM therapy often used for relieving back pain and several small studies have found yoga effective for this condition. This study will assess whether yoga is effective for treating chronic low back pain compared with self care and exercise and will explore the mechanisms responsible for any observed benefits. Methods/Design A total of 210 participants with low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Seattle. They will be randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive 12 weekly yoga classes, 12 weekly conventional therapeutic exercise classes of comparable physical exertion, or a self-care book. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group will assess outcomes at baseline and 6, 12 and 26 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes will be back-related dysfunction and symptom bothersomeness. In addition, data will be collected on physical measurements (e.g., flexion) at baseline and 12 weeks and saliva samples will be obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Information will be collected on specific physical, psychological, and physiological factors to allow exploration of possible mechanisms of action through which yoga could relieve back pain and dysfunction. The effectiveness of yoga will be assessed using analysis of covariance (using general estimating equations - GEE) within an intention-to-treat context. If yoga is found effective, further analyses will explore whether yoga's benefits are attributable to physical, psychological and/or physiological factors. Conclusions This study will provide the clearest evidence to date about the value of yoga as a therapeutic option for treating chronic back pain, and if the results are positive, will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study. Trial registration This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT00447668. PMID:20356395

  1. Living with joint hypermobility syndrome: patient experiences of diagnosis, referral and self-care

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Rohini H; Rimes, Katharine A; Clark, Carol J; Simmonds, Jane V; Horwood, Jeremy P

    2015-01-01

    Background. Musculoskeletal problems are common reasons for seeking primary health care. It has been suggested that many people with ‘everyday’ non-inflammatory musculoskeletal problems may have undiagnosed joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS), a complex multi-systemic condition. JHS is characterized by joint laxity, pain, fatigue and a wide range of other symptoms. Physiotherapy is usually the preferred treatment option for JHS, although diagnosis can be difficult. The lived experience of those with JHS requires investigation. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine patients’ lived experience of JHS, their views and experiences of JHS diagnosis and management. Methods. Focus groups in four locations in the UK were convened, involving 25 participants with a prior diagnosis of JHS. The focus groups were audio recorded, fully transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method to inductively derive a thematic account of the data. Results. Pain, fatigue, proprioception difficulties and repeated cycles of injury were among the most challenging features of living with JHS. Participants perceived a lack of awareness of JHS from health professionals and more widely in society and described how diagnosis and access to appropriate health-care services was often slow and convoluted. Education for patients and health professionals was considered to be essential. Conclusions. Timely diagnosis, raising awareness and access to health professionals who understand JHS may be particularly instrumental in helping to ameliorate symptoms and help patients to self-manage their condition. Physiotherapists and other health professionals should receive training to provide biopsychosocial support for people with this condition. PMID:25911504

  2. An iterative model was constructed which simulates one horse population over time and calculates the average yearly costs involved in management.

    E-print Network

    Powell, James

    Abstract An iterative model was constructed which simulates one horse population over time.S.government Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has actively managed wild horse populations in order to protect rangeland ecosystems.Using established range carry- ing capacities for each horse herd site (the appropriate management

  3. A Comparison of Face to Face and Video-Based Self Care Education on Quality of Life of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati Maslakpak, Masumeh; Shams, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease negatively affects the patients’ quality of life. There are different educational methods to help these patients. This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of self-care education in two methods, face to face and video educational, on the quality of life in patients under treatment by hemodialysis in education-medical centers in Urmia. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 120 hemodialysis patients were selected randomly; they were then randomly allocated to three groups: the control, face to face education and video education. For face to face group, education was given individually in two sessions of 35 to 45 minutes. For video educational group, CD was shown. Kidney Disease Quality Of Life- Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire was filled out before and two months after the intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS software by using one-way ANOVA. Results ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference in the quality of life scores among the three groups after the intervention (P=0.024). After the intervention, Tukey’s post-hoc test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of video and face to face education regarding the quality of life (P>0.05). Conclusion Implementation of the face to face and video education methods improves the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. So, it is suggested that video educational should be used along with face to face education. PMID:26171412

  4. Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial lymphoedema in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785

  5. Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785

  6. Living in a misty marsh: A qualitative study on the experiences of self-care suffering of patients with thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Pouraboli, Batool; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Kazemi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia major is the most common hereditary anemia in Iran. Thalassemia major patients require lifelong care and suffer much pain during self-care. Knowledge of the nature, meaning, and impact of suffering from the perspective of patients is needed to determine which interventions are helpful. This study was designed to understand the experience of suffering in patients with thalassemia. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted with content analysis method. In the present study, 21 patients with thalassemia were selected by purposive sampling. The research was performed at Kerman Samen Alhojaj Medical Center, Iran, in 2013. Data collection method was conducting unstructured interviews using open-ended questions and field notes. In addition, data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and conventional approach. Results: Data analysis resulted in the emergence of the four central categories of physical exhaustion, mental and spiritual restlessness, society's behaviors and beliefs, and surviving a hard life, which were the suffering themes of the patients. Conclusions: Results showed that thalassemia in the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects is very stressful for patients. Moreover, culture plays an important role in the patients’ experience of suffering. Results of this study can help nurses improve nursing care to alleviate suffering based on these experiences. PMID:25949257

  7. Attributing discrimination to weight: associations with well-being, self-care, and disease status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lindsey; Wallston, Kenneth; Trief, Paula; Ulbrecht, Jan; Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between attributing self-reported discrimination to weight and diabetes outcomes (glycemic control, diabetes-related distress, and diabetes self-care). A community dwelling sample of 185 adults (mean age 55.4; 80 % White/Caucasian 65 % female) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c level ?7.5 %) provided demographic and several self-report measures (including diabetes-related distress, diabetes self-care activities, discrimination, and attributions of discrimination), and had height, weight, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) assessed by trained research staff as part of a larger research study. Individuals who attributed self-reported discrimination to weight had significantly higher HbA1c levels, higher levels of diabetes-related distress, and worse diabetes-related self-care behaviors (general diet, exercise, and glucose testing). These relationships persisted even when controlling for BMI, overall discrimination, depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Results indicate that the perception of weight stigma among individuals with type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with a range of poor diabetes outcomes. Efforts to reduce exposure to and/or teach adaptive coping for weight stigma may benefit patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26133488

  8. Electronic Self-Report Assessment for Cancer and Self-Care Support: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Donna L.; Hong, Fangxin; Halpenny, Barbara; Partridge, Ann H.; Fann, Jesse R.; Wolpin, Seth; Lober, William B.; Bush, Nigel E.; Parvathaneni, Upendra; Back, Anthony L.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Ford, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a Web-based, self-report assessment and educational intervention on symptom distress during cancer therapy. Patients and Methods A total of 752 ambulatory adult participants were randomly assigned to symptom/quality-of-life (SxQOL) screening at four time points (control) versus screening, targeted education, communication coaching, and the opportunity to track/graph SxQOL over time (intervention). A summary of the participant-reported data was delivered to clinicians at each time point in both groups. All participants used the assessment before a new therapeutic regimen, at 3 to 6 weeks and 6 to 8 weeks later, completing the final assessment at the end of therapy. Change in Symptom Distress Scale–15 (SDS-15) score from pretreatment to end of study was compared using analysis of covariance and regression analysis adjusting for selected variables. Results We detected a significant difference between study groups in mean SDS-15 score change from baseline to end of study: 1.27 (standard deviation [SD], 6.7) in the control group (higher distress) versus ?0.04 (SD, 5.8) in the intervention group (lower distress). SDS-15 score was reduced by an estimated 1.21 (95% CI, 0.23 to 2.20; P = .02) in the intervention group. Baseline SDS-15 score (P < .001) and clinical service (P = .01) were predictive. Multivariable analyses suggested an interaction between age and study group (P = .06); in subset analysis, the benefit of intervention was strongest in those age > 50 years (P = .002). Conclusion Web-based self-care support and communication coaching added to SxQOL screening reduced symptom distress in a multicenter sample of participants with various diagnoses during and after active cancer treatment. Participants age > 50 years, in particular, may have benefited from the intervention. PMID:24344222

  9. Short-term improvement in oral self-care of adolescents with social-cognitive theory-guided intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall-Scullin, Emma P

    2015-12-01

    DesignCluster randomised controlled trial.InterventionClusters of adolescents (classrooms of 15- to 16-year-olds) in each school were allocated either into a control group or into an intervention group. The interventions consisted of peer cooperation (peer support) and peer interactive learning (observational learning) facilitated through feedback from a dentist (professional support). Three intervention sessions with preselected pairs of adolescents were delivered in the first three weeks. Gender, family socio-economic status (baseline) and different social-cognitive domain variables (baseline, six, and 12 months) were assessed using a questionnaire.Outcome measureDental plaque levels were the primary outcome measure and they were measured at baseline, after the intervention measured only in the social-cognitive theory-guided group, at six and 12 months.ResultsAt the six-month follow-up there was a statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 19.4) and the control group (35.1 ± 20.0). At the 12-month follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 18.5) and the control group (31.9 ± 17.8). Variations in dental plaque levels at different time periods were explained by the following predictors: family's socio-economic status, social-cognitive domain variables, group affiliation and baseline plaque levels.ConclusionsSocial-cognitive theory-guided interventions improved oral self-care of adolescents in the short term. This improvement lasted only for five months after the intervention was discontinued. PMID:26680519

  10. Breastfeeding - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Small amounts of caffeine will not hurt your baby. Limit your caffeine intake. Keep your coffee or tea at 1 cup per day. If you drink larger amounts of caffeine, your baby may get agitated and have trouble ...

  11. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  12. Self Care for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Trauma takes a toll on children, families, schools, and communities. Trauma can also take a toll on school professionals. Any educator who works directly with traumatized children and adolescents is vulnerable to the effects of trauma--referred to as "compassion fatigue" or "secondary traumatic stress"--being physically, mentally, or emotionally…

  13. Constipation - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... move your bowels. High-fiber foods help move waste through your body. Add foods with fiber to ... instead of white rice. Eat high-fiber cereals. Vegetables can also add fiber to your diet. Some ...

  14. Vaginitis - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of all ages. It can be caused by: Yeast , bacteria, viruses, and parasites Bubble baths, soaps, vaginal ... Creams or suppositories are used to treat yeast infections in the ... at drug stores, some grocery stores, and other stores. Treating ...

  15. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Tsagas, Christos G.

    2007-02-01

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of anisotropic pressure-free models. Adopting the Buchert scheme, we recast the averaged scalar equations in Bianchi-type form and close the standard system by introducing a propagation formula for the average shear magnitude. We then investigate the evolution of anisotropic average vacuum models and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. The presence of nonzero average shear in our equations also allows us to examine the constraints that a phase of backreaction-driven accelerated expansion might put on the anisotropy of the averaged domain. We close by assessing the status of these and other attempts to define and calculate 'average' spacetime behaviour in general relativity.

  16. Supporting Self-Care for Families of Children With Eczema With a Web-Based Intervention Plus Health Care Professional Support: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Ingrid; Yardley, Lucy; Burgess, Hana; Selinger, Hannah; Stuart, Beth L; Little, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood eczema, or childhood atopic dermatitis, causes significant distress to children and their families through sleep disturbance and itch. The main cause of treatment failure is nonuse of prescribed treatments. Objective The objective of this study was to develop and test a Web-based intervention to support families of children with eczema, and to explore whether support from a health care professional (HCP) is necessary to engage participants with the intervention. Methods We followed the PRECEDE-PROCEED model: regular emollient use was the target behavior we were seeking to promote and we identified potential techniques to influence this. LifeGuide software was used to write the intervention website. Carers of children with eczema were invited through primary care mail-out and randomized to 3 groups: (1) website only, (2) website plus HCP support, or (3) usual care. Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) scores were measured online by carer report at baseline and at 12 weeks. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 13 HCPs (primarily practice nurses) and 26 participants to explore their experiences of taking part in the study. Results A total of 143 carers were recruited through 31 practices. We found a decrease of ?2 in follow-up compared with baseline POEM score in 23 of 42 (55%) participants in the website only group, 16 of 49 (33%) in the usual care group, and 18 of 47 (38%) in the website plus HCP group. Website use data showed that 75 of 93 (81%) participants allocated to the website groups completed the core modules, but less than half used other key components (videos: 35%; regular text reminders: 39%). There were no consistent differences in website use between the website only or the website plus HCP groups. Qualitative feedback showed that most HCPs had initial concerns about providing support for eczema self-care because this was not a condition that they felt expert in. However, HCPs reported productive consultations and that they found it helpful to use the website in consultations, while observing that some participants seemed to need more support than others. Qualitative interviews with participants suggested that HCP support was valued highly only by a minority, generally those who were less confident in their management of eczema or less confident using the Internet. Conclusions Our pilot trial demonstrated the potential for greater improvements in POEM scores in both website intervention groups and that a full-scale trial is feasible. Such a trial would quantify the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this intervention to determine whether it should be widely promoted to families of children with newly diagnosed eczema. In this study population, HCP support was not strongly valued by participants and did not lead to better outcomes or website use than use of the Web-based intervention alone. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 98560867; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN98560867 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NcxvMtgN). PMID:24594972

  17. Factors Influencing the Use of a Web-Based Application for Supporting the Self-Care of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia EWC; Kelders, Saskia M; Brandenburg, Bart J; Seydel, Erwin R

    2011-01-01

    Background The take-up of eHealth applications in general is still rather low and user attrition is often high. Only limited information is available about the use of eHealth technologies among specific patient groups. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence the initial and long-term use of a Web-based application (DiabetesCoach) for supporting the self-care of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A mixed-methods research design was used for a process analysis of the actual usage of the Web application over a 2-year period and to identify user profiles. Research instruments included log files, interviews, usability tests, and a survey. Results The DiabetesCoach was predominantly used for interactive features like online monitoring, personal data, and patient–nurse email contact. It was the continuous, personal feedback that particularly appealed to the patients; they felt more closely monitored by their nurse and encouraged to play a more active role in self-managing their disease. Despite the positive outcomes, usage of the Web application was hindered by low enrollment and nonusage attrition. The main barrier to enrollment had to do with a lack of access to the Internet (146/226, 65%). Although 68% (34/50) of the enrollees were continuous users, of whom 32% (16/50) could be defined as hardcore users (highly active), the remaining 32% (16/50) did not continue using the Web application for the full duration of the study period. Barriers to long-term use were primarily due to poor user-friendliness of the Web application (the absence of “push” factors or reminders) and selection of the “wrong” users; the well-regulated patients were not the ones who could benefit the most from system use because of a ceiling effect. Patients with a greater need for care seemed to be more engaged in long-term use; highly active users were significantly more often medication users than low/inactive users (P = .005) and had a longer diabetes duration (P = .03). Conclusion Innovations in health care will diffuse more rapidly when technology is employed that is simple to use and has applicable components for interactivity. This would foresee the patients’ need for continuous and personalized feedback, in particular for patients with a greater need for care. From this study several factors appear to influence increased use of eHealth technologies: (1) avoiding selective enrollment, (2) making use of participatory design methods, and (3) developing push factors for persistence. Further research should focus on the causal relationship between using the system’s features and actual usage, as such a view would provide important evidence on how specific technology features can engage and captivate users. PMID:21959968

  18. Threaded average temperature thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the average temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.

  19. The patient work system: an analysis of self-care performance barriers among elderly heart failure patients and their informal caregivers.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Schubert, Christiane C; Mickelson, Robin S

    2015-03-01

    Human factors and ergonomics approaches have been successfully applied to study and improve the work performance of healthcare professionals. However, there has been relatively little work in "patient-engaged human factors," or the application of human factors to the health-related work of patients and other nonprofessionals. This study applied a foundational human factors tool, the systems model, to investigate the barriers to self-care performance among chronically ill elderly patients and their informal (family) caregivers. A Patient Work System model was developed to guide the collection and analysis of interviews, surveys, and observations of patients with heart failure (n = 30) and their informal caregivers (n = 14). Iterative analyses revealed the nature and prevalence of self-care barriers across components of the Patient Work System. Person-related barriers were common and stemmed from patients' biomedical conditions, limitations, knowledge deficits, preferences, and perceptions as well as the characteristics of informal caregivers and healthcare professionals. Task barriers were also highly prevalent and included task difficulty, timing, complexity, ambiguity, conflict, and undesirable consequences. Tool barriers were related to both availability and access of tools and technologies and their design, usability, and impact. Context barriers were found across three domains-physical-spatial, social-cultural, and organizational-and multiple "spaces" such as "at home," "on the go," and "in the community." Barriers often stemmed not from single factors but from the interaction of several work system components. Study findings suggest the need to further explore multiple actors, contexts, and interactions in the patient work system during research and intervention design, as well as the need to develop new models and measures for studying patient and family work. PMID:25479983

  20. Synchronous Boxcar Averager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    Digital electronic filtering system produces series of moving-average samples of fluctuating signal in manner resulting in removal of undesired periodic signal component of known frequency. Filter designed to pass steady or slowly varying components of fluctuating pressure, flow, pump speed, and pump torque in slurry-pumping system. Concept useful for monitoring or control in variety of applications including machinery, power supplies, and scientific instrumentation.

