Sample records for average self-care management

  1. Health Care Autonomy in Children with Chronic Conditions: Implications for Self Care and Family Management

    PubMed Central

    Beacham, Barbara L.; Deatrick, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Health care autonomy typically occurs during late adolescence but health care providers and families often expect children with chronic health conditions to master self-care earlier. Few studies have examined the development of health care autonomy as it pertains to self-care and family management. This review will link the three concepts and discuss implications for families and health care providers. Case studies are provided as exemplars to highlight areas where intervention and research is needed. PMID:23659815

  2. Symptom Perceptions and Self-care Behaviors in Patients Who Self-manage Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Katherine M.; Ercole, Patrick M.; Peek, Gina M.; Smith, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with heart failure (HF) are at heightened risk for acute exacerbation requiring hospitalization. Although timely reporting of symptoms can expedite outpatient treatment and avoid the need for hospitalization, few patients recognize and respond to symptoms until acutely ill. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore patients’ perceptions of symptoms and self-care behaviors for symptom relief, leading up to a HF hospitalization. Methods To examine prehospitalization symptom scenarios, semistructured interviews were conducted with 60 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. Results Thirty-seven patients (61.7%) said that they had a sense that “something just wasn’t quite right” before their symptoms began but were unable to specify further. Signs and symptoms most often recognized by the patients were related to dyspnea (85%), fatigue (53.3%), and edema (41.7%). Few patients interpreted their symptoms as being related to worsening HF and most often attributed symptoms to changes in diet (18.3%) and medications (13.3%). Twenty-six patients (43.3%) used self-care strategies to relieve symptoms before hospital admission. More than 40% of the patients had symptoms at least 2 weeks before hospitalization. Conclusions Despite the wide dissemination of HF evidence-based guidelines, important components of symptom self-management remain suboptimal. Because most of HF self-management occurs in the postdischarge environment, research is needed that identifies how patients interpret symptoms of HF in the specific contexts in which patients self-manage their HF. These findings suggest the need for interventions that will help patients expeditiously recognize, accurately interpret, and use appropriate and safe self-care strategies for symptoms. PMID:24335834

  3. From Self-care for Healthy People to Self-management for Cancer Patients with Cancer Portals.

    PubMed

    Azadmanjir, Zahra; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Self-care to prevent cancer and self-management to cope with the disease are two discrete effective mechanisms for improving of control and management of neoplasia. Both them have certain strategies and practices. Often the two are used interchangeably despite their different approaches. Strategies of self-care usually refer to prevention at different levels include primary, secondary and tertiary. In contrast, strategies of self-management are related to management and alleviation of unpleasant cancer-related symptoms and treatment-related side effects for improving the quality of life of cancer survivors. Successful promoting of self-care and self-management strategies need people and survivor empowerment. Within this context, innovative approaches open a new window. In this paper after a brief review of related strategies and practices, we provide an explanation of how cancer portals may play an important role in the empowerment process and what are key potentials for implementing of self- care and self-management strategies for cancer. PMID:25743792

  4. Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…

  5. How Technology in Care at Home Affects Patient Self-Care and Self-Management: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, José M.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Friele, Roland D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of technology in care at home has potential benefits such as improved quality of care. This includes greater focus on the patients’ role in managing their health and increased patient involvement in the care process. The objective of this scoping review is to analyse the existing evidence for effects of technology in home-based care on patients’ self-care and self-management. Using suitable search terms we searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Picarta and NIVEL dating from 2002 to 2012. Thirty-three studies (six review studies and twenty-seven individual studies) were selected. Effects were extracted from each study and were classified. In almost all the studies, the concepts self-care and self-management are not clearly defined or operationalized. Therefore, based on a meta-analysis, we made a new classification of outcome measures, with hierarchical levels: (1) competence (2) illness-management (3) independence (social participation, autonomy). In general, patient outcomes appear to be positive or promising, but most studies were pilot studies. We did not find strong evidence that technology in care at home has (a positive) effect on patient self-care and self-management according to the above classification. Future research is needed to clarify how technology can be used to maximize its benefits. PMID:24173139

  6. Cognitive self-care skills: a model for managing stressful lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Brenda L

    2002-06-01

    Feeling overwhelmed or overloaded and frequently experiencing anxiety, anger, guilt, and/or frustration is preventable and amenable to personal control. It takes self-awareness and lots of practice to modify long established ways of thinking about one's self and others. It is often helpful to have someone who will support identified goals to improve stress-reducing resources; to help with developing a sensitivity to self-generated stress-inducing demands; and/or to rehearse cognitive stress-reducing, self-care skills. The cognitive self-care skills outlined herein are powerful stress-reducing resources that can prevent psychological stress and that can promote a sense of wellness. PMID:12389269

  7. Acne - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Acne vulgaris - self-care; Cystic acne - self-care; Pimples - self-care; Zits - self-care ... Zaenglein AL, Thiboutot DM. Acne vulgaris. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, et al, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 36.

  8. Creating 'good' self-managers?: Facilitating and governing an online self care skills training course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Kennedy; Anne Rogers; Caroline Sanders; Claire Gately; Victoria Lee

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In chronic disease management, patients are increasingly called upon to undertake a new role as lay tutors within self-management training programmes. The internet constitutes an increasingly significant healthcare setting and a key arena for self-management support and communication. This study evaluates how a new quasi-professional health workforce – volunteer tutors – engage, guide and attempt to manage people with

  9. Telehealth for Persons with Severe Functional Disabilities and their Caregivers: Facilitating Self-care Management in the Home Setting

    PubMed Central

    Forducey, Pamela G.; Glueckauf, Robert L.; Bergquist, Thomas; Maheu, Marlene M.; Yutsis, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Persons with severe functional disabilities are the highest users of health care services. Caring for the needs of this population represents a significant percentage of our national health care costs. A growing body of research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-management strategies and caregiver engagement for effective long-term care for individuals with chronic medical conditions. Economic forces over the past decade have led to new challenges and resulted in major changes in health care delivery resulting in shortened length of inpatient stays and greater limits on the length of outpatient treatment. Telehealth is an innovative method for health care delivery and a means of meeting this new challenge. This paper highlights the findings of three pilot studies on the use of telecommunications technologies in promoting self-care management and enhancing health care outcomes in persons with severe disabilities and their family caregivers. The importance of matching technology to the needs of this population, lessons learned from these investigations, and future directions for research are addressed. PMID:22662729

  10. Self care in patients with chronic heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Lee; Victoria Vaughan Dickson; Barbara Riegel

    2011-01-01

    'Heart failure self care' refers to the practices in which patients engage to maintain their own health, and to the decisions that they make about managing signs or symptoms. In this article, we base our discussion of self care in chronic heart failure on the classification of patients as being 'expert', inconsistent', or 'novice' in heart failure self-care behaviors. The

  11. The Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ): development and evaluation of an instrument to assess diabetes self-care activities associated with glycaemic control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though several questionnaires on self-care and regimen adherence have been introduced, the evaluations do not always report consistent and substantial correlations with measures of glycaemic control. Small ability to explain variance in HbA1c constitutes a significant limitation of an instrument’s use for scientific purposes as well as clinical practice. In order to assess self-care activities which can predict glycaemic control, the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ) was designed. Methods A 16 item questionnaire to assess self-care activities associated with glycaemic control was developed, based on theoretical considerations and a process of empirical improvements. Four subscales, ‘Glucose Management’ (GM), ‘Dietary Control’ (DC), ‘Physical Activity’ (PA), and ‘Health-Care Use’ (HU), as well as a ‘Sum Scale’ (SS) as a global measure of self-care were derived. To evaluate its psychometric quality, 261 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes were assessed with the DSMQ and an established analogous scale, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure (SDSCA). The DSMQ’s item and scale characteristics as well as factorial and convergent validity were analysed, and its convergence with HbA1c was compared to the SDSCA. Results The items showed appropriate characteristics (mean item-total-correlation: 0.46 ± 0.12; mean correlation with HbA1c: -0.23 ± 0.09). Overall internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was good (0.84), consistencies of the subscales were acceptable (GM: 0.77; DC: 0.77; PA: 0.76; HU: 0.60). Principal component analysis indicated a four factor structure and confirmed the designed scale structure. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated appropriate fit of the four factor model. The DSMQ scales showed significant convergent correlations with their parallel SDSCA scales (GM: 0.57; DC: 0.52; PA: 0.58; HU: n/a; SS: 0.57) and HbA1c (GM: -0.39; DC: -0.30; PA: -0.15; HU: -0.22; SS: -0.40). All correlations with HbA1c were significantly stronger than those obtained with the SDSCA. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that the DSMQ is a reliable and valid instrument and enables an efficient assessment of self-care behaviours associated with glycaemic control. The questionnaire should be valuable for scientific analyses as well as clinical use in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:23937988

  12. From Cues to Action: Information Seeking and Exercise Self-Care among Older Adults Managing Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Pak Hei Benedito; Wister, Andrew V.

    2005-01-01

    Drawing from the health belief model, cues to action have been theorized to influence health behaviours; however, few studies have examined these constructs explicitly. This study investigated the relationship between information cues to action and exercise self-care. It was hypothesized that reading about illness information, knowing about…

  13. Structural role of perceived benefits and barriers to self-care in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mohebi, Siamak; Azadbakht, Leila; Feizi, Avat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kargar, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Goal: In diseases and disorders such as diabetes, treatment and disease management depends mostly on patient's performance. So, self-care is very important in these patients and they can affect their own welfare, functional capabilities, and disease processes by achieving self-care skills. Nowadays, we know that self care follows individual, psychological and social factors which its recognition can assist health care providing systems to carry out educational programs. This study aimed to investigate the role of perceived benefits and barriers in doing self-care behaviors among diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a narrative review and articles with sectional, cohort, and interventional, clinical trial, qualitative and narrative designs were chosen using databases and academic search engines such as PubMed, SCOPUS, ProQuest, Elsevier and key words like self-care diabetes, perceived benefits and barriers. Persian articles were also selected using databases like IRANMEDEX, MEDLIB, as well as searching the articles in sites of domestic scientific magazines. Results: Reviewed articles’ findings show the average situation of perceived benefits and barriers in diabetic patients regarding self-care. Qualified blood sugar (glucose) control, weight control, happiness feeling and expenses reduction are the most important perceived benefits. The most significant perceived barriers in self-care consist of lack of family support, shame feeling, forgetfulness and not being able to ignore foods’ flavor. Conclusion: Perceived benefits and barriers, as central constructs in some patterns and theories of behavior change, were related to self-care, so that it was directly related to perceived benefits and reversely related to perceived barriers. Therefore, these two constructs can be considered as strategies for promoting self-care behaviors in diabetic patients. PMID:24083287

  14. Shin splints - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leg pain - self-care; Pain - shins - self-care; Anterior tibial pain - self-care; Medial tibial stress syndrome - self-care; ... 57:406-408. Bederka B, Amendola A. Leg pain and exertional compartment syndromes. In: DeLee JC, Drez D, Jr., Miller ...

  15. Blood Sugar and Brothers' Voices: An Exploratory Study Of The Self-Care Management Experiences of African-American Men Living With Type 2 Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Sherman, Ledric D

    2013-07-23

    Self-care is the key to living a long and healthy life for people with diabetes. Yet numerous studies show that self-care is far from optimal. This has resulted in attempts to understand the progress underlying self-care behavior in the efforts...

  16. Perspectives on Self-Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isha D. Williams; Tenille A. Richardson; Darren D. Moore; Laura Eubanks Gambrel; Margaret L. Keeling

    2010-01-01

    Self-care for clinicians is much needed. To discover ways to implement self-care into our lives, we (four therapists) tried different self-care methods over a span of one to two weeks. After using practices that explored self-care through mindfulness meditation, autohypnosis, music, and spirituality, we wrote about the outcome of these experiences on our personal lives and our interactions with clients.

  17. Patient-Centered Outcomes of Diabetes Self-Care Associations with Satisfaction and General Health in a Community Clinic Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger T. Anderson; Rajesh Balkrishnan; Fabian Camacho; Ronny Bell; Vanessa Duren-Winfield; David Goff

    Background: Despite the recognition of strategies for diabetes care management, information systems that screen patient diabetes self-care problems are not commonplace, especially among low-income patients. This study examined correlates of three patient- centered outcomes of diabetes self-care (awareness of self-care components, difficulties in diabetes self-care, and adherence to self- care) among low-income diabetic patients. Methods: Clinical and patient survey data

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MY HEALTH COMPANION© TO ENHANCE SELF-CARE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC HEALTH CONDITIONS IN RURAL DWELLERS

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley; Kinion, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate self-management support is needed to help individuals and their families meet the challenges of living with chronic health conditions. Such support is characterized by productive interactions between informed, active individuals and their health care providers. The purposes of this paper are to describe the challenges to achieving self-management support and a tool, My Health Companion© (MHC), which was developed to meet that challenge. The MHC is a paper personal health record designed to help rural women with chronic health conditions to better manage and understand their health information. The selection of content for the MHC was based on the literature, input from health care experts, and chronically ill individuals, and its development incorporated principles of personal health records and clear communication. The MHC was anecdotally shown to be useful to rural women with chronic health conditions in preparing for and enhancing their visits with health care providers. As a source of information, the MHC had potential for: being beneficial to providers in recommending appropriate treatment; contributing to more informed health decision making by ill individuals; and serving as a vehicle for the establishment of more productive interactions that contributed to the achievement of true client-provider partnerships in health care. PMID:20525099

  19. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    A skin graft is a piece of healthy skin removed from one area of your body to repair damaged or ... Autograft - self-care; Skin transplant - self-care; Split-skin graft - self-care; Full thickness skin graft - self-care; ...

  20. Randomised controlled trial to determine the benefit of daily home-based exercise in addition to self-care in the management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Eunice; Wiseman, Theresa

    2013-04-01

    Exercise is considered to be a key aspect of lymphoedema treatment, although there is little evidence for the therapeutic effect of exercise in managing breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL). This small randomised controlled trial (RCT) was designed to determine the feasibility, prior to undertaking a larger RCT, of researching a daily home-based exercise programme to treat stable BCRL. An experimental design compared the exercise intervention combined with standard lymphoedema self-care to self-care alone over a 6-month period. Twenty-three women with stable unilateral BCRL of ?10 % excess limb volume (ELV) were randomly allocated to a daily home-based exercise programme and self-care (n?=?11) or self-care measures alone (n?=?12). The primary objective was to determine difference in limb volume reduction for the two groups. Secondary objectives were to monitor change in other areas that impact BCRL: quality of life, arm function and range of shoulder movement. All 23 women completed the trial, providing full data for each time point. The intervention group showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement in relative ELV at week 26 (95 % confidence interval (CI) -26.57 to -5.12), whereas the control group improvement crossed the line of no effect (95 %CI -17.71 to 1.1). This study demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a RCT of exercise as a therapeutic intervention in the management of BCRL. Although the sample was small, the results support the findings of other exercise studies which have shown trends towards improvement. PMID:23073712

  1. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a national lay-led self care support programme for patients with long-term conditions: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Kennedy; David Reeves; Peter Bower; Victoria Lee; Elizabeth Middleton; Gerry Richardson; Caroline Gardner; Claire Gately; Anne Rogers

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Supporting patients’ self care could have a major effect on the management of long-term conditions, which has led to worldwide interest in effective self care interventions. In England, self care support is being developed through the “Expert Patients Programme”, which provides lay-led generic courses to improve patients’ self care skills. However, the clinical and cost effectiveness of such courses

  2. Animal bites - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    An animal bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. Animal bites that break the skin put you at ... Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ...

  3. Human bites - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    A human bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. Human bites that break the skin can be very ... Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in two ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ...

  4. Investigation the Relationship Between Self-Care and Readmission in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Ali; Mohammad-Aliha, Jaleh; Ansari-Ramandi, Mohammadmostafa; Naderi, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with unpredictably increased prevalence of hospital admissions. Self-care is one of the most important aspects of management for patients with CHF. Self-care adequacy has led to increased satisfaction, independence in daily activities, reduced stress, and morbidity. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between self-care behavior and readmission rate in patients with heart failure. Patients and Methods: A total of 287 patients with a diagnosis of systolic CHF with a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 35% admitted for acute heart failure were enrolled. The self-care behavior was assessed using SCHFI questionnaires that have three domains (self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence). An acquired score greater than 70 was considered as proper self-care index. The study population was followed over three months after discharge for readmission. Results: This study showed that self-care behavior was improper in our study population. More than 75% of patients had a score less than 70 in the different domains for self-care. The multivariable regression analyses showed a significant relationship between self-care management (ß = 1.6, P = 0.006, OR (CI) = 2.66 (1.37-5.1) and self-care confidence (ß = 0.9, P = 0.02, OR (CI) = 2.01 (1.1-3.68) and readmission rate. Conclusions: We concluded that a good administration program such as education and a surveillance plan for the improvement of self-care behaviors would reduce hospital readmissions in patients with heart failure. PMID:25785253

  5. Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bobbie Person; David G Addiss; L Kay Bartholomew; Cecilia Meijer; Victor Pou; Bart van den Borne

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema

  6. Integrating Self-Care into Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Lois Casden

    1998-01-01

    A mental-health curriculum in a nursing school was revised to include a self-care focus using group process and psychoeducational approaches. Course components include theory, a lab involving self-care concepts and activities, and clinical time in which self-care is practiced through interaction with patients. (SK)

  7. Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). Design A one-year follow-up study. Setting A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?45%). Main outcome measures Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Results Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p?self-care management (p?self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up. PMID:25396055

  8. Enhancing self-care parenting.

    PubMed

    Abegglen, J A; Schwartz, R

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between parents and infants is contingent upon the parents' understanding of their infant's behavior and what the infant is trying to communicate through specific behaviors. The Synactive Model of Newborn Behavioral Organization and Development provides a theoretical base to identify and classify infant behaviors. Parents need to have an understanding of sleep/wake states, infant behaviors, and infant cues in order to have a positive parenting experience. The advanced practice nurse has the opportunity to educate parents regarding their infants' behaviors and appropriate interventions, which can lead to increased parental confidence, competence in interacting with their infants, and positive self-care parenting. PMID:9447033

  9. Making self-care a priority for women at risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Radina, M Elise; Armer, Jane M; Stewart, Bob R

    2014-05-01

    Estimates suggest that between 41% and 94% of breast cancer survivors may develop the chronic condition of secondary lymphedema at some point during their lifetimes. Self-care is critical for effective lymphedema management and risk-reduction. At the same time, women in general have been characterized as engaging in self-sacrificing behaviors in which they choose other-care over self-care. This study explored the self-care experiences of women with breast cancer within the contexts of complex and demanding familial and work-related responsibilities. Participants (N=14) were enrolled in a behavioral-educational intervention aimed at lymphedema risk-reduction. This feminist family theory-informed secondary analysis of qualitative data focused on women's familial roles and the balance or lack of balance between self-sacrifice and self-care. Findings included participants' struggles with time management and prioritizing self-care over care of others as well as making a commitment to self-care. Findings have implications for patient and family-level education and research with regard to gender role-based barriers to self-care and self-care within complex social contexts. PMID:24476674

  10. Cardiovascular Disease Self-Care Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Yoon, Hye-Won; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Chyun, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n = 34) that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012) were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57%) and Caucasian (67%) dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential. PMID:24223305

  11. Instantaneous Average Active Power Measurement For Building Energy Management System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Micheletti; R. Pieri

    Fast and accurate measurement of the instantaneous average active power is useful for building Energy Management System (EMS) in order to assure quality of service such as continuity, optimize energy consumption and reduce carbon dioxide emission. In this paper the problems connected to the measurement of the instantaneous average active power for energy usage improving are discussed, also as the

  12. Mental health nurses' and allied health professionals' perceptions of the role of the Occupational Health Service in the management of work-related stress: how do they self-care?

    PubMed

    Gibb, J; Cameron, I M; Hamilton, R; Murphy, E; Naji, S

    2010-11-01

    Higher rates of stress-related sickness are found in health care professionals when compared with other sectors. The annual direct cost of absence to the National Health Service is £1.7 billion. Increased clinical demand, long hours, low staffing and a lack of support from colleagues and management are contributing to absenteeism, somatic complaints and mental health problems. Mental health work is inherently stressful and levels of work stress experienced by mental health nurses are especially high. The study investigated mental health nurses' and allied health professionals' (AHPs) awareness and knowledge of the service provided by the Occupational Health Service (OHS) and identified work-related stress and self-care strategies within these two groups. Nurses and AHP staff employed in mental health services in a Scottish healthboard area were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Results demonstrated that staff found their contact with the OHS to be a positive experience. They considered direct patient care to be less stressful than the organizational constraints they work under, and they reported a lack of support from both their peer groups and management. There should be recognition of the increased stress that hospital-based nurses and AHPs experience. These areas should be scrutinized and reviewed further to support staff within these environments in accordance with organizational objectives. PMID:21040230

  13. Self-Care Recommendations of Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jenerette, Coretta M.; Brewer, Cheryl; Leak, Ashley N.

    2011-01-01

    Self-care management is an important part of living with a chronic illness. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic disease with acute, painful exacerbations that often results in a shortened life expectancy. Some middle-aged and older adults with SCD lived with the disease prior to having a diagnosis and without modern advances. The purpose of this study is to share the self-care recommendations of middle-aged and older adults with SCD. Using descriptive qualitative methods, data were gathered through semistructured interviews from 11 individuals living with SCD, including 6 women and 5 men. Self-care recommendations themes included physiological, psychological, and provider-related. The self-care recommendations may be seen as an additional resource or “words of wisdom” for younger adults with SCD who can use the recommendations to better manage their own disease. Additionally, providers may be able to use these recommendations to inform their practice. PMID:21994819

  14. AVERAGING OF DISPERSION-MANAGED SOLITONS: EXISTENCE AND STABILITY

    E-print Network

    Zharnitsky, Vadim

    AVERAGING OF DISPERSION-MANAGED SOLITONS: EXISTENCE AND STABILITY DMITRY E. PELINOVSKY AND VADIM­776 Abstract. We consider existence and stability of dispersion-managed solitons in the two ap- proximations of the periodic nonlinear Schr¨odinger (NLS) equation: (i) a dynamical system for a Gaussian pulse and (ii

  15. Diabetes self-care: Lessons from research on the family and broader contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    The foundation of diabetes management is the self-care behavior of the patient. All of the systems within which the person\\u000a with diabetes interacts, as well as the media and broader social and cultural values, affect this self-care behavior. In this\\u000a article I focus on recent research that has examined the link between relationships in the patient’s intimate network (ie,\\u000a family

  16. Constructing the moral body: self-care among older adults with multiple chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Bennett, Erica V

    2013-05-01

    Older adults are increasingly living with and managing multiple chronic conditions. The self-management of illness occurs in a social and political context in which the responsibility for health has shifted from the State to the individual, who is expected to be an active consumer of health care. Although there has been extensive investigation of the management of single chronic conditions, the realities of living with multiple morbidities have largely been ignored, particularly among older adults. Addressing this gap, our study entailed in-depth interviews with 35 older Canadian adults, aged 73 to 91, who had between three and 14 chronic conditions. Self-care emerged as a primary means by which our participants managed their illnesses. Specifically, all of our participants were engaged in some form of self-care in order to cope with often debilitating physical symptoms and functional losses. They also utilized self-care because they had reached the limits of available medical treatment options. Finally, our participants argued that self-care was a moral responsibility that was underscored by gendered motivations. Whereas the men tended to emphasize the importance of self-care for the achievement of masculine ideals of control and invulnerability, the women suggested that self-care allowed them to maintain feminine norms of selflessness and sensitivity to the needs of others. In this way, self-care enabled the men and women to reframe their aging, chronically ill bodies as moral, socially valued bodies. We discuss our findings in relation to the extant research and theorizing pertaining to self-care, gender, and healthism. PMID:22773552

  17. Effects of the Use of a Heart Failure Diary on Self-Care and Quality of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudette Walker

    2011-01-01

    Heart Failure is a growing and costly problem in the United States. There have been advancements in medical therapy, but unfortunately patients continue to have frequent exacerbations and hospital readmissions. The reason for this may be inadequate Heart Failure self-care, which is the most important aspect of disease management. Literature strongly encourages self-care, but there is minimal research focusing on

  18. Young People's Participation in the Development of a Self-Care Intervention--A Multi-Site Formative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kime, Nicola; McKenna, Jim; Webster, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The poor outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions indicate that current services and self-care programmes are not meeting the needs of young people. How young people self-manage their condition impacts on long-term health outcomes, but there is little published evidence that details the development of self-care programmes and their…

  19. Effective Intervention of Self-Care on Glycaemia Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zareban, Iraj; Niknami, Shamsodina; Hidarnia, Alireza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Karimy, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the most common diseases, which requires lifelong self-care to improve the quality of life. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the impact of self-care education programs on reducing HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: The current experimental study was conducted on 138 female patients with type 2 diabetes in Zahedan city, Iran. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire which included items on demographics, awareness, beliefs, Self-care behaviors. Before the educational intervention, the (HbA1c) test check list was completed for the patients in both groups. Then the training was applied for the intervention group in five 60-minute educational sessions within one month. Three months following the training, the data collection based on the check list was repeated for both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean scores of awareness, beliefs, Self-care behaviors of the educational group, were 46.6 ± 8.57, 46.5 ± 0.86 and 29.06 ± 10.02, respectively; and it was found that after the education, knowledge, attitude, and self-care scores increased significantly (P < 0.001 Before the training, the scores of self-care, beliefs, and awareness were less than average in the intervention and control groups. In addition, the levels of HbA1c in the patients were higher than the normal levels. Following the intervention, the mean of self-care and HbA1c of the intervention group significantly reduced as compared with those of the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-care training instructions led to improve knowledge, attitude, and performance of the subjects under study and also the average HbA1c. Therefore, the nurses and health care staff should be educated accordingly.

  20. Self-Care After Disasters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinical Trainees (Academic Affiliations) Academic Affiliations Home Trainee Information Employees & Contractors Talent Management System (TMS) VA Learning University (VALU) SimLearn VHA National ...

  1. Implementing a community-based self care training initiative: a process evaluation.

    PubMed

    South, Jane; Darby, Frances; Bagnall, Anne-Marie; White, Alan

    2010-11-01

    Within the UK, there is growing recognition that individuals will need to take increased responsibility for managing their own health for there to be improvements in population health. The current evidence base on self care interventions reflects an interest in enhancing self care knowledge, skills and behaviour in relation to the management of long-term conditions. In contrast, this paper reports on a community-based self care initiative that was designed to promote self care approaches in the general population. The principal component was a self care skills training course delivered to groups of lay people in community and workplace settings. Self Care for People was piloted in three primary care trusts and a process evaluation was undertaken. The aim of this paper is to examine the feasibility, relevance and acceptability of the initiative. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a sample of stakeholders involved in implementation including coordinators, trainers and key informants from organisations hosting the course. In total 40 interviews and two focus groups were conducted from 2006 to 2008 and the data were analysed thematically. The evaluation found that implementation was relatively straightforward with few major barriers reported. Recruitment to the self care skills training course took place in both workplace and community group settings, including in organisations supporting socially excluded groups. The course was seen to provide a valuable space for contemplation on personal health, however, participation could raise sensitive issues that needed to be dealt with by skilled facilitators. Motivations for involvement differed markedly in host organisations and different strategies for marketing were adopted. The paper concludes by suggesting that while Self Care for People was both feasible and relevant to different stakeholder groups, there needs to be flexibility in responding to the needs of participants in different settings. PMID:20637043

  2. College Student Self-Care Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Dintiman, George B.

    The purpose of this docoment is to help college students maintain health by keeping a weekly diary of health related behaviors including diet, exercise, and stress levels. In addition each weekly entry presents a self-care tip for health improvement. Discussions of the college student and health, health and lifestyle, instructions on use of the…

  3. Evolution of Self-Care Education

    PubMed Central

    Ambizas, Emily M.; Bastianelli, Karen M.S.; Ferreri, Stefanie P.; Haines, Seena L.; Stutz, Misty M.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Wilhelm, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the curriculum content for nonprescription medication and self-care therapeutics has expanded significantly. Self-care courses ranging from stand-alone, required courses to therapeutic content and skills laboratories, have evolved in colleges and schools of pharmacy to accommodate rapid changes related to nonprescription medications and to meet the needs of students. The design of and content delivery methods used in self-care courses vary among institutions. Teaching innovations such as team-based learning, role playing/vignettes, videos, and social media, as well as interdisciplinary learning have enhanced delivery of this content. Given that faculty members train future pharmacists, they should be familiar with the new paradigms of Nonprescription Safe Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE) Initiative, nonprescription medications for chronic diseases, and the growing trends of health and wellness in advancing patient-care initiatives. This paper reviews the significant changes that may be impacting self-care curriculums in the United States. PMID:24672061

  4. Experiences of Burnout, Self-Care, and Recovery of Female University Counsellors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the burnout, self-care, and recovery experiences of female university counsellors working at a university counselling centre in Taiwan. The 9 participants had an average age of 42.44 years and had worked at the centre for an average of 11.3 years. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth…

  5. Self-Care Strategies to Cope With Taste Changes After Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rehwaldt, Maureen; Wickham, Rita; Purl, Sandy; Tariman, Joseph; Blendowski, Carol; Shott, Susan; Lappe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe factors related to taste changes, to examine patients’ use of a self-care suggestion sheet to manage taste changes associated with chemotherapy, and to identify potentially useful strategies for managing specific taste changes after chemotherapy. Design Quasi-experimental, pre/post design. Setting Four outpatient urban and suburban oncology centers in Illinois. Sample 42 patients who had received at least two cycles of chemotherapy previously identified to be associated with taste changes. Methods Pre- and postintervention survey of taste changes; patient education regarding self-care for taste changes. Main Research Variables Taste changes, taste change strategies, and self-care. Findings Most patients that reported taste changes had affected their ability to eat. Taste changes and strategies varied somewhat according to chemotherapy regimen. Avoiding strong-smelling or -tasting foods, eating blander foods, drinking more water with foods, oral care before eating, and eating smaller, more frequent meals were reported to help. Conclusions Taste changes are common in patients receiving cisplatin, carboplatin, or cyclophosphamide. At-risk patients may benefit from prechemotherapy teaching regarding specific taste change management suggestions. Use of a taste change suggestion sheet encouraged self-care, and counseling patients regarding strategies to deal with taste changes may help them during chemotherapy. Implications for Nursing Nurses should incorporate patient education tools that promote self-care regarding the management of taste changes in patients with known factors that could affect taste early in their chemotherapy. PMID:19273394

  6. Complementary Self-Care Strategies for Healthy Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sondra

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on alternative self-care practices in terms of collaboration with the primary care physician and individual exploration of self-care practices such as acupuncture, meditation, and nutrition counseling. (JOW)

  7. Teaching Counselors Self-Care through Mindfulness Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Sandy; Christopher, John Chambers; Dahlen, Penny; Christopher, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Few counseling programs directly address the importance of self-care in reducing stress and burnout in their curricula. A course entitled Mind/Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care was created to address personal and professional growth opportunities through self-care and mindfulness practices (meditation, yoga, gong, and conscious relaxation…

  8. Impact of Reinforcement of Diabetes Self-Care on Poorly Controlled Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Fitzgerald, Shane M.; Brooks, Kelly M.; Hultgren, Brittney A.; Ganda, Om P.; Munshi, Medha; Weinger, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to assess the value of reinforcing diabetes self-management for improving glycemia and self-care among adults with type 2 diabetes who had at least three hours of prior diabetes education. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 134 participants (75% White, 51% female, 59±9 years old, 13±8 years with diabetes, A1C=8.4±1.2%) were randomized to either a group map-based program (Intervention) or group education on cholesterol and blood pressure (Control). Participants were assessed for A1C levels, diabetes self-care behaviors (3-day pedometer readings, 6-minute walk test, blood glucose checks, frequency of self-care), and psychosocial factors (distress, frustration, quality of life) at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-intervention and health literacy at baseline. Results Groups did not differ on baseline characteristics including A1C levels, health literacy, or self-care; however, the Intervention group had more years of education than Controls. Intervention arm participants modestly improved A1C levels at 3 months post-intervention but did not maintain that improvement at 6 and 12 months while Control patients did not improve A1C levels at any time during follow-up. Importantly, frequency of self-reported self-care, diabetes quality of life, diabetes-related distress and frustration with diabetes self-care improved in both groups over time. Conclusions Reinforcing self-care with diabetes education for patients who have not met glycemic targets helps improve A1C and could be considered a necessary component of ongoing diabetes care. The best method to accomplish reinforcement needs to be established. PMID:23640303

  9. Neighborhood Crime and Self-Care: Risks for Aggression and Lower Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Heather; Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated associations among official rates of neighborhood crime, academic performance, and aggression in a sample of 581 children in 1st-3rd grade (6.3-10.6 years old). It was hypothesized that the influence of crime depends on children's unsupervised exposure to the neighborhood context through self-care. Average weekly…

  10. A PILOT TEST OF AN INTEGRATED SELF-CARE INTERVENTION FOR PERSONS WITH HEART FAILURE AND CONCOMITANT DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Butts, Brittany; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Melinda K.; Ferranti, Erin P.; Culler, Steven D.; Butler, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Studies show 30-47% of persons with heart failure (HF) have concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). Self-care for persons with both of these chronic conditions is conflicting, complex and often inadequate. This pilot study tested an integrated self-care program for its effects on HF and DM knowledge, self-care efficacy, self-care behaviors and Quality of Life (QOL). Hospitalized HF-DM participants (n=71) were randomized to usual care or intervention using a 1:2 allocation and followed at 30 and 90 days after intervention. Intervention was an integrated education and counseling program focused on HF-DM self-care. Variables included demographic and clinical data, knowledge about HF and DM, HF and DM specific self- efficacy, standard HF and DM QOL scales, and HF and DM self-care behaviors. Analysis included descriptive statistics, multilevel longitudinal models for group and time effects, post-hoc testing and effect size calculations. Sidak adjustments were used to control for Type 1 error inflation. The integrated HF-DM self-care intervention conferred effects on improved HF knowledge (30 days, p=.05), HF self-care maintenance (30 and 90 days, p<.001), self-care management (90 days, p=.05), DM self efficacy (30 days, p=.03; 90 days, p=.004), general diet (30 days, p=.05), HF physical QOL (p=.04) and emotional QOL scores (p=.05) at 90 days within the intervention group. UC also reported increased total and physical QOL. Greater percentages of participants in the intervention group improved self reported exercise between 0-30 days (p=.005 and moderate effect size ES=.47), and foot care between 0-90 days (p=.03, small ES=.36). No group differences or improvements in DM specific QOL were observed. An integrated HF-DM self-care intervention was effective in improving essential components of self-care and had sustained (90 day) effects on selected self-care behaviors. Future studies testing HF-DM integrated self-care interventions in larger samples, with longer follow-up, and on other outcomes such as hospitalization and clinical markers are warranted. PMID:24211112

  11. Evaluation of Patients' Education on Foot Self-Care Status in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kafaie, Parichehr; Noorbala, Mohamad Taghi; Soheilikhah, Sedigheh; Rashidi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin problems caused by neuropathy and antipathy are common manifestations of diabetes. The most serious about such problem is the diabetic foot, which may lead to eventual ulceration and amputation, and will decrease a patient’s quality of life dramatically. Objectives The aim of this study is to assess the level of foot self-care and foot conditions in diabetic patients, and to demonstrate the role of self-care education in diabetic foot care. Patients and Methods A total of 80 diabetic patients were included in the study, all of whom had referred to "Yazd Diabetic Research Center." The levels of their foot self-care were recorded in pre-test questionnaires, and then all of the patients were visited and educated by a Dermatologist for their foot self-care on a monthly basis, after which their post-test results were recorded through a second administration of the same questionnaire. Eventually, data from the pre and post-test questionnaires were analyzed to identify the possible effects of education. Results A total of 80 diabetic patients (34 males, 46 females) with a mean average age of 53.53 ± 10.19 and mean average duration of diabetes 12.42 ± 6.73 years were assessed. A significant increase in foot self-care through education was observed (baseline 27.06 ± 8.77, vs. post education 43.12 ± 8.77; P = 0.0001). After education, foot and nail lesions improved completely in 84% and 62.8%. Moreover, 77.8% of patients had suitable shoes and 79.6% had suitable socks. Conclusions Our findings showed that foot self-care education could improve knowledge and performance of patients about various foot problems, and was significantly important in preventing ulcers. PMID:23482390

  12. Using the Open Airways Curriculum to Improve Self-Care for Third Grade Children with Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sharon D.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of a school-based asthma management program, which featured brief class sessions, for improving the knowledge and self-care of third graders with asthma and increasing parents' awareness. Pre- and postintervention parent and student surveys indicated that brief class sessions were feasible, and children demonstrated increased…

