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1

Diabetes barriers and self-care management: the patient perspective.  

PubMed

For those individuals diagnosed with diabetes, the challenge is how to cope and manage the many aspects of their lives. The aim of this qualitative synthesis was to evaluate research studies for findings and then synthesize patients' experiences within the context of diabetes self-care while facing daily barriers. A total of 95 findings from 21 studies were categorized via like themes. These themes were further analyzed and aggregated to represent an interpretive meta-synthesis via a rigorous methodological protocol as described by Pearson, Robertson-Malt, and Rittinmeyer and the Joanna Briggs Institute. Meta-synthesized findings suggest that patients "avoid and hinder self-management" as well as "desire self-care and living life." Clinicians can improve interactions and potentiate understanding when the therapeutic approach is about the person living with diabetes as opposed to clinical control. PMID:24443416

Stiffler, Deborah; Cullen, Deborah; Luna, Gaye

2014-12-01

2

Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic progressive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia mainly due to absolute (Type 1 DM) or relative (Type 2 DM) deficiency of insulin hormone. World Health Organization estimates that more than 346 million people worldwide have DM. This number is likely to more than double by 2030 without any intervention. The needs of diabetic patients are not only limited to adequate glycemic control but also correspond with preventing complications; disability limitation and rehabilitation. There are seven essential self-care behaviors in people with diabetes which predict good outcomes namely healthy eating, being physically active, monitoring of blood sugar, compliant with medications, good problem-solving skills, healthy coping skills and risk-reduction behaviors. All these seven behaviors have been found to be positively correlated with good glycemic control, reduction of complications and improvement in quality of life. Individuals with diabetes have been shown to make a dramatic impact on the progression and development of their disease by participating in their own care. Despite this fact, compliance or adherence to these activities has been found to be low, especially when looking at long-term changes. Though multiple demographic, socio-economic and social support factors can be considered as positive contributors in facilitating self-care activities in diabetic patients, role of clinicians in promoting self-care is vital and has to be emphasized. Realizing the multi-faceted nature of the problem, a systematic, multi-pronged and an integrated approach is required for promoting self-care practices among diabetic patients to avert any long-term complications. PMID:23497559

Shrivastava, Saurabh Rambiharilal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

2013-01-01

3

Health Care Autonomy in Children with Chronic Conditions: Implications for Self Care and Family Management  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Health care autonomy typically occurs during late adolescence but health care providers and families often expect children with chronic health conditions to master self-care earlier. Few studies have examined the development of health care autonomy as it pertains to self-care and family management. This review will link the three concepts and discuss implications for families and health care providers. Case studies are provided as exemplars to highlight areas where intervention and research is needed. PMID:23659815

Beacham, Barbara L.; Deatrick, Janet A.

2013-01-01

4

A program of symptom management for improving self-care for patients with HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a symptom management program on self-care of medication side effects among AIDS/HIV-positive patients. Sixty-seven patients from a sexually transmitted disease control center, a medical center, and a Catholic AIDS support group in Taipei were randomly assigned to three groups: one-on-one teaching, group teaching, and a control group. All subjects in each teaching group attended a 60- or 90-minute program on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) side effect self-care education and skill training once per week for 3 weeks; subjects also underwent counseling by telephone. A medication side effect self-care knowledge questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and unscheduled hospital visits were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the symptom management program. The results revealed there were significant differences in mean difference of knowledge and unscheduled hospital visits between baseline and post-testing at 3 months for symptom management in the two groups. The mean difference of the self-esteem scale was not significant between the two groups. In summary, the symptom management program effectively increased the ability of AIDS/HIV-positive patients to self-care for medication side effects. We recommend that this program be applied in the clinical nursing practice. PMID:15630774

Chiou, Piao-Yi; Kuo, Benjamin Ing-Tiau; Chen, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Lin, Li-Chan

2004-09-01

5

Diabetes management and self-care education for hospitalized patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Managing diabetes can be a daunting task for patients with cancer. Empowerment-based diabetes education and motivational interviewing are complementary approaches. Oncology nurses may feel unprepared to teach patients and their families about self-care for diabetes, but they provide individualized information on symptom management of cancer throughout hospitalization and at discharge. The essential self-care issues include food, exercise, medication, blood glucose monitoring, prevention, recognition and treatment of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and when and how to get additional medical and educational support. This patient-centered model of diabetes education differs from the older "compliance" model that covers many universal rules for all patients, which are predetermined by the nurse. Informing nurses about their role in care of patients with cancer and diabetes is critical. PMID:19349267

Leak, Ashley; Davis, Ellen D; Houchin, Laura B; Mabrey, Melanie

2009-04-01

6

Diabetes Management and Self-Care Education for Hospitalized Patients With Cancer  

PubMed Central

Managing diabetes can be a daunting task for patients with cancer. Empowerment-based diabetes education and motivational interviewing are complementary approaches. Oncology nurses may feel unprepared to teach patients and their families about self-care for diabetes, but they provide individualized information on symptom management of cancer throughout hospitalization and at discharge. The essential self-care issues include food, exercise, medication, blood glucose monitoring, prevention, recognition and treatment of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and when and how to get additional medical and educational support. This patient-centered model of diabetes education differs from the older “compliance” model that covers many universal rules for all patients, which are predetermined by the nurse. Informing nurses about their role in care of patients with cancer and diabetes is critical. PMID:19349267

Leak, Ashley; Davis, Ellen D.; Houchin, Laura B.; Mabrey, Melanie

2009-01-01

7

Managing a venous leg ulcer in the 21st century, by improving self-care.  

PubMed

This paper examines the context of managing a long-term condition within the community environment using appropriate evidence-based literature. It is a case study that focuses upon concordance with compression bandaging in treating venous leg ulceration and preventing ulcer recurrence through a well leg clinic. The challenges of this episode of care and the interventions put in place to improve concordance and promote self-care will be explained and analysed. PMID:23124371

Yarwood-Ross, Lee; Haigh, Carol

2012-10-01

8

Development of Common Data Elements to Provide Tele self-Care Management  

PubMed Central

Background: Self-care management could empower patients to management of their health. Tele-health is the remote exchange of data between a patient and medical staff to improve healthcare quality. The aim: The aim of this research was developing common data elements to provide Tele self-care management and improve quality of care. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on Delphi approach was done in 2011. Data was extracted by three sessions’ of conversation with 20 faculty members. Data had more than 75% agreement was inserted in minimum data element list, data with lower than 50% agreement was considered as failed data and whom was agreed between 50%-75% of participants were reconsidered for conversation until three sessions and after re-voting it was failed or accepted. Results: Results showed that self-care divides in three main categories and also some sub-categories including:1-Immunity and Safety with two subcategories (A: Prevention of Disease and B: Awareness and Knowledge about Disease); 2-Health Security and Maintains in six subcategories (A: Labratoary Test Results; B: Vital Data Monitoring; C: Rehabilitation; D: Drug Information; E: Follow up and F: Dental Health), 3- Well-Being Education in four subcategories (A: Nutrition; B: Health Promotion; C: Life Style Improvement and D: Patient Activity). Discussion: Consideration of all aspects of self management including information about prevention of disease, knowledge about disease, laboratory test result, vital signs monitoring, rehabilitation, drug information, follow up, dental health, nutrition, health promotion, life style improvement and patient activities is necessary. PMID:24554797

Rangraz Jeddi, Fatemeh; Rezaiimofrad, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

9

Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Clients’ Self-Care Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study\\u000a of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and\\u000a depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia. Participants described a range of\\u000a self-care practices for mental health including: self-medication, seeking

Martin Holt; Carla Treloar

2008-01-01

10

Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…

Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

2008-01-01

11

How technology in care at home affects patient self-care and self-management: a scoping review.  

PubMed

The use of technology in care at home has potential benefits such as improved quality of care. This includes greater focus on the patients' role in managing their health and increased patient involvement in the care process. The objective of this scoping review is to analyse the existing evidence for effects of technology in home-based care on patients' self-care and self-management. Using suitable search terms we searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Picarta and NIVEL dating from 2002 to 2012. Thirty-three studies (six review studies and twenty-seven individual studies) were selected. Effects were extracted from each study and were classified. In almost all the studies, the concepts self-care and self-management are not clearly defined or operationalized. Therefore, based on a meta-analysis, we made a new classification of outcome measures, with hierarchical levels: (1) competence (2) illness-management (3) independence (social participation, autonomy). In general, patient outcomes appear to be positive or promising, but most studies were pilot studies. We did not find strong evidence that technology in care at home has (a positive) effect on patient self-care and self-management according to the above classification. Future research is needed to clarify how technology can be used to maximize its benefits. PMID:24173139

Peeters, José M; Wiegers, Therese A; Friele, Roland D

2013-11-01

12

How Technology in Care at Home Affects Patient Self-Care and Self-Management: A Scoping Review  

PubMed Central

The use of technology in care at home has potential benefits such as improved quality of care. This includes greater focus on the patients’ role in managing their health and increased patient involvement in the care process. The objective of this scoping review is to analyse the existing evidence for effects of technology in home-based care on patients’ self-care and self-management. Using suitable search terms we searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Picarta and NIVEL dating from 2002 to 2012. Thirty-three studies (six review studies and twenty-seven individual studies) were selected. Effects were extracted from each study and were classified. In almost all the studies, the concepts self-care and self-management are not clearly defined or operationalized. Therefore, based on a meta-analysis, we made a new classification of outcome measures, with hierarchical levels: (1) competence (2) illness-management (3) independence (social participation, autonomy). In general, patient outcomes appear to be positive or promising, but most studies were pilot studies. We did not find strong evidence that technology in care at home has (a positive) effect on patient self-care and self-management according to the above classification. Future research is needed to clarify how technology can be used to maximize its benefits. PMID:24173139

Peeters, Jose M.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Friele, Roland D.

2013-01-01

13

How do informal self-care strategies evolve among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease managed in primary care? A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is much description in the literature of how patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) manage their breathlessness and engage in self-care activities; however, little of this is from the perspective of those with less severe disease, who are primarily managed in primary care. This study aimed to understand the self-care experiences of patients with COPD who are primarily managed in primary care, and to examine the challenges of engaging in such behaviors. Methods Semistructured interviews were carried out with 15 patients with COPD as part of a larger project evaluating a self-management intervention. Thematic analysis was supported by NVivo software (version 8, QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). Results Three main themes are described, ie, experiencing and understanding symptoms of COPD, current self-care activities, and the importance of family perceptions in managing COPD. Conclusion Self-care activities evolved spontaneously as participants experienced symptoms of COPD. However, there was a lack of awareness about whether these strategies would impact upon symptoms. Perceptions of COPD by family members posed a challenge to self-care for some participants. Health care professionals should elicit patients’ prior disease experiences and utilize spontaneous attempts at disease management in future self-management. These findings have implications for promoting self-management and enhancing quality of life. PMID:24600218

Apps, Lindsay D; Harrison, Samantha L; Williams, Johanna EA; Hudson, Nicky; Steiner, Michael; Morgan, Mike D; Singh, Sally J

2014-01-01

14

Blood Sugar and Brothers' Voices: An Exploratory Study Of The Self-Care Management Experiences of African-American Men Living With Type 2 Diabetes  

E-print Network

of mediating more effectively. While there are an abundance of studies focusing on African-American women and diabetes management, there is a considerable gap in health education literature regarding the self-care management experiences of African-American men...

Sherman, Ledric D

2013-07-23

15

Creating 'good' self-managers?: Facilitating and governing an online self care skills training course  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In chronic disease management, patients are increasingly called upon to undertake a new role as lay tutors within self-management training programmes. The internet constitutes an increasingly significant healthcare setting and a key arena for self-management support and communication. This study evaluates how a new quasi-professional health workforce – volunteer tutors – engage, guide and attempt to manage people with

Anne Kennedy; Anne Rogers; Caroline Sanders; Claire Gately; Victoria Lee

2009-01-01

16

Telehealth for Persons with Severe Functional Disabilities and their Caregivers: Facilitating Self-care Management in the Home Setting  

PubMed Central

Persons with severe functional disabilities are the highest users of health care services. Caring for the needs of this population represents a significant percentage of our national health care costs. A growing body of research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-management strategies and caregiver engagement for effective long-term care for individuals with chronic medical conditions. Economic forces over the past decade have led to new challenges and resulted in major changes in health care delivery resulting in shortened length of inpatient stays and greater limits on the length of outpatient treatment. Telehealth is an innovative method for health care delivery and a means of meeting this new challenge. This paper highlights the findings of three pilot studies on the use of telecommunications technologies in promoting self-care management and enhancing health care outcomes in persons with severe disabilities and their family caregivers. The importance of matching technology to the needs of this population, lessons learned from these investigations, and future directions for research are addressed. PMID:22662729

Forducey, Pamela G.; Glueckauf, Robert L.; Bergquist, Thomas; Maheu, Marlene M.; Yutsis, Maya

2012-01-01

17

Testing a Model of Diabetes Self-Care Management: A Causal Model Analysis with LISREL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A diabetes-management model is presented, which includes an attitudinal element and depicts relationships among causal elements. LISREL-VI was used to analyze data from 115 Type-I and 105 Type-II patients. The data did not closely fit the model. Results support the importance of the personal meaning of diabetes. (TJH)

Nowacek, George A.; And Others

1990-01-01

18

Perspectives on Self-Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-care for clinicians is much needed. To discover ways to implement self-care into our lives, we (four therapists) tried different self-care methods over a span of one to two weeks. After using practices that explored self-care through mindfulness meditation, autohypnosis, music, and spirituality, we wrote about the outcome of these experiences…

Williams, Isha D.; Richardson, Tenille A.; Moore, Darren D.; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks; Keeling, Margaret L.

2010-01-01

19

Structural role of perceived benefits and barriers to self-care in patients with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Goal: In diseases and disorders such as diabetes, treatment and disease management depends mostly on patient's performance. So, self-care is very important in these patients and they can affect their own welfare, functional capabilities, and disease processes by achieving self-care skills. Nowadays, we know that self care follows individual, psychological and social factors which its recognition can assist health care providing systems to carry out educational programs. This study aimed to investigate the role of perceived benefits and barriers in doing self-care behaviors among diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a narrative review and articles with sectional, cohort, and interventional, clinical trial, qualitative and narrative designs were chosen using databases and academic search engines such as PubMed, SCOPUS, ProQuest, Elsevier and key words like self-care diabetes, perceived benefits and barriers. Persian articles were also selected using databases like IRANMEDEX, MEDLIB, as well as searching the articles in sites of domestic scientific magazines. Results: Reviewed articles’ findings show the average situation of perceived benefits and barriers in diabetic patients regarding self-care. Qualified blood sugar (glucose) control, weight control, happiness feeling and expenses reduction are the most important perceived benefits. The most significant perceived barriers in self-care consist of lack of family support, shame feeling, forgetfulness and not being able to ignore foods’ flavor. Conclusion: Perceived benefits and barriers, as central constructs in some patterns and theories of behavior change, were related to self-care, so that it was directly related to perceived benefits and reversely related to perceived barriers. Therefore, these two constructs can be considered as strategies for promoting self-care behaviors in diabetic patients. PMID:24083287

Mohebi, Siamak; Azadbakht, Leila; Feizi, Avat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kargar, Mehdi

2013-01-01

20

iMHere: A Novel mHealth System for Supporting Self-Care in Management of Complex and Chronic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with chronic conditions are vulnerable to secondary complications that can be prevented with adherence to self-care routines. They benefit most from receiving effective treatments beyond acute care, usually in the form of regular follow-up and self-care support in their living environments. One such population is individuals with spina bifida (SB), the most common permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. A Wellness Program at the University of Pittsburgh in which wellness coordinators supervise the care of individuals with chronic disease has produced remarkably improved outcomes. However, time constraints and travel costs have limited its scale. Mobile telehealth service delivery is a potential solution for improving access to care for a larger population. Objective The project’s goal was to develop and implement a novel mHealth system to support complex self-care tasks, continuous adherence to regimens, monitoring of adherence, and secure two-way communications between patients and clinicians. Methods We developed and implemented a novel architecture of mHealth system called iMHere (iMobile Health and Rehabilitation) consisting of smartphone apps, a clinician portal, and a two-way communication protocol connecting the two. The process of implementing iMHere consisted of: (1) requirement analysis to identify clinically important functions that need to be supported, (2) design and development of the apps and the clinician portal, (3) development of efficient real-time bi-directional data exchange between the apps and the clinician portal, (4) usability studies on patients, and (5) implementation of the mHealth system in a clinical service delivery. Results There were 9 app features identified as relevant, and 5 apps were considered priority. There were 5 app features designed and developed to address the following issues: medication, skin care, bladder self-catheterization, bowel management, and mental health. The apps were designed to support a patient’s self-care tasks, send adherence data to the clinician portal, and receive personalized regimens from the portal. The Web-based portal was designed for clinicians to monitor patients’ conditions and to support self-care regimens. The two-way communication protocol was developed to facilitate secure and efficient data exchange between the apps and the portal. The 3 phases of usability study discovered usability issues in the areas of self-care workflow, navigation and interface, and communications between the apps and the portal. The system was used by 14 patients in the first 6 months of the clinical implementation, with 1 drop out due to having a poor wireless connection. The apps have been highly utilized consistently by patients, even those addressing complex issues such as medication and skincare. The patterns of utilization showed an increase in use in the first month, followed by a plateau. Conclusions The system was capable of supporting self-care and adherence to regimen, monitoring adherence, supporting clinician engagement with patients, and has been highly utilized. PMID:25100682

Pramana, Gede; Yu, Daihua Xie; Fairman, Andrea D; Dicianno, Brad E; McCue, Michael P

2013-01-01

21

Self-care coping strategies in people with diabetes: a qualitative exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The management of diabetes self-care is largely the responsibility of the patient. With more emphasis on the prevention of complications, adherence to diabetes self-care regimens can be difficult. Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle changes. This study will explore patient perceptions of diabetes self-care, with particular reference to the burden of self-care and coping

Margaret M Collins; Colin P Bradley; Tony O'Sullivan; Ivan J Perry

2009-01-01

22

A situation-specific theory of heart failure self-care.  

PubMed

Heart failure, a common syndrome in developed countries worldwide, is associated with poor quality of life, frequent rehospitalizations, and early death. Self-care is essential to improving outcomes in this patient population. The purpose of this article is to describe a situation-specific theory of heart failure self-care in which self-care is defined as a naturalistic decision-making process involving the choice of behaviors that maintain physiologic stability (maintenance) and the response to symptoms when they occur (management). Self-care maintenance is further defined to encompass routine symptom monitoring and treatment adherence. Self-care management is characterized as a process initiated by symptom recognition and evaluation, which stimulates the use of self-care treatments and treatment evaluation. Confidence in self-care is thought to moderate and/or mediate the effect of self-care on various outcomes. Four propositions were derived from the self-care of heart failure conceptual model: (1) symptom recognition is the key to successful self-care management; (2) self-care is better in patients with more knowledge, skill, experience, and compatible values; (3) confidence moderates the relationship between self-care and outcomes; and (4) confidence mediates the relationship between self-care and outcomes. These propositions were tested and supported using data obtained in previous research. Support of these propositions provides early evidence for this situation-specific theory of heart failure self-care. PMID:18437059

Riegel, Barbara; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan

2008-01-01

23

A Functional Curriculum for Teaching Students with Disabilities. Volume I: Self-Care, Motor Skills, Household Management, and Living Skills. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first of three manuals providing a curriculum for students with disabilities focuses on the development of functional daily living skills. An introductory chapter provides an overview of the functional curriculum and offers guidelines for developing instructional plans for the four units of study which follow. Unit 1 is about self-care

Bender, Michael; And Others

24

Human bites - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

A human bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. Human bites that break the skin can be very ... Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in two ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ...

25

Self-Care Behaviors among Patients with Heart Failure in Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Recovery from heart failure and dealing with its effects is significantly influenced by patient’s self-care. In order to maximize the effects of behavioral interventions and for educational planning, it is essential to know how much experience and information do patients with heart failure have about their disease and self-care behaviors. The present study aimed to identify self-care behaviors in patients with heart failure. Methods: Eighty heart failure patients hospitalized in Shahid Madani Training Center in Tabriz, Iran, participated in this study. Data collection was done through Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) that contained 22 questions in three sections including self-care behaviors, self-care management and confidence in performing self-care behaviors. Results: The patient’s self-care behaviors in three behavioral sub categories of maintaining, managing and confidence were low. The most repeated self-care behavior in the participating patients was taking medication and visiting the doctor. Conclusion: The results of the study showed low levels of self-care behaviors in patients with heart failure, which notes the need for patient empowerment. It is necessary to develop appropriate strategies in this regard by the authorities

Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Jamshidi, Fatemeh; Namdar, Hossein; Maleki, Ahdieh

2012-01-01

26

Measuring Diabetes Self-Care  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine psychometric properties of the Self-Care Inventory-revised (SCI-R), a self-report measure of perceived adherence to diabetes self-care recommendations, among adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used three data sets of adult type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients to examine psychometric properties of the SCI-R. Principal component and factor analyses examined whether a general factor or common factors were present. Associations with measures of theoretically related concepts were examined to assess SCI-R concurrent and convergent validity. Internal reliability coefficients were calculated. Responsiveness was assessed using paired t tests, effect size, and Guyatt's statistic for type 1 patients who completed psychoeducation. RESULTS Principal component and factor analyses identified a general factor but no consistent common factors. Internal consistency of the SCI-R was ? = 0.87. Correlation with a measure of frequency of diabetes self-care behaviors was r = 0.63, providing evidence for SCI-R concurrent validity. The SCI-R correlated with diabetes-related distress (r = ?0.36), self-esteem (r = 0.25), self-efficacy (r = 0.47), depression (r = ?0.22), anxiety (r = ?0.24), and HbA1c (r = ?0.37), supporting construct validity. Responsiveness analyses showed SCI-R scores improved with diabetes psychoeducation with a medium effect size of 0.62 and a Guyatt's statistic of 0.85. CONCLUSIONS The SCI-R is a brief, psychometrically sound measure of perceptions of adherence to recommended diabetes self-care behaviors of adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. PMID:15920050

Weinger, Katie; Butler, Heather A.; Welch, Garry W.; La Greca, Annette M.

2006-01-01

27

Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). Design A one-year follow-up study. Setting A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?45%). Main outcome measures Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Results Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p?self-care management (p?self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up. PMID:25396055

Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

2014-01-01

28

Self-Care Ability in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Considering the numerous physical and psychological problems in hemo-dialysis patients, they are dependent on others in some daily activities and in fact, they do not have full self-care ability. A few studies have ever been done, particularly in Iran, on self-care ability of hemodialysis patients. The present study aimed to determine self-care ability of these patients in addition to evaluate its association with some demo-graphic characteristics. Methods: This was a descriptive study in 2009 done in Marag-heh, Bonab and Miandoab Hospitals. The study population included 115 hemodialysis patients who were eligible. Data were collected using a combined and modified ques-tionnaire including demographic characteristics and self-care ability items. Results: Self-care ability was desirable in 78.3 percent of the patients. The highest desirable self-care ability in the study participants was related to vascular access (73%) and the highest undesirable self-care ability was related to follow the diet. There was a significant asso-ciation between self-care ability and some demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status and employment status. Conclusion: Hemodialysis patients did not have full self-care ability. It is necessary to enhance their knowledge about diet, complications of hemodialysis and preventive methods through accurate and permanent education so that they can increase their self-care ability.

Atashpeikar, Soulmaz; Jalilazar, Tahereh; Heidarzadeh, Mehdi

2012-01-01

29

Dorthea Orem's self care theory as related to nursing practice in hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Dorthea Orem believed that people have a natural ability for self care, and nursing should focus on affecting that ability. Using a literature search of studies involving adults receiving hemodialysis for end stage renal disease (ESRD) in an outpatient dialysis setting and self-care/management publications in peer-reviewed journals and dissertations, this article explores the implementation of Dorthea Orem's Self Care Theory in the hemodialysis setting, considering the ways it relates to a population in which self-management is critical for patients' positive quality of life, nurses' ability to promote self care for this population, and potential health outcomes. In order to maximize the health of patients with ESRD, considerable lifestyle changes must be made. As healthcare professionals who provide direct care, nurses can assist with these changes by providing educational opportunities and strategies that increase self-care agency, thus making a positive impact on patient quality of life. PMID:19715109

Simmons, Laurie

2009-01-01

30

The Association Between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Activities Among African American Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform varying forms of self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely\\u000a used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association\\u000a between self-efficacy to manage hypertension and six clinically prescribed hypertension self-care behaviors. We interviewed\\u000a 190 African Americans with hypertension who resided in the greater metropolitan

Jan Warren-FindlowRachel; Rachel B. Seymour; Larissa R. Brunner Huber

31

Cardiovascular Disease Self-Care Interventions  

PubMed Central

Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n = 34) that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012) were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57%) and Caucasian (67%) dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential. PMID:24223305

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Yoon, Hye-Won; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Chyun, Deborah

2013-01-01

32

Cardiovascular disease self-care interventions.  

PubMed

Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n = 34) that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012) were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57%) and Caucasian (67%) dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential. PMID:24223305

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Nocella, Jill; Yoon, Hye-Won; Hammer, Marilyn; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Chyun, Deborah

2013-01-01

33

FOCI RESEARCH BENEFITS FISHERIES MANAGEMENT 1993 Recruitment Forecast -Average  

E-print Network

1 FOCI RESEARCH BENEFITS FISHERIES MANAGEMENT 1993 Recruitment Forecast - Average NOAA's National.800 a 2.00 1.60 Time sequence 0.000 0.00 0.00 Hydro length 0.000 0.00 0.00 Rain 0.000 0.00 0.00 Mixing 0.000

34

Developing a nurse-led education program to enhance self-care agency in leg ulcer patients.  

PubMed

Patients with leg ulceration face changing self-care demands associated with the consequences of the disease and treatment. Often patients can manage their self-care for some time, but new therapeutic self-care demands may emerge that require more complex self-care actions. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a nurse-led education program in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany, that aims to help patients with leg ulcers to meet their therapeutic self-care demands. Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory is used as a framework to provide the conceptual context for this supportive-educative nursing system that is being tested in a multi-site clinical trial. PMID:18378825

Herber, Oliver R; Schnepp, Wilfried; Rieger, Monika A

2008-04-01

35

Coupled-field description of zero-average dispersion management.  

PubMed

Using a coupled-field formalism and a standard perturbation analysis, we analyze a dispersion-managed system under zero-average dispersion conditions. A nonlinear integral equation in the spectral domain allows the determination of the critical strength parameter of a two-step dispersion map. Higher-order correction terms confirm the difference observed in the pulse shapes in each fiber and comparisons with fully numerical results reveal a good agreement. The existence of an antisymmetric dispersion-managed soliton is also confirmed. PMID:11970348

Paré, C; Roy, V; Lesage, F; Mathieu, P; Bélanger, P A

1999-10-01

36

Diabetes self-care: Lessons from research on the family and broader contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundation of diabetes management is the self-care behavior of the patient. All of the systems within which the person\\u000a with diabetes interacts, as well as the media and broader social and cultural values, affect this self-care behavior. In this\\u000a article I focus on recent research that has examined the link between relationships in the patient’s intimate network (ie,\\u000a family

Barbara J. Anderson

2003-01-01

37

Evolution of Self-Care Education  

PubMed Central

During the past 15 years, the curriculum content for nonprescription medication and self-care therapeutics has expanded significantly. Self-care courses ranging from stand-alone, required courses to therapeutic content and skills laboratories, have evolved in colleges and schools of pharmacy to accommodate rapid changes related to nonprescription medications and to meet the needs of students. The design of and content delivery methods used in self-care courses vary among institutions. Teaching innovations such as team-based learning, role playing/vignettes, videos, and social media, as well as interdisciplinary learning have enhanced delivery of this content. Given that faculty members train future pharmacists, they should be familiar with the new paradigms of Nonprescription Safe Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE) Initiative, nonprescription medications for chronic diseases, and the growing trends of health and wellness in advancing patient-care initiatives. This paper reviews the significant changes that may be impacting self-care curriculums in the United States. PMID:24672061

Ambizas, Emily M.; Bastianelli, Karen M.S.; Ferreri, Stefanie P.; Haines, Seena L.; Stutz, Misty M.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Wilhelm, Miranda

2014-01-01

38

College Student Self-Care Diary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this docoment is to help college students maintain health by keeping a weekly diary of health related behaviors including diet, exercise, and stress levels. In addition each weekly entry presents a self-care tip for health improvement. Discussions of the college student and health, health and lifestyle, instructions on use of the…

Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Dintiman, George B.

39

Helping Your Child Learn Self-Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical advice for parents of handicapped children is the focus of this issue on self-care skills including self-feeding, dressing, and personal hygiene. Ten initial tips for teaching skills to children include constant repetition, modeling, and keeping verbal instruction to a minimum. The section on self-feeding addresses the topics of…

Murphy, Linda; Corte, Suzanne Della

1987-01-01

40

Predictors of self-care in adolescents with cystic fibrosis: a test of Orem's theories of self-care and self-care deficit.  

PubMed

Pediatric nurses often struggle to find ways to encourage adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) to engage in self-care that is essential to their health and life. A study of predictors of self-care was conducted to provide a stronger evidence base for nursing practice with these youth. Orem's theories of self-care and self-care deficit were tested to explain and predict the universal and health deviation self-care of 123 adolescents with CF. Four dimensions of self-care agency emerged as predictors of universal self-care, two of which were also predictive of health deviation self-care. Seventy percent of the variance or change in universal self-care scores and 40% of health deviation self-care variance were explained. Clarification and extension of Orem's theories were also an important outcome. Development of nursing interventions designed to strengthen predictors of universal and health deviation-specific self-care identified in this research holds the potential to improve length and quality of life for adolescents with CF. PMID:18207046

Baker, Lois K; Denyes, Mary J

2008-02-01

41

Spirituality and spiritual self-care: expanding self-care deficit nursing theory.  

PubMed

The authors propose an integration of the concepts of spirituality and spiritual self-care within Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory as a critical step in theory development. Theoretical clarity is needed to understand the contributions of spirituality to health and well-being. Spirituality is the beliefs persons hold related to their subjective sense of existential connectedness including beliefs that reflect relationships with others, acknowledge a higher power, recognize an individual's place in the world, and lead to spiritual practices. Spiritual self-care is the set of spiritually-based practices in which people engage to promote continued personal development and well-being in health and illness. PMID:21220576

White, Mary L; Peters, Rosalind; Schim, Stephanie Myers

2011-01-01

42

Neighborhood Crime and Self-Care: Risks for Aggression and Lower Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study evaluated associations among official rates of neighborhood crime, academic performance, and aggression in a sample of 581 children in 1st-3rd grade (6.3-10.6 years old). It was hypothesized that the influence of crime depends on children's unsupervised exposure to the neighborhood context through self-care. Average weekly…

Lord, Heather; Mahoney, Joseph L.

2007-01-01

43

Patients' Perspectives on Factors that Influence Diabetes Self-Care  

PubMed Central

Background Although diabetes mellitus is of high concern in Iran, and the level of control is unacceptable, few qualitative studies have been carried out to reflect the experiences of patients on the barriers and motivators to self-care. This study aimed to explore a culturally based experience of Iranian diabetic patients regarding the personal and environmental barriers to and facilitating factors for diabetes self-care. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted among type 2 diabetic patients in the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases’ diabetes clinic. Purposeful sampling was used. Newly diagnosed patients (less than six months) and all type 1 diabetic patients were excluded. Three focus groups were held on for each sex. A total of 43 patients participated in the study. Frame-work analysis was used to extract the themes from the data. Results: Data analysis showed five main barriers: physical barriers (such as physical effects of diabetes); psychological barriers (such as health beliefs); educational barriers (such as lack of knowledge about diabetes); social barriers (such as group pressure); and care system barriers (such as service availability). Along with the barriers, there were some motivators that the participants mentioned as a stimuli to control their diabetes. They include beliefs about diabetes, perceived responsibility for family, religious beliefs, and the views of significant others. Conclusion: Culturally based interventions are needed to improve diabetes care management in Iran. In addition to personal factors, diabetes health educators should pay attention to the environmental factors when they develop programs. PMID:23113114

Shakibazadeh, E; Larijani, B; Shojaeezadeh, D; Rashidian, A; Forouzanfar, MH; Bartholomew, LK

2011-01-01

44

Self-care demands of persons living with an implantable left-ventricular assist device.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) is a growing public health problem affecting approximately 23 million people worldwide. Treatment options for advanced HF patients have moved beyond pharmacologic therapy to include left-ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Patients with an LVAD must manage a complex regimen of care. This article proposes the use of self-care deficit nursing theory (SCDNT) as a framework to identify and organize the care needs of patients with an LVAD from a nursing perspective. Within SCDNT, self-care refers to actions designed to meet self-care requisites to achieve regulatory goals. When formalized, self-care requisites have two components: the general action to be taken and a "factor" to be controlled. The reformulation of health-deviation self-care requisites common to LVAD patients are presented and may serve as an exemplar for other technology-assisted living situations. The strengths and limitations of using the SCDNT for patients with such complex needs, as well as implications for clinical practice, research, and advancement of nursing science, are examined. PMID:19999746

Casida, Jesus M; Peters, Rosalind M; Magnan, Morris A

2009-01-01

45

Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging.  

PubMed

Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one's health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health). Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions. PMID:23807842

Söderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

46

Dental patient education: self-care to healthy human development.  

PubMed

Credited with a long history of providing preventive care, dentists are challenged by increasing demands from better educated consumers interested in improving their health and caring for themselves. The task of administering patient education services, identifying patients at risk, targeting specific behaviors for change, and managing costs is the subject of this case study. The Self-Care Motivation Model described here, is used to develop a patient education/smoking cessation/lifestyle change program for a patient with numerous dental and general health disturbances. Time and cost saving methods for administering such total patient care are discussed. Suggestions for reframing the context of dental patient education and health behavior change initiatives to include general healthy human development competencies are provided. PMID:2290742

Horowitz, L G

1990-02-01

47

[OREM's self-care deficit theory applied to hypertensive patients].  