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-Care: Results from the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect…

  2. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  3. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  4. KinoHaptics: An Automated, Wearable, Haptic Assisted, Physio-therapeutic System for Post-surgery Rehabilitation and Self-care.

    PubMed

    Rajanna, Vijay; Vo, Patrick; Barth, Jerry; Mjelde, Matthew; Grey, Trevor; Oduola, Cassandra; Hammond, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    A carefully planned, structured, and supervised physiotherapy program, following a surgery, is crucial for the successful diagnosis of physical injuries. Nearly 50 % of the surgeries fail due to unsupervised, and erroneous physiotherapy. The demand for a physiotherapist for an extended period is expensive to afford, and sometimes inaccessible. Researchers have tried to leverage the advancements in wearable sensors and motion tracking by building affordable, automated, physio-therapeutic systems that direct a physiotherapy session by providing audio-visual feedback on patient's performance. There are many aspects of automated physiotherapy program which are yet to be addressed by the existing systems: a wide classification of patients' physiological conditions to be diagnosed, multiple demographics of the patients (blind, deaf, etc.), and the need to pursue patients to adopt the system for an extended period for self-care. In our research, we have tried to address these aspects by building a health behavior change support system called KinoHaptics, for post-surgery rehabilitation. KinoHaptics is an automated, wearable, haptic assisted, physio-therapeutic system that can be used by a wide variety of demographics and for various physiological conditions of the patients. The system provides rich and accurate vibro-haptic feedback that can be felt by the user, irrespective of the physiological limitations. KinoHaptics is built to ensure that no injuries are induced during the rehabilitation period. The persuasive nature of the system allows for personal goal-setting, progress tracking, and most importantly life-style compatibility. The system was evaluated under laboratory conditions, involving 14 users. Results show that KinoHaptics is highly convenient to use, and the vibro-haptic feedback is intuitive, accurate, and has shown to prevent accidental injuries. Also, results show that KinoHaptics is persuasive in nature as it supports behavior change and habit building. The successful acceptance of KinoHaptics, an automated, wearable, haptic assisted, physio-therapeutic system proves the need and future-scope of automated physio-therapeutic systems for self-care and behavior change. It also proves that such systems incorporated with vibro-haptic feedback encourage strong adherence to the physiotherapy program; can have profound impact on the physiotherapy experience resulting in higher acceptance rate. PMID:26660691

  5. High average-power induction linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.

    1989-03-15

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs.

  6. Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…

  7. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2002-01-01

    In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

  8. Social recovery and the move beyond deficit models of depression: a feminist analysis of mid-life women's self-care practices.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Simone; O'Brien, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    In Australia, like other advanced liberal democracies, the adoption of a recovery orientation was hailed as a major leap forward in mental health policy and service provision. We argue that this shift in thinking about the meaning of recovery requires further analysis of the gendered dimension of self-identity and relationships with the social world. In this article we focus on how mid-life women constructed meaning about recovery through their everyday practices of self-care within the gendered context of depression. Findings from our qualitative research with 31 mid-life women identified how the recovery process was complicated by relapses into depression, with many women critically questioning the limitations of biomedical treatment options for a more relational understanding of recovery. Participant stories revealed important tacit knowledge about recovery that emphasised the process of realising and recognising capacities and self-knowledge. We identify two central themes through which women's tacit knowledge of this changing relation to self in recovery is made explicit: the disciplined self of normalised recovery, redefining recovery and depression. The findings point to the need to reconsider how both recovery discourses and gendered expectations can complicate women's experiences of moving through depression. We argue for a different conceptualisation of recovery as a social practice through which women realise opportunities to embody different 'beings and doings'. A gendered understanding of what women themselves identify is important to their well-being, can contribute to more effective recovery oriented policies based on capability rather than deficit. PMID:25063967

  9. Blood Sugar and Brothers' Voices: An Exploratory Study Of The Self-Care Management Experiences of African-American Men Living With Type 2 Diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Sherman, Ledric D

    2013-07-23

    , principally in the family, where cultural standards are learned and transmitted intergenerationally. Social Support- Gottlieb (1981) suggests the following: ?(a) social support defined in terms of people?s level of social integration/participation; (b...

  10. Effectiveness of the Smart Care Service for Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-Soon; Lee, Chang Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Smart Care service for the diabetes management. Methods Fifty-six patients with diabetes mellitus were recruited in Daegu, Korea. All participants completed a diabetes management education course (diet, exercise, and complications) for their self-care and received access to a care management website through a netbook and smartphone. The website accepts uploads of glucose level, body weight, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and blood pressure. Participants communicated with the care manager through the internal management system of the website. The intervention was applied for 6 months. Results Participants receiving the Smart Care service had lower blood glucose and HbA1c during 6 months follow-up when 1-month values (p < 0.001) were compared. There was no significant difference in body weight and body mass index between 1 month and 6 months. The average number of remote consultation with the Smart Care service per person was 10.4 by nurses, 3.0 by nutritionists, and 1.6 by sports curers. Regression analysis indicated that the number of times counseling was offered by nurses influences body weight and that the number of minutes of telephone counseling influences both body weight and body mass index. Conclusions We have confirmed that the Smart Care service might be an effective system for reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c. We expect that the Smart Care service will contribute to delaying diabetes complications and improving the quality of life of patients with diabetes. PMID:25405065

  11. Parvalbumin Cell Ablation of NMDA-R1 Causes Increased Resting Network Excitability with Associated Social and Self-Care Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Billingslea, Eddie N; Tatard-Leitman, Valerie M; Anguiano, Jaynie; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Suh, Jimmy; Saunders, John A; Morita, Susumu; Featherstone, Robert E; Ortinski, Pavel I; Gandal, Michael J; Lin, Robert; Liang, Yuling; Gur, Raquel E; Carlson, Gregory C; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Siegel, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that net excitation propagated by impaired NMDAR signaling on GABAergic interneurons may be of particular interest in mediating several aspects of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which behavioral domains are governed by a net increase of excitation and whether modulating downstream GABAergic signaling can reverse neural and thus behavioral deficits. The current study determines the selective contributions of NMDAR dysfunction on PV-containing interneurons to electrophysiological, cognitive, and negative-symptom-related behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia using mice with a PVcre-NR1flox-driven ablation of NR1 on PV-containing interneurons. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of one agent that directly modulates GABAergic signaling (baclofen) and one agent that indirectly modifies NMDAR-mediated signaling through antagonism of mGluR5 receptors (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP)). The data indicate that loss of NMDAR function on PV interneurons impairs self-care and sociability while increasing N1 latency and baseline gamma power, and reducing induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation. Baclofen normalized baseline gamma power without corresponding effects on behavior. MPEP further increased N1 latency and reduced social behavior in PVcre/NR1+/+ mice. These two indices were negatively correlated before and following MPEP such that as N1 latency increases, sociability decreases. This finding suggests a predictive role for N1 latency with respect to social function. Although previous data suggest that MPEP may be beneficial for core features of autism spectrum disorders, current data suggest that such effects require intact function of NMDAR on PV interneurons. PMID:24525709

  12. Going mobile with diabetes support: a randomized study of a text message-based personalized behavioral intervention for type 2 diabetes self-care.

    PubMed

    Capozza, Korey; Woolsey, Sarah; Georgsson, Mattias; Black, Jeff; Bello, Nelly; Lence, Clare; Oostema, Steve; North, Christie

    2015-05-01

    Objective. Patients with type 2 diabetes often fail to achieve self-management goals. This study tested the impact on glycemic control of a two-way text messaging program that provided behavioral coaching, education, and testing reminders to enrolled individuals with type 2 diabetes in the context of a clinic-based quality improvement initiative. The secondary aim examined patient interaction and satisfaction with the program. Methods. Ninety-three adult patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (A1C >8%) were recruited from 18 primary care clinics in three counties for a 6-month study. Patients were randomized by a computer to one of two arms. Patients in both groups continued with their usual care; patients assigned to the intervention arm also received from one to seven diabetes-related text messages per day depending on the choices they made at enrollment. At 90 and 180 days, A1C data were obtained from the electronic health record and analyzed to determine changes from baseline for both groups. An exit survey was used to assess satisfaction. Enrollment behavior and interaction data were pulled from a Web-based administrative portal maintained by the technology vendor. Results. Patients used the program in a variety of ways. Twenty-nine percent of program users demonstrated frequent engagement (texting responses at least three times per week) for a period of ?90 days. Survey results indicate very high satisfaction with the program. Both groups' average A1C decreased from baseline, possibly reflecting a broader quality improvement effort underway in participating clinics. At 90 and 180 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of change in A1C (P >0.05). Conclusions. This study demonstrated a practical approach to implementing and monitoring a mobile health intervention for self-management support across a wide range of independent clinic practices. PMID:25987806

  13. Average Circuit Depth and Average Communication Complexity Bruno Codenotti \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Simon, Janos

    \\Gamma/14 2 n). Keywords: circuit complexity, parallel time, communication complexity, lower bounds \\LambdaAverage Circuit Depth and Average Communication Complexity Bruno Codenotti \\Lambda Istituto di and Widgerson [KW90] to derive strong lower bounds on the expected parallel time to compute boolean functions

  14. Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

  15. Prostatitis- bacterial - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flush bacteria from the bladder. It can also help prevent constipation. To reduce discomfort with bowel movements, you may also: Get some exercise every day. Start slowly and build up at least 30 minutes a day. Eat foods ...

  16. Kegel exercises - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... If you still are not sure you are tightening the right muscles: Imagine that you are trying to keep yourself from passing gas. Women: Insert a finger into your vagina. Tighten the muscles as if you are holding ...

  17. Rotator cuff - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... night can also help relieve some of your shoulder pain: When you sleep, lie either on the side ... shoulder joint Good range of motion of your shoulder blade and upper spine No pain during certain physical exam tests that are meant ...

  18. Premenstrual syndrome - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may help. During the second half of your cycle: Eat a balanced diet that includes lots of whole grains, vegetables, and fruit. Have little or no salt or sugar. Drink plenty of fluids like water or juice. Avoid soft drinks, alcohol, or anything ...

  19. Gestational diabetes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... control your blood sugar levels, you may need oral medicine (taken by mouth) or insulin therapy (shots). ... is doing well If you need insulin or oral medicine to control your blood sugar, you may need ...

  20. Anal itching - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods and beverages Scents or dyes in toilet paper or soap Diarrhea Hemorrhoids , which are swollen veins ... wipes, a wet washcloth, or wet unscented toilet paper. Avoid soaps with dyes or fragrances. Pat dry ...

  1. Menopause, a Self Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria Cristina; And Others

    Written for women from the three main cultural groups in New Mexico (Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo), this pamphlet discusses the causes and symptoms, some remedies for the symptoms of menopause, and presents ideas for organizing support groups to help middle-aged women and their families deal with menopausal problems. Explanations of the…

  2. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Furnaces that heat the air and remove moisture Hot, dry air in desert environments Air conditioners that cool the air and remove moisture Taking long, hot baths or showers frequently Washing your hands often ...

  3. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to make include: Installing furnace filters or other air filters Removing furniture and carpets from your floors Using a dehumidifier to dry the air in your house Changing where your pets sleep ...

  4. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  5. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  6. High average power pockels cell

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  7. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Averaging facial expression over time

    PubMed Central

    Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time. PMID:20053064

  9. Instability at long averaging times

    E-print Network

    Hensinger, Winfried

    measurement _ - investigation of magnitude and long-term variation of the stray-field induced quadrupole shift & long-time storage 760 nm repumping efficiency Extrapolation to zero light shift SpectroscopyInstability at long averaging times Variation of quadrupole shift and of compensation voltages

  10. Temperature-Averaging Thermal Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V.

    1984-01-01

    Temperature-averaging thermal probe measures long-term temperature fluctuations in fluid environment. Consists of temperature probe embedded inside thermally massive material. Probe measurements used to estimate powerplant heating and cooling loads, map temperature profiles, and calibrate more-sensitive temperature probes.

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT...

  13. Obesity in the kaiser permanente patient population and positive outcomes of online weight-management programs.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Keith H; Histon, Trina M; Remmers, Carol

    2007-01-01

    We review what is known about the effects of obesity in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) population and discuss outcomes for two nationally available effective online programs, HealthMedia Balance(®) (Balance) and 10,000 Steps(®). Obese KP patients often have health problems related to overweight and report difficulties with self-care, yet with the proper support, they can avail themselves of effective treatment to manage both obesity and associated conditions that affect quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of potential problems with functional status and self-care in their obese patients, provide brief assessment and advice, and refer obese patients to effective national and regional weight-management programs. PMID:21461090

  14. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-04-15

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  15. Average-Atom Thomson Scattering

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Walter R.

    -Atom Approximation W. R. Johnson, Notre Dame J. Nilsen & K. T. Cheng, LLNL The cross section for Thomson scattering Average-Atom Model Divide plasma into WS cells with a nucleus and Z electrons p2 2 - Z r + V a(r) = a a(r) V(r) = VKS(n(r), r) n(r) = nb(r) + nc(r) 4r2nb(r) = nl 2(2l+1) 1+exp[( nl -µ)/kBT] Pnl(r)2 Z = r

  16. Cosmological Measures with Volume Averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Don N.

    It has been common for cosmologists to advocate volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence may be a loss of the argument that eternal inflation gives a nonzero probability that our universe now has infinite volume.

  17. Topological quantization of ensemble averages

    E-print Network

    Emil Prodan

    2008-10-04

    We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well defined conditions, we connect its ensemble average to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes \\cite{Kellendonk:2004p597} to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic Schroedinger operators. The generalization given here may be a useful tool to scientists looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show that the differential conductance of atomic wires is given by the index of a certain operator. We also comment on how the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states.

  18. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND

    E-print Network

    385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

  19. Averaging along Uniform Random Integers

    E-print Network

    Janvresse, Élise

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by giving a meaning to "The probability that a random integer has initial digit d", we define a URI-set as a random set E of natural integers such that each n>0 belongs to E with probability 1/n, independently of other integers. This enables us to introduce two notions of densities on natural numbers: The URI-density, obtained by averaging along the elements of E, and the local URI-density, which we get by considering the k-th element of E and letting k go to infinity. We prove that the elements of E satisfy Benford's law, both in the sense of URI-density and in the sense of local URI-density. Moreover, if b_1 and b_2 are two multiplicatively independent integers, then the mantissae of a natural number in base b_1 and in base b_2 are independent. Connections of URI-density and local URI-density with other well-known notions of densities are established: Both are stronger than the natural density, and URI-density is equivalent to log-density. We also give a stochastic interpretation, in terms of URI-...

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet... that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are there fleet average... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet... that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are there fleet average... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet... that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  3. Foot care education and self management behaviors in diverse veterans with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jonathan M; Hogan, Molly T; Pogach, Leonard M; Rajan, Mangala; Raugi, Gregory J; Reiber, Gayle E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in self-reported diabetes foot care education, self management behaviors, and barriers to good foot care among veterans with diabetes by race and ethnicity. Data was collected using the Veterans Health Administration Footcare Survey, a validated tool that assessed demographic, general health, diabetes and foot self-care information, barriers to foot self-care, receipt of professional foot care, and satisfaction with current care. We mailed surveys to a random sample of patients with diabetes from eight VA medical centers. Study participants were 81% White; 13% African American; 4% Asian, and 2% American Indian and Pacific Islanders. The majority of respondents felt that they did not know enough about foot self-care. There were large gaps between self-reported knowledge and actual foot care practices, even among those who reported "knowing enough" on a given topic. There were significant differences in self-reported foot care behaviors and education by race and ethnicity. These findings document the need for culturally-specific self-management education to address unique cultural preferences and barriers to care. PMID:19936144

  4. Integrating an Automated Diabetes Management System Into the Family Management of Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Toscos, Tammy R.; Ponder, Stephen W.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Davidson, Mayer B.; Lee, Martin L.; Montemayor-Gonzalez, Elaine; Reyes, Patricia; Link, Eric; McMahon, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The study objective was to evaluate how the use of a pervasive blood glucose monitoring (BGM) technology relates to glycemic control, report of self-care behavior, and emotional response to BGM of children with type 1 diabetes and their parents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty-eight children aged less than 12 years (mean 8.8 years) with type 1 diabetes were randomly assigned to one of two study groups, a control group (conventional care without technology) or an experimental group (conventional care with technology), and followed for 12 months. Families in the experimental group were given the Automated Diabetes Management System (ADMS), which automatically collects blood glucose (BG) values and sends to parent(s) a 21-day BG trending report via e-mail each night. Measures of glycemic control (HbA1c) were collected at baseline and at quarterly diabetes clinic visits; BGM effect and diabetes self-care behavior measures were obtained at the baseline, 6-month, and 12-month visits. RESULTS Children in the experimental group had significantly (P = 0.01) lower HbA1c at 12 months (7.44 ± 0.94, ?0.35 from baseline) than controls (8.31 ± 1.24, +0.15 from baseline). Improvement in HbA1c was more profound in families using the ADMS more frequently. In addition, in these families, parents showed a significant improvement in BGM effect (P = 0.03) and children became more meticulous in diabetes self-care (P = 0.04). Children in both experimental and control groups experienced no change in their emotional response to BGM. CONCLUSIONS Using the ADMS 1–3 times/week may help children with type 1 diabetes improve glycemic control and gain diabetes self-management skills, as well as improve the BGM effect of parents. PMID:22301127