  13. Oral Health Self-Care Behaviors of Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Kohrman, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This analysis describes the dental self-care behaviors used by a multi-ethnic sample of older adults, and it delineates the associations of self-care behaviors with personal characteristics and oral health problems. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling rural adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Rural older adults engage in a variety of self-care behaviors, including the use of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicine (12.1%), OTC Dental Products (84.3%), Salt (51.0%), Prayer (6.1%), and Complementary Therapies (18.2%). Some gender and ethnic class differences are apparent, with greater use by women of OTC Medicine and Salt, and greater use by African Americans and American Indians of OTC Medicine and OTC Dental Products. Use of dental self-care behaviors appears to be driven by need. Those reporting oral pain, bleeding gums, and dry mouth have a greater odds of engaging in most of the dental self-care behaviors, including use of complementary therapies. Conclusions The major factor leading to the use of self-care behaviors is need. Although oral pain does increase the use of self-care behaviors, so do bleeding gums and dry mouth. Research and practice should address self-care behaviors used for oral health problems in addition to pain. Investigators should expand analysis of dental self-care behavior and the relationship of self-care behavior to the use of professional services. Further research also should explore the use of complementary therapies in dental self-care. PMID:19486460

  14. A Descriptive Analysis of Self-Care Behaviors in Emerging Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Melissa C.; Monaghan, Maureen; Soutor, Sari; Chen, Rusan; Holmes, Clarissa S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate diabetes self-care behaviors, metabolic control, and associated demographic and medical correlates in an understudied sample of emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods Participants included 49 individuals (65% female) aged 18–26 years recruited from two major metropolitan areas and staff from a diabetes summer camp. Participants completed two diabetes interviews to assess daily self-care behaviors and self-report measures of psychosocial adjustment and demographic/medical characteristics. Metabolic control was assessed via HbA1c. Results Most participants (82%) utilized three or more daily insulin injections or an insulin pump. Self-care behaviors varied widely with an average of 2.56 daily blood glucose checks and 3.78 meals/snacks per day. Forty-one percent of participants engaged in daily exercise; just over half were active for 30 minutes or more. Across recall interviews, only 8% (n = 4) met American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations for both blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and daily physical activity. Average metabolic control was 8.25% with 81% of HbA1c values above 7.0%. Psychosocial adjustment was within normal limits and unrelated to self-care. Conclusions Daily diabetes care could be improved within this age group, as a significant percentage did not meet minimal ADA recommendations for disease care and metabolic control. Increased BGM and physical activity is recommended, and BGM should correspond to insulin regimen as well as meal and exercise habits. Emerging adults may benefit from targeted education, training, and behavioral support to enhance self-care behaviors during this critical period. PMID:23396184

  15. Informing the development of services supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health conditions: a mixed method study of community based mental health initiatives in England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Supporting self-care is being explored across health care systems internationally as an approach to improving care for long term conditions in the context of ageing populations and economic constraint. UK health policy advocates a range of approaches to supporting self-care, including the application of generic self-management type programmes across conditions. Within mental health, the scope of self-care remains poorly conceptualised and the existing evidence base for supporting self-care is correspondingly disparate. This paper aims to inform the development of support for self-care in mental health by considering how generic self-care policy guidance is implemented in the context of services supporting people with severe, long term mental health problems. Methods A mixed method study was undertaken comprising standardised psychosocial measures, questionnaires about health service use and qualitative interviews with 120 new referrals to three contrasting community based initiatives supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health problems, repeated nine months later. A framework approach was taken to qualitative analysis, an exploratory statistical analysis sought to identify possible associations between a range of independent variables and self-care outcomes, and a narrative synthesis brought these analyses together. Results Participants reported improvement in self-care outcomes (e.g. greater empowerment; less use of Accident and Emergency services). These changes were not associated with level of engagement with self-care support. Level of engagement was associated with positive collaboration with support staff. Qualitative data described the value of different models of supporting self-care and considered challenges. Synthesis of analyses suggested that timing support for self-care, giving service users control over when and how they accessed support, quality of service user-staff relationships and decision making around medication are important issues in supporting self-care in mental health. Conclusions Service delivery components – e.g. peer support groups, personal planning – advocated in generic self-care policy have value when implemented in a mental health context. Support for self-care in mental health should focus on core, mental health specific qualities; issues of control, enabling staff-service user relationships and shared decision making. The broad empirical basis of our research indicates the wider relevance of our findings across mental health settings. PMID:22769593

  16. Diabetes Island: Preliminary Impact of a Virtual World Self-Care Educational Intervention for African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Moadsiri, Ada; Quinn, Lauretta T; Riley, Barth B; Danielson, Kirstie K; Monahan, Colleen; Bangs, Valerie A; Gerber, Ben S

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a serious worldwide public health challenge. The burden of diabetes, including prevalence and risk of complications, is greater for minorities, particularly African Americans. Internet-based immersive virtual worlds offer a unique opportunity to reach large and diverse populations with diabetes for self-management education and support. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the acceptability, usage, and preliminary outcome of a virtual world intervention, Diabetes Island, in low-income African Americans with type 2 diabetes. The main hypotheses were that the intervention would: (1) be perceived as acceptable and useful; and (2) improve diabetes self-care (eg, behaviors and barriers) and self-care related outcomes, including glycemic control (A1C), body mass index (BMI), and psychosocial factors (ie, empowerment and distress) over six months. Methods The evaluation of the intervention impact used a single-group repeated measures design, including three assessment time points: (1) baseline, (2) 3 month (mid intervention), and (3) 6 month (immediate post intervention). Participants were recruited from a university primary care clinic. A total of 41 participants enrolled in the 6 month intervention study. The intervention components included: (1) a study website for communication, feedback, and tracking; and (2) access to an immersive virtual world (Diabetes Island) through Second Life, where a variety of diabetes self-care education activities and resources were available. Outcome measures included A1C, BMI, self-care behaviors, barriers to adherence, eating habits, empowerment, and distress. In addition, acceptability and usage were examined. A series of mixed-effects analyses, with time as a single repeated measures factor, were performed to examine preliminary outcomes. Results The intervention study sample (N=41) characteristics were: (1) mean age of 55 years, (2) 71% (29/41) female, (3) 100% (41/41) African American, and (4) 76% (31/41) reported annual incomes below US $20,000. Significant changes over time in the expected direction were observed for BMI (P<.02); diabetes-related distress (P<.02); global (P<.01) and dietary (P<.01) environmental barriers to self-care; one physical activity subscale (P<.04); and one dietary intake (P<.01) subscale. The participant feedback regarding the intervention (eg, ease of use, interest, and perceived impact) was consistently positive. The usage patterns showed that the majority of participants logged in regularly during the first two months, and around half logged in each week on average across the six month period. Conclusions This study demonstrated promising initial results of an immersive virtual world approach to reaching underserved individuals with diabetes to deliver diabetes self-management education. This intervention model and method show promise and could be tailored for other populations. A large scale controlled trial is needed to further examine efficacy. PMID:25584346

  17. The meaning of actualization of self-care resources among a group of older home-dwelling people—A hermeneutic study

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Self-care is an activity of mature persons who have developed their abilities to take care of themselves. Individuals can choose to actualize their self-care abilities into self-care activities to maintain, restore, or improve health and well-being. It is of importance to understand the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources among older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources, i.e., actions taken to improve, maintain, or restore health and well-being, among a group of older home-dwelling individuals with a high sense of coherence. The design of this study was to reanalyse narratives revealing self-care activities from 11 (five females and six males) Norwegian older home-dwelling people (65 years or older) identified as having a high sense of coherence. In order to reveal the meaning and get an understanding of why these self-care resources were realized or actualized, a Gadamerian-based research method was chosen. The analysis revealed four themes that showed the meaning of actualization of self-care resources in the study group: “Desire to carry on”, “Be of use to others”, “Self-realization”, and “Confidence to manage in the future”. The findings showed what older people found meaningful to strive for, and this information can be used as a guide for health professionals when supporting older people in their self-care. Older people with self-care resources can also be an important resource for others in need of social contact and practical help. These resources have to be asked for in voluntary work among older people in need of help and, thereby, can be a valuable supplement to the community health care system. PMID:23601788

  18. The meaning of actualization of self-care resources among a group of older home-dwelling people--a hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Self-care is an activity of mature persons who have developed their abilities to take care of themselves. Individuals can choose to actualize their self-care abilities into self-care activities to maintain, restore, or improve health and well-being. It is of importance to understand the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources among older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources, i.e., actions taken to improve, maintain, or restore health and well-being, among a group of older home-dwelling individuals with a high sense of coherence. The design of this study was to reanalyse narratives revealing self-care activities from 11 (five females and six males) Norwegian older home-dwelling people (65 years or older) identified as having a high sense of coherence. In order to reveal the meaning and get an understanding of why these self-care resources were realized or actualized, a Gadamerian-based research method was chosen. The analysis revealed four themes that showed the meaning of actualization of self-care resources in the study group: "Desire to carry on", "Be of use to others", "Self-realization", and "Confidence to manage in the future". The findings showed what older people found meaningful to strive for, and this information can be used as a guide for health professionals when supporting older people in their self-care. Older people with self-care resources can also be an important resource for others in need of social contact and practical help. These resources have to be asked for in voluntary work among older people in need of help and, thereby, can be a valuable supplement to the community health care system. PMID:23601788

  19. Self-Care Guide for the Heart Failure Patient

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cardiology Patient Page Self-Care Guide for the Heart Failure Patient Maria Fe White , MSN, NP ; Joan Kirschner , ... influenza are recommended. Previous Section Next Section Additional Heart Failure Treatments Your heart condition may remain stable long ...

  20. Taking good care of myself: a qualitative study on self-care behavior among Chinese persons with a permanent colostomy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Songwathana, Praneed; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Wang, Qingxi

    2014-12-01

    In Chinese culture, as a possible consequence of Confucianism, caring for the sick is considered a moral obligation of family members, while self-care is only the basis of fulfilling filial piety. This qualitative study aims to explore the self-care behavior among persons with a permanent colostomy in a Chinese cultural context of emphasizing the role of family caregiving. Data from in-depth interviews with seven Chinese adults at a university hospital in southwest China were analyzed using content analysis. Informants' self-care behavior was characterized by "taking good care of myself," which underlined individuals' efforts to manage colostomy-related impacts involving: (i) taking care of my colostomy with a proper degree of independence; (ii) taking care of my life by dealing with limitations; (iii) taking care of my mood in a positive way. Findings revealed that informants' self-care behavior was linked to their Confucian beliefs in family obligations, and also influenced by a happy-go-lucky outlook of life, a likely product of Taoism. The information is useful for nurses to design a culturally appropriate care plan to improve self-care behavior and proper family caregiving. PMID:25370020

  1. Adherence to diabetes self-care behaviors in English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic men

    PubMed Central

    Rustveld, Luis O; Pavlik, Valory N; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Kline, Kimberly N; Gossey, J Travis; Volk, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to elicit attitudes, attributions, and self-efficacy related to diabetes self-care in both English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic men. Transcripts from six focus groups (three in English and three in Spanish) were reviewed by the authors to extract principal and secondary themes. Participants could describe their medication and lifestyle regimens and were aware of whether they were adherent or nonadherent to physician recommendations. Lack of skills on how to incorporate diet and regular physical activity into daily living, lack of will power, and reluctance to change culturally rooted behaviors emerged as significant barriers to diabetes self-management. Medication adherence is for some men the principal diabetes self-care behavior. Nonadherence appeared to fit two profiles: 1) intentional, and 2) nonintentional. In both instances low self-efficacy emerged as a significant influence on attainment and maintenance of diabetes self-care goals. Participants also expressed a strong sense of fatalism regarding the course of their disease, and seemed to have little motivation to attempt long-term dietary control. Educational and counseling messages should stress that a diagnosis of diabetes is not a death sentence, and full functional capacity can be maintained with good control. PMID:19936154

  2. Family responses to children with diabetes and their influence on self-care.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, M S

    1996-04-01

    This study describes family responses to school-age children with diabetes and the influence of parents and siblings on self-care. Semistructured interviews of seven families living in a rural area of the Midwest were conducted. Major family responses included reminiscing about the time of diagnosis, changing the diet, scheduling daily routines, coping with and managing the diabetes, and worrying about insulin reactions. Mothers were the primary managers of the diabetes regimen. Blood-testing and self-injections were encouraged during less hurried times, particularly evenings and weekends. PMID:8935580

  3. Teaching Self-Care to Severely Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Philippa H.

    The manual provides guidelines for using the problem-oriented approach to teach the self-care skills of self-feeding, dressing, and toileting to severely handicapped students. The approach consists of identifying the problem that is an obstacle to acquisition of a particular skill, selecting and evaluating intervention techniques, and establishing…

  4. Latchkey Children: Are They Prepared for Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Pat; Simmonds, Audrey

    Although children left at home without adult supervision may function very well, studies have shown potential problems with self-care and latchkey children. This study investigated the attitudes of 30 employed parents in New York whose first or third grade children were regularly left home alone after school. The 20-question survey covered such…

  5. 29.5is the average age of our MSc in Insurance and Risk Management students

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    Markets* · RiskManagement* · PrinciplesofFinanceandFinancialAnalysis · InsuranceLawandRegulation29.5is the average age of our MSc in Insurance and Risk Management students The Cass advantage School is home to one of the largest finance faculties in Europe. Studying for your Masters here means

  6. A Health Collaborative Network Focus on Self-care Processes in Personal Assistant Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, Ma Victoria; Ros, Lorenzo

    Public health is oriented to the management of an adequate health atmosphere which acts directly on health, as well as health education work and the supervision of environmental health threats. The work presented in this paper aims to reduce inequality, and give disabled people the tools to be integrated more effectively, reducing social exclusion, removing obstacles and barriers, and facilitating mobility and the use of technology. The work is planned to design a special healthcare collaborative network as the best solution for addressing the needs of the disabled self-care and health care community through the creation and implementation of an interconnected, electronic information infrastructure and adoption of open data standards.

  7. “We have become doctors for ourselves”: motives for malaria self-care among adults in southeastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria with effective medicines remains necessary if malaria control goals are to be achieved. The theoretical concepts from self-care and the health belief model were used to examine the motivations for malaria self-care among the adult population. Methods A qualitative study was conducted through eight focus group discussions with adult community members to explore their general opinions, views and perceptions of malaria and of its treatments. These groups were followed by 15 in-depth interviews of participants with a recent malaria experience to allow for an in-depth exploration of their self-care practices. The analysis followed principles of grounded theory and was conducted using Nvivo 9 qualitative data management software. Results The self-treatment of malaria at home was found to be a common practice among the study participants. The majority of the participants practiced self-medication with a painkiller as an initial response. The persistence and the worsening of the disease symptoms prompted participants to consider other self-care options. Perceptions that many malaria symptoms are suggestive of other conditions motivated participants to self-refer for malaria test. The accessibility of private laboratory facilities and drug shops motivated their use for malaria tests and for obtaining anti-malarial medicines, respectively. Self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy was common, motivated by their perceived effectiveness and availability. The perceived barriers to using the recommended combination treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, were related to the possible side-effects and to uncertainty about their effectiveness, and these doubts motivated some participants to consider self-medication with local herbs. Several factors were mentioned as motivating people for self-care practices. These included poor patient provider relationship, unavailability of medicine and the costs associated with accessing treatments from the health facilities. Conclusions Malaria self-care and self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy are common among adults, and are motivated by both individual characteristics and the limitations of the existing health care facilities. There is a need for public health interventions to take into account community perceptions and cultural schemas on malaria self-care practices. PMID:24986165

  8. Processes of change in an asthma self-care intervention.

    PubMed

    Denford, Sarah; Campbell, John L; Frost, Julia; Greaves, Colin J

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we present a qualitative exploration of the psychological and communication processes that occur within an intervention to improve self-care for people with asthma. In the context of a primary-care-based trial of the intervention, we collected data at three time points for 21 patients, comprising 2 audiotaped consultations (nurse and patient together) and individual semistructured interviews 3 months after the second consultation. Using framework analysis, we identified both psychological processes (illness understanding, affective response to asthma, and reasoned motivation) and patient-provider interactions (active patient involvement and individual tailoring). We use these findings to extend and refine the pre-existing theoretical model of behavior change underpinning the intervention, in particular with relation to patient-provider interaction processes. We conclude that it is important for developers and providers of asthma self-care interventions to attend to the style of delivery as well as the behavior change techniques involved. PMID:24062418

  9. Understanding and Promoting Effective Self-Care During Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander M. Clark; Patricia Davidson; Kay Currie; Mehri Karimi; Amanda S. Duncan; David R. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement  Heart failure (HF) self-care relates to the decisions made outside clinical settings by the individual with HF to maintain\\u000a life, healthy functioning, and well-being. The people who help patients most (ie, caregivers\\/family members) should be involved\\u000a in care, and general principles of health behavior change should be used to guide support. Medicines should be prescribed\\u000a with once-daily dosing, with

  10. Internalizing motivation to self-care: a multifaceted challenge for young liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Aujoulat, Isabelle; Janssen, Magda; Libion, France; Charles, Anne-Sophie; Struyf, Catherine; Smets, Françoise; Stephenne, Xavier; de Magnée, Catherine; Sokal, Etienne; Lerut, Jan; Ciccarelli, Olga; Reding, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    The transition from parent-controlled care to self-managed care represents an important challenge for adolescents with chronic conditions. We sought to gain a deeper understanding of the factors influencing the internalization of motivation to self-care in adolescent liver transplant recipients. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 18 young patients. We triangulated the data collected from the patients with data from parents and health care providers, and used an inductive approach to analyze the data. Our results illustrate three interrelated challenges that impact on young patients' motivation to self-care: (a) the cognitive challenge of fully understanding one's condition and personal health risks; (b) the behavioral challenge of developing independence regarding self-management issues; and (c) the psychological challenge of building a sense of self-ownership and purpose. The latter involves overcoming the trauma of survival and coming to terms with feelings of obligation, two challenges inherent to transplantation that warrant further investigation. PMID:24572011

  11. Do Automated Calls with Nurse Follow-up Improve Self-Care and Glycemic Control among Vulnerable Patients with Diabetes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Piette; Morris Weinberger; Stephen J. McPhee; Connie A. Mah; Fredric B. Kraemer; Lawrence M. Crapo

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the effect of automated tele- phone assessment and self-care education calls with nurse follow-up on the management of diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 280 English- or Spanish-speaking adults with diabetes who were using hypogly- cemic medications and who were treated in a county health care system. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care or

  12. Do automated calls with nurse follow-up improve self-care and glycemic control among vulnerable patients with diabetes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D Piette; Morris Weinberger; Stephen J McPhee; Connie A Mah; Fredric B Kraemer; Lawrence M Crapo

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the effect of automated telephone assessment and self-care education calls with nurse follow-up on the management of diabetes.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 280 English- or Spanish-speaking adults with diabetes who were using hypoglycemic medications and who were treated in a county health care system. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care or to receive an

  13. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Testing of the Brazilian Version of the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index Version 6.2

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Christiane Wahast; Riegel, Barbara; Pokorski, Simoni Chiarelli; Camey, Suzi; Silveira, Luana Claudia Jacoby; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the SCHFI v 6.2. Methods. With the approval of the original author, we conducted a complete cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument (translation, synthesis, back translation, synthesis of back translation, expert committee review, and pretesting). The adapted version was named Brazilian version of the self-care of heart failure index v 6.2. The psychometric properties assessed were face validity and content validity (by expert committee review), construct validity (convergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis), and reliability. Results. Face validity and content validity were indicative of semantic, idiomatic, experimental, and conceptual equivalence. Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant though moderate correlation (r = ?0.51) on comparison with equivalent question scores of the previously validated Brazilian European heart failure self-care behavior scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original three-factor model as having the best fit, although similar results were obtained for inadequate fit indices. The reliability of the instrument, as expressed by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.40, 0.82, and 0.93 for the self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence scales, respectively. Conclusion. The SCHFI v 6.2 was successfully adapted for use in Brazil. Nevertheless, further studies should be carried out to improve its psychometric properties. PMID:24163765

  14. [Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].

    PubMed

    Poplinger, A

    2010-04-01

    Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rati

  15. Self care and health-seeking behavior of migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Maureen J; Martin, Evan G; Avery, Ann M; Williams, Judith M

    2010-10-01

    There are an estimated three million migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW) in the United States. In addition to the inherent dangers of farm work, numerous factors place MSFW at even greater risk for work-related injuries. Little is known about how MSFW care for work-related injuries, and how the decision to seek professional care is made. A prospective survey using face-to-face structured interviews was used to explore the type and frequency of occupational injuries as well as self-care and health-care seeking practices of MSFW. Musculoskeletal injuries were the most commonly reported injuries, followed by injuries of the skin and chemical exposure. Self care with over-the-counter remedies was the predominant method of dealing with injuries, and, with the exception of chemical exposure, was found to be for the most part, appropriate. The reported use of alternative medicine or herbal remedies was low. Future research efforts should focus on ergonomic modifications and farmworker education to reduce or prevent musculoskeletal injuries. The number of reported chemical exposures and inappropriate treatment draw attention to the need for continued efforts for both primary prevention of exposure and optimal treatment once exposure occurs. PMID:19390972

  16. Construction and validation of a scale of assessment of self-care behaviors with arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clemente Neves; Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta Jesus Silva; Dias, Vanessa Filipa Ferreira; Teles, Paulo; Martins, Maria Manuela

    2015-04-01

    Several guidelines recommend the importance of educating the patient about the care of vascular access. Nurses have a key role in promoting the development of self-care behaviors by providing the necessary knowledge to patients, so that they develop the necessary skills to take care of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). This article describes the process of building a scale of assessment of self-care behaviors with arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis (ASBHD-AVF). This is a cross-sectional study in which the development, construction, and validation process followed the directions of the authors Streiner and Norman. This is a convenience sample, sequential, and nonprobabilistic constituted by 218 patients. The study was conducted in two stages during 2012-2014. The first phase corresponds to the scale construction process, 64 patients participated, while the second corresponds to the evaluation of metric properties and 154 patients participated. The principal component analysis revealed a two-factor structure, with factorial weights between 0.805 and 0.511 and between 0.700 and 0.369, respectively, explaining 39.12% of the total variance of the responses. The Cronbach's alpha of the subscale management of signs and symptoms is 0.797 and from the subscale prevention of complications is 0.722. The ASBHD-AVF revealed properties that allow its use to assess the self-care behaviors in the maintenance and conservation of the AVF. PMID:25477007

  17. Subjective Assessment of Diabetes Self-Care Correlates with Perceived Glycemic Control but not with Actual Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Lee, Ju Hee; Hong, Eun Shil; Koo, Bo Kyung; Kim, Sang Wan; Yi, Ka Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated whether patients' perceived glycemic control and self-reported diabetes self-care correlated with their actual glycemic control. Methods A survey was administered among patients with diabetes mellitus at an outpatient clinic with structured self-report questionnaires regarding perceived glycemic control and diabetes self-management. Actual glycemic control was defined as a change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) since the last clinic visit. Results Patients who perceived their glycemic control as "improved" actually showed a mild but significant decrease in the mean A1C (-0.1%, P=0.02), and those who perceived glycemic control as "aggravated" had a significant increase in the mean FPG (10.5 mg/dL or 0.59 mmol/L, P=0.04) compared to the "stationary" group. However, one-half of patients falsely predicted their actual glycemic control status. Subjective assessment of diabetes self-care efforts, such as adherence to a diet regimen or physical activity, correlated positively with perceived glycemic control but showed no association with actual glycemic control. Conclusion Patients should be encouraged to assess and monitor diabetes self-care more objectively to motivate behavioral modifications and improve their actual glycemic control. PMID:25729710

  18. Empowering Older Patients to Engage in Self Care: Designing an Interactive Robotic Device

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Priyadarshi; Warren, Jim; Day, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and test an interactive robot mounted computing device to support medication management as an example of a complex self-care task in older adults. Method: A Grounded Theory (GT), Participatory Design (PD) approach was used within three Action Research (AR) cycles to understand design requirements and test the design configuration addressing the unique task requirements. Results: At the end of the first cycle a conceptual framework was evolved. The second cycle informed architecture and interface design. By the end of third cycle residents successfully interacted with the dialogue system and were generally satisfied with the robot. The results informed further refinement of the prototype. Conclusion: An interactive, touch screen based, robot-mounted information tool can be developed to support healthcare needs of older people. Qualitative methods such as the hybrid GT-PD-AR approach may be particularly helpful for innovating and articulating design requirements in challenging situations. PMID:22195203

  19. Development of an educational module on provider self-care.

    PubMed

    Meadors, Patrick; Lamson, Angela; Sira, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Intensive care providers who care for traumatized populations often face multiple traumas for extended periods and are vulnerable to developing lasting symptoms of compassion fatigue and secondary traumatization. Symptoms are often not recognizable until compassion fatigue or secondary traumatization negatively affects the providers' ability to care for their patients. More attention needs to be given to the care of the provider to ensure high-quality patient care, decrease turnover in the profession, and increase productivity. This article provides a framework for the development of an educational module for healthcare providers' self-care. This educational module created the opportunity to share with providers (a) how to explore their own professional experience; (b) how to recognize the different symptoms of compassion fatigue, primary traumatization, and secondary traumatization; (c) factors related to grief reactions; and (d) personal and professional strategies to decrease compassion fatigue and secondary traumatization. PMID:20683299

  20. Elective Self-Care Course Emphasizing Critical Reasoning Principles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To create, implement, and assess a self-directed online course based on 3 critical reasoning principles to develop pharmacy students’ skills in literature appraisal, content, metacognition, and assessment. Design. Students completed 3 assignments for the course: compile a literature appraisal on a healthcare topic; plan learning objectives and meta-cognitive skills for a learning module; and create a case-based online lesson with multi-structured feedback. Assessment. An online exit survey evaluated students’ perceptions regarding development of ACE (agency, collaboration, expertise) principles and preparation for competency. Students reported acquisition of ACE principles and noted improvements in their learning approaches, sense of responsibility for individual and community learning, skills, and confidence. Conclusions. An online elective course in self-care addressed practice standards for patient safety, maintenance of competency, and interprofessional education by emphasizing critical reasoning skills. PMID:22171110

  1. Grief as a basic conditioning factor affecting the self-care agency and self-care of family caregivers of persons with neurotrauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Lynn Goshorn Brown

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesis from a mid-range theory, Grief as a Basic Conditioning Factor in Family Caregivers of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), derived from Orem's (1995) theoretical framework. Testing involved (a) examining the effects of grief on the TBI caregivers' self-care agency and on the self-care outcomes of health and well-being and

  2. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  3. For Low-Back Pain, Yoga More Effective Than Self-Care But Not Stretching

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about external links Menu For Low-Back Pain, Yoga More Effective Than Self-Care But Not Stretching Yoga is more effective than a self-care book, ... Results from previous smaller studies had suggested that yoga may have benefits for chronic low-back pain— ...

  4. Averaged dynamics of soliton molecules in dispersion-managed optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamoudi, S. M.; Al Khawaja, U.; Baizakov, B. B.

    2014-05-01

    The existence regimes and dynamics of soliton molecules in dispersion-managed (DM) optical fibers have been studied. Initially we develop a variational approximation to describe the periodic dynamics of a soliton molecule within each unit cell of the dispersion map. The obtained system of coupled equations for the pulse width and chirp allows to find the parameters of DM soliton molecules for the given dispersion map and pulse energy. Then by means of a scaling transformation and averaging procedure we reduce the original nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with piecewise-constant periodic dispersion to its counterpart with constant coefficients and additional parabolic potential. The obtained averaged NLSE with expulsive potential can explain the essential features of solitons and soliton molecules in DM fibers related to their energy loss during propagation. Also, the model of averaged NLSE predicts the instability of the temporal position of the soliton, which may lead to difficulty in holding the pulse in the middle of its time slot. All numerical simulations are performed using the parameters of the existing DM fiber setup and illustrated via pertinent examples.

  5. Personal and cultural influences on diabetes self-care behaviors among older Hispanics born in the U.S. and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mier, Nelda; Smith, Matthew Lee; Carrillo-Zuniga, Genny; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Norma; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-12-01

    Older Hispanics are disproportionately affected by diabetes, but little is known about predictors of diabetes self-care among this group. This study compared the magnitude of three self-care behaviors (diet, physical activity (PA), and glucose monitoring) among older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes born in the United States (n = 59) to those born in Mexico (n = 179), and investigated the influence of personal and health indicators on each self-care behavior. Findings were based on data drawn from convenience sample data collected with a questionnaire. Self-care behaviors were moderately practiced (39.5-45.8 %) with no significant differences by nativity. Mexico-born seniors were less linguistically acculturated (P < 0.001). Being female (OR = 2.41) and PA levels (OR = 2.62) were significantly associated with diet. Being female (OR = 3.24), more educated (OR = 3.73), U.S.-born (OR = 2.84), and receiving diabetes education (OR = 3.67) were associated with PA. Diabetes education (OR = 2.41) was associated with glucose monitoring. Although acculturation influenced only PA and no other behaviors, personal and cultural factors require further investigation to design diabetes management strategies for Hispanic seniors at the border region. PMID:22729288

  6. Self-Care in the Classroom for Children with Chronic Illness: A Case Study of a Student with Cystic Fibrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Julie Elizabeth Jonson

    1994-01-01

    Describes the essential self-care of an eight-year old second-grade student. This study illustrates a school counselor's use of a multimodal, behavioral intervention to increase the level of self-care in the classroom. Relevant reinforcements, individual and group counseling, and peer support, resulted in improved self-care. (RJM)

  7. Pain and Self-Care Behaviors in Adult Patients with ESLD: A Longitudinal Description

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Michael C.; Chang, Michael F.; Zucker, Betsy L.; Sasaki, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This prospective descriptive study investigated pain characteristics in 20 outpatients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) approaching end of life, described variability in pain between and within patients, and described pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management strategies used. The instruments utilized were: the Wisconsin Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the Self-Care Behavior Log for Pain (SCB). Data were collected once a month over a 6-month period. BPI severity of and interference from pain mean scores ranged from 5.52 to 6.03 and 5.36 to 6.64, respectively. The top three behaviors for relieving pain patients reported were “taking pain medication,” “taking a nap,” and “asking for help.” Pain medication intake differed between patients who were pursuing a liver transplant and those who were not eligible for transplantation. To effectively improve care for ESLD, it is essential to understand the ways in which these patients experience pain and the pain management strategies they employ. PMID:24826441

  8. Potential Benefits of Companion Animals for Self-Care Children. Reviews of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, D. Terry; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the potential benefits of having pets for self-care children. Researchers suggest that companion animals can lower blood pressure, show up high on a list of children's helpers and indirectly increase feelings of safety. (RJC)

  9. Effects of a Safe Patient Handling and Mobility Program on Patient Self-Care Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shiyko, Mariya; Margulis, Heather; Campo, Marc

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) program on patient self-care outcomes. METHOD. We used a retrospective cohort design. Data were obtained from the electronic medical records of 1,292 patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation services. Self-care scores from the FIM™ for patients who participated in rehabilitation before implementation of an SPHM program were compared with the scores of patients who participated after implementation of the program. RESULTS. Patients who received inpatient rehabilitation services with an SPHM program were as likely to achieve at least modified independence in self-care as those who received inpatient rehabilitation services without an SPHM program. CONCLUSION. SPHM programs may not affect self-care performance in adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation services. However, more work must be done to define specific and effective methods for integrating patient handling technologies into occupational therapy practice. PMID:25184472

  10. [Self-care deficiencies in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus: a contribution to nursing].

    PubMed

    Landim, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro; Milomens, Kallyne Moreira Pequeno; Diógenes, Maria Albertina Rocha

    2008-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus can be controlled and its complications prevented, provided clients take part in self-care actions. The objective of the present study was to identify self care deficiencies in pregnant women suffering from diabetes, and to provide inputs for their educational support. This descriptive study included 12 pregnant women cared at a diabetes and hypertension reference institution in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, in April and May, 2007. Data were collected using a semistructured interview. Analysis was based on Orem's Nursing General Theory. Self-care deficiencies were related to eating habits, physical activities, sleep and rest, and social interaction. Nurses must provide educational support to these patients, evaluate their self-care capacity, and propose actions that involve the family, as well as group activities in health services. PMID:19068573

  11. Parent and Adolescent Distribution of Responsibility for Diabetes Self-care: Links to Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Siminerio, Linda; Escobar, Oscar; Becker, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective?To examine the relation of adolescent and parent responsibility distribution for diabetes self-care to psychological and physical health.?Methods?We interviewed children (mean age 12 years) annually for 3 years and asked parents to complete a questionnaire. Both reported how diabetes self-care was distributed in the family. Amount of responsibility held by the child only, the parent only, and shared between child and parent was calculated. Psychological distress, competence, and diabetes outcomes were assessed at each wave.?Results?In both cross-sectional and longitudinal (lagged) analyses, multilevel modeling showed that shared responsibility was consistently associated with better psychological health, good self-care behavior, and good metabolic control, whereas child and parent responsibility were not. In some cases, links of shared responsibility to health outcomes were stronger among older adolescents.?Conclusions?These findings highlight the importance of shared responsibility for diabetes self-care through early to middle adolescence. PMID:17848390

  12. Science: In Sickness and in Health: A Self-Care Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A physician presents teachers with some classroom activities in medical self-care, including anatomy, measuring pulse, relaxation, biofeedback, yoga, and throat examinations. For a related article by the same author, see pages 66-72 of this issue. (SJL)

  13. Effect of healing touch training on self-care awareness in nurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Pegi

    Nursing focuses on supporting clients' health and health behaviors; however, they tend to exhibit unproductive behaviors when it comes to caring for themselves. As nurses' self-neglect can undermine client care, supporting nurses' self-care practices are expected to translate into clients' self-care. Healing Touch (HT) is one option for supporting nurses' self-care, as it is an accepted nursing practice and studies suggest that HT may have beneficial effects for those delivering it. This study examined the impact of a 2-day HT training on awareness of the need for self-care in nurses. HT training was offered as continuing education for 45 nurses at a Veteran's Administration hospital in Long Beach, CA. This mixed-methods study used a pre/post-test design to measure the effects of HT Level 1 training on nurses' self-care self-awareness. Independent samples t-tests and analyses of variance were used to detect whether any significant differences emerged based on participant demographic data. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests to determine whether participants' self-awareness changed over the study period. Effect size for any differences were calculated using Cohen's d. Open-ended responses were reviewed and common themes were identified related to what participants believed they learned and how it affected their care for themselves and their clients. Two increases were found to be significant and of sufficient power when comparing pre- to delayed post-test scores: physical self-care awareness (mean difference = 0.956, t(44) = 5.085, p = .000, r = .61) and professional self-care awareness (mean difference = .955, t(43) = 5.277, p = .000, r = .63). Qualitative findings suggested that changes in their awareness, self-directed practices, and patient care practices are anticipated, evident, and sustained based upon themes across the three tests. Nurses are advised to take a course that teaches specific self-care techniques and strategies and continue practicing, monitoring, and adapting the practice of self-care. Administrators are advised to recognize the importance of self-care for healthcare staff, institute programs that encourage such activities, and model their own self-care.