PubMed

A study carried out with the objective of evaluating Orem's nursing self-care theory (TDAC) in women with hypertension. Four hypertensive women in an outpatient clinic were interviewed using a form with open and multiple-choice questions on conditioning factors and self-care requirements. The data were analyzed according to the TDAC theoretical framework. Based on the self-care requirements for hypertensive people, the existence or non-existence of adjustment between self-care capacity and self-care need as well as the inhibitors and enhancers of such adjustment were identified. It was concluded that TDAC allowed to identify important aspects related to hypertensive people which must be dealt with by nurses. PMID:12040790

Cade, N V

2001-05-01

48

A supportive-educational intervention for heart failure patients in iran: the effect on self-care behaviours.  

PubMed

Background. Chronic heart failure is a major health and social problem. The promotion of self-care behaviours can potentially assist patients to effectively manage this chronic condition and prevent worsening of the disease. Formal personalized educational interventions that provide support and take into consideration the cultural context are needed. Objective. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of a supportive-educational intervention on self-care behaviours of heart failure patients in Iran. Methods. This research was a prospective, randomized trial of a supportive-educational intervention. Eighty heart failure patients were randomly assigned to receive the supportive-educational intervention or usual care. The intervention consisted of a one-hour, nurse-led, in-person education session and postdischarge followup by telephone over three months. Data were collected at baseline, one, two, and three months. Results. The control and intervention groups did not differ in self-care scores at baseline (P > 0.05). Each of the self-care scores was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group at 1, 2, and 3 months (P < 0.001). There were significant differences in self-care behaviours over the three months, among participants in the intervention group. Conclusion. This study provides support for the effectiveness of a supportive-educational intervention to increase self-care behaviours among Iranian patients suffering from chronic heart failure. PMID:24175091

Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Howard, A Fuchsia; Jamshidi, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

49

The meaning of actualization of self-care resources among a group of older home-dwelling people--a hermeneutic study.  

PubMed

Self-care is an activity of mature persons who have developed their abilities to take care of themselves. Individuals can choose to actualize their self-care abilities into self-care activities to maintain, restore, or improve health and well-being. It is of importance to understand the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources among older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of the actualization of self-care resources, i.e., actions taken to improve, maintain, or restore health and well-being, among a group of older home-dwelling individuals with a high sense of coherence. The design of this study was to reanalyse narratives revealing self-care activities from 11 (five females and six males) Norwegian older home-dwelling people (65 years or older) identified as having a high sense of coherence. In order to reveal the meaning and get an understanding of why these self-care resources were realized or actualized, a Gadamerian-based research method was chosen. The analysis revealed four themes that showed the meaning of actualization of self-care resources in the study group: "Desire to carry on", "Be of use to others", "Self-realization", and "Confidence to manage in the future". The findings showed what older people found meaningful to strive for, and this information can be used as a guide for health professionals when supporting older people in their self-care. Older people with self-care resources can also be an important resource for others in need of social contact and practical help. These resources have to be asked for in voluntary work among older people in need of help and, thereby, can be a valuable supplement to the community health care system. PMID:23601788

Söderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

50

Developing diabetes self-care supporting service: A systemic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a service-oriented application that focuses on the supports of self-care activities for diabetic patients. Self-care is an area that is yet to be well supported by current healthcare systems. In designing innovative service model, service sector is reaching toward academics for theoretical assistance. A method of systemic approach is used in this study as the map for

Yung-Hsiu Lin; Sophie H. M. Guo; Rong-Rong Chen; Her-Kun Chang

2009-01-01

51

Self-care in rural areas of India and Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-care during illness and pregnancies by individuals and their families is a ubiquitous and integral part of societies throughout the world. This paper reports findings about self-care practices identified during four studies carried out over a ten-year period involving about 14,000 interviews in 7,400 households comprising over 48,000 people in three Indian states and three districts of Nepal. The proportion

Robert L. Parker; S. Moin Shah; C. Alex Alexander; Alfred K. Neumann

1979-01-01

52

Self-care: Why do parents leave their children unsupervised?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a preferences-and-constraints model to develop four hypotheses to explain why parents may choose self-care (an unsupervised\\u000a arrangement) as the primary child care arrangement for their children over supervised alternatives and tested them in a multivariate\\u000a framework using 1995 data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. We found that the choice of self-care over\\u000a supervised care alternatives

Lynne M. Casper; Kristin E. Smith

2004-01-01

53

Dimensionality and reliability of the self-care of heart failure index scales: further evidence from confirmatory factor analysis.  

PubMed

The Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) is used widely, but issues with reliability have been evident. Cronbach alpha coefficient is usually used to assess reliability, but this approach assumes a unidimensional scale. The purpose of this article is to address the dimensionality and internal consistency reliability of the SCHFI. This was a secondary analysis of data from 629 adults with heart failure enrolled in three separate studies conducted in the northeastern and northwestern United States. Following testing for scale dimensionality using confirmatory factor analysis, reliability was tested using coefficient alpha and alternative options. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that: (a) the Self-Care Maintenance Scale has a multidimensional four-factor structure; (b) the Self-Care Management Scale has a two-factor structure, but the primary factors loaded on a common higher-order factor; and (c) the Self-Care Confidence Scale is unidimensional. Reliability estimates for the three scales, obtained with methods compatible with each scale's dimensionality, were adequate or high. The results of the analysis demonstrate that issues of dimensionality and reliability cannot be separated. Appropriate estimates of reliability that are consistent with the dimensionality of the scale must be used. In the case of the SCHFI, coefficient alpha should not be used to assess reliability of the self-care maintenance and the self-care management scales, due to their multidimensionality. When performing psychometric evaluations, we recommend testing dimensionality before assessing reliability, as well using multiple indices of reliability, such as model-based internal consistency, composite reliability, and omega and maximal reliability coefficients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25324013

Barbaranelli, Claudio; Lee, Christopher S; Vellone, Ercole; Riegel, Barbara

2014-12-01

54

Family Influences on Heart Failure Self-care and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Many patient education guidelines for teaching heart failure patients recommend inclusion of the family; however, family-focused interventions to promote self-care in heart failure are few. This article reviews the state of the science regarding family influences on heart failure self-care and outcomes. The literature and current studies suggest that family functioning, family support, problem solving, communication, self-efficacy, and caregiver burden are important areas to target for future research. In addition, heart failure patients without family and those who live alone and are socially isolated are highly vulnerable for poor self-care and should receive focused attention. Specific research questions based on existing science and gaps that need to be filled to support clinical practice are posed. PMID:18437068

Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Quinn, Christina; Gary, Rebecca A.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2009-01-01

55

Pulmonary rehabilitation and self-care after ambulatory surgery.  

PubMed

Over 30 million Americans are living with chronic lung disease in the United States. The long-term ongoing care required by these individuals is a major contributor to American health care costs. Clinicians caring for persons with chronic respiratory disease are faced with minimal time in which to prepare patients for adequate self-care abilities. Often times, the clinician may assume that all of the "bases have been covered." In reality, it is because this assumption is made that persons with chronic respiratory disease are often not receiving the full breadth of information that they need to increase their self-care abilities and optimize their quality of life. This article prepares the perianesthesia clinician to ensure that the important tenets of self-care information are addressed for the person with overt and/or underlying chronic respiratory disease. PMID:9934079

Geiger-Bronsky, M

1998-12-01

56

Daily temporal self-care responses to osteoarthritis symptoms by older African Americans and whites  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and is among the most prevalent chronic conditions in the United States. Because there is no known cure for OA, treatment is directed towards the alleviation of pain, improving function, and limiting disability. The major burden of care falls on the individual, who tailors personal systems of care to alleviate troublesome symptoms. To date, little has been known about the temporal variations in self-care that older patients with OA develop, nor has it been known to what extent self-care patterns vary with ethnicity and disease severity. This study was designed to demonstrate the self-care strategies used by older African Americans and whites to alleviate the symptoms of OA on a typical day and during specific segments of a typical day over the past 30 days. A sample of 551 older adults participated in in-depth interviews, and the authors clustered their responses into six categories. Findings showed that the frequency of particular behaviors varied by time of day, disease severity, and race. Overall, patterns of self-care behaviors were similar between African-Americans and whites, but African-Americans used them in different proportions than whites and in response to disease severity. Knowledge of what strategies persons with OA use to lessen their symptoms at various times of the day may enable practitioners and their patients to improve management of OA symptoms. Recognition that people may choose their strategies to ameliorate their symptoms by race and disease severity may further enable tailored symptom relief. PMID:18841454

Silverman, Myrna; Nutini, Jean; Musa, Donald; King, Jennifer; Albert, Steve

2008-01-01

57

Self-care strategies and barriers among kidney transplant recipients: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated kidney transplant recipients’ self-reported levels of exercise and fluid intake. We also examined attitudes about, barriers to undertaking, and strategies used to initiate and maintain adequate self-care for fluid intake, exercise and dietary practices. Methods A qualitative approach was used and supplemented by quantitative data to examine self-care among kidney transplant recipients (n = 82), including a semi-structured interview and survey of physical activity. Results One-third of patients (33%) reported drinking the recommended 3 L of fluid each day. However, the majority (60%) reported not receiving this or any specific fluid intake recommendation. Twenty percent reported engaging in moderate to regular physical activity while 78% were sedentary. However, many reported that clinicians did not specify the amount of exercise (39%) or did not discuss exercise (15%). Attitudes towards fluid intake, exercise and maintaining a low-salt diet were mostly positive; patients expressed relatively more negative attitudes towards maintaining a low-cholesterol diet. Major barriers to fluid intake were not feeling thirsty, difficulty breaking the habit of limiting fluid intake formed while on dialysis, feeling full and limited access to fluids. Patients devised creative strategies to initiate and maintain appropriate hydration, physical activity and dietary levels, including intentionally drinking when not thirsty, modifying the environment, tracking intake and relying on social supports. Conclusions Few kidney recipients practiced optimal self-care for fluid intake or physical activity. Most patients encountered barriers to self-care that should be ameliorated to assist patients with managing their transplant. Understanding barriers and strategies is essential for developing educational interventions. PMID:19474231

Gordon, Elisa J.; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Gallant, Mary; Siminoff, Laura A.

2012-01-01

58

Validation of an information-motivation-behavioral skills model of self-care among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Self-care is a crucial component of diabetes management. But comprehensive behavior change frameworks are needed to provide guidance for the design, implementation, and evaluation of diabetes self-care programs in diverse populations. We tested the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in a sample of Chinese adults with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study of 222 Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes was conducted in a primary care center. We collected information on demographics, provider-patient communication (knowledge), social support (motivation), self-efficacy (behavioral skills), and diabetes self-care (behavior). The values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were also obtained. Measured variable path analyses were used to the IMB framework. Results Provider-patient communication (??=?0.12, p?=?.037), and social support (??=?0.19, p?=?.007) and self-efficacy (??=?0.41, p?self-care behavior. Diabetes self-care behaviors had a direct effect on TC/HDL-C (??=??0.31, p?self-care behaviors; and these behaviors were directly linked to lipid control. The findings indicate that diabetes education programs should including strategies enhancing patients’ knowledge, motivation and behavioral skills to effect behavior change. PMID:23379324

2013-01-01

59

Stress on the Job: Self-Care Resources for Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors often encounter clients who have experienced forms of trauma. As a result, counselors may experience symptoms of secondary traumatic stress due to vicarious traumatization. To help with symptoms of burnout, this article offers a self-care prevention plan based on wellness concepts. Offers 30 references as a starting point for counselors…

O'Halloran, Theresa M.; Linton, Jeremy M.

2000-01-01

60

Developing Self-Care Practices in a Trauma Treatment Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development of self-care practices of social work students who were part of a larger study of students' experiences in a graduate course on the treatment of trauma. Consensual qualitative research methods were used to analyze 17 participant journals submitted at 4 times during the course. Findings indicated that…

Shannon, Patricia J.; Simmelink-McCleary, Jennifer; Im, Hyojin; Becher, Emily; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.

2014-01-01

61

Trainable Mentally Handicapped: Daily Living and Self Care Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 153 materials for teaching daily living and self care skills to trainable mentally handicapped students from early childhood to secondary level. Contained are…

National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

62

Dispersion-managed solitons in optical amplifier transmission systems with zero average dispersion.  

PubMed

Soliton propagation in a cascaded dispersion-managed optical amplifier system with zero net dispersion is examined. We present a qualitative physical explanation for the recently discovered fact that a soliton with finite energy can propagate down a fiber line with zero or normal average dispersion. We describe a specific practical system for the main properties of such a soliton, namely, the dependence of the soliton power on the pulse width at chirp-free points and the soliton average energy and width at chirp-free points as functions of the dispersion-allocation (strength of the map) parameter. PMID:18087309

Turitsyn, S K; Shapiro, E G

1998-01-01

63

Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory: pediatric asthma as exemplar.  

PubMed

Asthma is the most frequent reason for preventable hospital admissions among children regardless of race or socioeconomic status. Since hospitalizations are preventable, a reasonable assumption is that parents are not optimally managing their child's asthma. Using Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory, 14 conditions were uncovered in the pediatric asthma literature that influence development of competency by parents. Twelve of the 14 antecedent conditions are influenced by factors partly or completely controlled by the healthcare system. Healthcare system gaps associated with asthma symptom control have come to light through the articulation of the pediatric asthma literature and Orem's theory. PMID:15976048

Cox, Karen R; Taylor, Susan G

2005-07-01

64

Self-Care Among Chronically Ill African Americans: Culture, Health Disparities, and Health Insurance Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the self-care practices of chronically ill African Ameri- cans or how lack of access to health care affects self-care. Results from a quali- tative interview study of 167 African Americans who had one or more chronic ill- nesses found that self-care practices were culturally based, and the insured reported more extensive programs of self-care. Those who

Gay Becker; Rahima Jan Gates; Edwina Newsom

2004-01-01

65

Improving confidence for self care in patients with depression and chronic illnesses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine whether patients who received a multicondition collaborative care intervention for chronic illnesses and depression had greater improvement in self-care knowledge and efficacy, and whether greater knowledge and self-efficacy was positively associated with improved target outcomes. A randomized controlled trial with 214 patients with comorbid depression and poorly controlled diabetes and/or coronary heart disease tested a 12-month team-based intervention that combined self-management support and collaborative care management. At 6 and 12 month outcomes the intervention group showed significant improvements over the usual care group in confidence in ability to follow through with medical regimens important to managing their conditions and to maintain lifestyle changes even during times of stress. Improvements in self care-efficacy were significantly related to improvements in depression, and early improvements in confidence to maintain lifestyle changes even during times of stress explained part of the observed subsequent improvements in depression. PMID:23398269

Ludman, Evette J; Peterson, Do; Katon, Wayne J; Lin, Elizabeth H B; Von Korff, Michael; Ciechanowski, Paul; Young, Bessie; Gensichen, Jochen

2013-01-01

66

"We have become doctors for ourselves": motives for malaria self-care among adults in southeastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria with effective medicines remains necessary if malaria control goals are to be achieved. The theoretical concepts from self-care and the health belief model were used to examine the motivations for malaria self-care among the adult population. Methods A qualitative study was conducted through eight focus group discussions with adult community members to explore their general opinions, views and perceptions of malaria and of its treatments. These groups were followed by 15 in-depth interviews of participants with a recent malaria experience to allow for an in-depth exploration of their self-care practices. The analysis followed principles of grounded theory and was conducted using Nvivo 9 qualitative data management software. Results The self-treatment of malaria at home was found to be a common practice among the study participants. The majority of the participants practiced self-medication with a painkiller as an initial response. The persistence and the worsening of the disease symptoms prompted participants to consider other self-care options. Perceptions that many malaria symptoms are suggestive of other conditions motivated participants to self-refer for malaria test. The accessibility of private laboratory facilities and drug shops motivated their use for malaria tests and for obtaining anti-malarial medicines, respectively. Self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy was common, motivated by their perceived effectiveness and availability. The perceived barriers to using the recommended combination treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, were related to the possible side-effects and to uncertainty about their effectiveness, and these doubts motivated some participants to consider self-medication with local herbs. Several factors were mentioned as motivating people for self-care practices. These included poor patient provider relationship, unavailability of medicine and the costs associated with accessing treatments from the health facilities. Conclusions Malaria self-care and self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy are common among adults, and are motivated by both individual characteristics and the limitations of the existing health care facilities. There is a need for public health interventions to take into account community perceptions and cultural schemas on malaria self-care practices. PMID:24986165

2014-01-01

67

Appalachian women: health beliefs, self-care, and basic conditioning factors.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to: (a) describe the health beliefs and self-care of Appalachian women; and (b) describe the relationships among health beliefs, self-care, and the basic conditioning factors of Appalachian women. Orem's SCDNT was used as the theory for this study. This study used qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The study participants included 129 Appalachian women. Health beliefs and self-care were described. Significant correlations were found between components of the basic conditioning factors and definition of health beliefs and self-care. The outcomes from this research study support that Appalachian women do participate in self-care in promoting their health. PMID:20860332

Slusher, Ida L; Withrow-Fletcher, Cora; Hauser-Whitaker, Mary

2010-01-01

68

Status and Recommendations for Self-Care Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy, 2006  

PubMed Central

Teachers of pharmacy self-care courses have met annually since 1998 at the Nonprescription Medicines Academy (NMA) held in Cincinnati, Ohio. During these meetings, self-care faculty members discuss methods of enhancing the teaching of self-care in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Self-care courses are taught using a variety of methods and content is woven into pharmacy curricula in many different ways. This manuscript sets forth the current state of self-care instruction in pharmacy curricula including the recommended core curriculum, instructional methodologies, course mechanics, existing standards, and assessment and curricular placement, and makes recommendations for the future. PMID:17332865

Zierler-Brown, Seena L.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Casper, Kristin A.; Krypel, Linda L.; Salcido, Amista Lone; Padron, Victor A.; Pray, W. Steven; Wall, Andrea L.; Sobotka, Jenelle L.; Engle, Janet P.

2006-01-01

69

Do Automated Calls with Nurse Follow-up Improve Self-Care and Glycemic Control among Vulnerable Patients with Diabetes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the effect of automated tele- phone assessment and self-care education calls with nurse follow-up on the management of diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 280 English- or Spanish-speaking adults with diabetes who were using hypogly- cemic medications and who were treated in a county health care system. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care or

John D. Piette; Morris Weinberger; Stephen J. McPhee; Connie A. Mah; Fredric B. Kraemer; Lawrence M. Crapo

2000-01-01

70

2,725 STUDENTS REGISTERED WITH THE OFFICE OF CAREER MANAGEMENT Women: 42% Average Annual Salary: $50,220  

E-print Network

2,725 STUDENTS REGISTERED WITH THE OFFICE OF CAREER MANAGEMENT Women: 42% Average Annual Salary-TIME MBA STUDENTS: 250 (Approximately 125 students in each class) Women: 25% Average Annual Salary: $89: $50,220 Minority: 12% Average Monthly Internship Salary: $2,676 UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS BY MAJOR *As

71

Self-care and deviance in elementary school-age children.  

PubMed

Fourth-, fifth- and sixth-grade students were surveyed to investigate whether self-care was related to self-reports of behavioral or attitudinal deviance, liking for school, or both. The Child Self-Care Measure (CSCM), a multiscale self-report instrument, measured self-care as a developmental task with four major dimensions: temporal, physical, structural, and psychological. Self-care in general was not linked to deviance. However, increases in psychological self-care were strongly correlated with reductions in children's liking for school. Additionally, children in self-care who cared for younger siblings for more than a year reported more deviant behaviors than those without responsibility for younger siblings; children in the care of older siblings less than 16 years old for more than 4 years reported more tolerance for deviance than peers in self-care without older sibling caregivers. Findings support earlier speculations that children in self-care may not be developmentally ready to take responsibility for elementary school-aged siblings. Results also indicated that although girls in self-care manifest problems earlier than boys, long term self-care may be more problematic for boys than girls. PMID:9696113

Pettine, A; Rosén, L A

1998-08-01

72

[Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].  

PubMed

Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rati

Poplinger, A

2010-04-01

73

Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-care: Results From the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the study:?African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect hypertension self-care of older parents and their adult children.?Design and Methods:?We recruited 95 African American older parent–adult child dyads with hypertension. We constructed separate logistic regression models for older parents and adult children with medication adherence as the outcome. Each model included individual demographic and health characteristics, the partner’s knowledge, and self-efficacy to manage hypertension and dyad-related characteristics.?Results:?Parents were more adherent with medication than adult children (67.4% vs. 49.5%, p < .012). There were no significant factors associated with parent medication adherence. In adjusted models for adult children, medication adherence was associated with child’s gender (odds ratio [OR] = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–8.59), parent beliefs that the child had better hypertension self-care (OR = 4.36, 95% CI = 1.34–14.17), and child reports that the dyad conversed about hypertension (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.18–10.29). Parental knowledge of hypertension and parent’s self-efficacy were weakly associated with adult children’s medication adherence (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.99–1.84 and OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 0.94–7.12, respectively).?Implications:?Interventions should consider targeting African American older adults to increase self-care knowledge and empower them as a primary influencer of hypertension self-care within the family. PMID:20864590

Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

2011-01-01

74

Effects of a Self-care Intervention for Counselors on Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction.  

E-print Network

??This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational and experiential structured counselor self-care curriculum, developed by Drs. Charles and Kathleen Figley, on compassion fatigue and… (more)

Koehler, Christine Marie Guthrie

2012-01-01

75

Assessment of oral self-care in patients with periodontitis: a pilot study in a dental school clinic in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Oral hygiene education is central to every stage of periodontal treatment. Successful management of periodontal disease depends on the patient's capacity for oral self-care. In the present study, the oral self-care and perceptions of patients attending a dental school clinic in Japan were assessed using a short questionnaire referring to existing oral health models. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used. The study population consisted of sixty-five patients (age range 23-77) with chronic periodontitis. The pre-tested 19-item questionnaire comprised 3 domains; 1) oral hygiene, 2) dietary habits and 3) perception of oral condition. The questionnaire was used as a part of the comprehensive assessment. Results Analyses of the assessment data revealed no major problems with the respondents' perceived oral hygiene habits, although their actual plaque control levels were not entirely adequate. Most of the respondents acknowledged the importance of prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, but less than one third of them were regular users of the dental care system. Twenty-five percent of the respondents were considered to be reluctant to change their daily routines, and 29% had doubts about the impact of their own actions on oral health. Analyzing the relationships between patient responses and oral hygiene status, factors like 'frequency of tooth brushing', 'approximal cleaning', 'dental check-up' and 'compliance with self-care advice' showed statistically significant associations (P < 0.05) with the plaque scores. Conclusion The clinical utilization of the present questionnaire facilitates the inclusion of multiple aspects of patient information, before initiation of periodontal treatment. The significant associations that were found between some of the self-care behaviors and oral hygiene levels document the important role of patient-centered oral health assessment in periodontal care. PMID:19874626

Saito, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Momomi; Ueshima, Fumie; Matsumoto, Shinya; Hayakawa, Hiroki; Masuda, Hitomi; Makiishi, Takemi

2009-01-01

76

Empowering Older Patients to Engage in Self Care: Designing an Interactive Robotic Device  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To develop and test an interactive robot mounted computing device to support medication management as an example of a complex self-care task in older adults. Method: A Grounded Theory (GT), Participatory Design (PD) approach was used within three Action Research (AR) cycles to understand design requirements and test the design configuration addressing the unique task requirements. Results: At the end of the first cycle a conceptual framework was evolved. The second cycle informed architecture and interface design. By the end of third cycle residents successfully interacted with the dialogue system and were generally satisfied with the robot. The results informed further refinement of the prototype. Conclusion: An interactive, touch screen based, robot-mounted information tool can be developed to support healthcare needs of older people. Qualitative methods such as the hybrid GT-PD-AR approach may be particularly helpful for innovating and articulating design requirements in challenging situations. PMID:22195203

Tiwari, Priyadarshi; Warren, Jim; Day, Karen

2011-01-01

77

For Low-Back Pain, Yoga More Effective Than Self-Care But Not Stretching  

MedlinePLUS

For Low-Back Pain, Yoga More Effective Than Self-Care But Not Stretching Yoga is more effective than a self-care book, ... improving function and reducing symptoms of chronic low-back pain, according to a study. Results from previous smaller ...

78

Elderly Self Care Education: A Low Technology Primary Health Care Option for Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a number of perspectives on the curriculum building processes as well as the methodology and content of a self care training curriculum and Information packet that were prepared and field for the development of a model self care education program for older persons. Course content and topical areas are outlined, and various training agenda and educational materials

Lawrence K. Koseki; Sue E. Reid

1991-01-01

79

Social Work Students and Self-Care: A Model Assignment for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature reveals scant research on self-care practices among social work students; yet self-care is vital as students prepare to be practitioners who are not only effective in working with all aspects of the clients' total selves, but who are themselves healthy. They are not prepared to be good practitioners unless they have first learned to…

Moore, Sharon E.; Bledsoe, Linda K.; Perry, Armon R.; Robinson, Michael A.

2011-01-01

80

Social support, self-care, and quality of life in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support.

Hanucharurnkul, S.

1988-01-01

81

Learning Self-Care Skills. Functional Programming for People with Autism: A Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many individuals with autism need systematic, intensive teaching in self-care skills due to deficits in language and attention skills, interfering behaviors, and/or sensory impairments. Teaching self-care skills should occur naturally during daily routines, in all environments. Assessments are done to determine current abilities, strengths, and…

DePalma, Valerie; Wheeler, Marci

82

[Case report: the practical use of the self-care deficit nursing theory for a patient with a neuroendocrine cancer of the duodenum].  

PubMed

This case describes the nursing care of a 66-year-old electively admitted patient who came to hospital for the treatment of a hepatic secondary neuroendocrine duodenum cancer. A typical liver resection with duodeno-pancreatectomy and sigmaresection was performed. Complications led to more than ten re-laparatomies with resection of the stomach and oesophagus. It was necessary to perform blind occlusion of the jejunum and the disposition of an oesophagus stoma. A diabetes mellitus was caused by the total resection of the pancreas. Mister B. got a percutaneous endoscope jejunostomy but it could not be used because of a new small intestine fistula into the abdominal cavity wherefore a port was implanted. The following different conceptions of the self-care deficit theory have been used to describe and analyse the patient situation as follows: Basic conditioning factors, self-care requisites, therapeutic self-care demands, self-care competence. The future self-management capabilities consist of the following: Care of the oesophagus stoma, care of the percutaneous endoscope jejunostomy, management of the diabetes mellitus, coping with the changed self-image, coping with the restriction of movement and with the needed prophylaxis. Support was given by the transfer of knowledge to the patient. Instructions were given during realisations of new activities and development of skills. It was evaluated if the patient is capable to reflect his actions and to assess if he is able to react on deviations from the normal standards in a correct and appropriate way. After dismissal it was secured by phone call that the patient successfully manages the new self-care demands independently. PMID:20112205

Holler, Eva-Maria; Paulsen, Annika

2010-02-01

83

A self-care retreat for pediatric hematology oncology nurses.  

PubMed

Pediatric hematology oncology nurses face a variety of stressors while working in this specialty field. Through hematology oncology staff group discussions, nurses identified a myriad physical and emotional stressors they experienced, and expressed concern regarding possible burnout. They described facing stressors related to experiencing loss, grief, moral and ethical dilemmas, and administering complex treatment regimens. To address these concerns, a hematology oncology nursing supportive care committee envisioned and implemented 3 off-site self-care retreats. The committee's primary purpose was to create a therapeutic and supportive environment for all participants, while allowing time for relaxation, reflection, and serenity. The primary goals for the retreats were to heal nurses from their reported past trauma and stress and to provide them effective coping strategies for the ongoing stressors they will inevitably face. In a collaborative effort, the committee members developed an agenda including presentations, group discussions, and relaxation activities. Written evaluations were completed by each participant to assess the benefit of the retreat. Overall feedback was extremely positive, with the majority of the participants finding great value in this experience. PMID:23118023

Altounji, Diane; Morgan, Helene; Grover, Monica; Daldumyan, Sona; Secola, Rita

2013-01-01

84

Quality of recipient-caregiver relationship and psychological distress are correlates of self-care agency after lung transplantation.  

PubMed

Self-care behaviors are crucial for following the complex regimen after lung transplantation, yet little is known about recipients' levels of self-care agency (the capability and willingness to engage in self-care behaviors) and its correlates. We examined levels of self-care agency and recipient characteristics (socio-demographics, psychological distress, quality of relationship with primary lay caregiver, and health locus of control) in 111 recipients. Based on Perceived Self-Care Agency scores, recipients were assigned to either the low- or high-self-care agency comparison group. Characteristics were compared between groups to identify characteristics likely to be associated with lower-self-care agency. Mean (SD) score for self-care agency (scale range, 53-265) was 223.02 (22.46). Recipients with lowest-self-care agency scores reported significantly poorer quality of caregiver relationships (p < 0.001) and greater psychological distress (p < 0.001). After controlling for psychological distress, the quality of the recipient-caregiver relationship remained significantly associated with self-care agency. Every one-point decrease in the quality of caregiver relationship increased the risk of low-self-care agency by 12%. Recipients with poorer caregiver relationships and greater psychological distress may need additional support to perform the self-care behaviors expected after lung transplantation. PMID:23004565

DeVito Dabbs, Annette; Terhorst, Lauren; Song, Mi-Kyung; Shellmer, Diana A; Aubrecht, Jill; Connolly, Mary; Dew, Mary Amanda

2013-01-01

85

Self-Care in the Classroom for Children with Chronic Illness: A Case Study of a Student with Cystic Fibrosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the essential self-care of an eight-year old second-grade student. This study illustrates a school counselor's use of a multimodal, behavioral intervention to increase the level of self-care in the classroom. Relevant reinforcements, individual and group counseling, and peer support, resulted in improved self-care. (RJM)

Cox, Julie Elizabeth Jonson

1994-01-01

86

Effect of Neighborhood Factors on Diabetes Self-Care Behaviors in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to identify latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care and examine the effect of neighborhood factors on diabetes self-care in adults with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods 615 subjects were recruited from an academic medical center and a Veterans affairs medical center in the southeastern United States. Validated scales were used to assess neighborhood factors and diabetes-related self-care. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the latent constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to assess the relationship between neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care. Results Based on a theoretical framework, CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood aesthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care ( including diet, exercise, foot care, blood sugar testing and medication adherence). SEM showed that social support (r=0.28, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.16, p=0.003) were significantly associated with self-care behaviors, while neighborhood violence (r= -0.06, p<0.001) and aesthetics (r=-0.07, p=0.278) were not ?2 (180, N=611)=192, p=0.26, RMSEA=0.01, CFI=0.999). In the final trimmed model, social support (r=0.31, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (r=-0.20, p<0.001) remained significantly associated with self-care behaviors ?2 (76, N=611)=60, p=0.91, RMSEA=0.00, CFI=1.0). Conclusion This study developed latent factors for neighborhood characteristics and diabetes self-care and found that social support and access to healthy foods were significantly associated with diabetes self-care and should be considered as targets for future interventions. PMID:17625220

Smalls, Brittany L.; Gregory, Chris M.; Zoller, James S.; Egede, Leonard E.

2014-01-01

87

A pilot study of yoga as self-care for arthritis in minority communities  

PubMed Central

Background While arthritis is the most common cause of disability, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics experience worse arthritis impact despite having the same or lower prevalence of arthritis compared to non-Hispanic whites. People with arthritis who exercise regularly have less pain, more energy, and improved sleep, yet arthritis is one of the most common reasons for limiting physical activity. Mind-body interventions, such as yoga, that teach stress management along with physical activity may be well suited for investigation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Yoga users are predominantly white, female, and college educated. There are few studies that examine yoga in minority populations; none address arthritis. This paper presents a study protocol examining the feasibility and acceptability of providing yoga to an urban, minority population with arthritis. Methods/design In this ongoing pilot study, a convenience sample of 20 minority adults diagnosed with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis undergo an 8-week program of yoga classes. It is believed that by attending yoga classes designed for patients with arthritis, with racially concordant instructors; acceptability of yoga as an adjunct to standard arthritis treatment and self-care will be enhanced. Self-care is defined as adopting behaviors that improve physical and mental well-being. This concept is quantified through collecting patient-reported outcome measures related to spiritual growth, health responsibility, interpersonal relations, and stress management. Additional measures collected during this study include: physical function, anxiety/depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, social roles, and pain; as well as baseline demographic and clinical data. Field notes, quantitative and qualitative data regarding feasibility and acceptability are also collected. Acceptability is determined by response/retention rates, positive qualitative data, and continuing yoga practice after three months. Discussion There are a number of challenges in recruiting and retaining participants from a community clinic serving minority populations. Adopting behaviors that improve well-being and quality of life include those that integrate mental health (mind) and physical health (body). Few studies have examined offering integrative modalities to this population. This pilot was undertaken to quantify measures of feasibility and acceptability that will be useful when evaluating future plans for expanding the study of yoga in urban, minority populations with arthritis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01617421 PMID:23548052

2013-01-01

88

Nursing consultation applied to hypertensive clients: application of Orem's self-care theory.  