  5. Impact of an education program on patient anxiety, depression, glycemic control, and adherence to self-care and medication in Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al Dawish, Mohamed A.; Zamzami, Marwan M.; Sam, Asirvatham E.; Alzaid, Aus A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) requires continuous medical care, patients’ self-management, education, and adherence to prescribed medication to reduce the risk of long-term complications. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits of an education program on diabetes, patient self-management, adherence to medication, anxiety, depression and glycemic control in type 2 diabetics in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study, conducted among 104 diabetic patients at a major tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between May 2011 and October 2012. Education materials given to diabetic patients included pamphlets/handouts written in Arabic, the national language. Special videotapes about DM were made and distributed to all participants. In addition, specific educational programs through the diabetes educators and one-on-one counseling sessions with the doctor were also arranged. Patients were interviewed using a structured interview schedule both during the baseline, and after 6 months of the program. The interview schedule included, socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, diabetes self-management, adherence to medication, anxiety, and depression. Glycemic control was considered poor, if hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was ? 7%. Results: The mean age of the study population was 57.3 ± 14.4 years. Seventy one were males (68.3%) and 33 (31.7%) were females. After six months of the diabetes education program, there were significant improvements in patients’ dietary plan (P = 0.0001), physical exercise (P = 0.0001), self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) (P = 0.0001), HbA1c (P = 0.04), adherence to medication (P = 0.007), and depression (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Implementation of education programs on diabetes among type 2 diabetic patients is associated with better outcomes such as their dietary plan, physical exercise, SMBG, adherence to medication, HbA1c and depression. PMID:23983558

  6. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…

  7. Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a disease with high prevalence and significant impact in terms of mortality and morbidity. The increased prevalence of the disease requires the implementation of new strategies to promote patient self-management. The Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP) has proven to be effective in other settings. The objective of this study is to assess its effectiveness in terms of care for DM2 patients in primary care settings within the Basque Health Service – Osakidetza (Spain). Method/Design This is a randomised clinical trial in which patients diagnosed with DM2, 18–79 years of age, from four health regions within the Basque Health Service will be randomised into two groups: an intervention group, who will follow the SDSMP, and a control group, who will receive usual care in accordance with the clinical guidelines for DM2 and existing regulations in our region. The intervention consists of 2,5 hour-group sessions once a week for six weeks. The sessions cover target setting and problem solving techniques, promotion of physical exercise, basic knowledge of nutrition, proper use of medication, effective communication with relatives and health professionals, and basic knowledge about DM2 and its complications. This content is complemented by educational material: books, leaflets and CDs. The primary outcome measure will be the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and secondary outcome measures will include changes in levels of physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables, cardiovascular risk, quality of life, self-efficacy, number of consultations and drug prescriptions. The results will be analysed 6, 12 and 24 months after the intervention. Discussion If the intervention were to be effective, the programme should be spread to the entire diabetic population in the Basque Country and it could also be applied for other diseases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01642394 PMID:23718222

  8. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  9. RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

    2009-05-04

    RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

  10. Averaging in LRS class II spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar

    2015-02-01

    We generalize Buchert's averaged equations (Gen Relativ Gravit 32; 105, 2000; Gen Relativ Gravit 33; 1381, 2001) to LRS class II dust model in the sense that all Einstein equations are averaged, not only the trace part. We derive the relevant averaged equations and we investigate backreaction on expansion and shear scalars in an approximate LTB model. Finally we propose a way to close the system of averaged equations.

  11. Average Time Complexity Classes Jinyi Cai \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Average Time Complexity Classes Jin­yi Cai \\Lambda Alan Selman y Department of Computer Science's theory of average polynomial time to arbitrary time bounds and prove that average time complexity classes form as fine a hierarchy as do deterministic time complexity classes. Keywords: computational

  12. Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

  13. 40 CFR 91.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Averaging. 91.204 Section 91.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.204 Averaging. (a) Negative credits from engine...

  14. AVERAGING PRINCIPLE FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH HYSTERESIS

    E-print Network

    Schellekens, Michel P.

    AVERAGING PRINCIPLE FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH HYSTERESIS A. POKROVSKII O.RASSKAZOV A. VLADIMIROV Abstract. The goal of this paper is to extend the averaging technique to new classes of hysteresis on the systems with the classical Preisach nonlinearity. Key words: Averaging technique, Hysteresis, Sweeping

  15. Averaging for Solitons with Nonlinearity Management D. E. Pelinovsky,1

    E-print Network

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    the dispersion man- agement (DM) scheme in fiber optics, which is based on periodic alternation of fibers of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-4515, USA 3 Department are appropriate mathematical models for various nonlinear phenomena in fluid mechanics, optics, plasmas

  16. Effect of standard versus patient-targeted in-patient education on patients' anxiety about self-care after discharge from cardiovascular surgery clinics.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Tülin; Gürkan, Selami; Gür, Özcan; Ünsal, Cüneyt; Gökta?, Sonay Baltac?; Özen, Yücel

    2014-01-01

    We compared standard and patient-targeted in-patient education in terms of their effect on patients' anxiety. One hundred and ninety-eight patients who were hospitalised for coronary artery bypass surgery were given standard education (group 1) or individualised education (group 2) on the management of their healthcare after discharge. Patients in group 2 were assessed on the patient learning needs scale and were given education according to their individual needs. The level of anxiety was measured by the state-trait anxiety inventory. Anxiety scores were significantly lower in group 2 than group 1 after education (p < 0.001). While state anxiety did not change after education in group 1 (p = 0272), it decreased significantly in group 2 (p < 0.001). For cardiovascular surgery patients, patient-targeted in-patient education was more effective than standard education in decreasing anxiety levels, therefore the content of the education should be individualised according to the patient's particular needs. PMID:25363789

  17. A pilot study of a chiropractic intervention for management of chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder

    PubMed Central

    DeVocht, James W.; Goertz, Christine M.; Hondras, Maria A.; Long, Cynthia R.; Schaeffer, Wally; Thomann, Lauren; Spector, Michael; Stanford, Clark M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular pain has multiple etiologies and a range of therapeutic options. In this pilot study, the authors assessed the feasibility of conducting a larger trial to evaluate chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Methods The authors assigned 80 participants randomly into one of the following four groups, all of which included a comprehensive self-care program: reversible interocclusal splint therapy (RIST), Activator Method Chiropractic Technique (AMCT) (Activator Methods International, Phoenix), sham AMCT and self-care only. They made assessments at baseline and at month 2 and month 6, including use of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Results The authors screened 721 potential participants and enrolled 80 people; 52 participants completed the six-month assessment. The adjusted mean change in current pain over six months, as assessed on the 11-point numerical rating scale, was 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1-3.0) for RIST, 1.7 (0.9-2.5) for self-care only, 1.5 (0.7-2.4) for AMCT and 1.6 (0.7-2.5) for sham AMCT. The authors also assessed bothersomeness and functionality. Conclusions The authors found the study design and methodology to be manageable. They gained substantial knowledge to aid in conducting a larger study. AMCT, RIST and self-care should be evaluated in a future comparative effectiveness study. Practical Implications. This pilot study was a necessary step to prepare for a larger study that will provide clinicians with information that should be helpful when discussing treatment options for patients with TMD. PMID:24080932

  18. Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

  20. Average-cost based robust structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

  1. PDINFORMATIK On the Average Running Time of

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    o PDINFORMATIK On the Average Running Time of Odd-Even Merge Sort Christine Rüb MPI-I-95 & Dokumentation Im Stadtwald 66123 Saarbrücken Germany #12;On the Average Rllnning Time of Odd-Even Merge Sort Christine Rüb MPI-I-95-1-010 April 1995 #12;On the Average Running Time of Odd-Even Merge Sort Christine Rüb

  2. Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

    1990-01-01

    A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

  3. Spectral and parametric averaging for integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Serota, R. A.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos, spectral averaging (SA) and parametric averaging (PA). For SA, we introduce a new procedure, namely, rescaled spectral averaging (RSA). Unlike traditional SA, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase (CFSS) and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance (IV). PA while not as accurate as RSA for the CFSS and IV, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance (GV) and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

  4. Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Scott

    Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken.S.A. Abstract A new impact ionization model is developed using both the average energy and the average square, the impact ionization (I.I.) coefficient, ff, i.e., the number of ionization events per unit length along

  5. Diabetes Nurse Case Management and Motivational Interviewing for Change (DYNAMIC): Study Design and Baseline Characteristics in the Chronic Care Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Heather L.; Dellasega, Cheryl; Graber, Nora J.; Mauger, David T.; Lendel, Irina; Gabbay, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that diabetes is costly and devastating, the health care system is poorly equipped to meet the challenges of chronic disease care. The Penn State Institute of Diabetes & Obesity is evaluating a model of managing Type 2 DM which includes nurse case management (NCM) and motivational interviewing (MI) to foster behavior change. The primary care intervention is designed to improve patients' self care and to reduce clinical inertia through provider use of standardized clinical guidelines to achieve better diabetes outcomes. Methods This RCT tests the efficacy of an enhanced NCM intervention on Type 2 DM (n=549) patient outcomes mediated by changes in self-care behavior and diabetes management. Outcome measures include: (a) effect on clinical parameters such as HbA1c (<7), BP (<130/80), and LDL (<100), depression scores and weight; (b) process measures such as complication screening; (c) patient psychological and behavioral outcomes as measured by emotional distress (PAID), diabetes-specific quality of life (ADDQoL), patient satisfaction (DTSQ), self-care activities (SDSCA); and (d) physician satisfaction and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Conclusions Baseline includes (mean) age = 58; BMI = 34.4; 57% females; 47% Caucasian, and 39% Hispanic. Patients had elevated HbA1c (8.4), BP (137/77) and LDL (114). Overall, patients were depressed (CES-D = 21.6) and had an extremely negative quality of life (ADDQoL = -1.58). We believe that enhanced NCM will both improve self-care and reduce emotional distress for patients with diabetes. If proven effective, enhanced NCM may be translated to other chronic illnesses. PMID:19328244

  6. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…

  7. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General provisions. In lieu of complying with the...

  9. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General provisions. In lieu of complying with the...

  10. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-print Network

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number of model cases....

  11. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  12. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  13. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General provisions. In lieu of complying with the...

  14. Last updated: October 2015 CALCULATE MY AVERAGE

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    . 2. 3. AVERAGE (sum of five marks ÷ 5) MANITOBA CALCULATING AN ADMISSION AVERAGE ONE MATHEMATICS Applied Mathematics 40S Pre-Calculus Mathematics 40S Introduction to Calculus 45S ONE ENGLISH ELA Applied Mathematics 40S OR Pre-Calculus Mathematics 40S Applicants may be admitted with one subject

  15. The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Umeh, Obinna; Larena, Julien; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: julien.larena@gmail.com

    2011-03-01

    The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H{sub 0}, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? 102-34.60 Section 102-34...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.60 How do we...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? 102-34.60 Section 102-34...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.60 How do we...

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? 102-34.60 Section 102-34...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.60 How do we...

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? 102-34.60 Section 102-34...MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.60 How do we...

  20. Light propagation in the averaged universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Samae; Schwarz, Dominik J. E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2014-10-01

    Cosmic structures determine how light propagates through the Universe and consequently must be taken into account in the interpretation of observations. In the standard cosmological model at the largest scales, such structures are either ignored or treated as small perturbations to an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. This isotropic and homogeneous model is commonly assumed to emerge from some averaging process at the largest scales. We assume that there exists an averaging procedure that preserves the causal structure of space-time. Based on that assumption, we study the effects of averaging the geometry of space-time and derive an averaged version of the null geodesic equation of motion. For the averaged geometry we then assume a flat Friedmann-Lemaître (FL) model and find that light propagation in this averaged FL model is not given by null geodesics of that model, but rather by a modified light propagation equation that contains an effective Hubble expansion rate, which differs from the Hubble rate of the averaged space-time.

  1. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for the donor site: Leave the dressing in place. Keep it clean and dry. Your doctor will remove the dressing ... dry the area around your wound with a clean towel. Let the wound air ... the healing process, you won't need a dressing anymore. Your ...

  2. Type 2 diabetes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ... Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011;chap ...

  3. Urinary incontinence products - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have problems with urinary incontinence (leakage), wearing special products will keep you dry and help you avoid ... you can buy many types of urinary incontinence products. These products help keep your skin dry and ...

  4. Neck pain or spasms - self care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ice bag in place. Have a partner gently massage the sore or painful areas. Try sleeping on ... As part of physical therapy, you may receive massage and stretching exercises along with exercises to strengthen ...

  5. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bedtime snack to prevent low blood sugar overnight. Protein snacks may be best. Do not drink alcohol without eating food. If you do drink, have only 1 or 2 drinks at the most. Family and friends should know how to help. They ...

  6. Colic and crying - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are not alone. About 1 in 5 babies cry enough that people call them colicky. Colic usually starts when a babies are about 3 weeks old. It gets worse when they are between 4 to 6 weeks old. Most of the time, ...

  7. Generalized anxiety disorder - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Simon NM. The pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. ... disorders: panic, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. ...

  8. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  9. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  10. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  11. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  12. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  13. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  14. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  15. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  16. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  17. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  18. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  19. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  20. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

    E-print Network

    Don N. Page

    2014-10-22

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  1. Applications of high average power nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-02-05

    Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.

  2. Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1995-01-01

    The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  3. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second, a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the circular unitary ensemble (CUE) average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like 1/\\sqrt{N} as the dimension N of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as N\\to ? such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order 1/{{N}2}) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE-type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  4. Instrument to average 100 data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction burn rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-averaging instrument has been produced which will generate the average curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the average curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-averaging instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for averaging as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to average any cyclically varying waveform.

  5. When Is the Local Average Treatment Close to the Average? Evidence from Fertility and Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenstein, Avraham

    2009-01-01

    The local average treatment effect (LATE) may differ from the average treatment effect (ATE) when those influenced by the instrument are not representative of the overall population. Heterogeneity in treatment effects may imply that parameter estimates from 2SLS are uninformative regarding the average treatment effect, motivating a search for…

  6. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in heart failure patients and caregivers: rationale and protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R S; Hayward, C; Eyre, V; Austin, J; Davies, R; Doherty, P; Jolly, K; Wingham, J; Van Lingen, R; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, FC; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Dalal, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a health professional facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and health-related quality of life in people with heart failure and their caregivers. The trial will assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with systolic heart failure and impact on the outcomes of their caregivers. Methods and analysis A parallel two group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention group) or usual care alone (control group) in 216 patients with systolic heart failure (ejection fraction <45%) and their caregivers. The intervention comprises a self-help manual delivered by specially trained facilitators over a 12-week period. The primary outcome measure is patients’ disease-specific health-related quality of life measured using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire at 12?months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes include survival and heart failure related hospitalisation, blood biomarkers, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity, other measures of quality of life, patient safety and the quality of life, psychological well-being and perceived burden of caregivers at 4, 6 and 12?months’ follow-up. A process evaluation will assess fidelity of intervention delivery and explore potential mediators and moderators of changes in health-related quality of life in intervention and control group patients. Qualitative studies will describe patient and caregiver experiences of the intervention. An economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care versus usual care alone in patients with systolic heart failure. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the North West—Lancaster Research Ethics Committee (ref 14/NW/1351). Findings will be disseminated via journals and presentations to publicise the research to clinicians, commissioners and service users. Trial registration number ISRCTN86234930; Pre-results. PMID:26700291

  7. 40 CFR 62.15210 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging...15210 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging...section 4.1, to calculate the daily arithmetic average for concentrations of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1755 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging...1755 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging...section 4.1, to calculate the daily arithmetic average for concentrations of...

  9. Bayesian model averaging for harmful algal bloom prediction.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Grant; McVinish, Ross; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2009-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a worldwide problem that have been increasing in frequency and extent over the past several decades. HABs severely damage aquatic ecosystems by destroying benthic habitat, reducing invertebrate and fish populations, and affecting larger species such as dugong that rely on seagrasses for food. Few statistical models for predicting HAB occurrences have been developed, and in common with most predictive models in ecology, those that have been developed do not fully account for uncertainties in parameters and model structure. This makes management decisions based on these predictions more risky than might be supposed. We used a probit time series model and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to predict occurrences of blooms of Lyngbya majuscula, a toxic cyanophyte, in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia. We found a suite of useful predictors for HAB occurrence, with temperature figuring prominently in models with the majority of posterior support, and a model consisting of the single covariate, average monthly minimum temperature, showed by far the greatest posterior support. A comparison of alternative model averaging strategies was made with one strategy using the full posterior distribution and a simpler approach that utilized the majority of the posterior distribution for predictions but with vastly fewer models. Both BMA approaches showed excellent predictive performance with little difference in their predictive capacity. Applications of BMA are still rare in ecology, particularly in management settings. This study demonstrates the power of BMA as an important management tool that is capable of high predictive performance while fully accounting for both parameter and model uncertainty. PMID:19831071

  10. Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, Valentin

    2010-04-01

    Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained allow one to readily predict the redshift above which the direction-averaged fluctuation in the Hubble diagram falls below a required precision and suggest a method to extract the background Hubble constant from low redshift data without the need to correct for peculiar velocities.