  14. Technology-Based Self-Care Methods of Improving Antiretroviral Adherence: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parya Saberi; Mallory O. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAs HIV infection has shifted to a chronic condition, self-care practices have emerged as an important topic for HIV-positive individuals in maintaining an optimal level of health. Self-care refers to activities that patients undertake to maintain and improve health, such as strategies to achieve and maintain high levels of antiretroviral adherence.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTechnology-based methods are increasingly used to enhance antiretroviral adherence;

  15. Factors associated with self-care activities among adults in the United Kingdom: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Ryan; Sue Wilson; Aliki Taylor; Sheila Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Government has promoted self-care. Our aim was to review evidence about who uses self-tests and other self-care activities (over-the-counter medicine, private sector, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), home blood pressure monitors). METHODS: During April 2007, relevant bibliographic databases (Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index,

  16. Effects of Mobile Phone Usage in Supporting Leg Lymphedema Self-care

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Ayako; Koiyabashi, Kikuyo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to implement self-care support for leg lymphedema patients using mobile phones and to investigate the effects thereof. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with lymphedema following female genital cancer surgery (stages I to II) who were referred from a nearby gynecologist were randomly divided into groups for routine self-care support (control group) and mobile telephone-assisted support (intervention group) and received the self-care support appropriate to their group. The (total) circumference of the leg with edema, FACT-G (cancer patient QOL), MHP (mental health status), and self-care self-assessment were comparatively investigated at three months after the initial interview. Results: No significant reduction in the (total) circumferences of legs with edema was confirmed in either the control or intervention group. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of the activity circumstances and FACT-G mental status at three months after the initial interview. The intervention group was also significantly better in psychological, social, and physical items in the MHP. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of circumstances of self-care implementation at three months after the initial interview. Additionally, comparison of the circumstances of implementation for different aspects of self-care content showed that the intervention group was significantly better at selecting shoes, observing edema, moisturizing, self-drainage, wearing compression garments, and implementing bandaging. Conclusion: Compared with routine self-care support, mobile telephone-assisted support is suggested to be effective for leg lymphedema patients’ QOL and mental health status as well as their self-care behaviors. PMID:25648778

  17. Self-care self-efficacy, quality of life, and depression after stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gale Robinson-Smith; Mark V Johnston; Judith Allen

    2000-01-01

    Robinson-Smith G, Johnston MV, Allen J. Self-care self-efficacy, quality of life, and depression after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:460-4. Objective: To determine the relationship of self-care self-efficacy to functional independence, quality of life, and depression after stroke. Methods: Longitudinal, descriptive correlational design. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation facility at 1 month after stroke and home at 6 months after stroke. Participants:

  18. Developing Compassionate Self-care Skills in Persons Living with HIV: a Pilot Study to Examine Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Price, Cynthia J.; Diana, Taibi M.; Smith-DiJulio, Kathleen L.; Voss, Joachim G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-care skills for persons living with HIV (PLWH) are needed to better cope with the common symptoms and emotional challenges of living with this chronic illness. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy (MABT) for individuals receiving medical management for HIV at an outpatient program. Setting A nonprofit outpatient day program that provided medical management to low-income individuals with HIV. Research Design A one group pre–post study design, nine participants were recruited to receive eight weekly MABT sessions of 1.25 hours each. Intervention MABT is designed to facilitate emotion regulation through teaching somatically-based self-care skills to respond to daily stressors. Main Outcome Measures To assess participant characteristics and study feasibility, a battery of health questionnaires and one week of wrist actigraphy was administered pre- and postintervention. A satisfaction survey and written questionnaire was administered postintervention to assess MABT acceptability. Results The results demonstrated recruitment and retention feasibility. The sample had psychological and physical health symptoms that are characteristic of PLWH. MABT acceptability was high, and participants perceived that they learned new mind-body self-care skills that improved HIV symptoms and their ability to manage symptoms. Conclusion The positive findings support a larger future study to examine MABT efficacy to improve coping with HIV symptoms among PLWH. PMID:23730396

  19. 23is the average age of our MSc in Investment Management students

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    FinancialServices · AssetLiabilityManagement · AdvancedCompanyValuation · MoneyMarketandTreasuryManagement · Technical areas such as the management of equity and bond portfolios; trading techniques; asset-liability · QuantitativeAssetManagement · FinanceinEmergingMarkets · MergersandAcquisitionsandDivestments · Index

  20. The effect of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zareban, Iraj; Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Haidarnia, Alireza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes as the most common diseases caused by metabolic disorders is an important global challenge. This is a disease that requires lifelong self-care because self-care and improved quality of life is cost effective. This study is aimed to determine the impact of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c, type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental study done on 138 diabetic female patients in Zahedan city, in 2011 (1390). This sampling method of patients was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of the Diabetes Center, at Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital (AS) in Zahedan. Samples were divided randomly in to two groups: 69 cases and 69 controls. Data collected included validity and reliability confirmed questionnaire. Checklist was based on patients ‘performance of reporting and (HbA1c) testing. Before the educational intervention, the checklist of questions for recording the (HbA1c) test for both the groups were completed, and study samples received 5 sessions of education (with the group discussion and film show) for a month. However, the control group received only routine training. Three months after the educational intervention, both groups completed the questionnaire and the check list and data using SPSS software and the appropriate tests were analyzed. Results: Findings showed that the mean domain scores of area of knowledge, attitude and practice educational groups, were recorded as (46.6 ± 8.57, 46.5 ± 0.86 and 29.06 ± 10.02), respectively. And after education scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were recorded as (52.80 ± 2.20, 12.98 ± 1.02 and 39.69 ± 4.74), respectively, and in study group significant difference (P < 0/001) was seen. Conclusion: Self-care training in striation leads to improve knowledge, attitude and self-care performance of the study samples and also improves the average (HbA1c). Because it seems to increase the active participation of learners in their care that they have experienced with this training method and their motivation enhanced them to learn better self-care. So this type of care education should be given to the attention of nurses and healthcare's staff. PMID:25540796

  1. Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Idongesit L.; Adibe, Maxwell O.; Okonta, Matthew J.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Methods Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30) was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s) to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05. Results A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%). The majority of the study sample (79.5%) had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001), monthly income (p<0.001) and duration of diabetes (p=0.008). Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013). Conclusion Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level. PMID:25243026

  2. Self-care practices and experiences of people living with HIV not receiving antiretroviral therapy in an urban community of Lusaka, Zambia: implications for HIV treatment programmes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the increasingly wider availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), some people living with HIV (PLHIV) and eligible for treatment have opted to adopt self-care practices thereby risking early AIDS-related mortality. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in urban Zambia to gain insights into PLHIV self-care practices and experiences and explore the implications for successful delivery of ART care. Between March 2010 and September 2011, in-depth interviews were conducted with PLHIV who had dropped out of treatment (n=25) and those that had opted not to initiate medication (n=37). Data was entered into and managed using Atlas ti, and analysed inductively using latent content analysis. Results PHIV used therapeutic and physical health maintenance, psychological well-being and healthy lifestyle self-care practices to maintain physical health and mitigate HIV-related symptoms. Herbal remedies, faith healing and self-prescription of antibiotics and other conventional medicines to treat HIV-related ailments were used for therapeutic and physical health maintenance purposes. Psychological well-being self-care practices used were religiosity/spirituality and positive attitudes towards HIV infection. These practices were modulated by close social network relationships with other PLHIV, family members and peers, who acted as sources of emotional, material and financial support. Cessations of sexual relationships, adoption of safe sex to avoid re-infections and uptake of nutritional supplements were the commonly used risk reduction and healthy lifestyle practices respectively. Conclusions While these self-care practices may promote physical and psychosocial well-being and mitigate AIDS-related symptoms, at least in the short term, they however undermine PLHIV access to ART care thereby putting PLHIV at risk of early AIDS-related mortality. The use of scientifically unproven herbal remedies raises health and safety concerns; faith healing may create fatalism and resignation with death while the reported self-prescription of antibiotics to treat HIV-related infections raises concerns about future development of microbial drug resistance amongst PLHIV. Collectively, these self-care practices undermine efforts to effectively abate the spread and burden of HIV and reduce AIDS-related mortality. Therefore, there is need for sensitization campaigns on the benefits of ART and the risks associated with widespread self-prescription of antibiotics and use of scientifically unproven herbal remedies. PMID:23675734

  3. Study on the thermal distribution and thermal management of high average power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Zhao, Lei; Liang, Xiaobao; Li, Chao; Zhou, Taidou; Wang, Shiwei; Deng, Ying; Wei, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    The thermal problems of CPS and YDF were studied. And the thermal management technologies are developed separately to the problems. Experimental results showed that the thermal management technologies worked well.

  4. A preliminary study of a cloud-computing model for chronic illness self-care support in an underdeveloped country

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O.; Ganser, Martha; Mohamed, Muhima; Marinec, Nicolle; Krishnan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Background Although interactive voice response (IVR) calls can be an effective tool for chronic disease management, many regions of the world lack the infrastructure to provide these services. Objective This study evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of an IVR program using a cloud-computing model to improve diabetes management in Honduras. Methods A single group, pre-post study was conducted between June and August 2010. The telecommunications infrastructure was maintained on a U.S. server, and calls were directed to patients’ cell phones using VoIP. Eighty-five diabetes patients in Honduras received weekly IVR disease management calls for six weeks, with automated follow-up emails to clinicians, and voicemail reports to family caregivers. Patients completed interviews at enrollment and a six week follow-up. Other measures included patients’ glycemic control (A1c) and data from the IVR calling system. Results 55% of participants completed the majority of their IVR calls and 33% completed 80% or more. Higher baseline blood pressures, greater diabetes burden, greater distance from the clinic, and better adherence were related to higher call completion rates. Nearly all participants (98%) reported that because of the program, they improved in aspects of diabetes management such as glycemic control (56%) or foot care (89%). Mean A1c’s decreased from 10.0% at baseline to 8.9% at follow-up (p<.01). Most participants (92%) said that if the service were available in their clinic they would use it again. Conclusions Cloud computing is a feasible strategy for providing IVR services globally. IVR self-care support may improve self-care and glycemic control for patients in under-developed countries. PMID:21565655

  5. Being old and living alone in urban areas: the meaning of self-care and health on the perception of life situation and identity

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background Living alone in urban areas when getting old is an important and necessary field for research as the growth of the urban population worldwide increases, and due to the fact that people live longer. How older people manage their self-care and health, and how this might influence their identity and life situation may be very important to understand when planning for a new, upcoming older generation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. Methods A phenomenological–hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur was applied. Nine single-living older persons in urban areas, 70–82 years of age, and identified to be in good health were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a phenomenological–hermeneutic method. Results Strength and a time dimension characterized the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity as narrated by the group of single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. The informants were, as older individuals, caring, autonomous, and robust characters, who had gone through difficult times in life, and in a resilient way moved towards a new future. They valued and were grateful for what they had learned in their lives and could go forward and still experience and explore. Conclusion Self-care is significant in the perception of life situation and identity among single urban older people in this study, and characterized by strength, temporality, gratitude, autonomy, and natality. Society needs to acknowledge the strengths and capabilities of older people to a greater extent. PMID:23847434

  6. Caring for oneself to care for others: physicians and their self-care

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Morrison, Laura J.; Carey, Elise; Bernacki, Rachelle; O'Neill, Lynn; Kapo, Jennifer; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S.; Thomas, Jane deLima

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that clinicians experience distress and grief in response to their patients' suffering. Oncologists and palliative care specialists are no exception since they commonly experience patient loss and are often affected by unprocessed grief. These emotions can compromise clinicians' personal well-being, since unexamined emotions may lead to burnout, moral distress, compassion fatigue, and poor clinical decisions which adversely affect patient care. One approach to mitigate this harm is self-care, defined as a cadre of activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain personal well-being throughout life. This article emphasizes the importance of having a self-care and self-awareness plan when caring for patients with life-limiting cancer and discusses validated methods to increase self-care, enhance self-awareness and improve patient care. PMID:23967495

  7. Multimedia psychoeducational interventions to support patient self-care in degenerative conditions: A realist review.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Peter; Scott, David; Reid, Joanne; Porter, Sam

    2014-10-22

    Objective: Multimedia interventions are increasingly used to deliver information in order to promote self-care among patients with degenerative conditions. We carried out a realist review of the literature to investigate how the characteristics of multimedia psychoeducational interventions combine with the contexts in which they are introduced to help or hinder their effectiveness in supporting self-care for patients with degenerative conditions. Method: Electronic databases (Medline, Science Direct, PSYCHinfo, EBSCO, and Embase) were searched in order to identify papers containing information on multimedia psychoeducational interventions. Using a realist review approach, we reviewed all relevant studies to identify theories that explained how the interventions work. Results: Ten papers were included in the review. All interventions sought to promote self-care behaviors among participants. We examined the development and content of the multimedia interventions and the impact of patient motivation and of the organizational context of implementation. We judged seven studies to be methodologically weak. All completed studies showed small effects in favor of the intervention. Significance of Results: Multimedia interventions may provide high-quality information in an accessible format, with the potential to promote self-care among patients with degenerative conditions, if the patient perceives the information as important and develops confidence about self-care. The evidence base is weak, so that research is needed to investigate effective modes of delivery at different resource levels. We recommend that developers consider how an intervention will reduce uncertainty and increase confidence in self-care, as well as the impact of the context in which it will be employed. PMID:25336040

  8. The Anatomy of Pervasive Self Care Services George Roussos

    E-print Network

    Roussos, George

    case management. The proposed architecture aims to introduce a generic reference model for the delivery of pervasive healthcare services that can help reduced the considerable amount of duplication in current work for this group, especially the elderly and those with more than one condition, has traditionally been reactive

  9. The health literacy, self-care, and medication hassles of patients with heart failure and their caregivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleda M Hess

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 90 million Americans lack the necessary health literacy skills to adequately care for themselves in the face of a complex healthcare system and self-care regimens. Patients with heart failure are particularly challenged by meeting with multiple healthcare providers, who may emphasize different self-care strategies, which can be difficult for patients to interpret. Understanding how to effectively care for one's

  10. Testing Self-Efficacy as a Pathway that Supports Self-Care among Family Caregivers in a Psychoeducational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Brintnall-Peterson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which a psychoeducational intervention supports family-centered care by influencing health risk and self-care behaviors of caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (N = 325). Moreover, this study investigated the extent to which changes in self-efficacy explained changes in health risk and self-care

  11. Self-care and quality of life in patients with advanced heart failure: The effect of a supportive educational intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Jaarsma; R. Halfens; F. Tan; H. Huijer Abu-Saad; K. Dracup; J. Diederiks

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the effects of a supportive educational nursing intervention on self-care abilities, self-care behavior, and quality of life of patients with advanced heart failure. Design: The study design was an experimental, random assignment. Setting: The study was located at the University Hospital in Maastricht, The Netherlands. Patients: The study included 179 patients

  12. Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

  13. Self Care Resource Corner: Its Impact on Appropriate Health Service Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClaran, Diane M.; Breakey, Robin Sarris

    In an effort to intervene before students enter the medical care system at the University of Michigan, a Self Care Resource Corner and accompanying materials were developed and implemented. The objective was to encourage students to view themselves as the primary decision makers for health-related conditions before seeking care from clinicians.…

  14. The Effect of Gender and Self-Care Behaviors on Counselors' Perceptions of Colleagues with Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Lynne; Gilroy, Paula J.; Murra, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of gender and self-care behaviors on counselors' perceptions of depressed colleagues. Target counselors who took antidepressants were perceived as more competent than counselors who practiced holistic measures and those who chose no course of action. Target counselors who sought personal counseling were perceived as more…

  15. Heart Failure Symposium: Promoting Knowledge and Self-Care: The Keys to

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    Heart Failure Symposium: Promoting Knowledge and Self-Care: The Keys to a Woman's Healthy Heart This is the Fourth Annual UConn Health Center Heart Failure Symposium. This year we will focus on women and heart); complications related to patients with heart failure, and medication reconciliation challenges. This conference

  16. Adherence to Self-Care Interventions for Depression or Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Russell; McCusker, Jane; Sewitch, Maida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesise and describe adherence to intervention in published studies of supported self-care for depression or anxiety, and to identify participant characteristics associated with higher adherence. Methods: We searched the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PSYCINFO for the period from January…

  17. Embodied Learning and Patient Education: From Nurses' Self-Awareness to Patient Self-Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a clear and practical introduction to use of a scientific perspective on embodied learning. It looks to embodied cognition and embodied cognitive science to explore education for self-care. The author presents a neurobiologic understanding of embodied learning to bridge adult education to the science-driven world of…

  18. Symptom monitoring, alleviation, and self-care among Mexican Americans during cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe D; Lantican, Leticia S; Bader, Julia O; Lerma, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring the occurrence and severity of symptoms among Mexican American adults undergoing cancer treatments, along with their self-care to alleviate symptoms, are understudied; the current study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. A total of 67 Mexican Americans receiving outpatient oncology treatments in the southwestern United States participated. Instruments included a patient-report checklist, the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC), the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods tool, and a demographic and health information form. At least 40% of participants reported the occurrence of 12 symptoms: hair loss, feeling sluggish, nausea, taste change, loss of appetite, depression, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, difficulty concentrating, constipation, skin changes, and numb fingers and toes. More than a third also reported pain, vomiting, decreased interest in sexual activity, cough, and sore throat. The helpful self-care strategies reported included diet and nutrition changes; lifestyle changes; and mind, body control, and spiritual activities. Patient report of symptoms during cancer treatments was facilitated by the use of the TRSC. Patients use symptom alleviation strategies to help relieve symptoms during their cancer treatment. The ability to perform appropriate, effective self-care methods to alleviate the symptoms may influence adherence to the treatment regimen. PMID:25253108

  19. Self-Care and Self-Help Groups for the Elderly: A Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This document notes that, as health care costs continue to rise, the elderly are monitoring themselves as a means of cost containment, and as a way of enhancing their sense of well-being and their ability to lead active lives. It points out that more and more organizations are sponsoring health programs that promote the concept of self-care and…

  20. Self-Care and the Qualitative Researcher: When Collecting Data Can Break Your Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rager, Kathleen B.

    2005-01-01

    Conducting qualitative research on topics that are emotionally laden can have a powerful impact on the researcher. Recent literature addresses the essential nature of the emotional connection that must be part of the qualitative research process. However, for the most part, it neglects the issue of self-care strategies for the researcher that are…

  1. Mindfulness, Self-Care, and Wellness in Social Work: Effects of Contemplative Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tessa McGarrigle; Christine A. Walsh

    2011-01-01

    The demands placed on human service workers in supporting people through challenging circumstances can contribute to high levels of stress and burnout. Self-care practices implemented regularly may decrease the impact of the high levels of stress while also serving as strategies for coping during particularly stressful times. The interconnections between contemplative practices, including mindfulness, as coping and preventative strategies for

  2. Measures of Self-Care Independence for Children with Osteochondrodysplasia: A Clinimetric Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates the validity, reliability, and clinical utility of outcome measures used to assess self-care skills among children with congenital musculoskeletal conditions and assesses the applicability of these measures for children with osteochondrodysplasia aged 0-12 years. Electronic databases were searched to identify…

  3. Health literacy and self-care of patients with heart failure: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleda M Chen

    2011-01-01

    Background. Inadequate health literacy, or difficulty in obtaining and understanding health information, may be a barrier in educating patients about their heart failure. ^ Objectives. The first objective of this study was to model the relationship between health literacy, health locus of control, years of formal education, knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care in patients with heart failure. The second objective of

  4. A Behavioral Approach to Improving Self-Care Skills in OBS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Cathy L.; Patterson, Roger L.

    Traditionally, the treatment of geriatric patients suffering from Organic Brain Syndrome (OBS) has been characterized by non-therapeutic custodial care. To determine whether elderly clients with dementia can benefit from self-care skill training, and to compare their progress with clients without OBS, 30 clients of the Residential Aging Program in…

  5. Young Cancer Patients' Perceptions of a Video Game Used to Promote Self Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Ivan L.; Marin-Bowling, Veronica M.; Guthrie, Nicole: Kato, Pamela M.

    2006-01-01

    A video game called "Re-Mission" has recently been investigated with adolescent and young adult cancer patients enrolled in a multi-site randomized controlled evaluation of the game as a psycho-educational intervention. The main focus of the trial was to determine effects of the game on self-care and other health-related outcomes. It was also…

  6. A nursing intervention to enhance the self-care capacity of nondisclosed persons living with HIV in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rithpho, Pratuma; Grimes, Deanna E; Grimes, Richard M; Nantachaipan, Pikul; Senaratana, Wilawan

    2013-01-01

    Significant numbers of nondisclosed persons living with HIV (NPLWH) who are aware of their status do not enter care and must rely on their own abilities to maintain their health. This study shows how these individuals can be reached through nongovernmental organizations and assisted to improve their self-care capacity through an intensive nursing intervention. NPLWH in Chiang Mai, Thailand, were assessed using a 31-item self-care capacity questionnaire (range = 0-62) at baseline and monthly for 6 months. The nursing intervention used reflective questioning to assist PLWH to find ways to improve their self-care capacity. At baseline, the mean self-care capacity score was 31.4. After 3 months of intervention, the score increased to 54 and was maintained at this level for the next 3 months. This study demonstrates that nurses can reach out to NPLWH who are not in care and help to improve self-care capacity. PMID:23465403

  7. Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active. Methods Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi. Results Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They acknowledged physical and mental limitations, yet they felt they were in good health. Conclusion Health professionals and politicians should identify places where fellowship and relationships can be built, as well as encourage older people to use their competence by engagement in volunteering. These interventions are important to support older people’s self-care and health. This may also be a way to reduce ageism in Western societies. PMID:23390363

  8. The effect of peer support groups on self-care for haemophilic patients with HIV in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, K; Ito, M; Eguchi, E; Imahuku, K; Kutsumi, M; Inoue, Y; Yamazaki, Y

    2013-11-01

    Experienced peer support groups (EPSG) are expected to improve self-care and complement professional health care for haemophilic patients, even those living in inconvenient clinical setting. However, these benefits have not been verified quantitatively. The structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to evaluate the effects of contact with EPSG on self-care for haemophilic patients in the Japanese clinical settings. Factors affecting self-care were compared between groups with and without EPSG contact. Self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 652 haemophilic patients with HIV in Japan (September 2005-January 2006). SEM demonstrated significant associations between EPSG contact, self-care scores and other social and individual factors. The total effect of EPSG contact on self-care was calculated. The structural differences between models were analysed in a multi-group analysis. Of the 257 respondents (response rate, 39.4%), 109 reported having contact with an EPSG (EPSG+ group) and 139 reported no contact (EPSG- group). EPSG contact was significantly associated with better self-care. In the multi-group analysis, the total effect of inconvenient access to medical services on self-care in the EPSG+ group was 10% of that in the EPSG- group and was significantly associated with poor illness-related knowledge and high anxiety level only in the EPSG- group. In the EPSG+ group, patient age was strongly associated with self-care than in the EPSG- group. These findings suggest that EPSG contact may alleviate inconvenience in medical services. Factors associated with self-care differed between groups. Health care professionals must carefully assess self-care behaviours and service accessibility based on these results. PMID:23834537

  9. A cross-sectional study of depression and self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Camila Ribeiro; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht; Parisi, Maria Cândida Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Depression has been recognized as a risk factor for foot ulceration in persons with diabetes mellitus. Using convenience sampling methods, a cross-sectional study was conducted among persons with type 2 diabetes treated in a diabetic foot clinic in Sao Paulo, Brazil between February 2010 and December 2011. One hundred (100) patients (average age 62 years, range 38 to 83 years), 50 with a foot ulcer and 50 at risk for developing a foot ulcer, participated. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), where scores increase with severity; and patients were interviewed about foot self-care behaviors. Average BDI scores among patients with an ulcer were higher (mean 20.37; range 1 to 42) than those of patients that had not developed a foot ulcer (mean 15.70; range 2 to 49) (P = 0.030). Self-care behavior was not significantly different between the two groups. Severe depression (P = 0.049, OR= 6.56 95% CI 1.01-42.58) and male gender (P <0.001, OR=14.87 95% CI 3.83-57.82) were associated with the presence of a foot ulcer. Despite reported adequate self-care behaviors, patients with an ulcer had more symptoms of depression than patients who were at risk for developing a foot ulcer. Studies examining cause-and-effect relationships between these observations and the potential role of depression interventions are needed. The results of this and other studies suggest depression screening is important in patients with diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers. PMID:24515984

  10. The physician payments sunshine act: what the average radiologist and manager need to know.

    PubMed

    Haramati, Nogah

    2013-06-01

    The Physician Payments Sunshine Act (PPSA) was enacted in 2010 and requires applicable manufacturers of medical devices, drugs, biological material, or medical supplies to report payments or transfers of value that are provided to physicians or teaching hospitals. PPSA has value in creating greater transparency in the financial relationships between industry, physicians, and teaching hospitals, and in potentially reducing problematic conflicts of interest. PPSA requires that this data be published, in searchable form, on a public website. CMS has delayed the reporting under PPSA until after January 1, 2013, and has yet to issue its final rules for PPSA; however, Physician Payments data already exist in a publically searchable database. It is important to realize that names of individuals may appear in the PPSA public database, even if those individuals did not actually receive a transfer of value. As with all broad-stroke legislation, consequences not anticipated or not considered sufficiently important for our government leaders may well present a problem for individuals. It behooves all physicians and healthcare managers to carefully follow the CMS PPSA regulations. In advance of meeting or interacting with any PPSA-applicable manufacturer, obtain a clear and mutual understanding regarding what reportable value, if any, will be prepared for and provided by the applicable manufacturer. In this, as in all situations in which government regulations are at play, "knowledge is strength." PMID:23735270

  11. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural dwelling women and men. Method Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results Both older women and men rely heavily on over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies self-care; professional health care is typically sought when self-care is not effective. However, relative to men, women were more knowledgeable about different approaches to self-care, especially home remedies, they used a wider range of self-care activities, and they placed greater priority on self-care over professional health care. Discussion The structure of older women’s and men’s self-care domain of health lifestyle is similar. However, there are subtle differences in health lifestyle that are likely embedded in gendered role behavior and may contribute to women’s greater health complaints. PMID:21632439

  12. Effects of a Rivastigmine Patch on Self-Care Activities in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease plus Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Sang Chul; Park, Jin-Woo; Lee, Hong-Jae; Kwon, Bum Sun; Lee, Ho Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims In dementia patients, a deficit in activities of daily living (ADL) is one of the main problems. Our objective was to assess ADL using the Korean Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) plus cerebrovascular disease (CVD) treated with a rivastigmine patch for 24 weeks in an open-label, observational study. Methods 29 patients were enrolled who met the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS/ ANDRA) criteria and had a score of 10-26 on the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE). After the rivastigmine patch had been applied for 24 weeks, changes in self-care activities were assessed using the K-MBI. Results The average age of the patients was 62.8 years, and they had an average K-MMSE score of 16.2. Patients showed a mean improvement of 21.9 points, as compared with the baseline K-MBI score of 30.3 (p < 0.05). Significantly better outcomes were seen in secondary outcome variables, for example the K-MMSE and backward digit span. The most frequent adverse events were skin problems, such as itching sensation (10%). Conclusion In this multicenter, open-label, observational study, the rivastigmine patch was associated with improvements in ADL in patients with AD plus CVD. PMID:25493089

  13. Self-perceived health and self-care among diabetic subjects with defective vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janeth K. Leksell; Gun E. Sandberg; Karin F. Wikblad

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare self-perceived health among diabetic patients who experienced threat of blindness with those who had already gone blind. Another aim was to explore different aspects of self-care in relation to self-perceived health among the subjects. Twenty-one diabetic patients under threat of becoming blind and 23 with diabetes-related blindness agreed to participate in the

  14. Diabetes Self-care among a Multiethnic Sample of Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy E. Schoenberg; LaVona S. Traywick; Joy Jacobs-Lawson; Cary S. Kart

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes constitutes a leading and increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults, particularly African\\u000a Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and rural dwellers. To understand diabetes self-care, an essential determinant\\u000a of diabetic and overall health outcomes, 80 middle aged and older adults from these four disproportionately affected racial\\/ethnic\\/residential\\u000a groups engaged in in-depth interviews, focusing on approaches to

  15. Posthospital setting, resource utilization, and self-care outcome in older women with hip fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra J. Levi

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To compare posthospital rehabilitation resource utilization and self-care outcome of women with hip fracture discharged to three types of setting (home, inpatient rehabilitation, skilled nursing).Design: Prospective cohort study. Patient interviews in the hospital, 2 and 6 months after fracture; hospital record reviews.Setting: Two general community and two teaching hospitals.Patients: Consecutive sample of community-living women with hip fracture, aged 65

  16. Young Cancer Patients' Perceptions of a Video Game Used to Promote Self Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan L. Beale; Verónica M. Marín-Bowling; Nicole Guthrie; Pamela M. Kato

    2006-01-01

    A video game called 'Re-Mission' has recently been investigated with adolescent and young adult cancer patients enrolled in a multi-site randomized controlled evaluation of the game as a psycho-educational intervention. The main focus of the trial was to determine effects of the game on self-care and other health-related outcomes. It was also considered valuable to evaluate participants' perceptions of the

  17. Self-care and anticipated transition into retirement and later life in a Nordic welfare context.

    PubMed

    Söderhamn, Olle; Skisland, Anne; Herrman, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have appeared in the health care literature on the meaning of transition into retirement and later life. However, this predictable-involuntary transition may influence personal health and well-being, and studying it from a self-care perspective could be useful. The aim of this study was to illuminate aspects of self-care in a group of middle-aged individuals in relation to their anticipated transition into retirement in the Nordic welfare context. A total of 13 individuals, aged 55 to 65 years, were randomly chosen from the total number of inhabitants in three municipalities in mid-west Sweden. Conversational interviews took place, during which the informants shared important events in their lives that had occurred from early childhood until the present time, together with thoughts about their anticipated future developmental transition into later life. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. After content analyses and interpretation, a comprehensive picture of the phenomenon was revealed. The results showed that there were opportunities, expectations, wishes, concerns, and worries related to the transition into retirement and old age among informants from both rural and urban municipalities. Self-care, in connection with this, depended on motivating and demotivating factors. Autonomy and mature dependence seemed to be positive driving forces for reaching a successful transition into later life. Supporting autonomy should be a way of facilitating the transition into retirement and later life. PMID:21847349

  18. Developing an appropriate model for self-care of hypertensive patients: first experience from EMRO

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shiri, Mansoor; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute 53% of deaths above the age of 30; 54% of these deaths are attributed to high blood pressure. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of mortality in the world. Hypertension accounts for 13% of mortalities and 6% of morbidities and is one of the main risk factors that cause loss of healthy life years. Blood pressure is not optimally controlled even among those who are aware of their disease. Previous studies showed that apart from pharmacological treatment, lifestyle improvement can also play a significant role in the prevention of high blood pressure CVDs. Self-care among them has been addressed in several previous studies. There are few self-care programs in Iran, but no study has been conducted on blood pressure. METHODS In this study the primary model is designed and then revised, and in the pilot study the feasibility of the project was approved and the final model presented. RESULTS The current project proposes a model for self-care of hypertensive patients and their families, and is based on education of health care providers and patients in such a way that patients can control their illness. CONCLUSION The model can be implemented at a national scale. PMID:23970918

  19. Self-Care Practices among Diabetic Patients in Anand District of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Raithatha, Shyamsundar Jagdish; Shankar, Singh Uday; Dinesh, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background. Diabetes care requires a multipronged approach, wherein the patient has an important role to play. This study was undertaken to explore self-care practices of diabetic patients residing in Anand district of Gujarat. Methods. A cross-sectional study, involving 100 diabetic patients, was conducted in 2009-2010. Self-care practices in seven domains of physical activity, dietary practices, medication taking, monitoring of glucose, problem solving, foot care, and psychosocial adjustment were assessed using scores assigned to participants' responses. Results. The mean age was 60.9 (SD = 12.2) years and 57% were males. Majority (92%) were Hindus and were consulting private medical practitioners (71%). “Medication taking” was the domain with the best performance score (88.1%) and “problem solving” the worst (11.0%). The “psychosocial adjustment” of the participants was satisfactory (82.5%). Overall mean performance percentage score was 54.41%. Males had better performance scores as compared to females in areas of “physical activity,” “dietary practices,” and “problem solving.” Housewives had poorer performance scores. Total mean performance score was similar for patients on treatment from specialists and general practitioners. Conclusion. A self-care education program designed for this region should address the lacunae identified in various domains with a special emphasis on females. PMID:24967330

  20. Self-Care Associated with Home Exercises in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Iunes, Denise H.; Rocha, Carmélia B. J.; Borges, Nathália C. S.; Marcon, Caroline O.; Pereira, Valéria M.; Carvalho, Leonardo C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify self-care guidelines together with lower limb home exercises alter ankle and foot plantar pressure and alignment in patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) measuring health and sociodemographic factors. The health factors analyzed were sensitivity and circulation aspects, risk rating, and neuropathy symptom score, ankle and foot alignment (photogrammetry), plantar pressures, and postural stability (baropodometry) before and after administering these guidelines and home exercises in 97 patients type 2 DM during 10 months. The self-care guidelines and exercises changed the forefoot alignment (Right Foot – Initial vs Final, p?=?0.04; Left Foot, P<0.01), the center of the force displacement in the mediolateral (Right Foot - Initial versus Final, p?=?0.02; Left Foot, P<0.01), and the anterior-posterior (Right foot - Initial versus Final, p?=?0.01) direction, and body balance (Initial versus Final, p?=?0.02). There was no change in the remaining assessed parameters. Self-care associated with the guidelines for home exercises for the lower limbs in patients with type 2 DM are effective in maintaining and improving the alignment of the feet, mediolateral stability and prevention of complications. Trial Registration The Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry RBR-8854CD PMID:25479542

  1. Urban and Suburban Differences in Hypertension Trends and Self-Care: Three Population-Based Cross-Sectional Studies from 2005-2011

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Hu, Huanhuan; Dong, Zhong; Xie, Jin; Zhou, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare hypertension trends in the urban and suburban population, and to examine the use of several self-care behaviors among patients who were aware of their hypertension. Methods We examined the data from three cross-sectional adult populations obtained in 2005, 2008, and 2011, in Beijing. Results Our analyses indicated that from 2005 to 2011 the standardized rate of hypertension increased from 31.9% to 36.0% (P <0.001) among urban adults, and was relatively stable (40.8% -40.2%) among suburban adults (P = 0.02). About 10% of the patients reported having taken measures to control their weight for hypertension management. As compared to the other patients, the female patients in the urban areas reported the highest rate of regular BP measurement (52.6%). In addition, the patients who reported taking medication regularly increased among the males and females. Most of the women reported nonsmoking (?95%) and alcohol abstinence (?90%). The trend of nonsmoking decreased among the urban males. In contrast, the prevalence of nonsmoking increased among the suburban males, though the trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.055). Further, the patient-reported alcohol abstinence was found to exhibit a decreasing trend among the males. Conclusions We observed an increase in the hypertension prevalence from 2005 to 2011. The rates remained higher for suburban adults than for urban adults. Females generally had better self-care ability as compared to male patients. Further research is needed to promote self-care behaviors in hypertensive patients, especially for male patients. PMID:25665069

  2. Self-care and adherence to medication: a survey in the hypertension outpatient clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gohar, Faekah; Greenfield, Sheila M; Beevers, D Gareth; Lip, Gregory YH; Jolly, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Background Self-care practices for patients with hypertension include adherence to medication, use of blood pressure self-monitoring and use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) The prevalence of CAM use and blood pressure self-monitoring have not been described in a UK secondary care population of patients with hypertension and their impact on adherence to medication has not been described. Adherence to medication is important for blood pressure control, but poor adherence is common. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-care behaviours in patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. 196 patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic in a teaching hospital serving a multiethnic population, Birmingham, UK. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of use of CAM, home monitors, adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Results CAM use in previous 12 months was reported by 66 (43.1%) respondents. CAM users did not differ statistically from non-CAM users by age, gender, marital status or education. Vitamins, prayer a dietary supplements were the most commonly used CAM. Nine (12.7%) women reported using herbal CAM compared to one man (1.2%), (p = 0.006). Ten (6.7%) respondents reported ever being asked by a doctor about CAM use. Perfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication was reported by 26 (44.8%) CAM-users and 46 (60.5%) non-CAM users (p = 0.07). Being female and a CAM user was significantly associated with imperfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Older and white British respondents were significantly more likely to report perfect adherence. Blood pressure monitors were used by 67 (43.8%) respondents, which was not associated with gender, CAM use or adherence to medication. Conclusion Hypertensive patients use a variety of self-care methods, including CAM, home blood pressure monitors, and adherence to prescribed medication. This study found the prevalence of CAM use in hypertensive patients was higher than in the UK population. It is important to acknowledge the self-care behaviour of hypertensive patients, in order to assess potential harm, and encourage effective methods of self-care. PMID:18261219

  3. Mexican-American cultural meanings, expressions, self-care and dependent-care actions associated with experiences of pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Maria Villarruel

    1993-01-01

    The purposes of this ethnographic study were to discover Mexican-American cultural meanings, expressions, self-care, and dependent-care actions associated with experiences of pain and to examine the appropriateness of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing (1991) for use with Mexican-Americans. Data were obtained from 20 key informants from 13 families and 20 general informants in the family and community context. Thematic

  4. Self Care

    MedlinePLUS

    The Center for Health & Healing Mount Sinai Beth Israel Heart Disease Diabetes Chronic Pain New Approaches to ... technique Breathing for Relaxation: a quick exercise in deep breathing Walking Meditation: A new experience in walking ...