PubMed

The objective was to implant the Nursing Consultation for hypertensive patients, using Orem's Self-Care Theory and to systematize nursing care. Thirty-six patients were interviewed. Of these, 58.9% were women, 75.0% of them ranging from 50 to 80 years of age, 76.4% were married, 42.9% were housewives, 47.2% were retired, and 67.3% completed elementary education. Patients were interviewed with a structured instrument addressing the requirements for universal, developmental, and health deviations self-care. Data analysis made it possible to assess the altered self-care requirements. In patient care planning, support-education actions were our top priority. Orem's self-care theory permitted identifying important aspects, which need to be developed by the nurses. PMID:19377816

Manzini, Fernanda Cristina; Simonetti, Janete Pessuto

2009-01-01

89

Parent and Adolescent Distribution of Responsibility for Diabetes Self-care: Links to Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective?To examine the relation of adolescent and parent responsibility distribution for diabetes self-care to psychological and physical health.?Methods?We interviewed children (mean age 12 years) annually for 3 years and asked parents to complete a questionnaire. Both reported how diabetes self-care was distributed in the family. Amount of responsibility held by the child only, the parent only, and shared between child and parent was calculated. Psychological distress, competence, and diabetes outcomes were assessed at each wave.?Results?In both cross-sectional and longitudinal (lagged) analyses, multilevel modeling showed that shared responsibility was consistently associated with better psychological health, good self-care behavior, and good metabolic control, whereas child and parent responsibility were not. In some cases, links of shared responsibility to health outcomes were stronger among older adolescents.?Conclusions?These findings highlight the importance of shared responsibility for diabetes self-care through early to middle adolescence. PMID:17848390

Reynolds, Kerry A.; Siminerio, Linda; Escobar, Oscar; Becker, Dorothy

2008-01-01

90

Effects of a Safe Patient Handling and Mobility Program on Patient Self-Care Outcomes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) program on patient self-care outcomes. METHOD. We used a retrospective cohort design. Data were obtained from the electronic medical records of 1,292 patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation services. Self-care scores from the FIM™ for patients who participated in rehabilitation before implementation of an SPHM program were compared with the scores of patients who participated after implementation of the program. RESULTS. Patients who received inpatient rehabilitation services with an SPHM program were as likely to achieve at least modified independence in self-care as those who received inpatient rehabilitation services without an SPHM program. CONCLUSION. SPHM programs may not affect self-care performance in adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation services. However, more work must be done to define specific and effective methods for integrating patient handling technologies into occupational therapy practice. PMID:25184472

Shiyko, Mariya; Margulis, Heather; Campo, Marc

2014-01-01

91

Relationship among patients' perceived capacity for communication, health literacy, and diabetes self-care.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying the relations among health literacy, perceived capacity for communication, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes self-care are unclear. This study tested this relation using structural equation modeling with a sample of 137 Chinese patients 65 years of age or older with type 2 diabetes. The model showed that health literacy, knowledge, communication capacity, and diabetes self-care formed complex relations. After adjusting for age, education, and Chinese cultural influence, health literacy affected diabetes self-care indirectly through perceived capacity for communication (standardized estimate coefficient = .641, p < .001) but not diabetes knowledge. To enhance self-care, interventions should be tailored to increase patient health literacy and perceived capacity for communication with health care providers. Training should be provided to patients to enhance their communication abilities. PMID:25315591

Leung, Angela Yee Man; Cheung, Mike Kwun Ting; Chi, Iris

2014-10-01

92

Development of the Self-Care for Adults on Dialysis tool (SCAD).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a norm-referenced tool that would measure the self-care abilities and behaviours for adults requiring dialysis therapy. Guided by the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (Orem, 2001) and an extensive review of the research literature, the Lay Care Giving for Adults on Dialysis tool (LC-GAD) (Horsburgh, Laing, Beanlands, Meng, & Harwood, 2008) was modified to develop the Self-Care for Adults on Dialysis (SCAD) measure. Content validity testing of the SCAD was conducted by a panel of 13 nephrology nursing experts. The tool was modified based on study findings. Further psychometric testing is required. When completed the SCAD tool will guide nurses to design and evaluate supportive self-care interventions for adults requiring dialysis. PMID:21894839

Costantini, Lucia; Beanlands, Heather; Horsburgh, Martha Elizabeth

2011-01-01

93

Acts-Hf: Attention, Cognition and Self-Care in Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) are required to participate in self-care activities. This activities include taking prescribed medications, monitoring for symptoms, intervening appropriately and evaluating the response to the treatment. Cognitive impairment occurs relatively frequently in this population. Few studies have attempted to describe the nature of the relationship between self-care and cognitive impairment in this population.\\u000aPurpose:\\/ This

Catherine M. Murks

2011-01-01

94

Self-care self-efficacy, quality of life, and depression after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robinson-Smith G, Johnston MV, Allen J. Self-care self-efficacy, quality of life, and depression after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:460-4. Objective: To determine the relationship of self-care self-efficacy to functional independence, quality of life, and depression after stroke. Methods: Longitudinal, descriptive correlational design. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation facility at 1 month after stroke and home at 6 months after stroke. Participants:

Gale Robinson-Smith; Mark V Johnston; Judith Allen

2000-01-01

95

The Health Deviation of Post-Breast Cancer Lymphedema: Symptom Assessment and Impact on Self-Care Agency.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women world-wide, affecting 1 of 8 women during their lifetimes. In the US alone, some 2 million breast cancer survivors comprise 20% of all cancer survivors. Conservatively, it is estimated that some 20-40% of all breast cancer survivors will develop the health deviation of lymphedema or treatment-related limb swelling over their lifetimes. This chronic accumulation of protein-rich fluid predisposes to infection, leads to difficulties in fitting clothing and carrying out activities of daily living, and impacts self-esteem, self-concept, and quality of life. Lymphedema is associated with self-care deficits (SCD) and negatively impacts self-care agency (SCA) and physiological and psychosocial well-being. Objectives of this report are two-fold: (1) to explore four approaches of assessing and diagnosing breast cancer lymphedema, including self-report of symptoms and the impact of health deviations on SCA; and (2) to propose the development of a clinical research program for lymphedema based on the concepts of Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT). Anthropometric and symptom data from a National-Institutes-of-Health-funded prospective longitudinal study were examined using survival analysis to compare four definitions of lymphedema over 24 months post-breast cancer surgery among 140 of 300 participants (all who had passed the 24-month measurement). The four definitions included differences of 200 ml, 10% volume, and 2 cm circumference between pre-op baseline and/or contralateral limbs, and symptom self-report of limb heaviness and swelling. Symptoms, SCA, and SCD were assessed by interviews using a validated tool. Estimates of lymphedema occurrence varied by definition and time since surgery. The 2 cm girth change provided the highest estimation of lymphedema (82% at 24 months), followed by 200 ml volume change (57% at 24 months). The 10% limb volume change converged with symptom report of heaviness and swelling at 24 months (38-39% lymphedema occurrence), with symptom report being the earliest predictor of lymphedema occurrence than any other measurement. Findings verify the importance of subjective assessment by symptom report of limb changes and SCD following breast cancer treatment as an essential tool in early detection and treatment of lymphedema. Findings also support the importance of pre-operative baseline measurements, symptom history, and SCA for later post-op comparisons. These preliminary findings underscore the importance of strengthening SCA by educating breast cancer survivors. Self assessment, early detection, and early treatment hold the best promise for optimal management of this chronic condition, limiting detrimental effects on SCA, and improving quality of life and physiological and psychosocial well-being. These findings lay the foundation for a clinical research program in breast cancer lymphedema based on SCDNT in which education in and awareness for self-report of lymphedema-associated symptoms is a first step in screening. Increasing patient knowledge through education will increase SCA by identifying ane providing information to meet self-care requisites (SCR) related to the health deviation of lymphedema. The nurse has the opportunity to assist patients in developing self-care actions as needed to meet universal and health deviation therapeutic requisites to address self-care demands following breast cancer treatment. PMID:22844654

Armer, Jane M; Henggeler, Mary H; Brooks, Constance W; Zagar, Eris A; Homan, Sherri; Stewart, Bob R

2008-01-01

96

Diabetes Self-care among a Multiethnic Sample of Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes constitutes a leading and increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults, particularly African Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and rural dwellers. To understand diabetes self-care, an essential determinant of diabetic and overall health outcomes, 80 middle aged and older adults from these four disproportionately affected racial/ethnic/residential groups engaged in in-depth interviews, focusing on approaches to and explanations for diabetes self-care. Certain self-care activities (medication-taking, diet, foot care) were performed regularly while others (blood glucose monitoring, exercise) were practiced less frequently. Despite research suggestions to the contrary, only one in four elders used unconventional diabetes therapies, and only one-third listed someone other than a health care provider as a primary information source. Few self-care differences emerged according to race/ethnicity/residence, perhaps because of the influential and common circumstance of low income. Thematic analyses suggest that inadequate resources, perceived efficacy of medication, great respect for biomedical authority, and lack of familiarity with and concerns about unconventional therapies are influential in establishing these patterns of self-care. We discuss the similarity of self-care practices and perspectives irrespective of race/ethnicity/residence and the predominance of biomedical acceptability. PMID:18369715

Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Traywick, LaVona S.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy; Kart, Cary S.

2011-01-01

97

Developing Compassionate Self-care Skills in Persons Living with HIV: a Pilot Study to Examine Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy Feasibility and Acceptability  

PubMed Central

Background Self-care skills for persons living with HIV (PLWH) are needed to better cope with the common symptoms and emotional challenges of living with this chronic illness. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy (MABT) for individuals receiving medical management for HIV at an outpatient program. Setting A nonprofit outpatient day program that provided medical management to low-income individuals with HIV. Research Design A one group pre–post study design, nine participants were recruited to receive eight weekly MABT sessions of 1.25 hours each. Intervention MABT is designed to facilitate emotion regulation through teaching somatically-based self-care skills to respond to daily stressors. Main Outcome Measures To assess participant characteristics and study feasibility, a battery of health questionnaires and one week of wrist actigraphy was administered pre- and postintervention. A satisfaction survey and written questionnaire was administered postintervention to assess MABT acceptability. Results The results demonstrated recruitment and retention feasibility. The sample had psychological and physical health symptoms that are characteristic of PLWH. MABT acceptability was high, and participants perceived that they learned new mind-body self-care skills that improved HIV symptoms and their ability to manage symptoms. Conclusion The positive findings support a larger future study to examine MABT efficacy to improve coping with HIV symptoms among PLWH. PMID:23730396

Price, Cynthia J.; Diana, Taibi M.; Smith-DiJulio, Kathleen L.; Voss, Joachim G.

2013-01-01

98

Holistic self-care for rehabilitation experienced by thai buddhist trauma patients in areas of political and social unrest.  

PubMed

This study describes the meaning and practice of holistic self-care for rehabilitation among Thai Buddhist trauma patients living in areas of political unrest where acts of terrorism occur. Eleven Thai Buddhist trauma patients were selected as specified. The data were collected by in-depth interviews between November 2011 and April 2012, and analyzed using the Van Manen method.Those interviewed described "holistic self-care for rehabilitation" as learning (1) to acquire a new life and (2) to bear the increased demands of care as a chronic disease. Health care responses fell into 3 categories: (1) improving physical self-sufficiency and rehabilitation by increasing muscle strength, pain management, and pressure sores; (2) improving psychological well-being by applying positive thinking, making an effort to live independently, and following a set of religious practices; and (3) finding harmony in life through caution and a willingness to adjust one's lifestyle. Although the participants seemed to adapt well to their new lifestyles, extensive support from health care professionals was necessary. This study promotes better understanding of the holistic health care experiences the survivors of trauma have as a result of an unstable political situation that includes aspects of social unrest and terrorism. PMID:24305082

Songwathana, Praneed; Watanasiriwanich, Wachiraya; Kitrungrote, Luppana

2013-01-01

99

Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Methods Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30) was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s) to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05. Results A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%). The majority of the study sample (79.5%) had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001), monthly income (p<0.001) and duration of diabetes (p=0.008). Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013). Conclusion Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level. PMID:25243026

Jackson, Idongesit L.; Adibe, Maxwell O.; Okonta, Matthew J.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

2014-01-01

100

Unhealthy Substance Use Behaviors as Symptom-Related Self-Care in HIV/AIDS  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430

Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen

2014-01-01

101

Evaluation of Internet-Based Technology for Supporting Self-Care: Problems Encountered by Patients and Caregivers When Using Self-Care Applications  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies have shown that many patients are interested in Internet-based technology that enables them to control their own care. As a result, innovative eHealth services are evolving rapidly, including self-assessment tools and secure patient-caregiver email communication. It is interesting to explore how these technologies can be used for supporting self-care. Objective The aim of this study was to determine user-centered criteria for successful application of Internet-based technology used in primary care for supporting self-care. Methods We conducted scenario-based tests combined with in-depth interviews among 14 caregivers and 14 patients/consumers to describe the use of various self-care applications and the accompanying user problems. We focused on the user-friendliness of the applications, the quality of care provided by the applications, and the implementation of the applications in practice. Results Problems with the user-friendliness of the self-care applications concerned inadequate navigation structures and search options and lack of feedback features. Patients want to retrieve health information with as little effort as possible; however, the navigation and search functionalities of the applications appeared incapable of handling patients’ health complaints efficiently. Among caregivers, the lack of feedback and documentation possibilities caused inconvenience. Caregivers wanted to know how patients acted on their advice, but the applications did not offer an adequate feedback feature. Quality of care problems were mainly related to insufficient tailoring of information to patients’ needs and to efficiency problems. Patients expected personalized advice to control their state of health, but the applications failed to deliver this. Language (semantics) also appeared as an obstacle to providing appropriate and useful self-care advice. Caregivers doubted the reliability of the computer-generated information and the efficiency and effectiveness of secure email consultation. Legal or ethical issues with respect to possible misuse of email consultation also caused concerns. Implementation problems were mainly experienced by caregivers due to unclear policy on email consultation and the lack of training for email consultations. Conclusions Patients’ and caregivers’ expectations did not correspond with their experiences of the use of the Internet-based applications for self-care. Patients thought that the applications would support them in solving their health problems. Caregivers were more reserved about the applications because of medico-legal concerns about misuse. However, the applications failed to support self-care because eHealth is more than just a technological intervention. The design of the applications should include a way of thinking about how to deliver health care with the aid of technology. The most powerful application for self-care was secure email consultation, combined with a suitable triage mechanism to empower patients’ self-awareness. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of such Web-based triage mechanisms for medical complaints and on the development of interactive features to enhance patients’ self-care. PMID:18487137

van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia; Boer, Henk; Steehouder, Michaël F; Seydel, Erwin R

2008-01-01

102

Motivating patients with shoulder and back pain to self-care: can a videotape of exercise support physiotherapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe National Health Service is developing an ethos of self-care. Patients are being encouraged to become proficient in helping themselves. This has long been a philosophy of the physiotherapy profession, where self-care between consultations has been an integral part of the treatment process through encouraging the uptake of self-care skills training. This study explored how patients with shoulder and back

J. S. Miller; A. Litva; M. Gabbay

2009-01-01

103

Changes in Habits Related to Self-care in Dementia: The Nursing Home Versus Adult Day Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the changes that occur for older persons with dementia in the practice of self-care routines. This study assesses the concordance of past and current self-care practices of day care and nursing home persons using spouse reports, the degree of spouse awareness of these changes, and spouse perception of how important self-care practices had been to their

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Barbara Jensen

2007-01-01

104

Integration of Problem-based Learning and Innovative Technology Into a Self-Care Course  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the integration of problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course. Design. Problem-based learning (PBL) activities were developed and implemented in place of lectures in a self-care course. Students used technology, such as computer-generated virtual patients and iPads, during the PBL sessions. Assessments. Students’ scores on post-case quizzes were higher than on pre-case quizzes used to assess baseline knowledge. Student satisfaction with problem-based learning and the use of technology in the course remained consistent throughout the semester. Conclusion. Integrating problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course enabled students to become active learners. PMID:23966730

2013-01-01

105

Caring for oneself to care for others: physicians and their self-care  

PubMed Central

It is well known that clinicians experience distress and grief in response to their patients' suffering. Oncologists and palliative care specialists are no exception since they commonly experience patient loss and are often affected by unprocessed grief. These emotions can compromise clinicians' personal well-being, since unexamined emotions may lead to burnout, moral distress, compassion fatigue, and poor clinical decisions which adversely affect patient care. One approach to mitigate this harm is self-care, defined as a cadre of activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain personal well-being throughout life. This article emphasizes the importance of having a self-care and self-awareness plan when caring for patients with life-limiting cancer and discusses validated methods to increase self-care, enhance self-awareness and improve patient care. PMID:23967495

Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Morrison, Laura J.; Carey, Elise; Bernacki, Rachelle; O'Neill, Lynn; Kapo, Jennifer; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S.; Thomas, Jane deLima

2014-01-01

106

A meta-analysis of self-care behavior research on elders in Thailand: an update.  

PubMed

Self-care is essential for elderly individuals to maintain their optimal level of health. This meta-analysis was conducted to summarize research findings relating to self-care among the elderly in Thailand. Twenty studies undertaken from 1990 to 2008 were used and 328 effect sizes were computed. Most studies were unpublished master's theses guided by Orem's self-care deficit theory. Data were collected in these studies by face-to-face interviews. Variables with the largest effect sizes encompassed self-concept, social support, and self-efficacy. Those with medium effect sizes entailed family relationships, overall health beliefs, internal locus of control, health status, and external locus of control. Results from this meta-analysis is useful information for nursing. PMID:20167710

Klainin, Piyanee; Ounnapiruk, Liwan

2010-04-01

107

Being old and living alone in urban areas: the meaning of self-care and health on the perception of life situation and identity  

PubMed Central

Background Living alone in urban areas when getting old is an important and necessary field for research as the growth of the urban population worldwide increases, and due to the fact that people live longer. How older people manage their self-care and health, and how this might influence their identity and life situation may be very important to understand when planning for a new, upcoming older generation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. Methods A phenomenological–hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur was applied. Nine single-living older persons in urban areas, 70–82 years of age, and identified to be in good health were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a phenomenological–hermeneutic method. Results Strength and a time dimension characterized the meaning of self-care and health for the perception of life situation and identity as narrated by the group of single-living older individuals in urban areas in southern Norway. The informants were, as older individuals, caring, autonomous, and robust characters, who had gone through difficult times in life, and in a resilient way moved towards a new future. They valued and were grateful for what they had learned in their lives and could go forward and still experience and explore. Conclusion Self-care is significant in the perception of life situation and identity among single urban older people in this study, and characterized by strength, temporality, gratitude, autonomy, and natality. Society needs to acknowledge the strengths and capabilities of older people to a greater extent. PMID:23847434

Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Soderhamn, Olle

2013-01-01

108

Self-care and yoga-academic-practice collaboration for occupational health.  

PubMed

High rates of stress and burnout among nurses and other health care providers justify the exploration of innovative interventions designed to reduce stress and promote self-care among this population. A growing body of evidence supports the physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga and suggests the potential for yoga to support self-care and reduce stress among health care providers. This article describes the formation of an academic-practice collaboration to use yoga as a model for occupational health and wellness among nurses employed at a tax-supported urban health system. In addition, recommendations for program sustainability over time are discussed. PMID:24328918

Alexander, Gina

2013-12-01

109

The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory as a curriculum conceptual framework in baccalaureate education.  

PubMed

Although Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory has been used for curricula framework for years, it was not until 2001 that Orem identified the nursing practice sciences and the foundational nursing sciences and specified the appropriate content for the two sciences. The broad purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance of utilizing nursing theories as curricular conceptual frameworks. The specific purpose is to delineate the appropriate content for baccalaureate programs that adopt a Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory conceptual framework for their curriculum. PMID:21471038

Berbiglia, Violeta A

2011-04-01

110

Environment: a perspective of the self-care deficit nursing theory.  

PubMed

In this column the author presents an examination of Orem's conceptualization of environment as a metaparadigm concept, the role of environment in the theoretical structure of the self-care deficit nursing theory, and the creation of a developmental environment as one of the ways of helping another. Suggestions for further work related to the conceptualization of environment and the organization of existent knowledge are provided. Application of the concept of nursing agency and the environmental factor of healthcare system illustrate the utility of self-care deficit nursing theory in relation to the recommendations for changes in nursing education and for redesign of the healthcare system. PMID:21471028

Banfield, Barbara E

2011-04-01

111

Support and Self-Care: Professional Reflections of Six New Zealand High School Counsellors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many Western societies there is increasing demand for counselling; in turn, heightened levels of support needs have been identified for counsellors themselves. Despite calls for practitioners to adopt a more proactive approach to self-care, research suggests many still pay insufficient attention to alleviating on-the-job stress or achieving…

Evans, Yvonne A.; Payne, Monica A.

2008-01-01

112

A Personal Reflection on Negotiating Fear, Compassion and Self-Care in Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

With this paper, I discuss the unexpected, the corporeal and the emotional. I attend not only to the issues of fear and integrity in research of the ex-gay movement in North America, but also to related issues of compassion, self-care and violence. I explore my commitment to communicate empathically with and think compassionately about a group of people who are

S. J. Creek

2012-01-01

113

Vernon, B.C. Author Cindy Horyza Launches Self Care 101, Schedules Local Book Signings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self Care 101 is a follow-up to Horyza's popular first book, The Hornet's Nest: Coming Full Circle, released last year. Written under the pen name C. L. Souley, The Hornet's Nest: Coming Full Circle is a memoir chronicling Horyza's tumultuous life within her dysfunctional family. Suffering from both addiction and co-dependency, Horyza successfully traverses the rocky terrain as she carves

Cindy Horyza

114

Healthcare Compunetics: An End-to-End Architecture for Self-Care Service Provision  

E-print Network

Healthcare Compunetics: An End-to-End Architecture for Self-Care Service Provision Andy Marsh VMW., London WC1E 7HX g.roussos@bbk.ac.uk Yanna Vogiazou Knowledge Media Institute The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA I.T.Vogiazou@open.ac.uk Abstract ­ Extending healthcare to the community introduces

Roussos, George

115

Mindfulness, Self-Care, and Wellness in Social Work: Effects of Contemplative Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demands placed on human service workers in supporting people through challenging circumstances can contribute to high levels of stress and burnout. Self-care practices implemented regularly may decrease the impact of the high levels of stress while also serving as strategies for coping during particularly stressful times. The interconnections between contemplative practices, including mindfulness, as coping and preventative strategies for

Tessa McGarrigle; Christine A. Walsh

2011-01-01

116

A Program Design To Motivate Individuals with SCI for Self-Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report compares a skin care education program with a standard rehabilitation program to determine whether the program improved the self care motivations of spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegic and quadriplegic inpatients (N=42). Study findings suggest that the skin care educational program was successful in changing patients' thinking about…

Scotzin, Martha

117

Symptom monitoring, alleviation, and self-care among mexican americans during cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Monitoring the occurrence and severity of symptoms among Mexican American adults undergoing cancer treatments, along with their self-care to alleviate symptoms, are understudied; the current study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. A total of 67 Mexican Americans receiving outpatient oncology treatments in the southwestern United States participated. Instruments included a patient-report checklist, the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC), the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods tool, and a demographic and health information form. At least 40% of participants reported the occurrence of 12 symptoms: hair loss, feeling sluggish, nausea, taste change, loss of appetite, depression, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, difficulty concentrating, constipation, skin changes, and numb fingers and toes. More than a third also reported pain, vomiting, decreased interest in sexual activity, cough, and sore throat. The helpful self-care strategies reported included diet and nutrition changes; lifestyle changes; and mind, body control, and spiritual activities. Patient report of symptoms during cancer treatments was facilitated by the use of the TRSC. Patients use symptom alleviation strategies to help relieve symptoms during their cancer treatment. The ability to perform appropriate, effective self-care methods to alleviate the symptoms may influence adherence to the treatment regimen. PMID:25253108

Williams, Phoebe D; Lantican, Leticia S; Bader, Julia O; Lerma, Daniela

2014-10-01

118

Applying Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing to continence care: Part 2.  

PubMed

Theory based nursing practice provides a framework for initiation of the research process. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing clearly relates and can be easily applied to continence care. Orem's Theory guides nursing practice with theoretical concepts and goal setting providing a foundation upon which nurses can question the practice and expand the avenue for nursing research. PMID:12593229

Bernier, Francie

2002-12-01

119

Compassion Fatigue Risk and Self-Care Practices among Residential Treatment Center Childcare Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploration of the presence of risk for compassion fatigue among residential childcare workers (RCW) at residential treatment facilities and the relationship between self-care practices and compassion fatigue were explored. Using the Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-R III) to assess compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion…

Eastwood, Callum D.; Ecklund, Kathryn

2008-01-01

120

Self-Care and Self-Help Groups for the Elderly: A Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document notes that, as health care costs continue to rise, the elderly are monitoring themselves as a means of cost containment, and as a way of enhancing their sense of well-being and their ability to lead active lives. It points out that more and more organizations are sponsoring health programs that promote the concept of self-care and…

National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

121

Health literacy and self-care of patients with heart failure: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Inadequate health literacy, or difficulty in obtaining and understanding health information, may be a barrier in educating patients about their heart failure. ^ Objectives. The first objective of this study was to model the relationship between health literacy, health locus of control, years of formal education, knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care in patients with heart failure. The second objective of

Aleda M Chen

2011-01-01

122

What Kind of Self-Care Strategies Do People Report Using and Is There an Association with Well-Being?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe what kind of self-care strategies people report using to improve or maintain their well-being. Furthermore, we also wanted to investigate whether reports of using self-care strategies were associated with well-being. Methods: A selected sample (n = 871), aged between 20 and 64 years, living in…

Hansson, Anna; Hilleras, Pernilla; Forsell, Yvonne

2005-01-01

123

Teaching Self-Care Through Mindfulness Practices: The Application of Yoga, Meditation, and Qigong to Counselor Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faculty in counseling training programs often give voice to the importance of self-care for students during the training period and into practice after training is completed. However, few programs specifically address this issue in their curricula. To address this perceived need, a course was developed to provide students with (a) personal growth opportunities through self-care practices and (b) professional growth

John Chambers Christopher; Suzanne E. Christopher; Tim Dunnagan; Marc Schure

2006-01-01

124

The health literacy, self-care, and medication hassles of patients with heart failure and their caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 90 million Americans lack the necessary health literacy skills to adequately care for themselves in the face of a complex healthcare system and self-care regimens. Patients with heart failure are particularly challenged by meeting with multiple healthcare providers, who may emphasize different self-care strategies, which can be difficult for patients to interpret. Understanding how to effectively care for one's

Aleda M Hess

2009-01-01

125

Effect of Self - Care Education on Quality of Life in Patients With Primary Hypertension: Comparing Lecture and Educational Package  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypertension is a dangerous risk factor for public health. It profoundly affects the patients’ quality of life. However, there is lack of agreement on the best method for self-care management in patients with hypertension. Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the effect of lecture and educational pamphlets on quality of life (QOL) in patients with primary hypertension. Patients and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed on 90 patients with chronic primary hypertension referred to two outpatient clinics in Kashan city. Patients were randomly divided into three groups including lecture group, educational package group, and control group. The participants’ quality of life was measured using the SF-36 questionnaire at the beginning of the study, and two months later. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Chi-Square tests. Results: No significant differences were observed between the three groups for demographics characteristics and QOL before the intervention except for marital status. Mean scores of QOL dimensions of the intervention groups were increased at the end of the study, except for the dimension of bodily pain. Tukey post-Hoc test showed that except for general health, the two intervention groups were not significantly different in other dimensions, and significant differences were observed between the control group and the two intervention groups (P < 0.05). At start and the end of the study, the mean differences in the general health dimension in three groups were 2.25 ± 0.1, 0.07 ± 0.01, and -1.70 ± 0.01 respectively. There were significant differences among groups (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Lecture and educational package can both improve some dimensions of the QOL in patients with hypertension. However, as pamphlets are cheap and easy to use, this method may be used as an effective method for self-care education in health care settings in Iran, where the system is faced with nursing shortage.

Aghajani, Mohamad; Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Neda; Kafaei Atrian, Mahbube; Raofi, Zahra; Abedi, Fatemeh; Naeimi Vartoni, Sajad; Soleimani, Akbar

2013-01-01

126

Emerging trends in gerontology and geriatrics: implications for the self-care of the elderly.  

PubMed

Increases in the world's older population have posed a significant challenge to available health care resources. For many older people, informal initiatives represent a necessary, rather than an optional health care strategy in the absence of alternatives. Those individuals with the greatest health and economic dependencies are often held responsible for their reliance on subsidized long-term care services. This tendency to blame the victim appears to transcend fundamental philosophic differences which have traditionally distinguished some collectivist and individualist societies. Although health care has been viewed traditionally by health professionals as their domain, self-care and lay initiatives have recently been recognized by professionals as important to the health care of different population groups including older people. The concept of self-care has been used in various ways by different people to describe a wide range of personal health behaviors encompassing lay care, self-help, enlightened consumerism, and various preventive measures as antidotes to the impairments of old age. This paper reports some of the outcomes of an international project which reviewed geriatric self-care in different countries and health care systems. Various influences on the evolution of interest in geriatric self-care were identified including: similarities and differences in health care systems: demographic changes; cohort differences; the emergence of professionals with specialized training in geriatric health care; and, the salience of biomedical models in addressing the health problems of aging. The role of professionals, especially those trained in geriatrics, is examined with an acknowledgment of the importance of a self-care strategy that is independent of professional dominance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3823991

Hickey, T; Dean, K; Holstein, B E

1986-01-01

127

Spanish version of the Child and Adolescent Self-Care Performance Questionnaire: psychometric testing.  

PubMed

This methodological study sought to determine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Child and Adolescent Self-Care Performance Questionnaire originally developed by Moore (1995). In this study, the questionnaire, written originally in English, was translated into Spanish, and some items were adapted for the Latin American culture. The instrument was administered to 536 children of moderate socioeconomic status, ages 10 to 15 years, living in Chile. Evidence for reliability and validity involved examining Coefficient Alpha for the total scale and each of the subscales, item analysis, and factor analysis with varimax rotation. Coefficient alpha for the total scale (35 items) was 0.82, similar to the reliability reported by Moore (1995) for the original instrument. Factor analysis supported eight factors. Use of the instrument in Central and South America may assist in determining self-care practices of Latin American children and the effect of interventions to improve such practices. PMID:19472674

Jaimovich, Sonia; Campos, María Cecilia; Campos, María Sylvia; Moore, Jean Burley

2009-01-01

128

Quaternion Averaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

2007-01-01

129

Young Cancer Patients' Perceptions of a Video Game Used to Promote Self Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

A video game called 'Re-Mission' has recently been investigated with adolescent and young adult cancer patients enrolled in a multi-site randomized controlled evaluation of the game as a psycho-educational intervention. The main focus of the trial was to determine effects of the game on self-care and other health-related outcomes. It was also considered valuable to evaluate participants' perceptions of the

Ivan L. Beale; Verónica M. Marín-Bowling; Nicole Guthrie; Pamela M. Kato

2006-01-01

130

Posthospital setting, resource utilization, and self-care outcome in older women with hip fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare posthospital rehabilitation resource utilization and self-care outcome of women with hip fracture discharged to three types of setting (home, inpatient rehabilitation, skilled nursing).Design: Prospective cohort study. Patient interviews in the hospital, 2 and 6 months after fracture; hospital record reviews.Setting: Two general community and two teaching hospitals.Patients: Consecutive sample of community-living women with hip fracture, aged 65

Sandra J. Levi

1997-01-01

131

Diabetes Self-care among a Multiethnic Sample of Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes constitutes a leading and increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults, particularly African\\u000a Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and rural dwellers. To understand diabetes self-care, an essential determinant\\u000a of diabetic and overall health outcomes, 80 middle aged and older adults from these four disproportionately affected racial\\/ethnic\\/residential\\u000a groups engaged in in-depth interviews, focusing on approaches to

Nancy E. Schoenberg; LaVona S. Traywick; Joy Jacobs-Lawson; Cary S. Kart

2008-01-01

132

Technology-Based Self-Care Methods of Improving Antiretroviral Adherence: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background As HIV infection has shifted to a chronic condition, self-care practices have emerged as an important topic for HIV-positive individuals in maintaining an optimal level of health. Self-care refers to activities that patients undertake to maintain and improve health, such as strategies to achieve and maintain high levels of antiretroviral adherence. Methodology/Principal Findings Technology-based methods are increasingly used to enhance antiretroviral adherence; therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to examine technology-based self-care methods that HIV-positive individuals utilize to improve adherence. Seven electronic databases were searched from 1/1/1980 through 12/31/2010. We included quantitative and qualitative studies. Among quantitative studies, the primary outcomes included ARV adherence, viral load, and CD4+ cell count and secondary outcomes consisted of quality of life, adverse effects, and feasibility/acceptability data. For qualitative/descriptive studies, interview themes, reports of use, and perceptions of use were summarized. Thirty-six publications were included (24 quantitative and 12 qualitative/descriptive). Studies with exclusive utilization of medication reminder devices demonstrated less evidence of enhancing adherence in comparison to multi-component methods. Conclusions/Significance This systematic review offers support for self-care technology-based approaches that may result in improved antiretroviral adherence. There was a clear pattern of results that favored individually-tailored, multi-function technologies, which allowed for periodic communication with health care providers rather than sole reliance on electronic reminder devices. PMID:22140446

Saberi, Parya; Johnson, Mallory O.