  11. Explicit cosmological coarse graining via spatial averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    The present matter density of the Universe, while highly inhomogeneous on small scales, displays approximate homogeneity on large scales. We propose that whereas it is justified to use the Friedmann Lemaître Robertson Walker (FLRW) line element (which describes an exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe) as a template to construct luminosity distances in order to compare observations with theory, the evolution of the scale factor in such a construction must be governed not by the standard Einstein equations for the FLRW metric, but by the modified Friedmann equations derived by Buchert (Gen Relat Gravit 32:105, 2000; 33:1381, 2001) in the context of spatial averaging in Cosmology. Furthermore, we argue that this scale factor, defined in the spatially averaged cosmology, will correspond to the effective FLRW metric provided the size of the averaging domain coincides with the scale at which cosmological homogeneity arises. This allows us, in principle, to compare predictions of a spatially averaged cosmology with observations, in the standard manner, for instance by computing the luminosity distance versus red-shift relation. The predictions of the spatially averaged cosmology would in general differ from standard FLRW cosmology, because the scale-factor now obeys the modified FLRW equations. This could help determine, by comparing with observations, whether or not cosmological inhomogeneities are an alternative explanation for the observed cosmic acceleration.

  12. Volume averaging in the quasispherical Szekeres model

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Bolejko

    2008-11-22

    This paper considers the volume averaging in the quasispherical Szekeres model. The volume averaging became of considerable interest after it was shown that the volume acceleration calculated within the averaging framework can be positive even though the local expansion rate is always decelerating. This issue was intensively studied within spherically symmetric models. However, since our Universe is not spherically symmetric similar analysis is needed in non symmetrical models. This papers presents the averaging analysis within the quasispherical Szekeres model which is a non-symmetrical generalisation of the spherically symmetric Lema\\^itre--Tolman family of models. Density distribution in the quasispherical Szekeres has a structure of a time-dependent mass dipole superposed on a monopole. This paper shows that when calculating the volume acceleration, $\\ddot{a}$, within the Szekeres model, the dipole does not contribute to the final result, hence $\\ddot{a}$ only depends on a monopole configuration. Thus, the volume averaging within the Szekeres model leads to literally the same solutions as obtained within the Lema\\^itre--Tolman model.

  13. Exploiting scale dependence in cosmological averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Teppo; Ronkainen, Maria

    2008-02-01

    We study the role of scale dependence in the Buchert averaging method, using the flat Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model as a testing ground. Within this model, a single averaging scale gives predictions that are too coarse, but by replacing it with the distance of the objects R(z) for each redshift z, we find an {\\mathcal {O}}(1%) precision at z<2 in the averaged luminosity and angular diameter distances compared to their exact expressions. At low redshifts, we show the improvement for generic inhomogeneity profiles, and our numerical computations further verify it up to redshifts z~2. At higher redshifts, the method breaks down due to its inability to capture the time evolution of the inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that the running smoothing scale R(z) can mimic acceleration, suggesting that it could be at least as important as the backreaction in explaining dark energy as an inhomogeneity induced illusion.

  14. Asynchronous Gossip for Averaging and Spectral Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkar, Vivek S.; Makhijani, Rahul; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2014-08-01

    We consider two variants of the classical gossip algorithm. The first variant is a version of asynchronous stochastic approximation. We highlight a fundamental difficulty associated with the classical asynchronous gossip scheme, viz., that it may not converge to a desired average, and suggest an alternative scheme based on reinforcement learning that has guaranteed convergence to the desired average. We then discuss a potential application to a wireless network setting with simultaneous link activation constraints. The second variant is a gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of a nonnegative matrix. While the first variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for an average cost controlled Markov decision problem, the second variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for risk-sensitive control. We then discuss potential applications of the second variant to ranking schemes, reputation networks, and principal component analysis.

  15. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  16. Exploiting scale dependence in cosmological averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Teppo; Ronkainen, Maria E-mail: maria.ronkainen@helsinki.fi

    2008-02-15

    We study the role of scale dependence in the Buchert averaging method, using the flat Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model as a testing ground. Within this model, a single averaging scale gives predictions that are too coarse, but by replacing it with the distance of the objects R(z) for each redshift z, we find an O(1%) precision at z<2 in the averaged luminosity and angular diameter distances compared to their exact expressions. At low redshifts, we show the improvement for generic inhomogeneity profiles, and our numerical computations further verify it up to redshifts z{approx}2. At higher redshifts, the method breaks down due to its inability to capture the time evolution of the inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that the running smoothing scale R(z) can mimic acceleration, suggesting that it could be at least as important as the backreaction in explaining dark energy as an inhomogeneity induced illusion.

  17. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  18. The modulated average structure of mullite.

    PubMed

    Birkenstock, Johannes; Pet?í?ek, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82?(3))Si(1.18?(1))O(9.59?(5))) and by average structure refinements. 8?(5) to 20?(13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137?(2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021?(5) 0.1834?(2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009?(5) -0.1834?(2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real structure of mullite is locally ordered (as previously known), but on the long-range its average is not completely disordered, the modulated structure of mullite may be denoted the true 'average structure of mullite'. PMID:26027012

  19. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.

    PubMed

    Cade, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t statistics on unstandardized estimates also can be used to provide more informative measures of relative importance than sums of AIC weights. Finally, I illustrate how seriously compromised statistical interpretations and predictions can be for all three of these flawed practices by critiquing their use in a recent species distribution modeling technique developed for predicting Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) distribution in Colorado, USA. These model averaging issues are common in other ecological literature and ought to be discontinued if we are to make effective scientific contributions to ecological knowledge and conservation of natural resources. PMID:26594695

  20. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-print Network

    Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

  1. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  2. Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

  3. World average top-quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

  4. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  5. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63.846 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

  6. Higher Order Birkho# Averages Thomas Jordan

    E-print Network

    Young, Todd

    Higher Order Birkho# Averages Thomas Jordan Department of Mathematics University of Bristol Bristol, UK thomas.jordan@bristol.ac.uk Vincent Naudot Department of Mathematics Florida Atlantic University 777 Glades Road Boca Raton, FL, USA vnaudot@fau.edu Todd Young # Department of Mathematics Ohio

  7. Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Alan

    1997-01-01

    During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

  8. Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Neil S.

    1988-01-01

    Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.

  9. Averaging theory for discontinuous piecewise differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llibre, Jaume; Mereu, Ana C.; Novaes, Douglas D.

    2015-06-01

    We develop the averaging theory of first and second order for studying the periodic solutions of discontinuous piecewise differential systems in arbitrary dimension and with an arbitrary number of systems with the minimal conditions of differentiability. We also provide two applications.

  10. Probabilistic Weather Forecasting via Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-print Network

    Mass, Clifford F.

    Probabilistic Weather Forecasting via Bayesian Model Averaging Adrian E. Raftery University of Washington May 27, 2009 #12;Basic Idea #12;Basic Idea Forecast ensembles: #12;Basic Idea Forecast ensembles: The dominant approach to probabilistic forecasting #12;Basic Idea Forecast ensembles: The dominant approach

  11. Averaging on Earth-Crossing Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronchi, G. F.; Milani, A.

    The orbits of planet-crossing asteroids (and comets) can undergo close approaches and collisions with some major planet. This introduces a singularity in the N-body Hamiltonian, and the averaging of the equations of motion, traditionally used to compute secular perturbations, is undefined. We show that it is possible to define in a rigorous way some generalised averaged equations of motion, in such a way that the generalised solutions are unique and piecewise smooth. This is obtained, both in the planar and in the three-dimensional case, by means of the method of extraction of the singularities by Kantorovich. The modified distance used to approximate the singularity is the one used by Wetherill in his method to compute probability of collision. Some examples of averaged dynamics have been computed; a systematic exploration of the averaged phase space to locate the secular resonances should be the next step. `Alice sighed wearily. ``I think you might do something better with the time'' she said, ``than waste it asking riddles with no answers'' (Alice in Wonderland, L. Carroll)

  12. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  13. Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

  14. Management of Chronic Hypertension in Older Men: An Exploration of Patient Goal-Setting

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Vanessa A; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Naik, Aanand D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the success of the collaborative care approach on chronic disease outcomes; many patients fail to adopt the behaviors necessary to manage their disease. Goal-setting is an approach to collaborative chronic care that involves the setting of goals for the activation and maintenance of specific self-care behaviors. Using patients' perspectives this study will describe how goals for the self-management of hypertension are developed and whether they conform to the characteristics of effective goal setting. Methods Qualitative methodology was used to explore the process of setting self-management goals for hypertensive patients. Thirty patients participated in semi-structured interviews based on the deductive framework of goal setting. Results Patients understand the risks associated with hypertension, have intentions to control their disease, report conducting at least one self-care task, and set informal goals for themselves; however these goals lack the characteristics needed to initiate and maintain behavior change. Conclusion goal setting is applicable to chronic hypertension care. Future studies need to examine ways to minimize barriers to effective goal setting to improve hypertension control. Practice implications as part of the process of chronic hypertension care, health care providers should include time and support for dedicated goal setting to improve the effectiveness of self-management behaviors. PMID:17890042

  15. Pleasing the Masses: Messages for Daily Life Management in African American Women's Popular Media Sources

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the “strong Black woman” (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Methods. Using the search term “strong Black woman,” we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Results. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management (“please the masses”), emotional suppression (“game face”), and postponement of self-care (“last on the list”) incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Conclusions. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources. PMID:21088274

  16. Orbit Averaging in Perturbed Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2015-11-01

    The orbital period is typically much shorter than the time scale for dynamical evolution of large-scale structures in planetary rings. This large separation in time scales motivates the derivation of reduced models by averaging the equations of motion over the local orbit period (Borderies et al. 1985, Shu et al. 1985). A more systematic procedure for carrying out the orbit averaging is to use Lie transform perturbation theory to remove the dependence on the fast angle variable from the problem order-by-order in epsilon, where the small parameter epsilon is proportional to the fractional radial distance from exact resonance. This powerful technique has been developed and refined over the past thirty years in the context of gyrokinetic theory in plasma physics (Brizard and Hahm, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 2007). When the Lie transform method is applied to resonantly forced rings near a mean motion resonance with a satellite, the resulting orbit-averaged equations contain the nonlinear terms found previously, but also contain additional nonlinear self-gravity terms of the same order that were missed by Borderies et al. and by Shu et al. The additional terms result from the fact that the self-consistent gravitational potential of the perturbed rings modifies the orbit-averaging transformation at nonlinear order. These additional terms are the gravitational analog of electrostatic ponderomotive forces caused by large amplitude waves in plasma physics. The revised orbit-averaged equations are shown to modify the behavior of nonlinear density waves in planetary rings compared to the previously published theory. This reserach was supported by NASA's Outer Planets Reserach program.

  17. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Computing average monthly compensation. 226.62 Section 226.62 Employees...Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average...

  18. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Computing average monthly compensation. 226.62 Section 226.62 Employees...Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average...

  19. Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Andersson, Lars

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having ? = 0 have volume deceleration parameter qvol<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated qvol in some Lemaître-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that qvol>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit qvol<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

  20. Average entanglement for Markovian quantum trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsberger, S.; Spehner, D.

    2010-11-15

    We study the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. We calculate the average of the concurrence of the qubits wave function over all quantum trajectories. For two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, this average decays exponentially with a rate depending on the measurement scheme only. This contrasts with the known disappearance of entanglement after a finite time for the density matrix in the absence of measurements. For two qubits coupled to a common bath, the mean concurrence can vanish at discrete times. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump or quantum state diffusion dynamics in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect entanglement in specific examples.

  1. Indirect CP violation results and HFAG averages

    E-print Network

    Silvia Borghi

    2013-12-17

    The current status of the search for indirect CP violation in the neutral D meson system at the B-factories and at LHCb is reported. The indirect CP asymmetry search is performed by the measurement of the proper-time asymmetry ($A_{\\Gamma}$) in decays of $D^0-\\bar{D^0}$ mesons to CP eigenstates, $K^-K^+$ and $\\pi^- \\pi^+$, and by $y_{CP}$, the ratio between the effective lifetime measured in decay to a CP eigenstate and that to the mixed eigenstate $K \\pi$. All results are consistent with the no CP violation hypothesis. The latest world averages for mixing and CP asymmetry in the charm sector evaluated by the Heavy Flavour Averaging Group are presented. The no mixing hypothesis is excluded at more than 12 standard deviations. The search for direct and indirect CP violation in the charm sector is consistent with no CP violation at 2.0% confident level.

  2. From cellular doses to average lung dose.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R

    2015-11-01

    Sensitive basal and secretory cells receive a wide range of doses in human bronchial and bronchiolar airways. Variations of cellular doses arise from the location of target cells in the bronchial epithelium of a given airway and the asymmetry and variability of airway dimensions of the lung among airways in a given airway generation and among bronchial and bronchiolar airway generations. To derive a single value for the average lung dose which can be related to epidemiologically observed lung cancer risk, appropriate weighting scenarios have to be applied. Potential biological weighting parameters are the relative frequency of target cells, the number of progenitor cells, the contribution of dose enhancement at airway bifurcations, the promotional effect of cigarette smoking and, finally, the application of appropriate regional apportionment factors. Depending on the choice of weighting parameters, detriment-weighted average lung doses can vary by a factor of up to 4 for given radon progeny exposure conditions. PMID:25920789

  3. Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Andersson, Lars E-mail: larsa@math.miami.edu

    2008-10-15

    In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having {Lambda} = 0 have volume deceleration parameter q{sup vol}<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated q{sup vol} in some Lemaitre-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that q{sup vol}>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit q{sup vol}<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

  4. Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.

    1998-11-15

    We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

  5. The Average Velocity in a Queue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frette, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

  6. AVERAGE DENSITIES AND LINEAR RECTIFIABILITY OF MEASURES

    E-print Network

    Mörters, Peter

    AVERAGE DENSITIES AND LINEAR RECTIFIABILITY OF MEASURES P. M ¨ ORTERS Abstract: We show that a measure on IR d is linearly rectifiable if and only if the lower 1­density is positive and finite Radon measure on IR d and ff â?? 0. The lower ff­density of ¯ at x is the number d ff (¯; x) = lim inf t#0

  7. Modern average global sea-surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

  8. Terrestrial kilometric radiation: 3-average spectral properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Alexander, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    A study is presented of the average spectral properties of terrestrial kilometric radiation (TKR) derived from observations made by radio astronomy experiments onboard the IMP-6 and RAE-2 spacecraft. As viewed from near the equatorial plane, TKR is most intense and most often observed in the 21-24 hr local time zone and is rarely seen in the 09-12 hr zone. The peak flux density usually occurs near 240 kHz, but there is evidence that the peak occurs at a somewhat lower frequency on the dayside. The frequency of the peak in the average flux spectrum varies inversely with increasing substorm activity as inferred from the auroral electrojet index (AE) from a maximum near 300 kHz during very quiet times to a minimum below 200 kHz during very disturbed times. The absolute flux levels in the 100-600 kHz TKR band increase significantly with increasing AE. The average power associated with a particular source region seems to decrease rapidly with increasing source altitude.

  9. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  10. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    E-print Network

    Giovanna Tinetti; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp; William Fong; Thangasamy Velusamy; Heather Snively

    2004-08-20

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-curves and the spectral variability at visible + mid-IR wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, season. We also considered the appearance of an increasingly frozen Mars and simulated its detection versus real Mars with TPF-C and TPF-I as a function of spectral resolving power, signal-to-noise, integration time.

  11. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  12. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  13. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  14. Pain Management in Ambulatory Surgery—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Jan G.