  5. Mobile app self-care versus in-office care for stress reduction: a cost minimization analysis.

    PubMed

    Luxton, David D; Hansen, Ryan N; Stanfill, Katherine

    2014-12-01

    We calculated the cost of providing stress reduction care with a mobile phone app (Breathe2Relax) in comparison with normal in-person care, the standard method for managing stress in military and civilian populations. We conducted a cost-minimization analysis. The total cost to the military healthcare system of treating 1000 patients with the app was $106,397. Treating 1000 patients with in-office care cost $68,820. Treatment using the app became less expensive than in-office treatment at approximately 1600 users. From the perspective of the civilian healthcare system, treatment using the app became less expensive than in-office treatment at approximately 1500 users. An online tool was used to obtain data about the number of app downloads and usage sessions. A total of 47,000 users had accessed the app for 10-30?min sessions in the 2.5 years since the release of the app. Assuming that all 47,000 users were military beneficiaries, the savings to the military healthcare system would be $2.7 million; if the 47,000 users were civilian, the savings to the civilian healthcare system would be $2.9 million. Because of the large number of potential users, the total societal savings resulting from self-care using the app may be considerable. PMID:25316037

  6. Sex Differences in Muscle Pain: Self-care Behaviors and Effects on Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dannecker, Erin A.; Knoll, Victoria; Robinson, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Women have a higher prevalence of fibromyalgia and myofascial pain than men, but sex differences in muscle pain are inconsistently detected. We examined sex differences in ratings and effects of recalled and experimentally-induced muscle pain. In Study 1 (N = 188), participants completed a questionnaire about recalled muscle pain. In Study 2 (N = 55), participants’ described muscle pain from an exercise stimulus across three days by telephone. Muscle pain ratings, self-care behaviors for muscle pain, and effects of muscle pain on activities were measured. No significant sex differences were found except that women tended to view exercise as more effective for decreasing muscle pain than men (F1, 187 = 5.43, p = .02, ?2 = .03), fewer women performed exercise for induced muscle pain than men, and women’s activity interference was significantly higher than men’s at the third day post-exercise (F2, 42 = 6.54, p= .01, ?2 = .14). These findings support the absence of meaningful sex differences in muscle pain ratings. However, additional investigations are needed that consider the daily activities completed by people and the prevalence and incidence of performing a wide range of self-care behaviors for pain. Perspective: These studies support that sex differences are not present in recalled and experimentally-induced muscle pain ratings. Therefore, we must be cautious about generalizing the musculoskeletal pain literature to muscle pain. Additional research is needed to interpret potential sex differences in self-care behaviors for muscle pain and activity interference from muscle pain. PMID:18088556

  7. Impact of a First-Year Student Pharmacist Diabetes Self-Care Education Program

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Melissa; Luu, Linda; Kobayashi, Shawna; Mutrux, Brandon; Best, Brookie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a first-year diabetes self-care education program by measuring student pharmacists’ confidence and knowledge retention, and the clinical applicability of the skills learned. Design. Integrated into a Pharmacy Practice Course, a 9-hour program consisting of lectures, a home glucose monitor assignment, and active-learning workshops was completed by 2 cohorts of first-year student pharmacists. Three survey instruments were developed and administered to the student pharmacists prior to the program, immediately after the program, and 9 months after the program to assess confidence, knowledge retention, and the clinical applicability of the knowledge and skills learned. Assessment. In cohort 1, 54 student pharmacists (response rate 90%) perceived that their confidence and ability improved significantly (increased by 88% and 110%, respectively, from baseline, p<0.001). Overall knowledge of diabetes increased as well as indicated by a 40% increase in test scores (p<0.001). About two-thirds of student pharmacists used their training to assist patients with diabetes within 9 months of completing the program. Findings in cohort 2 mirrored those observed with cohort 1, indicating good generalizability. Conclusions. An innovative first-year diabetes self-care education program significantly improved student pharmacists’ knowledge and confidence in providing diabetes self-care education, and the majority immediately used their leaned skills to assist diabetes patients and caregivers. Training first-year student pharmacists in diabetes care so they are prepared to use these skills as early as their first year of pharmacy school may be an effective approach to increasing the number of providers available to counsel and care for this expanding patient population. PMID:24371339

  8. [Home care for the chronically ill: a self-care health system].

    PubMed

    Silva, Leticia Robles

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on home care for chronically ill adults and seniors. According to our thesis, home care should be understood as a self-care system, and its aim is to guarantee the individual's social and bodily survival. Home care consists of three areas, related to illness, the home, and to life history. Caregiving, usually under women's responsibility, is present throughout the history of the illness and the health-seeking process. The article analyzes these issues in light of the ageing process, the epidemiological changes occurring worldwide, and the urgency to incorporate this analysis into the heath care research agenda. PMID:15073644

  9. Pronounced impairment of everyday skills and self-care in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Foxe, David; Hodges, John; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visual dysfunction and parietal, occipital, and occipitotemporal atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of PCA and typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) on everyday functional abilities and neuropsychiatric status. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised was given to carers of 32 PCA and 71 tAD patients. PCA patients showed significantly greater impairment in everyday skills and self-care while the tAD group showed greater impairment in aspects of memory and orientation, and motivation. We suggest that PCA poses specific challenges for those caring for people affected by the condition. PMID:25096622

  10. Social Support and Self-Care of Patients with Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven L. Sayers; Barbara Riegel; Stephanie Pawlowski; James C. Coyne; Frederick F. Samaha

    2008-01-01

    Background  Social support can influence treatment adherence of patients with chronic illnesses, which may explain the positive effects\\u000a of social support on heart failure (HF) outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  To investigate the effects of social support among patients with HF, we examined whether aspects of social support were associated\\u000a with self-care, including medication adherence, dietary adherence, and HF symptom monitoring functions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We recruited 74

  11. An Internet-Based Counseling Intervention With Email Reminders that Promotes Self-Care in Adults With Chronic Heart Failure: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ada YM; Ross, Heather; White, Michel; D'Antono, Bianca; Chan, Sammy; Barr, Susan I; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Nigam, Anil; Perreault, Sylvie; Farkouh, Michael; McDonald, Michael; Goodman, Jack; Thomas, Scott; Zieroth, Shelley; Isaac, Debra; Oh, Paul; Rajda, Miroslaw; Chen, Maggie; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liu, Sam; Zbib, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a public health priority. Its age-standardized prevalence has increased over the past decade. A major challenge for the management of CHF is to promote long-term adherence to self-care behaviors without overtaxing available health care resources. Counseling by multidisciplinary health care teams helps to improve adherence to self-care behaviors and to reduce the rate of death and hospitalization. In the absence of intervention, adherence to self-care is below recommended standards. Objective This trial aims to establish and evaluate a Canadian e-platform that will provide a core, standardized protocol of behavioral counseling and education to facilitate long-term adherence to self-care among patients with CHF. Methods Canadian e-Platform to Promote Behavioral Self-Management in Chronic Heart Failure (CHF-CePPORT) is a multi-site, double blind, randomized controlled trial with a 2 parallel-group (e-Counseling + Usual Care vs e-Info Control + Usual Care) by 3 assessments (baseline, 4-, and 12-month) design. We will identify subjects with New York Heart Association Class II or III systolic heart failure from collaborating CHF clinics and then recruit them (n=278) by phone. Subjects will be randomized in blocks within each site (Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver). The primary outcome will be improved quality of life, defined as an increased number of subjects with an improvement of ?5 points on the summary score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We will also assess the following secondary outcomes: (1) diet habits, depression, anxiety, smoking history, stress level, and readiness for change using self-report questionnaires, (2) physical activity level, current smoking status, and vagal-heart rate modulation by physiological tests, and (3) exercise capacity, prognostic indicators of cardiovascular functioning, and medication adherence through medical chart review. The primary outcome will be analyzed using generalized estimation equations with repeated measures on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes will be analyzed using repeated-measures linear mixed models with a random effects intercept. All significant main effects or interactions in the statistical models will be followed up with post hoc contrasts using a Bonferroni correction with a 2-sided statistical significance criterion of P<.05. Results This 3.5-year, proof-of-principle trial will establish the e-infrastructure for a pan-Canadian e-platform for CHF that is comprised of a standardized, evidence-based protocol of e-Counseling. Conclusions CHF-CePPORT is designed to improve long-term adherence to self-care behaviors and quality of life among patients with CHF. It will demonstrate a distinct Canadian initiative to build capacity for preventive eHealth services for patients with CHF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01864369; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01864369 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Iiv6so7E). PMID:24480783

  12. Chronic Illness Self-care and the Family Lives of Older Adults: A Synthetic Review Across Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Mary P.; Spitze, Glenna; Grove, Joshua G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on family and social ties among older ethnic minority men and women with the literature on chronic illness self-care among elders in these groups, in order to increase understanding of social influences on self-care behavior, raise questions for future research, and inform culturally appropriate interventions to maximize the health-promoting potential of social relationships. The paper presents demographic and chronic illness prevalence information, and then summarizes literature about patterns of chronic illness self-care behaviors for older African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, and American Indians in the U.S. For each group, the sociological literature about residential, cultural, and socioeconomic patterns, family lives, and other social ties is then reviewed, and the self-care literature that has accounted for these patterns is discussed. Finally, six themes are outlined and related questions are identified to further illuminate the social context of older adults’ chronic illness self-care. PMID:20177963

  13. Motivational Interviewing (MI) to Change Type 2DM Self Care Behaviors: A Nursing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Dellasega, Cheryl; Gabbay, Robert; Durdock, Kendra; Martinez-King, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Aims This paper evaluates a novel nursing intervention designed to improve physical and psychological outcomes for adult patients with Type 2 DM. Background Self care behaviors are an important component of diabetes treatment, yet for many reasons, patients do not adhere to suggested plans. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a patient centered strategy that helps overcome ambivalence to change. Nurses, who frequently educate patients with diabetes about self care, can use MI as a way to improve health behaviors. Methods As a component of a large RCT, focus groups were used to evaluate the impact of an MI nursing intervention. Nineteen patients (8% of treatment group) participated in four different groups. IPA was used to explore patient response to the intervention. Results/Findings Patients were able to reflect on and identify responses to sessions with the study nurses that differed from “typical” health care provider visits. Many of their descriptions captured the essence of MI practice. Conclusion MI is a viable and useful technique for nurses to use in educating and caring for persons with Type 2 DM. PMID:24817822

  14. Experiences with establishing the first self-care hemodialysis program in a hospital in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Ling; Zhang, Feng; He, Lian; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Tao; Suzie, Burford; Yang, Li-Jie; Lai, Chi

    2013-01-01

    There has never been a home hemodialysis (HHD) program or self-care hemodialysis (SC-HD) program in Mainland China, and it may be plausible starting from an SC-HD program. This study describes the systems for, and the initial results of, starting an SC-HD program. A program for SC-HD was instituted at the Peking University Third Hospital. A working group had designed the patient education program and water quality assurance. The patient's education program was established, which consisted of a handbook and a video for training. In May 2009, two patients were recruited and trained for HD. They were adequately dialyzed with satisfactory Kt/V, both the patients could perform all of the self-care procedures after training for 12 weeks. More difficult procedures, such as the self-cannulation, were successfully handled. Significant improvement was found in six of the eight short form (SF)-36 health scales after 6 months for SC-HD treatment. For the past year, there were no severe complications resulting from SC-HD. In summary, our first SC-HD program in Mainland China is feasible and safe. It promotes rehabilitation, increases self-esteem, and improves health-related quality of life. It is also a first attempt for starting an HHD program. PMID:23228242

  15. Self-care behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chourdakis, Michael; Kontogiannis, Vasileios; Malachas, Konstantinos; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Kritis, Aristidis

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine self-care behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in the Metropolitan Area of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care behaviors measurement was administered to 215 patients, out of which 177 were eligible to participate (87 males). Patients, aged 30 years or more, were recruited through a university hospital day-clinic. Older patients (>65 years), as well as those with "higher educational level" did not distribute their daily carbohydrate intake equally. Nevertheless, they were more likely to adapt to their physician's recommendations regarding medication and to regularly perform suggested blood glucose checking. Exercise patterns were more often found for higher educated, earlier diagnosed males. Younger patients were less likely to follow their healthcare professional's recommendations, regarding diet, medication intake, blood glucose checking, foot care and exercise compared to older patients. These results pose a higher risk for complications and morbidity in younger patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who most possibly will require intensive treatment in the future. PMID:24519180

  16. Women with heart failure: do they require a special approach for improving adherence to self-care?

    PubMed

    Stamp, Kelly D

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate research regarding whether women with heart failure (HF) need a special approach for improving their adherence to self-care. Prior research has sampled mostly white, male populations and these results have been generalized to the population of all HF patients. After age 65, women are at a higher risk than men for developing HF. Once women develop HF they are more likely than men with HF to experience greater symptom burden, re-hospitalizations, social isolation, and higher mortality rates. In this review we will explore barriers and facilitators that women experience when performing self-care, and whether they need individualized interventions or approaches to care that are different from those for male patients with HF. Special approaches such as assessment of social support and self-care counseling when treating women with HF will be discussed, as this may improve women's adherence, thereby slowing the symptom burden and disease progression. PMID:24740754

  17. Unmet Needs for Social Support and Effects on Diabetes Self-care Activities in Korean Americans With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Youngshin; Song, Hee-Jung; Han, Hae-Ra; Park, So-Youn; Nam, Soohyun; Kim, Miyong T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was (1) to characterize the primary sources of social support and the extent of unmet needs for support (defined as the gap between social support needs and the receipt of social support) in a sample of Korean Americans (KAs) with type 2 diabetes and (2) to examine the effect of unmet needs for support on their self-care activities. Methods Baseline data obtained from a community-based intervention trial were used for this study of 83 middle-aged KAs with type 2 diabetes. Study design and data analysis were guided by social cognitive theory. The key variables were dictated the order of the variables in multivariate regression analysis. Results Our findings indicated that for diabetic KAs, the primary source of social support differed according to gender. Unmet needs for support were significantly associated with self-care activities, but the amount of support needs and of social support received were not. Multivariate analysis also confirmed that unmet needs for social support are a significant strong predictor of inadequate type 2 diabetes self-care activities, after controlling for other covariates. The hierarchical regression model explained about 30% of total variance in self-care activities. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of considering unmet needs for social support when addressing self-care activities in type 2 diabetes patients. Future interventions should focus on filling gaps in social support and tailoring approaches according to key determinants, such as gender or education level, to improve self-care activities in the context of type 2 diabetes care. PMID:22222514

  18. Active Learning through a Debate Series in a First-Year Pharmacy Self-Care Course.

    PubMed

    Lampkin, Stacie J; Collins, Christine; Danison, Ryan; Lewis, Michelle

    2015-03-25

    Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of formal debates in the pharmacy classroom as a way to learn course material and as a tool for developing competency in essential skills including critical thinking, communication, public speaking, research methods, and teamwork. Design. Debates were incorporated into a self-care course, where students were assigned different debate topics focused on controversial issues. Quantitative analysis was completed to assess debate style learning, knowledge about the subjects presented, and the impact on necessary skills. Assessment. Quizzes given before and after debates showed up to a 36% improvement in grades and up to a 31% change in opinions on the topic. Students assessed themselves as more competent in the skill sets at the completion of the debate series. Conclusion. Incorporation of debates into didactic style courses offers students an opportunity to improve upon skills that will help them succeed as pharmacists. PMID:25861106

  19. Occupational conditions, self-care, and obesity among clergy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Todd W; Andercheck, Brita; Tom, Joshua C; Martinez, Brandon C; Stroope, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that a variety of occupational conditions such as long work hours are associated with increased likelihood of obesity. In this study, we use the specific case of the clergy to explore how occupational conditions are linked to increased or decreased odds of being obese. We hypothesize that stressful conditions are associated with increased odds of obesity and that self-care practices are associated with decreased odds. Using the 2008/9 U.S. Congregational Life Survey's national sample of clergy from multiple religious traditions, we find support for our hypotheses. Clergy who experience more stress, work more hours, or are bi-vocational have higher odds of obesity. Those who take a day off each week, have taken a sabbatical, or are involved in a support group experience lower odds. For Protestant clergy, being involved in a support group or taking a day off moderates the association between certain stressful occupational conditions and obesity. PMID:25432617

  20. Active Learning through a Debate Series in a First-Year Pharmacy Self-Care Course

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Christine; Danison, Ryan; Lewis, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of formal debates in the pharmacy classroom as a way to learn course material and as a tool for developing competency in essential skills including critical thinking, communication, public speaking, research methods, and teamwork. Design. Debates were incorporated into a self-care course, where students were assigned different debate topics focused on controversial issues. Quantitative analysis was completed to assess debate style learning, knowledge about the subjects presented, and the impact on necessary skills. Assessment. Quizzes given before and after debates showed up to a 36% improvement in grades and up to a 31% change in opinions on the topic. Students assessed themselves as more competent in the skill sets at the completion of the debate series. Conclusion. Incorporation of debates into didactic style courses offers students an opportunity to improve upon skills that will help them succeed as pharmacists. PMID:25861106

  1. Oral self-care practices among university students in Port Harcourt, Rivers State

    PubMed Central

    Bashiru, Braimoh Omoigberai; Anthony, Ilochonwu Nzube

    2014-01-01

    Background: The maintenance of optimum oral health is dependent on the efficacy of oral self-care. The objective of the present study was to evaluate oral self-care practices and knowledge among non-medical students at the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students at the University of Port Harcourt Nigeria, in January, 2014. Self-administered questionnaire elicited information on demography, frequency of tooth brushing, type of tooth brush, use of dental floss and previous visit to the dentist. Results: A total of 360 young adults, 188 males and 172 females, aged 18-33 years participated in the study. Brushing habits of the study population was at least once a day (90%). Approximately half (52.5 %) of the samples used medium-sized bristles and about 28.8% of the students replaced their toothbrush every 3 months. Regarding oral hygiene aids, few students, 5.8% and 4.2% used dental floss and mouthwash, respectively, as oral cleaning aid. Most of the students (71.6%) had never visited the dentist, 18.1% visited due to dental pain and 8.1% for extraction. Regarding knowledge on oral hygiene practice, approximately 60% of students knew that we have to brush our teeth twice daily, 31% knew we need to visit the dentist twice a year and only 18% knew what was dental floss. Conclusion: Oral hygiene practices among the students were poor. Therefore, oral health education and promotion is required to improve oral hygiene practices and health among young adults and the general population. PMID:25538367

  2. Self-Care Guidelines for the Management of Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stover H. Snook

    2004-01-01

    Low back pain is a very common disorder among adults. However, most low back pain is nonspecific; it has no known cause and cannot be given a precise pathoanatomical diagnosis. Nonspecific low back pain can be very painful, but it is not serious; it is basically an age-related disorder that is affected by differences in occupation, genetics, and personal behavior.

  3. Use of Self-Care and Practitioner-Based Forms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine before and after a Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Link, Alissa R.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Jacobson, Judith S.; Abrahamson, Page; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Terry, Mary Beth; Teitelbaum, Susan; Neugut, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We examine factors associated with self-care, use of practitioner-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and their timing in a cohort of women with breast cancer. Methods. Study participants were women with breast cancer who participated in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Self-care is defined as the use of multivitamins, single vitamins, botanicals, other dietary supplements, mind-body practices, special diets, support groups, and prayer. Within each modality, study participants were categorized as continuous users (before and after diagnosis), starters (only after diagnosis), quitters (only before diagnosis), or never users. Multivariable logistic regression was used for the main analyses. Results. Of 764 women who provided complete data, 513 (67.2%) initiated a new form of self-care following breast cancer diagnosis. The most popular modalities were those that are ingestible, and they were commonly used in combination. The strongest predictor of continuous use of one type of self-care was continuous use of other types of self-care. Healthy behaviors, including high fruit/vegetable intake and exercise, were more strongly associated with continuously using self-care than starting self-care after diagnosis. Conclusions. Breast cancer diagnosis was associated with subsequent behavioral changes, and the majority of women undertook new forms of self-care after diagnosis. Few women discontinued use of modalities they used prior to diagnosis. PMID:23997792

  4. Development and validation of The Personal Diabetes Questionnaire (PDQ): A measure of diabetes self-care behaviors, perceptions and barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Stetson; David Schlundt; Chelsea Rothschild; Jennifer E. Floyd; Whitney Rogers; Sri Prakash Mokshagundam

    2011-01-01

    AimTo develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of The Personal Diabetes Questionnaire (PDQ), a brief, yet comprehensive measure of diabetes self-care behaviors, perceptions and barriers. To examine individual items to provide descriptive and normative information and provide data on scale reliability and associations between PDQ scales and concurrently assessed HBA1c and BMI.

  5. Spiritual and Religious Beliefs and Practices, and Social Support's Relationship to Diabetes Self-Care Activities in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Yashika J.; Quinn, Lauretta T.; Ruggiero, Laurie; Quinn, Michael T.; Choi, Young-Ku

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among spiritual and religious beliefs and practices, social support, and diabetes self-care activities in African Americans with type 2 diabetes, hypothesizing that there would be a positive association. Method This cohort study used a cross-sectional design that focused on baseline data from a larger randomized control trial. Diabetes self-care activities (Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities; SDSCA) and sociodemographic characteristics were assessed, in addition to spiritual and religious beliefs and practices and social support using the Systems of Belief Inventory (SBI) subscale I (beliefs and practices) and subscale II (social support). Results There were 132 participants: most were female, middle-aged, obese, single, high school-educated, and not employed. Using Pearson correlation matrices, there were significant relationships between spiritual and religious beliefs and practices and general diet. Additional significant relationships were found for social support with general diet, specific diet, and foot care. Using multiple linear regression, social support was a significant predictor for general diet, specific diet, and foot care. Gender was a significant predictor for specific diet, and income was a significant predictor for blood glucose testing. Conclusions The findings of this study highlight the importance of spiritual and religious beliefs and practices and social support in diabetes self-care activities. Future research should focus on determining how providers integrate patients' beliefs and practices and social support into clinical practice and include those in behavior change interventions. PMID:23411653

  6. Prevalence Rates of Self-Care Behaviors and Related Factors in a Rural Hypertension Population: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huanhuan; Li, Gang; Arao, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors among hypertensive patients in primary care. A cross-sectional survey, with 318 hypertensive patients, was conducted in a rural area in Beijing, China, in 2012. Participants were mainly recruited from a community health clinic and completed questionnaires assessing their self-care behaviors, including data on adherence to a prescribed medication regimen, low-salt diet intake, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, blood pressure monitoring, and physical exercise. The logistic regression model was used for the analysis of any association between self-care behaviors and age, gender, duration of hypertension, self-rated health, marital status, education level, diabetes status, or body mass index. Subjects that adhered to their medication schedule were more likely to have hypertension for a long duration (OR, 3.44; 95% CI 1.99–5.97). Older participants (OR, 1.80; 95% CI 1.08–2.99) were more likely to monitor their blood pressure. Subjects who did not partake in physical exercise were more likely to be men, although the difference between genders was not significant (OR, 0.60; 95% CI 0.36–1.01). Patients with shorter history of hypertension, younger and being males have lower self-care behaviors. Primary care providers and public health practitioner should pay more attention to patients recently diagnosed with hypertension as well as younger male patients. PMID:23819042

  7. Effect of Telehealth on Self-Care Behavior of Heart Failure Patients Carolina Varon1,2

    E-print Network

    Effect of Telehealth on Self-Care Behavior of Heart Failure Patients Carolina Varon1,2 , Morenikeji Abstract Telehealth systems to monitor heart failure patients have become a very important tool in the last and weight were collected from 108 patients suffering from heart failure. In addition, they were asked

  8. The Use of Self-Care Agency To Meet the Need for Solitude and Social Interaction by Chronically Ill Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Margaret A.

    This study examined the effect of chronic illness on the individual's ability to meet his or her need for solitude and for social interaction by exploring how chronically ill individuals used their own ability (self-care agency) to meet these needs. Subjects were 90 chronically ill older persons, 30 of whom were living at home, 30 who lived in a…

  9. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

  10. A Competency-Based Approach to Teaching Professional Self-Care: An Ethical Consideration for Social Work Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Jason M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating material on professional self-care into social work course content is valuable to the education of neophyte social work practitioners. This article presents a review of the literature on professional burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue, including the risk factors associated with the experience of these…

  11. Increasing Independence in Self-Care Tasks for Children with Autism Using Self-Operated Auditory Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole McGaha; Heflin, L. Juane

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of self-operated auditory prompting systems (SOAPs) on independent self-care task completion of elementary-school-aged children with autism and intellectual disabilities. Prerecorded verbal prompts on a student-operated tape recorder were employed to facilitate independence in washing hands and…

  12. The Development of an ICF-Oriented, Adaptive Physician Assessment Instrument of Mobility, Self-care, and Domestic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Erik; Fleitz, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and psychometric testing of an adaptive, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-oriented questionnaire to be processed by the rehabilitation physician that aids in assessing mobility, self-care, and domestic life (Moses-Physician). The intent is to develop a physician…

  13. Prevalence rates of self-care behaviors and related factors in a rural hypertension population: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huanhuan; Li, Gang; Arao, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors among hypertensive patients in primary care. A cross-sectional survey, with 318 hypertensive patients, was conducted in a rural area in Beijing, China, in 2012. Participants were mainly recruited from a community health clinic and completed questionnaires assessing their self-care behaviors, including data on adherence to a prescribed medication regimen, low-salt diet intake, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, blood pressure monitoring, and physical exercise. The logistic regression model was used for the analysis of any association between self-care behaviors and age, gender, duration of hypertension, self-rated health, marital status, education level, diabetes status, or body mass index. Subjects that adhered to their medication schedule were more likely to have hypertension for a long duration (OR, 3.44; 95% CI 1.99-5.97). Older participants (OR, 1.80; 95% CI 1.08-2.99) were more likely to monitor their blood pressure. Subjects who did not partake in physical exercise were more likely to be men, although the difference between genders was not significant (OR, 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-1.01). Patients with shorter history of hypertension, younger and being males have lower self-care behaviors. Primary care providers and public health practitioner should pay more attention to patients recently diagnosed with hypertension as well as younger male patients. PMID:23819042

  14. Self-care among caregivers of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kakola location, Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Geteri, Leila Moraa; Angogo, Evelyn Mandela

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in Kakola Location of Nyando District in Kenya. The aim of study was to determine the factors influencing the practice of self-care among caregivers for person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) as well as their practice of self-care. A study by World Health Organization approximated that in developing countries, the need for long-term care will increase by as much as 40% in the coming years. HIV/AIDS has been cited as one of the challenges in long-term care. As demand for long-term care increases, the assumption that extended family networks can meet all the needs of their members deteriorates. The community-based survey employed descriptive cross-sectional design, involving primary caregivers of PLWHAs in Kakola location who had practiced care giving for more than 3 months. A household survey was conducted with 150 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 11.0. Simple frequencies and cross tabulations to compare variables were produced. Microsoft Excel was used to produce tables and graphs. Majority of the respondents 124 (82.7%) were female, while 26 (17.3%) were male. Self-care elements most practiced by the respondents in all the age categories were infection prevention and nutritional care. Female respondents had the highest proportions in all the practices of self-care. The results also showed that gender, relationship of patient to caregiver and marital status were the main demographic factors that significantly influenced the practice of self-care among caregivers. There was a significant relationship between main sources of income of caregivers with the practice of self-care. The study also revealed that respondents with no education had the lowest number of respondents practicing all the six practices of self-care and belonging to a support group. Recommendations for the study included, forging partnerships among stakeholders, training of caregivers and review of the home-based care policy. PMID:24090080

  15. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Background Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care. Methods An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons’ own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks. Results The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care. Conclusion Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health. PMID:25670905

  16. Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Findings Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life. Conclusion Health care professionals should be aware of these findings in order to support self-care in older people, and they should pay attention to the social aspects at meals. PMID:23271914

  17. Average Names

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-19

    In this activity, learners compare the number of letters in the names of the people in their families or group of friends. Learners write out the names in graph paper, with one letter in each square, and cut out the names. Learners sort the names from shortest to longest and then find the average length of the names by cutting and scrambling up the letters. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

  18. The role of information in supporting self-care in vascular conditions: a conceptual and empirical review.

    PubMed

    Blickem, Christian; Bower, Peter; Protheroe, Joanne; Kennedy, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Self-care has the potential to make a significant contribution to vascular conditions, but engagement with self-care support has been limited. Lack of relevant information is highlighted by patients and policy-makers as an important barrier to effective self-care, and information provides a potentially efficient platform for changing behaviour. However, work within the social sciences has generally seen information as a necessary but insufficient driver of health behaviours. Furthermore, some groups (such as the socially disadvantaged) are expected to be less amenable to information interventions. We conducted an integrated conceptual and empirical review on information-based interventions for people with vascular disease (diabetes, heart disease and kidney disease). We reviewed conceptual and empirical work concerning the role and impact of information in self-care support to generate an explanatory framework to determine why information was effective or ineffective in encouraging self-care in patients with vascular conditions. This involved mapping relevant theories and models linking information and self-care. We also explored published systematic reviews of educational interventions in diabetes, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease to examine the role of information and evidence concerning its effectiveness and impact in different patient populations. The conceptual review identified variation among information interventions in terms of type, function, and their relationship to behaviour change techniques and psychological mediators of behaviour change. Key moderators of the effect of information included types of disorder, and patient capacity and resources. A wealth of educational interventions exists for diabetes and heart conditions, but the precise components of these interventions that are effective are difficult to identify. There is little evidence concerning optimal ways of tailoring interventions for socially disadvantaged groups other than ethnic minorities. A focus on printed information may not provide access to effective methods of information delivery (e.g. tailored information, use of narratives and user generated content). Developing a framework for the effective use of information needs to take account the full range of the factors identified. PMID:21158998

  19. Sustainable Reduction of Sleepiness through Salutogenic Self-Care Procedure in Lunch Breaks: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stappert, Sarah; Takahashi, Masaya; Fricchione, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory sleepiness reducing effects of a salutogenic self-care procedure called progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), during lunch breaks. The second exploratory aim deals with determining the onset and long-term time course of sleepiness changes. In order to evaluate the intraday range and interday change of the proposed relaxation effects, 14 call center agents were assigned to either a daily 20-minute self-administered PMR or a small talk (ST) group during a period of seven months. Participants' levels of sleepiness were analyzed in a controlled trial using anticipatory, postlunchtime, and afternoon changes of sleepiness as indicated by continuously determined objective reaction time measures (16,464 measurements) and self-reports administered five times per day, once per month (490 measurements). Results indicate that, in comparison to ST, the PMR break (a) induces immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory reductions in sleepiness; (b) these significant effects remarkably show up after one month, and sleepiness continues to decrease for at least another five months. Although further research is required referring to the specific responsible mediating variables, our results suggest that relaxation based lunch breaks are both accepted by employees and provide a sustainable impact on sleepiness. PMID:24381633

  20. Effects of education and support on self-care and resource utilization in patients with heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Jaarsma; R. Halfens; H. Huijer Abu-Saad; K. Dracup; T. Gorgels; J. van Ree; J. Stappers

    1999-01-01

    Aims To test the eVect of education and support by a nurse on self-care and resource utilization in patients with heart failure. Methods A total of 179 patients (mean age 73, 58% male, NYHA III-IV) hospitalized with heart failure were evalu- ated prospectively. Patients were randomized to the study intervention or to 'care as usual'. The supportive educative intervention consisted

  1. Self-Care Activities Among Patients with Diabetes Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mangalore Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekharan, D; Kulkarni, V; Unnikrishnan, B; Kumar, N; Holla, R; Thapar, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing prevalence of diabetes in India is resulting in an epidemiological transition. The care of the people with diabetes is traditionally seen as doctor centered, but the concept of self-care of people with diabetes is a new domain and is proven beneficial. Aim: The aim was to determine the practice of self-care activities among people with diabetes attending a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore. Subjects and Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Government Wenlock Hospital, Mangalore during September–October 2012. A total of 290 patients with >1-year duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) were asked to respond to summary diabetes self-care activities questionnaire after obtaining the consent from them. The statistical analysis was performed in terms of descriptive statistics and association between the variables was tested using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: A healthy eating plan on a daily basis was followed by 45.9% (133/290) of the participants, daily exercises for 30 min were followed by 43.4% (126/290), and regular blood sugar monitoring was done by 76.6% (222/290). Regarding the adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin, daily adherence to medication was seen among 60.5% (155/256) and 66.9% (138/206) were found to be adherent to insulin injections on a daily basis. Conclusions: Self-care practices were found to be unsatisfactory in almost all aspects except for blood sugar monitoring and treatment adherence. As these practices are essential for prevention of complications and better quality-of -life, more efforts should be put to educate the people with diabetes.

  2. Health Literacy, Physician Trust, and Diabetes-related Self-care Activities in Hispanics with Limited Resources

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard O.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hispanics with diabetes often have deficits in health literacy (HL). We examined the association among HL, psychosocial factors, and diabetes-related self-care activities. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 149 patients. Data included patient demographics and validated measures of HL, physician trust, self-efficacy, acculturation, self-care behaviors, and A1c. Results Participants (N=60) with limited HL were older and less educated, and had more years with diabetes compared with adequate HL participants (N=89). Limited HL participants reported greater trust in their physician, greater self-efficacy, and better diet, foot care, and medication adherence. Health literacy status was not associated with acculturation or A1c. In adjusted analyses, HL status remained associated with physician trust, and we observed a notable but nonsignificant trend between HL status and medication adherence. Discussion Lower HL was associated with greater physician trust and better medication adherence. Further research is warranted to clarify the role of HL and physician trust in optimizing self-care for Hispanics. PMID:24185168

  3. Teaching Self-Care to Caregivers: Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on the Mental Health of Therapists in Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shauna L. Shapiro; Kirk Warren Brown; Gina M. Biegel

    2007-01-01

    Preparation for the role of therapist can occur on both professional and personal levels. Research has found that therapists are at risk for occupationally related psychological problems. It follows that self-care may be a useful complement to the professional training of future therapists. The present study examined the effects of one approach to self-care, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), for therapists

  4. Managing the rate of increase in average co-ancestry in a rolling front tree breeding strategy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R J; McRae, T A; Dutkowski, G W; Tier, B

    2015-04-01

    In breeding forest trees, as for livestock, the goal is to capture as much genetic gain as possible for the breeding objective, while limiting long- and short-term inbreeding. The Southern Tree Breeding Association (STBA) is responsible for breeding Australia's two main commercial forest tree species and has adopted algorithms and methods commonly used in animal breeding to achieve this balance. Discrete generation breeding is the norm for most tree breeding programmes. However, the STBA uses an overlapping generation strategy, with a new stream of breeding initiated each year. A feature of the species bred by the STBA (Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus) is the long interval (up to 7 years) between when an individual is mated and when its progeny is first assessed in field trials and performance data included in the national performance database. Mate selection methods must therefore recognize the large pool of unmeasured progeny generated over recent years of crossing. In addition, the substantial delay between when an individual is selected in a field trial and when it is clonally copied into a mating facility (breeding arboretum) means that selection and mating must occur as a two-step process. In this article, we describe modifications to preselection and mate selection algorithms that allow unmeasured progeny (juveniles) to be recognized. We also demonstrate that the addition of hypothetical new progeny to the juvenile pool is important for computing the increase in average co-ancestry in the population. Methods outlined in this article may have relevance to animal breeding programmes where between mating and progeny measurement, new rounds of mating are initiated. PMID:25823837

  5. Feasibility of Mobile Phone-Based Management of Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua C.; Schatz, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    According to the CDC, chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes cause 75% of healthcare spending in the United States and contribute to nearly seven in ten American deaths. However, despite the prevalence and high-cost of chronic disease, they are also among the most preventable of health problems1. How can we use technology to improve self-care, reduce costs, and lessen the burden on medical professionals? Devices to help manage chronic illness have been marketed for years, but are these specialized devices really necessary? In this paper, the authors identify the aspects of the major chronic illnesses that most need to be controlled and monitored in the US today and explore the feasibility of using current mobile phone technology to improve the management of chronic illness. Here we show that even the average mobile phone is capable of improving the management of all relevant health features in some way. PMID:21347080

  6. Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts—Cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum

    PubMed Central

    Martin Salzmann-Erikson, R.N.; Henrik Eriksson, R.N.T.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others’ anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice. PMID:22053162

  7. Emotional and quality-of-life aspects of diabetes management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Polonsky

    2002-01-01

    Patients with diabetes commonly feel overwhelmed, frustrated, or “burned out” by the daily hassles of disease management and\\u000a by the unending, often burdensome self-care demands. Many report feeling angry, guilty, or frightened about the disease, and\\u000a often are unmotivated to complete diabetes self-care tasks. The toll of short- and long-term complications can make the disease\\u000a even more burdensome. Not surprisingly,

  8. Effects of gender, age, and diabetes duration on dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a Self-Determination Theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Austin, Stéphanie; Senécal, Caroline; Guay, Frédéric; Nouwen, Arie

    2011-09-01

    This study tests a model derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci and Ryan, 2000) to explain the mechanisms by which non-modifiable factors influence dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 289). SEM analyses adjusted for HbA1c levels revealed that longer diabetes duration and female gender were indicative of poorer dietary self-care. This effect was mediated by contextual and motivational factors as posited by SDT. Poorer autonomy support from practitioners was predominant in girls with longer diabetes duration. Perceived autonomous motivation and self-efficacy were indicative of greater autonomy support, and led to better dietary self-care. PMID:21430132

  9. Improving of Type 2 Diabetic Patients’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Diabetes Self-care by Implementing Community-Based Interactive Approach-Diabetes Mellitus Strategy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community Based Interactive Approach-diabetes mellitus (CBIA-DM) is an active self-learning method. This study is aimed at improving type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care by implementing the CBIA-DM strategy. Time series, pre and post quasi-experimental design, Intervention group underwent CBIA-DM, DM-club and Normal-care group acted as control. Data were collected in pre-intervention, immediately, one, three and six months post intervention. Ranging scores for pre and post test questionnaires were: knowledge (0–18) and attitude (9–45); categorizing as rational scales of the scores in good, fair and poor. Practicing in diabetes self-care was assessed using 12 questionnaires, and categorized as adhere and not adhere to DM self-care. Effectiveness of CBIA-DM was evaluated based on the increasing number of participants in good knowledge and attitude levels, and adherence in practicing diabetes self-care. Results CBIA-DM group shows increasing number of participants in good level of knowledge from 40?% (n?=?30) up to 80?% at M?+?3 with scores significantly improved from 13.1?±?2.4 up to 15.4?±?2.0 (Wilcoxon test, p?self-care at M?+?6 post intervention. Conclusions CBIA-DM strategy is effective to improve diabetic patients’ knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care. Repeating and improving the strategy program is needed to sustain the impact. PMID:22721433

  10. The association of family social support, depression, anxiety and self-efficacy with specific hypertension self-care behaviours in Chinese local community.