2011-01-01

133

Developing an appropriate model for self-care of hypertensive patients: first experience from EMRO  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute 53% of deaths above the age of 30; 54% of these deaths are attributed to high blood pressure. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of mortality in the world. Hypertension accounts for 13% of mortalities and 6% of morbidities and is one of the main risk factors that cause loss of healthy life years. Blood pressure is not optimally controlled even among those who are aware of their disease. Previous studies showed that apart from pharmacological treatment, lifestyle improvement can also play a significant role in the prevention of high blood pressure CVDs. Self-care among them has been addressed in several previous studies. There are few self-care programs in Iran, but no study has been conducted on blood pressure. METHODS In this study the primary model is designed and then revised, and in the pilot study the feasibility of the project was approved and the final model presented. RESULTS The current project proposes a model for self-care of hypertensive patients and their families, and is based on education of health care providers and patients in such a way that patients can control their illness. CONCLUSION The model can be implemented at a national scale. PMID:23970918

Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shiri, Mansoor; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

2013-01-01

134

Self-Care Practices among Diabetic Patients in Anand District of Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Background. Diabetes care requires a multipronged approach, wherein the patient has an important role to play. This study was undertaken to explore self-care practices of diabetic patients residing in Anand district of Gujarat. Methods. A cross-sectional study, involving 100 diabetic patients, was conducted in 2009-2010. Self-care practices in seven domains of physical activity, dietary practices, medication taking, monitoring of glucose, problem solving, foot care, and psychosocial adjustment were assessed using scores assigned to participants' responses. Results. The mean age was 60.9 (SD = 12.2) years and 57% were males. Majority (92%) were Hindus and were consulting private medical practitioners (71%). “Medication taking” was the domain with the best performance score (88.1%) and “problem solving” the worst (11.0%). The “psychosocial adjustment” of the participants was satisfactory (82.5%). Overall mean performance percentage score was 54.41%. Males had better performance scores as compared to females in areas of “physical activity,” “dietary practices,” and “problem solving.” Housewives had poorer performance scores. Total mean performance score was similar for patients on treatment from specialists and general practitioners. Conclusion. A self-care education program designed for this region should address the lacunae identified in various domains with a special emphasis on females. PMID:24967330

Raithatha, Shyamsundar Jagdish; Shankar, Singh Uday; Dinesh, Kumar

2014-01-01

135

Pain and self-care behaviours in adult patients with end-stage liver disease: a longitudinal description.  

PubMed

This prospective descriptive study investigated pain characteristics in 20 outpatients with endstage liver disease (ESLD) who were approaching the end of life, described variability in pain between and within patients, and described the pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain management strategies used. The instruments we utilized were the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the self-care behaviour (SCB) log for pain. Data were collected once a month over a six-month period. BPI severity of, and interference from pain mean scores ranged from 5.52 to 6.03 and 5.36 to 6.64, respectively. The top three pain-relieving behaviours reported by patients were "taking pain medication," "taking a nap," and "asking for help." Pain medication intake-differed between patients who were pursuing a liver transplant and those who were not eligible for one. If we are to effectively improve care for ESLD patients, it is essential that we understand the ways in which these patients experience pain and the pain management strategies they employ. PMID:24826441

Hansen, Lissi; Leo, Michael C; Chang, Michael F; Zucker, Betsy L; Sasaki, Anna

2014-01-01

136

Self-care and adherence to medication: a survey in the hypertension outpatient clinic  

PubMed Central

Background Self-care practices for patients with hypertension include adherence to medication, use of blood pressure self-monitoring and use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) The prevalence of CAM use and blood pressure self-monitoring have not been described in a UK secondary care population of patients with hypertension and their impact on adherence to medication has not been described. Adherence to medication is important for blood pressure control, but poor adherence is common. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-care behaviours in patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. 196 patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic in a teaching hospital serving a multiethnic population, Birmingham, UK. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of use of CAM, home monitors, adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Results CAM use in previous 12 months was reported by 66 (43.1%) respondents. CAM users did not differ statistically from non-CAM users by age, gender, marital status or education. Vitamins, prayer a dietary supplements were the most commonly used CAM. Nine (12.7%) women reported using herbal CAM compared to one man (1.2%), (p = 0.006). Ten (6.7%) respondents reported ever being asked by a doctor about CAM use. Perfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication was reported by 26 (44.8%) CAM-users and 46 (60.5%) non-CAM users (p = 0.07). Being female and a CAM user was significantly associated with imperfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Older and white British respondents were significantly more likely to report perfect adherence. Blood pressure monitors were used by 67 (43.8%) respondents, which was not associated with gender, CAM use or adherence to medication. Conclusion Hypertensive patients use a variety of self-care methods, including CAM, home blood pressure monitors, and adherence to prescribed medication. This study found the prevalence of CAM use in hypertensive patients was higher than in the UK population. It is important to acknowledge the self-care behaviour of hypertensive patients, in order to assess potential harm, and encourage effective methods of self-care. PMID:18261219

Gohar, Faekah; Greenfield, Sheila M; Beevers, D Gareth; Lip, Gregory YH; Jolly, Kate

2008-01-01

137

Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory: its philosophic foundation and the state of the science.  

PubMed

There is a preponderance of descriptive studies, ranging from those using a simple descriptive correlational approach to multivariate approaches. Only one study is clearly identified as an experimental study (Moore, 1987) and two clearly identified as replication studies (Lenatsch, 1999; Schott-Baer, Fisher, & Gregory, 1995). Fewer than half make clear links between the variables being examined and situations of nursing practice; that is, they examine elements of the theory of self-care without making the link to nursing practice an explicit part of the study. While this work is increasing our knowledge about self-care (Stage II), further work needs to be done to put the results of these in the context of nursing practice as in Stages III, IV, or V. Most of the studies reviewed are Stage II and provide an enhanced or broader description of an element or component of the theory, empirically describing the relationships between or among age, gender, self-care actions, disease, and so forth. These studies add to our understanding of existing and known or proposed relationships within the extant theory. The majority of studies examine self-care and/or self-care deficits. There are many studies but little evidence that sustained research programs are developing and expanding the theory. The bricks are piling up around the framework, but only a few scholars are working on building the walls. These programs of research are occurring in universities where a critical mass of interested scholars and students can be found. The use of theoretical language is sometimes imprecise and at other times inaccurate. Valid new terms are introduced but the relationship to existing theoretical constructs is not always explicit. There is little critical review of research in the literature. Ongoing dialog among scholars is minimal. There is a need for nurse scholars to come together and to engage in such a dialogue to enhance the work. Given the relatively short history of nursing research and, more importantly, the conduct of nursing theory-based research, the number and quality of the work being conducted is quite remarkable. There has been a substantial amount of work produced and the quality of it has improved over time. Orem has provided nurse researchers with a theoretical system comprising an ontological structure, related epistemology, and numerous models that give direction to scholarly efforts. Scholars using this theoretical system would be well-advised to use these in conceptualizing and interpreting their work. PMID:11847693

Taylor, S G; Geden, E; Isaramalai, S; Wongvatunyu, S

2000-04-01

138

Health promotion through self-care and community participation: Elements of a proposed programme in the developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during 1970s, primarily out of concerns about the limitation of professional health system. Since then there have been rapid growth in these areas in the developed world, and there is evidence of effectiveness of such interventions. These areas are still in infancy in the developing countries. There is a window of opportunity for promoting self care and community participation for health promotion. Discussion A broad outline is proposed for designing a health promotion programme in developing countries, following key strategies of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion and principles of self care and community participation. Supportive policies may be framed. Self care clearinghouses may be set up at provincial level to co-ordinate the programme activities in consultation with district and national teams. Self care may be promoted in the schools and workplaces. For developing personal skills of individuals, self care information, generated through a participatory process, may be disseminated using a wide range of print and audio-visual tools and information technology based tools. One such potential tool may be a personally held self care manual and health record, to be designed jointly by the community and professionals. Its first part may contain basic self care information and the second part may contain outlines of different personally-held health records to be used to record important health and disease related events of an individual. Periodic monitoring and evaluation of the programme may be done. Studies from different parts of the world indicate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of self care interventions. The proposed outline has potential for health promotion and cost reduction of health services in the developing countries, and may be adapted in different situations. Summary Self care, community participation and health promotion are emerging but dominant areas in the developed countries. Elements of a programme for health promotion in the developing countries following key principles of self care and community participation are proposed. Demonstration programmes may be initiated to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this programme before large scale implementation. PMID:15086956

Bhuyan, Khanindra Kumar

2004-01-01

139

A Study of the Relationship Between Self-Care, Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout Among Hospice Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice care professionals (HCPs) experience a large number of stressors in their work settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-care, compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among HCPs. Thirty-seven HCPs were surveyed regarding their levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. Respondents also reported the types of self-care activities in which they took

Karen Alkema; Jeremy M. Linton; Randall Davies

2008-01-01

140

Effects of self-care, self-efficacy, social support on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background A number of studies have examined the influence of self-efficacy, social support and patient-provider communication (PPC) on self-care and glycemic control. Relatively few studies have tested the pathways through which these constructs operate to improve glycemic control, however. We used structural equation modeling to examine a conceptual model that hypothesizes how self-efficacy, social support and patient-provider communication influence glycemic control through self-care behaviors in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 222 Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes in one primary care center. We collected information on demographics, self-efficacy, social support, patient-provider communication (PPC) and diabetes self-care. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values were also obtained. Measured variable path analyses were used to determine the predicted pathways linking self-efficacy, social support and PPC to diabetes self-care and glycemic control. Results Diabetes self-care had a direct effect on glycemic control (??=??0.21, p?=?.007), No direct effect was observed for self-efficacy, social support or PPC on glycemic control. There were significant positive direct paths from self-efficacy (??=?0.32, p?self-care. All of them had an indirect effect on HbA1c (??=–0.06, ??=–0.04, ??=–0.03 respectively). Additionally, PPC was positively associated with social support (??=?0.32, p?self-care behaviors; and these behaviors were directly linked to glycemic control. So longitudinal studies are needed to explore the effect of self-efficacy, social support and PPC on changes in diabetes self-care behaviors and glycemic control. PMID:23705978

2013-01-01

141

Testing Self-Efficacy as a Pathway That Supports Self-Care Among Family Caregivers in a Psychoeducational Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent to which a psychoeducational intervention supports family-centered care by influencing health risk and self-care behaviors of caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (N = 325). Moreover, this study investigated the extent to which changes in self-efficacy explained changes in health risk and self-care behaviors. Data were analyzed using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance and multiple

Marie Y. Savundranayagam; Mary Brintnall-Peterson

2010-01-01

142

Agreement of patient and physician ratings on mobility and self-care in neurological diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  With a newly developed questionnaire, which integrates the patient and provider ratings on mobility and self-care on an IRT\\u000a scale (MOSES-Combi) and thus ensures the same measurement scale for patients and providers, we examined the level of agreement\\u000a between neurology patients and the physicians treating them, how agreement changes after rehabilitation, and what factors\\u000a affect the extent of agreement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A

Erik Farin

2009-01-01

143

A theory of dependent-care: a corollary theory to Orem's theory of self-care.  

PubMed

Dependent-care has its origins in people's requirements for regulatory care. The foundations for dependent-care are found in the ability of individuals to provide their required care. First introduced as a corollary to self-care, this work emerged through a process of reading and discussion. Models that support the theory of dependent-care are identified. Premises are stated. There is elaboration of the conceptualizations representing the work that has been done. There are still elements that need further development, such as specifying the enabling abilities of dependent-care agency and verifying and formalizing the various elements presented. PMID:11873353

Taylor, S G; Renpenning, K E; Geden, E A; Neuman, B M; Hart, M A

2001-01-01

144

Evaluation of education materials using Orem's self-care deficit theory.  

PubMed

This article presents Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory as the conceptual framework in the development, design, selection, and evaluation of appropriate written patient education materials for patients with low literacy skills. The model, which includes essential evaluation factors used in literacy research, offers nurses and other professionals a more comprehensive means to judge the suitability of health information and instructional materials. Nurses have a critical role in educating consumers and their families and for providing patients with useful information that will influence their decision-making and participation in care. PMID:12593317

Wilson, Feleta L; Mood, Darlene W; Risk, Joanna; Kershaw, Trace

2003-01-01

145

Self-care strategies to reduce fluid intake and control thirst in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this pilot study was to describe how often hemodialysis (HD) patients used particular self-care strategies to reduce fluid intake or relieve thirst, how effective each strategy was perceived to be, and whether they planned to use that strategy in the future. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. The sample of 20 participants from one Midwest dialysis unit verbally responded to the self-care items that were presented. Most of these patients reported they regularly avoided the sun, took medications with mealtime fluid, limited salt on their foods, avoided salty foods, stayed busy, stayed away from fast food restaurants, drank ice-cold drinks, and drank only when thirsty to reduce fluid intake and relieve thirst. They also planned to use these strategies in the future. Interestingly, the strategies perceived as most effective--measuring daily allotted fluids in a pitcher to drink from all day, spacing liquids over the entire day, and measuring the amount of fluid they drank--were not the same as those they used most. Replication of these findings with larger samples is strongly recommended. PMID:11276630

Welch, J L; Davis, J

2000-08-01

146

Self-care behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Greece.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine self-care behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in the Metropolitan Area of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care behaviors measurement was administered to 215 patients, out of which 177 were eligible to participate (87 males). Patients, aged 30 years or more, were recruited through a university hospital day-clinic. Older patients (>65 years), as well as those with "higher educational level" did not distribute their daily carbohydrate intake equally. Nevertheless, they were more likely to adapt to their physician's recommendations regarding medication and to regularly perform suggested blood glucose checking. Exercise patterns were more often found for higher educated, earlier diagnosed males. Younger patients were less likely to follow their healthcare professional's recommendations, regarding diet, medication intake, blood glucose checking, foot care and exercise compared to older patients. These results pose a higher risk for complications and morbidity in younger patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who most possibly will require intensive treatment in the future. PMID:24519180

Chourdakis, Michael; Kontogiannis, Vasileios; Malachas, Konstantinos; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Kritis, Aristidis

2014-10-01

147

An Active Learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine Session in a Self-Care Therapeutics Class  

PubMed Central

Objective. To provide an interactive, non-supplement based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) session in a self-care therapeutics class and to evaluate the effect of the session on pharmacy students’ perceptions and knowledge of CAM. Design. Second professional year pharmacy students enrolled in a required 3-credit course titled Self-Care Therapeutics participated in an active learning session on CAM. Students physically engaged in 5 separate active learning CAM sessions including massage therapy, Tai Chi, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, and Reiki. Assessment. Students were assessed on both knowledge and perception of CAM. Concept mastery was assessed using a written examination and individual readiness assurance tests (iRAT) and team readiness assurance tests (tRAT). Perception of CAM was measured using both a presession and a postsession survey. Conclusion. Participating in an intensive, active learning CAM session provided an opportunity to increase students’ knowledge of CAM and an effective strategy for providing the learner with the experience to better envision incorporation into patient therapies. PMID:25258446

Nemec, Eric C.

2014-01-01

148

An active learning complementary and alternative medicine session in a self-care therapeutics class.  

PubMed

Objective. To provide an interactive, non-supplement based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) session in a self-care therapeutics class and to evaluate the effect of the session on pharmacy students' perceptions and knowledge of CAM. Design. Second professional year pharmacy students enrolled in a required 3-credit course titled Self-Care Therapeutics participated in an active learning session on CAM. Students physically engaged in 5 separate active learning CAM sessions including massage therapy, Tai Chi, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, and Reiki. Assessment. Students were assessed on both knowledge and perception of CAM. Concept mastery was assessed using a written examination and individual readiness assurance tests (iRAT) and team readiness assurance tests (tRAT). Perception of CAM was measured using both a presession and a postsession survey. Conclusion. Participating in an intensive, active learning CAM session provided an opportunity to increase students' knowledge of CAM and an effective strategy for providing the learner with the experience to better envision incorporation into patient therapies. PMID:25258446

Mattison, Melissa J; Nemec, Eric C

2014-09-15

149

[Nursing diagnoses in a high risk pregnant woman based on Orem's self-care theory: a case study].  

PubMed

This work concerns a descriptive research with a qualitative approach which aimed to identify nursing diagnoses in high-risk pregnant women based on Orem's self-care theory. The following nursing diagnoses were identified: deficit of liquid volume, anxiety, altered family process, handicapped communication, handicapped physical mobility, among others. The results showed the importance of the nursing process execution supported on an assistance pattern, for the identification of nursing diagnoses as well as the feasibility of the patient's engagement in self-care. PMID:12046560

de Farias, M C; da Nóbrega, M M

2000-12-01

150

Beginning the recovery journey in acute psychiatric care: using concepts from Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory.  

PubMed

A national agenda has been established for mental health systems to move toward a recovery model of care. Recovery principles are embedded in the foundations of nursing science and practice. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) is in alignment with the ideals of recovery and can provide a structure for changing cultures on inpatient psychiatric units. SCDNT can guide research activities that link a patient's self-care abilities to improved recovery model outcomes. This paradigm shift is an opportunity for psychiatric nursing to return to its roots and deliver care that is patient-centered and conducive to recovering from mental illness. PMID:22646204

Seed, Mary S; Torkelson, Diane J

2012-06-01

151

Occupational conditions, self-care, and obesity among clergy in the United States.  

PubMed

Prior research has shown that a variety of occupational conditions such as long work hours are associated with increased likelihood of obesity. In this study, we use the specific case of the clergy to explore how occupational conditions are linked to increased or decreased odds of being obese. We hypothesize that stressful conditions are associated with increased odds of obesity and that self-care practices are associated with decreased odds. Using the 2008/9 U.S. Congregational Life Survey's national sample of clergy from multiple religious traditions, we find support for our hypotheses. Clergy who experience more stress, work more hours, or are bi-vocational have higher odds of obesity. Those who take a day off each week, have taken a sabbatical, or are involved in a support group experience lower odds. For Protestant clergy, being involved in a support group or taking a day off moderates the association between certain stressful occupational conditions and obesity. PMID:25432617

Ferguson, Todd W; Andercheck, Brita; Tom, Joshua C; Martinez, Brandon C; Stroope, Samuel

2015-01-01

152

Effects of a self-care program on quality of life of cirrhotic patients referring to Tehran Hepatitis Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease especially liver cirrhosis is one of the medical problems that substantially reduces the quality of life of its victims. Because of the chronic and irreversible nature of the disease, it needs self-care programs to be developed according to client's needs and to maintain their independence and sense of well-being. The purpose of this study was to

Mitra Zandi; Mohsen Adib-Hajbagheri; Robabeh Memarian; Anooshiravan Kazem Nejhad; Seyed Moayed Alavian

2005-01-01

153

The Use of Self-Care Agency To Meet the Need for Solitude and Social Interaction by Chronically Ill Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of chronic illness on the individual's ability to meet his or her need for solitude and for social interaction by exploring how chronically ill individuals used their own ability (self-care agency) to meet these needs. Subjects were 90 chronically ill older persons, 30 of whom were living at home, 30 who lived in a…

Burns, Margaret A.

154

Usability of an Adaptive Computer Assistant that Improves Self-care and Health Literacy of Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives We developed an adaptive computer assistant for the supervision of diabetics’ self-care, to support limiting illness and need for acute treatment, and improve health literacy. This assistant monitors self-care activities logged in the patient’s electronic diary. Accordingly, it provides context-aware feedback. The objective was to evaluate whether older adults in general can make use of the computer assistant and to compare an adaptive computer assistant with a fixed one, concerning its usability and contribution to health literacy. Methods We conducted a laboratory experiment in the Georgia Tech Aware Home wherein 28 older adults participated in a usability evaluation of the computer assistant, while engaged in scenarios reflecting normal and health-critical situations. We evaluated the assistant on effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, and educational value. Finally, we studied the moderating effects of the subjects’ personal characteristics. Results Logging self-care tasks and receiving feedback from the computer assistant enhanced the subjects’ knowledge of diabetes. The adaptive assistant was more effective in dealing with normal and health-critical situations, and, generally, it led to more time efficiency. Subjects’ personal characteristics had substantial effects on the effectiveness and efficiency of the two computer assistants. Conclusions Older adults were able to use the adaptive computer assistant. In addition, it had a positive effect on the development of health literacy. The assistant has the potential to support older diabetics’ self care while maintaining quality of life. PMID:18213433

Blanson Henkemans, O. A.; Rogers, W. A.; Fisk, A. D.; Neerincx, M. A.; Lindenberg, J.; van der Mast, C. A. P. G.

2014-01-01

155

A Competency-Based Approach to Teaching Professional Self-Care: An Ethical Consideration for Social Work Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating material on professional self-care into social work course content is valuable to the education of neophyte social work practitioners. This article presents a review of the literature on professional burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue, including the risk factors associated with the experience of these…

Newell, Jason M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

2014-01-01

156

Influence of Self-Care Education on Illness Behaviors and Health Locus of Control of Mexican American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-care education on illness behaviors and health locus of control of Mexican American women. Participants were randomly assigned to a control (n = 60) or experimental group (n = 60). Subjects completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control questionnaire and an Illness Behavior Assessment at pretest and 6-months. The

Catherine A. Kennedy; Dale DeVoe; Kimberly Ramer-Henry; Janna West-Kowalski

1999-01-01

157

Use of Self-Care and Practitioner-Based Forms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine before and after a Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.  

PubMed

Purpose. We examine factors associated with self-care, use of practitioner-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and their timing in a cohort of women with breast cancer. Methods. Study participants were women with breast cancer who participated in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Self-care is defined as the use of multivitamins, single vitamins, botanicals, other dietary supplements, mind-body practices, special diets, support groups, and prayer. Within each modality, study participants were categorized as continuous users (before and after diagnosis), starters (only after diagnosis), quitters (only before diagnosis), or never users. Multivariable logistic regression was used for the main analyses. Results. Of 764 women who provided complete data, 513 (67.2%) initiated a new form of self-care following breast cancer diagnosis. The most popular modalities were those that are ingestible, and they were commonly used in combination. The strongest predictor of continuous use of one type of self-care was continuous use of other types of self-care. Healthy behaviors, including high fruit/vegetable intake and exercise, were more strongly associated with continuously using self-care than starting self-care after diagnosis. Conclusions. Breast cancer diagnosis was associated with subsequent behavioral changes, and the majority of women undertook new forms of self-care after diagnosis. Few women discontinued use of modalities they used prior to diagnosis. PMID:23997792

Link, Alissa R; Gammon, Marilie D; Jacobson, Judith S; Abrahamson, Page; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Terry, Mary Beth; Teitelbaum, Susan; Neugut, Alfred; Greenlee, Heather

2013-01-01

158

Use of Self-Care and Practitioner-Based Forms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine before and after a Diagnosis of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We examine factors associated with self-care, use of practitioner-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and their timing in a cohort of women with breast cancer. Methods. Study participants were women with breast cancer who participated in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Self-care is defined as the use of multivitamins, single vitamins, botanicals, other dietary supplements, mind-body practices, special diets, support groups, and prayer. Within each modality, study participants were categorized as continuous users (before and after diagnosis), starters (only after diagnosis), quitters (only before diagnosis), or never users. Multivariable logistic regression was used for the main analyses. Results. Of 764 women who provided complete data, 513 (67.2%) initiated a new form of self-care following breast cancer diagnosis. The most popular modalities were those that are ingestible, and they were commonly used in combination. The strongest predictor of continuous use of one type of self-care was continuous use of other types of self-care. Healthy behaviors, including high fruit/vegetable intake and exercise, were more strongly associated with continuously using self-care than starting self-care after diagnosis. Conclusions. Breast cancer diagnosis was associated with subsequent behavioral changes, and the majority of women undertook new forms of self-care after diagnosis. Few women discontinued use of modalities they used prior to diagnosis. PMID:23997792

Link, Alissa R.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Jacobson, Judith S.; Abrahamson, Page; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Terry, Mary Beth; Teitelbaum, Susan; Neugut, Alfred

2013-01-01

159

Self-care among caregivers of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kakola location, Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out in Kakola Location of Nyando District in Kenya. The aim of study was to determine the factors influencing the practice of self-care among caregivers for person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) as well as their practice of self-care. A study by World Health Organization approximated that in developing countries, the need for long-term care will increase by as much as 40% in the coming years. HIV/AIDS has been cited as one of the challenges in long-term care. As demand for long-term care increases, the assumption that extended family networks can meet all the needs of their members deteriorates. The community-based survey employed descriptive cross-sectional design, involving primary caregivers of PLWHAs in Kakola location who had practiced care giving for more than 3 months. A household survey was conducted with 150 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 11.0. Simple frequencies and cross tabulations to compare variables were produced. Microsoft Excel was used to produce tables and graphs. Majority of the respondents 124 (82.7%) were female, while 26 (17.3%) were male. Self-care elements most practiced by the respondents in all the age categories were infection prevention and nutritional care. Female respondents had the highest proportions in all the practices of self-care. The results also showed that gender, relationship of patient to caregiver and marital status were the main demographic factors that significantly influenced the practice of self-care among caregivers. There was a significant relationship between main sources of income of caregivers with the practice of self-care. The study also revealed that respondents with no education had the lowest number of respondents practicing all the six practices of self-care and belonging to a support group. Recommendations for the study included, forging partnerships among stakeholders, training of caregivers and review of the home-based care policy. PMID:24090080

Geteri, Leila Moraa; Angogo, Evelyn Mandela

2013-01-01

160

Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition  

PubMed Central

Introduction In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Findings Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life. Conclusion Health care professionals should be aware of these findings in order to support self-care in older people, and they should pay attention to the social aspects at meals. PMID:23271914

Tomstad, Solveig T; Soderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Soderhamn, Olle

2012-01-01

161

Development and evaluation of a self care program on breastfeeding in Japan: A quasi-experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Although the importance of breastfeeding is well known in Japan, in recent years less than 50% of mothers were fully breastfeeding at one month after birth. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-care program for breastfeeding aimed at increasing mothers' breastfeeding confidence and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was conducted in Japan. The intervention, a breastfeeding self-care program, was created to improve mothers' self-efficacy for breastfeeding. This Breastfeeding Self-Care Program included: information on the advantages and basics of breastfeeding, a breastfeeding checklist to evaluate breastfeeding by mothers and midwives, and a pamphlet and audiovisual materials on breastfeeding. Mothers received this program during their postpartum hospital stay. A convenience sample of 117 primiparous women was recruited at two clinical sites from October 2007 to March 2008. The intervention group (n = 55), who gave birth in three odd-numbered months, received standard care and the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program while the control group (n = 62) gave birth in three even numbered months and received standard breastfeeding care. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program, breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastfeeding rate were measured early postpartum, before the intervention, and after the intervention at one month postpartum. The study used the Japanese version of The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) to measure self-efficacy. Results The BSES-SF score of the intervention group rose significantly from 34.8 at early postpartum to 49.9 at one month after birth (p < 0.01). For the control group, the score rose from 39.5 at early postpartum to 46.5 at one month after birth (p = 0.03). The early postpartum fully breastfeeding rate was 90% for the intervention group and 89% for the control group. At one month postpartum, the fully breastfeeding rate declined significantly to 65% for the control group compared to 90% for the intervention group (p = 0.02). Conclusion Results indicate that the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program increased mothers' self-efficacy for breastfeeding and had a positive effect on the continuation of breastfeeding. Trial Registration Number UMIN000003517 PMID:20731820

2010-01-01

162

Hygiene Self-Care of Older Adults in West Virginia: Effects of Gender  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated whether oral hygiene self-care behavior differs between genders in older adults in Appalachia, a geographic area with significant oral health concerns. Identifying the practices of older adults may provide valuable information for designing interventions, and improving overall oral health outcomes. Methods As part of a larger, on-going study on cognition and oral health in later life in Appalachia, a sample of dentate, older adults without dementia aged 70 and above (n =245, 86 men and 159 women) received an oral assessment by either a dentist or dental hygienist. Psychometricians assessed cognition using a standardized battery of neuropsychological tests. They also administered the General Oral Health Assessment Index and conducted structured interviews concerning diet, oral hygiene practices, oral health, social support, income, and years of education. Results Over 80% of women (n = 128) and 52.3% of men (n = 45) reported brushing their teeth twice daily. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, controlling for socioeconomic status, social support (i.e., frequency of contacting friends and relatives), general oral health assessment items, number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces, plaque index, and having regular dental visits. The results showed that women reported more frequent toothbrushing than their male counterparts (OR=4.04, 95% CI:1.93,8.42). Conclusion Older women in West Virginia had significantly better oral hygiene practices than older men, particularly regarding toothbrushing. Interventions are needed to improve older men’s dental hygiene behaviors to improve overall oral health outcomes. PMID:22947846

Wiener, R. Constance; Wu, Bei; Crout, Richard J.; Plassman, Brenda L.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Wiener, Michael A.; Kao, Elizabeth C.; Caplan, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

163

Sustainable Reduction of Sleepiness through Salutogenic Self-Care Procedure in Lunch Breaks: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to elucidate the immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory sleepiness reducing effects of a salutogenic self-care procedure called progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), during lunch breaks. The second exploratory aim deals with determining the onset and long-term time course of sleepiness changes. In order to evaluate the intraday range and interday change of the proposed relaxation effects, 14 call center agents were assigned to either a daily 20-minute self-administered PMR or a small talk (ST) group during a period of seven months. Participants' levels of sleepiness were analyzed in a controlled trial using anticipatory, postlunchtime, and afternoon changes of sleepiness as indicated by continuously determined objective reaction time measures (16,464 measurements) and self-reports administered five times per day, once per month (490 measurements). Results indicate that, in comparison to ST, the PMR break (a) induces immediate, intermediate, and anticipatory reductions in sleepiness; (b) these significant effects remarkably show up after one month, and sleepiness continues to decrease for at least another five months. Although further research is required referring to the specific responsible mediating variables, our results suggest that relaxation based lunch breaks are both accepted by employees and provide a sustainable impact on sleepiness. PMID:24381633

Schnieder, Sebastian; Stappert, Sarah; Takahashi, Masaya; Fricchione, Gregory L; Esch, Tobias; Krajewski, Jarek

2013-01-01

164

Evaluating capacity to live independently and safely in the community: Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills  

PubMed Central

To determine clients’ capacity for community living, occupational therapists must use measures that capture the person–task–environment transaction and compare clients’ task performance to a performance standard. The Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills, a performance-based, criterion-referenced, observational tool, fulfills this purpose. In this practice analysis, using data from this tool from multiple clinical studies (N = 941), the authors describe tasks that clients from various diagnostic populations could and could not perform independently and safely. For clinicians, the Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills can be used to identify which daily tasks are compromised and the point of task breakdown, as well as to provide guidance about potential interventions.

Chisholm, Denise; Toto, Pamela; Raina, Ketki; Holm, Margo; Rogers, Joan

2014-01-01

165

Impact of chronic disease self-management programs on type 2 diabetes management in primary care  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) on glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and selected self-reported measures. METHODS: We compared patients who received a diabetes self-care behavioral intervention, the CDSMP developed at the Stanford University, with controls who received usual care on their HbA1c and selected self-reported measures, including diabetes self-care activities, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), pain and fatigue. The subjects were a subset of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that took place at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated integrated healthcare system of a multi-specialty group practice between January 2009 and June 2011. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 mo. Data were analyzed using multilevel statistical models and linear mixed models to provide unbiased estimates of intervention effects. RESULTS: Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were generally comparable between the two groups. The average baseline HbA1c values in the CDSMP and control groups were 9.4% and 9.2%, respectively. Significant reductions in HbA1c were seen at 12 mo for the two groups, with adjusted changes around 0.6% (P < 0.0001), but the reductions did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.885). Few significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. No significant differences were observed in the participants’ HRQOL, pain, or fatigue measures. CONCLUSION: The CDSMP intervention may not lower HbA1c any better than good routine care in an integrated healthcare system. More research is needed to understand the benefits of self-management programs in primary care in different settings and populations. PMID:24936263

Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G; Jiang, Luohua; Vuong, Ann M; Bolin, Jane N

2014-01-01

166

Development and evaluation of a self care program on breastfeeding in Japan: A quasi-experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the importance of breastfeeding is well known in Japan, in recent years less than 50% of mothers were fully breastfeeding at one month after birth. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-care program for breastfeeding aimed at increasing mothers' breastfeeding confidence and to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was conducted in Japan.

Masayo Awano; Keiko Shimada

2010-01-01

167

The importance of health literacy in the development of 'Self Care'' cards for community pharmacies in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Objective 'Self Care’'cards play a significant role in delivering health education via community pharmacies in Australia and New Zealand. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether such an initiative could have a similar impact in an Irish context. The secondary objective was to understand the importance of health literacy to this initiative. Methods Ten cards were developed for the Irish healthcare setting and trialed as a proof of concept study. The pilot study ran in ten community pharmacies in the greater Cork area for a six-month period. Using a mixed methods approach (Questionnaires & focus group) staff and patient reactions to the initiative were obtained. Concurrent to the pilot study, readability scores of cards (Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, SMOG methods) and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) health literacy screening tool was administered to a sample of patients. Results 88.7% of patient respondents (n=53) liked the concept of the 'Self Care’' cards and 83% of respondents agreed that the use of the card was beneficial to their understanding of their ailment. Focus groups with Pharmacy staff highlighted the importance of appropriate training for the future development of this initiative. An emerging theme from designing the cards was health literacy. The pilot 'Self Care’'cards were pitched at too high a literacy level for the general Irish public to understand as determined by readability score methods. It was found that 19.1% of a sample population (n=199) was deemed to have low health literacy skills. Conclusions The 'Self Care’'initiative has the potential to be Pharmacy’s contribution to health education in Ireland. The initiative needs to be cognizant of the health literacy framework that equates the skills of individuals to the demands placed upon them. PMID:24155830

Coughlan, Diarmuid; Sahm, Laura; Byrne, Stephen

168

Upper Extremity Performance and Self-Care Skill Changes in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy following Selective Posterior Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in upper extremity and self-care performance following selective posterior rhizotomy (SPR) are reported frequently, but rarely quantified. In this study, 36 children with spastic cerebral palsy were assessed preoperatively and 1 year following SPR using the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST). Twenty-six children were assessed at similar intervals using the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) as

Patricia Loewen; Paul Steinbok; Liisa Holsti; Margot MacKay

1998-01-01

169

Nursing student descriptions that suggest changes for the classroom and reveal improvements needed in study skills and self-care.  