    2014-01-01

    Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional ?-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3–5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures. PMID:25061796

  15. Patient Perspectives on Fluid Management in Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kimberly; Coston, Melinda; Glock, Kimberly; Elasy, Tom A.; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the perspectives and experiences of chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients regarding self-care and adherence to fluid restrictions. Design Semi-structured focus groups. Setting Two outpatient hemodialysis centers. Participants 19 patients on chronic hemodialysis. Intervention Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to encourage discussion about the management of fluid restriction within the broad categories of general knowledge, knowledge sources or barriers, beliefs and attitudes, self-efficacy, emotion, and self-care skills. Main outcome measure We analyzed session transcripts using the theoretical framework of content analysis to identify themes generated by the patients. Results Patients discussed both facilitators and barriers to fluid restriction which we categorized into 6 themes: knowledge, self-assessment, psychological factors, social, physical, and environmental. Psychological factors were the most common barriers to fluid restriction adherence, predominantly involving lack of motivation. Knowledge was the most discussed facilitator with accurate self-assessment, positive psychological factors, and supportive social contacts also playing a role. Dialysis providers were most commonly described as the source of dialysis information (54%), but learning through personal experience was also frequently noted (28%). Conclusion Interventions to improve fluid restriction adherence of chronic hemodialysis patients should target motivational issues, assess and improve patient knowledge, augment social support, and facilitate accurate self-assessment of fluid status. PMID:19913443

  16. Perceptual averaging governs antisaccade endpoint bias.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Caitlin; Heath, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Antisaccades entail decoupling the spatial relations between stimulus and response and executing a saccade to a target's mirror-symmetrical location. The indirect spatial relations require that a relative target percept supports antisaccade sensorimotor transformations. Here, we sought to identify whether the percept supporting antisaccades results in a respective over- and undershooting bias for the near and far targets within a stimulus-set (i.e., oculomotor range effect hypothesis) or renders an eccentricity-specific bias based on a statistical summary of the individual target percepts in a stimulus-set (i.e., perceptual averaging hypothesis). Antisaccades (and complementary prosaccades) were completed in separate blocks (i.e., proximal and distal) that contained an equal number of target eccentricities, but differed with respect to their magnitudes. The proximal block included eccentricities of 3.0°, 5.5°, 8.0°, 10.5°, and 13.0°, whereas the distal block included eccentricities of 10.5°, 13.0°, 15.5°, 18.0°, and 20.5°. The proximal block showed that antisaccade amplitudes to the central target (8.0°) did not elicit a reliable bias, whereas the block's 'near' (3.0° and 5.5°) and 'far' (10.5° and 13.0°) targets produced an over- and undershooting bias, respectively. Notably, however, the distal block showed a reliable-and large magnitude-undershooting bias for the central target (i.e., 15.5°): a bias that generalized to each target within the block. Taken together, results for the proximal and distal blocks are incompatible with the range effect hypothesis. Instead, results indicate that the visual percept supporting antisaccades is based on the statistical summary of the range of target eccentricities within a stimulus-set (i.e., perceptual averaging). Moreover, perceptual averaging represents a parsimonious basis by which the oculomotor system can specify sensorimotor transformations via non-veridical (i.e., relative) visual information. PMID:24935477

  17. Auto-exploratory average reward reinforcement learning

    SciTech Connect

    Ok, DoKyeong; Tadepalli, P.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a model-based average reward Reinforcement Learning method called H-learning and compare it with its discounted counterpart, Adaptive Real-Time Dynamic Programming, in a simulated robot scheduling task. We also introduce an extension to H-learning, which automatically explores the unexplored parts of the state space, while always choosing greedy actions with respect to the current value function. We show that this {open_quotes}Auto-exploratory H-learning{close_quotes} performs better than the original H-learning under previously studied exploration methods such as random, recency-based, or counter-based exploration.

  18. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

    E-print Network

    Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

    2009-05-07

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

  19. Cosmic clocks, cosmic variance and cosmic averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2007-10-01

    Cosmic acceleration is explained quantitatively, purely in general relativity with matter obeying the strong energy condition, as an apparent> effect due to quasilocal gravitational energy differences that arise in the decoupling of bound systems from the global expansion of the universe. "Dark energy" is recognized as a misidentification of those aspects of gravitational energy which by virtue of the equivalence principle cannot be localized. Matter is modelled as an inhomogeneous distribution of clusters of galaxies in bubble walls surrounding voids, as we observe. Gravitational energy differences between observers in bound systems, such as galaxies, and volume-averaged comoving locations in freely expanding space can be so large that the time dilation between the two significantly affects the parameters of any effective homogeneous isotropic model one fits to the universe. A new approach to cosmological averaging is presented, which implicitly solves the Sandage-de Vaucouleurs paradox. Comoving test particles in freely expanding space, which observe an isotropic cosmic microwave background (CMB), possess a quasilocal "rest" energy E>=(?(?,x>))mc>2 on the spatial hypersurfaces of homogeneity. Here 1 <= ? < 3/2 the lower bound refers to fiducial reference observers at "finite infinity", which is defined technically in relation to the demarcation scale between bound systems and expanding space. Within voids ? > 1, representing the quasilocal gravitational energy of expansion and spatial curvature variations. Since all our cosmological measurements apart from the CMB involve photons exchanged between objects in bound systems, and since clocks in bound systems are largely unaffected, this is entirely consistent with observation. When combined with a non-linear scheme for cosmological evolution with back-reaction via the Buchert equations, a new observationally viable model of the universe is obtained, without "dark energy". A quantitative scheme is presented for the recalibration of average cosmological parameters. It uses boundary conditions at the time of last scattering consistent with primordial inflation. The expansion age is increased, allowing more time for structure formation. The baryon density fraction obtained from primordial nucleosynthesis bounds can be significantly larger, yet consistent with primordial lithium abundance measurements. The angular scale of the first Doppler peak in the CMB anisotropy spectrum fits the new model despite an average negative spatial curvature at late epochs, resolving the anomaly associated with ellipticity in the CMB anisotropies. Non-baryonic dark matter to baryonic matter ratios of about 3:1 are typically favoured by observational tests. A number of other testable consequences are discussed, with the potential to profoundly change the whole of theoretical and observational cosmology.

  20. Average prime-pair counting formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

    2010-04-01

    Taking r>0 , let ?_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p? x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that ?_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ?_{2r}(x)=?_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for ?(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ?_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

  1. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-print Network

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  2. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171

  3. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2009-12-01

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczy?ski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, DV; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the ?CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  4. Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

  5. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2009-12-15

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  6. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Daniël

    2015-09-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p T broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  7. High average power linear induction accelerator development

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Progressive quantization in distributed average consensus

    E-print Network

    Thanou, Dorina; Frossard, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributed average consensus in a sensor network where sensors exchange quantized information with their neighbors. In particular, we exploit the increasing correlation between the exchanged values throughout the iterations of the consensus algorithm in order to design an efficient progressive quantization scheme. We implement a fixed-resolution uniform quantizer in each sensor, where refined quantization is achieved by reducing the quantization intervals with the convergence of the consensus algorithm. We propose a recurrence relation for computing the quantization parameters that depend on the network topology and the communication rate. We further propose a simple exponential model for the adaptation of the quantization intervals. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the progressive quantization scheme that leads to the consensus solution even at low communication rate.

  9. Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Simplified optical path-averaged rain gauge.

    PubMed

    Wang, T I; Earnshaw, K B; Lawrence, R S

    1978-02-01

    It has previously been shown that the scintillations produced by raindrops falling through a collimated laser beam can be used to measure the drop-size distribution and the rainfall rate, both averaged over the path. We now present a theoretical analysis, verified by observation, showing that the variance of the scintillations detected by a line-detector measured at frequencies near 1 kHz is closely related to rain rate and is nearly independent of drop-size distribution. If only rain rate is desired, the variance type of optical rain gauge has several advantages over the earlier model. It could use a diverging beam, thus eliminating the practical difficulties of maintaining adjustment and pointing of a collimated beam. Furthermore, it is less sensitive to the presence of updrafts and downdrafts along the beam and can thus be used over rough terrain. PMID:20174419

  11. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  12. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

  13. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  14. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  16. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  17. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  18. 18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301.7 Section...ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE...ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  20. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  1. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  2. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  3. Application of the moving averaging technique in surplus production models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Qun

    2014-08-01

    Surplus production models are the simplest analytical methods effective for fish stock assessment and fisheries management. In this paper, eight surplus production estimators (three estimation procedures) were tested on Schaefer and Fox type simulated data in three simulated fisheries (declining, well-managed, and restoring fisheries) at two white noise levels. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to verify the utility of moving averaging (MA), which was an important technique for reducing the effect of noise in data in these models. The relative estimation error (REE) of maximum sustainable yield (MSY) was used as an indicator for the analysis, and one-way ANOVA was applied to test the significance of the REE calculated at four levels of MA. Simulation results suggested that increasing the value of MA could significantly improve the performance of the surplus production model (low REE) in all cases when the white noise level was low (coefficient of variation ( CV)=0.02). However, when the white noise level increased ( CV=0.25), adding the value of MA could still significantly enhance the performance of most models. Our results indicated that the best model performance occurred frequently when MA was equal to 3; however, some exceptions were observed when MA was higher.

  4. High average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Neau, E.L.

    1995-05-01

    Which current pulsed accelerator technology was developed during the late 60`s through the late 80`s to satisfy the needs of various military related applications such as effects simulators, particle beam devices, free electron lasers, and as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. The emphasis in these devices is to achieve very high peak power levels, with pulse lengths on the order of a few 10`s of nanoseconds, peak currents of up to 10`s of MA, and accelerating potentials of up to 10`s of MV. New which average power systems, incorporating thermal management techniques, are enabling the potential use of high peak power technology in a number of diverse industrial application areas such as materials processing, food processing, stack gas cleanup, and the destruction of organic contaminants. These systems employ semiconductor and saturable magnetic switches to achieve short pulse durations that can then be added to efficiently give MV accelerating, potentials while delivering average power levels of a few 100`s of kilowatts to perhaps many megawatts. The Repetitive High Energy Puled Power project is developing short-pulse, high current accelerator technology capable of generating beams with kJ`s of energy per pulse delivered to areas of 1000 cm{sup 2} or more using ions, electrons, or x-rays. Modular technology is employed to meet the needs of a variety of applications requiring from 100`s of kV to MV`s and from 10`s to 100`s of kA. Modest repetition rates, up to a few 100`s of pulses per second (PPS), allow these machines to deliver average currents on the order of a few 100`s of mA. The design and operation of the second generation 300 kW RHEPP-II machine, now being brought on-line to operate at 2.5 MV, 25 kA, and 100 PPS will be described in detail as one example of the new high average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology.

  5. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  6. Bayesian model averaging for ligand discovery.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Nicos; Hadjiprocopis, Andreas; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2009-06-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is now a standard approach used in the pharmaceutical industry to identify potential drug-like lead molecules. The analysis linking biological data with molecular properties is a major goal in both academic and pharmaceutical research. This paper presents a Bayesian analysis of high-dimensional descriptor data using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations for learning classification trees as a novel method for pharmacophore and ligand discovery. We use experimentally determined binding affinity data with the protein pyruvate kinase to train and assess our model averaging algorithm and then apply it to a large database of over 3.7 million molecules. We compare the results of a number of variations on the central Bayesian theme to that of two Neural Network (NN) architectures and that of Support Vector Machines (SVM). The main Bayesian algorithm, in addition to achieving high specificity and sensitivity, also lends itself naturally to classifying test sets with missing data and providing a ranking for the classified compounds. The approach has been used to select and rank potential biologically active compounds and could provide a powerful tool in compound testing. PMID:19489531

  7. Average oxidation state of carbon in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The formal oxidation state of carbon atoms in organic molecules depends on the covalent structure. In proteins, the average oxidation state of carbon (ZC) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formula. To investigate oxidation–reduction (redox) patterns, groups of proteins from different subcellular locations and phylogenetic groups were selected for comparison. Extracellular proteins of yeast have a relatively high oxidation state of carbon, corresponding with oxidizing conditions outside of the cell. However, an inverse relationship between ZC and redox potential occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. This trend provides support for the hypothesis that protein transport and turnover are ultimately coupled to the maintenance of different glutathione redox potentials in subcellular compartments. There are broad changes in ZC in whole-genome protein compositions in microbes from different environments, and in Rubisco homologues, lower ZC tends to occur in organisms with higher optimal growth temperature. Energetic costs calculated from thermodynamic models are consistent with the notion that thermophilic organisms exhibit molecular adaptation to not only high temperature but also the reducing nature of many hydrothermal fluids. Further characterization of the material requirements of protein metabolism in terms of the chemical conditions of cells and environments may help to reveal other linkages among biochemical processes with implications for changes on evolutionary time scales. PMID:25165594

  8. Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Sapozhnikov, A. N.

    2006-07-15

    The average structure of the monoclinic modification of lazurite Ca{sub 1.26}Na{sub 6.63}K{sub 0.04}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](SO{sub 4}){sub 1.53}S{sub 0.99}Cl{sub 0.05} (discovered in the Lake Baikal region) incommensurately modulated along the c axis is solved by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.069(1) A, b = 12.868(1) A, c = 12.872(1) A, {gamma} = 90.19(1) deg., sp. gr. Pa, R = 6.9%, 2057 reflections. The AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a partially ordered framework. The positions in the cavities of the framework are split and randomly occupied by Na and Ca atoms and the SO{sub 4}, S{sub 2}, S{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} anionic groups. The structure of the mineral is compared with the superstructure of triclinic lazurite. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of the incommensurate modulation in monoclinic and other lazurites.

  9. Optimizing Average Precision Using Weakly Supervised Data.

    PubMed

    Behl, Aseem; Mohapatra, Pritish; Jawahar, C V; Kumar, M Pawan

    2015-12-01

    Many tasks in computer vision, such as action classification and object detection, require us to rank a set of samples according to their relevance to a particular visual category. The performance of such tasks is often measured in terms of the average precision (ap). Yet it is common practice to employ the support vector machine ( svm) classifier, which optimizes a surrogate 0-1 loss. The popularity of svmcan be attributed to its empirical performance. Specifically, in fully supervised settings, svm tends to provide similar accuracy to ap-svm, which directly optimizes an ap-based loss. However, we hypothesize that in the significantly more challenging and practically useful setting of weakly supervised learning, it becomes crucial to optimize the right accuracy measure. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a novel latent ap-svm that minimizes a carefully designed upper bound on the ap-based loss function over weakly supervised samples. Using publicly available datasets, we demonstrate the advantage of our approach over standard loss-based learning frameworks on three challenging problems: action classification, character recognition and object detection. PMID:26539857

  10. Using NDVI to assess departure from average greenness and its relation to fire business. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgan, R.E.; Hartford, R.A.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Satellite-derived vegetation greenness maps of the contiguous United States have been available to fire managers since 1989. This report describes a new map, departure from average, which is designed to compare current-year vegetation greenness to average greenness for the same time of year and describes it relationship to fire business.

  11. Information Capacity of Optical Fiber Channels with Zero Average Dispersion K. S. Turitsyn,1

    E-print Network

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    the statistics of optical data transmission in a noisy nonlinear fiber channel with a weak dispersion managementInformation Capacity of Optical Fiber Channels with Zero Average Dispersion K. S. Turitsyn,1 S. A for efficient, high-speed, high-quality communications. Recent progress in fiber optics has at- tracted fresh

  12. Hamiltonian averaging in soliton-bearing systems with a periodically varying dispersion Sergei K. Turitsyn

    E-print Network

    Zharnitsky, Vadim

    , United Kingdom Alejandro B. Aceves Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Mexico and Electrometry, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia Received 16 October 1998 Optical pulse dynamics in dispersion-managed fiber lines is studied using a combination of a Lagrangian approach and Hamiltonian averaging. By making

  13. 44 CFR 353.5 - Average cost per FEMA professional staff-hour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certification submission review under 44 CFR part 352 and follow-on activities; site-specific adjudicatory... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Average cost per FEMA... cost per FEMA professional staff-hour. Fees for FEMA services rendered will be calculated based...

  14. 44 CFR 353.5 - Average cost per FEMA professional staff-hour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... certification submission review under 44 CFR part 352 and follow-on activities; site-specific adjudicatory... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Average cost per FEMA... cost per FEMA professional staff-hour. Fees for FEMA services rendered will be calculated based...

  15. 44 CFR 353.5 - Average cost per FEMA professional staff-hour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... certification submission review under 44 CFR part 352 and follow-on activities; site-specific adjudicatory... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Average cost per FEMA... cost per FEMA professional staff-hour. Fees for FEMA services rendered will be calculated based...

  16. 44 CFR 353.5 - Average cost per FEMA professional staff-hour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certification submission review under 44 CFR part 352 and follow-on activities; site-specific adjudicatory... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Average cost per FEMA... cost per FEMA professional staff-hour. Fees for FEMA services rendered will be calculated based...

  17. 44 CFR 353.5 - Average cost per FEMA professional staff-hour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... certification submission review under 44 CFR part 352 and follow-on activities; site-specific adjudicatory... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Average cost per FEMA... cost per FEMA professional staff-hour. Fees for FEMA services rendered will be calculated based...

  18. Network Management Network Management

    E-print Network

    Giaccone, Paolo

    ) ­ Performance monitoring and management ­ Security management ­ Accounting management (pricing) SafetyNetwork Management Pag. 1 Network Management Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino Telecommunication

  19. Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.

  20. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  1. Are telehealth technologies for hypertension care and self-management effective or simply risky and costly?