    PubMed

    Hu, H H; Li, G; Arao, T

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to test the role of family social support, depression, anxiety and self-efficacy on specific self-care behaviours. In a local community health center, 318 patients with hypertension completed a questionnaire assessing self-care, family social support, depression, anxiety and self-efficacy in 2012. Each self-care behaviour was separately analyzed with logistic regression models. The mean score of perceived family social support for hypertension treatment was 20.91 (maximum=60). Adult children were identified as the primary support source. Approximately 22.3% and 15.4% of participants reported symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Participants had moderately positive levels of confidence performing self-care (42.1±13.3 out of 60). After adjusting for demographic and health variables, a 10-unit increase in family social support increased the odds ratio (OR) of taking medication by 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.87) and increased the OR for measuring blood pressure (BP) regularly by 1.33 (95% CI 1.02-1.74). Depression and anxiety were not associated with any self-care behaviours. A10-unit increase in self-efficacy increased the adjusted OR for performing physical exercise to 1.25 (95% CI 1.04-1.49). In conclusion, family social support was positively associated with medication adherence and regular BP measurement. Strategies to improve family social support should be developed for hypertension control, yet further prospective studies are needed to understand the effects of family social support, depression, anxiety and self-efficacy on self-care behaviours. PMID:25008000

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; ?oboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; ?oboz-Grudzie?, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

  12. A Small Group Assignment Gives Students a Novel Opportunity to Demonstrate Current Clinical Controversies in a Self-Care Course

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design and implement a small-group assignment on current event, nonprescription drug therapy questions in a self-care course, and to evaluate student performance in predefined areas. Design. Students self-identified a current clinical question in nonprescription therapy, searched primary literature, and presented their findings to peers in class. Assessment. Students were evaluated using a grading rubric on communication skills, ability to retrieve and analyze biomedical literature, and ability to formulate and defend an evidence-based recommendation. Overall, students performed well in all competencies, with grades ranging from 84% to 100% (median=92%). Faculty members completing a postassignment survey gave positive feedback regarding the educational value of the assignment and the ease of use of the designed rubric. Conclusion. A course assignment that involved peer-to-peer presentations and dealt exclusively with applicable, relevant, clinical questions regarding nonprescription drug therapy gave students a novel opportunity to practice drug information skills. PMID:25657380

  13. “Any Movement at All Is Exercise”: A Focused Ethnography of Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults' Perceptions and Experiences of Exercise as Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To understand rural community-dwelling older adult participants' shared values, beliefs, and behaviours related to exercise as self-care. Methods: We conducted a constructivist-focused ethnography involving semi-structured interviews and participant observation with 17 individuals 65 years and older. Interviews were transcribed and inductively coded to develop themes related to exercise, self-care, and exercise as self-care. Field notes were triangulated with follow-up interviews and dialogue between authors to enhance interpretation. Results: Participants described exercise broadly as movement and not as a central self-care behaviour. However, awareness of the importance and health-related benefits of exercise increased after a significant personal health-related event. Participants preferred exercise that was enjoyable and previously experienced. Conclusions: Prescribing exercise for older adults may be particularly effective if the focus is on enjoyable and previously experienced physical activity and if it incorporates interpretation of exercise guidelines and training principles in relation to chronic conditions and potential health benefits. PMID:24396160

  14. Optimism and adaptation to chronic disease: the role of optimism in relation to self-care options of type I diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marijda Fournier; Denise de Ridder; Jozien Bensing

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of optimistic beliefs in adaptation processes of three chronic diseases different in controllability by self-care. It was expected that optimism towards the future would relate to adaptation independently of the controllability of disease. Optimism regarding one's coping ability should be beneficial in controllable diseases. Unrealistic optimism was expected to be beneficial in uncontrollable disease. DESIGN:

  15. The Effect of Progressive, Reinforcing Telephone Education and Counseling vs. Brief Educational Intervention on Knowledge, Self-Care Behaviors and Heart Failure Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David W; DeWalt, Darren A; Schillinger, Dean; Hawk, Victoria; Ruo, Bernice; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Weinberger, Morris; Macabasco-O’Connell, Aurelia; Grady, Kathy L.; Holmes, George M.; Erman, Brian; Broucksou, Kimberly A; Pignone, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The optimal strategy for promoting self-care for heart failure (HF) is unclear. Methods and Results We conducted a randomized trial to determine whether a “teach to goal” (TTG) educational and behavioral support program provided incremental benefits to a brief (one hour) educational intervention (BEI) for knowledge, self-care behaviors, and HF-related quality of life (HFQOL). The TTG program taught use of adjusted-dose diuretics and then reinforced learning goals and behaviors with 5-8 telephone counseling sessions over one month. Participants’ (N=605) mean age was 61 years; 37% had marginal or inadequate literacy; 69% had ejection fraction < 0.45; and 31% had class III or IV symptoms. The TTG group had greater improvements in general and salt knowledge (p < 0.001) and greater increases in self-care behaviors (from mean 4.8 to 7.6 for TTG vs. 5.2 to 6.7 for BEI; p<0.001). HFQOL improved from 58.5 to 64.6 for the TTG group but did not change for the BEI group (64.7 to 63.9; p < 0.001 for the difference in change scores). Improvements were similar regardless of participants’ literacy level. Conclusions Telephone reinforcement of learning goals and self-care behaviors improved knowledge, health behaviors, and HF-related QOL compared to a single education session. PMID:21962415

  16. Medical assistant coaching to support diabetes self-care among low-income racial/ethnic minority populations: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Laurie; Riley, Barth B; Hernandez, Rosalba; Quinn, Lauretta T; Gerber, Ben S; Castillo, Amparo; Day, Joseph; Ingram, Diana; Wang, Yamin; Butler, Paula

    2014-10-01

    Innovative, culturally tailored strategies are needed to extend diabetes education and support efforts in lower-resourced primary care practices serving racial/ethnic minority groups. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the effect of a diabetes self-care coaching intervention delivered by medical assistants and the joint effect of intervention and ethnicity over time. The randomized repeated-measures design included 270 low-income African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes. The 1-year clinic- and telephone-based medical assistant coaching intervention was culturally tailored and guided by theoretical frameworks. A1C was obtained, and a self-care measure was completed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models with and without adjustment for covariates. There was a significant overall improvement in mean self-care scores across time, but no intervention effect. Results revealed differences in self-care patterns across racial/ethnic subgroups. No differences were found for A1C levels across time or group. PMID:24569698

  17. Social Participation of Diabetes and Ex-Leprosy Patients in the Netherlands and Patient Preference for Combined Self-Care Groups

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Henry J. C.; de Groot, Roos; van Brakel, Wim H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Earlier, we showed that neuropathic complications limit social participation of ex-leprosy patients, even in a non-endemic leprosy setting like the Netherlands. Self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients can strengthen self-worth of participants, prevent further handicap, and enable the exchange of coping strategies. For non-endemic leprosy settings with a very low rate of leprosy patients, a self-care group exclusively for (ex)leprosy patients is not likely to be feasible. A combined group with patients facing comparable morbidity would be more efficient than disease-specific self-care groups. Here, we studied the comparability in social constraints of diabetic patients and ex-leprosy patients. Moreover, we investigated if combined self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients and diabetic patients would be desirable and acceptable for possible participants. Methods: Social participation was studied based on in-depth interviews and Participation Scale information collected from 41 diabetic patients and compared with the data of 31 ex-leprosy patients from a prior study. Moreover, we made an inventory of potential strengths and limitations and attitudes toward combined self-care groups for diabetic patients with neuropathy. Results: The following themes emerged among diabetic patients: disease confrontation, dependency, conflict with partner or relatives, feelings of inferiority, stigma, abandoning social activities, fear of the future, lack of information, and hiding the disease. These themes were very similar to those voiced by the previously interviewed ex-leprosy patients. The latter more often mentioned stigma and disease ignorance among Dutch health care workers. Whereas ex-leprosy patients perceived stigma on multiple fronts, diabetic patients only mentioned feeling inferior. Diabetic patients experienced some form of participation restriction in 39% of the cases as opposed to 71% of the ex-leprosy patients. Diabetic patients did acknowledge the comparability with leprosy as far as their neuropathic complaints concerned. Yet only 17% showed interest in combined self-care groups. The majority preferred disease-specific self-care groups only focused on diabetic patients. This might have been caused partly by the perception that a self-care group is yet another disease-related demand on their time, rather than an opportunity to become less dependent on health care services. Conclusion: The physical complications and social problems in ex-leprosy and diabetic patients with neuropathy are similar. Both groups show social participation limitations, yet in contrast to diabetic patients, ex-leprosy patients perceive stigma in more domains in life. Despite the fact that diabetic patients preferred disease-specific, homogeneous self-care groups, we believe that the option of combined groups with ex-leprosy patients and possibly even other people needing chronic wound care is a promising strategy. Therefore, further research is warranted into the acceptance and impact of self-care groups as a strategy to reduce social constraints by diseases causing neuropathy. PMID:25767800

  18. The effects of an interventional program based on self-care model on health-related quality of life outcomes in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ghavidel, Fatemeh; Mohammadzadeh, Shahla; Ravangard, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis patients have lower quality of life and one of the ways to improve their quality of life is providing self-care education to them using some models including self-care model. This study aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of using self-care model on health and quality of life outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in 2012 on the patients who were referred to a military hospital in Tehran, Iran to be treated with hemodialysis. All 32 patients referred to this hospital in 2012 were selected and studied. Required data were collected using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) standard questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire. The educational intervention was implemented using self-care model. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 18.0 and some statistical tests including paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon and McNemar tests. Results: The results showed that the mean and standard deviation (SD) of patients’ parameters including weight and blood pressure improved significantly after the educational intervention compared to before the intervention (P < 0.001). Also, all dimensions of the quality of life of hemodialysis patients, including physical function, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social function, mental health, and role emotional improved compared to those before the intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Implementing the self-care model increased the quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the use of this model in hemodialysis patients is recommended. PMID:25540783

  19. Being prepared: essential to self-care and quality of life for the person with cancer.

    PubMed

    Knobf, M Tish

    2013-06-01

    Being adequately prepared for an experience such as cancer empowers patients, lowers distress, improves coping, supports self-management, promotes recovery, and improves quality of life. However, patients with cancer report unmet informational and support needs across the cancer trajectory. The purpose of this article is to describe the relationship of information preparation and patient outcomes, identify information and support needs across the cancer trajectory, and describe the role of oncology nurses in the delivery of high-quality patient-centered cancer care. The middle range theory of "Carrying On" was used to identify information and support needs during different phases of the cancer trajectory from treatment to survivorship. The authors concluded that nurses should engage the patient in a relational exchange of information; provide concrete, understandable information across specific times in the cancer experience; and use creative approaches to minimize barriers in meeting patient needs to achieve high-quality patient-centered cancer care. PMID:23715703

  20. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  1. Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785

  2. Development and psychometric properties of a new social support scale for self-care in middle-aged patients with type II diabetes (S4-MAD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has proved to be one of the most effective factors on the success of diabetic self-care. This study aimed to develop a scale for evaluating social support for self-care in middle-aged patients (30–60 years old) with type II diabetes. Methods This was a two-phase qualitative and quantitative study. The study was conducted during 2009 to 2011 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part, a sample of diabetic patients participated in four focus group discussions in order to develop a preliminary item pool. Consequently, content and face validity were performed to provide a pre-final version of the questionnaire. Then, in a quantitative study, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest analysis), validity and factor analysis (both exploratory and confirmatory) were performed to assess psychometric properties of the scale. Results A 38-item questionnaire was developed through the qualitative phase. It was reduced to a 33-item after content validity. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 30-item with a five-factor solution (nutrition, physical activity, self monitoring of blood glucose, foot care and smoking) that jointly accounted for 72.3% of observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the data. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.94), and test-retest of the scale with 2-weeks intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC=0.87). Conclusion The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for measuring social support for self-care in middle-aged patients with type II diabetes. It is an easy to use questionnaire and contains the most significant diabetes related behaviors that need continuous support for self-care. PMID:23190685

  3. Motivation and anxiety for dental treatment: Testing a self-determination theory model of oral self-care behaviour and dental clinic attendance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Münster Halvari; Hallgeir Halvari; Gunnar Bjørnebekk; Edward L. Deci

    2010-01-01

    The present study: (1) developed a Self-Regulation Questionnaire for Dental Treatment (SRQDT) based on Self-Determination\\u000a Theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, Psychol Inq 11:227–268, 2000), and (2) used it to test a SDT process model of oral self-care behaviours and dental clinic attendance. Patients’ perceptions\\u000a of autonomy supportive (relative to controlling) dental professionals were expected to be positively associated with patients’

  4. Comparison of the role of self-efficacy and illness representations in relation to dietary self-care and diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arie Nouwen; G. Urquhart Law; Shakir Hussain; Steven McGovern; Heidi Napier

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the joint effects of self-efficacy and illness representations on dietary self-care and diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by comparing two theoretical models: the Self-regulation Model (Leventhal, H., Meyer, D., & Nerenz, D. (1980). The common-sense representations of illness danger. In S. Rachman (Ed.), Medical Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 7–30). New York: Pergamon.) and

  5. Predictors of adherence with self-care guidelines among persons with type 2 diabetes: results from a logistic regression tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kart, Cary S; Noe, Douglas A

    2012-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is known to contribute to health disparities in the U.S. and failure to adhere to recommended self-care behaviors is a contributing factor. Intervention programs face difficulties as a result of patient diversity and limited resources. With data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, this study employs a logistic regression tree algorithm to identify characteristics of sub-populations with type 2 diabetes according to their reported frequency of adherence to four recommended diabetes self-care behaviors including blood glucose monitoring, foot examination, eye examination and HbA1c testing. Using Andersen's health behavior model, need factors appear to dominate the definition of which sub-groups were at greatest risk for low as well as high adherence. Findings demonstrate the utility of easily interpreted tree diagrams to design specific culturally appropriate intervention programs targeting sub-populations of diabetes patients who need to improve their self-care behaviors. Limitations and contributions of the study are discussed. PMID:22160934

  6. Emerging information management technologies and the future of disease management.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Jeremy J; Norman, Gordon K

    2003-01-01

    Disease management (DM) has become a widely accepted way to support care delivery in the chronically ill patient population. Patients enrolled in these programs have been shown to have better health, fewer complications and comorbidities, and lower health care costs. The development of advanced information management technologies is further enhancing the role DM plays in optimizing outcomes and cost-effectiveness in clinical care. These emerging information management technologies (EIMT) include advances in software, hardware, and networking, all of which share common impact attributes in their ability to improve cost-effectiveness of care, quality of care, and access to care. Specific examples include interactive websites with the ability to engage patients in the self-care management process, the embedding of biometric devices (digital scales, modem-enabled glucose meters in the home, blood pressure monitoring, etc.), workflow and care coordination programs that add intelligence via guideline-directed alerts and reminders to the delivery process, registries that include a summary of personal health data that can be used as a reference point for improved clinical decisions, and the systematic collection of aggregated, de-identified clinical, administrative, and cost data into comprehensive data sets to which predictive modeling analytic tools can be applied. By way of case example, we also present data from a controlled clinical trial utilizing EIMT in the form of home-based weight measurement using a digital scale and linkage to a care coordination center for the management of severe congestive heart failure. Outcome results on 85,515 patient-months of an aggregate commercial and Medicare continuously enrolled population demonstrated an average reduction of care utilization (hospitalization) of 57% and a reduction in related delivery cost (per member per year payments) of 55%. We conclude that EIMT have already begun to offer significant and quantifiable benefits to DM and are likely to become heavily embedded in care management strategies in the future. PMID:14736346

  7. Self Care for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Trauma takes a toll on children, families, schools, and communities. Trauma can also take a toll on school professionals. Any educator who works directly with traumatized children and adolescents is vulnerable to the effects of trauma--referred to as "compassion fatigue" or "secondary traumatic stress"--being physically, mentally, or emotionally…

  8. Tremor - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clothes with Velcro fasteners instead of buttons or hooks. Cook or eat with utensils that have larger ... Deuschl G, Raethjen J, Hellriegel H, Elble R. Treatment of patients ... J. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, ...

  9. Breastfeeding - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pregnant when breastfeeding. Do not use breastfeeding for birth control. You are less likely to get pregnant while ... period. Talk to your health care provider about birth control. You have lots of choices. Condoms, diaphragm, progesterone- ...

  10. Temperature: Decadal Averages Map

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Energy Commission

    This interactive map allows students to experiment with decadal average temperature projections. Overall temperatures are expected to rise throughout the century and this tool demonstrates those projected measurements.

  11. Development, validation and psychometric analysis of the diabetic foot self-care questionnaire of the University of Malaga, Spain (DFSQ-UMA).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Flores, Emmanuel; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Cervera-Marín, José Antonio; Labajos-Manzanares, M Teresa; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    This paper assessed the reliability and construct validity of a tool to evaluate the foot self-care of diabetic patients. The education of diabetic patients about their foot care is a major issue to avoid complications like amputations and ulcers. Specific tools aimed to assess patient's knowledge in this area are needed. The study had two phases: in Phase 1, item-generation was carried out through a literature review, expert review by a Delphi technique and cognitive interviews with diabetic patients for testing readability and comprehension. In Phase 2, diabetic patients participated in a cross-sectional study for a psychometric evaluation (reliability and construct validity) was carried out on a sample of type I and II diabetic patients. The study was conducted at the University of Malaga (Spain), podiatric clinics and a Diabetic Foot Unit between October 2012 and March 2013. After psychometric-test analyses on a sample of 209 diabetic patients, the questionnaire resulted in 16 questions. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 after removing 4 items because of their low reliability. Inter-item correlations gave a mean value of 0.34 (range: 0.06-0.74). The rotated solution showed a 3-factor structure (self-care, foot care, and footwear and socks) that jointly accounted for 60.88% of the variance observed. The correlation between the questionnaire scores and HbA1c was significant and inverse, (r = -0.15; p < 0.01). The findings show that the questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating foot self-care behavior in diabetic patients. PMID:25523014

  12. Relationship Between Literacy, Knowledge, Self-Care Behaviors, and Heart Failure-Related Quality of Life Among Patients With Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelia Macabasco-O’Connell; Darren A. DeWalt; Kimberly A. Broucksou; Victoria Hawk; David W. Baker; Dean Schillinger; Bernice Ruo; Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo; George M. Holmes; Brian Erman; Morris Weinberger; Michael Pignone

    BACKGROUND  We sought to examine the relationship between literacy and heart failure-related quality of life (HFQOL), and to explore whether\\u000a literacy-related differences in knowledge, self-efficacy and\\/or self-care behavior explained the relationship.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS  We recruited patients with symptomatic heart failure (HF) from four academic medical centers. Patients completed the short\\u000a version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) and questions

  13. How does gender influence the recognition of cardiovascular risk and adherence to self-care recommendations?: a study in polish primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown a correlation between gender and an ability to change lifestyle to reduce the risk of disease. However, the results of these studies are ambiguous, especially where a healthy lifestyle is concerned. Additionally, health behaviors are strongly modified by culture and the environment. Psychological factors also substantially affect engagement with disease-related lifestyle interventions. This study aimed to examine whether there are differences between men and women in the frequency of health care behavior for the purpose of reducing cardiovascular risk (CVR), as well as cognitive appraisal of this type of risk. We also aimed to identify the psychological predictors of engaging in recommended behavior for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease after providing information about this risk in men and women. Methods A total of 134 consecutive eligible patients in a family practice entered a longitudinal study. At initial consultation, the individual’s CVR and associated health burden was examined, and preventive measures were recommended by the physician. Self-care behavior, cognitive appraisal of risk, and coping styles were then assessed using psychological questionnaires. Six months after the initial data collection, the frequency of subjects’ self-care behavior was examined. Results We found an increase in health care behavior after providing information regarding the rate of CVR in both sexes; this increase was greater for women than for men. Women followed self-care guidelines more often than men, particularly for preventive measures and dietary advice. Women were more inclined to recognize their CVR as a challenge. Coping style, cognitive appraisal, age, level of health behaviors at baseline and CVR values accounted for 48% of the variance in adherence to self-care guidelines in women and it was 52% in men. In women, total risk of CVD values were most important, while in men, cognitive appraisal of harm/loss was most important. Conclusions Different predictors of acquisition of health behavior are encountered in men and women. Our results suggest that gender-adjusted motivation models influencing the recognition process need to be considered to optimize compliance in patients with CVR. PMID:24175983

  14. Supporting Self-Care for Families of Children With Eczema With a Web-Based Intervention Plus Health Care Professional Support: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Ingrid; Yardley, Lucy; Burgess, Hana; Selinger, Hannah; Stuart, Beth L; Little, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood eczema, or childhood atopic dermatitis, causes significant distress to children and their families through sleep disturbance and itch. The main cause of treatment failure is nonuse of prescribed treatments. Objective The objective of this study was to develop and test a Web-based intervention to support families of children with eczema, and to explore whether support from a health care professional (HCP) is necessary to engage participants with the intervention. Methods We followed the PRECEDE-PROCEED model: regular emollient use was the target behavior we were seeking to promote and we identified potential techniques to influence this. LifeGuide software was used to write the intervention website. Carers of children with eczema were invited through primary care mail-out and randomized to 3 groups: (1) website only, (2) website plus HCP support, or (3) usual care. Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) scores were measured online by carer report at baseline and at 12 weeks. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 13 HCPs (primarily practice nurses) and 26 participants to explore their experiences of taking part in the study. Results A total of 143 carers were recruited through 31 practices. We found a decrease of ?2 in follow-up compared with baseline POEM score in 23 of 42 (55%) participants in the website only group, 16 of 49 (33%) in the usual care group, and 18 of 47 (38%) in the website plus HCP group. Website use data showed that 75 of 93 (81%) participants allocated to the website groups completed the core modules, but less than half used other key components (videos: 35%; regular text reminders: 39%). There were no consistent differences in website use between the website only or the website plus HCP groups. Qualitative feedback showed that most HCPs had initial concerns about providing support for eczema self-care because this was not a condition that they felt expert in. However, HCPs reported productive consultations and that they found it helpful to use the website in consultations, while observing that some participants seemed to need more support than others. Qualitative interviews with participants suggested that HCP support was valued highly only by a minority, generally those who were less confident in their management of eczema or less confident using the Internet. Conclusions Our pilot trial demonstrated the potential for greater improvements in POEM scores in both website intervention groups and that a full-scale trial is feasible. Such a trial would quantify the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this intervention to determine whether it should be widely promoted to families of children with newly diagnosed eczema. In this study population, HCP support was not strongly valued by participants and did not lead to better outcomes or website use than use of the Web-based intervention alone. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 98560867; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN98560867 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NcxvMtgN). PMID:24594972

  15. Measuring family management of transplant tasks: the transplant responsibility questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Kristin A; Hmiel, S Paul; Gevers, Anik

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about how parents and youth perceive their roles in post-transplant management and how this relates to post-transplant adherence. The goals of this study are to (1) describe a new measure, the TRQ, (2) to describe parent and child performance on the TRQ, and to (3) determine the relationship between the TRQ and adherence. We hypothesized that older youth would describe higher post-transplant self-care behaviors, parents would underestimate youth self-care, and greater parent involvement would be associated with better adherence. Participants included 59 parent-child dyads. Inclusion criteria included: (i) youth aged 7-18 yr and (ii) at least three months post-kidney or post-liver transplant. Parents and youth completed the TRQ, and adherence was measured by s.d. of sequential immunosuppressant blood levels. Youth perceived greater levels of self-care than their parents perceived. Older youth reportedly engaged in more self-care than younger youth. Less than 25% of the sample was non-adherent, and non-adherence was unrelated to performance on the TRQ. The TRQ may have utility as a clinical tool to address areas for improvement in youth self-care. The high degree of parental involvement likely explains the high degree of adherence in this sample. PMID:23489734

  16. Striving for Control: Cognitive, Self-Care, and Faith Strategies Employed by Vulnerable Black and White Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne R. Leach; Nancy E. Schoenberg

    2008-01-01

    The average older adult reaches age 65 with at least two chronic, co-occurring illnesses, or multiple morbidities (MM). We\\u000a currently lack critical information about the specific strategies older adults use to attempt to control these MM. To increase\\u000a our understanding of how older adults attempt to manage these MM and retain control of their health, in-depth interviews were\\u000a conducted with

  17. Problem solving in diabetes self-management: A model of chronic illness self-management behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felicia Hill-Briggs

    2003-01-01

    Management of chronic illnesses is a significant public health concern that is made more challenging by problems of regimen\\u000a adherence. Effective self-management of chronic illnesses such as diabetes requires not only technical skill to perform regimen\\u000a behaviors but also problem-solving skills to manage daily barriers to regimen adherence and to make appropriate adjustment\\u000a to the self-care regimen. A review of

  18. Averaging the spectral shapes

    E-print Network

    Piotr Lubinski

    2004-01-27

    The methods of obtaining the average spectral shape in a low statistics regime are presented. Different approaches to averaging are extensively tested with simulated spectra, based on the ASCA responses. The issue of binning up the spectrum before fitting is discussed together with the choice of statistic used to model the spectral shape. The best results are obtained with methods in which input data are represented by probability density functions. Application of weights, representing the coverage between the input and output bins, slightly improves the resolution of averaging.

  19. The Limits of Self-Management: Community and Health Care System Barriers Among Latinos With Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine Jurkowski

    2010-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine diabetes self-care, few regard ecological framework correlates such as community and institutional level factors as fundamental for understanding diabetes management for Latinos. This article addresses the dearth of research that exists regarding social contextual forces and diabetes management for Latinos. Given the scarcity of research on this topic, studies of non-Latino groups were reviewed to illustrate

  20. Stimulating Healthy Aging with a Model Nurse-Managed Free Clinic in a Senior Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ruth H.

    As part of a Geriatric Education and Health Management program, a model nurse-managed free clinic has been established at an urban senior center by faculty and students of the University of New Mexico College of Nursing. Funded by a 3-year grant from the Department of Health and Human Services, the weekly clinic is based on Orem's self-care theory…

  1. Educating nurses and patients to manage heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Strömberg

    2002-01-01

    Patient education is an important component in the management of patients with heart failure and nurses are increasingly involved in this area. This paper reviews the literature on education to patients with heart failure and the education and training for heart failure nurses. Patients with heart failure need education in order to adapt to their chronic syndrome and perform self-care.

  2. Average Rate of Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2005-04-21

    This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

  3. Home visits in brain tumor patient: how nurse and family members cooperate in tumor patient’s family self-care

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhiyue

    2013-01-01

    Purposes We reported the roles and functions of nurses in home visits for brain tumor patients using the family health assessment guide in the study. Methods One patient of brain glioma was chosen as the case illustration. The nurses assessed the patients’ situation, their families and living environment individually. All these factors were analyzed together. Results The nurses then implemented their knowledge and skills to adopt different measures in different conditions, investigated the patients’ health problems and carried out personalized effective actions. Conclusions Nurses should put effort into community nursing to allow patients to live in a safe environment, to satisfy the health needs of human being and their needs for health knowledge, and enhance their self-care abilities. PMID:24385701

  4. The patient work system: an analysis of self-care performance barriers among elderly heart failure patients and their informal caregivers.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Schubert, Christiane C; Mickelson, Robin S

    2015-03-01

    Human factors and ergonomics approaches have been successfully applied to study and improve the work performance of healthcare professionals. However, there has been relatively little work in "patient-engaged human factors," or the application of human factors to the health-related work of patients and other nonprofessionals. This study applied a foundational human factors tool, the systems model, to investigate the barriers to self-care performance among chronically ill elderly patients and their informal (family) caregivers. A Patient Work System model was developed to guide the collection and analysis of interviews, surveys, and observations of patients with heart failure (n = 30) and their informal caregivers (n = 14). Iterative analyses revealed the nature and prevalence of self-care barriers across components of the Patient Work System. Person-related barriers were common and stemmed from patients' biomedical conditions, limitations, knowledge deficits, preferences, and perceptions as well as the characteristics of informal caregivers and healthcare professionals. Task barriers were also highly prevalent and included task difficulty, timing, complexity, ambiguity, conflict, and undesirable consequences. Tool barriers were related to both availability and access of tools and technologies and their design, usability, and impact. Context barriers were found across three domains-physical-spatial, social-cultural, and organizational-and multiple "spaces" such as "at home," "on the go," and "in the community." Barriers often stemmed not from single factors but from the interaction of several work system components. Study findings suggest the need to further explore multiple actors, contexts, and interactions in the patient work system during research and intervention design, as well as the need to develop new models and measures for studying patient and family work. PMID:25479983

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-Care: Results from the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect…

  6. Self-Care Fact Sheet for Influenza A & Influenza-Like Illness This fact sheet provides members of the University community who have been diagnosed with an influenza-like

    E-print Network

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    Self-Care Fact Sheet for Influenza A & Influenza-Like Illness This fact sheet provides members of the University community who have been diagnosed with an influenza-like illness (ILI) or Influenza of ILI and Influenza A are similar to seasonal influenza and include fever, cough, sore throat, body

  7. Self-care strategies for nurses: A psycho-educational intervention for stress reduction and the prevention of burnout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Kravits; Randi McAllister-Black; Marcia Grant; Christina Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and evaluate a psycho-educational program that assists nurses to develop stress management plans. Discussion of nursing-specific risk factors, practice with relaxation techniques, and exploration via art are used as interventions. Quantitative and qualitative measures of stress and burnout are conducted pre- and postcourse using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Draw-a-Person-in-the-Rain Art Assessment, and

  8. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  9. [Type 1 diabetes mellitus: evidence from the literature for appropriate management in children's perspective].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Amaral, Mariana Junco; Sparapani, Valéria de Cássia; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Nunes, Michelle Darezzo Rodrigues; Dupas, Giselle

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the evidence available in the literature that address, for children's perspective, factors that are relevant for an appropriate management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. An integrative review was performed on the PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, CUIDEN and PsycINFO databases, covering the period from 1998 to 2008 and using the following keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus, child, prevention and control, triggering factors, emergencies, self care, learning and health education. Nineteen of the surveyed articles were selected, and their analysis revealed the following categories: living with diabetes; self care and glucose profile; the actions of family, friends and health professionals; and school. The evidence show that children appreciate the support they receive from their relatives, which have a direct relationship with being prepared for self care. Other members apart from their network are also valued. Areas that deserve attention are the school, the personal experience of each child, and health education. PMID:21710087

  10. Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…

  11. A Nurse-Managed Discharge Program for Congestive Heart Failure Patients: Outcomes and Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vickie Barth

    2001-01-01

    This experimental study determined the effect of a structured nurse-managed postdischarge program for congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. The program consisted of telephone calls to participants in the experimental group 72 hours postdischarge, 72 hours later, and then every 2 weeks for 2 months. Patient self-care for CHF was evaluated. Data on unexpected office visits, emergency room visits, and readmissions

  12. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2002-01-01

    In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

  13. Technologies to better serve the millions of diabetic patients: a holistic, interactive and persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care, in extremely poor rural zones of Central America.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Lombardo, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Alvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Ruíz, Ernestina Menasalva

    2012-04-01

    Health indicators express remarkable gaps between health systems at a world-wide level. Countries of the entire world are overflowed by the need of new strategies, methodologies and technologies to better serve the millions of patients, who demand better medical attention. The present archaic and ephemerally systematized systems widen the gap even more than the quality of medical services that should be provided for the millions of diabetic patients. It is therefore necessary to develop highly familiar environments with diabetic patients and their care needs. A Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care of patients with diabetes (hIPAPD), is proposed as an innovative technological development in Panama to health optimized treatment for diabetic patients. Three health centers located in the District of Aguadulce, Province of Cocle, located on Panama's Pacific Coast, were selected to validate the model; the area presents extremely poor population, mostly with one daily meal, without any health insurance and with a high illiteracy rate. A series of experiences in the application and validation process are presented and analyzed in order to confirm the application, value and contribution of ICTs in health care in poor regions of Central America. PMID:20703674

  14. The effectiveness of selected Tai Chi exercises in a program of strategic rehabilitation aimed at improving the self-care skills of patients aroused from prolonged coma after severe TBI

    PubMed Central

    Ma?ko, Grzegorz; Zió?kowski, Artur; Mirski, Andrzej; K?osi?ski, Micha?

    2013-01-01

    Background Difficulties in self-care constitute a very common problem for patients recovering from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, and a major factor reducing their quality of life. Effective new rehabilitation programs that would help solve this problem are urgently needed. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate improvement in this respect in a group of patients aroused from prolonged coma who participated in a goal-oriented rehabilitation program (Rehab-3), enhanced with selected elements of Tai-Chi. Material/Methods We examined 40 patients aroused from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, undergoing long-term rehabilitation according to a standard phased rehabilitation program. These patients were divided into two numerically even groups: a control group treated according to the standard program, and an experimental group, who received an additional goal oriented program enhanced with selected Tai-Chi exercises. The research methods included analysis of documentation (MRI, CT), a structured clinical interview, and the Standard Self-Care Scale. Results The experimental group achieved significant improvement of self-care skills, whereas in the control group the improvement was slight and not statistically significant. The value of co-efficient j (0.64) indicates a very strong association between the rehabilitation procedure and improved self-care in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Conclusions Our results confirmed that a goal-oriented rehabilitation program enhanced with elements of Tai-Chi was more effective than the standard program in improving the performance of activities of daily living. PMID:24036691

  15. Effectiveness of the Smart Care Service for Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-Soon; Lee, Chang Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Smart Care service for the diabetes management. Methods Fifty-six patients with diabetes mellitus were recruited in Daegu, Korea. All participants completed a diabetes management education course (diet, exercise, and complications) for their self-care and received access to a care management website through a netbook and smartphone. The website accepts uploads of glucose level, body weight, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and blood pressure. Participants communicated with the care manager through the internal management system of the website. The intervention was applied for 6 months. Results Participants receiving the Smart Care service had lower blood glucose and HbA1c during 6 months follow-up when 1-month values (p < 0.001) were compared. There was no significant difference in body weight and body mass index between 1 month and 6 months. The average number of remote consultation with the Smart Care service per person was 10.4 by nurses, 3.0 by nutritionists, and 1.6 by sports curers. Regression analysis indicated that the number of times counseling was offered by nurses influences body weight and that the number of minutes of telephone counseling influences both body weight and body mass index. Conclusions We have confirmed that the Smart Care service might be an effective system for reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c. We expect that the Smart Care service will contribute to delaying diabetes complications and improving the quality of life of patients with diabetes. PMID:25405065

  16. Parvalbumin cell ablation of NMDA-R1 causes increased resting network excitability with associated social and self-care deficits.