PubMed

This article describes a longitudinal study that took place in a college of nursing with baccalaureate students between 2002 and 2004 at a university medical center. Its purpose was to provide a climate of success for the students yet challenge them to make additional efforts to complete the program. The qualitative section of the study consisted of students answering the following open-ended questions: (1) Describe ways that faculty can help you be successful in the future and (2) What can you do for yourself to achieve the goal of finishing the program? Students identified what change could be made in the classroom, how increased study time and skills might help, and how self-care would facilitate success. Descriptions were shared with faculty and students in an effort to improve classroom delivery, provide study tips to students, and help students become aware of increased self-care. Students as future nurses, enter practice and care for patients who will need the best care and self-care instruction. Using techniques that students identified to be successful, making efforts through hard work (increased study skills), and realizing how to better care for themselves could assist RNs in providing comprehensive and best care to patients. PMID:17383602

Gardner, Elaine A; Deloney, Linda A; Grando, Victoria T

2007-01-01

170

The Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R): adaptation and construct validity in the Brazilian context.  

PubMed

This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R). The sample was made up of 627 subjects (69.8% women) aged between 18 and 88 years (mean = 38.3; SD = 13.26) from 17 Brazilian states. Exploratory factor analysis of part of the sample (n1 = 200) yielded a three-factor solution which showed adequate levels of reliability. Two confirmatory factor analyses of the other part of the sample (n2 = 427) tested both the exploratory and the original model. The analysis of convergent validity using the Subjective Happiness Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2) demonstrated adequate levels of validity. A significant correlation was found between levels of self-care agency and age, level of education and income. The analysis of sample members with chronic disease (n = 134) showed that higher levels of self-care agency indicated lower levels of negative impact of the chronic illness in the individual's everyday life. PMID:24127101

Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

2013-10-01

171

Long-term Urinary Catheter Users Self-Care Practices and Problems  

PubMed Central

Aims The aims were to characterize a sample of 202 adult community-living long-term indwelling urinary catheter users, to describe self-care practices and catheter problems, and to explore relationships among demographics, catheter practices, and problems. Background Long-term urinary catheter users have not been well studied, and persons using the device indefinitely for persistent urinary retention are likely to have different patterns of catheter practices and problems. Design The study was a cross-sectional descriptive and exploratory analysis. Methods Home interviews were conducted with catheter users who provided information by self-reported recall over the previous two months. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and tests of association between demographics, catheter practices, and catheter problems. Results The sample was widely diverse in age (19–96 years), race, and medical diagnosis. Urethral catheters were used slightly more often (56%) than suprapubic (44%), for a mean of 6 yrs. (SD 7 yrs.). Many persons were highly disabled, with 60% having difficulty in bathing, dressing, toileting, and getting out of the bed; 19% also required assistance in eating. A high percentage of catheter problems were reported with: 43% experiencing leakage (bypassing of urine), 31% having had a urinary tract infection, 24% blockage of the catheter, 23% catheter-associated pain, and 12% accidental dislodgment of the catheter. Treatments of catheter-related problems contributed to additional health care utilization including extra nurse or clinic visits, trips to the emergency department, or hospitalization. Symptoms of catheter associated urinary tract infections were most often related to changes in the color or character of urine or generalized symptoms. Conclusions Catheter related problems contribute to excess morbidity and health care utilization and costs. Relevance to clinical practice More research is needed in how to minimize catheter associated problems in long-term catheter users. Information from this study could help inform the development of interventions in this population. PMID:23301577

Wilde, Mary; McDonald, Margaret V.; Brasch, Judith; McMahon, James M.; Fairbanks, Eileen; Shah, Shivani; Tang, Wan; Scheid, Eileen

2013-01-01

172

Relationships Among Symptoms, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Daily Activities, Self-Care, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors  

E-print Network

cancer survivors and their relationship to the BDNF Val66Met SNP (a biomarker), daily activities, quality of life and other selected subject characteristics and health variables. In addition, self-care methods used by survivors to alleviate symptoms...

Heinze, Sylvia B.

2012-08-31

173

The effect of group-based exercise on cognitive performance and mood in seniors residing in intermediate care and self-care retirement facilities: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the effect of a general group-based exercise programme on cognitive performance and mood among seniors without dementia living in retirement villages.Design:Randomised controlled trial.Setting:Four intermediate care and four self-care retirement village sites in Sydney, Australia.Participants:154 seniors (19 men, 135 women; age range 62 to 95 years), who were residents of intermediate care and self-care retirement facilities.Intervention:Participants were randomised to

A K Brown; T Liu-Ambrose; R Tate; S R Lord

2009-01-01

174

Effect of anxiety and depression on self-care agency and quality of life in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects the lives of individuals in a number of ways; it causes an increase in the need for help and support and a decline in self-care agency and quality of life. This research has been conducted in patients with COPD hospitalized in the Pulmonary Department of Erzincan State Hospital in the eastern Turkey to examine the effect of anxiety and depression on self-care agency and quality of life (n = 135). The results showed that 69.6% and 85.6% of the patients were at risk for anxiety and depression, respectively, and that the mean scores of self-care agency and quality of life decreased as the mean scores of anxiety and depression increased. It was also established that the mean score of the quality of life increased as the mean score of self-care agency went up. It could be concluded that the majority of the patients are at risk for anxiety and depression and that presence of anxiety or depression has a negative effect on the self-care agency and the quality of life. The recognition and treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with COPD provide significant improvements in self-care agency and quality of life of patients. PMID:23432884

Yildirim, Arzu; A?ilar, Rabia Hacihasano?lu; Bakar, Nihal; Demir, Nilay

2013-02-01

175

Feasibility of Mobile Phone-Based Management of Chronic Illness  

PubMed Central

According to the CDC, chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes cause 75% of healthcare spending in the United States and contribute to nearly seven in ten American deaths. However, despite the prevalence and high-cost of chronic disease, they are also among the most preventable of health problems1. How can we use technology to improve self-care, reduce costs, and lessen the burden on medical professionals? Devices to help manage chronic illness have been marketed for years, but are these specialized devices really necessary? In this paper, the authors identify the aspects of the major chronic illnesses that most need to be controlled and monitored in the US today and explore the feasibility of using current mobile phone technology to improve the management of chronic illness. Here we show that even the average mobile phone is capable of improving the management of all relevant health features in some way. PMID:21347080

Smith, Joshua C.; Schatz, Bruce R.

2010-01-01

176

Cognitive status and foot self care practice in overweight diabetics, engaged in different levels of physical activity  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes along with chronic hyperglycemia may result in cognitive impairment. This can negatively affect the patient’s adherence to diabetes treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive status and foot self care practice in overweight type 2 diabetic patients who exercised regularly and those who did not. Methods The comparative study was conducted on 160 consecutive patients from an outpatient diabetes clinic. They were divided into two groups: The active group comprised of 80 patients engaged in regular exercise for at least 15–30 minutes, three times per week during the past 6 months. The control group included 80 patients who had not exercised regularly for the past 12 months, matched for sex, age, education, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1C and body mass index (BMI: 25–29.9Kg/m2). Data on the patients’ demographic information, foot care practice and physical activity habits were gathered using a questionnaire. The Mini Mental Status examination (MMSE) was applied to assess cognitive status. Results MMSE score was significantly higher in the active group. A significant negative correlation was noted between MMSE scores and BMI in the control group (r =??0.2, P =?0.03). A significant difference was noted in the four domains of foot self care practice between the active (4.77?±?0.77) and control (4.45?±?0.83) groups (P self care practice in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24495364

2014-01-01

177

Self Care and Medication Adherence among Type 2 Diabetics in Puducherry, Southern India: A Hospital Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Micro and macro-vascular complications of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) could be decreased by maintaining a good glycaemic control, which is dependent on adherence to medication and self care. Aim: (1) To assess medication adherence and adherence to self care among type 2 diabetics who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital (2) To identify factors which were associated with medication adherence. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study involved 150 in-patients of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital (SMVMCH), a teaching hospital in Puducherry, southern India. Subjects who had type 2 DM for more than 1 month were included in the study, irrespective of their diagnoses at admission. They were interviewed within 24 hours of their admissions by using a pre-designed, pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) and questions for assessing adherence to self care activities. The factors which were associated with medication adherence were identified by Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 54 years. Only 49.3% (95% CI: 41% to 57%) of the diabetics had high medication adherence (MMAS score = 8). Only 22.7% of the diabetics were involved in physical exercise for at least 30 minutes, for at least 4 days in a week. Only 16.7% of them regularly inspected their feet. Around 67.3% of the subjects reported about consuming a diabetic diet for at least 4 days/week. Poor family support showed a significant association with low medication adherence. Conclusion: Only 49.3% of the subjects adhered to anti-diabetic medications. Less than 25% of the diabetics adhered to self care activities such as exercising/walking for 30 minutes on at least 4 days in a week, regularly inspected their feet and provided feet care. Family support played a vital role in medication adherence among the diabetic subjects. Hence, it is important to regularly assess patients for medication adherence and include their families also in counseling sessions. PMID:24959496

S., Arulmozhi

2014-01-01

178

Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts--Cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum  

PubMed Central

Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others’ anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice. PMID:22053162

Martin Salzmann-Erikson, R.N.; Henrik Eriksson, R.N.T.

2011-01-01

179

"You teach us to listen,… but you don't teach us about suffering": self-care and resilience strategies in medical school curricula.  

PubMed

This article examines the pre-vocational preparation of doctors to cope with the demands of clinical practice, drawing on literature from across a number of domains: mental health, psychological stress among medical students and medical practitioners; and self-care strategies in medicine curricula. High rates of psychological distress in medical students and medical practitioners were consistently reported. A number of questions remain pertinent to medical education: how does the experience of medical education impact on this level of distress, and possibly exacerbate pre-existing student vulnerabilities? What will help future doctors respond to, and cope with, suffering in their patients? Can the formal curriculum build resilience? Medical schools and educators have a responsibility to address these questions and to provide effective self-care curricula. In this review promising interventions such as mindfulness training are reported, frameworks to guide self-awareness in medical students are suggested, and recommendations for a self-care curriculum are made. PMID:25395229

Outram, Sue; Kelly, Brian

2014-11-01

180

"When it's just me at home, it hits me that I'm completely alone": an online survey of adolescents in self-care.  

PubMed

The present study examined adolescents' experiences of loneliness and solitude in their responses to an online survey on self-care. Both quantitative (n = 272) and qualitative (n = 150) responses were coded for these feelings when home alone. Results indicate that adolescents experience the duality of aloneness, including both positive solitude and negative loneliness. Adolescents' responses range from embraced solitude and self-care to feelings of loneliness and rejection of time by themselves. Adolescents reporting loneliness were significantly less likely to enjoy being home alone during the day and at night (p < or = .001). Also, gender, age, and emotions such as fear, boredom, and separation anxiety are associated with loneliness among adolescents in self-care. Interventions to increase connectedness and combat loneliness during out-of-school hours are recommended. PMID:22303617

Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

2012-01-01

181

Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)  

PubMed Central

Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Loboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; Loboz-Grudzien, Krystyna

2014-01-01

182

TESTING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR SELF- CARE IN PERSONS WITH DIABETES: THE EFFECT OF DEPRESSION  

E-print Network

was to examine item characteristics and reliability of the Diabetes Self Management Scale (DSMS). A convenience sample of 78 individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus who were taking insulin was recruited. Participants completed five psychometric...

Gharaibeh, Besher

2012-05-31

183

Relationship of a pelvic floor rehabilitation program for urinary incontinence to Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing: Part 1.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is considered a significant social problem affecting many individuals' quality of life. Nursing theory is a set of concepts or propositions derived from philosophical beliefs about the phenomena of interest to the discipline. The ability to use theory to guide nursing practice brings reasoning and logic to professional nursing practice. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing gets to the heart of what nursing is and how continence nursing care can be offered and delivered as a broadly inclusive professional, rather than narrowly procedural, practice offering individual care targeting the self-care agent (client) rather than the medical diagnosis. PMID:12593228

Bernier, Francie

2002-12-01

184

The Effect of Educating Health Promotion Strategies on Self-Care Self-Efficacy in Patients Undergoing Kidney Transplantation: A Double Blind Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Self-care self-efficacy in patients with end stage renal disease, waiting for kidney transplantation, probably decreases due to facing new conditions and side effects of treatment. Objectives: The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of educating health promotion strategies on self-care self-efficacy in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods: A double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 52 patients undergoing kidney transplantation in Baqiyatallah Hospital in 2012. Patients were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. The questionnaire of Strategies Used by People to Promote Health (SUPPH) was employed to measure self-care self-efficacy. At first, the two groups filled the questionnaire. Then, the intervention group was trained regarding health promotion strategies within 4 sessions before the transplantation. The control group was trained according to routine protocol of the transplantation unit. Then, the two groups were followed up for two months, and reassessed at the end of the first and second months after the transplantation. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics including independent samples T test, Chi square and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: In the intervention group, the mean of total self-care self-efficacy was 106.96 ± 25.1 at first, and changed to 135.81 ± 9.65 and 111.19 ± 12.45 after the first and second post-test respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, the mean of total self-care self-efficacy was 112.73 ± 14.33 at first, and changed to 118.58 ± 17.59 and 108.73 ± 15.93 after the first and second post-test respectively (P = 0.001). Significant differences were observed between the two groups in the first post-test regarding total score of self-care self-efficacy (P = 0.001) and dimensions of reduction of stress (P = 0.001), enjoying life (P = 0.01), and coping (P = 0.001). The mean scores of the intervention group were higher than those of the controls in all domains of self-care self-efficacy in the second post-test. However, the difference was only significant in decision-making dimension (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Educating health promotion strategies was effective in improving self-care self-efficacy in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Establishment of a holistic caring program is suggested to integrate the pre-transplantation educations with a continual post discharge follow-up.

Soltannezhad, Fateme; Farsi, Zahra; Jabari Moroei, Masoud

2013-01-01

185

Breathing Words Slowly: Creative Writing and Counselor Self-Care--The Writing Workout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional counselors work daily with compassion and connection, yet must also manage trauma and pain. Clients' stories of loneliness, fear, abuse, and anger frequently fill the landscape of a counselor's work. Counselors may experience burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious trauma by failing to recognize and adequately address the negative…

Warren, Jane; Morgan, Michael M.; Morris, Lay-Nah Blue; Morris, Tanaya Moon

2010-01-01

186

“When It's Just Me at Home, It Hits Me That I'm Completely Alone”: An Online Survey of Adolescents in Self-Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined adolescents' experiences of loneliness and solitude in their responses to an online survey on self-care. Both quantitative (n = 272) and qualitative (n = 150) responses were coded for these feelings when home alone. Results indicate that adolescents experience the duality of aloneness, including both positive solitude and negative loneliness. Adolescents' responses range from embraced solitude

Mónica Ruiz-Casares

2012-01-01

187

A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

2011-01-01

188

The context of empowerment and self-care within the field of diabetes.  

PubMed

There is a growing emphasis within the diabetes literature on the importance of empowerment as a way of encouraging people to take control of and responsibility for the successful management of their disease. Patients are actively encouraged to become active participants in their care, and there is an expectation that health-care professionals will facilitate this process. This article uses Bourdieu's concept of field, as a bounded social space in which actors conduct their lives day-to-day, to explore the context within which issues of empowerment are addressed and negotiated. The practice of empowerment within the biologically defined and biomedically 'policed' field of diabetes is explored using empirical data from a study of diabetes health-care professionals' understanding and practices around empowerment. It is concluded that rather than promoting active self-management and empowerment, the nature of the field of diabetes, and in particular its privileging of the biomedical, can mitigate against people with diabetes negotiating the field effectively and taking control of the disease and its management. PMID:24695383

Scambler, Sasha; Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula

2014-11-01

189

Self-perceived health and self-care among diabetic subjects with defective vision: a comparison between subjects with threat of blindness and blind subjects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare self-perceived health among diabetic patients who experienced threat of blindness with those who had already gone blind. Another aim was to explore different aspects of self-care in relation to self-perceived health among the subjects. Twenty-one diabetic patients under threat of becoming blind and 23 with diabetes-related blindness agreed to participate in the study. The participants were compared with an age- and gender-matched nondiabetic reference group. Self-perceived health was measured using the 63-item Swedish Health-Related Quality of Life Survey (SWED-QUAL) questionnaire. Data on diabetes-related variables were collected from the patient's hospital records. An interview guide was created for measuring dimensions of self-care. Patients with threat of becoming blind showed better self-perceived health than blind patients, but no differences were found in comparison with the Swedish reference group. Blind patients scored lower in 6 of the 13 health domains and they reported more problems with diabetes self-care than patients with threat of becoming blind. One of the 13 health domains, role limitations due to physical health, seemed to be associated with impaired self-care although only a partial understanding could be demonstrated. The results show that blind patients need specific support to cope well with different self-care situations. A great challenge in future research in diabetes is to implement education programs suitable especially for patients who have gone blind because of diabetes. PMID:15642491

Leksell, Janeth K; Sandberg, Gun E; Wikblad, Karin F

2005-01-01

190

Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES) trial  

PubMed Central

Background Back pain, one of the most prevalent conditions afflicting American adults, is the leading reason for using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Yoga is an increasingly popular "mind-body" CAM therapy often used for relieving back pain and several small studies have found yoga effective for this condition. This study will assess whether yoga is effective for treating chronic low back pain compared with self care and exercise and will explore the mechanisms responsible for any observed benefits. Methods/Design A total of 210 participants with low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Seattle. They will be randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive 12 weekly yoga classes, 12 weekly conventional therapeutic exercise classes of comparable physical exertion, or a self-care book. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group will assess outcomes at baseline and 6, 12 and 26 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes will be back-related dysfunction and symptom bothersomeness. In addition, data will be collected on physical measurements (e.g., flexion) at baseline and 12 weeks and saliva samples will be obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Information will be collected on specific physical, psychological, and physiological factors to allow exploration of possible mechanisms of action through which yoga could relieve back pain and dysfunction. The effectiveness of yoga will be assessed using analysis of covariance (using general estimating equations - GEE) within an intention-to-treat context. If yoga is found effective, further analyses will explore whether yoga's benefits are attributable to physical, psychological and/or physiological factors. Conclusions This study will provide the clearest evidence to date about the value of yoga as a therapeutic option for treating chronic back pain, and if the results are positive, will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study. Trial registration This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT00447668. PMID:20356395

2010-01-01

191

Machines, medication, modulation: circuits of dependency and self-care in Las Vegas.  

PubMed

The intensive entertainment infrastructure of Las Vegas is overlaid with a robust therapeutic network for those who become addicted to its technologies. Although the objectives of gambling machines and addiction therapeutics are seemingly at odds--the first work to encourage play, the second to stop it--both gear their interventions around a model of the self as a continuum of behavioral potentials that can be externally modulated. For compulsive gamblers implicated in this circuit of modulation, pharmaceutical drugs that have been prescribed to dampen cravings for machine play sometimes function as intensifiers of its effects. Caught in an intractable play between technologies of harm and technologies of care, recovering gambling addicts are challenged to assemble a technical array through which they can maintain balance; health itself, for these individuals, becomes a state of managed dependency. This essay explores the shifting terms and changing stakes of subjectivity and health in the contemporary United States by way of ethnographic research on compulsive gamblers who live and work in Las Vegas. The analysis draws on interviews with gamblers as well as on observations in local self-help groups, directed group therapy sessions, and chat rooms of Internet recovery Web sites. PMID:16944328

Schüll, Natasha Dow

2006-06-01

192

Nurses and dietitians collaborating to impact nutrition and diabetes mellitus management issues for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Patients on hemodialysis who have type 2 diabetes mellitus are challenged by complex diet prescriptions and demanding self-care practices. The hemodialysis regimen itself makes diabetes management difficult These patients are at risk of hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia unawareness. This article alerts nephrology nurses to these issues and to their role in the process of appropriate interventions. The benefit of nurses and dietitians collaboratively developing care plans is discussed. Diet prescriptions and self-care management screening questions are provided. PMID:18856081

Taillefer, Teresa L

2008-01-01

193

Development and psychometric properties of a new social support scale for self-care in middle-aged patients with type II diabetes (S4-MAD)  

PubMed Central

Background Social support has proved to be one of the most effective factors on the success of diabetic self-care. This study aimed to develop a scale for evaluating social support for self-care in middle-aged patients (30–60 years old) with type II diabetes. Methods This was a two-phase qualitative and quantitative study. The study was conducted during 2009 to 2011 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part, a sample of diabetic patients participated in four focus group discussions in order to develop a preliminary item pool. Consequently, content and face validity were performed to provide a pre-final version of the questionnaire. Then, in a quantitative study, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest analysis), validity and factor analysis (both exploratory and confirmatory) were performed to assess psychometric properties of the scale. Results A 38-item questionnaire was developed through the qualitative phase. It was reduced to a 33-item after content validity. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 30-item with a five-factor solution (nutrition, physical activity, self monitoring of blood glucose, foot care and smoking) that jointly accounted for 72.3% of observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the data. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.94), and test-retest of the scale with 2-weeks intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC=0.87). Conclusion The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for measuring social support for self-care in middle-aged patients with type II diabetes. It is an easy to use questionnaire and contains the most significant diabetes related behaviors that need continuous support for self-care. PMID:23190685

2012-01-01

194

Motivation and anxiety for dental treatment: Testing a self-determination theory model of oral self-care behaviour and dental clinic attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study: (1) developed a Self-Regulation Questionnaire for Dental Treatment (SRQDT) based on Self-Determination\\u000a Theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, Psychol Inq 11:227–268, 2000), and (2) used it to test a SDT process model of oral self-care behaviours and dental clinic attendance. Patients’ perceptions\\u000a of autonomy supportive (relative to controlling) dental professionals were expected to be positively associated with patients’

Anne E. Münster Halvari; Hallgeir Halvari; Gunnar Bjørnebekk; Edward L. Deci

2010-01-01

195

Comparison of the role of self-efficacy and illness representations in relation to dietary self-care and diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study examined the joint effects of self-efficacy and illness representations on dietary self-care and diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by comparing two theoretical models: the Self-regulation Model (Leventhal, H., Meyer, D., & Nerenz, D. (1980). The common-sense representations of illness danger. In S. Rachman (Ed.), Medical Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 7–30). New York: Pergamon.) and

Arie Nouwen; G. Urquhart Law; Shakir Hussain; Steven McGovern; Heidi Napier

2009-01-01

196

Determining the adequacy of a health promotion self?care interview guide with healthy, middle?aged, Mexican American women: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hispanic\\/Latino population is the second largest and fastest growing minority in the United States, with Mexican Americans comprising 60.4% of the total. Existing research instruments and procedures must be made culturally specific, both theoretically and empirically, for use with this population. Our purpose in the present study was to determine whether one part of the Health Promotion Self?Care Interview

Donna L. Hartweg; Violeta A. Berbiglia

1996-01-01

197

Threaded average temperature thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the average temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.

Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

198

Improving Foot Self-Care Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Behaviors in Patients With type 2 Diabetes at Low Risk for Foot Ulceration: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

The pilot study aimed to explore the effects of an educational intervention on patients' foot self-care knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors in adult patients with type 2 diabetes at low risk for foot ulceration. The intervention consisted of three sessions and was given over a 3-week period. A total of 70 eligible consenting participants were recruited for this pilot study. Fifty-six participants completed the study. The outcomes were assessed at pretest, following the first two sessions, and 3-month follow-up. The findings indicated that the foot self-care educational intervention was effective in improving foot self-care knowledge, self-efficacy and behaviors in adult patients with type 2 diabetes at low risk for foot ulceration. The findings support the effects of the intervention. Future research should evaluate its efficacy using a randomized clinical trial design, and a large sample of patients with type 2 diabetes at low risk for foot ulcerations. PMID:23823459

Fan, Lifeng; Sidani, Souraya; Cooper-Brathwaite, Angela; Metcalfe, Kelly

2014-12-01

199

Estimating Average Domain Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simulation study was performed to determine whether a group's average percent correct in a content domain could be accurately estimated for groups taking a single test form and not the entire domain of items. Six Item Response Theory (IRT) -based domain score estimation methods were evaluated, under conditions of few items per content area per…

Pommerich, Mary; Nicewander, W. Alan

200

Beating the Averages  

E-print Network

He suggests starting with Python and Java, because they are easy to learn. The ... This is not just a theoretical question. ... does it, you can expect to do as well as the average big company—that is, to grow ..... And not in the trivial sense that.

2001-04-12

201

Average Rate of Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2005-04-21

202

Self care integrative treatment demonstrated in rural community setting improves health related quality of life of lymphatic filariasis patients in endemic villages.  

PubMed

This study assessed impact of community based self care integrative treatment provided through mass camps in villages of three districts of Kerala, India endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Two most endemic Primary Health centres (PHCs) were selected from each of the three districts, where maximum concentration of LF patients is recorded. Fourteen one day LF camps, each attended by 30-40 patients were conducted. Trained Accredited Social Health Activists encouraged LF patients to attend camps. Skin wash and drying, care of bacterial entry points using dermatology drugs, and simple yoga and breathing exercises were demonstrated in these camps. Patients were advised to continue these self care activities daily at home for six months. The quality of life (QoL) of LF patients was determined for Indian life style domains using validated and pretested specific questionnaire (LF-specific QoL questionnaire-LFSQQ). It addressed conditions and state of individuals with reference to LF. The questionnaire had 7 domains and each domain consisted of a series of questions with likert scale (no problem, mild, moderate, severe, most severe). 446 patients attended one day camps to get training on integrative self care treatment. 425 patients (95.3%) were followed up after six months and QoL was reassessed. Each patient's QoL in mobility, self care, usual activity, pain and discomfort and social relationship significantly improved (P value <0.01). Psychological health showed no significant change. The disease burden, for the purpose of the study was measured by asking questions about history of painful redness, swelling and cellulitis of legs (filarial fever), foul smell (odor), itching (eczema/discharge from limb), wound (non healing ulcer) and weight/size of the limb. The difference in disease burden as recorded during the sixth month follow up was measured using dependent t test, reduced significantly (P value <0.01) in 409 (96.2%) patients. 103 (24.2%) patients experienced fever during follow up. Severity of inflammatory episodes reduced from severe problem to no problem, after six months of home based self care. There was significant relation between treatment regularity and QoL status (P value=0.003). The community based one day camps that trained LF patients on skin care and daily yoga and breathing practices improved QoL. PMID:23499714

Aggithaya, Madhur Guruprasad; Narahari, Saravu R; Vayalil, Sudha; Shefuvan, Mohammed; Jacob, Neethu K; Sushma, Kandathu Valappil

2013-06-01

203

Breastfeeding - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... to 2 ounces of alcohol. Talk to your health care provider about drinking alcohol and breastfeeding. Try not to smoke. There are many ways to help you quit. You put your baby at risk if you ... to your health care provider about programs that can support you ...

204

Self Care for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trauma takes a toll on children, families, schools, and communities. Trauma can also take a toll on school professionals. Any educator who works directly with traumatized children and adolescents is vulnerable to the effects of trauma--referred to as "compassion fatigue" or "secondary traumatic stress"--being physically, mentally, or emotionally…

National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

2008-01-01

205

Constipation - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... white breads, pastries, doughnuts, sausage, fast-food burgers, potato chips, and French fries. Many foods are good natural "laxatives" that will help you move your bowels. High-fiber foods help waste move through your body. Add foods with fiber ...

206

Covariant approximation averaging  

E-print Network

We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

2014-01-01

207

Covariant approximation averaging  

E-print Network

We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

Eigo Shintani; Rudy Arthur; Thomas Blum; Taku Izubuchi; Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner

2014-02-02

208

Quantum model averaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard tomographic analyses ignore model uncertainty. It is assumed that a given model generated the data and the task is to estimate the quantum state, or a subset of parameters within that model. Here we apply a model averaging technique to mitigate the risk of overconfident estimates of model parameters in two examples: (1) selecting the rank of the state in tomography and (2) selecting the model for the fidelity decay curve in randomized benchmarking.

Ferrie, Christopher

2014-09-01

209

HFAG-charm averages  

E-print Network

The extraction of charm mixing and CP violation parameters requires the combination of many measurements. The latest averages are reviewed and the contribution of individual measurements is discussed. While it is established that the CP-even eigenstate is the shorter lived, the oscillation frequency of charm mesons is still not known to high accuracy. All CP asymmetries are found to be compatible with zero within less than 3 sigma.

Gersabeck, Marco

2014-01-01

210

Temperature averaging thermal probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (inventors)

1985-01-01

211

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11

212

A Medical Student Elective Promoting Humanism, Communication Skills, Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Physician Self-Care: An Evaluation of the HEART Program  

PubMed Central

Objective In 2002 AMSA created a fourth year medical student elective known as HEART that provided the opportunity for students to explore humanism in medicine, self-care, complementary and alternative medicine modalities, communication, activism, and community building in a four week immersion experience. The educational effects of this elective, and whether it has met its stated goals, are unknown. Method The authors conducted a web-based, cross-sectional survey of the first eight cohorts of HEART graduates in 2010. Survey questions assessed respondents’ demographics and perspectives on the educational impact of the elective. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and qualitative analyses were guided by grounded theory. Results Of 168 eligible alumni, 122 (73%), completed the survey. The majority were female (70%), age ?35 (77%), and trained in primary care specialties (66%). Half were attendings in practice. The majority of respondents felt the elective taught professionalism (89%) and communication skills (92%) well or very well. The majority highly agreed that the elective helped them better cope with stress during residency training (80%), taught them self-care skills (75%), and improved their ability to empathize and connect with patients (71%). Qualitative analysis of the personal and professional impact of the elective identified twelve common themes with self-discovery, self-care, and collegial development/community most frequently cited. Conclusions The majority of HEART graduates endorse learning important skills and benefiting from the experience both personally and professionally. Aspects of the HEART curriculum may help training programs teach professionalism and improve trainee well-being. PMID:24021470

Dossett, Michelle L.; Kohatsu, Wendy; Nunley, William; Mehta, Darshan; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Yeh, Gloria

2013-01-01

213

Reflections on intervention strategies with respect to the process of alcoholization and self-care practices among Kaingang indigenous people in Santa Catarina State, Brazil.  

PubMed

This article, based on ethnographic research on the Xapecó Indigenous Reservation in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, examines the sociocultural context of the use of alcoholic beverages among the Kaingang indigenous people. The authors also discuss the experience with an intervention involving government agencies and nongovernmental organizations that attempted to deal with alcohol-related problems on the reserve. Based on the concepts of alcoholization and self-care practices, the study analyzes the possibilities for organizing health intervention practices with indigenous peoples, in light of the principle of differentiated care under Brazil's National Healthcare Policy for Indigenous Peoples. PMID:25099048

Ghiggi Junior, Ari; Langdon, Esther Jean

2014-06-01

214

Effect of a self-care program on oxidative stress and cognitive function in an older Mexican urban-dwelling population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine the effect of a self-care program on oxidative stress (OxS) and cognitive function in an older, Mexican, urban-dwelling\\u000a population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  A longitudinal and pre-experimental study was carried out in a sample of 79 older healthy, urban-dwelling individuals residing\\u000a in Mexico City, (62 females and 17 males), of which 71 of them (59 women and 12 males) complied with the

M. A. Sánchez-Rodríguez; A. Arronte-Rosales; V. M. Mendoza-Núñez

2009-01-01

215

Supporting Self-Care for Families of Children With Eczema With a Web-Based Intervention Plus Health Care Professional Support: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood eczema, or childhood atopic dermatitis, causes significant distress to children and their families through sleep disturbance and itch. The main cause of treatment failure is nonuse of prescribed treatments. Objective The objective of this study was to develop and test a Web-based intervention to support families of children with eczema, and to explore whether support from a health care professional (HCP) is necessary to engage participants with the intervention. Methods We followed the PRECEDE-PROCEED model: regular emollient use was the target behavior we were seeking to promote and we identified potential techniques to influence this. LifeGuide software was used to write the intervention website. Carers of children with eczema were invited through primary care mail-out and randomized to 3 groups: (1) website only, (2) website plus HCP support, or (3) usual care. Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) scores were measured online by carer report at baseline and at 12 weeks. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 13 HCPs (primarily practice nurses) and 26 participants to explore their experiences of taking part in the study. Results A total of 143 carers were recruited through 31 practices. We found a decrease of ?2 in follow-up compared with baseline POEM score in 23 of 42 (55%) participants in the website only group, 16 of 49 (33%) in the usual care group, and 18 of 47 (38%) in the website plus HCP group. Website use data showed that 75 of 93 (81%) participants allocated to the website groups completed the core modules, but less than half used other key components (videos: 35%; regular text reminders: 39%). There were no consistent differences in website use between the website only or the website plus HCP groups. Qualitative feedback showed that most HCPs had initial concerns about providing support for eczema self-care because this was not a condition that they felt expert in. However, HCPs reported productive consultations and that they found it helpful to use the website in consultations, while observing that some participants seemed to need more support than others. Qualitative interviews with participants suggested that HCP support was valued highly only by a minority, generally those who were less confident in their management of eczema or less confident using the Internet. Conclusions Our pilot trial demonstrated the potential for greater improvements in POEM scores in both website intervention groups and that a full-scale trial is feasible. Such a trial would quantify the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this intervention to determine whether it should be widely promoted to families of children with newly diagnosed eczema. In this study population, HCP support was not strongly valued by participants and did not lead to better outcomes or website use than use of the Web-based intervention alone. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 98560867; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN98560867 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NcxvMtgN). PMID:24594972

Muller, Ingrid; Yardley, Lucy; Burgess, Hana; Selinger, Hannah; Stuart, Beth L; Little, Paul

2014-01-01

216

Striving for Control: Cognitive, Self-Care, and Faith Strategies Employed by Vulnerable Black and White Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average older adult reaches age 65 with at least two chronic, co-occurring illnesses, or multiple morbidities (MM). We\\u000a currently lack critical information about the specific strategies older adults use to attempt to control these MM. To increase\\u000a our understanding of how older adults attempt to manage these MM and retain control of their health, in-depth interviews were\\u000a conducted with

Corinne R. Leach; Nancy E. Schoenberg

2008-01-01

217

Record keeping, genetic selection, educational experience and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow, milk fat percentage, bacterial score and bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy farms in the Central region of Thailand.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to estimate the record keeping, genetic selection, educational, and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow (AYC), milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) of dairy farms in the central region of Thailand. Farms were located in the provinces of Saraburi and Nakhon Ratchisima and were members of the Muaklek dairy cooperative. Records from individual animals were unavailable. Thus, farm records of milk yield, milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and BTCCC were collected from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2006. Additional record keeping, genetic selection, education, and farm management information was collected through a questionnaire in May of 2006. Data from the Muaklek dairy cooperative and the questionnaire were then merged by a farm identification number. A single trait mixed model was used to analyze AYC, milk fat percentage, and BTSCC, while a log linear model was used to analyze bacterial score. Results showed that farms that kept records on individual animals had higher (P < 0.05) milk fat percentages and lower bacterial scores than farms that did not. Farms that used genetic information (EBV) and phenotypes when selecting sires were higher (P < 0.05) for milk fat percentage than farms that used only phenotypes and personal opinion. Farms milking cows with a single unit milking machine and by hand, had higher (P < 0.05) bacterial scores and BTSCC than farms using only a single or multi unit machine. Overall farms that kept individual animal records, used EBV when selecting sires, used a single method for collecting milk, and used family labor achieved higher performance from their herds than farms that did not. PMID:18975127

Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

2008-12-01

218

Well Managed Participants living, learning, loving life with diabetes  

E-print Network

Well Managed Participants living, learning, loving life with diabetes Achieve a Healthy Weight Shot · Stress Test (>50 years) · Smoking Cessation Self-Care Goals for people with Type 2 Diabetes What coach plus 8 educational flyers mailed to their home, a pre- and post-HbA1c test, monthly weight

219

The Limits of Self-Management: Community and Health Care System Barriers Among Latinos With Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies examine diabetes self-care, few regard ecological framework correlates such as community and institutional level factors as fundamental for understanding diabetes management for Latinos. This article addresses the dearth of research that exists regarding social contextual forces and diabetes management for Latinos. Given the scarcity of research on this topic, studies of non-Latino groups were reviewed to illustrate

Janine Jurkowski

2010-01-01

220

Stimulating Healthy Aging with a Model Nurse-Managed Free Clinic in a Senior Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a Geriatric Education and Health Management program, a model nurse-managed free clinic has been established at an urban senior center by faculty and students of the University of New Mexico College of Nursing. Funded by a 3-year grant from the Department of Health and Human Services, the weekly clinic is based on Orem's self-care theory…

Franklin, Ruth H.