    PubMed

    McKoy, June; Fitzner, Karen; Margetts, Miranda; Heckinger, Elizabeth; Specker, James; Roth, Laura; Izenberg, Maxwell; Siegel, Molly; McKinney, Shannon; Moss, Gail

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease that requires ongoing management and self-care. The disease affects 31% of American adults and contributed to or caused the deaths of 348,000 Americans in 2008, fewer than 50% of whom effectively self-managed the disease. However, self-management is complex, with patients requiring ongoing support and easy access to care. Telehealth may help foster the knowledge and skills necessary for those with hypertension to engage in successful self-management. This paper considers the applicability, efficacy, associated risks, and cost-effectiveness of telehealth for individuals and populations with hypertension. Telehealth is a broad term, encompassing telemedicine and mobile health that is used for physician-patient interactions, diagnostics, care delivery, education, information sharing, monitoring, and reminders. Telemedicine may have considerable utility for people diagnosed with hypertension who have poor access or social barriers that constrain access, but potential risks exist. Telehealth technology is evolving rapidly, even in the absence of fully proven cost-effectiveness and efficacy. Considering the cost of inpatient and emergency department care for patients with hypertension, telehealth is a highly attractive alternative, but there are risks to consider. Incorporating telehealth, which is increasingly characterized by mobile health, can increase both the capacity of health care providers and the reach of patient support, clinical management, and self-care. Telehealth studies need improvement; long-term outcome data on cardiovascular events must be obtained, and robust risk analyses and economic studies are needed to prospectively evaluate the safety and cost savings for hypertension self-management. PMID:25290443

  2. Home Monitoring for Heart Failure Management

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Anh L.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2011-01-01

    With a prevalence of 5.8 million in the United States alone, heart failure (HF) is a common syndrome associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and health-care expenditures. Close to 1 million HF hospitalizations occur annually in the United States, with the majority of these resulting from worsening congestion in patients previously diagnosed with HF. An estimated 37.2 billion dollars is spent each year on HF in the United States. These statistics emphasize the need to develop and implement more effective strategies to assess, monitor, and treat HF. It has also become increasingly apparent that interventions geared towards identifying and monitoring sub-clinical congestion would be of value in the home management of chronic HF. Earlier identification and treatment of congestion together with improved care coordination, management of comorbid conditions, and enhanced patient self-management may help to prevent hospitalizations in patients with chronic HF. Such home monitoring extends from the promotion of self-care and home visitations, to telemedicine and remote monitoring of external or implantable devices. This paper will discuss the challenges in monitoring patients with HF, review clinical trials testing different monitoring strategies in HF, and highlight ongoing investigations into the optimal approaches to home monitoring for HF. PMID:22222071

  3. Business Management programs1 teach the tools necessary to manage and grow a profitable business. It will prepare

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Administrator Budget Analyst Operations Research Analyst Sports/Athletics Manager Financial Planner Logistics Manager Securities Manager Bank Branch Manager Investment Analyst #12;Salary averages of survey placement rates and salary survey information from recent MSU graduates. Graduates were requested

  4. Diabetes control with reciprocal peer support versus nurse care management: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Heisler, Michele; Vijan, Sandeep; Makki, Fatima; Piette, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many health care systems face barriers to implementing resource-intensive care management programs for patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Mobilizing patients to provide reciprocal peer support may enhance care management and improve clinical outcomes. Objective To compare the effectiveness of a reciprocal diabetes peer support program (RPS) with nurse care management (NCM) in improving glycemic control in real-world clinical settings. Design Six-month parallel randomized controlled effectiveness study from 2007–2010 (Trial Registration NCT00320112) Setting Two U.S. Veterans’Affairs (VA) health care facilities Participants 244 male diabetes patients with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the prior 6 months of 7.5% or more. Primary Funding Source VA Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) Measurements The primary outcome was change in HbA1c between baseline and six months. Secondary outcomes were new insulin starts and intensification, blood pressure, diabetes-specific social support, emotional distress, and medication adherence. Intervention Participants in both arms attended an initial session led by a nurse care manager to review and discuss their point-of-service HbA1c and blood pressure values, and most recent medical record cholesterol values. RPS patients then participated in a group session to set diabetes-related behavioral goals, receive brief training in peer communication skills, and be paired with another age-matched participant. Paired peer partners were encouraged to talk weekly using a telephone platform that recorded call frequency and duration and provided automated reminders promoting peer contact. Intervention participants were also offered three optional 1.5 hour patient-driven group sessions at months 1, 3, and 6 to share concerns, questions, strategies, and progress on goals. Patients in the NCM arm attended a 1.5 hour session to receive education on care manager services and diabetes educational materials and be assigned to a nurse care manager with whom they were encouraged to follow up regularly. Results Of the 244 patients enrolled, at six months 216 (89%) completed the HbA1c and 231 (95%) the survey assessments. RPS participants had a mean HbA1c of 8.02% at baseline, which improved to 7.73% at six months (?0.29%) compared with an average increase in HbA1c among NCM participants (7.93 to 8.22 [SD 0.29]). The difference between groups was 0.58% (p=0.004). Among patients with a baseline HbA1c >8.0%, RPS participants had a mean decrease of 0.88% compared with a 0.07% decrease among NCM participants (p<0.001). Eight RPS patients started insulin compared to one NCM patient (p=0.02), and RPS participants reported greater increases in diabetes social support than NCM participants (+11.4 vs. +4.5, p=0.01). There were no differences between groups at follow-up in blood pressure, self-reported medication adherence, or diabetes-specific distress. Limitations The study was limited to male veterans. It will be important to replicate this study in gender-mixed samples of patients who share the same chronic condition and other shared characteristics (e.g., religion, ethnicity, culture) in different settings. Conclusions Participants in the reciprocal peer support intervention had improved HbA1c levels, insulin starts, and diabetes-specific support after six months compared to usual nurse care management. Peer-based models are effective in bridging service gaps while increasing the quality and quantitity of self-care support. PMID:20956707

  5. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

  14. Averaging algorithms and distributed anonymous discrete function computation

    E-print Network

    Tsitsiklis, John N.

    In distributed consensus and averaging algorithms, processors exchange and update certain values ("estimates" or "opinions") by forming a local average with the values of their neighbors. Under suitable conditions, such ...

  15. Sample Size Bias in Judgments of Perceptual Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul C.; Kimura, Nicole M.; Smith, Andrew R.; Marshall, Lindsay D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative,…

  16. 7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average Market Price (NAMP) using the best sources available, as determined by the Deputy Administrator,...

  17. Optimal design of experiments with very low average replication

    E-print Network

    Bailey, R. A.

    Optimal design of experiments with very low average replication R. A. Bailey r replication. 2/23 #12;Abstract Trials of new crop varieties usually have very low average replication. Thus low average replication. Thus one possiblity is to have a single plot for each new variety and several

  18. Design of experiments with very low average replication

    E-print Network

    Bailey, R. A.

    Design of experiments with very low average replication R. A. Bailey r.a.bailey@qmul.ac.uk AGROSTAT 2012 1/29 #12;Abstract Trials of new crop varieties usually have very low average replication. 2/29 #12;Abstract Trials of new crop varieties usually have very low average replication. Thus one possiblity

  19. Optimal design of experiments with very low average replication

    E-print Network

    Bailey, R. A.

    Optimal design of experiments with very low average replication R. A. Bailey r.a.bailey@qmul.ac.uk Piracicaba, May 2012 1/29 #12;Abstract Trials of new crop varieties usually have very low average replication. 2/29 #12;Abstract Trials of new crop varieties usually have very low average replication. Thus one

  20. Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North. (2015) Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North;Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging:1 the case of the North Atlantic jet

  1. Average Weekly Alcohol Consumption: Drinking Percentiles for American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilman, Philip W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the average number of alcoholic drinks that college students (N=44,433) consumed per week. Surveys indicated that most students drank little or no alcohol on an average weekly basis. Only about 10% of the students reported consuming an average of 15 drinks or more per week. (SM)

  2. Average densities, tangent measures and rectifiability Peter Morters

    E-print Network

    Mörters, Peter

    Average densities, tangent measures and rectifiability Peter M¨orters Universit¨at Kaiserslautern and average densities of measures We consider a nonnegative, nonzero Radon measure ¯ on IR d and let ff â?? 0 to the notions of average densities and tangent measures. Many of the classical criteria for rectifiability

  3. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual...

  4. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual...

  5. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual...

  6. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual...

  7. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual...

  8. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year...

  9. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year...

  10. Daily Symptom Management Practices for Arthritis Used by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Lang, Wei; Altizer, Kathryn; Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article describes the daily self-management practices of older adults with arthritis and examines the association of symptom experience with the use of self-management behaviors. Method 197 African American and White participants completed a baseline interview and six sets of three follow-up daily-diary interviews at monthly intervals. Results Arthritis was reported by 63.5%. Arthritis self-management reported included complementary therapies, over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications, foods or beverages, and home remedies. Odds of implementing these self-care practices were greater on days with joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Although, 78.0% and 72.4% of all participants reported staying in bed or cutting back on activities in response to joint symptoms, these self-management activities were not associated with having arthritis. Conclusions Focusing on daily responses to symptoms demonstrates that older adults actively manage arthritis symptoms using a wide variety of measures, including complementary therapies. PMID:22173224

  11. Care Utilization Patterns and Diabetes Self-Management Education Duration.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tammie M; Richards, Jennifer; Churilla, James R

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown that receiving diabetes self-management education (DSME) is associated with increased care utilization. However, the relationship between DSME duration and care utilization patterns remains largely unexamined. Our purpose is to characterize DSME duration and examine the relationship between DSME duration and clinical- and self-care utilization patterns. Methods. The study sample included 1,446 adults who were ?18 years of age, had diabetes, and had participated in the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Clinical- and self-care outcomes were derived using responses to the survey's diabetes module and were based on minimum standards of care established by the American Diabetes Association. The outcomes examined included self-monitoring of blood glucose at least once per day; receiving at least one eye exam, one foot exam, A1C tests, and an influenza vaccination in the past year; and ever receiving a pneumococcal vaccination. DSME duration was categorized as no DSME, >0 to <4 hours, 4-10 hours, and >10 hours. Results. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, compared to those who did not receive DSME, those who had 4-10 or 10+ hours of DSME were more likely to receive two A1C tests (odds ratio [95% CI] 2.69 [1.30-5.58] and 2.63 [1.10-6.31], respectively) and have a pneumococcal vaccination (1.98 [1.03-3.80] and 1.92 [1.01-3.64], respectively). Those receiving 10+ hours of DSME were 2.2 times (95% CI 1.18-4.09) as likely to have an influenza vaccination. Conclusion. These data reveal a positive relationship between DSME duration and utilization of some diabetes clinical care services. PMID:26300613

  12. Moral reasoning and personality components in gifted and average students.

    PubMed

    Chovan, W; Freeman, N L

    1993-12-01

    101 students, gifted and of average ability in Grades 5, 8, and 10, completed the Defining Issues Test and the Offer Self-image Questionnaire. Significant differences occurred between groups of gifted and average ability on the Defining Issues Test, between the average and gifted girls, and between the boys and girls on Offer's Social Relationships subscale. A regression analysis indicated that the Social Relationships subscale and being gifted were predictors of Rest's p index. PMID:8170784

  13. Light-cone averaging in cosmology: formalism and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Nugier, F.; Veneziano, G.

    2011-07-01

    We present a general gauge invariant formalism for defining cosmological averages that are relevant for observations based on light-like signals. Such averages involve either null hypersurfaces corresponding to a family of past light-cones or compact surfaces given by their intersection with timelike hypersurfaces. Generalized Buchert-Ehlers commutation rules for derivatives of these light-cone averages are given. After introducing some adapted ``geodesic light-cone'' coordinates, we give explicit expressions for averaging the redshift to luminosity-distance relation and the so-called ``redshift drift'' in a generic inhomogeneous Universe.

  14. Averaging Schemes for Solving Fived Point and Variational Inequality Problems

    E-print Network

    Magnanti, Thomas L.

    We develop and study averaging schemes for solving fixed point and variational inequality problems. Typically, researchers have established convergence results for solution methods for these problems by establishing ...

  15. Network Management Network Management

    E-print Network

    Giaccone, Paolo

    ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino g g ­ Security management ­ Accounting management (pricing) ­ SafetyNetwork Management Pag. 1 Network Management Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea of this license visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- /3 0/ Network management and QoS provisioning

  16. The Average Case Complexity of the Parallel Prefix Problem

    E-print Network

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    this can be done in parallel using only linear circuit size [LF80]. Snir has obtained exact boundsThe Average Case Complexity of the Parallel Prefix Problem Andreas Jakoby ? Christian Schindelhauer. As computational model circuits over the semigroup are used and a complexity measure for the average delay

  17. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    The global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signal

  18. A Simple Geometrical Derivation of the Spatial Averaging Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1985-01-01

    The connection between single phase transport phenomena and multiphase transport phenomena is easily accomplished by means of the spatial averaging theorem. Although different routes to the theorem have been used, this paper provides a route to the averaging theorem that can be used in undergraduate classes. (JN)

  19. Inverting a Batting Average -an Application of Continued Fractions

    E-print Network

    Back, Allen

    Inverting a Batting Average - an Application of Continued Fractions (Preliminary Version) Allen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Lower Bounds on Convergent Denominators . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3 Application to Batting this hit lifted Todd's batting average over .400? Of course there are infinitely many batting records which

  20. Hot atom kinetic theory: Changes in average reaction energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierim, K. D.

    1990-10-01

    Average gas phase hot atom reaction energy is determined using the two-temperature moment method of solving the Boltzmann equation. Factors which can alter the average reaction energy are discussed. A model system based on the 18F + H 2 reactive cross section is used to illustrate changes in reaction energy resulting from addition of a moderator or a competing reactant.

  1. 47 CFR 80.759 - Average terrain elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Average terrain elevation. 80.759 Section 80.759 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.759 Average terrain elevation. (a)(1) Draw...

  2. EFFECT OF TIME AVERAGING ON ESTIMATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    E-print Network

    1 EFFECT OF TIME AVERAGING ON ESTIMATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM PERFORMANCE Clifford W. Hansen that results solely from using time-averaged model inputs. We demonstrate that error in estimated energy arises from two separate approximations: 1) the approximation of PV performance as linear in time

  3. Students Rate Community College Faculty as Slightly Above Average.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Allen, George H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the results of a student assessment of teacher performance in the North Carolina Community College System, in which 65 percent of the faculty were rated between average and above average. Concludes that student evaluation affords a powerful device for describing teacher effectiveness. (DMM)

  4. Fluctuations of a surface submitted to a random average process

    E-print Network

    on the heights. This motion, named random average process (RAP), is one of the linear processes introduced by Liggett (1985). Special cases of RAP are a type of smoothing process (when the convex combination. We call this process random average process (RAP). The motion is well defined under suitable

  5. Averaging Model of Information Integration Theory Applied in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Elsie

    1978-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the averaging model of the information integration theory to attitude formation in a classroom situation and compared the results of an in-classroom and an in-laboratory application of equivalent stimuli (verbal vs printed). Results confirmed both the information integration theory and the averaging model.…

  6. RIEMANNIAN METRIC OF THE AVERAGED CONTROLLED KEPLER EQUATION

    E-print Network

    Caillau, Jean-Baptiste

    RIEMANNIAN METRIC OF THE AVERAGED CONTROLLED KEPLER EQUATION B. Bonnard,! J.-B. Caillau,^ and R to the controlled Kepler equation. Explicit computations provide the averaged Hamiltonian of the Kepler motion control, Kepler equation Introduction An elementary generalization of sub-Riemannian problems [6

  7. 40 CFR 80.67 - Compliance on average.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance on average. 80.67 Section 80.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.67 Compliance on average. The requirements of this section apply to all...

  8. Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

    2013-06-17

    Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

  9. LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner full orbit data averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, J. P.; Bilanow, S.

    1983-01-01

    Averages taken over full orbit data spans of the pitch and roll residual measurement errors of the two conical Earth sensors operating on the LANDSAT 4 spacecraft are described. The variability of these full orbit averages over representative data throughtout the year is analyzed to demonstrate the long term stability of the sensor measurements. The data analyzed consist of 23 segments of sensor measurements made at 2 to 4 week intervals. Each segment is roughly 24 hours in length. The variation of full orbit average as a function of orbit within a day as a function of day of year is examined. The dependence on day of year is based on association the start date of each segment with the mean full orbit average for the segment. The peak-to-peak and standard deviation values of the averages for each data segment are computed and their variation with day of year are also examined.

  10. Low-frequency conductivity in the average-atom approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. R.

    2009-06-01

    The quantum-mechanical average-atom model is reviewed and applied to determine scattering phase shifts, mean-free paths, and relaxation times in warm-dense plasmas. Static conductivities ? are based on an average-atom version of the Ziman formula. Applying linear response to the average-atom model leads to an average-atom version of the Kubo-Greenwood formula for the frequency-dependent conductivity ?( ?). The free-free contribution to ?( ?) is found to diverge as 1/ ?2 at low frequencies; however, considering effects of multiple scattering leads to a modified version of ?( ?) that is finite and reduces to the Ziman formula at ? = 0. The resulting average-atom version of the Kubo-Greenwood formula satisfies the conductivity sum rule. The dielectric function ?( ?) and the complex index of refraction n( ?) + i?( ?) are inferred from ?( ?) using dispersion relations. Applications to anomalous dispersion in laser-produced plasmas are discussed.