    PubMed

    Billingslea, Eddie N; Tatard-Leitman, Valerie M; Anguiano, Jaynie; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Suh, Jimmy; Saunders, John A; Morita, Susumu; Featherstone, Robert E; Ortinski, Pavel I; Gandal, Michael J; Lin, Robert; Liang, Yuling; Gur, Raquel E; Carlson, Gregory C; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Siegel, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that net excitation propagated by impaired NMDAR signaling on GABAergic interneurons may be of particular interest in mediating several aspects of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which behavioral domains are governed by a net increase of excitation and whether modulating downstream GABAergic signaling can reverse neural and thus behavioral deficits. The current study determines the selective contributions of NMDAR dysfunction on PV-containing interneurons to electrophysiological, cognitive, and negative-symptom-related behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia using mice with a PVcre-NR1flox-driven ablation of NR1 on PV-containing interneurons. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of one agent that directly modulates GABAergic signaling (baclofen) and one agent that indirectly modifies NMDAR-mediated signaling through antagonism of mGluR5 receptors (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP)). The data indicate that loss of NMDAR function on PV interneurons impairs self-care and sociability while increasing N1 latency and baseline gamma power, and reducing induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation. Baclofen normalized baseline gamma power without corresponding effects on behavior. MPEP further increased N1 latency and reduced social behavior in PVcre/NR1+/+ mice. These two indices were negatively correlated before and following MPEP such that as N1 latency increases, sociability decreases. This finding suggests a predictive role for N1 latency with respect to social function. Although previous data suggest that MPEP may be beneficial for core features of autism spectrum disorders, current data suggest that such effects require intact function of NMDAR on PV interneurons. PMID:24525709

  17. Anal itching - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods and beverages Scents or dyes in toilet paper or soap Diarrhea Hemorrhoids , which are swollen veins ... wipes, a wet washcloth, or wet unscented toilet paper. Avoid soaps with dyes or fragrances. Pat dry ...

  18. Atopic dermatitis - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Breternitz M. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, prospective study of a glycerol-based emollient on eczematous skin in atopic dermatitis: biophysical and clinical evaluation. Skin Pharmacol Physiol . 2008 Jan; 21(1): 39- ...

  19. Prostatitis- bacterial - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    You have been diagnosed with bacterial prostatitis . This is an infection that involves the prostate gland. ... If you have acute prostatitis, your symptoms started quickly. You may still feel ill, with fever, chills, and flushing. It may hurt a lot when ...

  20. Premenstrual syndrome - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may help. During the second half of your cycle: Eat a balanced diet that includes lots of whole grains, vegetables, and fruit. Have little or no salt or sugar. Drink plenty of fluids like water or juice. Avoid soft drinks, alcohol, or anything ...

  1. Venous ulcers - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... venous ulcers occur on the leg, above the ankle. This type of wound can be slow to heal. ... and legs every day: the tops and bottoms, ankles, and heels. Look ... prevent venous ulcers. If you have a wound, take these steps ...

  2. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... helps keep your immune system strong. Eat healthy foods. Good nutrition also helps your immune system stay ... 2010 Dec17;59(RR-12):1-110. Lentz GM, Eckert LO. Infections of the lower genital tracts: ...

  3. Ischemic ulcers - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Ischemic ulcers (wounds) can occur when there is poor blood flow in your legs . Poor blood flow causes cells to die and damages tissue. Most ischemic ulcers occur on the feet and legs. These types ...

  4. Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

  5. Effect of Orem Self-Care Program on the Life Quality of Burn Patients Referred to Ghotb-al-Din-e-Shirazi Burn Center, Shiraz, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Fatemeh; Rahimi Dolatabad, Fatemeh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Ayaz, Mehdi; Zare, Najaf; Mansouri, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Advances in treatment and critical care have largely improved the survival following burns; therefore, the importance of quality of life in burn patients is an issue beyond question. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Orem self-care program on Quality of Life of burn patients. Methods: A randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 110 eligible burn patients who were selected using easy sampling method and allocated randomly into two groups of experiment and control. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, containing demographic and burn information and burn-specific health scale–brief (BSHS-B) questionnaire. For the experiment group, 5 sessions of theoretical training and 75-90 minutes of practical training were accomplished. The quality of life of the patients with burns was assessed in three phases by the BSHS-B questionnaire. The data were analyzed in SPSS-17 using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Independent t-test and repeated measurement multivariate test. Results: After one month and two months of the use of self-care model, the quality of life of the cases improved from 73.33% to 83.78% and 98.12%, respectively (P<0.001). But the changes in the quality of life of the patients in the control group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the obtained results of this study, designing and implementing a self-care program based on Orem’s model and the needs of burn patients will improve their quality of life. Therefore, it is recommended that this program should be considered as a part of treatment program for these patients. Trial Registration Number: 2013042112129N1 PMID:25349844

  6. Convergence of polynomial ergodic averages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Host; Bryna Kra

    2005-01-01

    We prove theL\\u000a 2 convergence for an ergodic average of a product of functions evaluated along polynomial times in a totally ergodic system.\\u000a For each set of polynomials, we show that there is a particular factor, which is an inverse limit of nilsystems, that controls\\u000a the limit behavior of the average. For a general system, we prove the convergence for

  7. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  8. Effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for women with menstrual pain compared to usual care alone: using stakeholder engagement to design a pragmatic randomized trial and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-care acupressure might be successful in treating menstrual pain, which is common among young women. There is a need for comparative effectiveness research with stakeholder engagement in all phases seeking to address the needs of decision-makers. Our aim was to design a study on the effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for menstrual pain comparing usual care alone using different methods of stakeholder engagement. Methods The study was designed using multiple mixed methods for stakeholder engagement. Based on the results of a survey and focus group discussion, a stakeholder advisory group developed the study design. Results Stakeholder engagement resulted in a two-arm pragmatic randomized trial. Two hundred and twenty women aged 18 to 25 years with menstrual pain will be included in the study. Outcome measurement will be done using electronic questionnaires provided by a study specific mobile application (App). Primary outcome will be the mean pain intensity at the days of pain during the third menstruation after therapy start. Conclusion Stakeholder engagement helped to develop a study design that better serves the needs of decision makers, including an App as a modern tool for both intervention and data collection in a young target group. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier http://NCT01582724 PMID:24499425

  9. Topological quantization of ensemble averages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil Prodan

    2009-01-01

    We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well-defined conditions, we connect its ensemble average to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes (2004 J. Funct. Anal. 209 388) to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic Schrödinger operators. The generalization given here may be

  10. Averaging of globally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, James W.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Wiesenfeld, Kurt

    1992-03-01

    We study a specific system of symmetrically coupled oscillators using the method of averaging. The equations describe a series array of Josephson junctions. We concentrate on the dynamics near the splay-phase state (also known as the antiphase state, ponies on a merry-go-round, or rotating wave). We calculate the Floquet exponents of the splay-phase periodic orbit in the weak-coupling limit, and find that all of the Floquet exponents are purely imaginary; in fact, all the Floquet exponents are zero except for a single complex conjugate pair. Thus, nested two-tori of doubly periodic solutions surround the splay-phase state in the linearized averaged equations. We numerically integrate the original system, and find startling agreement with the averaging results on two counts: The observed ratio of frequencies is very close to the prediction, and the solutions of the full equations appear to be either periodic or doubly periodic, as they are in the averaged equations. Such behavior is quite surprising from the point of view of generic dynamical systems theory-one expects higher-dimensional tori and chaotic solutions. We show that the functional form of the equations, and not just their symmetry, is responsible for this nongeneric behavior.

  11. Bayesian Model Averaging: A Tutorial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Hoeting; David Madigan; Adrian E. Raftery; Chris T. Volinsky

    Standard statistical practice ignores model uncertainty. Data analysts typically select a model from some class of models and then proceed as if the selected model had generated the data. This approach ignores the uncertainty in model selection, leading to over-confident in- ferences and decisions that are more risky than one thinks they are. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) provides a coherent

  12. Average of Synthetic Exact Filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Bolme; Bruce A. Draper; J. Ross Beveridge

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a class of correlation filters called Average of Synthetic Exact Filters (ASEF). For ASEF, the correlation output is completely specified for each training image. This is in marked contrast to prior methods such as Synthetic Discriminant Functions (SDFs) which only spec- ify a single output value per training image. Advantages of ASEF training include: insenitivity to over-fitting,

  13. Relationship of diabetes-specific knowledge to self-management activities, ambulatory preventive care, and metabolic outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Persell; Nancy L. Keating; Mary Beth Landrum; Bruce E. Landon; John Z. Ayanian; Catherine Borbas; Edward Guadagnoli

    2004-01-01

    Background. Educational interventions increase diabetes patients' knowledge and self-care activities, but their impact on the use of health services to prevent diabetes complications is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship of patients' diabetes-specific knowledge with self-management behaviors, use of ambulatory preventive care, and metabolic outcomes.Methods. We surveyed 670 adults with diabetes from three managed care plans to assess diabetes

  14. Obesity in the Kaiser Permanente Patient Population and Positive Outcomes of Online Weight-Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Keith H; Histon, Trina M; Remmers, Carol

    2007-01-01

    We review what is known about the effects of obesity in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) population and discuss outcomes for two nationally available effective online programs, HealthMedia Balance® (Balance) and 10,000 Steps®. Obese KP patients often have health problems related to overweight and report difficulties with self-care, yet with the proper support, they can avail themselves of effective treatment to manage both obesity and associated conditions that affect quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of potential problems with functional status and self-care in their obese patients, provide brief assessment and advice, and refer obese patients to effective national and regional weight-management programs. PMID:21461090

  15. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Behrend, Juliane, E-mail: I.Brown@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: Juliane.Behrend@uni-ulm.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  16. Ensemble averaging of acoustic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program called Ensemble Averaging of Acoustic Data is documented. The program samples analog data, analyzes the data, and displays them in the time and frequency domains. Hard copies of the displays are the program's output. The documentation includes a description of the program and detailed user instructions for the program. This software was developed for use on the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel's Dynamic Analysis System consisting of a PDP-11/45 computer, two RK05 disk drives, a tektronix 611 keyboard/display terminal, and FPE-4 Fourier Processing Element, and an analog-to-digital converter.

  17. Monthly Average Temperature for Boston, MA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is monthly average temperature data for Boston, MA from March 1872 until September 2000. In addition to monthly averages, the National Weather Service table also shows the yearly average temperature.

  18. A nurse-based management program in heart failure patients affects females and persons with cognitive dysfunction most

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Rydell Karlsson; Magnus Edner; Peter Henriksson; Märit Mejhert; Hans Persson; Mikaela Grut; Ewa Billing

    2005-01-01

    It is important that congestive heart failure (CHF) patients know how to monitor and manage disease-associated signs and symptoms. CHF patients were randomised to follow-up at a nurse-based outpatient clinic (intervention group (IG); n = 103), or to follow-up in primary healthcare (control group (CG); n = 105). Patient knowledge of CHF and self-care were assessed by a questionnaire and

  19. Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a disease with high prevalence and significant impact in terms of mortality and morbidity. The increased prevalence of the disease requires the implementation of new strategies to promote patient self-management. The Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP) has proven to be effective in other settings. The objective of this study is to assess its effectiveness in terms of care for DM2 patients in primary care settings within the Basque Health Service – Osakidetza (Spain). Method/Design This is a randomised clinical trial in which patients diagnosed with DM2, 18–79 years of age, from four health regions within the Basque Health Service will be randomised into two groups: an intervention group, who will follow the SDSMP, and a control group, who will receive usual care in accordance with the clinical guidelines for DM2 and existing regulations in our region. The intervention consists of 2,5 hour-group sessions once a week for six weeks. The sessions cover target setting and problem solving techniques, promotion of physical exercise, basic knowledge of nutrition, proper use of medication, effective communication with relatives and health professionals, and basic knowledge about DM2 and its complications. This content is complemented by educational material: books, leaflets and CDs. The primary outcome measure will be the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and secondary outcome measures will include changes in levels of physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables, cardiovascular risk, quality of life, self-efficacy, number of consultations and drug prescriptions. The results will be analysed 6, 12 and 24 months after the intervention. Discussion If the intervention were to be effective, the programme should be spread to the entire diabetic population in the Basque Country and it could also be applied for other diseases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01642394 PMID:23718222

  20. Abstract Average Distances of Pyramid Networks

    E-print Network

    Hsien-jone Hsieh; Dyi-rong Duh

    For an interconnection network, calculating average distance of it is in general more difficult than determining its diameter. Diameters of pyramid networks are well known. This study calculates average distances of pyramid networks.

  1. The method of calculating average skidding distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Zhixian; Feng Zhili

    1997-01-01

    By analyzing the existing average skidding distance formulae and the shape of the landing area, the authors put forward that\\u000a the average skidding distance is the shortest when the ratio of length and width is 1, and the landing collection area is\\u000a in proportion to of average geometrical skidding distance. The new models of calculating average distance are presented.

  2. Average-Case Analysis Using Kolmogorov Complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Li; Paul M. B. Vitányi

    1997-01-01

    This expository paper demonstrates how to use Kolmogorov complexityto do the average-case analysis via four examples, and exhibits a surprisingproperty of the celebrated associated universal distribution. The four examplesare: average case analysis of Heapsort [17, 15], average nni-distance betweentwo binary rooted leave-labeled trees [20], compact routing in computernetworks [3], average-case analysis of an adder algorithm [4]. The propertyis that the

  3. Averaging in LRS class II spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar

    2015-02-01

    We generalize Buchert's averaged equations (Gen Relativ Gravit 32; 105, 2000; Gen Relativ Gravit 33; 1381, 2001) to LRS class II dust model in the sense that all Einstein equations are averaged, not only the trace part. We derive the relevant averaged equations and we investigate backreaction on expansion and shear scalars in an approximate LTB model. Finally we propose a way to close the system of averaged equations.

  4. Average-Time Games on Timed Automata

    E-print Network

    Jurdzinski, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    An average-time game is played on the infinite graph of configurations of a finite timed automaton. The two players, Min and Max, construct an infinite run of the automaton by taking turns to perform a timed transition. Player Min wants to minimise the average time per transition and player Max wants to maximise it. A solution of average-time games is presented using a reduction to average-price game on a finite graph. A direct consequence is an elementary proof of determinacy for average-time games. This complements our results for reachability-time games and partially solves a problem posed by Bouyer et al., to design an algorithm for solving average-price games on priced timed automata. The paper also establishes the exact computational complexity of solving average-time games: the problem is EXPTIME-complete for timed automata with at least two clocks.

  5. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions While Reading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis L. Molfese; A. F. Key; S. Kelly; N. Cunningham; S. Terrell; M. Ferguson; V. J. Molfese; T. Bonebright

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between chil- dren with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP amplitudes and peak latencies decreased as reading skills in- creased. Furthermore, hemisphere differences

  6. A pilot study of a chiropractic intervention for management of chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder

    PubMed Central

    DeVocht, James W.; Goertz, Christine M.; Hondras, Maria A.; Long, Cynthia R.; Schaeffer, Wally; Thomann, Lauren; Spector, Michael; Stanford, Clark M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular pain has multiple etiologies and a range of therapeutic options. In this pilot study, the authors assessed the feasibility of conducting a larger trial to evaluate chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Methods The authors assigned 80 participants randomly into one of the following four groups, all of which included a comprehensive self-care program: reversible interocclusal splint therapy (RIST), Activator Method Chiropractic Technique (AMCT) (Activator Methods International, Phoenix), sham AMCT and self-care only. They made assessments at baseline and at month 2 and month 6, including use of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Results The authors screened 721 potential participants and enrolled 80 people; 52 participants completed the six-month assessment. The adjusted mean change in current pain over six months, as assessed on the 11-point numerical rating scale, was 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1-3.0) for RIST, 1.7 (0.9-2.5) for self-care only, 1.5 (0.7-2.4) for AMCT and 1.6 (0.7-2.5) for sham AMCT. The authors also assessed bothersomeness and functionality. Conclusions The authors found the study design and methodology to be manageable. They gained substantial knowledge to aid in conducting a larger study. AMCT, RIST and self-care should be evaluated in a future comparative effectiveness study. Practical Implications. This pilot study was a necessary step to prepare for a larger study that will provide clinicians with information that should be helpful when discussing treatment options for patients with TMD. PMID:24080932

  7. Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Average-cost based robust structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

  9. Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

  10. Management of chronic pediatric diseases with interactive health games: theory and research findings.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, D A

    2001-01-01

    In randomized clinical trials, children and adolescents improved their self care and reduced their emergency clinical utilization after playing health education and disease management video games. A diabetes game reduced diabetes-related urgent and emergency visits by 77 percent after diabetic youngsters had the game at home for six months, compared to no reduction in clinical utilization in a control group of diabetic youngsters who took home an entertainment video game that had no health content. Positive impacts were also found in clinical trials of games for asthma self-management and smoking prevention. PMID:11189794

  11. Average power scaling of copper hybrid lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Little; Chris E. Little

    1997-01-01

    Copper lasers are the highest efficiency high average power visible lasers (510.6 and 578.2 nm). The most efficient of them all is the copper hybrid laser, which has been demonstrated to produce 200 W average power with 1.9% efficiency. The prospects for increasing the average output power from single or double tube devices into the kilowatt regime are discussed. With

  12. Averaging in cosmology based on Cartan scalars

    E-print Network

    Petr Kaspar; Otakar Svitek

    2014-05-22

    We present a new approach for averaging in general relativity and cosmology. After a short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, we consider two ways how to deal with averaging based on Cartan scalars. We apply the theory for two different LTB models. In the first one, correlation term behaves as a positive cosmological constant, in the second example leading correlation term behaves like spatial curvature. We also show nontriviality of averaging for linearized monochromatic gravitational wave.

  13. Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

    1990-01-01

    A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

  14. Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.

    1994-02-01

    A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

  15. Generalized averaging method for power conversion circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth R. Sanders; J. M. Noworolski; X. Z. Liu; G. C. Verghese

    1991-01-01

    A more general averaging procedure that encompasses state-space averaging and that is potentially applicable to a much broader class of circuits and systems is presented. Examples of its application in resonant and PWM power convertors are presented. The technique is shown to be effective on a number of examples. including resonant type converters. The approach offers refinements to the theory

  16. Temperature averages and rates of stratospheric reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Murphy; A. R. Ravishankara

    1994-01-01

    Use of zonal average temperatures is common in numerical modeling of stratospheric chemistry. In most cases, this approach is accurate. The exceptions are when a heterogeneous reaction or a thermal process which is highly non-linear in temperature is involved. The differences between use of an average temperature and more realistic temperature are presented for cases where temperature fluctuations are of

  17. The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Umeh, Obinna; Larena, Julien; Clarkson, Chris, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com, E-mail: julien.larena@gmail.com, E-mail: chris.clarkson@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2011-03-01

    The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H{sub 0}, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.

  18. Generalized anxiety disorder - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry . 1st ed. Philadelphia, ... TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry . 1st ed. Philadelphia, ...

  19. Urinary incontinence products - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disposable pads in your underwear. They have a waterproof backing that keeps your clothes from getting wet. ... regular underwear than adult diapers. Some have a waterproof crotch area and room for a pad or ...

  20. Staph infections - self-care at home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wipes. Use clothing or a towel between your skin and the equipment. Do NOT use a common whirlpool or sauna if another person with an open sore used it. Always use clothing or a towel as a barrier. Do NOT share splints, bandages, or braces. Check ...

  1. Carotid artery stenosis - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular ...

  2. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diabetes medicine Not eating enough during meals or snacks after you have taken insulin or diabetes medicine ... your blood sugar levels. Make sure you have snacks with you. Talk to your doctor about reducing ...

  3. Type 2 diabetes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body has trouble using the insulin it ... can get too high. Over time, people with type 2 diabetes may not have enough insulin. Most people with ...

  4. Colic and crying - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods or certain proteins in breast milk or formula Sensitivity to certain stimuli Emotions such as fear, ... own doctor about the medicines you take. Baby formula. Some babies are sensitive to proteins in formula. ...

  5. Student Affairs HEALTH SELF-CARE KIT

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    · Imodium · 4" ace bandage · antibiotic ointment · soothing tea · ear plugs · gauze pads · adhesive become damaged or lost · antihistamines (Benadryl or non-sedating antihistamine) · adhesive bandages

  6. GROUP ACTION INDUCED AVERAGING FOR HARDI PROCESSING

    PubMed Central

    Çetingül, H. Ertan; Afsari, Bijan; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Vidal, Rene

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of processing high angular resolution diffusion images described by orientation distribution functions (ODFs). Prior work showed that several processing operations, e.g., averaging, interpolation and filtering, can be reduced to averaging in the space of ODFs. However, this approach leads to anatomically erroneous results when the ODFs to be processed have very different orientations. To address this issue, we propose a group action induced distance for averaging ODFs, which leads to a novel processing framework on the spaces of orientation (the space of 3D rotations) and shape (the space of ODFs with the same orientation). Experiments demonstrate that our framework produces anatomically meaningful results. PMID:22903055

  7. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

  8. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  9. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  10. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  11. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  12. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  13. Ensemble Averages when ?is a Square Integer

    E-print Network

    Christopher D. Sinclair

    2010-08-25

    We give a hyperpfaffian formulation of partition functions and ensemble averages for Hermitian and circular ensembles when L is an arbitrary integer and \\beta=L^2 and when L is an odd integer and \\beta=L^2 +1.

  14. Reasonable Averages That Give Wrong Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)

    Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion gives an insight into the nature of the error.

  15. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-print Network

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

  16. Averaging Sampled Sensor Outputs To Detect Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, Hagop V.

    1990-01-01

    Fluctuating signals smoothed by taking consecutive averages. Sampling-and-averaging technique processes noisy or otherwise erratic signals from number of sensors to obtain indications of failures in complicated system containing sensors. Used under both transient and steady-state conditions. Useful in monitoring automotive engines, chemical-processing plants, powerplants, and other systems in which outputs of sensors contain noise or other fluctuations in measured quantities.

  17. A Laterally Averaged Nonhydrostatic Ocean Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Bourgault; Dan E. Kelley

    2004-01-01

    Laterally-averaged dynamical equations are often used in numerical models of narrow coastal regions such as fjords and estuaries. Such models are preferable to 2D formulations, because they can handle variable-width effects such as flow acceleration at coastal constrictions. They also have a considerable speed advantage over 3D models. However, most laterally-averaged models share a significant weakness -- they rely on

  18. Applications of high average power nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-02-05

    Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.

  19. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second, a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the circular unitary ensemble (CUE) average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like 1/\\sqrt{N} as the dimension N of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as N\\to ? such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order 1/{{N}2}) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE-type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  20. Instrument to average 100 data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction burn rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-averaging instrument has been produced which will generate the average curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the average curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-averaging instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for averaging as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to average any cyclically varying waveform.

  1. Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

    Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

  2. Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, Valentin, E-mail: valentin@uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Department of Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., AAC 020, Chicago IL 60637 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained allow one to readily predict the redshift above which the direction-averaged fluctuation in the Hubble diagram falls below a required precision and suggest a method to extract the background Hubble constant from low redshift data without the need to correct for peculiar velocities.

  3. Averaging procedure in variable- G cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Esposito, Giampiero

    2010-02-01

    Previous work in the literature had built a formalism for spatially averaged equations for the scale factor, giving rise to an averaged Raychaudhuri equation and averaged Hamiltonian constraint, which involve a backreaction source term. The present paper extends these equations to include models with variable Newton parameter and variable cosmological term, motivated by the nonperturbative renormalization program for quantum gravity based upon the Einstein-Hilbert action. We focus on the Brans-Dicke form of the renormalization-group improved action functional. The coupling between backreaction and spatially averaged three-dimensional scalar curvature is found to survive, and a variable- G cosmic quintet is found to emerge. Interestingly, under suitable assumptions, an approximate solution can be found where the early universe tends to a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker model, while keeping track of the original inhomogeneities through three effective fluids. The resulting qualitative picture is that of a universe consisting of baryons only, while inhomogeneities average out to give rise to the full dark-side phenomenology.

  4. Perceiving the average hue of color arrays

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jacquelyn; Kay, Paul; Webster, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The average of a color distribution has special significance for color coding (e.g. to estimate the illuminant) but how it depends on the visual representation (e.g. perceptual vs. cone-opponent) or nonlinearities (e.g. categorical coding) is unknown. We measured the perceived average of two colors shown alternated in spatial arrays. Observers adjusted the components until the average equaled a specified reference hue. Matches for red, blue-red, or yellow-green were consistent with the arithmetic mean chromaticity, while blue-green settings deviated toward blue. The settings show little evidence for categorical coding, and cannot be predicted from the scaled appearances of the individual components. PMID:24695184

  5. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  6. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

  7. Estimating averages from distributions of tone durations.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, Richard; Han, Hye Joo; Yamaguchi, Motonori; Fortin, Claudette

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether estimating average duration was influenced by the distribution peak location. We presented participants with samples of various tone durations and then presented comparison tone durations. Participants judged whether each comparison duration was longer than the average sample duration. Estimates of the averages were inferred from the psychophysical functions. The durations were sampled from three distributions: one positively skewed, one symmetric, and one negatively skewed. In Experiment 1, every participant was presented with every distribution. Estimates of the averages were unbiased for the symmetric distribution but were biased toward the long tail of each skewed distribution. This would occur if participants combined the sample to be judged with the previous, irrelevant samples, or with the comparison durations. In Experiment 2, each participant was presented with samples from only one of the distributions. Estimates of the averages were still biased toward the long tails of the skewed distributions. This would occur if participants combined the sample to be judged with the comparison durations, which were the same for the three distributions. In Experiment 3, each participant was presented with only one distribution, and each distribution was tested with its own comparison durations, selected as percentiles from the distribution. The estimates were accurate for the smallest population mean (positively skewed distribution) but underestimated the larger means. These results could be explained by subjective shortening of the durations in memory, with a simple equation from scalar timing theory. This equation correctly predicted two results: The estimated averages were a linear function of the stimulus means, and the variances were a linear function of the squared stimulus means. Neither prediction was dependent on the skewness of the stimulus durations. PMID:24264515

  8. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelker, M.

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ˜ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  9. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

  10. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senovilla, J. M. M.

    2007-07-01

    Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.

  11. Emerging Models for Mobilizing Family Support for Chronic Disease Management: A Structured Review

    PubMed Central

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Piette, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We identify recent models for programs aiming to increase effective family support for chronic illness management and self-care among adult patients without significant physical or cognitive disabilities. We then summarize evidence regarding the efficacy for each model identified. Methods Structured review of studies published in medical and psychology databases from 1990 to the present, reference review, general Web searches, and conversations with family intervention experts. Review was limited to studies on conditions that require ongoing self-management, such as diabetes, chronic heart disease, and rheumatologic disease. Results Programs with three separate foci were identified: 1) Programs that guide family members in setting goals for supporting patient self-care behaviors have led to improved implementation of family support roles, but have mixed success improving patient outcomes. 2) Programs that train family in supportive communication techniques, such as prompting patient coping techniques or use of autonomy supportive statements, have successfully improved patient symptom management and health behaviors. 3) Programs that give families tools and infrastructure to assist in monitoring clinical symptoms and medications are being conducted, with no evidence to date on their impact on patient outcomes. Discussion The next generation of programs to improve family support for chronic disease management incorporate a variety of strategies. Future research can define optimal clinical situations for family support programs, the most effective combinations of support strategies, and how best to integrate family support programs into comprehensive models of chronic disease care. PMID:20308347

  12. Screening, evaluation and management of depression in people with diabetes in primary care.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Norbert; Caputo, Salvatore; Dzida, Grzegorz; Khunti, Kamlesh; Meneghini, Luigi F; Snoek, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Family physicians are responsible for diagnosing and treating the majority of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression. As a result of the impact of co-morbid depression on patient self-care and treatment outcomes, screening for depression in the context of a structured approach to case management and patient follow up is recommended in people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the need for improved recognition and treatment of depression in diabetes; and makes expert recommendations with regard to integrating screening tools and therapies into a busy family or general medical practice setting. PMID:23280258

  13. Average magnitude difference function pitch extractor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ross; H. Shaffer; A. Cohen; R. Freudberg; H. Manley

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a method for using the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) and associated decision logic to estimate the pitch period of voiced speech sounds. The AMDF is a variation on autocorrelation analysis where, instead of correlating the input speech at various delays (where multiplications and summations are formed at each value of delay), a difference signal is formed

  14. Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Alan

    1997-01-01

    During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

  15. Topological quantization of ensemble averages Emil Prodan

    E-print Network

    Topological quantization of ensemble averages Emil Prodan Department of Physics, Yeshiva University looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states. #12;Topological quantization of ensemble

  16. Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

  17. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  18. World average top-quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

  19. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-print Network

    Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

  20. 6, 68256839, 2006 Time-averaging of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, PRC 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, PRC Received: 17 May distributions presented in the literature are mostly averages of long scan-time (30 s or more) spectra mainly

  1. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  2. Geographic gossip: Efficient averaging for sensor networks

    E-print Network

    Dimakis, Alexandros G.; Sarwate, Anand D.; Wainwright, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    processing, gossip algorithms, message-passing al- gorithms, random geometric graphs,graphs, such as the single cycle and regular grid shown in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING,graph topology. The averaging problem is an archetypal instance of dis- tributed signal processing,

  3. Science of NHL Hockey: Statistics & Averages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    Being a top goalie in the NHL takes more than quick reflexes and nerves of steel, it also requires a firm grip on the numbers. Namely, the key averages and statistics of goaltending. "Science of NHL Hockey" is a 10-part video series produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation and the National Hockey League.

  4. Pain Management in Ambulatory Surgery—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Jan G.

    2014-01-01

    Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional ?-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3–5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures. PMID:25061796

  5. Detrending moving average algorithm for multifractals

    E-print Network

    Gu, Gao-Feng; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.011136

    2010-01-01

    The detrending moving average (DMA) algorithm is a widely used technique to quantify the long-term correlations of non-stationary time series and the long-range correlations of fractal surfaces, which contains a parameter $\\theta$ determining the position of the detrending window. We develop multifractal detrending moving average (MFDMA) algorithms for the analysis of one-dimensional multifractal measures and higher-dimensional multifractals, which is a generalization of the DMA method. The performance of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional MFDMA methods is investigated using synthetic multifractal measures with analytical solutions for backward ($\\theta=0$), centered ($\\theta=0.5$), and forward ($\\theta=1$) detrending windows. We find that the estimated multifractal scaling exponent $\\tau(q)$ and the singularity spectrum $f(\\alpha)$ are in good agreement with the theoretical values. In addition, the backward MFDMA method has the best performance, which provides the most accurate estimates of the scaling ...

  6. Average Consensus on General Strongly Connected Digraphs

    E-print Network

    Cai, Kai

    2012-01-01

    We study the average consensus problem of multi-agent systems for general network topologies with unidirectional information flow. We propose two (linear) distributed algorithms, deterministic and gossip, respectively for the cases where the inter-agent communication is synchronous and asynchronous. Our contribution is that in both cases, the developed algorithms guarantee state averaging on arbitrary strongly connected digraphs; in particular, this graphical condition does not require that the network be balanced or symmetric, thereby extending many previous results in the literature. The key novelty of our approach is to augment an additional variable for each agent, called "surplus", whose function is to locally record individual state updates. For convergence analysis, we employ graph-theoretic and nonnegative matrix tools, with the eigenvalue perturbation theory playing a crucial role.

  7. Rigid shape matching by segmentation averaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Oliensis, John

    2010-04-01

    We use segmentations to match images by shape. The new matching technique does not require point-to-point edge correspondence and is robust to small shape variations and spatial shifts. To address the unreliability of segmentations computed bottom-up, we give a closed form approximation to an average over all segmentations. Our method has many extensions, yielding new algorithms for tracking, object detection, segmentation, and edge-preserving smoothing. For segmentation, instead of a maximum a posteriori approach, we compute the "central" segmentation minimizing the average distance to all segmentations of an image. For smoothing, instead of smoothing images based on local structures, we smooth based on the global optimal image structures. Our methods for segmentation, smoothing, and object detection perform competitively, and we also show promising results in shape-based tracking. PMID:20224119

  8. jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.

    PubMed

    Posada, David

    2008-07-01

    jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:18397919

  9. Averaging of Temporal Memories by Rats

    PubMed Central

    Swanton, Dale N.; Gooch, Cynthia M.; Matell, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were trained on a mixed fixed-interval schedule in which stimulus A (tone or light) indicated food availability after 10 s and stimulus B (the other stimulus) indicated food availability after 20 s. Testing consisted of non-reinforced probe trials in which the stimulus was A, B, or the compound AB. On single-stimulus trials, rats responded with a peak of activity around the programmed reinforced time. On compound-stimulus trials, rats showed a single scalar peak of responding at a time midway between those for stimulus A and B. These results suggest that when provided with discrepant information regarding the temporal predictability of reinforcement, rats compute an average of the scheduled reinforcement times for the A and B stimuli and use this average to generate an expectation of reward for the compound stimuli. PMID:19594288

  10. Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    1998-11-15

    We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

  11. Spatial averaging of time-frequency distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yimin Zhang; Moeness G. Amin

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach based on time-frequency distributions (TFDs) for separating signals received by a multiple antenna array. This approach provides a significant improvement in performance over the previously introduced spatial time-frequency distributions, specifically for signals with close time-frequency signatures. In this approach, spatial averaging of the time-frequency distributions of the sensor data is performed to eliminate the

  12. The Average Velocity in a Queue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frette, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

  13. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-08-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin. PMID:16078866

  14. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  15. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    E-print Network

    Giovanna Tinetti; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp; William Fong; Thangasamy Velusamy; Heather Snively

    2004-08-20

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-curves and the spectral variability at visible + mid-IR wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, season. We also considered the appearance of an increasingly frozen Mars and simulated its detection versus real Mars with TPF-C and TPF-I as a function of spectral resolving power, signal-to-noise, integration time.

  16. The influence of time averaging and space averaging on the application of foraging theory in zooarchaeology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lee Lyman

    2003-01-01

    Use of models derived from foraging theory to explain variation in prey-abundance indices over time and space, evidenced in the zooarchaeological record, is common in western North America. Such use presumes that models derived from ecologically scaled observations are applicable to archaeologically scaled observations. The influence of time averaging and space averaging, whether inherent in the zooarchaeological record or resulting

  17. Method of Successive Weighted Averages (MSWA) and Self-Regulated Averaging Schemes for Solving

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    patterns from the later iterations. We further develop a self-regulated averaging method, in which the step and auxiliary point. The proposed step size sequences in both MSWA and self-regulated averaging method satisfy by minimizing Fisk's (1980) objective function. Maher (1998) developed alternative optimized step size choice

  18. Ensemble averaging vs. time averaging in molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordiz, Kiarash; Singh, David J.; Henry, Asegun

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we compare time averaging and ensemble averaging as two different methods for phase space sampling in molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of thermal conductivity. For the comparison, we calculate thermal conductivities of solid argon and silicon structures, using equilibrium MD. We introduce two different schemes for the ensemble averaging approach and show that both can reduce the total simulation time as compared to time averaging. It is also found that velocity rescaling is an efficient mechanism for phase space exploration. Although our methodology is tested using classical MD, the approaches used for generating independent trajectories may find their greatest utility in computationally expensive simulations such as first principles MD. For such simulations, where each time step is costly, time averaging can require long simulation times because each time step must be evaluated sequentially and therefore phase space averaging is achieved through sequential operations. On the other hand, with ensemble averaging, phase space sampling can be achieved through parallel operations, since each trajectory is independent. For this reason, particularly when using massively parallel architectures, ensemble averaging can result in much shorter simulation times (˜100-200X), but exhibits similar overall computational effort.

  19. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  20. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  1. Neurobehavioral management of behavioral anomalies in frontal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Sharma, Vibha; Singh, Tej Bahadur

    2009-07-01

    Neurobehavioral approach uses behavioral paradigm towards comprehensive rehabilitation by identifying the neurological or neuropsychological constraints that can interfere with learning and behavior of an individual. The present case study highlights the role of functional skills approach in neurobehavioral management towards cognitive rehabilitation to manage behavioral deficits in a 55-year-old man with nicotine dependence having frontal lobe lesions owing to gliosis of fronto-temporal brain regions. Based on detailed neuropsychological and behavioral assessment, a behavioral package was made involving techniques like behavioral counseling, chaining, shaping and operant methods and was carried out with the patient daily (with the help of primary caregiver) over a period of 2 months. Results showed improvement in his self-care and decrease in behavioral problems, on 12-month follow-up. PMID:21938104

  2. The average free volume model for liquids

    E-print Network

    Yang Yu; Reinhard Krause-Rehberg

    2014-04-02

    In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

  3. Auto-exploratory average reward reinforcement learning

    SciTech Connect

    Ok, DoKyeong; Tadepalli, P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a model-based average reward Reinforcement Learning method called H-learning and compare it with its discounted counterpart, Adaptive Real-Time Dynamic Programming, in a simulated robot scheduling task. We also introduce an extension to H-learning, which automatically explores the unexplored parts of the state space, while always choosing greedy actions with respect to the current value function. We show that this {open_quotes}Auto-exploratory H-learning{close_quotes} performs better than the original H-learning under previously studied exploration methods such as random, recency-based, or counter-based exploration.

  4. Conditionally averaged vorticity field and turbulence modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mui, R. C. Y.; Dommermuth, D. G.; Novikov, E. A.

    1996-03-01

    The conditionally averaged vorticity (CAV) field with fixed vorticity in a point is obtained from a direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence. The characteristic attenuation scale for the twisting and hyperboloidal CAV components is found to be of order ten times greater than the Kolmogorov microscale. A simple analytical model qualitatively agrees with the obtained CAV. For turbulent free-surface flows, the twisting part of CAV is expected to connect to the free surface. An alternative type of subgrid-scale modeling of turbulence, based on CAV, is suggested for the large-eddy simulations.