221

Fuzzy Weighted Average: Alternative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an alternative definition of the fuzzy weighted average, in which Zadeh's extension principle is applied to the definition of the non-fuzzy weighted average where weights are required to be normalised. It is argued that the alternative approach should be preferred above the traditional approach. An algorithm for the computation of the fuzzy weighted average for the alternative approach

Broek van den Pim; Joost Noppen; K. Demirli; A. Akgunduz

2006-01-01

222

Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-Care: Results from the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect…

Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

2011-01-01

223

Self-Care Fact Sheet for Influenza A & Influenza-Like Illness This fact sheet provides members of the University community who have been diagnosed with an influenza-like  

E-print Network

Self-Care Fact Sheet for Influenza A & Influenza-Like Illness This fact sheet provides members of the University community who have been diagnosed with an influenza-like illness (ILI) or Influenza of ILI and Influenza A are similar to seasonal influenza and include fever, cough, sore throat, body

Bou-Zeid, Elie

224

Evaluation of an Internet-Based Application for Supporting Self-Care of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the Internet into medical practice as an information-sharing and communication medium has brought about many opportunities for the management of chronic care. Research has shown that teleconsultation for example is a practical, cost-effective, and reliable way of delivering a worthwhile health care service to diabetics. As a result, Internet-based applications are being developed to support patients in

Nicol Nijland; Erwin R. Seydel; Julia E. W. C. Van Gemert-pijnen; Bart Brandenburg; Saskia M. Kelders; Marijke Will

2009-01-01

225

Modular Approach to Physics: Average Speed versus Average Velocity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is an interactive demonstration of average speed and velocity. The user can move the object, while average speed and velocity is calculated and available through the Data panel. A full lesson plan is available through the Help menu. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-05-24

226

High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser  

SciTech Connect

We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A

2001-05-23

227

Average Speed and Unit Conversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will determine average speeds from data collected and convert units for speed problems. Students try to roll the ball with a prescribed average speed based on intuition. Then, based on unit conversion we will see how accurate the rolls really were.

2009-01-01

228

When good = better than average  

Microsoft Academic Search

People report themselves to be above average on simple tasks and below average on difficult tasks. This paper proposes an explanation for this effect that is simpler than prior explanations. The new explanation is that people conflate relative with absolute evaluation, especially on subjective measures. The paper then presents a series of four studies that test this conflation explanation. These

Don A. Moore

2007-01-01

229

Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology  

E-print Network

Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

T. Buchert

1995-12-15

230

Pseudo-average block sensitivity equals average sensitivity S. Venkatesh  

E-print Network

of indices i such that f(w) 6= f(w (i) ). De#12;nition 2 (Average sensitivity) The average sensitivity of f with respect to d, bs d;w (f), is the number of blocks S i such that f(w) 6= f(w (S i ) ). De#12;nition 4 For a binary string w 2 f0; 1g n , we denote by w (i) , the string obtained from w by ipping its ith bit

Srinivasan, Venkatesh

231

Exponential Moving Average Stock Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A primary application of econophysics is using digital signal processing techniques to filter and predict market data, which is theorized to exhibit random walk motion. An exponential moving average is one tool that physicists use to smooth data from an input signal to identify its trends. The Exponential Moving Average Stock Model implements three types of exponential moving averages and allows the user to change the parameters of each. The model allows the user to view the results of exponential moving averages computed on the New York Stock Exchange daily closing price of six familiar companies. It demonstrates one way that traders use causal filters to smooth market data and forecast the next day's price.

Mohorn, Matthew

2013-02-14

232

Evaluations of average level spacings  

SciTech Connect

The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

Liou, H.I.

1980-01-01

233

The effectiveness of selected Tai Chi exercises in a program of strategic rehabilitation aimed at improving the self-care skills of patients aroused from prolonged coma after severe TBI  

PubMed Central

Background Difficulties in self-care constitute a very common problem for patients recovering from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, and a major factor reducing their quality of life. Effective new rehabilitation programs that would help solve this problem are urgently needed. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate improvement in this respect in a group of patients aroused from prolonged coma who participated in a goal-oriented rehabilitation program (Rehab-3), enhanced with selected elements of Tai-Chi. Material/Methods We examined 40 patients aroused from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, undergoing long-term rehabilitation according to a standard phased rehabilitation program. These patients were divided into two numerically even groups: a control group treated according to the standard program, and an experimental group, who received an additional goal oriented program enhanced with selected Tai-Chi exercises. The research methods included analysis of documentation (MRI, CT), a structured clinical interview, and the Standard Self-Care Scale. Results The experimental group achieved significant improvement of self-care skills, whereas in the control group the improvement was slight and not statistically significant. The value of co-efficient j (0.64) indicates a very strong association between the rehabilitation procedure and improved self-care in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Conclusions Our results confirmed that a goal-oriented rehabilitation program enhanced with elements of Tai-Chi was more effective than the standard program in improving the performance of activities of daily living. PMID:24036691

Ma?ko, Grzegorz; Zió?kowski, Artur; Mirski, Andrzej; K?osi?ski, Micha?

2013-01-01

234

New publication Climatological averages for  

E-print Network

New publication Climatological averages for 1981-2010 and 2001-2010 for stations appearing in the monthly bulletin of the Climatological Observers Link ISBN 978-0-9569485-0-2 Available 1 September detach and return form below with payment. Please make cheques payable to `Climatological Observers Link

235

Factors associated with successful completion of the chronic disease self-management program by adults with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

This study examines factors associated with completion (attendance ?4 of 6 sessions) of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) by adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients with glycated hemoglobin ? 7.5 within 6 months were enrolled and completed self-report measures on demographics, health status, and self-care (n = 146). Significant differences in completion status were found for several self-care factors including healthful eating plan, spacing carbohydrates, frequent exercise, and general health. Completion was not influenced by race/ethnicity or socioeconomics. Results suggest better attention to exercise and nutrition at the start of CDSMP may be associated with completion, regardless of demographic subgroup. PMID:23455685

Helduser, Janet W; Bolin, Jane N; Vuong, Ann M; Moudouni, Darcy M; Begaye, Dawn S; Huber, John C; Ory, Marcia G; Forjuoh, Samuel N

2013-01-01

236

Faculty and Staff Survey 2012 FHS Driver Averages -Faculty  

E-print Network

: Workload 66.0% 65.9% 24. Work Area: Change Management 65.7% 59.4% 25. Work Area: Recognition ­ Faculty 62WE SPEAK: Faculty and Staff Survey 2012 #12;FHS Driver Averages - Faculty Ranked Drivers Driver Averages Rest. Average 1. Job: Safety 84.1% 81.9% 2. Job: Clarity 83.3% 82.0% 3. Org: Faculty or Division

Lennard, William N.

237

Engagement with Automated Patient Monitoring and Self-Management Support Calls: Experience with a Thousand Chronically-Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Patient self-care support via Interactive Voice Response (IVR) can improve disease management. However little is known about the factors affecting program engagement. Methods We compiled data on IVR program engagement for 1,173 patients with: heart failure, depression, diabetes, and cancer who were followed for 28,962 person-weeks. Patients in programs for diabetes or depression (N=727) had the option of participating along with an informal caregiver who received electronic feedback based on the patient’s IVR assessments. Analyses focused on factors associated with completing weekly IVR calls. Results Patients were on average 61 years old, 37% had at most a high school education, and 48% reported incomes < $30,000. Among patients given the option of participating with an informal caregiver, 65% chose to do so. Patients completed 83% of attempted IVR assessments, with rates higher for heart failure (90%) and cancer programs (90%) than for the diabetes (81%) or depression programs (71%) (p<0.001). Among patients in diabetes or depression programs, those opting to have feedback provided to an informal caregiver were more likely to complete assessments (adjusted odds ratio: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.75). Older patients had higher call completion rates, even among patients > 75 years of age. Missed clinic appointments, prior hospitalizations, depression program participation, and poorer mental health were associated with lower completion rates. Conclusions Patients with a variety of chronic conditions will complete IVR self-care support calls regularly. Risk factors for missed IVR calls overlap with those for missed appointments. Involvement of informal caregivers may significantly increase engagement. PMID:23222527

Piette, John D.; Rosland, Ann-Marie; Marinec, Nicolle Stec; Striplin, Dana; Bernstein, Steven J.; Silveira, Maria J.

2013-01-01

238

Parvalbumin cell ablation of NMDA-R1 causes increased resting network excitability with associated social and self-care deficits.  

PubMed

NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that net excitation propagated by impaired NMDAR signaling on GABAergic interneurons may be of particular interest in mediating several aspects of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which behavioral domains are governed by a net increase of excitation and whether modulating downstream GABAergic signaling can reverse neural and thus behavioral deficits. The current study determines the selective contributions of NMDAR dysfunction on PV-containing interneurons to electrophysiological, cognitive, and negative-symptom-related behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia using mice with a PVcre-NR1flox-driven ablation of NR1 on PV-containing interneurons. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of one agent that directly modulates GABAergic signaling (baclofen) and one agent that indirectly modifies NMDAR-mediated signaling through antagonism of mGluR5 receptors (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP)). The data indicate that loss of NMDAR function on PV interneurons impairs self-care and sociability while increasing N1 latency and baseline gamma power, and reducing induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation. Baclofen normalized baseline gamma power without corresponding effects on behavior. MPEP further increased N1 latency and reduced social behavior in PVcre/NR1+/+ mice. These two indices were negatively correlated before and following MPEP such that as N1 latency increases, sociability decreases. This finding suggests a predictive role for N1 latency with respect to social function. Although previous data suggest that MPEP may be beneficial for core features of autism spectrum disorders, current data suggest that such effects require intact function of NMDAR on PV interneurons. PMID:24525709

Billingslea, Eddie N; Tatard-Leitman, Valerie M; Anguiano, Jaynie; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Suh, Jimmy; Saunders, John A; Morita, Susumu; Featherstone, Robert E; Ortinski, Pavel I; Gandal, Michael J; Lin, Robert; Liang, Yuling; Gur, Raquel E; Carlson, Gregory C; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Siegel, Steven J

2014-06-01

239

Using the teach-back and Orem's Self-care Deficit Nursing theory to increase childhood immunization communication among low-income mothers.  

PubMed

Guided by Orem's Self-care Deficit Nursing theory, the purpose of the pilot study was to assess the relationship between maternal health literacy and the mother's ability to comprehend and communicate information about childhood immunizations. Communication is the key to positive health results, particularly for patients with low literacy skills, yet few studies have examined patients' ability to converse about health information taught to them by providers. The study was conducted in an urban walk-in immunization clinic. A quantitative-qualitative research design was used. Convenience sampling was applied to obtain 15 mothers with one child (M1) and 15 mothers with more than one child (M>1). The Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy (REALM) was used to assess literacy level. Vaccine information statements on inactive poliovirus (IPV) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) were instructional materials used in the teach- back procedure. Although the results of the study were mixed, patterns and trends were noted. Mothers with higher literacy levels provided more correct responses for the benefits of the polio vaccine than did those mothers with lower literacy levels (F(2,25)=4.70, p= .02). For both IPV and PCV vaccines, more mothers gave correct answers for risks and benefits, but more mothers gave incorrect answers for safety. There also was some relationship between mother's age and correctness of responses regarding risk of pneumonia vaccination (F(2,24)=3.79, p= .04). The inconsistency of the mothers' responses to communicate critical immunization information about vaccines indicates the need to further assess how best to increase parents' vaccine knowledge and communication skills. PMID:18300059

Wilson, Feleta L; Baker, Lynda M; Nordstrom, Cheryl K; Legwand, Carol

2008-01-01

240

Effectiveness of the Smart Care Service for Diabetes Management  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Smart Care service for the diabetes management. Methods Fifty-six patients with diabetes mellitus were recruited in Daegu, Korea. All participants completed a diabetes management education course (diet, exercise, and complications) for their self-care and received access to a care management website through a netbook and smartphone. The website accepts uploads of glucose level, body weight, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and blood pressure. Participants communicated with the care manager through the internal management system of the website. The intervention was applied for 6 months. Results Participants receiving the Smart Care service had lower blood glucose and HbA1c during 6 months follow-up when 1-month values (p < 0.001) were compared. There was no significant difference in body weight and body mass index between 1 month and 6 months. The average number of remote consultation with the Smart Care service per person was 10.4 by nurses, 3.0 by nutritionists, and 1.6 by sports curers. Regression analysis indicated that the number of times counseling was offered by nurses influences body weight and that the number of minutes of telephone counseling influences both body weight and body mass index. Conclusions We have confirmed that the Smart Care service might be an effective system for reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c. We expect that the Smart Care service will contribute to delaying diabetes complications and improving the quality of life of patients with diabetes. PMID:25405065

Chung, Young-Soon; Lee, Chang Hee

2014-01-01

241

Averaging of quantum dynamical semigroups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the elliptic regularization method, the Cauchy problem for the Schrödinger equation with discontinuous degenerating coefficients is associated with a sequence of regularized Cauchy problems and the corresponding regularized dynamical semigroups. We study a divergent sequence of quantum dynamical semigroups as a random process with values in the space of quantum states defined on a measurable space of regularization parameters with a finitely additive measure. The mathematical expectation of the considered processes determined by the Pettis integral defines a family of averaged dynamical transformations. We investigate the semigroup property and the injectivity and surjectivity of the averaged transformations. We establish the possibility of defining the process by its mathematical expectation at two different instants and propose a procedure for approximating an unknown initial state by solutions of a finite set of variational problems on compact sets.

Sakbaev, V. Zh.

2010-09-01

242

Continuity and change?: Exploring reactions to a guided self-management intervention in a randomised controlled trial for IBS with reference to prior experience of managing a long term condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-care interventions are promoted as effective strategies for improving the quality of life and health outcomes for individuals with long-term health conditions. Outcome measures used in evaluations using Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) are not designed to consider patients' prior management strategies and experience of illness. Yet the experience of illness literature suggests that adjusting to living with chronic illness, together

Anne Rogers; Victoria Lee; Anne Kennedy

2007-01-01

243

Ischemic ulcers - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

Ischemic ulcers (wounds) can occur when there is poor blood flow in your legs . Poor blood flow causes cells to die and damages tissue. Most ischemic ulcers occur on the feet and legs. These types ...

244

Self-Care After Disasters  

MedlinePLUS

... the News Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training – Exposure – Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

245

Shin splints - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... splints. Common activities that cause shin splints are: Running, especially on hills. If you are a new ... arches Work out on hard surfaces, such as running on the street or playing basketball or tennis ...

246

Genital herpes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010 Dec17;59(RR-12):1-110. Lentz GM, Eckert LO. Infections of the lower genital tracts: ... toxic shock syndrome, endometritis, and salpingitis. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive ...

247

Venous ulcers - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... treat a venous ulcer, you want to improve blood flow to your legs. Wear compression stockings or bandages ... or exercise every day. Being active helps improve blood flow. Take medications as directed to help with healing. ...

248

Kidney stones - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... vitamin C or fish oil. They may be harmful to you. If your doctor says you have calcium oxalate stones, you may also need to limit foods that are high in oxalate. These foods include: Fruits: rhubarb, currants, canned ...

249

Menopause, a Self Care Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for women from the three main cultural groups in New Mexico (Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo), this pamphlet discusses the causes and symptoms, some remedies for the symptoms of menopause, and presents ideas for organizing support groups to help middle-aged women and their families deal with menopausal problems. Explanations of the…

Lopez, Maria Cristina; And Others

250

Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Behrend, Juliane, E-mail: I.Brown@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: Juliane.Behrend@uni-ulm.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2009-04-15

251

F-IF Average Cost  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: John makes DVDs of his friendâs shows. He has realized that, because of his fixed costs, his average cost per DVD depends on the number of DVDs he prod...

252

Flexible time domain averaging technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

2013-09-01

253

Assessing self-care and social function using a computer adaptive testing version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory Accepted for Publication, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine score agreement, validity, precision, and response burden of a prototype computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Self-Care and Social Function scales of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) compared to the full-length version of these scales. Design Computer simulation analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal retrospective data; cross-sectional prospective study. Settings Pediatric rehabilitation hospital, including inpatient acute rehabilitation, day school program, outpatient clinics; community-based day care, preschool, and children’s homes. Participants Four hundred sixty-nine children with disabilities and 412 children with no disabilities (analytic sample); 38 children with disabilities and 35 children without disabilities (cross-validation sample). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Summary scores from prototype CAT applications of each scale using 15-, 10-, and 5-item stopping rules; scores from the full-length Self-Care and Social Function scales; time (in seconds) to complete assessments and respondent ratings of burden. Results Scores from both computer simulations and field administration of the prototype CATs were highly consistent with scores from full-length administration (all r’s between .94 and .99). Using computer simulation of retrospective data, discriminant validity and sensitivity to change of the CATs closely approximated that of the full-length scales, especially when the 15- and 10-item stopping rules were applied. In the cross-validation study the time to administer both CATs was 4 minutes, compared to over 16 minutes to complete the full-length scales. Conclusions Self-care and Social Function score estimates from CAT administration are highly comparable to those obtained from full-length scale administration, with small losses in validity and precision and substantial decreases in administration time. PMID:18373991

Coster, Wendy J.; Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.

2009-01-01

254

Effect of Orem Self-Care Program on the Life Quality of Burn Patients Referred to Ghotb-al-Din-e-Shirazi Burn Center, Shiraz, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Advances in treatment and critical care have largely improved the survival following burns; therefore, the importance of quality of life in burn patients is an issue beyond question. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Orem self-care program on Quality of Life of burn patients. Methods: A randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 110 eligible burn patients who were selected using easy sampling method and allocated randomly into two groups of experiment and control. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, containing demographic and burn information and burn-specific health scale–brief (BSHS-B) questionnaire. For the experiment group, 5 sessions of theoretical training and 75-90 minutes of practical training were accomplished. The quality of life of the patients with burns was assessed in three phases by the BSHS-B questionnaire. The data were analyzed in SPSS-17 using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Independent t-test and repeated measurement multivariate test. Results: After one month and two months of the use of self-care model, the quality of life of the cases improved from 73.33% to 83.78% and 98.12%, respectively (P<0.001). But the changes in the quality of life of the patients in the control group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the obtained results of this study, designing and implementing a self-care program based on Orem’s model and the needs of burn patients will improve their quality of life. Therefore, it is recommended that this program should be considered as a part of treatment program for these patients. Trial Registration Number: 2013042112129N1 PMID:25349844

Hashemi, Fatemeh; Rahimi Dolatabad, Fatemeh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Ayaz, Mehdi; Zare, Najaf; Mansouri, Parisa

2014-01-01

255

average-linkage clustering example 1 average-linkage clustering example 1  

E-print Network

average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage

Perkins, Theodore J.

256

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND  

E-print Network

385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

257

Effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for women with menstrual pain compared to usual care alone: using stakeholder engagement to design a pragmatic randomized trial and study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Self-care acupressure might be successful in treating menstrual pain, which is common among young women. There is a need for comparative effectiveness research with stakeholder engagement in all phases seeking to address the needs of decision-makers. Our aim was to design a study on the effectiveness of additional self-care acupressure for menstrual pain comparing usual care alone using different methods of stakeholder engagement. Methods The study was designed using multiple mixed methods for stakeholder engagement. Based on the results of a survey and focus group discussion, a stakeholder advisory group developed the study design. Results Stakeholder engagement resulted in a two-arm pragmatic randomized trial. Two hundred and twenty women aged 18 to 25 years with menstrual pain will be included in the study. Outcome measurement will be done using electronic questionnaires provided by a study specific mobile application (App). Primary outcome will be the mean pain intensity at the days of pain during the third menstruation after therapy start. Conclusion Stakeholder engagement helped to develop a study design that better serves the needs of decision makers, including an App as a modern tool for both intervention and data collection in a young target group. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier http://NCT01582724 PMID:24499425

2013-01-01

258

Relationship of diabetes-specific knowledge to self-management activities, ambulatory preventive care, and metabolic outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Educational interventions increase diabetes patients' knowledge and self-care activities, but their impact on the use of health services to prevent diabetes complications is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship of patients' diabetes-specific knowledge with self-management behaviors, use of ambulatory preventive care, and metabolic outcomes.Methods. We surveyed 670 adults with diabetes from three managed care plans to assess diabetes

Stephen D. Persell; Nancy L. Keating; Mary Beth Landrum; Bruce E. Landon; John Z. Ayanian; Catherine Borbas; Edward Guadagnoli

2004-01-01

259

RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations  

SciTech Connect

RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

2009-05-04

260

RECONSTRUCTION OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE USING COMPUTER AVERAGING  

PubMed Central

The axial projection of the glutamine synthetase molecule has been reconstructed from electron micrographs of a stained preparation by using a new method of correlation search and averaging. The average over 50 individual molecules appears as a radial pattern with sixfold symmetry. The handedness evident in the average is attributed to nonuniformity of the negative stain. PMID:32653

Frank, J.; Goldfarb, W.; Eisenberg, D.; Baker, T.S.

2014-01-01

261

Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

2012-01-01

262

Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

263

Patient outcomes and experiences of an acupuncture and self-care service for persistent low back pain in the NHS: a mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Supported self-management, acupuncture and information can help reduce the symptoms of low back pain. These approaches are currently recommended by NICE guidance as treatment options for patients with persistent low back pain. However, there has been no previous evaluation of a service providing them together for this common problem. The purpose of this service evaluation was to report patient outcomes and experiences of the Beating Back Pain Service (BBPS), a pilot service based in a primary and community care setting, delivering acupuncture, self-management and information to patients with chronic low back pain. Methods Patients completed a questionnaire at three time points: pre-BBPS, immediately post-BBPS and three months post-BBPS. Outcome measures included the Bournemouth Questionnaire (measuring musculoskeletal, MSK, problems), EuroQoL-5D (measuring quality of life), Pain and Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and additional questions on medication use, physical activity, understanding of pain and positive well-being. Additionally, the STarT Back (measuring risk of developing chronic pain) was collected at BBPS information sessions. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate pre- and post- variables. Questionnaires also collected qualitative data (open-text responses) regarding patient views and experiences of the BBPS, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Results 80 (out of 108) patients who attended the initial BBPS information session agreed to participate in the service evaluation (mean age 47 years, 65% female). 65 patients attended subsequent BBPS acupuncture and/or self-management sessions and were asked to complete post-treatment questionnaires; complete datasets were available for 61 patients. There were statistically significant improvements over time for pain (p <0.0001), quality of life (p?=?0.006), understanding of pain (p <0.001), physical activity (p?=?0.047) and relaxation (p?=?0.012). Post-hoc analysis revealed that scores improved between baseline and post-treatment, these improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up (except relaxation). Patients receiving a combination of acupuncture and self-management sessions produced the most positive results. Patient satisfaction with the BBPS was high. Conclusions The BBPS provided a MSK pain management service that many patients found effective and valuable. Combining self-management with acupuncture was found to be particularly effective, although further consideration is required regarding how best to engage patients in self-management. PMID:24180515

2013-01-01

264

Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

2013-07-01

265

Demonstration of a Model Averaging Capability in FRAMES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in model structure can be incorporated in risk assessment using multiple alternative models and model averaging. To facilitate application of this approach to regulatory applications based on risk or dose assessment, a model averaging capability was integrated with the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) version 2 software. FRAMES is a software platform that allows the non-parochial communication between disparate models, databases, and other frameworks. Users have the ability to implement and select environmental models for specific risk assessment and management problems. Standards are implemented so that models produce information that is readable by other downstream models and accept information from upstream models. Models can be linked across multiple media and from source terms to quantitative risk/dose estimates. Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools are integrated. A model averaging module was implemented to accept output from multiple models and produce average results. These results can be deterministic quantities or probability distributions obtained from an analysis of parameter uncertainty. Output from alternative models is averaged using weights determined from user input and/or model calibration results. A model calibration module based on the PEST code was implemented to provide FRAMES with a general calibration capability. An application illustrates the implementation, user interfaces, execution, and results of the FRAMES model averaging capabilities.

Meyer, P. D.; Castleton, K. J.

2009-12-01

266

Spatially averaged turbulent stress and its partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double averaging of the fundamental flow equations is an attractive methodology for investigating spatially heterogeneous\\u000a flows. The resulting double-averaged equations can be used as a framework for development of turbulence models. In order to\\u000a fully explore the potential of such models the stress terms that appear in the momentum equation as a result of each averaging\\u000a step needs to be

Dubravka Pokrajac; Ian McEwan; Vladimir Nikora

2008-01-01

267

Modular Approach to Physics: Weighted Average  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a multi-exercise module relating to average speed. It contains an interactive Java simulation featuring a car that the user controls for speed. Graphs of instantaneous and average velocities are simultaneously displayed, helping the user to understand the concept of time-weighted average. The lesson plan available through the Help menu explains how to calculate a weighted average, first with two speeds, and then with multiple. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics models sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-13

268

Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

1990-01-01

269

Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation  

SciTech Connect

A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

Stroud, P.

1994-02-01

270

A teoria do autocuidado no manejo dos fatores de risco (obesidade, hipertensão e tabagismo) em pacientes pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio Contribution of the nurse attendance through the theory of self care in the handling of coronary risk factors (obesity, hypertension and smoking) in patient post acute myocardial infaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of reducing risk factors for established CAD, by adding a nursing program to conventional treatment based on the Theory of Self-Care. Methodology: This is a randomized clinical trial in a population consisting of 74 patients who have had a first myocardial infarction. The intervention (Group A) was a program of educational nursing actions. The control

SÍLVIA GOLDMEIER

271

Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow  

SciTech Connect

A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

Richard W. Johnson

2012-09-01

272

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

273

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018: Marks, Mignon. Staff Forecast of Average Retail Electricity Prices: 2005 to 2018. California Energy DRAFTSTAFFREPORT JUNE 2007 CEC-200-2007-013-SD Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor #12;CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

274

Temperature averages and rates of stratospheric reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of zonal average temperatures is common in numerical modeling of stratospheric chemistry. In most cases, this approach is accurate. The exceptions are when a heterogeneous reaction or a thermal process which is highly non-linear in temperature is involved. The differences between use of an average temperature and more realistic temperature are presented for cases where temperature fluctuations are of

D. M. Murphy; A. R. Ravishankara

1994-01-01

275

EVOLUTION OF ADIABATIC INVARIANTS IN STOCHASTIC AVERAGING.  

E-print Network

EVOLUTION OF ADIABATIC INVARIANTS IN STOCHASTIC AVERAGING. DMITRY DOLGOPYAT. Abstract. An averaging problem with Markov fast motion is considered. The diffusive limit is obtained for the evolution of adi of this phenomenon).) In this case terms neglected in (2) can dramatically alter long time dynamics. Hence one has

Dolgopyat, Dmitry

276

Impact of an education program on patient anxiety, depression, glycemic control, and adherence to self-care and medication in Type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) requires continuous medical care, patients’ self-management, education, and adherence to prescribed medication to reduce the risk of long-term complications. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits of an education program on diabetes, patient self-management, adherence to medication, anxiety, depression and glycemic control in type 2 diabetics in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study, conducted among 104 diabetic patients at a major tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between May 2011 and October 2012. Education materials given to diabetic patients included pamphlets/handouts written in Arabic, the national language. Special videotapes about DM were made and distributed to all participants. In addition, specific educational programs through the diabetes educators and one-on-one counseling sessions with the doctor were also arranged. Patients were interviewed using a structured interview schedule both during the baseline, and after 6 months of the program. The interview schedule included, socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, diabetes self-management, adherence to medication, anxiety, and depression. Glycemic control was considered poor, if hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was ? 7%. Results: The mean age of the study population was 57.3 ± 14.4 years. Seventy one were males (68.3%) and 33 (31.7%) were females. After six months of the diabetes education program, there were significant improvements in patients’ dietary plan (P = 0.0001), physical exercise (P = 0.0001), self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) (P = 0.0001), HbA1c (P = 0.04), adherence to medication (P = 0.007), and depression (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Implementation of education programs on diabetes among type 2 diabetic patients is associated with better outcomes such as their dietary plan, physical exercise, SMBG, adherence to medication, HbA1c and depression. PMID:23983558

Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al Dawish, Mohamed A.; Zamzami, Marwan M.; Sam, Asirvatham E.; Alzaid, Aus A.

2013-01-01

277

Light propagation in the averaged universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic structures determine how light propagates through the Universe and consequently must be taken into account in the interpretation of observations. In the standard cosmological model at the largest scales, such structures are either ignored or treated as small perturbations to an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. This isotropic and homogeneous model is commonly assumed to emerge from some averaging process at the largest scales. We assume that there exists an averaging procedure that preserves the causal structure of space-time. Based on that assumption, we study the effects of averaging the geometry of space-time and derive an averaged version of the null geodesic equation of motion. For the averaged geometry we then assume a flat Friedmann-Lemaître (FL) model and find that light propagation in this averaged FL model is not given by null geodesics of that model, but rather by a modified light propagation equation that contains an effective Hubble expansion rate, which differs from the Hubble rate of the averaged space-time.

Bagheri, Samae; Schwarz, Dominik J.

2014-10-01

278

The causal meaning of Fisher's average effect  

PubMed Central

Summary In order to formulate the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, Fisher defined the average excess and average effect of a gene substitution. Finding these notions to be somewhat opaque, some authors have recommended reformulating Fisher’s ideas in terms of covariance and regression, which are classical concepts of statistics. We argue that Fisher intended his two averages to express a distinction between correlation and causation. On this view, the average effect is a specific weighted average of the actual phenotypic changes that result from physically changing the allelic states of homologous genes. We show that the statistical and causal conceptions of the average effect, perceived as inconsistent by Falconer, can be reconciled if certain relationships between the genotype frequencies and non-additive residuals are conserved. There are certain theory-internal considerations favouring Fisher’s original formulation in terms of causality; for example, the frequency-weighted mean of the average effects equaling zero at each locus becomes a derivable consequence rather than an arbitrary constraint. More broadly, Fisher’s distinction between correlation and causation is of critical importance to gene-trait mapping studies and the foundations of evolutionary biology. PMID:23938113

LEE, JAMES J.; CHOW, CARSON C.

2013-01-01

279

Averaging in cosmology based on Cartan scalars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new approach for averaging in general relativity and cosmology. After a short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, we consider two ways of dealing with averaging based on Cartan scalars. We apply the theory for two different Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi models. In the first one, the correlation term behaves as a positive cosmological constant, in the second example, the leading correlation term behaves like spatial curvature. We also show the non-triviality of averaging for linearized monochromatic gravitational wave.

Kašpar, P.; Svítek, O.

2014-05-01

280

Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.  

PubMed

If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

2008-10-31

281

Average-passage flow model development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

1989-01-01

282

From child to adult: An exploration of shifting family roles and responsibilities in managing physiotherapy for cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although chest physiotherapy is central to the management of cystic fibrosis many report problems with adherence. Research in other long-term conditions suggests that non-adherence may be exacerbated as the child grows older and self-care responsibilities are transferred to the young person. We explored the nature and variation in roles of family members, how responsibility was transferred from the parent\\/family to

Brian Williams; Somnath Mukhopadhyay; Jon Dowell; Joanne Coyle

2007-01-01

283

Development and evaluation of an audiovisual information resource to promote self-management of chemotherapy side-effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a theoretical framework, we developed an audiovisual resource to promote self-management of eight common chemotherapy side-effects. A patient needs analysis identified content domains, best evidence for preparing patients for threatening medical procedures and a systematic review of effective self-care strategies informed script content. Patients and health professionals were invited to complete a written evaluation of the video. A

Mariko Carey; Michael Jefford; Penelope Schofield; Siobhan Kelly; Meinir Krishnasamy; Sanchia Aranda

2006-01-01

284

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2013-07-01

285

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2014-07-01

286

Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

Page, Don N.