  11. Unplanned admissions and the organisational management of heart failure: a multicentre ethnographic, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Rosemary; Glogowska, Margaret; McLachlan, Sarah; Cramer, Helen; Sanders, Tom; Johnson, Rachel; Kadam, Umesh; Lasserson, Daniel; Purdy, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Heart failure is a common cause of unplanned hospital admissions but there is little evidence on why, despite evidence-based interventions, admissions occur. This study aimed to identify critical points on patient pathways where risk of admission is increased and identify barriers to the implementation of evidence-based interventions. Design Multicentre, longitudinal, patient-led ethnography. Setting National Health Service settings across primary, community and secondary care in three geographical locations in England, UK. Participants 31 patients with severe or difficult to manage heart failure followed for up to 11?months; 9 carers; 55 healthcare professionals. Results Fragmentation of healthcare, inequitable provision of services and poor continuity of care presented barriers to interventions for heart failure. Critical points where a reduction in the risk of current or future admission occurred throughout the pathway. At the beginning some patients did not receive a formal clinical diagnosis, in addition patients lacked information about heart failure, self-care and knowing when to seek help. Some clinicians lacked knowledge about diagnosis and management. Misdiagnoses of symptoms and discontinuity of care resulted in unplanned admissions. Approaching end of life, patients were admitted to hospital when other options including palliative care could have been appropriate. Conclusions Findings illustrate the complexity involved in caring for people with heart failure. Fragmented healthcare and discontinuity of care added complexity and increased the likelihood of suboptimal management and unplanned admissions. Diagnosis and disclosure is a vital first step for the patient in a journey of acceptance and learning to self-care/monitor. The need for clinician education about heart failure and specialist services was acknowledged. Patient education should be seen as an ongoing ‘conversation’ with trusted clinicians and end-of-life planning should be broached within this context. PMID:26482765

  12. Exploring preferences for symptom management in primary care: a discrete choice experiment using a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    McAteer, Anne; Yi, Deokhee; Watson, Verity; Norwood, Patricia; Ryan, Mandy; Hannaford, Philip C; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms are important drivers for the use of primary care services. Strategies aimed at shifting the focus away from the GP have broadened the range of primary healthcare available. Aim To explore preferences for managing symptoms and investigate trade-offs that the public are willing to make when deciding between different primary care services. Design and setting UK-wide postal questionnaire survey of 1370 adults. Method A discrete choice experiment examined management preferences for three symptoms of differing seriousness (diarrhoea, dizziness, and chest pain). Willingness-to-pay estimates compared preferences between symptoms, and by sex, age, and income. Results Preferences differed significantly between symptoms. ‘Self-care’ was the preferred action for diarrhoea and ‘consulting a GP’ for dizziness and chest pain. ‘Waiting time’ and ‘chance of a satisfactory outcome’ were important factors for all three symptoms, although their relative importance differed. Broadly, people were more prepared to wait longer and less prepared to trade a good chance of a satisfactory outcome for symptoms rated as more serious. Generally, preferences within subgroups followed similar patterns as for the whole sample, although there were differences in the relative strength of preferences. Conclusion Despite increased choices in primary care, ‘traditional’ actions of ‘self-care’ for minor symptoms and ‘GP consultation’ for more serious symptoms were preferred. The present findings suggest, however, that people may be willing to trade between different health services, particularly for less serious symptoms. Understanding the relative importance of different factors may help inform interventions aimed at changing management behaviour or improving services. PMID:26077269

  13. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  14. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  15. 78 FR 24212 - Tribal Management Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...and interpretation of data for the purpose of determining...services, financial management, personnel, data collection and analysis...systems. 4. Health Management Structure (Average...36 months) The first year maximum funding...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15210 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? 62.15210 Section 62.15210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES...

  17. Network Management Network Management

    E-print Network

    Giaccone, Paolo

    Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea of this license visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- /3 0/ Network management and QoS provisioning ­ Chapter 9, Network Management, of the book Jim Kurose, Keith Ross, Computer Networking, A Top Down

  18. Management Plan Management Plan

    E-print Network

    Management Plan Management Plan "Management and restoration programs for native salmonids have communities" J. Lichatowich et al. 1998. A Conceptual Foundation for the Management of Native Salmonids in the Deschutes River. The Management Plan consists of five elements described in the Council's program: 1

  19. Fault management Fault management

    E-print Network

    Giaccone, Paolo

    degradation 1 3% Natural events 1 3% Hard Failures: service interruption Network Management and Qo in the event of a failure causing few or no Network Management and QoS Provisioning - 7Andrea Bianco ­ TNGFault management Pag. 1 Fault management Network Management and QoS Provisioning - 1Andrea Bianco

  20. Perceptions of caregiver distress, health behaviors, and provider health-promoting communication and their relationship to stress management in MS caregivers.

    PubMed

    Penwell-Waines, Lauren; Goodworth, Marie-Christine Rutter; Casillas, Rhonda S; Rahn, Rebecca; Stepleman, Lara

    2016-04-01

    This study applied the Stress/Health Model to examine a novel approach for promoting stress management among 67 caregivers of persons with multiple sclerosis, who often face unique caregiving challenges. Hierarchical regressions indicated that caregiver distress (i.e., emotional burden) and engagement in other health-promoting activities (i.e., controlling alcohol use) were the best predictors of caregiver stress management. Communication with the MS care recipient's health provider about caregiver engagement in health-promoting activities was associated with caregiver stress management, but not significantly more so than explained by the other factors (i.e., caregiver distress and engagement in health-promoting behaviors). A more controlled study would be indicated to further explain how to encourage, within the medical setting, caregiver engagement in self-care activities. PMID:26400038

  1. Estimating Continental and Terrestrial Precipitation Averages from Raingauge Networks

    E-print Network

    Willmott, Cort J.; Robeson, Scott M.; Feddema, Johannes J.

    1994-01-01

    and terrestrial averages of precipi ta t ion are key c o m p o n e n t s of the global hydrological cycle, yet completely reliable estimates of these spat ial means are no t available (Wil lmot t and Legates, 1991). Even less is known a b o u t the seasonal a n... se o u r best unders tand ing of the spatial, seasonal and in terannual variabil i ty in cont inenta l and terrestr ial averages of precipi tat ion. The reliability and variability of cont inenta l and terrestrial prec ipi ta t ion averages tha...

  2. Measurement of average resistance in underwater breathing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Underwater Breathing Apparatus (UBA) have long been characterized by the mechanical work done on them during simulated breathing. For 20 years, the work of breathing has been divided by tidal volume to yield what is properly considered a volume-averaged pressure. The authors assert that when volume-averaged pressure is divided by a factor proportional to ventilation, the result is a measure of flow resistance averaged over an entire breath. This point is illustrated with both theoretical and actual pressure-volume and pressure-flow curves for a MK 16 closed-circuit UBA.

  3. Time average vibration fringe analysis using Hilbert transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2010-10-20

    Quantitative phase information from a single interferogram can be obtained using the Hilbert transform (HT). We have applied the HT method for quantitative evaluation of Bessel fringes obtained in time average TV holography. The method requires only one fringe pattern for the extraction of vibration amplitude and reduces the complexity in quantifying the data experienced in the time average reference bias modulation method, which uses multiple fringe frames. The technique is demonstrated for the measurement of out-of-plane vibration amplitude on a small scale specimen using a time average microscopic TV holography system.

  4. A method for correct averaging in transmission radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, U.; Wagner, M.

    2011-11-01

    Transmission radiometry with photon or particle radiation is a common technique for the measurement of thickness, density and composition of materials, e.g. in production lines and in multiphase flow metering. Moreover, radiation transmission measurement is the basis for many imaging techniques, such as x-ray and gamma ray tomography. A common problem associated with transmission measurement is correct temporal averaging for time-varying material properties. Averaging the intensity signal at the detector over time and taking this mean to calculate average ray attenuation leads to incorrect results when attenuation changes within the integration period. This paper discusses the implications of this systematic error and introduces a methodology for correct averaging which is applicable even to very low intensity measurements.

  5. Average local ionization energy generalized to correlated wavefunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G.; Staroverov, Viktor N.

    2014-08-01

    The average local ionization energy function introduced by Politzer and co-workers [Can. J. Chem. 68, 1440 (1990)] as a descriptor of chemical reactivity has a limited utility because it is defined only for one-determinantal self-consistent-field methods such as the Hartree-Fock theory and the Kohn-Sham density-functional scheme. We reinterpret the negative of the average local ionization energy as the average total energy of an electron at a given point and, by rewriting this quantity in terms of reduced density matrices, arrive at its natural generalization to correlated wavefunctions. The generalized average local electron energy turns out to be the diagonal part of the coordinate representation of the generalized Fock operator divided by the electron density; it reduces to the original definition in terms of canonical orbitals and their eigenvalues for one-determinantal wavefunctions. The discussion is illustrated with calculations on selected atoms and molecules at various levels of theory.

  6. Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya

    2014-01-01

    Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models.

  7. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-print Network

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc postprocessing method that creates calibrated predictive probability density functions (PDFs). Probabilistic wind extend BMA to wind speed, taking account of these challenges. This method provides calibrated and sharp

  8. Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

  9. Ensemble vs. time averages in financial time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seemann, Lars; Hua, Jia-Chen; McCauley, Joseph L.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2012-12-01

    Empirical analysis of financial time series suggests that the underlying stochastic dynamics are not only non-stationary, but also exhibit non-stationary increments. However, financial time series are commonly analyzed using the sliding interval technique that assumes stationary increments. We propose an alternative approach that is based on an ensemble over trading days. To determine the effects of time averaging techniques on analysis outcomes, we create an intraday activity model that exhibits periodic variable diffusion dynamics and we assess the model data using both ensemble and time averaging techniques. We find that ensemble averaging techniques detect the underlying dynamics correctly, whereas sliding intervals approaches fail. As many traded assets exhibit characteristic intraday volatility patterns, our work implies that ensemble averages approaches will yield new insight into the study of financial markets’ dynamics.

  10. Averaging of Singularly Perturbed Controlled Stochastic Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Borkar, Vivek Gaitsgory, Vladimir

    2007-09-15

    An averaged system to approximate the slow dynamics of a two timescale nonlinear stochastic control system is introduced. Validity of the approximation is established. Special cases are considered to illustrate the general theory.

  11. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-print Network

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  12. The uncertainty of simple spatial averages using rain gauge networks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.L.; Maliekal, J.A.; Greene, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A technique is presented whereby the standard error of a simple spatial average can be computed given any spatial configuration of measuring sites. The method should improve useful to those wishing to assess the time-averaged performance of a network of rain gauges where the site locations are fixed within the averaging area. It is demonstrated that in addition to the site density and the spatial structure of the measured variable, the spatial geometry of the network with respect to the averaging area must be accounted for in the standard error expression. By incorporating estimates of the long-term population mean in the method, bias and random error in the sample statistics are minimized. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Does subduction zone magmatism produce average continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellam, R. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether present day subduction zone magmatism produces material of average continental crust composition, which perhaps most would agree is andesitic, is addressed. It was argued that modern andesitic to dacitic rocks in Andean-type settings are produced by plagioclase fractionation of mantle derived basalts, leaving a complementary residue with low Rb/Sr and a positive Eu anomaly. This residue must be removed, for example by delamination, if the average crust produced in these settings is andesitic. The author argued against this, pointing out the absence of evidence for such a signature in the mantle. Either the average crust is not andesitic, a conclusion the author was not entirely comfortable with, or other crust forming processes must be sought. One possibility is that during the Archean, direct slab melting of basaltic or eclogitic oceanic crust produced felsic melts, which together with about 65 percent mafic material, yielded an average crust of andesitic composition.

  14. Average harmonic spectrum of the whole-plane SLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutsenko, Igor; Yermolayeva, Oksana

    2013-04-01

    We consider the unbounded version of the whole-plane Schramm-Loewner evolution. Using exact solutions of differential equations for moments of derivatives of conformal mappings, we determine its average integral means beta spectrum.

  15. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture...requirement of the grades, except when nuts are specified as “very well dried...separate determination. (b) Nuts shall be obtained from a...

  16. On the Average Communication Complexity of Asynchronous Distributed Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Tsitsiklis, John

    On the Average Communication Complexity of Asynchronous Distributed Algorithms JOHN N. TSITSIKLIS Foundation (NSF) under grant ECS 85-52419, with matching funds from Bellcore, Inc. and the Draper Laboratory

  17. From diagnosis to home management: nutritional considerations for women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, C L; Brown, L P; York, R; Robbins, D; Swank, A

    1991-01-01

    Each year 90,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with gestational diabetes. The transition from diagnosis to home management is a time of high stress for these women. Anxiety may lead to difficulty with self-care in general and the diabetic diet in particular. Follow-up education by a diabetes educator can help clients plan meals that comply with the nutritional meal plan without disrupting the family's eating habits. The client should be taught to measure portions, to recognize sugar as an ingredient in foods and medicines, and to deal with special occasions such as holiday meals, travel, and illness. If extended home care is not feasible, the creative diabetes educator will devise other educational opportunities, such as home videos, telephone support networks, special childbirth classes for women with gestational diabetes, and luncheon meetings at which nutritionally correct meals are served. PMID:1935552

  18. Collision and average velocity effects on the ratchet pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Benkadda, S.

    2008-03-01

    A ratchet-type average velocity VR appears for test particles moving in a stochastic potential and a magnetic field that is space dependent. This model is developed by including particle collisions and an average velocity. We show that these components of the motion can destroy the ratchet velocity but they also can produce significant increase of VR, depending on the parameters. The amplification of the ratchet pinch is a nonlinear effect that appears in the presence of trajectory eddying.

  19. Average Lorentz self-force from electric field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aashish, Sandeep; Haque, Asrarul

    2015-09-01

    We generalize the derivation of electromagnetic fields of a charged particle moving with a constant acceleration Singal (2011 Am. J. Phys. 79 1036) to a variable acceleration (piecewise constants) over a small finite time interval using Coulomb's law, relativistic transformations of electromagnetic fields and Thomson's construction Thomson (1904 Electricity and Matter (New York: Charles Scribners) ch 3). We derive the average Lorentz self-force for a charged particle in arbitrary non-relativistic motion via averaging the fields at retarded time.

  20. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  1. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...No. FTA-2011-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger...technical information, Gregory Rymarz, Bus Testing Program Manager, Office of Research...Register (76 FR 13850) proposing to amend its bus testing procedures to more accurately...

  2. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Kang, Misun; Voisin, Sophie; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Horita, Juske; Hussey, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  3. Managing the Steam Trap Population 

    E-print Network

    Atlas, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    With a Steam Trap Management Program a plant can expect to achieve a 95% performance level. This is minimally a 30% improvement above the industry norm in North America. The average industrial plant has a 58% performance level. On average, for every...

  4. 5) Management 5) Management

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    5) Management c) Control #12;5) Management c) Control Prioritizing control ­ From Hiebert in Luken & Thieret (1997) · Types of information utilized Ecological impacts #12;5) Management c) Control impacts Economic impacts #12;5) Management c) Control Prioritizing control ­ From Hiebert in Luken

  5. Optical imaging reconstruction using the average value as the reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Motoki; Miwa, Mitsuharu; Yamashita, Yutaka; Tsuchiya, Yutaka

    1997-08-01

    We propose a new algorithm for optical computed tomography (CT) to quantify the absorptive substances in highly scattering media such as human tissues. Our algorithm uses the uniform medium in which scattering and absorption coefficients are equivalent to the average coefficients of the actual object to be measured. In other words, we use an imaginary reference. When the weight function and re-emissions are measurable or can be calculated for the imaginary reference, we can describe the inside structure of the non-uniform object using the deviation of the absorption coefficient from the average value. Since it is difficult to prepare a phantom of which exterior shape and inside structure are identical to that of the real objects, conventional methods cannot be free from the significant errors. The averages of the absorption and scattering coefficients are obtained by measurements such as time-resolved spectroscopy. The weight function and re- missions can be calculated using the average values by a Monte Carlo simulation or a finite difference method. The absolute absorption coefficient is obtained as the sum of the average and the deviation. The validity of our algorithm was confirmed by measuring a tissue-like phantom which contains three different absorbers. We evaluated reconstructed images and confirmed that the new method gives better accuracy in the quantitation of the concentration of absorbing substance and a smaller image distortion. Our results have significant implications for optical CT which quantifies the concentration of absorbing substances accurately without measuring the reference phantom.

  6. Distribution of population averaged observables in stochastic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya

    2014-03-01

    Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function (pgf) of observables and Large Deviation Theory, we calculate the distribution of population averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters and population size. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences for different models. We calculate the skewness and coefficient of variance for pgfs to estimate the sample size required for population average that contains information about gene expression models. This is relevant to experiments where a large number of data points are unavailable.

  7. Model Averaging for Improving Inference from Causal Diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Hamra, Ghassan B.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Vahratian, Anjel

    2015-01-01

    Model selection is an integral, yet contentious, component of epidemiologic research. Unfortunately, there remains no consensus on how to identify a single, best model among multiple candidate models. Researchers may be prone to selecting the model that best supports their a priori, preferred result; a phenomenon referred to as “wish bias”. Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), based on background causal and substantive knowledge, are a useful tool for specifying a subset of adjustment variables to obtain a causal effect estimate. In many cases, however, a DAG will support multiple, sufficient or minimally-sufficient adjustment sets. Even though all of these may theoretically produce unbiased effect estimates they may, in practice, yield somewhat distinct values, and the need to select between these models once again makes the research enterprise vulnerable to wish bias. In this work, we suggest combining adjustment sets with model averaging techniques to obtain causal estimates based on multiple, theoretically-unbiased models. We use three techniques for averaging the results among multiple candidate models: information criteria weighting, inverse variance weighting, and bootstrapping. We illustrate these approaches with an example from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN) study. We show that each averaging technique returns similar, model averaged causal estimates. An a priori strategy of model averaging provides a means of integrating uncertainty in selection among candidate, causal models, while also avoiding the temptation to report the most attractive estimate from a suite of equally valid alternatives. PMID:26270672

  8. Taking Care of You: Self-Care for Family Caregivers

    MedlinePLUS

    First, Care for Yourself On an airplane, an oxygen mask descends in front of you. What do you do? ... are clinically depressed. Taking Responsibility for Your Own Care You cannot stop the impact of a chronic ...