  5. Conditionally averaged vorticity field and turbulence modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Mui, R.C.; Dommermuth, D.G.; Novikov, E.A. [Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)] [Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The conditionally averaged vorticity (CAV) field with fixed vorticity in a point is obtained from a direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence. The characteristic attenuation scale for the twisting and hyperboloidal CAV components is found to be of order ten times greater than the Kolmogorov microscale. A simple analytical model qualitatively agrees with the obtained CAV. For turbulent free-surface flows, the twisting part of CAV is expected to connect to the free surface. An alternative type of subgrid-scale modeling of turbulence, based on CAV, is suggested for the large-eddy simulations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

    E-print Network

    Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

    2009-05-07

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

  7. Lay Management of Chronic Disease: A Qualitative Study of Living with Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Webster, Noah J.; Blixen, Carol E.; McCormick, Richard A.; Perzynski, Adam T.; Kanuch, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Neal V.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine management strategies and goals reported by people diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. Methods We analyzed data from semi-structured interviews (N=42) and from electronic sources [illness narratives (N=79) and Internet threaded discussions (N=264)]. Line-by-line coding, comparisons, and team discussions generated catalogs of lay management strategies and goals. We analyzed code-based files to identify informants’ selection of specific strategies for each goal. Results We classified lay management strategies into 3 categories: Medical Self-care, Behavior Change, and Coping. These strategies were used selectively in addressing multiple goals, categorized as Fighting the Virus, Strengthening the Body, and Managing Consequences. Conclusions Results underscore the diversity of strategies for living with a disease characterized by uncertain prognosis and variable expression of symptoms. PMID:19182983

  8. Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

  9. Group Averaging for de Sitter free fields

    E-print Network

    Donald Marolf; Ian A. Morrison

    2008-10-28

    Perturbative gravity about global de Sitter space is subject to linearization-stability constraints. Such constraints imply that quantum states of matter fields couple consistently to gravity {\\it only} if the matter state has vanishing de Sitter charges; i.e., only if the state is invariant under the symmetries of de Sitter space. As noted by Higuchi, the usual Fock spaces for matter fields contain no de Sitter-invariant states except the vacuum, though a new Hilbert space of de Sitter invariant states can be constructed via so-called group-averaging techniques. We study this construction for free scalar fields of arbitrary positive mass in any dimension, and for linear vector and tensor gauge fields in any dimension. Our main result is to show in each case that group averaging converges for states containing a sufficient number of particles. We consider general $N$-particle states with smooth wavefunctions, though we obtain somewhat stronger results when the wavefunctions are finite linear combinations of de Sitter harmonics. Along the way we obtain explicit expressions for general boost matrix elements in a familiar basis.

  10. Adaptive common average filtering for myocontrol applications.

    PubMed

    Rehbaum, Hubertus; Farina, Dario

    2015-02-01

    The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage for optimal subsequent information extraction. The aim of this filter is to improve both the quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and the selectivity of the EMG recordings. The filter is based on the classic common average reference (CAR), often used in EEG processing. However, while CAR is stationary, the proposed filter, which is referred to as adaptive common average reference (ACAR), is signal-dependent and its spatial transfer function is adapted over time. The ACAR filter is evaluated in this study for noise reduction and selectivity. Furthermore, it is proven that its application improves the performance of both pattern recognition and regression methods for myoelectric control. It is concluded that the proposed novel filter for EMG conditioning is a useful preprocessing tool in myocontrol applications. PMID:25388778

  11. Development and evaluation of a nurse-led hypertension management model in a community: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Wu, Lai Har

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop a nurse-led hypertension management model in the community setting and pilot it to an experimental trial. A total of 73 recruited participants were randomly allocated into two groups. The study group received a home visit and 2-4 telephone follow-ups from the trained community nurses assisted by nursing student volunteers. The control group received doctor-led hypertension management. Data was collected at recruitment and immediately after the 8-week program. Outcome measures included blood pressure readings, self-care adherence, self-efficacy, quality of life, and patient satisfaction. Participants from the study group led by nurses had significant improvement in self-care adherence, patient satisfaction post-intervention than those from the control group led by doctors. However, there were no statistical significant differences in blood pressure readings, quality of life and self-efficacy between the two groups. The findings show that the nurse-led hypertension management appears to be a promising way to manage hypertensive patients at the community level, particularly when the healthcare system is better integrated. PMID:25550956

  12. The Multidimensional Self-Concept: A Comparison of Gifted and Average-Ability Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Pyryt; Sal Mendaglio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the self-concept of gifted and average-ability adolescents from a multidimensional perspective. Four dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, athletic, and social) were examined using an instrument that incorporates three theoretical perspectives (reflected appraisals, social comparison, and attribution). Ninety-eight junior high school students from a large urban centre in Western Canada participated in the

  13. A visibility graph averaging aggregation operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiyu; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The problem of aggregation is of considerable importance in many disciplines. In this paper, a new type of operator called visibility graph averaging (VGA) aggregation operator is proposed. This proposed operator is based on the visibility graph which can convert a time series into a graph. The weights are obtained according to the importance of the data in the visibility graph. Finally, the VGA operator is used in the analysis of the TAIEX database to illustrate that it is practical and compared with the classic aggregation operators, it shows its advantage that it not only implements the aggregation of the data purely, but also conserves the time information. Meanwhile, the determination of the weights is more reasonable.

  14. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Daniël

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p T broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  15. Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

  17. Average gait differential image based human recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

  18. Application of the moving averaging technique in surplus production models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Qun

    2014-08-01

    Surplus production models are the simplest analytical methods effective for fish stock assessment and fisheries management. In this paper, eight surplus production estimators (three estimation procedures) were tested on Schaefer and Fox type simulated data in three simulated fisheries (declining, well-managed, and restoring fisheries) at two white noise levels. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to verify the utility of moving averaging (MA), which was an important technique for reducing the effect of noise in data in these models. The relative estimation error (REE) of maximum sustainable yield (MSY) was used as an indicator for the analysis, and one-way ANOVA was applied to test the significance of the REE calculated at four levels of MA. Simulation results suggested that increasing the value of MA could significantly improve the performance of the surplus production model (low REE) in all cases when the white noise level was low (coefficient of variation ( CV)=0.02). However, when the white noise level increased ( CV=0.25), adding the value of MA could still significantly enhance the performance of most models. Our results indicated that the best model performance occurred frequently when MA was equal to 3; however, some exceptions were observed when MA was higher.

  19. 18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301...MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO...POWER ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization....

  20. 40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

  5. Are Telehealth Technologies for Hypertension Care and Self-management Effective or Simply Risky and Costly?

    PubMed

    McKoy, June; Fitzner, Karen; Margetts, Miranda; Heckinger, Elizabeth; Specker, James; Roth, Laura; Izenberg, Maxwell; Siegel, Molly; McKinney, Shannon; Moss, Gail

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease that requires ongoing management and self-care. The disease affects 31% of American adults and contributed to or caused the deaths of 348,000 Americans in 2008, fewer than 50% of whom effectively self-managed the disease. However, self-management is complex, with patients requiring ongoing support and easy access to care. Telehealth may help foster the knowledge and skills necessary for those with hypertension to engage in successful self-management. This paper considers the applicability, efficacy, associated risks, and cost-effectiveness of telehealth for individuals and populations with hypertension. Telehealth is a broad term, encompassing telemedicine and mobile health that is used for physician-patient interactions, diagnostics, care delivery, education, information sharing, monitoring, and reminders. Telemedicine may have considerable utility for people diagnosed with hypertension who have poor access or social barriers that constrain access, but potential risks exist. Telehealth technology is evolving rapidly, even in the absence of fully proven cost-effectiveness and efficacy. Considering the cost of inpatient and emergency department care for patients with hypertension, telehealth is a highly attractive alternative, but there are risks to consider. Incorporating telehealth, which is increasingly characterized by mobile health, can increase both the capacity of health care providers and the reach of patient support, clinical management, and self-care. Telehealth studies need improvement; long-term outcome data on cardiovascular events must be obtained, and robust risk analyses and economic studies are needed to prospectively evaluate the safety and cost savings for hypertension self-management. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25290443

  6. Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru; Sapozhnikov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-15

    The average structure of the monoclinic modification of lazurite Ca{sub 1.26}Na{sub 6.63}K{sub 0.04}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](SO{sub 4}){sub 1.53}S{sub 0.99}Cl{sub 0.05} (discovered in the Lake Baikal region) incommensurately modulated along the c axis is solved by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.069(1) A, b = 12.868(1) A, c = 12.872(1) A, {gamma} = 90.19(1) deg., sp. gr. Pa, R = 6.9%, 2057 reflections. The AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a partially ordered framework. The positions in the cavities of the framework are split and randomly occupied by Na and Ca atoms and the SO{sub 4}, S{sub 2}, S{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} anionic groups. The structure of the mineral is compared with the superstructure of triclinic lazurite. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of the incommensurate modulation in monoclinic and other lazurites.

  7. Bayesian Model Averaging Using Ensemble Particle Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rings, J.; Vrugt, J. A.; Huisman, J. A.; Schoups, G.; Vereecken, H.

    2010-12-01

    Conceptual watershed models are a valuable tool for streamflow prediction, but it is also acknowledged that no single model structure can capture all the details of a watershed. Therefore, ensembles of models are employed, and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is increasingly being used to combine the predictions of multiple different models into a single forecast that is supposed to exhibit better predictive capability then any of the individual models. Successful implementation of BMA depends on the choice of the conditional distribution used to specify uncertainty of each ensemble member. Most often this distribution is assumed Gaussian. Here we introduce a four step approach that retrieves the conditional distribution for each model and time. First, we create a suite of watershed models by calibrating one conceptual model to different parts of the hydrograph. Then, a particle filter is used for each model to recursively derive the posterior probability density function of streamflow. The particle filter explictly incorporates uncertainty in measurement and model states. Then, a cross-entropy method is employed to retrieve closed form mathematical descriptions of these respective probability distributions. Finally, the BMA weights are estimated from these closed-form distributions using the DREAM algorithm. For the extremely diverse suite of watershed models, the RMSE for the BMA model is not necessarily better then that of the single best model. The treatment of model and measurement uncertainties in the particle filter, however, allows much better predictions than the calibrated models alone can provide.

  8. Average oxidation state of carbon in proteins.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-01

    The formal oxidation state of carbon atoms in organic molecules depends on the covalent structure. In proteins, the average oxidation state of carbon (Z(C)) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formula. To investigate oxidation-reduction (redox) patterns, groups of proteins from different subcellular locations and phylogenetic groups were selected for comparison. Extracellular proteins of yeast have a relatively high oxidation state of carbon, corresponding with oxidizing conditions outside of the cell. However, an inverse relationship between Z(C) and redox potential occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. This trend provides support for the hypothesis that protein transport and turnover are ultimately coupled to the maintenance of different glutathione redox potentials in subcellular compartments. There are broad changes in Z(C) in whole-genome protein compositions in microbes from different environments, and in Rubisco homologues, lower Z(C) tends to occur in organisms with higher optimal growth temperature. Energetic costs calculated from thermodynamic models are consistent with the notion that thermophilic organisms exhibit molecular adaptation to not only high temperature but also the reducing nature of many hydrothermal fluids. Further characterization of the material requirements of protein metabolism in terms of the chemical conditions of cells and environments may help to reveal other linkages among biochemical processes with implications for changes on evolutionary time scales. PMID:25165594

  9. Using NDVI to assess departure from average greenness and its relation to fire business. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgan, R.E.; Hartford, R.A.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Satellite-derived vegetation greenness maps of the contiguous United States have been available to fire managers since 1989. This report describes a new map, departure from average, which is designed to compare current-year vegetation greenness to average greenness for the same time of year and describes it relationship to fire business.

  10. Mobile Phone-Based Telemonitoring for Heart Failure Management: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kevin J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Barnsley, Jan; Masino, Caterina; Ross, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous trials of telemonitoring for heart failure management have reported inconsistent results, largely due to diverse intervention and study designs. Mobile phones are becoming ubiquitous and economical, but the feasibility and efficacy of a mobile phone-based telemonitoring system have not been determined. Objective The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of a mobile phone-based telemonitoring system on heart failure management and outcomes. Methods One hundred patients were recruited from a heart function clinic and randomized into telemonitoring and control groups. The telemonitoring group (N = 50) took daily weight and blood pressure readings and weekly single-lead ECGs, and answered daily symptom questions on a mobile phone over 6 months. Readings were automatically transmitted wirelessly to the mobile phone and then to data servers. Instructions were sent to the patients’ mobile phones and alerts to a cardiologist’s mobile phone as required. Results Baseline questionnaires were completed and returned by 94 patients, and 84 patients returned post-study questionnaires. About 70% of telemonitoring patients completed at least 80% of their possible daily readings. The change in quality of life from baseline to post-study, as measured with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, was significantly greater for the telemonitoring group compared to the control group (P = .05). A between-group analysis also found greater post-study self-care maintenance (measured with the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index) for the telemonitoring group (P = .03). Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, self-care management, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improved significantly for both groups from baseline to post-study, but did not show a between-group difference. However, a subgroup within-group analysis using the data from the 63 patients who had attended the heart function clinic for more than 6 months revealed the telemonitoring group had significant improvements from baseline to post-study in BNP (decreased by 150 pg/mL, P = .02), LVEF (increased by 7.4%, P = .005) and self-care maintenance (increased by 7 points, P = .05) and management (increased by 14 points, P = .03), while the control group did not. No differences were found between the telemonitoring and control groups in terms of hospitalization, mortality, or emergency department visits, but the trial was underpowered to detect differences in these metrics. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence of improved quality of life through improved self-care and clinical management from a mobile phone-based telemonitoring system. The use of the mobile phone-based system had high adherence and was feasible for patients, including the elderly and those with no experience with mobile phones. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00778986 PMID:22356799

  11. A dual-mode fast-transient average-current-mode buck converter without slope-compensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-Han Hwang; Yan-Chong Jhang; Jiann-Jong Chen; Yuh-Shyan Hwang

    2011-01-01

    A dual-mode fast-transient average-current-mode buck converter without slope-compensation is proposed in this paper. The benefits of the average-current-mode are fast-transient response, simple compensation design, and no requirement for slope-compensation, furthermore, that minimizes some power management problems, such as EMI, size, design complexity, and cost. Average-current-mode control employs two loop control methods, an inner loop for current and an outer one

  12. [Using the health literacy concept to promote self-management in a chronic kidney disease patient].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-Hui; Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2014-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) must learn and use self-management skills to control their disease and delay disease progression. Comprehension of instructions is thus critical to integrating self-management principles into daily life. In this case report, the client had difficulty implementing the behavioral changes necessary to control diet and blood sugar due to the lack of proper and sufficient information. The authors applied health literacy concepts to assess the client's knowledge and skills related to disease control and then provided health teaching at a level appropriate to the client's health literacy level. This individualized care enhanced the client's confidence and motivation to implement self-care activities. Healthcare professionals should help patients overcome barriers to reading and verbal communication to help low-health-literacy patients successfully self-manage their chronic disease. Clients may thus learn to report their symptoms clearly and accurately. PMID:24519350

  13. 24is the average age of our MSc in Real Estate Investment students

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    24is the average age of our MSc in Real Estate Investment students The Cass advantage Located exciting stage of your career journey. About the course The MSc in Real Estate Investment is aimed at students wishing to enter or advance their careers in the fields of real estate investment management, real

  14. The potential use of 28-day average daily gains as predictors of carcass traits

    E-print Network

    Drake, Leah Anne

    1997-01-01

    The use of 28 d average daily gains as predictors of carcass traits is a new concept in the beef industry. This procedure could benefit feedyard managers in optimizing the performance of cattle being fed and in lower discounts from the packers...

  15. Analysis of Grade Point Average and Grades in Selected Courses for Students in Selected Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Vernon L.

    Comparing the performance of students majoring in Data Processing Programming, Dental Assisting, Electronics Technology and Mid-Management with control groups matched on the basis of sex and ACT scores, no apparant discrimination against the technical majors was found in terms of earned grade point averages or grades in selected courses, with the…

  16. 23is the average age of our MSc in International Accounting and Finance students

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    · Mergers&Acquisitions · ProjectFinance · RaisingCapitalEquity · RiskManagement · Security.P.Morgan-ECM,Analyst-HongKong · UBS-CorporateFinance/Mergers& Acquisions,Analyst-Switzerland · Ernst23is the average age of our MSc in International Accounting and Finance students The Cass advantage

  17. Application of the Navy Average Grade Model to the Naval Underwater Systems Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannis, Laurence S.

    Forecasts for manpower requirements by NUSC for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 were made using a linear regression model of the goal programming variety. An application of one of the Charnes, Cooper, Niehaus career management models for manpower planning was then made to evaluate the consequences of the policy reducing average GS grade to 9.35 while…

  18. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation of global 21-cm signal measurements are detections of Lyman Alpha Emitters at high redshifts and constraints on the midpoint of reionization, both of which are among the primary science objectives of ongoing or near-future experiments.

  19. Arithmetic averaging: A versatile technique for smoothing and trend removal

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    Arithmetic averaging is simple, stable, and can be very effective in attenuating the undesirable components in a complex signal, thereby providing smoothing or trend removal. An arithmetic average is easy to calculate. However, the resulting modifications to the data, in both the time and frequency domains, are not well understood by many experimentalists. This paper discusses the following aspects of averaging: (1) types of averages -- simple, cumulative, and moving; and (2) time and frequency domain effects of the averaging process.

  20. Scaling of average receiving time and average weighted shortest path on weighted Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Chen, Dandan; Dong, Yujuan; Liu, Jie

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we present weighted Koch networks based on classic Koch networks. A new method is used to determine the average receiving time (ART), whose key step is to write the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes to absorption at the trap located at a hub node as a recursive relation. We show that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information. Moreover, average weighted shortest path (AWSP) is calculated. In the infinite network order limit, the AWSP depends on the scaling factor. The weighted Koch network grows unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded.

  1. Temporal spectrum of atmospheric scintillation and the effects of aperture averaging and time averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hong; Yu, Longkun; Fan, Chengyu

    2014-11-01

    The general analytic expression for the temporal spectrum of atmospheric scintillation under weak turbulence condition is derived. It was employed to study the characteristics of the temporal spectra for horizontal uniform path and whole layer atmospheric non-uniform path. In the non-uniform path, the H-V turbulence model and the Gaussian wind speed model are utilized. It has been found that when the receiver diameter is larger than Fresnel scale (?L)1/2, the temporal spectrum of the plane wave have a power law behavior with a scaling index - 17/3 in high-frequency range. The change of the turbulence strength has little influence on the shape of the temporal spectrum. Based on the characteristics of the temporal spectrum, the aperture-averaging and time-averaging effects on scintillation were analyzed in the frequency domain.

  2. To quantum averages through asymptotic expansion of classical averages on infinite-dimensional space

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, University of Vaexjoe, Vaexjoe S-35195 (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    We study asymptotic expansions of Gaussian integrals of analytic functionals on infinite-dimensional spaces (Hilbert and nuclear Frechet). We obtain an asymptotic equality coupling the Gaussian integral and the trace of the composition of scaling of the covariation operator of a Gaussian measure and the second (Frechet) derivative of a functional. In this way we couple classical average (given by an infinite-dimensional Gaussian integral) and quantum average (given by the von Neumann trace formula). We can interpret this mathematical construction as a procedure of 'dequantization' of quantum mechanics. We represent quantum mechanics as an asymptotic projection of classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. This space can be represented as the space of classical fields, so quantum mechanics is represented as a projection of 'prequantum classical statistical field theory'.

  3. Reach-averaged sediment routing model of a canyon river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiele, S. M.; Wilcock, P. R.; Grams, P. E.

    2007-02-01

    Spatial complexity in channel geometry indicates that accurate prediction of sediment transport requires modeling in at least two dimensions. However, a one-dimensional model may be the only practical or possible alternative, especially for longer river reaches of practical concern in river management or landscape modeling. We have developed a one-dimensional model of the Colorado River through upper Grand Canyon that addresses this problem by reach averaging the channel properties and predicting changes in sand storage using separate source and sink functions coupled to the sand routing model. The model incorporates results from the application of a two-dimensional model of flow, sand transport, and bed evolution, and a new algorithm for setting the near-bed sand boundary condition for sand transported over an exposed bouldery bed. Model predictions were compared to measurements of sand discharge during intermittent tributary inputs and varying discharges controlled by dam releases. The model predictions generally agree well with the timing and magnitude of measured sand discharges but tend to overpredict sand discharge during the early stages of a high release designed to redistribute sand to higher-elevation deposits.

  4. Double-averaged velocity profiles over fixed dune shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Stephen R.; Nikora, Vladimir I.; Coleman, Stephen E.

    2008-09-01

    Spatially averaged profiles of time averaged velocity, using integrals over thin horizontal slabs (Cartesian double average), are employed in characterizing the flow over fixed dune shapes. For comparison the spatial averaging method of Smith and McLean (1977) that averages along lines at constant distance from the local bed elevation is also investigated. The Cartesian double averaged profiles of the inverse of the velocity shear are nearly constant below the crest elevation, but increase rapidly above the crest level. This results in velocity profiles that increase linearly with distance from the bed below the crest. Above the crest it can be argued that the velocity increases logarithmically, but a power law profile can also be argued. Spatially averaged eddy viscosity profiles are calculated by multiplying the average Reynolds stress by the inverse shear. The resulting profile is more complex than the uniform flow counterpart.

  5. Scaling of average weighted shortest path and average receiving time on weighted expanded Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan; Jin, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Deterministic network models have been attractive media for discussing dynamical processes' dependence on network structural features. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of weights affect dynamical processes taking place on networks. In this paper, we present a family of weighted expanded Koch networks based on Koch networks. They originate from a r-polygon, and each node of current generation produces m r-polygons including the node and whose weighted edges are scaled by factor w in subsequent evolutionary step. We derive closed-form expressions for average weighted shortest path length (AWSP). In large network, AWSP stays bounded with network order growing (0 < w < 1). Then, we focus on a special random walks and trapping issue on the networks. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average receiving time (ART). ART exhibits a sub-linear dependence on network order (0 < w < 1), which implies that nontrivial weighted expanded Koch networks are more efficient than un-weighted expanded Koch networks in receiving information. Besides, efficiency of receiving information at hub nodes is also dependent on parameters m and r. These findings may pave the way for controlling information transportation on general weighted networks.

  6. Generation of high average power supercontinuum involve visible spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Liang, Xiaobao; Li, Chao; Wang, Shiwei; Huang, Zhihua; Wang, Jianjun; Zhu, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    A high average-power all-fiber supercontinuum laser source is constructed. By integrating series techniques together, the output average power achieves 65W with the spectrum range covering two octaves from 540nm to 2200nm. To our knowledge, there has been never reported similar supercontinuum source with such high average power, broadband spectrum and picosecond pulse width.

  7. Interaction between directional epistasis and average mutational effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus O. Wilke; Christoph Adami

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the average fitness decay due to single mutations and the strength of epistatic interactions in genetic sequences. We observe that epistatic interactions between mutations are correlated to the average fitness decay, both in RNA secondary structure prediction as well as in digital organisms replicating in silico. This correlation implies that during adaptation, epistasis and average

  8. Strategies for managing behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type: a systematic overview.

    PubMed

    Forbes, D A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic overview was to summarize research findings on strategies for managing the behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. A search of the published and unpublished literature resulted in 265 articles, 45 of which were judged to be relevant. Using validity criteria, 1 article was judged to be strong, 6 moderate, 20 weak, and 18 poor. Strategies such as planned walking, pet therapy, an attention-focusing program, functional skills training, music, and visual barriers demonstrated promising results in improving: (a) aggressive, agitated, and disruptive behaviours, (b) social interaction, (c) self-care ability, (d) day-night disturbances, or (e) wandering. The findings indicate that there is existing research, although in its infancy, to support the use of strategies for managing the behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. PMID:9807289

  9. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

  10. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

  11. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual...

  12. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual...

  13. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205... REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual...

  14. Calculating High Speed Centrifugal Compressor Performance from Averaged Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Fangyuan; Fleming, Ryan; Key, Nicole L.

    2012-12-01

    To improve the understanding of high performance centrifugal compressors found in modern aircraft engines, the aerodynamics through these machines must be experimentally studied. To accurately capture the complex flow phenomena through these devices, research facilities that can accurately simulate these flows are necessary. One such facility has been recently developed, and it is used in this paper to explore the effects of averaging total pressure and total temperature measurements to calculate compressor performance. Different averaging techniques (including area averaging, mass averaging, and work averaging) have been applied to the data. Results show that there is a negligible difference in both the calculated total pressure ratio and efficiency for the different techniques employed. However, the uncertainty in the performance parameters calculated with the different averaging techniques is significantly different, with area averaging providing the least uncertainty.

  15. Heart Failure Patients' Perceptions and Use of Technology to Manage Disease Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Virginia; Harris, Amy; McArthur, Kara; Dacso, Clifford; Colton, Lara M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Technology use for symptom management is beneficial for both patients and physicians. Widespread acceptance of technology use in healthcare fuels continued development of technology with ever-increasing sophistication. Although acceptance of technology use in healthcare by medical professionals is evident, less is known about the perceptions, preferences, and use of technology by heart failure (HF) patients. This study explores patients' perceptions and current use of technology for managing HF symptoms (MHFS). Materials and Methods: A qualitative analysis of in-depth individual interviews using a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Fifteen participants (mean age, 64.43 years) with HF were recruited from hospitals, cardiology clinics, and community groups. Results: All study participants reported use of a home monitoring device, such as an ambulatory blood pressure device or bathroom scale. The majority of participants reported not accessing online resources for additional MHFS information. However, several participants stated their belief that technology would be useful for MHFS. Participants reported increased access to care, earlier indication of a worsening condition, increased knowledge, and greater convenience as potential benefits of technology use while managing HF symptoms. For most participants financial cost, access issues, satisfaction with current self-care routine, mistrust of technology, and reliance on routine management by their current healthcare provider precluded their use of technology for MHFS. Conclusions: Knowledge about HF patients' perceptions of technology use for self-care and better understanding of issues associated with technology access can aid in the development of effective health behavior interventions for individuals who are MHFS and may result in increased compliance, better outcomes, and lower healthcare costs. PMID:24483939

  16. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, RISK MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    State University Risk Management Authority." "University Budget" represents the baseline budget for better than average performance. The percentage of the University's budget allocated to risk managementCALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON RISK MANAGEMENT 2010 ANNUAL REPORT #12;2010 Annual Report

  17. Managing Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ITU Leadership Development (George Mason University)

    2012-01-20

    This resource describes the skills necessary for managing resources, including planning, project management, budget management, information management, change management, and organizational performance assessment.

  18. Network Management Network Management

    E-print Network

    Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea of this license visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- /3 0/ Network management and QoS provisioning ­ Chapter 9, Network Management, of the book Jim Kurose, Keith Ross, Computer Networking, A Top Down

  19. Sport Management Sport Management

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    and hospitality management; organizational theory; sport law and legal operations management; technologySport Management Sport Management Michael D. Veley, Chair, 315-443-2630 810 Nottingham Road Faculty rigorous Sport Management curriculum combines department-specific courses with professional electives

  20. An average interstellar extinction curve for the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    LMC regions located more than 0.5 deg from the center of the 30 Doradus nebula have an average UV extinction curve that is about 2 units higher in the far UV than the average Galactic curve. Within the 30 Doradus region, the normalized far-UV extinction is much steeper than the average Galactic or average LMC curves, yet has been considered to be representative of the LMC in general in the past. The present results show typical LMC extinction properties to have much more in common with those in the Milky Way.

  1. Averaging Schemes for Solving Fived Point and Variational Inequality Problems

    E-print Network

    Magnanti, Thomas L.

    We develop and study averaging schemes for solving fixed point and variational inequality problems. Typically, researchers have established convergence results for solution methods for these problems by establishing ...

  2. Average g-Factors of Anisotropic Polycrystalline Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Miller, Joel S. [University of Utah

    2010-01-01

    Due to the lack of suitable single crystals, the average g-factor of anisotropic polycrystalline samples are commonly estimated from either the Curie-Weiss susceptibility or the saturation magnetization. We show that the average g-factor obtained from the Curie constant is always greater than or equal to the average g-factor obtained from the saturation magnetization. The average g-factors are equal only for a single crystal or an isotropic polycrystal. We review experimental results for several compounds containing the anisotropic cation [Fe(C5Me5)2]+ and propose an experiment to test this inequality using a compound with a spinless anion.

  3. Conditionally-averaged structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guezennec, Yann G.; Piomelli, Ugo; Kim, John

    1987-01-01

    The quadrant-splitting and the wall-shear detection techniques were used to obtain ensemble-averaged wall layer structures. The two techniques give similar results for Q4 events, but the wall-shear method leads to smearing of Q2 events. Events were found to maintain their identity for very long times. The ensemble-averaged structures scale with outer variables. Turbulence producing events were associated with one dominant vortical structure rather than a pair of counter-rotating structures. An asymmetry-preserving averaging scheme was devised that allowed a picture of the average structure which more closely resembles the instantaneous one, to be obtained.

  4. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  5. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  6. 14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Reflected Solar Radiation)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tom Bridgman

    2001-06-20

    This animation displays one year of Reflected Solar Radiation (RSR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

  7. The influence of averageness on children's judgments of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-08-01

    We examined developmental changes in the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness by showing adults and children pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. In one comparison, adults and 5-year-olds rated the more average faces as more attractive whether the faces were of adult females, 5-year-old boys, or 5-year-old girls. The influence of averageness, however, was weaker in 5-year-olds than in adults. In another comparison, a new group of adults and 9-year-olds rated the more average faces as more attractive for male and female faces of adults, 9-year-olds, and 5-year-olds. The influence of averageness was again weaker for children than for adults, although the strength of 9-year-olds' preference was greater than that of 5-year-olds. Developmental changes may reflect the refinement of an average face prototype as children are exposed to more faces, increased sensitivity as visual perception develops, and/or the greater salience of attractiveness after puberty. PMID:23708730

  8. Using Multiple Representations To Improve Conceptions of Average Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Stephen K.; Jazo, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses improving mathematical reasoning through the design of computer microworlds and evaluates a computer-based learning environment that uses multiple representations to improve undergraduate students' conception of average speed. Describes improvement of students' estimates of average speed by using visual feedback from a simulation.…

  9. Delineating the Average Rate of Change in Longitudinal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    The average rate of change is a concept that has been misunderstood in the literature. This article attempts to clarify the concept and show unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of the average rate of change in longitudinal models. The slope from the straight-line change model has at times been interpreted as if it were always the…

  10. Proximal projection methods for variational inequalities and Cesáro averaged approximations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya. I. Alber

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we prove convergence and stability of Cesáro averages generated by the proximal projection method applied to nonlinear equations and variational inequalities in uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach spaces. We first consider the stability of the approximations with respect to perturbations of the operator and constraint sets. Weak convergence of Cesáro averages is shown to hold with

  11. US average Phoenix Area(1000sq.km.)

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 US average Phoenix average Closest to Phoenix Phoenix contiguous that autumnal flooding may be partially responsible for this shift. P h h 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0

  12. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    The global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signal

  13. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Marketing season average price data. 5.2 Section 5.2 Agriculture...Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.2 Marketing season average price data. It is hereby found that it is...

  14. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Marketing season average price data. 5.2 Section 5.2 Agriculture...Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.2 Marketing season average price data. It is hereby found that it is...

  15. Local linear convergence for alternating and averaged nonconvex projections

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Local linear convergence for alternating and averaged nonconvex projections A.S. Lewis D.R. Luke J. Malick September 16, 2008 Key words: alternating projections, averaged projections, linear conver- gence collection of closed sets having "linearly regular intersection" at a point is crucial in variational

  16. Average Current Mode Control of Switching Power Supplies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lloyd Dixon

    1990-01-01

    Current mode control as usually implemented in switching power supplies actually senses and controls peak inductor current. This gives rise to many serious problems, including poor noise immunity, a need for slope compensation, and peak-to-average current errors which the inherent- ly low current loop gain cannot correct. Average current mode control eliminates these problems and may be used effectively to

  17. Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

    2013-06-17

    Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

  18. LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner full orbit data averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, J. P.; Bilanow, S.

    1983-01-01

    Averages taken over full orbit data spans of the pitch and roll residual measurement errors of the two conical Earth sensors operating on the LANDSAT 4 spacecraft are described. The variability of these full orbit averages over representative data throughtout the year is analyzed to demonstrate the long term stability of the sensor measurements. The data analyzed consist of 23 segments of sensor measurements made at 2 to 4 week intervals. Each segment is roughly 24 hours in length. The variation of full orbit average as a function of orbit within a day as a function of day of year is examined. The dependence on day of year is based on association the start date of each segment with the mean full orbit average for the segment. The peak-to-peak and standard deviation values of the averages for each data segment are computed and their variation with day of year are also examined.

  19. Self-similarity of higher-order moving averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna; Türk, Christian

    2011-10-01

    In this work, higher-order moving average polynomials are defined by straightforward generalization of the standard moving average. The self-similarity of the polynomials is analyzed for fractional Brownian series and quantified in terms of the Hurst exponent H by using the detrending moving average method. We prove that the exponent H of the fractional Brownian series and of the detrending moving average variance asymptotically agree for the first-order polynomial. Such asymptotic values are compared with the results obtained by the simulations. The higher-order polynomials correspond to trend estimates at shorter time scales as the degree of the polynomial increases. Importantly, the increase of polynomial degree does not require to change the moving average window. Thus trends at different time scales can be obtained on data sets with the same size. These polynomials could be interesting for those applications relying on trend estimates over different time horizons (financial markets) or on filtering at different frequencies (image analysis).

  20. Do diurnal aerosol changes affect daily average radiative forcing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Barnard, James; Pekour, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph; Lantz, Kathy; Hodges, Gary

    2013-06-01

    diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

  1. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR WIND PARK MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Brady

    SUMMARY Knowledge Management (KM) is a process being adopted by companies to become more efficient and effective with the knowledge held within their organizations. The need for this can be seen daily, from issues dealing with people retention, the ever-increasing average age of operations and maintenance professionals, reinventing processes, and the pressure to do more with less. Pressures in the

  2. Structuring Collaboration in Mixed-Ability Groups to Promote Verbal Interaction, Learning, and Motivation of Average-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, Ton de

    2007-01-01

    Average-ability students often do not take full advantage of learning in mixed-ability groups because they hardly engage in the group interaction. This study examined whether structuring collaboration by group roles and ground rules for helping behavior might help overcome this participatory inequality. In a plant biology course, heterogeneously…

  3. Management Plan Management Plan

    E-print Network

    -based process will be used to create a plan for the achievement of sustainable management of Deschutes SubbasinManagement Plan Management Plan "Management and restoration programs for native salmonids have the native community and the natural processes that form and maintain the habitats required by those

  4. Network Management Network Management

    E-print Network

    Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino Telecommunication management and QoS provisioning - 2Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino Stanford, California

  5. Sport Management Sport Management

    E-print Network

    Raina, Ramesh

    and budgeting; sport event and hospitality management; organizational theory; sport law and legal operationsSport Management Sport Management Michael D. Veley, Chair, 315-443-2630 810 Nottingham Road Faculty-director Undergraduate Program, 315-443-2630 The academically rigorous Sport Management curriculum combines department

  6. Sport Management Sport Management

    E-print Network

    Raina, Ramesh

    and budgeting; sport event and hospitality management; organizational theory; sport law and legal operationsSport Management Sport Management Michael D. Veley, Director and Chair, 315-443-2630 810 Nottingham-443-2630 The academically rigorous Sport Management curriculum combines department-specific courses with professional

  7. Hospitality Management Hospitality Management

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    Hospitality Management Hospitality Management Norm Faiola, Chair, 315-443-1710 Lyman Hall Faculty PROGRAM The Department of Hospitality Management requires a diversity of skills from many disciplines of the global hospitality industry. Academic Offerings HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR HOSPITALITY

  8. Programmable noise bandwidth reduction by means of digital averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Predetection noise bandwidth reduction is effected by a pre-averager capable of digitally averaging the samples of an input data signal over two or more symbols, the averaging interval being defined by the input sampling rate divided by the output sampling rate. As the averaged sample is clocked to a suitable detector at a much slower rate than the input signal sampling rate the noise bandwidth at the input to the detector is reduced, the input to the detector having an improved signal to noise ratio as a result of the averaging process, and the rate at which such subsequent processing must operate is correspondingly reduced. The pre-averager forms a data filter having an output sampling rate of one sample per symbol of received data. More specifically, selected ones of a plurality of samples accumulated over two or more symbol intervals are output in response to clock signals at a rate of one sample per symbol interval. The pre-averager includes circuitry for weighting digitized signal samples using stored finite impulse response (FIR) filter coefficients. A method according to the present invention is also disclosed.