2014-11-01

287

Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns  

E-print Network

We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

288

Coherent average technique--a tutorial review.  

PubMed

This paper highlights the effects of digitization in relation to the effective numberical range over which the signal to be averaged has to be resolved. The effect of quantization noise on the number of averaging cycles is assessed and it is shown that for averaging weak signals such as the HIS bundle electrogram, high resolution analogue-to-digital (A/D) conversion is required so as to prevent a substantial increase in the number of averaging cycles. Also the requirement for adequate low-pass filtering is discussed and relationships between the numerical range of the A/D conversion process, the order of the low-pass filter, its cut-off frequency and sampling frequency are formulated. PMID:1890821

Goovaerts, H G; Rompelman, O

1991-07-01

289

Bimetal sensor averages temperature of nonuniform profile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument that measures an average temperature across a nonuniform temperature profile under steady-state conditions has been developed. The principle of operation is an application of the expansion of a solid material caused by a change in temperature.

Dittrich, R. T.

1968-01-01

290

Compositional averaging of backscatter intensities in compounds.  

PubMed

We present high-precision measurements of pure element stable isotope pairs that demonstrate mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds was pragmatically based on elemental mass fractions. Our isotopic measurements establish that this approximation has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based on the number of electrons or protons, termed "electron fraction," which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. We also present an improved backscatter (electron loss) factor based on a modified electron fraction average for the ZAF atomic number correction that provides a significant analytical improvement, especially where large atomic number corrections are required. PMID:12807672

Donovan, John J; Pingitore, Nicholas E; Westphal, Andrew

2003-06-01

291

Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures  

E-print Network

The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...

Page, Don N

2014-01-01

292

Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures  

E-print Network

The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

Don N. Page

2014-06-02

293

Reasonable Averages That Give Wrong Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion gives an insight into the nature of the error.

Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)

2009-03-09

294

PERIODICITY OF AVERAGED HISTORIES OF CHAOTIC OSCILLATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is dedicated to demonstrate the periodicities embedded in the averaged responses of chaotic systems with periodic excitations. Recent studies in the field of non-linear oscillations often found random-like responses for some deterministic non-linear systems with periodic excitations, which were then named “chaotic systems”. However, in this study, by discretizing the initial conditions on a chosen domain and averaging

C.-P. CHAO; Y. Kang; S.-S. Shyr; C.-C. Chou; M.-H. CHU

2001-01-01

295

Applications of high average power nonlinear optics  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.

Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.

1996-02-05

296

Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.  

PubMed

The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images. PMID:18662790

Fernando, K Vince

2008-10-01

297

Average transmission probability of a random stack  

E-print Network

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

2009-07-31

298

Averaged coordination numbers of planar aperiodic tilings  

E-print Network

We consider averaged shelling and coordination numbers of aperiodic tilings. Shelling numbers count the vertices on radial shells around a vertex. Coordination numbers, in turn, count the vertices on coordination shells of a vertex, defined via the graph distance given by the tiling. For the Ammann-Beenker tiling, we find that coordination shells consist of complete shelling orbits, which enables us to calculate averaged coordination numbers for rather large distances explicitly. The relation to topological invariants of tilings is briefly discussed.

Michael Baake; Uwe Grimm

2005-09-18

299

Time-averaging water quality assessment  

SciTech Connect

While reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act is pending, many water utilities are preparing to monitor and regulate levels of distribution system constituents that affect water quality. Most frequently, utilities are concerned about average concentrations rather than about tracing a particular constituent`s path. Mathematical and computer models, which provide a quick estimate of average concentrations, could play an important role in this effort. Most water quality models deal primarily with isolated events, such as tracing a particular constituent through a distribution system. This article proposes a simple, time-averaging model that obtains average, maximum, and minimum constituent concentrations and ages throughout the network. It also computes percentage flow contribution and percentage constituent concentration. The model is illustrated using two water distribution systems, and results are compared with those obtained using a dynamic water quality model. Both models predict average water quality parameters with no significant deviations; the time-averaging approach is a simple and efficient alternative to the dynamic model.

Reddy, L.S.; Ormsbee, L.E.; Wood, D.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-07-01

300

Changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and northern hemisphere snow cover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Key figure from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that shows changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and Northern Hemisphere snow cover from as far back as 1850.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR4 Synthesis Report

301

Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained allow one to readily predict the redshift above which the direction-averaged fluctuation in the Hubble diagram falls below a required precision and suggest a method to extract the background Hubble constant from low redshift data without the need to correct for peculiar velocities.

Kostov, Valentin

2010-04-01

302

Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus it is more directly applicable to our observations. Unlike previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, an includes all possible non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Sweese-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass- compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein - de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. For voids aligned in a certain direction, there is a cumulative gravitational lensing correction to the distance modulus that increases with redshift. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on the density contrast of the voids, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. Despite the well known argument for photon flux conservation, the average distance modulus correction at low redshifts is not zero due to the peculiar velocities. A formula for the maximum possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (1) have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls, (2) are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The actual average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximum. That is traced to cancelations between the corrections coming from the fronts and backs of different voids at the same redshift from the observer. The calculated correction at low redshifts allows one to readily predict the redshift at which the averaged fluctuation in the Hubble diagram is below a required precision and suggests a method to extract the background Hubble constant from low redshift data without the need to correct for peculiar velocities.

Kostov, Valentin Angelov

303

Perceiving the average hue of color arrays  

PubMed Central

The average of a color distribution has special significance for color coding (e.g. to estimate the illuminant) but how it depends on the visual representation (e.g. perceptual vs. cone-opponent) or nonlinearities (e.g. categorical coding) is unknown. We measured the perceived average of two colors shown alternated in spatial arrays. Observers adjusted the components until the average equaled a specified reference hue. Matches for red, blue-red, or yellow-green were consistent with the arithmetic mean chromaticity, while blue-green settings deviated toward blue. The settings show little evidence for categorical coding, and cannot be predicted from the scaled appearances of the individual components. PMID:24695184

Webster, Jacquelyn; Kay, Paul; Webster, Michael A.

2014-01-01

304

Books average previous decade of economic misery.  

PubMed

For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

2014-01-01

305

Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery  

PubMed Central

For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

2014-01-01

306

Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

2014-09-01

307

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ˜ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, M.

2013-11-01

308

Theoretical comparisons of average normalized gain calculations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its introduction, the normalized gain or the g-factor has been widely used in assessing students' performance in pre- and post-tests. The average g-factor can be calculated using either the average scores of the class or individual student's scores. In general, these two calculations produce different results. The nature of these two results is explored for several idealized situations. The results suggest that we may be able to utilize the difference between the two results to extract information on how the population may have changed as a result of instruction

Bao, Lei

2009-04-13

309

Averaged Probabilistic Relational Models Daniel Wright  

E-print Network

Averaged Probabilistic Relational Models Daniel Wright June 3, 2002 Abstract Most real-world data is stored in relational form. In contrast, most statistical learning methods work with "flat" data information about the objects and relations, and present an approximation algorithm for reasoning about

Pratt, Vaughan

310

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21

311

Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation  

PubMed Central

Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

2014-01-01

312

AVERAGE DENSITIES AND LINEAR RECTIFIABILITY OF MEASURES  

E-print Network

AVERAGE DENSITIES AND LINEAR RECTIFIABILITY OF MEASURES P. M ¨ ORTERS Abstract: We show that a measure on IR d is linearly rectifiable if and only if the lower 1­density is positive and finite regularity of the measure ¯ is intimately related to the behaviour of the densities. We say ¯ is ff­rectifiable

313

Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-01-01

314

Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power  

E-print Network

Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

315

AVERAGING PRINCIPLE FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH HYSTERESIS  

E-print Network

this approximation holds is inverse propor- tional to the rate of change of slow variables. The system is described on the systems with the classical Preisach nonlinearity. Key words: Averaging technique, Hysteresis, Sweeping to Boole Centre for Research in Informatics and Department of Applied Mathematics, University College Cork

Schellekens, Michel P.

316

INTRODUCTION To the average American, the image  

E-print Network

shudder of revulsion. This unfor- tunate association of eels with snakes has deprived most Americans from of the world. Not only that, but the reptilian association of eels is completely erroneous. The American eelINTRODUCTION To the average American, the image of the common eel conjures up a picture of a snake

317

Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

2010-01-01

318

Average thermal characteristics of solar wind electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Average solar wind electron properties based on a 1 year Vela 4 data sample-from May 1967 to May 1968 are presented. Frequency distributions of electron-to-ion temperature ratio, electron thermal anisotropy, and thermal energy flux are presented. The resulting evidence concerning heat transport in the solar wind is discussed.

Montgomery, M. D.

1972-01-01

319

Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

Sturrock, Alan

1997-01-01

320

Average sunrise time predicts depression prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Folk wisdom has it that early rising is associated with being “healthy, wealthy and wise.” A physiologic explanation may be Wiegand's “Depressiogenic Theory of Sleep,” which posits that excessive REM sleep causes depression. Sleeping late increases REM sleep, and thus may increase depression risk. Published depression prevalence research does not use arising time, but average sunrise time (AST) for

Henry Olders

2003-01-01

321

Keys to successful self-management of medications.  

PubMed

Medication use by community-dwelling elderly accounts for a significant portion of all U.S. drug use. Many elderly manage over three prescriptions a day. Recent evidence indicates that non-adherence to prescribed drug regimens can lead to symptoms that result in hospitalizations. The study's purpose was to explore self-management of medications as perceived by community-dwelling elderly. Guided by Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory, 19 older adults were interviewed about their medication self-management practices. Inductive data analysis revealed three major themes: successful self-management of medications, living orderly, and aging well. Success in establishing individual management systems may be the result of developing and maintaining orderly lifestyles. PMID:18544786

Swanlund, Susan L; Scherck, Kathryn A; Metcalfe, Sharie A; Jesek-Hale, Sheila R

2008-07-01

322

A pilot study of a chiropractic intervention for management of chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Temporomandibular pain has multiple etiologies and a range of therapeutic options. In this pilot study, the authors assessed the feasibility of conducting a larger trial to evaluate chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Methods The authors assigned 80 participants randomly into one of the following four groups, all of which included a comprehensive self-care program: reversible interocclusal splint therapy (RIST), Activator Method Chiropractic Technique (AMCT) (Activator Methods International, Phoenix), sham AMCT and self-care only. They made assessments at baseline and at month 2 and month 6, including use of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Results The authors screened 721 potential participants and enrolled 80 people; 52 participants completed the six-month assessment. The adjusted mean change in current pain over six months, as assessed on the 11-point numerical rating scale, was 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1-3.0) for RIST, 1.7 (0.9-2.5) for self-care only, 1.5 (0.7-2.4) for AMCT and 1.6 (0.7-2.5) for sham AMCT. The authors also assessed bothersomeness and functionality. Conclusions The authors found the study design and methodology to be manageable. They gained substantial knowledge to aid in conducting a larger study. AMCT, RIST and self-care should be evaluated in a future comparative effectiveness study. Practical Implications. This pilot study was a necessary step to prepare for a larger study that will provide clinicians with information that should be helpful when discussing treatment options for patients with TMD. PMID:24080932

DeVocht, James W.; Goertz, Christine M.; Hondras, Maria A.; Long, Cynthia R.; Schaeffer, Wally; Thomann, Lauren; Spector, Michael; Stanford, Clark M.

2014-01-01

323

New applications for high average power beams  

SciTech Connect

The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

1993-08-01

324

Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having ? = 0 have volume deceleration parameter qvol<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated qvol in some Lemaître-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that qvol>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit qvol<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

Bolejko, Krzysztof; Andersson, Lars

2008-10-01

325

Indirect CP violation results and HFAG averages  

E-print Network

The current status of the search for indirect CP violation in the neutral D meson system at the B-factories and at LHCb is reported. The indirect CP asymmetry search is performed by the measurement of the proper-time asymmetry ($A_{\\Gamma}$) in decays of $D^0-\\bar{D^0}$ mesons to CP eigenstates, $K^-K^+$ and $\\pi^- \\pi^+$, and by $y_{CP}$, the ratio between the effective lifetime measured in decay to a CP eigenstate and that to the mixed eigenstate $K \\pi$. All results are consistent with the no CP violation hypothesis. The latest world averages for mixing and CP asymmetry in the charm sector evaluated by the Heavy Flavour Averaging Group are presented. The no mixing hypothesis is excluded at more than 12 standard deviations. The search for direct and indirect CP violation in the charm sector is consistent with no CP violation at 2.0% confident level.

Silvia Borghi

2013-12-17

326

Average Thermal Evolution of the Universe  

E-print Network

We sketch the average behaviour of the temperatures and densities of the main components of the $\\Lambda$CDM universe after inflation. It is modelled as a perfect fluid with dark energy associated with the macroscopic effect of conformal variations of the metric. The main events of the thermal evolution are studied, such as the effect of particle annihilations and decoupling, and the transitions between the eras dominated by different entities. Estimates of the average present epoch temperature of baryonic matter and dark matter composed of neutralinos are given. We study the eventual presence of a sterile neutrino component and find that the sterile neutrino density at the epoch of primordial nucleosynthesis is in agreement with expectations when their evolution starts, at the end of inflation, in temperature equilibrium with the rest of the universe.

Natacha Leite; Alex H. Blin

2014-04-07

327

Averaging of Temporal Memories by Rats  

PubMed Central

Rats were trained on a mixed fixed-interval schedule in which stimulus A (tone or light) indicated food availability after 10 s and stimulus B (the other stimulus) indicated food availability after 20 s. Testing consisted of non-reinforced probe trials in which the stimulus was A, B, or the compound AB. On single-stimulus trials, rats responded with a peak of activity around the programmed reinforced time. On compound-stimulus trials, rats showed a single scalar peak of responding at a time midway between those for stimulus A and B. These results suggest that when provided with discrepant information regarding the temporal predictability of reinforcement, rats compute an average of the scheduled reinforcement times for the A and B stimuli and use this average to generate an expectation of reward for the compound stimuli. PMID:19594288

Swanton, Dale N.; Gooch, Cynthia M.; Matell, Matthew S.

2009-01-01

328

Average entanglement for Markovian quantum trajectories  

SciTech Connect

We study the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. We calculate the average of the concurrence of the qubits wave function over all quantum trajectories. For two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, this average decays exponentially with a rate depending on the measurement scheme only. This contrasts with the known disappearance of entanglement after a finite time for the density matrix in the absence of measurements. For two qubits coupled to a common bath, the mean concurrence can vanish at discrete times. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump or quantum state diffusion dynamics in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect entanglement in specific examples.

Vogelsberger, S. [Institut Fourier, Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 74, F-38402 Saint Martin d'Heres (France); Spehner, D. [Institut Fourier, Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 74, F-38402 Saint Martin d'Heres (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

2010-11-15

329

jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.  

PubMed

jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:18397919

Posada, David

2008-07-01

330

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion  

SciTech Connect

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

331

Asymptotics Sheet 8 Multiple scales and averaging  

E-print Network

the multiple-scale analysis, investigate the behaviour of solutions of the Mathieu equation: ¨x + (a - 2q cos 2 equation df dt - f = f2 e-t with 1 and initial condition f(0) = 1 determine an approximation by using the averaging method. 4. For the differential equation d2 y dt2 + y + |y |y = 0 with initial conditions y(0) = 1

Burton, Geoffrey R.

332

The Average Velocity in a Queue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

Frette, Vidar

2009-01-01

333

Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.  

PubMed

The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin. PMID:16078866

Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

2005-08-01

334

Modern average global sea-surface temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1993-01-01

335

Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars  

E-print Network

The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-curves and the spectral variability at visible + mid-IR wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, season. We also considered the appearance of an increasingly frozen Mars and simulated its detection versus real Mars with TPF-C and TPF-I as a function of spectral resolving power, signal-to-noise, integration time.

Giovanna Tinetti; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp; William Fong; Thangasamy Velusamy; Heather Snively

2004-08-20

336

Average Run Lengths of Geometric Moving Average Charts by Numerical Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical procedure is presented for the tabulation of average run lengths (ARL's) of geometric moving average charts. Both one-and two-sided ARL's are given for various settings of the control limits, smoothing constant and shift in the nominal level of the process mean. Where comparison is possible. the tabulated ARL's are in agreement with those obtained by Roberts [3]. [4

P. B. Robinson; T. Y. Ho

1978-01-01

337

Learning Style Preferences of Gifted, Average-Ability, and Special Needs Students: A Multivariate Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in the learning style preferences of gifted, average-ability, and special needs students. One hundred seventy-two elementary school students from two large school jurisdictions from a large urban area in Western Canada were administered the Dunn, Dunn, & Price (1985) Learning Style Inventory (LSI). A multivariate analysis of variance

Michael C. Pyryt; Lauran H. Sandals; John Begoray

1998-01-01

338

Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

Dirks, Jean; And Others

1983-01-01

339

Effects of Contextualized Math Instruction on Problem Solving of Average and Below-Average Achieving Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of contextualized math instruction on problem-solving performance of 17 middle school remedial students and 49 average-achieving prealgebra students. Results showed that both remedial and average students receiving contextualized-problem instruction outperformed comparison groups receiving word-problem instruction.…

Bottge, Brian A.

1999-01-01

340

The average free volume model for liquids  

E-print Network

In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

Yu, Yang

2014-01-01

341

Average resonance capture study of 124Te  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An average resonance capture study of 124Te was carried out by bombarding samples of 123Te with 2- and 24-keV neutron beams. The complete set of 0+, 1+, 2+ states disclosed by the experiment is consistent with the data of Robinson, Hamilton, and Snelling, demonstrating that there are no undetected states of these spins (especially 0+ states) below about 2500 keV. In particular, proposed 0+ levels at 1156 and 1290 keV are ruled out. This impacts various attempted interpretations in terms of intruder states, U(5), and O(6) symmetries.

Casten, R. F.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Liao, B.-C.

1991-07-01

342

Apparent and average acceleration of the Universe  

E-print Network

In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from the supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite $\\Lambda=0$ have volume deceleration parameter $q^{vol} 0$, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit $q^{vol} to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

Bolejko, Krzysztof

2008-01-01

343

The average free volume model for liquids  

E-print Network

In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

Yang Yu; Reinhard Krause-Rehberg

2014-04-02

344

Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we deduce the first four cumulant moments of the TAMSD, the asymptotic behavior of the probability density and its accurate approximation by a generalized Gamma distribution.

Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis S.

2012-07-01

345

Type 2 diabetes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body has trouble using the insulin it ... can get too high. Over time, people with type 2 diabetes may not have enough insulin. Most people with ...

346

Generalized anxiety disorder - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry . 1st ed. Philadelphia, ... TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry . 1st ed. Philadelphia, ...

347

Urinary incontinence products - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... have problems with urinary incontinence (leakage), wearing special products will keep you dry and help you avoid ... you can buy many types of urinary incontinence products. These products help keep your skin dry and ...

348

Colic and crying - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... down when your baby is tired or when gas or stool is passed. Even though colicky babies ... Pain from gas Hunger Overfeeding Baby cannot tolerate certain foods or certain proteins in breast milk or formula Sensitivity to certain ...

349

Skin flaps and grafts - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal After mastectomy or amputation Donor sites for grafts and flaps are chosen ... surgery than the wound due to newly exposed nerve endings.

350

AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors Handouts  

MedlinePLUS

... About Diabetes Education What is Diabetes Education? Have Diabetes? Learn More Provider Information and Referrals AADE7™ Handouts AADE7™ Videos/Guidebooks AADE/NDEP Resources Quick Links Login Home ...

351

Health Services SELF-CARE KIT  

E-print Network

medications · extra inhaler if asthmatic · copy of medical history · copy of insurance card · list- sedating antihistamine) · band aids (various sizes) · 1% hydrocortisone cream · antacids · decongestants

Suzuki, Masatsugu

352

Student Affairs HEALTH SELF-CARE KIT  

E-print Network

of medical history · copy of insurance card · list of allergies · hand sanitizer · chemical ice pack · sock (various sizes) · 1% hydrocortisone cream · antacids · decongestants/cold medicines · throat lozenges

Suzuki, Masatsugu

353

Group Averaging for de Sitter free fields  

E-print Network

Perturbative gravity about global de Sitter space is subject to linearization-stability constraints. Such constraints imply that quantum states of matter fields couple consistently to gravity {\\it only} if the matter state has vanishing de Sitter charges; i.e., only if the state is invariant under the symmetries of de Sitter space. As noted by Higuchi, the usual Fock spaces for matter fields contain no de Sitter-invariant states except the vacuum, though a new Hilbert space of de Sitter invariant states can be constructed via so-called group-averaging techniques. We study this construction for free scalar fields of arbitrary positive mass in any dimension, and for linear vector and tensor gauge fields in any dimension. Our main result is to show in each case that group averaging converges for states containing a sufficient number of particles. We consider general $N$-particle states with smooth wavefunctions, though we obtain somewhat stronger results when the wavefunctions are finite linear combinations of de Sitter harmonics. Along the way we obtain explicit expressions for general boost matrix elements in a familiar basis.

Donald Marolf; Ian A. Morrison

2008-10-28

354

Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

1987-01-01

355

Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

2009-12-15

356

Average path length for Sierpinski pentagon  

E-print Network

In this paper,we investigate diameter and average path length(APL) of Sierpinski pentagon based on its recursive construction and self-similar structure.We find that the diameter of Sierpinski pentagon is just the shortest path lengths between two nodes of generation 0. Deriving and solving the linear homogenous recurrence relation the diameter satisfies, we obtain rigorous solution for the diameter. We also obtain approximate solution for APL of Sierpinski pentagon, both diameter and APL grow approximately as a power-law function of network order $N(t)$, with the exponent equals $\\frac{\\ln(1+\\sqrt{3})}{\\ln(5)}$. Although the solution for APL is approximate,it is trusted because we have calculated all items of APL accurately except for the compensation($\\Delta_{t}$) of total distances between non-adjacent branches($\\Lambda_t^{1,3}$), which is obtained approximately by least-squares curve fitting. The compensation($\\Delta_{t}$) is only a small part of total distances between non-adjacent branches($\\Lambda_t^{1,3}$) and has little effect on APL. Further more,using the data obtained by iteration to test the fitting results, we find the relative error for $\\Delta_{t}$ is less than $10^{-7}$, hence the approximate solution for average path length is almost accurate.

Junhao Peng; Guoai Xu

2011-12-21

357

Synthesis of averaged circuit models for switched power converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for synthesizing averaged circuit models for switching converters that realize their respective state-space averaged models is presented. The method proceeds in a systematic fashion by determining appropriate averaged circuit elements that are consistent with the averaged circuit waveforms. The averaged circuit models that are obtained are syntheses of the state-space averaged models for the underlying switched circuits. An

Seth R. Sanders; George C. Verghese

1991-01-01

358

Apparent and average acceleration of the Universe  

E-print Network

In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from the supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite $\\Lambda=0$ have volume deceleration parameter $q^{vol} to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated $q^{vol}$ in some Lema\\^itre--Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that $q^{vol} > 0$, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit $q^{vol} to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

Krzysztof Bolejko; Lars Andersson

2008-07-23

359

Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront  

E-print Network

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Boer, Daniel

2014-01-01

360

Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

2011-02-01

361

Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition  

PubMed Central

The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

2014-01-01

362

Approximation techniques for average completion time scheduling  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of nonpreemptive scheduling to minimize average (weighted) completion time, allowing for release dates, parallel machines, and precedence constraints. Recent work has led to constant-factor approximations for this problem, based on solving a preemptive or linear programming relaxation and then using the solution to get an ordering on the jobs. We introduce several new techniques which generalize this basic paradigm. We use these ideas to obtain improved approximation algorithms for one-machine scheduling to minimize average completion time with release dates. In the process, we obtain an optimal randomized on-line algorithm for the same problem that beats a lower bound for deterministic on-line algorithms. We consider extensions to the case of parallel machine scheduling, and for this we introduce two new ideas: first, we show that a preemptive one-machine relaxation is a powerful tool for designing parallel machine scheduling algorithms that simultaneously produce good approximations and have small running times; second, we show that a non-greedy {open_quotes}rounding{close_quotes} of the relaxation yields better approximations than a greedy one. We also prove a general theorem relating the value of one-machine relaxations to that of the schedules obtained for the original m-machine problems. This theorem applies even when there are precedence constraints on the jobs. We apply this result to precedence graphs such as in-trees, out-trees, and series- parallel graphs; these are of particular interest in compiler applications that partly motivated our work.

Chekuri, C.; Motwani, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Natarajan, B. [Hewlett Packard Labs., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Stein, C. [Dartmouth College, Hannover, NH (United States)

1997-06-01

363

RESCATANDO EL AUTOCUIDADO DE LA SALUD DURANTE EL EMBARAZO, EL PARTO Y AL RECIÉN NACIDO: REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES DE MUJERES DE UNA COMUNIDAD NATIVA EN PERÚ 1 RESCUING THE SELF-CARE OF HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY, THE DELIVERY AND TO THE NEWBORN: SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS FROM WOMEN OF A NATIVE COMMUNITY IN PERU RESGATANDO O AUTOCUIDADO DA SAÚDE DURANTE A GRAVIDEZ, O PARTO E AO RECÉM-NASCIDO: REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS DE MULHERES DE UMA COMUNIDADE NATIVA NO PERU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand traditional self care about pregnancy, delivery, and for the newborn among native women. For data collection, 16 semi-structured interviews with mothers and midwives of a Peruvian native community were carried out. Upon the support of the social representations theory and ethnographic method, three thematic categories were identified: the symbols and

Rocío Elizabeth Chávez Alvarez; Maria Josefa Arcaya Moncada; Gladys Garcia Arias; Teresa Catalina Surca Rojas; Maria Virginia Infante Contreras; Alvarez REC; Moncada MJA; Arias GG; Rojas TCS; Contreras MVI

2007-01-01

364

Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

365

Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite  

SciTech Connect

The average structure of the monoclinic modification of lazurite Ca{sub 1.26}Na{sub 6.63}K{sub 0.04}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](SO{sub 4}){sub 1.53}S{sub 0.99}Cl{sub 0.05} (discovered in the Lake Baikal region) incommensurately modulated along the c axis is solved by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.069(1) A, b = 12.868(1) A, c = 12.872(1) A, {gamma} = 90.19(1) deg., sp. gr. Pa, R = 6.9%, 2057 reflections. The AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a partially ordered framework. The positions in the cavities of the framework are split and randomly occupied by Na and Ca atoms and the SO{sub 4}, S{sub 2}, S{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} anionic groups. The structure of the mineral is compared with the superstructure of triclinic lazurite. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of the incommensurate modulation in monoclinic and other lazurites.

Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru; Sapozhnikov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2006-07-15

366

Average oxidation state of carbon in proteins.  

PubMed

The formal oxidation state of carbon atoms in organic molecules depends on the covalent structure. In proteins, the average oxidation state of carbon (Z(C)) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formula. To investigate oxidation-reduction (redox) patterns, groups of proteins from different subcellular locations and phylogenetic groups were selected for comparison. Extracellular proteins of yeast have a relatively high oxidation state of carbon, corresponding with oxidizing conditions outside of the cell. However, an inverse relationship between Z(C) and redox potential occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. This trend provides support for the hypothesis that protein transport and turnover are ultimately coupled to the maintenance of different glutathione redox potentials in subcellular compartments. There are broad changes in Z(C) in whole-genome protein compositions in microbes from different environments, and in Rubisco homologues, lower Z(C) tends to occur in organisms with higher optimal growth temperature. Energetic costs calculated from thermodynamic models are consistent with the notion that thermophilic organisms exhibit molecular adaptation to not only high temperature but also the reducing nature of many hydrothermal fluids. Further characterization of the material requirements of protein metabolism in terms of the chemical conditions of cells and environments may help to reveal other linkages among biochemical processes with implications for changes on evolutionary time scales. PMID:25165594

Dick, Jeffrey M

2014-11-01

367

Average path length for Sierpinski pentagon  

E-print Network

In this paper,we investigate diameter and average path length(APL) of Sierpinski pentagon based on its recursive construction and self-similar structure.We find that the diameter of Sierpinski pentagon is just the shortest path lengths between two nodes of generation 0. Deriving and solving the linear homogenous recurrence relation the diameter satisfies, we obtain rigorous solution for the diameter. We also obtain approximate solution for APL of Sierpinski pentagon, both diameter and APL grow approximately as a power-law function of network order $N(t)$, with the exponent equals $\\frac{\\ln(1+\\sqrt{3})}{\\ln(5)}$. Although the solution for APL is approximate,it is trusted because we have calculated all items of APL accurately except for the compensation($\\Delta_{t}$) of total distances between non-adjacent branches($\\Lambda_t^{1,3}$), which is obtained approximately by least-squares curve fitting. The compensation($\\Delta_{t}$) is only a small part of total distances between non-adjacent branches($\\Lambda_t^{1...

Peng, Junhao

2011-01-01

368

A time-averaged cosmic ray propagation theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An argument is presented, which casts doubt on our ability to choose an appropriate magnetic field ensemble for computing the average behavior of cosmic ray particles. An alternate procedure, using time-averages rather than ensemble-averages, is presented.

Klimas, A. J.; Sandri, G.

1975-01-01

369

Application of the moving averaging technique in surplus production models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surplus production models are the simplest analytical methods effective for fish stock assessment and fisheries management. In this paper, eight surplus production estimators (three estimation procedures) were tested on Schaefer and Fox type simulated data in three simulated fisheries (declining, well-managed, and restoring fisheries) at two white noise levels. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to verify the utility of moving averaging (MA), which was an important technique for reducing the effect of noise in data in these models. The relative estimation error (REE) of maximum sustainable yield (MSY) was used as an indicator for the analysis, and one-way ANOVA was applied to test the significance of the REE calculated at four levels of MA. Simulation results suggested that increasing the value of MA could significantly improve the performance of the surplus production model (low REE) in all cases when the white noise level was low (coefficient of variation ( CV)=0.02). However, when the white noise level increased ( CV=0.25), adding the value of MA could still significantly enhance the performance of most models. Our results indicated that the best model performance occurred frequently when MA was equal to 3; however, some exceptions were observed when MA was higher.

Wang, Yu; Liu, Qun

2014-08-01

370

A Microgenetic Analysis of Strategic Variability in Gifted and Average-Ability Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many researchers have described cognitive differences between gifted and average-performing children. Regarding strategy use, the gifted advantage is often associated with differences such as greater knowledge of strategies, quicker problem solving, and the ability to use strategies more appropriately. The current study used microgenetic methods…

Steiner, Hillary Hettinger

2006-01-01

371

the average weight of Connecticut River fish was considerably less (Table 1). The difference in average  

E-print Network

the average weight of Connecticut River fish was considerably less (Table 1). The difference in the Connecticut River basin. Fisheries (Bethesda) 7(6): 2-11. POTTER. I. C.· F. W. H. BEAMISH, AND B. G. H04 Hold1l.'orth. Hall Un'iversity ofMassachlUletts Amherst. MA 01008 AN IMPROVED OTTER SURFACE

372

7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Average moisture content. 51.2561 ...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 ...Average moisture content. (a)...

2010-01-01

373

7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Average moisture content determination...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 ...Average moisture content...

2010-01-01

374

High average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology  

SciTech Connect

Which current pulsed accelerator technology was developed during the late 60`s through the late 80`s to satisfy the needs of various military related applications such as effects simulators, particle beam devices, free electron lasers, and as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. The emphasis in these devices is to achieve very high peak power levels, with pulse lengths on the order of a few 10`s of nanoseconds, peak currents of up to 10`s of MA, and accelerating potentials of up to 10`s of MV. New which average power systems, incorporating thermal management techniques, are enabling the potential use of high peak power technology in a number of diverse industrial application areas such as materials processing, food processing, stack gas cleanup, and the destruction of organic contaminants. These systems employ semiconductor and saturable magnetic switches to achieve short pulse durations that can then be added to efficiently give MV accelerating, potentials while delivering average power levels of a few 100`s of kilowatts to perhaps many megawatts. The Repetitive High Energy Puled Power project is developing short-pulse, high current accelerator technology capable of generating beams with kJ`s of energy per pulse delivered to areas of 1000 cm{sup 2} or more using ions, electrons, or x-rays. Modular technology is employed to meet the needs of a variety of applications requiring from 100`s of kV to MV`s and from 10`s to 100`s of kA. Modest repetition rates, up to a few 100`s of pulses per second (PPS), allow these machines to deliver average currents on the order of a few 100`s of mA. The design and operation of the second generation 300 kW RHEPP-II machine, now being brought on-line to operate at 2.5 MV, 25 kA, and 100 PPS will be described in detail as one example of the new high average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology.

Neau, E.L.

1995-05-01

375

40 CFR 60.1755 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur...determine the daily geometric average percent reduction of potential... (c) If you operate a Class I municipal waste combustion...calculate the daily arithmetic average for concentrations of...

2010-07-01

376

40 CFR 62.15210 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur...determine the daily geometric average percent reduction of potential... (c) If you operate a Class I municipal waste combustion...calculate the daily arithmetic average for concentrations of...