  9. Shriners Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Self Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Carol

    This manual is intended for young people with spinal cord injuries who are receiving rehabilitation services within the Spinal Cord Injury Unit at Shriners Hospital (San Francisco, California). An introduction describes the rehabilitation program, which includes family conferences, an individualized program, an independent living program,…

  10. Taking Care of You: Self-Care for Family Caregivers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... box below shows basic guidelines for good communication. Communication Guidelines Use "I" messages rather than "you" messages. ... listener. Listening is the most important aspect of communication. Tool #5: Asking for and Accepting Help When ...

  11. Self Help/Self Care as a Prevention Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Murelle G.

    Despite differential gender findings in the epidemiology of substance use, only a limited amount of research focuses on the differences in initiation into drug use and antecedent conditions. As part of the awareness of the need for mutual support among African American women, the National Black Women's Health Project, in conjunction with the…

  12. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Most urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ... sure your doctor knows if you could be pregnant before starting the antibiotics. Your doctor may also ...

  13. Latchkey Children: The Child's View of Self Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Thomas J.; Long, Lynette

    In order to specify in detail the nature of the experience of "latchkey" children, 53 children left at home after school without adult supervision and 32 continuously supervised children were interviewed in a study conducted in an all-black, parochial school. Study group subjects were every latchkey child enrolled in grades one through six and…

  14. and Self-care Workshops and Trends Meeting

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    . 10-11:30 Communicate to Collaborate Workshop Discuss collaboration, communication and what communication fosters collaboration Practice presence-based outbound communication and listening; reflect Practice and reflection on our own styles in relationship to caring for self and others Please wear

  15. Designing and evaluating a web-based self-management site for patients with type 2 diabetes - systematic website development and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that patients provide the majority of their own diabetes care, patient self-management training has increasingly become recognized as an important strategy with which to improve quality of care. However, participation in self management programs is low. In addition, the efficacy of current behavioural interventions wanes over time, reducing the impact of self-management interventions on patient health. Web-based interventions have the potential to bridge the gaps in diabetes care and self-management. Methods Our objective is to improve self-efficacy, quality of life, self-care, blood pressure, cholesterol and glycemic control and promote exercise in people with type 2 diabetes through the rigorous development and use of a web-based patient self-management intervention. This study consists of five phases: (1) intervention development; (2) feasibility testing; (3) usability testing; (4) intervention refinement; and (5) intervention evaluation using mixed methods. We will employ evidence-based strategies and tools, using a theoretical framework of self-efficacy, then elicit user feedback through focus groups and individual user testing sessions. Using iterative redesign the intervention will be refined. Once finalized, the impact of the website on patient self-efficacy, quality of life, self-care, HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure and weight will be assessed through a non-randomized observational cohort study using repeated measures modeling and individual interviews. Discussion Increasing use of the World Wide Web by consumers for health information and ongoing revolutions in social media are strong indicators that users are primed to welcome a new era of technology in health care. However, their full potential is hindered by limited knowledge regarding their effectiveness, poor usability, and high attrition rates. Our development and research agenda aims to address these limitations by improving usability, identifying characteristics associated with website use and attrition, and developing strategies to sustain patient use in order to maximize clinical outcomes. PMID:22726578

  16. UK and Canadian perspectives of the effectiveness of mobile diabetes management systems.

    PubMed

    Seto, Emily; Istepanian, Robert S H; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Logan, Alexander; Sungoor, Ala

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile technologies for self-monitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure for diabetes patients is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. This is propelled by the proliferation of the wider usage of mobile phones and other wireless technologies and computing platforms in the healthcare sector. Such technologies can play a pivotal role in chronic disease management and patient self-care. There have been several clinical trials in recent years on mobile diabetes management in UK and Canada. However, no studies to date have addressed and correlated the technological and clinical outcomes concerning the use of mobile chronic disease management systems for diabetes from the UK and Canadian perspectives. In this paper we address some of these correlative issues based on similar clinical trials on mobile type-2 diabetes management systems deployed in these two countries. In particular, the outcomes of these trials supported the use of telemonitoring for effective blood pressure control, but telemonitoring was less effective at managing blood glucose control. Some of the clinical results and challenges are presented together with future work and suggestions that aim to validate a generic platform for mobile diabetes management. PMID:19964700

  17. Exact solution to the averaging problem in cosmology.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, David L

    2007-12-21

    The exact solution of a two-scale Buchert average of the Einstein equations is derived for an inhomogeneous universe that represents a close approximation to the observed universe. The two scales represent voids, and the bubble walls surrounding them within which clusters of galaxies are located. As described elsewhere [New J. Phys. 9, 377 (2007)10.1088/1367-2630/9/10/377], apparent cosmic acceleration can be recognized as a consequence of quasilocal gravitational energy gradients between observers in bound systems and the volume-average position in freely expanding space. With this interpretation, the new solution presented here replaces the Friedmann solutions, in representing the average evolution of a matter-dominated universe without exotic dark energy, while being observationally viable. PMID:18233512

  18. Trapping ultracold atoms in a time-averaged adiabatic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Gildemeister, M.; Nugent, E.; Sherlock, B. E.; Kubasik, M.; Sheard, B. T.; Foot, C. J.

    2010-03-15

    We report an experimental realization of ultracold atoms confined in a time-averaged, adiabatic potential (TAAP). This trapping technique involves using a slowly oscillating ({approx}kHz) bias field to time-average the instantaneous potential given by dressing a bare magnetic potential with a high-frequency ({approx}MHz) magnetic field. The resultant potentials provide a convenient route to a variety of trapping geometries with tunable parameters. We demonstrate the TAAP trap in a standard time-averaged orbiting potential trap with additional Helmholtz coils for the introduction of the radio frequency dressing field. We have evaporatively cooled 5x10{sup 4} atoms of {sup 87}Rb to quantum degeneracy and observed condensate lifetimes of longer than 3 s.

  19. Above-average intelligence and neuropsychological test score performance.

    PubMed

    Horton, A M

    1999-08-01

    Recent studies regarding the effects of above average intelligence and neuropsychological performance have been mixed with Dodrill (1977) suggesting that above-average performances on neuropsychological test scores should not be expected when intellectual abilities are above average and Tremont, Hoffman, Scott and Adams (in press) clearly suggesting better neuropsychological skills in the higher IQ group. This paper described a reanalysis of a previously presented Canadian data-set assembled by Pauker (1980) of three hundred and sixty-three persons (152 males, 211 females) who were administered the core tests of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRNTB) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The results were that subjects with higher intelligence had better neuropsychological test score performances except for the Finger Tapping with the dominant hand test. PMID:10495218

  20. Dynamic averaging and foraging decisions in horses (Equus callabus).

    PubMed

    Devenport, Jill A; Patterson, Megan R; Devenport, Lynn D

    2005-08-01

    The variability of most environments taxes foraging decisions by increasing the uncertainty of the information available. One solution to the problem is to use dynamic averaging, as do some granivores and carnivores. Arguably, the same strategy could be useful for grazing herbivores, even though their food renews and is more homogeneously distributed. Horses (Equus callabus) were given choices between variable patches after short or long delays. When patch information was current, horses returned to the patch that was recently best, whereas those without current information matched choices to the long-term average values of the patches. These results demonstrate that a grazing species uses dynamic averaging and indicate that, like granivores and carnivores, they can use temporal weighting to optimize foraging decisions. PMID:16131264

  1. Exact Solution to the Averaging Problem in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2007-12-01

    The exact solution of a two-scale Buchert average of the Einstein equations is derived for an inhomogeneous universe that represents a close approximation to the observed universe. The two scales represent voids, and the bubble walls surrounding them within which clusters of galaxies are located. As described elsewhere [New J. Phys. 9, 377 (2007)NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/9/10/377], apparent cosmic acceleration can be recognized as a consequence of quasilocal gravitational energy gradients between observers in bound systems and the volume-average position in freely expanding space. With this interpretation, the new solution presented here replaces the Friedmann solutions, in representing the average evolution of a matter-dominated universe without exotic dark energy, while being observationally viable.

  2. INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Svanda, Michal

    2012-11-10

    I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

  3. Time-average TV holography for vibration fringe analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Kalyani, Yanam; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Time-average TV holography is widely used method for vibration measurement. The method generates speckle correlation time-averaged J0 fringes that can be used for full-field qualitative visualization of mode shapes at resonant frequencies of an object under harmonic excitation. In order to map the amplitudes of vibration, quantitative evaluation of the time-averaged fringe pattern is desired. A quantitative evaluation procedure based on the phase-shifting technique used in two beam interferometry has also been adopted for this application with some modification. The existing procedure requires a large number of frames to be recorded for implementation. We propose a procedure that will reduce the number of frames required for the analysis. The TV holographic system used and the experimental results obtained with it on an edge-clamped, sinusoidally excited square aluminium plate sample are discussed.

  4. Creating "Intelligent" Ensemble Averages Using a Process-Based Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Noel; Taylor, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The CMIP5 archive contains future climate projections from over 50 models provided by dozens of modeling centers from around the world. Individual model projections, however, are subject to biases created by structural model uncertainties. As a result, ensemble averaging of multiple models is used to add value to individual model projections and construct a consensus projection. Previous reports for the IPCC establish climate change projections based on an equal-weighted average of all model projections. However, individual models reproduce certain climate processes better than other models. Should models be weighted based on performance? Unequal ensemble averages have previously been constructed using a variety of mean state metrics. What metrics are most relevant for constraining future climate projections? This project develops a framework for systematically testing metrics in models to identify optimal metrics for unequal weighting multi-model ensembles. The intention is to produce improved ("intelligent") unequal-weight ensemble averages. A unique aspect of this project is the construction and testing of climate process-based model evaluation metrics. A climate process-based metric is defined as a metric based on the relationship between two physically related climate variables—e.g., outgoing longwave radiation and surface temperature. Several climate process metrics are constructed using high-quality Earth radiation budget data from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument in combination with surface temperature data sets. It is found that regional values of tested quantities can vary significantly when comparing the equal-weighted ensemble average and an ensemble weighted using the process-based metric. Additionally, this study investigates the dependence of the metric weighting scheme on the climate state using a combination of model simulations including a non-forced preindustrial control experiment, historical simulations, and several radiative forcing Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Ultimately, the goal of the framework is to advise better methods for ensemble averaging models and create better climate predictions.

  5. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Powell, Howard (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  6. AMPERE AVERAGE CURRENT PHOTOINJECTOR AND ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CALAGA,R.; ET AL.

    2004-08-17

    High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. We describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode, an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current and plans for an ERL based on these units.

  7. Light shift averaging in paraffin-coated alkali vapor cells

    E-print Network

    Zhivun, Elena; Sudyka, Julia; Pustelny, Szymon; Patton, Brian; Budker, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Light shifts are an important source of noise and systematics in optically pumped magnetometers. We demonstrate that the long spin coherence time in paraffin-coated cells leads to spatial averaging of the light shifts over the entire cell volume. This renders the averaged light shift independent, under certain approximations, of the light-intensity distribution within the sensor cell. These results and the underlying mechanism can be extended to other spatially varying phenomena in anti-relaxation-coated cells with long coherence times.

  8. Improving the Average Response Time in Collective I/O

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Chen; Sehrish, Saba; Liao, Wei-keng; Choudhary, Alok; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2011-09-21

    In collective I/O, MPI processes exchange requests so that the rearranged requests can result in the shortest file system access time. Scheduling the exchange sequence determines the response time of participating processes. Existing implementations that simply follow the increasing order of file ofsets do not necessary produce the best performance. To minimize the average response time, we propose three scheduling algorithms that consider the number of processes per file stripe and the number of accesses per process. Our experimental results demonstrate improvements of up to 50% in the average response time using two synthetic benchmarks and a high-resolution climate application.

  9. 40 CFR 60.1265 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the appropriate averaging...1265 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the appropriate averaging...section 4.1, to calculate the daily arithmetic average for concentrations of...

  10. Model Averaging in Risk Management with an Application to Futures Markets

    E-print Network

    Pesaran, M. Hashem; Schleicher, C.; Zaffaroni, P.

    ) and the asymmetric dynamic conditional correlation (ADCC(p, q, 1, 1)) of Cappiello, Engle, and Sheppard (2006). We also consider the orthogonal GARCH (O-GARCH(p, q)) of Alexander (2001), the factor GARCH model of Harvey, Ruiz, and Sentana (1992) (factor GARCH(p, q, 1...

  11. Using the Average Landmark Vector Method for Robot Homing

    E-print Network

    Mántaras, Ramon López de

    in real time. Posterior to this first simulated evaluation we plan to test this method on a real robot and such as noise and occlusion. The simulated robot performed really well. Randomly removing 50% of the featuresUsing the Average Landmark Vector Method for Robot Homing Alex GOLDHOORN a,b Arnau RAMISA a,1 Ramón

  12. All above Average: Secondary School Improvement as an Impossible Endeavour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that secondary school improvement in England, when viewed as a system, has become an impossible endeavour. This arises from the conflation of improvement with effectiveness, judged by a narrow range of outcome measures and driven by demands that all schools should somehow be above average. The expectation of comparable…

  13. 40 CFR 63.652 - Emissions averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... miscellaneous process vents that are controlled by a technology that the Administrator or permitting authority agrees has a higher nominal efficiency than the reference control technology. Information on the nominal... emissions average. This must include any Group 1 emission points to which the reference control...

  14. Adaptive Spontaneous Transitions between Two Mechanisms of Numerical Averaging

    PubMed Central

    Brezis, Noam; Bronfman, Zohar Z.; Usher, Marius

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism with which humans estimate numerical averages. Participants were presented with 4, 8 or 16 (two-digit) numbers, serially and rapidly (2 numerals/second) and were instructed to convey the sequence average. As predicted by a dual, but not a single-component account, we found a non-monotonic influence of set-size on accuracy. Moreover, we observed a marked decrease in RT as set-size increases and RT-accuracy tradeoff in the 4-, but not in the 16-number condition. These results indicate that in accordance with the normative directive, participants spontaneously employ analytic/sequential thinking in the 4-number condition and intuitive/holistic thinking in the 16-number condition. When the presentation rate is extreme (10 items/sec) we find that, while performance still remains high, the estimations are now based on intuitive processing. The results are accounted for by a computational model postulating population-coding underlying intuitive-averaging and working-memory-mediated symbolic procedures underlying analytical-averaging, with flexible allocation between the two. PMID:26041580

  15. Adaptive Spontaneous Transitions between Two Mechanisms of Numerical Averaging.

    PubMed

    Brezis, Noam; Bronfman, Zohar Z; Usher, Marius

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism with which humans estimate numerical averages. Participants were presented with 4, 8 or 16 (two-digit) numbers, serially and rapidly (2 numerals/second) and were instructed to convey the sequence average. As predicted by a dual, but not a single-component account, we found a non-monotonic influence of set-size on accuracy. Moreover, we observed a marked decrease in RT as set-size increases and RT-accuracy tradeoff in the 4-, but not in the 16-number condition. These results indicate that in accordance with the normative directive, participants spontaneously employ analytic/sequential thinking in the 4-number condition and intuitive/holistic thinking in the 16-number condition. When the presentation rate is extreme (10 items/sec) we find that, while performance still remains high, the estimations are now based on intuitive processing. The results are accounted for by a computational model postulating population-coding underlying intuitive-averaging and working-memory-mediated symbolic procedures underlying analytical-averaging, with flexible allocation between the two. PMID:26041580

  16. An Efficient Empirical Model for Microwave-Induced Average Temperature

    E-print Network

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    absorbed microwave power and heating time. To illustrate its functionality, the model is used to compute utilizing microwaves as the means of enhancing and accelerating chemical reactions. Microwave heatingAn Efficient Empirical Model for Microwave-Induced Average Temperature of Liquid Cylindrical

  17. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-print Network

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN 2011, in final form 26 May 2012) ABSTRACT Probabilistic forecasts of wind vectors are becoming critical as interest grows in wind as a clean and re- newable source of energy, in addition to a wide range of other

  18. The method of averages applied to the KS differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, O. F., Jr.; Mueller, A. C.; Starke, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    A new approach for the solution of artificial satellite trajectory problems is proposed. The basic idea is to apply an analytical solution method (the method of averages) to an appropriate formulation of the orbital mechanics equations of motion (the KS-element differential equations). The result is a set of transformed equations of motion that are more amenable to numerical solution.

  19. Development of Cognitive Averaging: When Light and Light Make Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Stephan; Wilkening, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined developmental changes in reasoning about intensive quantities--predicting mixture intensity of pairs of liquids with different intensities of red color. Results showed that cognitive averaging in this domain developed late and slowly. Predominating up to 12 years was an extensivity bias, a strong tendency to use rules that…

  20. AVERAGE ANNUAL SOLAR UV DOSE OF THE CONTINENTAL US CITIZEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The average annual solar UV dose of US citizens is not known, but is required for relative risk assessments of skin cancer from UV-emitting devices. We solved this problem using a novel approach. The EPA's "National Human Activity Pattern Survey" recorded the daily ou...