  9. Thomson scattering in the average-atom approximation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W R; Nilsen, J; Cheng, K T

    2012-09-01

    The average-atom model is applied to study Thomson scattering of x-rays from warm dense matter with emphasis on scattering by bound electrons. Parameters needed to evaluate the dynamic structure function (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave functions, and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The resulting analysis provides a relatively simple diagnostic for use in connection with x-ray scattering measurements. Applications are given to dense hydrogen, beryllium, aluminum, and titanium plasmas. In the case of titanium, bound states are predicted to modify the spectrum significantly. PMID:23031036

  10. Definition of average path and relativity parameter computation in CASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dawei; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xiaohua; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    System CASA (computer-assisted semen analysis) is a medical applicable system which gets the sperm motility and its parameters using image processing method. But there is no any authoritative administration or academic organization gives a set of criterion for CASA now result in lowering the effective compare of work between the labs or researchers. The average path and parameters relative to it as average path velocity, amplitude of lateral head displacement and beat cross frequency are often unable to compare between systems because of different algorithm. The paper presents a new algorithm that could define the average path uniquely and compute those 3 parameters above quickly and handy from any real path.

  11. Experimental demonstration of squeezed-state quantum averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lassen, Mikael; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Sabuncu, Metin [Max-Planck-Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Filip, Radim [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17 Listopadu 50, CZ-772 07 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2010-08-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement-induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean yields a lower value than the corresponding value obtained for the standard arithmetic-mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested for squeezed and thermal states as well as for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources. The harmonic-mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of squeezed-light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels.

  12. Interaction between directional epistasis and average mutational effects

    E-print Network

    Claus O. Wilke; Christoph Adami

    2001-06-28

    We investigate the relationship between the average fitness decay due to single mutations and the strength of epistatic interactions in genetic sequences. We observe that epistatic interactions between mutations are correlated to the average fitness decay, both in RNA secondary structure prediction as well as in digital organisms replicating in silico. This correlation implies that during adaptation, epistasis and average mutational effect cannot be optimized independently. In experiments with RNA sequences evolving on a neutral network, the selective pressure to decrease the mutational load then leads to a reduction of the amount of sequences with strong antagonistic interactions between deleterious mutations in the population.

  13. Averaging Inhomogeneous Universes: Volume, Angle, Line of Sight

    E-print Network

    Eric V. Linder

    1998-01-14

    Cosmologies that match in a volume averaged sense need not generally have the same light propagation behaviors. In particular a universe with inhomogeneity may not demonstrate the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker distance-redshift relation even after volume averaging to FRW spacetime. Even the Dyer-Roeder prescription for incorporating inhomogeneity within a universe equivalent to FRW in an angle averaged sense does not guarantee FRW behavior in general. To legitimately use the FRW distance-redshift relation to interpret observations, the physical conditions must match in a line of sight sense (defined herein: most observations do), since light probes the mass distribution or geometry on all length scales.

  14. Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D Tom; Dorocicz, John

    2012-10-01

    Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ~10(7) 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels varied with averaging time. Mean sound pressure levels averaged in linear space, though susceptible to strong bias from outliers, are most relevant to cumulative impact assessment metrics. PMID:23039575

  15. Design of experiments with very low average replication

    E-print Network

    Bailey, R. A.

    the average replication is much less than two. 2/29 #12;Agricultural plant-breeding trials In breeding trials new varieties, with very little seed of each. 3/29 #12;Agricultural plant-breeding trials In breeding

  16. Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

  17. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-print Network

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  18. Tamiflu Cuts 1 Day Off Average Flu Bout, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Tamiflu Cuts 1 Day Off Average Flu Bout, Study Finds Researchers reviewed ... the length of flu symptoms by about a day, and reduces the risk of flu-related complications ...

  19. Does subduction zone magmatism produce average continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellam, R. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether present day subduction zone magmatism produces material of average continental crust composition, which perhaps most would agree is andesitic, is addressed. It was argued that modern andesitic to dacitic rocks in Andean-type settings are produced by plagioclase fractionation of mantle derived basalts, leaving a complementary residue with low Rb/Sr and a positive Eu anomaly. This residue must be removed, for example by delamination, if the average crust produced in these settings is andesitic. The author argued against this, pointing out the absence of evidence for such a signature in the mantle. Either the average crust is not andesitic, a conclusion the author was not entirely comfortable with, or other crust forming processes must be sought. One possibility is that during the Archean, direct slab melting of basaltic or eclogitic oceanic crust produced felsic melts, which together with about 65 percent mafic material, yielded an average crust of andesitic composition.

  20. Cumulative Undergraduate Grade Point Average (GPA) Potential Student Name: _____________________________

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ") or withdrew from failing (Withdraw Failing "FW") are included in the total credit sum. Credits for Pass/Fail (Passing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 WP (Withdraw Passing). . . . . . 0 WF (Withdraw FailingCumulative Undergraduate Grade Point Average (GPA) Potential Student Name

  1. Average lifespan of radioelectronic equipment with allowance for resource limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, A. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the reliability parameters of radioelectronic equipment is its average life span. The number of incidents during the operation of different items that make up the component base of radioelectronic equipment follows an exponential distribution. In general, the average life span for an exponential distribution is T mean = 1/?, where ? is the rate of base incidents in a component per hour. This estimate is valid when considering the life span of radioelectronic equipment from zero to infinity. In reality, component base items and, correspondingly, radioelectronic equipment have resource limitations caused by the properties of their composing materials and manufacturing technique. The average life span of radioelectronic equipment will be different from the ideal life span of the equipment. This paper is aimed at calculating the average life span of radioelectronic equipment with allowance for resource limitations of constituent electronic component base items.

  2. Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya

    2014-01-01

    Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models.

  3. WAM—The Weighted Average Method for Predicting the Performance of Systems with Bursts of Customer Sessions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diwakar Krishnamurthy; Jerry Rolia; Min Xu

    2011-01-01

    Predictive performance models are important tools that support system sizing, capacity planning, and systems management exercises. We introduce the Weighted Average Method (WAM) to improve the accuracy of analytic predictive performance models for systems with bursts of concurrent customers. WAM considers the customer population distribution at a system to reflect the impact of bursts. The WAM approach is robust with

  4. Tail Behavior of Multivariate Levy-Driven Mixed Moving Average

    E-print Network

    Haug, Stephan

    average (MMA) processes of the type Xt = f(A, t - s)(dA, ds) cover a wide range of well known. In this pa- per, we introduce multivariate MMA processes and give conditions for their existence and regular average (MMA) processes Xt = M- d R f(A, t - s)(dA, ds) that allow for a general kernel function f : M- d

  5. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  6. Polynomial averages converge to the product of integrals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos Frantzikinakis; Bryna Kra

    2005-01-01

    We answer a question posed by Vitaly Bergelson, showing that in a totally ergodic system, the average of a product of functions\\u000a evaluated along polynomial times, with polynomials of pairwise differing degrees, converges inL\\u000a 2 to the product of the integrals. Such averages are characterized by nilsystems and so we reduce the problem to one of uniform\\u000a distribution of polynomial

  7. Extended topological group structure due to average reflection symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, M.; Pikulin, D. I.; Fulga, I. C.; Tworzyd?o, J.

    2015-04-01

    We extend the single-particle topological classification of insulators and superconductors to include systems in which disorder preserves average reflection symmetry. We show that the topological group structure of bulk Hamiltonians and topological defects is exponentially extended when this additional condition is met and examine some of its physical consequences. Those include localization–delocalization transitions between topological phases with the same boundary conductance as well as gapless topological defects stabilized by average reflection symmetry.

  8. Correlated continuous time random walk with time averaged waiting time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Longjin; Ren, Fu-Yao; Wang, Jun; Xiao, Jianbin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a correlated continuous time random walk with time averaged waiting time. The mean square displacement (MSD) shows this process is subdiffusive and generalized Einstein relation holds. We also get the asymptotic behavior of the probability density function (PDF) of this process is stretched Gaussian. At last, by computing the time averaged MSD, we find ergodicity breaking occurs in this process.

  9. The anachronism in maritime law that is general average

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Proshanto K. Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    The concept of general average is of great antiquity. It has fruitfully served the maritime community of the last two millennia,\\u000a but the justification for its continued existence in the 21st century is questionable. This article examines the proposition that general average is an anachronism and should be abolished\\u000a — a cry that has been heard for well over a

  10. Spatial averaging for small molecule diffusion in condensed phase environments.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Nuria; Doll, J D; Meuwly, Markus

    2010-07-28

    Spatial averaging is a new approach for sampling rare-event problems. The approach modifies the importance function which improves the sampling efficiency while keeping a defined relation to the original statistical distribution. In this work, spatial averaging is applied to multidimensional systems for typical problems arising in physical chemistry. They include (I) a CO molecule diffusing on an amorphous ice surface, (II) a hydrogen molecule probing favorable positions in amorphous ice, and (III) CO migration in myoglobin. The systems encompass a wide range of energy barriers and for all of them spatial averaging is found to outperform conventional Metropolis Monte Carlo. It is also found that optimal simulation parameters are surprisingly similar for the different systems studied, in particular, the radius of the point cloud over which the potential energy function is averaged. For H(2) diffusing in amorphous ice it is found that facile migration is possible which is in agreement with previous suggestions from experiment. The free energy barriers involved are typically lower than 1 kcal/mol. Spatial averaging simulations for CO in myoglobin are able to locate all currently characterized metastable states. Overall, it is found that spatial averaging considerably improves the sampling of configurational space. PMID:20687662

  11. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  12. Exact Averaging of Stochastic Equations for Flow in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Shvidler, Mark; Karasaki, Kenzi

    2008-03-15

    It is well known that at present, exact averaging of the equations for flow and transport in random porous media have been proposed for limited special fields. Moreover, approximate averaging methods--for example, the convergence behavior and the accuracy of truncated perturbation series--are not well studied, and in addition, calculation of high-order perturbations is very complicated. These problems have for a long time stimulated attempts to find the answer to the question: Are there in existence some, exact, and sufficiently general forms of averaged equations? Here, we present an approach for finding the general exactly averaged system of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded stochastically homogeneous fields. We do this by using (1) the existence and some general properties of Green's functions for the appropriate stochastic problem, and (2) some information about the random field of conductivity. This approach enables us to find the form of the averaged equations without directly solving the stochastic equations or using the usual assumption regarding any small parameters. In the common case of a stochastically homogeneous conductivity field we present the exactly averaged new basic nonlocal equation with a unique kernel-vector. We show that in the case of some type of global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy, or orthotropy), we can for three-dimensional and two-dimensional flow in the same way derive the exact averaged nonlocal equations with a unique kernel-tensor. When global symmetry does not exist, the nonlocal equation with a kernel-tensor involves complications and leads to an ill-posed problem.

  13. THERMAL HISTORY OF CLADDING IN A 21 PWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADED WITH AVERAGE FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Wade

    2000-01-25

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate a mid-assembly axial fuel cladding temperature profile of a 21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) loaded with average fuel assemblies and emplaced in a monitored geologic repository. This calculation is intended to evaluate Viability Assessment (VA) and Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) II design configurations in support of performance assessment. This calculation was developed by Waste Package Operations (WPO) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0.

  14. Scaling of average sending time on weighted Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Liu, Jie

    2012-10-01

    Random walks on weighted complex networks, especially scale-free networks, have attracted considerable interest in the past. But the efficiency of a hub sending information on scale-free small-world networks has been addressed less. In this paper, we study random walks on a class of weighted Koch networks with scaling factor 0 < r ? 1. We derive some basic properties for random walks on the weighted Koch networks, based on which we calculate analytically the average sending time (AST) defined as the average of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) from a hub node to all other nodes, excluding the hub itself. The obtained result displays that for 0 < r < 1 in large networks the AST grows as a power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by log 43r+1/r, and for r = 1 in large networks the AST grows with network order as N ln N, which is larger than the linear scaling of the average receiving time defined as the average of MFPTs for random walks to a given hub node averaged over all starting points.

  15. Global average ozone change from November 1978 to May 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Mcpeters, R.; Stolarki, R.; Larko, D.; Hudson, R.

    1991-01-01

    A recent recalibration and reprocessing of the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data have made possible a new determination of the global average total ozone decrease of 3.5 percent over the 11-year period, January 1, 1979, to December 31, 1989, with a 2 sigma error of 1.4 percent. The revised TOMS ozone trend data are in agreement, within error limits, with the average of 39 ground-based Dobson stations and with the world standard Dobson spectrometer 83 at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Superimposed on the 11-year ozone trend is a possible solar cycle effect, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), annual, and semiannual cycles. Using solar 10-7-cm flux data and 30-mbar Singapore wind data (QBO), a time series has been constructed that reproduces the long-term behavior of the globally averaged ozone. Removal of the apparent solar cycle effect from the global average reduces the net ozone loss to 2.66 + or - 1.4 percent per decade. The precise value of the global average ozone trend depends on the latitude range selected, with ranges greater than + or - 69 emphasizing the larger variations at high latitudes.

  16. Figure 1. Average percent of workers estimated by managers to have worked

    E-print Network

    Foodborne illness in the United States is estimated to cause 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations) surveillance systems show that from 1996 to 2004, foodborne illness incidence reduced for several of the most commonly transmitted foodborne illnesses. But from 2004 to the present, those reductions have not continued

  17. SELF-CARE: SOME PRESCRIPTIONS FOR CALM LIVING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Blanche

    When Eileen rang to ask me to write this article, I groaned inwardly. Oh, no, not six weeks before Christmas! Now, here was a real and immediate case of how I was to care for this carer. One thing I've learned from all those years of assertiveness practice is to recognise my internal hesitation on the heels of a request.

  18. Teaching self-care: taking charge of your health.

    PubMed

    Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Sierpina, Victor; Delagran, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Content on integrative healthcare and complementary and alternative medicine is being taught in hundreds of educational programs across the country. Nursing, medical, osteopathic, chiropractic, acupuncture, naturopathic, and other programs are finding creative and innovative ways to include these approaches in new models of education and practice. This column spotlights such innovations in integrative healthcare and CAM education and presents readers with specific educational interventions they can adapt into new or ongoing educational efforts at their institution or programs. We invite readers to submit brief descriptions of efforts in their institutions that reflect the creativity, diversity, and interdisciplinary nature of the field. Please submit to Dr Sierpina at vssierpi@utmb.edu or Dr Kreitzer at kreit003@umn.edu. Submissions should be no more than 500 to 1,500 words. Please include any Web site or other resource that is relevant, as well as contact information. PMID:19608116

  19. Working hard: women's self-care practices in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Theroux, Rosemary; Klar, Robin Toft; Messenger, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Women's health care providers have noted an increased infant mortality rate among Ghanaian immigrants. We conducted focus groups with 17 women in Ghana. We asked them how they maintained their health both before and during pregnancy. When discussing their health, women repeatedly described the conditions or context of their daily lives and the traditional practices that they used to stay healthy. Knowledge of women's lives, the health care system that they previously used, and their cultural practices can be utilized by health care providers to more fully assess their patients and design more culturally appropriate care for this group of women. PMID:23537401

  20. Varicose and other vein problems - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Move your legs like you are riding a bike. Extend one leg straight up to the sky and bend the other leg. Switch your ... few minutes. Bend and straighten your legs. Keep the blood in your legs moving back to your heart.

  1. Shriners Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Self Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Carol

    This manual is intended for young people with spinal cord injuries who are receiving rehabilitation services within the Spinal Cord Injury Unit at Shriners Hospital (San Francisco, California). An introduction describes the rehabilitation program, which includes family conferences, an individualized program, an independent living program,…

  2. INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-10

    I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

  3. Bounds on the Average Sensitivity of Nested Canalizing Functions

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Johannes Georg; Heckel, Reinhard; Schober, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Nested canalizing Boolean functions (NCF) play an important role in biologically motivated regulatory networks and in signal processing, in particular describing stack filters. It has been conjectured that NCFs have a stabilizing effect on the network dynamics. It is well known that the average sensitivity plays a central role for the stability of (random) Boolean networks. Here we provide a tight upper bound on the average sensitivity of NCFs as a function of the number of relevant input variables. As conjectured in literature this bound is smaller than . This shows that a large number of functions appearing in biological networks belong to a class that has low average sensitivity, which is even close to a tight lower bound. PMID:23741321

  4. Trapping ultracold atoms in a time-averaged adiabatic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Gildemeister, M.; Nugent, E.; Sherlock, B. E.; Kubasik, M.; Sheard, B. T.; Foot, C. J. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    We report an experimental realization of ultracold atoms confined in a time-averaged, adiabatic potential (TAAP). This trapping technique involves using a slowly oscillating ({approx}kHz) bias field to time-average the instantaneous potential given by dressing a bare magnetic potential with a high-frequency ({approx}MHz) magnetic field. The resultant potentials provide a convenient route to a variety of trapping geometries with tunable parameters. We demonstrate the TAAP trap in a standard time-averaged orbiting potential trap with additional Helmholtz coils for the introduction of the radio frequency dressing field. We have evaporatively cooled 5x10{sup 4} atoms of {sup 87}Rb to quantum degeneracy and observed condensate lifetimes of longer than 3 s.

  5. Neutron average cross sections of {sup 237}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Noguere, G. [Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), DEN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Les Durance (France)

    2010-04-15

    This work reports {sup 237}Np neutron resonance parameters obtained from the simultaneous analysis of time-of-flight data measured at the GELINA, ORELA, KURRI, and LANSCE facilities. A statistical analysis of these resonances relying on average R-matrix and optical model calculations was used to establish consistent l-dependent average resonance parameters involved in the description of the unresolved resonance range of the {sup 237}Np neutron cross sections. For neutron orbital angular momentum l=0, we obtained an average radiation width =39.3+-1.0 meV, a neutron strength function 10{sup 4}S{sub 0}=1.02+-0.14, a mean level spacing D{sub 0}=0.60+-0.03 eV, and a potential scattering length R{sup '}=9.8+-0.1 fm.

  6. Exact solution to the averaging problem in cosmology.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, David L

    2007-12-21

    The exact solution of a two-scale Buchert average of the Einstein equations is derived for an inhomogeneous universe that represents a close approximation to the observed universe. The two scales represent voids, and the bubble walls surrounding them within which clusters of galaxies are located. As described elsewhere [New J. Phys. 9, 377 (2007)10.1088/1367-2630/9/10/377], apparent cosmic acceleration can be recognized as a consequence of quasilocal gravitational energy gradients between observers in bound systems and the volume-average position in freely expanding space. With this interpretation, the new solution presented here replaces the Friedmann solutions, in representing the average evolution of a matter-dominated universe without exotic dark energy, while being observationally viable. PMID:18233512

  7. Error Estimates in Horocycle Averages Asymptotics: Challenges from String Theory

    E-print Network

    Matteo A. Cardella

    2011-05-12

    There is an intriguing connection between the dynamics of the horocycle flow in the modular surface $SL_{2}(\\pmb{Z}) \\backslash SL_{2}(\\pmb{R})$ and the Riemann hypothesis. It appears in the error term for the asymptotic of the horocycle average of a modular function of rapid decay. We study whether similar results occur for a broader class of modular functions, including functions of polynomial growth, and of exponential growth at the cusp. Hints on their long horocycle average are derived by translating the horocycle flow dynamical problem in string theory language. Results are then proved by designing an unfolding trick involving a Theta series, related to the spectral Eisenstein series by Mellin integral transform. We discuss how the string theory point of view leads to an interesting open question, regarding the behavior of long horocycle averages of a certain class of automorphic forms of exponential growth at the cusp.

  8. Describing Average- and Longtime-Behavior by Weighted MSO Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Manfred; Meinecke, Ingmar

    Weighted automata model quantitative aspects of systems like memory or power consumption. Recently, Chatterjee, Doyen, and Henzinger introduced a new kind of weighted automata which compute objectives like the average cost or the longtime peak power consumption. In these automata, operations like average, limit superior, limit inferior, limit average, or discounting are used to assign values to finite or infinite words. In general, these weighted automata are not semiring weighted anymore. Here, we establish a connection between such new kinds of weighted automata and weighted logics. We show that suitable weighted MSO logics and these new weighted automata are expressively equivalent, both for finite and infinite words. The constructions employed are effective, leading to decidability results for the weighted logic formulas considered.

  9. Spatial and frequency averaging techniques for a polarimetric scatterometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Monakov, A.A.; Stjernman, A.S.; Nystroem, A.K. (Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden)); Vivekanandan, J. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1994-01-01

    An accurate estimation of backscattering coefficients for various types of rough surfaces is the main theme of remote sensing. Radar scattering signals from distributed targets exhibit fading due to interference associated with coherent scattering from individual scatterers within the resolution volume. Uncertainty in radar measurements which arises as a result of fading is reduced by averaging independent samples. Independent samples are obtained by collecting the radar returns from nonoverlapping footprints (spatial averaging) and/or nonoverlapping frequencies (frequency agility techniques). An improved formulation of fading characteristics for the spatial averaging and frequency agility technique is derived by taking into account the rough surface scattering process. Kirchhoff's approximation is used to describe rough surface scattering. Expressions for fading decorrelation distance and decorrelation bandwidth are derived. Rough surface scattering measurements are performed between L and X bands. Measured frequency and spatial correlation coefficients show good agreement with theoretical results.

  10. Selective model averaging with bayesian rule learning for predictive biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Jeya B; Visweswaran, Shyam; Cooper, Gregory F; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate disease classification and biomarker discovery remain challenging tasks in biomedicine. In this paper, we develop and test a practical approach to combining evidence from multiple models when making predictions using selective Bayesian model averaging of probabilistic rules. This method is implemented within a Bayesian Rule Learning system and compared to model selection when applied to twelve biomedical datasets using the area under the ROC curve measure of performance. Cross-validation results indicate that selective Bayesian model averaging statistically significantly outperforms model selection on average in these experiments, suggesting that combining predictions from multiple models may lead to more accurate quantification of classifier uncertainty. This approach would directly impact the generation of robust predictions on unseen test data, while also increasing knowledge for biomarker discovery and mechanisms that underlie disease. PMID:25717394

  11. An Illustration of the Average Exit Time Measure of Poverty

    E-print Network

    John Gibson; Susan Olivia; Jel I O

    The goal of the World Bank is ‘a world free of poverty ’ but the most widely used poverty measures do not show when poverty might be eliminated. The ‘head-count index ’ simply counts the poor, while the ‘poverty gap index ’ shows their average shortfall from the poverty line. Neither measure reflects changes in the distribution of incomes amongst the poor, but squaring the poverty gap brings sensitivity to inequality, albeit at the cost of intuitive interpretation. This paper illustrates a new measure of poverty [Morduch, J., 1998, Poverty, economic growth and average exit time, Economics Letters, 59: 385-390]. This new poverty measure is distributionally-sensitive and has a ready interpretation as the average time taken to exit poverty with a constant and uniform growth rate.

  12. Pasture diversity and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit have been collecting pasture plant biodiversity data for over ten years and across the northeastern United States. We have identified more than three hundred species of vascular plants. The average pasture in this regi...

  13. MANURE MANAGEMENT ON ALFALFA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The average cow in our 4-State area produces 18,000 pounds of milk each year and generates about 42,000 pounds of manure. In today's world it is increasingly important to manage this manure correctly. Although alfalfa acreage is a relatively small proportion of total crop acreage on most dairy farms...

  14. Moving average process underlying the holographic-optical-tweezers experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?lezak, Jakub; Drobczy?ski, S?awomir; Weron, Karina; Masajada, Jan

    2013-12-01

    We study statistical properties of the recordings which contain time-dependent positions of a bead trapped in optical tweezers. Analysis of such a time series indicates that the commonly accepted model, i.e., the autoregressive process of first order, is not sufficient to fit the data. We show a presence of the first-order moving average part in the dynamical model of the system. We explain origin of this part as an influence of the high frequency CCD camera on the measurements. The proposed autoregressive moving average model appears to reflect perfectly all statistical features of the high-frequency recording data.

  15. The expanding role of signal-averaged electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Gant, R H; Henkin, R; Morton, P G

    1999-10-01

    Signal-averaged electrocardiography is a valuable diagnostic tool for determining which patients recovering from myocardial infarction are at risk of sudden death due to ventricular arrhythmias. Additionally, the value of this technique in determining which patients with ischemic heart disease and unexplained syncope are likely to have inducible sustained ventricular tachycardia has been established. This noninvasive screening procedure has shown promise in other clinical situations, but more investigation is needed before definitive recommendation can be made. Critical care nurses can help promote the success of signal-averaged electrocardiography by educating patients, promoting acquisition of a quality recording, helping allay patients' concerns, and participating in research activities. PMID:10808814

  16. Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.

  17. Improving the Average Response Time in Collective I/O

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Chen; Sehrish, Saba; Liao, Wei-keng; Choudhary, Alok; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2011-09-21

    In collective I/O, MPI processes exchange requests so that the rearranged requests can result in the shortest file system access time. Scheduling the exchange sequence determines the response time of participating processes. Existing implementations that simply follow the increasing order of file ofsets do not necessary produce the best performance. To minimize the average response time, we propose three scheduling algorithms that consider the number of processes per file stripe and the number of accesses per process. Our experimental results demonstrate improvements of up to 50% in the average response time using two synthetic benchmarks and a high-resolution climate application.

  18. Probing turbulence intermittency via autoregressive moving-average models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, Davide; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Daviaud, François; Pons, Flavio Maria Emanuele

    2014-12-01

    We suggest an approach to probing intermittency corrections to the Kolmogorov law in turbulent flows based on the autoregressive moving-average modeling of turbulent time series. We introduce an index ? that measures the distance from a Kolmogorov-Obukhov model in the autoregressive moving-average model space. Applying our analysis to particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry measurements in a von Kármán swirling flow, we show that ? is proportional to traditional intermittency corrections computed from structure functions. Therefore, it provides the same information, using much shorter time series. We conclude that ? is a suitable index to reconstruct intermittency in experimental turbulent fields.

  19. Probing turbulence intermittency via autoregressive moving-average models.

    PubMed

    Faranda, Davide; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Daviaud, François; Pons, Flavio Maria Emanuele

    2014-12-01

    We suggest an approach to probing intermittency corrections to the Kolmogorov law in turbulent flows based on the autoregressive moving-average modeling of turbulent time series. We introduce an index ? that measures the distance from a Kolmogorov-Obukhov model in the autoregressive moving-average model space. Applying our analysis to particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry measurements in a von Kármán swirling flow, we show that ? is proportional to traditional intermittency corrections computed from structure functions. Therefore, it provides the same information, using much shorter time series. We conclude that ? is a suitable index to reconstruct intermittency in experimental turbulent fields. PMID:25615037

  20. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Powell, Howard (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  1. Fiber averaged dynamics associated with the Lorentz force equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego Torromé, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    It is shown that the Lorentz force equation is equivalent to the auto-parallel condition L?? x ? = 0 of a linear connection L ? defined on a convenient pull-back vector bundle. By using a geometric averaging method, an associated averaged Lorentz connection and the corresponding auto-parallel equation are obtained. After this, it is shown that in the ultra-relativistic limit and for narrow one-particle probability distribution functions, the auto-parallel curves of remain nearby close to the auto-parallel curves of L ?. Applications of this result in beam dynamics and plasma physics are briefly described.

  2. Manager, manage thyself!

    PubMed

    Bennett, S M; Lando, A R

    1999-06-01

    As the environment surrounding the delivery of health care remains unpredictable, nurse managers are challenged to create new and innovative ways to meet the demands before them. The ever-increasing challenges and decreasing resources can have great impact on the stress level of even the most seasoned nurse manager. This article offers nurse managers 10 useful strategies to enhance their stress management skills. The key for successful stress management is taking time to care for oneself and thus remain an effective leader in the organization. PMID:10633750

  3. g:\\self care\\cold sore throat cough allergy 8/08 SELF CARE CHECK LIST FOR COLD, SORE

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    in to be seen during morning walk-in or call for an afternoon appointment. Have you had a temperature of 100º-Mart, and Wegmans. If your condition worsens or persists, you should sign in to be seen during morning walk-in (8 immediately, and cover mouth when sneezing or coughing. 15. Avoid contact with sick individuals. (PLEASE SEE

  4. Who is the average patient presenting with prostate cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten L. Greene; Janet E. Cowan; Matthew R. Cooperberg; Maxwell V. Meng; Janeen DuChane; Peter R. Carroll

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment have changed dramatically in the last 20 years. Patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer have many treatment options available. We attempted to determine how patient demographics and quality of life (QOL) have changed, and we describe the average patient with newly diagnosed prostate cancer in the early 21st century. From the Cancer of the

  5. Micromechanics of Magnetoelectroelastic Composite Materials: Average Fields and Effective Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Yu Li; Martin L. Dunn

    1998-01-01

    A micromechanics approach is developed to analyze the average fields and effective moduli of heterogeneous media that exhibit full coupling between stationary elastic, electric, and magnetic fields. Exact relations regarding the internal field distribution inside a heterogeneous magnetoelectroelastic solid are first established, followed by exact connections between the effective magnetoelectroelastic and thermal moduli of two-phase composites. The Mori-Tanaka mean field

  6. Shift-coupling and convergence rates of ergodic averages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth O. Roberts; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal

    1997-01-01

    We study convergence of Markov chains to their stationary distributions . Much recent work has used coupling to get quantitative bounds on the total variation distance between the law and . In this paper, we use shift-coupling to get quantitative bounds on the total variation distance between the the ergodic average law and . This avoids certain problems, related to

  7. Shift-coupling and convergence rates of ergodic averages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth O. ROBERTS

    1994-01-01

    We study convergence of Markov chains {Xk} to their station- ary distributions (·). Much recent work has used coupling to get quantita- tive bounds on the total variation distance between the law L(Xn) and (·). In this paper, we use shift-coupling to get quantitative bounds on the total variation distance between the ergodic average law 1 n n P k=1

  8. Estimation of average switching activity in combinational and sequential circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhijit Ghosh; Srinivas Devadas; Kurt Keutzer; Jacob White

    1992-01-01

    We address the problem of estimating the average power dissipated in VLSI combinational and sequen- tial circuits, under random input sequences. Switch- ing activity is strongly affected by gate delays and for this resson we use a general delay model in estimating switching activity. Our method takes into account cor- relation caused at internal gates in the circuit due to

  9. Assessment of frame-averaging algorithms in OCT image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Tan, Ou; Pappuru, Rajeev R.; Duan, Huilong; Huang, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective To evaluate frame registration and averaging algorithms for optical coherence tomography. Patients and Methods Normal and glaucoma eyes (n=20 each) were imaged. Objective differences were measured by comparing noise variance (NV), spread of edge (SE), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subjective image quality was also evaluated. Results Two frame-averaging algorithms (FA400 and FA407) had better NV and CNR, but worse SE than did single frames (p<0.01). Additionally, both algorithms provided better subjective assessments of structure boundaries than did single images (p<0.001). Algorithm FA407 had significantly lower SE and better ILM visualization than did FA400. Conclusion Frame-averaging significantly suppressed speckle noise and increased the visibility of retinal structures. However, imperfect image registration caused edge blurring that could be detected by the SE parameter. In frame-averaging algorithms, higher CNR and lower NV indicated better noise suppression, but SE was most sensitive in comparing edge preservation between algorithms. PMID:23510042

  10. Properties and Averaged Equations for Flows of Bubbly Liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. M. Spelt; Ashok S. Sangani

    1997-01-01

    Averaged properties of bubbly liquids in the limit of large Reynolds and small Weber numbers are determined as functions of the volume fraction, mean relative velocity, and velocity variance of the bubbles using numerical simulations and a pair interaction theory. The results of simulations are combined with those obtained recently for sheared bubbly liquids [19] and the mixture momentum and

  11. Revised formula of the average number of Frenkel-pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhu Lin

    Based on the model of Kinchin and Pease, the author has derived a revised formula for the average number of Frenkel-pairs by using a new scattering cross section proposed recently. The formula, on the one hand, has confirmed Lindhard's statement, on the other hand, has removed the limitation of hard-sphere scattering model pointed out by sigmund.

  12. Fuel optimum low-thrust elliptic transfer using numerical averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarzi, Zahi; Speyer, Jason; Wirz, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Low-thrust electric propulsion is increasingly being used for spacecraft missions primarily due to its high propellant efficiency. As a result, a simple and fast method for low-thrust trajectory optimization is of great value for preliminary mission planning. However, few low-thrust trajectory tools are appropriate for preliminary mission design studies. The method presented in this paper provides quick and accurate solutions for a wide range of transfers by using numerical orbital averaging to improve solution convergence and include orbital perturbations. Thus, preliminary trajectories can be obtained for transfers which involve many revolutions about the primary body. This method considers minimum fuel transfers using first-order averaging to obtain the fuel optimum rates of change of the equinoctial orbital elements in terms of each other and the Lagrange multipliers. Constraints on thrust and power, as well as minimum periapsis, are implemented and the equations are averaged numerically using a Gausian quadrature. The use of numerical averaging allows for more complex orbital perturbations to be added in the future without great difficulty. The effects of zonal gravity harmonics, solar radiation pressure, and thrust limitations due to shadowing are included in this study. The solution to a transfer which minimizes the square of the thrust magnitude is used as a preliminary guess for the minimum fuel problem, thus allowing for faster convergence to a wider range of problems. Results from this model are shown to provide a reduction in propellant mass required over previous minimum fuel solutions.

  13. Parametric classification of multichannel averaged event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lalit; Phegley, Jim; Molfese, Dennis L

    2002-08-01

    This paper focuses on the systematic development of a parametric approach for classifying averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from multiple channels. It is shown that the parameters of the averaged ERP ensemble can be estimated directly from the parameters of the single-trial ensemble, thus, making it possible to design a class of parametric classifiers without having to collect a prohibitively large number of single-trial ERPs. An approach based on random sampling without replacement is developed to generate a large number of averaged ERP ensembles in order to evaluate the performance of a classifier. A two-class ERP classification problem is considered and the parameter estimation methods are applied to independently design a Gaussian likelihood ratio classifier for each channel. A fusion rule is formulated to classify an ERP using the classification results from all the channels. Experiments using real and simulated ERPs are designed to show that, through the approach developed, parametric classifiers can be designed and evaluated even when the number of averaged ERPs does not exceed the dimension of the ERP vector. Additionally, it is shown that the performance of a majority rule fusion classifier is consistently superior to the rule that selects a single best channel. PMID:12148829

  14. Average-case analysis of incremental topological ordering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Ajwani; Tobias Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    Many applications like pointer analysis and incremental compilation require maintaining a topological ordering of the nodes of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) under dynamic up- dates. All known algorithms for this problem are either only analyzed for worst-case insertion sequences or only evaluated experimentally on random DAGs. We present the first average- case analysis of incremental topological ordering algorithms. We

  15. 26 CFR 1.1301-1 - Averaging of farm income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...because the individual's filing status is not the same in an election...the election year, but filed as single in one or more of the base years...to average farm income using the single filing status used in the base year....

  16. AVERAGE ANNUAL SOLAR UV DOSE OF THE CONTINENTAL US CITIZEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The average annual solar UV dose of US citizens is not known, but is required for relative risk assessments of skin cancer from UV-emitting devices. We solved this problem using a novel approach. The EPA's "National Human Activity Pattern Survey" recorded the daily ou...

  17. Average Over Depth During Optical Mapping of Cardiac Propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Zhenghong; Zhang Zhenxi; Jin Yinbin; Wang Jing

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution optical mapping with voltage-sensitive dyes has become a powerful tool to depict complex propagation patterns of cardiac transmembrane potentials. Many studies have proved that this optical signal obtained from tissue surface is the response of the transmembrane potential averaged upon depth rather than only surface. In order to investigate the differential between the two transmembrane potentials, in this paper,

  18. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  19. DEFORMOTION Deforming Motion, Shape Average and the Joint

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    average" in order to track moving and deforming objects through time. Fig. 1. A jellyfish is "moving while direction while "locally deforming." The jellyfish in Fig. 1 is just another example to illustrate the same our intuition? For instance, in Fig. 6, how do we describe the "motion" of a jellyfish? Or in Fig. 5

  20. Weighted averaging, logistic regression and the Gaussian response model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cajo J. F. Braak; Caspar W. N. Looman

    1986-01-01

    The indicator value and ecological amplitude of a species with respect to a quantitative environmental variable can be estimated from data on species occurrence and environment. A simple weighted averaging (WA) method for estimating these parameters is compared by simulation with the more elaborate method of Gaussian logistic regression (GLR), a form of the generalized linear model which fits a