2010-07-01

377

Pleasing the Masses: Messages for Daily Life Management in African American Women's Popular Media Sources  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the “strong Black woman” (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Methods. Using the search term “strong Black woman,” we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Results. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management (“please the masses”), emotional suppression (“game face”), and postponement of self-care (“last on the list”) incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Conclusions. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources. PMID:21088274

Peacock, Nadine

2011-01-01

378

Temporal spectrum of atmospheric scintillation and the effects of aperture averaging and time averaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general analytic expression for the temporal spectrum of atmospheric scintillation under weak turbulence condition is derived. It was employed to study the characteristics of the temporal spectra for horizontal uniform path and whole layer atmospheric non-uniform path. In the non-uniform path, the H-V turbulence model and the Gaussian wind speed model are utilized. It has been found that when the receiver diameter is larger than Fresnel scale (?L)1/2, the temporal spectrum of the plane wave have a power law behavior with a scaling index - 17/3 in high-frequency range. The change of the turbulence strength has little influence on the shape of the temporal spectrum. Based on the characteristics of the temporal spectrum, the aperture-averaging and time-averaging effects on scintillation were analyzed in the frequency domain.

Shen, Hong; Yu, Longkun; Fan, Chengyu

2014-11-01

379

To quantum averages through asymptotic expansion of classical averages on infinite-dimensional space  

SciTech Connect

We study asymptotic expansions of Gaussian integrals of analytic functionals on infinite-dimensional spaces (Hilbert and nuclear Frechet). We obtain an asymptotic equality coupling the Gaussian integral and the trace of the composition of scaling of the covariation operator of a Gaussian measure and the second (Frechet) derivative of a functional. In this way we couple classical average (given by an infinite-dimensional Gaussian integral) and quantum average (given by the von Neumann trace formula). We can interpret this mathematical construction as a procedure of 'dequantization' of quantum mechanics. We represent quantum mechanics as an asymptotic projection of classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. This space can be represented as the space of classical fields, so quantum mechanics is represented as a projection of 'prequantum classical statistical field theory'.

Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, University of Vaexjoe, Vaexjoe S-35195 (Sweden)

2007-01-15

380

Lagrangian averages, averaged Lagrangians, and the mean effects of fluctuations in fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

We begin by placing the generalized Lagrangian mean (GLM) equations for a compressible adiabatic fluid into the Euler-Poincare (EP) variational framework of fluid dynamics, for an averaged Lagrangian. This is the Lagrangian averaged Euler-Poincare (LAEP) theorem. Next, we derive a set of approximate small amplitude GLM equations (glm equations) at second order in the fluctuating displacement of a Lagrangian trajectory from its mean position. These equations express the linear and nonlinear back-reaction effects on the Eulerian mean fluid quantities by the fluctuating displacements of the Lagrangian trajectories in terms of their Eulerian second moments. The derivation of the glm equations uses the linearized relations between Eulerian and Lagrangian fluctuations, in the tradition of Lagrangian stability analysis for fluids. The glm derivation also uses the method of averaged Lagrangians, in the tradition of wave, mean flow interaction. Next, the new glm EP motion equations for incompressible ideal fluids are compared with the Euler-alpha turbulence closure equations. An alpha model is a GLM (or glm) fluid theory with a Taylor hypothesis closure. Such closures are based on the linearized fluctuation relations that determine the dynamics of the Lagrangian statistical quantities in the Euler-alpha equations. Thus, by using the LAEP theorem, we bridge between the GLM equations and the Euler-alpha closure equations, through the small-amplitude glm approximation in the EP variational framework. We conclude by highlighting a new application of the GLM, glm, and alpha-model results for Lagrangian averaged ideal magnetohydrodynamics. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779582

Holm, Darryl D.

2002-06-01

381

What do bloggers do: an average day on an average political blog  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether average political bloggers engage in four distinct activities: informing readers, checking\\u000a the media, engaging in political advocacy, and gathering money for charitable causes. Findings show that most bloggers inform\\u000a their readers about articles in the media or to draw attention to key posts on other blogs. Somewhat less frequently, most\\u000a bloggers write posts that detect errors

Laura McKenna; Antoinette Pole

2008-01-01

382

An algorithm to compute averages on matrix Lie groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Averaging is a common way to alleviate errors and random fluctuations in measurements and to smooth out data. Averaging also provides a way to merge structured data in a smooth manner. The present paper describes an algorithm to compute averages on matrix Lie groups. In particular, we discuss the case of averaging over the special orthogonal group of matrices, the

Simone Fiori; Toshihisa Tanaka

2009-01-01

383

Extensions of averaging theory for power electronic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends averaging theory for power electronic systems to include feedback controlled converters. New averaging techniques based on the integral equation description provide theoretical justification for commonly used averaging methods. The new theory provides a basis for answering fundamental questions about the averaging approximation. A ripple estimate expression is presented, along with the simulation results for a feedback controlled

Brad Lehman; Richard M. Bass

1996-01-01

384

Symbolic analysis methods for averaged modeling of switching power converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic analysis methods for the averaged modeling of switching power converters are presented in this paper. A general averaging method suitable for computer-aided modeling is discussed first. Then, a symbolic analysis package that uses this averaging method to automatically generate an analytical averaged model for a switching power converter is described. The package is implemented using the computer algebra system

Jian Sun; Horst Grotstollen

1997-01-01

385

Pain management in ambulatory surgery-a review.  

PubMed

Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional ?-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3-5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures. PMID:25061796

Jakobsson, Jan G

2014-01-01

386

23is the average age of our MSc in International Accounting and Finance students  

E-print Network

of this programme, students will beawardedtheICAEWcertificateinIFRS. Standard entry requirements · Bachelors degree23is the average age of our MSc in International Accounting and Finance students The Cass advantageEmpiricalAccounting · Finance1:CorporateFinanceandValuation · FinancialReporting · StrategicCostManagement Term two · Accounting

Weyde, Tillman

387

Scaling of average weighted shortest path and average receiving time on weighted expanded Koch networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterministic network models have been attractive media for discussing dynamical processes' dependence on network structural features. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of weights affect dynamical processes taking place on networks. In this paper, we present a family of weighted expanded Koch networks based on Koch networks. They originate from a r-polygon, and each node of current generation produces m r-polygons including the node and whose weighted edges are scaled by factor w in subsequent evolutionary step. We derive closed-form expressions for average weighted shortest path length (AWSP). In large network, AWSP stays bounded with network order growing (0 < w < 1). Then, we focus on a special random walks and trapping issue on the networks. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average receiving time (ART). ART exhibits a sub-linear dependence on network order (0 < w < 1), which implies that nontrivial weighted expanded Koch networks are more efficient than un-weighted expanded Koch networks in receiving information. Besides, efficiency of receiving information at hub nodes is also dependent on parameters m and r. These findings may pave the way for controlling information transportation on general weighted networks.

Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan; Jin, Feng

2014-04-01

388

Using NDVI to assess departure from average greenness and its relation to fire business. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Satellite-derived vegetation greenness maps of the contiguous United States have been available to fire managers since 1989. This report describes a new map, departure from average, which is designed to compare current-year vegetation greenness to average greenness for the same time of year and describes it relationship to fire business.

Burgan, R.E.; Hartford, R.A.; Eidenshink, J.C.

1996-04-01

389

Space-time Averages of Classical Physical Fields  

E-print Network

A review on the main results concerning the algebraic and differential properties of the averaging and coordination operators and the properties of the space-time averages of macroscopic gravity is given. The algebraic and differential properties of the covariant space-time averaging procedure by means of using the parallel transportation averaging bivector operator are analyzed. The structure of the pseudo-Riemannian space-time manifolds of general relativity averaged by means of this procedure is discussed. A comparison of both procedures is given and the directions of further development of space-time averaging procedures of the physical classical fields are outlined.

Roustam Zalaletdinov

2004-10-29

390

27 CFR 19.37 - Average effective tax rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average effective tax rate. 19.37 Section 19.37 ...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Effective Tax Rates § 19.37 Average effective tax rate. (a) The proprietor may...

2010-04-01

391

75 FR 78157 - Farmer and Fisherman Income Averaging  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TD 9509] RIN 1545-BE23 Farmer and Fisherman Income Averaging AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...regulations relating to the averaging of farm and fishing income in computing income tax liability. The regulations reflect changes...

2010-12-15

392

Averaging algorithms and distributed anonymous discrete function computation  

E-print Network

In distributed consensus and averaging algorithms, processors exchange and update certain values ("estimates" or "opinions") by forming a local average with the values of their neighbors. Under suitable conditions, such ...

Tsitsiklis, John N.

393

20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160 (see §§ 404.1340...

2012-04-01

394

20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160 (see §§ 404.1340...

2010-04-01

395

20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.  

...is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160 (see §§ 404.1340...

2014-04-01

396

20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160 (see §§ 404.1340...

2011-04-01

397

20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160 (see §§ 404.1340...

2013-04-01

398

Lay Management of Chronic Disease: A Qualitative Study of Living with Hepatitis C Infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine management strategies and goals reported by people diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. Methods We analyzed data from semi-structured interviews (N=42) and from electronic sources [illness narratives (N=79) and Internet threaded discussions (N=264)]. Line-by-line coding, comparisons, and team discussions generated catalogs of lay management strategies and goals. We analyzed code-based files to identify informants’ selection of specific strategies for each goal. Results We classified lay management strategies into 3 categories: Medical Self-care, Behavior Change, and Coping. These strategies were used selectively in addressing multiple goals, categorized as Fighting the Virus, Strengthening the Body, and Managing Consequences. Conclusions Results underscore the diversity of strategies for living with a disease characterized by uncertain prognosis and variable expression of symptoms. PMID:19182983

Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Webster, Noah J.; Blixen, Carol E.; McCormick, Richard A.; Perzynski, Adam T.; Kanuch, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Neal V.

2009-01-01

399

20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...First, we find your average monthly wage, as described...we apply any automatic cost-of-living or ad hoc...

2010-04-01

400

20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...First, we find your average monthly wage, as described...we apply any automatic cost-of-living or ad hoc...

2012-04-01

401

20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.  

...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...First, we find your average monthly wage, as described...we apply any automatic cost-of-living or ad hoc...

2014-04-01

402

20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...First, we find your average monthly wage, as described...we apply any automatic cost-of-living or ad hoc...

2013-04-01

403

20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method...First, we find your average monthly wage, as described...we apply any automatic cost-of-living or ad hoc...

2011-04-01

404

Comparison of Methods for Hyperspherical Data Averaging and Parameter Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Averaging is an important concept which has found numerous applications in general and in pattern recognition and computer vision in particular. In this paper we consider averaging directional vectors of arbitrary dimensions. Given a set of vectors, we intend to compute an average vector which optimally represents the input vectors according to some formal criterion. Several optimisation criteria are formulated.

Kai Rothaus; Xiaoyi Jiang; Martin Lambers

2006-01-01

405

Averaging and Globalising Quotients of Informetric and Scientometric Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of impact factors for "Journal Citation Reports" subject categories focuses on the difference between an average of quotients and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages. Applications in the context of informetrics and scientometrics are given, including journal prices and subject discipline influence scores. (Author/LRW)

Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

1996-01-01

406

High average current injectors for free electron lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. High average power FELs require high average current electron injectors capable of generating high quality electron bunches with a short bunch duration and a repetition rate equal to the frequency of the rf linac. In this talk the use of rf-gated gridded thermionic electron guns is proposed as a solution for high average power operation. In

P. Sprangle; J. Peñano; S. Gold; D. Gordon; A. Ting; B. Hafizi; C. Mitchell

2010-01-01

407

Average shadow price in a mixed integer linear programming problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a new concept of shadow price, the average shadow price, based on the average and not on the marginal contribution of a resource, has been developed for pure Integer Linear Programming problems. In this paper we prove that average shadow prices can be used in a Mixed Integer Linear Programming problems and that some of its properties are analogous

Alejandro Crema

1995-01-01

408

Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices with matrix entries  

E-print Network

A Jacobi matrix with matrix entries is a self-adjoint block tridiagonal matrix with invertible blocks on the off-diagonals. Averaging over boundary conditions leads to explicit formulas for the averaged spectral measure which can potentially be useful for spectral analysis. Furthermore another variant of spectral averaging over coupling constants for these operators is presented.

Christian Sadel; Hermann Schulz-Baldes

2009-02-11

409

Notes on averaging over acyclic digraphs and discrete coverage control  

E-print Network

in a unified light. First, we characterize the convergence properties of averaging algorithms over acyclic. Averaging algorithms have been stud- ied both in continuous time (Olfati-Saber and Murray, 2004; Ren). In (Olfati-Saber and Murray, 2004), averaging algo- rithms are investigated via graph Laplacians under

Bullo, Francesco

410

Averaging Techniques for Reaction Barriers in QM/MM Simulations.  

PubMed

Herein, we test and compare different techniques to obtain averaged reaction barriers from quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations based on snapshots taken from molecular dynamics. Reasonable values can be obtained from a fairly small sample of well-chosen snapshots if an exponential averaging, also called Boltzmann averaging, is used. Snapshots with geometries close to the expected transition state are to be picked preferentially. Exponential averaging, arithmetic averaging, and simply taking the minimum barrier are compared to free-energy calculations from umbrella sampling. Three reactions within a protein in a water environment are used as test cases. PMID:25195924

Cooper, April M; Kästner, Johannes

2014-10-20

411

Lee-Yang Theorems and the Complexity of Computing Averages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the complexity of computing average quantities related to spin systems, such as the mean magnetization and susceptibility in the ferromagnetic Ising model, and the average dimer count (or average size of a matching) in the monomer-dimer model. By establishing connections between the complexity of computing these averages and the location of the complex zeros of the partition function, we show that these averages are #P-hard to compute, and hence, under standard assumptions, computationally intractable. In the case of the Ising model, our approach requires us to prove an extension of the famous Lee-Yang Theorem from the 1950s.

Sinclair, Alistair; Srivastava, Piyush

2014-08-01

412

On the Integration of Risk Aversion and Average-Performance Optimization in Reservoir Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The real-time operation of a reservoir is a matter of trade-off between the two criteria of risk aversion (to avoid dramatic failures) and average-performance optimization (to yield the best long-term average performance). A methodology taking into account both criteria is presented m this paper to derive "off-line" infinite-horizon control policies for a single multipurpose reservoir, where the management goals are water supply and flood control. According to this methodology, the reservoir control policy is derived in two steps: First, a (min-max) risk aversion problem is formulated, whose solution is not unique, but rather a whole set of policies, all equivalent from the point of view of the risk-aversion objectives. Second, a stochastic average-performance optimization problem is solved, to select from the set previously obtained the best policy from the point of view of the average-performance objectives. The methodology has several interesting features: the rnin-max (or "guaranteed performance") approach, which is particularly suited whenever "weak" users are affected by the consequences of the decision-making process; the flexible definition of a "risk aversion degree," by the selection of those inflow sequences which are particularly feared; and the two-objective analysis which provides the manager with a whole set of alternatives among which he (she) will select the one that yields the desired trade-off between the management goals.

Nardini, Andrea; Piccardi, Carlo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

1992-02-01

413

40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average and corporate...

2011-07-01

414

40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average and corporate...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average and corporate...

2013-07-01

416

40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average and corporate...

2010-07-01

417

40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?  

...2014-07-01 false How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool...level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average and corporate...

2014-07-01

418

Fiber-optic large area average temperature sensor  

SciTech Connect

In many instances the desired temperature measurement is only the spatial average temperature over a large area; eg. ground truth calibration for satellite imaging system, or average temperature of a farm field. By making an accurate measurement of the optical length of a long fiber-optic cable, we can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and hence the temperature of the material in contact with it.

Looney, L.L.; Forman, P.R.

1994-05-01

419

Counting formulas associated with some random matrix averages  

E-print Network

Moments of secular and inverse secular coefficients, averaged over random matrices from classical groups, are related to the enumeration of non-negative matrices with prescribed row and column sums. Similar random matrix averages are related to certain configurations of vicious random walkers and to the enumeration of plane partitions. The combinatorial meaning of the average of the characteristic polynomial of random Hermitian and Wishart matrices is also investigated, and consequently several simple universality results are derived.

Peter J. Forrester; Alex Gamburd

2005-03-01

420

Periodic moving averages of random variables with regularly varying tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we establish the basic asymptotic theory for periodic moving averages of i.i.d. random variables with regularly varying tails. The moving average coefficients are allowed to vary according to the season. A\\u000asimple reformulation yields the corresponding results for moving averages of random vectors. Our main result is that when the underlying random variables have finite variance but

Paul L. Anderson; Mark M. Meerschaert

1997-01-01

421

Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator  

SciTech Connect

A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.

Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

2009-10-15

422

Cryptographic Hash Algorithms Based on Time Averaging Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for the construction of hash function based on optical time averaging techniques is proposed in this paper. Algebraic structures of grayscale color functions and time average operators are constructed. Properties of time average operators and effects of digital image representation are explored. The fact that the inverse problem of identification of the original grayscale color function from its time averaged image is an ill-posed problem helps to construct an efficient algorithm for the construction of a new class of one-way collision free hash functions. The algorithm can be generalized to 2D or even 3D problem.

Ragulskiene, Jurate; Fedaravicius, Algimantas; Ragulskis, Minvydas

2007-09-01

423

Estimating Continental and Terrestrial Precipitation Averages from Raingauge Networks  

E-print Network

Influences of varying rain-gauge networks on continental and terrestrial precipitation averages (derived from data observed on those networks) are evaluated. Unsystematically and systematically designed station networks ...

Willmott, Cort J.; Robeson, Scott M.; Feddema, Johannes J.

1994-01-01

424

Mobile Phone-Based Telemonitoring for Heart Failure Management: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Previous trials of telemonitoring for heart failure management have reported inconsistent results, largely due to diverse intervention and study designs. Mobile phones are becoming ubiquitous and economical, but the feasibility and efficacy of a mobile phone-based telemonitoring system have not been determined. Objective The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of a mobile phone-based telemonitoring system on heart failure management and outcomes. Methods One hundred patients were recruited from a heart function clinic and randomized into telemonitoring and control groups. The telemonitoring group (N = 50) took daily weight and blood pressure readings and weekly single-lead ECGs, and answered daily symptom questions on a mobile phone over 6 months. Readings were automatically transmitted wirelessly to the mobile phone and then to data servers. Instructions were sent to the patients’ mobile phones and alerts to a cardiologist’s mobile phone as required. Results Baseline questionnaires were completed and returned by 94 patients, and 84 patients returned post-study questionnaires. About 70% of telemonitoring patients completed at least 80% of their possible daily readings. The change in quality of life from baseline to post-study, as measured with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, was significantly greater for the telemonitoring group compared to the control group (P = .05). A between-group analysis also found greater post-study self-care maintenance (measured with the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index) for the telemonitoring group (P = .03). Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, self-care management, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improved significantly for both groups from baseline to post-study, but did not show a between-group difference. However, a subgroup within-group analysis using the data from the 63 patients who had attended the heart function clinic for more than 6 months revealed the telemonitoring group had significant improvements from baseline to post-study in BNP (decreased by 150 pg/mL, P = .02), LVEF (increased by 7.4%, P = .005) and self-care maintenance (increased by 7 points, P = .05) and management (increased by 14 points, P = .03), while the control group did not. No differences were found between the telemonitoring and control groups in terms of hospitalization, mortality, or emergency department visits, but the trial was underpowered to detect differences in these metrics. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence of improved quality of life through improved self-care and clinical management from a mobile phone-based telemonitoring system. The use of the mobile phone-based system had high adherence and was feasible for patients, including the elderly and those with no experience with mobile phones. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00778986 PMID:22356799

Leonard, Kevin J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Barnsley, Jan; Masino, Caterina; Ross, Heather J

2012-01-01

425

Influence of Specific Absorption Rate Averaging Schemes on Correlation between Mass-Averaged Specific Absorption Rate and Temperature Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of specific absorption rate averaging schemes on the spatial correlation between mass-averaged specific absorption rate and radio-frequency-induced steady-state temperature-rise distributions in the “Visible Human” body model exposed to plane waves in the 30–800 MHz frequency range is investigated through finite-difference time-domain modeling. The averaged specific absorption rate is computed on the basis of the IEEE Std. C95.3-2002 specific

Alexander Razmadze; Levan Shoshiashvili; David Kakulia; Revaz Zaridze; Giorgi Bit-Babik; Antonio Faraone

2009-01-01

426

A Simple Approximation for the Variance of Meterological Time Averages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for approximating the variance of meteorological time averages is presented. Graphs of the characteristic time between independent estimates and the ratio of the variance of time-averaged data to that of unaveraged data for a first-order autoregressive process are shown.

Roland A. Madden

1979-01-01

427

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensembles used for probabilistic weather forecasting often exhibit a spread-error correlation, but they tend to be underdispersive. This paper proposes a statistical method for postprocessing ensembles based on Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which is a standard method for combining predictive distributions from different sources. The BMA predictive probability density function (PDF) of any quantity of interest is a weighted average

Adrian E. Raftery; Tilmann Gneiting; Fadoua Balabdaoui; Michael Polakowski

2005-01-01

428

A BEHAVIORAL AVERAGE MODEL OF SEPIC CONVERTERS WITH COUPLED INDUCTORS  

E-print Network

1 A BEHAVIORAL AVERAGE MODEL OF SEPIC CONVERTERS WITH COUPLED INDUCTORS D. Adar, G. Rahav and S@bguee.bgu.ac.il Abstract An average model of SEPIC converters with coupled inductors was developed and verified against state (DC), large signal (Transient) and small signal (AC) analyses. The inductors coupling coefficient

429

Time averages for unpredictable orbits of deterministic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cases, the orbits of deterministic systems displaying highly irregular oscillations yield smoothly converging time averages. It may happen, however, that these time averages do not converge and themselves display wild oscillations. This is analyzed for heteroclinic attractors and hyperbolic strange attractors.

Karl Sigmund

1992-01-01

430

Methane in Martian atmosphere: Average spatial, diurnal, and seasonal behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of spectra measured by the planetary Fourier spectrometer aboard the European Mars Express mission have been studied to identify the average properties of methane in the Martian atmosphere. Using the line at 3018cm?1, we have studied the seasonal, diurnal, and spatial variations of methane through the analysis of large averages of spectra (more than 1000 measurements). Methane

A. Geminale; V. Formisano; M. Giuranna

2008-01-01

431

The Sample Average Approximation Method for Stochastic Discrete Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study a Monte Carlo simulation based approach to stochastic discrete optimization problems. The basic idea of such methods is that a random sample is generated and consequently the expected value function is approximated by the corresponding sample average function. The obtained sample average optimization problem is solved, and the procedure is repeated several times until a

Anton J. Kleywegt; Alexander Shapiro; Tito Homem-de-Mello

2002-01-01

432

A Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate extension of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart is presented, and guidelines given for designing this easy-to-implement multivariate procedure. A comparison shows that the average run length (ARL) performance of this chart is similar to that of multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts in detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution.

Cynthia A. Lowry; William H. Woodall; Charles W. Champ; Steven E. Rigdon

1992-01-01

433

Control Chart Tests Based on Geometric Moving Averages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geometrical moving average gives the most recent observation the greatest weight, and all previous observations weights decreasing in geometric progression from the most recent back to the first. A graphical procedure for generating geometric moving averages is described in which the most recent observation is assigned a weight r. The properties of control chart tests based on geometric moving

S. W. Roberts

1959-01-01

434

AVERAGE HOMOGENEITY AND DIMENSIONS OF A 1 AND MAARIT J  

E-print Network

AVERAGE HOMOGENEITY AND DIMENSIONS OF MEASURES ESA J  ARVENP  A  A 1 AND MAARIT J  ARVENP  A  A 2 Abstract. We introduce the concept of average homogeneity of a measure by comparing the measure as an inverse of porosity. In this paper the em- phasis is given to relations between homogeneity and dimensions

Jyväskylä, University of

435

High average power excimer laser-pumped dye oscillators  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction, and testing of a high-average-power excimer laser-pumped dye oscillator is described. The system is designed to produce up to 75 watts of average power in the near uv at a pulse repetition rate of 500 Hz. 8 figs.

Tennant, R.A.; Whitehead, M.C.; Tallman, C.R.; Basinger, R.W.

1988-01-01

436

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Reflected Solar Radiation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Reflected Solar Radiation (RSR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Bridgman, Tom; Wielicki, Bruce; Wong, Takmeng; Barkstrom, Bruce

2001-06-20

437

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Outgoing Longwave Radiation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Bridgman, Tom; Wielicki, Bruce; Wong, Takmeng; Barkstrom, Bruce

2001-06-20

438

2010-2011 1 3 Year Average 0.3  

E-print Network

of admission factors GRE scores (including the physics subject test), 3 letters of recommendation-time students #12;22 .5 7.1 20 $ 336,472.00 $ 6,731,449.00 17.4 Male Female White 19 Black Hispanic 1 Other 2, Graduate Advisor 3 Average Time to Degree Average Years to DegreeStudents Starting 2000-2002 Three

439

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS  

E-print Network

442^ SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS EASTERN TROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE I - Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, 1947-58 7

440

26 CFR 1.1301-1 - Averaging of farm income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Averaging of farm income. 1.1301-1 Section 1.1301-1 Internal...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income Averaging § 1.1301-1...

2010-04-01

441

Average case analysis of greedy routing algorithms on arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the average case behavior of greedy routing algorithms on arrays under a variety of assumptions. Overall, we find that certain greedy algorithms perform surprisingly well on average. For example, given an N x N array or torus where every node starts with one packet headed for a random destination, we show that some (but not

Frank Thomson Leighton

1990-01-01

442

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL CEC-WS-2R (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Area Weighted Average Calculation Worksheet WS-2R Residential (Page 1 of 1) Site/Time: ____________________ HERS Provider: __________________ 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 This worksheet should

443

Geodesic flow of the averaged controlled Kepler equation  

E-print Network

Geodesic flow of the averaged controlled Kepler equation Bernard Bonnard Jean-Baptiste Caillau. Though not complete because of a singularity at the origin in the space of ellipses, the metric has to surjectivity of the exponential mapping. Optimality prop- erties of geodesics of the averaged controlled Kepler

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

Hlearning: A Reinforcement Learning Method to Optimize Undiscounted Average Reward  

E-print Network

average reward. We compare it with three other reinforcement learning methods in the domain of scheduling the learning of scheduling algorithms for AGVs as a Reinforcement Learning (RL) problem. The system receivesH­learning: A Reinforcement Learning Method to Optimize Undiscounted Average Reward Prasad

445

Five-Year Average Global Temperature Anomalies 1880 - 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color-coded map displays a progression of changing five-year average global surface temperatures anomalies from 1880 through 2010. The final frame represents global temperature anomalies averaged from 2006 to 2010. The temperature anomalies are computed relative to the base period 1951-1980.

Schmunk, Robert B.; Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, Mki; Lo, K.; Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

446

A Simple Geometrical Derivation of the Spatial Averaging Theorem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The connection between single phase transport phenomena and multiphase transport phenomena is easily accomplished by means of the spatial averaging theorem. Although different routes to the theorem have been used, this paper provides a route to the averaging theorem that can be used in undergraduate classes. (JN)

Whitaker, Stephen

1985-01-01

447

Self-similarity of higher-order moving averages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, higher-order moving average polynomials are defined by straightforward generalization of the standard moving average. The self-similarity of the polynomials is analyzed for fractional Brownian series and quantified in terms of the Hurst exponent H by using the detrending moving average method. We prove that the exponent H of the fractional Brownian series and of the detrending moving average variance asymptotically agree for the first-order polynomial. Such asymptotic values are compared with the results obtained by the simulations. The higher-order polynomials correspond to trend estimates at shorter time scales as the degree of the polynomial increases. Importantly, the increase of polynomial degree does not require to change the moving average window. Thus trends at different time scales can be obtained on data sets with the same size. These polynomials could be interesting for those applications relying on trend estimates over different time horizons (financial markets) or on filtering at different frequencies (image analysis).

Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna; Türk, Christian

2011-10-01

448

LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner full orbit data averages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Averages taken over full orbit data spans of the pitch and roll residual measurement errors of the two conical Earth sensors operating on the LANDSAT 4 spacecraft are described. The variability of these full orbit averages over representative data throughtout the year is analyzed to demonstrate the long term stability of the sensor measurements. The data analyzed consist of 23 segments of sensor measurements made at 2 to 4 week intervals. Each segment is roughly 24 hours in length. The variation of full orbit average as a function of orbit within a day as a function of day of year is examined. The dependence on day of year is based on association the start date of each segment with the mean full orbit average for the segment. The peak-to-peak and standard deviation values of the averages for each data segment are computed and their variation with day of year are also examined.

Stanley, J. P.; Bilanow, S.

1983-01-01

449

The average coordination degree is defined: where N is the order of the graph. The average coordination degree is a  

E-print Network

The average coordination degree is defined: where N is the order of the graph. The average coordination degree is a global property of the social network and it can be seen as a measurement of the efficiency of the network. 2.2.-- THE COORDINATION DEGREETHE COORDINATION DEGREE The coordination degree

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

450

Structuring Collaboration in Mixed-Ability Groups to Promote Verbal Interaction, Learning, and Motivation of Average-Ability Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Average-ability students often do not take full advantage of learning in mixed-ability groups because they hardly engage in the group interaction. This study examined whether structuring collaboration by group roles and ground rules for helping behavior might help overcome this participatory inequality. In a plant biology course, heterogeneously…

Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, Ton de

2007-01-01

451

A dual-channel signal averager for spontaneous signals.  

PubMed

This signal averager has been developed for spontaneous transients of tension and of aequorin bioluminescence in skinned cardiac cells. The signal with the largest signal-to-noise ratio (generally the tension transient) is entered in Channel 1 and triggers the system. Then the averager will unmask the signal entered in Channel 2 if it was buried in the noise during the direct recording. This signal averager uses an inexpensive microcomputer and a program written in Assembly Language. To facilitate its use, the averager is remotely controlled by a potentiometer for the adjustment of the threshold voltage above which the signal in Channel 1 will be collected and by three push buttons for starting the data collection, for averaging and displaying the results, and for resetting the system. The display is purely analog on the recorder, including averaged signals and interval for the signals in both channels together with a graphical representation of the standard deviations and of the number of observations. This signal averager could be used for any preparations developing spontaneous signals with variable intervals, provided that at least one of the synchronous signals has a large enough signal-to-noise ratio to trigger the system. PMID:7065163

Fabiato, A; Wist, A O

1982-02-01

452

Thomson scattering in the average-atom approximation.  

PubMed

The average-atom model is applied to study Thomson scattering of x-rays from warm dense matter with emphasis on scattering by bound electrons. Parameters needed to evaluate the dynamic structure function (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave functions, and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The resulting analysis provides a relatively simple diagnostic for use in connection with x-ray scattering measurements. Applications are given to dense hydrogen, beryllium, aluminum, and titanium plasmas. In the case of titanium, bound states are predicted to modify the spectrum significantly. PMID:23031036

Johnson, W R; Nilsen, J; Cheng, K T

2012-09-01

453

Time average vibration fringe analysis using Hilbert transformation  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative phase information from a single interferogram can be obtained using the Hilbert transform (HT). We have applied the HT method for quantitative evaluation of Bessel fringes obtained in time average TV holography. The method requires only one fringe pattern for the extraction of vibration amplitude and reduces the complexity in quantifying the data experienced in the time average reference bias modulation method, which uses multiple fringe frames. The technique is demonstrated for the measurement of out-of-plane vibration amplitude on a small scale specimen using a time average microscopic TV holography system.

Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

2010-10-20

454

Thomson scattering in the average-atom approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average-atom model is applied to study Thomson scattering of x-rays from warm dense matter with emphasis on scattering by bound electrons. Parameters needed to evaluate the dynamic structure function (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave functions, and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The resulting analysis provides a relatively simple diagnostic for use in connection with x-ray scattering measurements. Applications are given to dense hydrogen, beryllium, aluminum, and titanium plasmas. In the case of titanium, bound states are predicted to modify the spectrum significantly.

Johnson, W. R.; Nilsen, J.; Cheng, K. T.

2012-09-01

455

Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping.  

PubMed

Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ~10(7) 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels varied with averaging time. Mean sound pressure levels averaged in linear space, though susceptible to strong bias from outliers, are most relevant to cumulative impact assessment metrics. PMID:23039575

Merchant, Nathan D; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D Tom; Dorocicz, John

2012-10-01

456

A space-averaged model of branched structures  

E-print Network

Many biological systems and artificial structures are ramified, and present a high geometric complexity. In this work, we propose a space-averaged model of branched systems for conservation laws. From a one-dimensional description of the system, we show that the space-averaged problem is also one-dimensional, represented by characteristic curves, defined as streamlines of the space-averaged branch directions. The geometric complexity is then captured firstly by the characteristic curves, and secondly by an additional forcing term in the equations. This model is then applied to mass balance in a pipe network and momentum balance in a tree under wind loading.

Lopez, Diego; Michelin, Sébastien

2014-01-01

457

Cascade of failures in interdependent networks with different average degree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of modern systems are coupled by two sub-networks and therefore should be modeled as interdependent networks. The study towards robustness of interdependent networks becomes interesting and significant. In this paper, mainly by numerical simulations, the robustness of interdependent Erdös-Rényi (ER) networks and interdependent scale-Free (SF) networks coupled by two sub-networks with different average degree are investigated. First, we study the robustness of interdependent networks under random attack. Second, we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes, and find that interdependent networks with different average degree are significantly different from those interdependent networks with equal average degree.

Cheng, Zunshui; Cao, Jinde; Hayat, Tasawar

2014-12-01

458

Average thickness of a hydrogel lens for gas transmissibility calculations.  

PubMed

Several attempts have been made to calculate the average thickness of hydrogel lenses for the purpose of calculation of oxygen transmissibility. The deficiencies of these equations are discussed and a new equation is given. Results of average thickness calculations with variation in different parameters are presented. These results indicate that the effect of thickness variation in higher powered lenses has been seriously underestimated. The parameters which cause a major difference in the average thickness compared to the center thickness are power, chord radius, and water content. PMID:6496639

Brennan, N A

1984-10-01

459

Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid w