Sample records for average self-care management

  1. Using self-care theory to guide nursing management of the older adult after hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Jopp, M; Carroll, M C; Waters, L

    1993-01-01

    This article describes Orem's Self-Care Theory (Orem, 1985) and applies it to the home setting. The purpose of the study was to identify how older adults manage self-care activities at home following discharge from a hospital. Results of the survey indicated that 66% of the clients reported self-care deficits after discharge. In addition, 15% reported inability to care for themselves totally after discharge. Analysis of the information indicated the lack of a supportive-educative system to promote self-care at home. The solution to the management of self-care is the rehabilitation nurse clinical specialist, who can provide nursing strategies that promote partnership with the older adult in planning self-care activities after hospitalization. PMID:8383870

  2. Self Care

    MedlinePLUS

    The Center for Health & Healing Mount Sinai Beth Israel Heart Disease Diabetes Chronic Pain New Approaches to Chronic Disease Self Assessment Self Care Connections Experiences Research Learning Evaluation Print Email Self Care If you are living with a chronic health ...

  3. Promoting Self-Care Management among Persons with Serious Mental Illness and HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Rolin-Kenny, Donna; Roman, June; Kumar, Aparna; Aiken, Linda; Blank, Michael

    2011-01-01

    People with a serious mental illness (SMI) along with HIV have complex health conditions. This population also has high rates of poverty, difficulty in sustaining regular housing, and limited supportive networks. Typically, the combination of psychotropic and HIV medication regimens is complicated, changes frequently, and requires coordination among multiple providers. Furthermore, fragmented and divided primary health care and mental health care systems present substantial barriers for these individuals and for the public health nurses who care for them. In this paper, we present “real world” case studies of individuals with SMI and HIV and the self-care management strategies used by nurses to address medication and treatment management, build interpersonal skills, and develop sustainable health networks. The case studies can be used for quality improvement discussions among practicing public health nurses and for instructing nursing students in a self-care management approach. PMID:22399840

  4. Internetbasierte Customer-Self-Care-Elemente als Instrumente des Service Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Keuper; Christian Schulmeyer; Reimer Hintzpeter

    Grundsätzlich liegt der Fokus des Service Management auf der Pre- und After-Sales-Phase innerhalb der Wertschöpfungskette eines Unternehmens. Internetbasierte Customer-Self-Care-Elemente, wie z. B. Kundencenter, in denen der Kunde bestimmte administrative Aufgaben selbst durchführen, oder Downloadcenter, in\\u000a denen der Kunde spezielle Dokumente bzw. Software zu seinem Produkt herunterladen kann, kommen jedoch vorwiegend im After-Sales-Bereich\\u000a zum Einsatz. Gleichwohl ist auch eine Nutzung im

  5. Linking primary health care and self-care through case management.

    PubMed

    Holzemer, W L

    1992-01-01

    Primary health care (PHC) strategies have heightened health care providers' awareness of the need to understand their communities and provided knowledge on how to mobilize communities for health. Orem, a nurse theorist, has developed a similar philosophical position on mobilizing individuals for self-care, which complements PHC theory at the community level. This article links the philosophies and strategies of PHC with self-are and proposes a delivery model of case management, drawing on examples from the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the aging population to illustrate the type of coordinating activities required of case managers in the 21st century. PMID:1639590

  6. Development of Common Data Elements to Provide Tele self-Care Management

    PubMed Central

    Rangraz Jeddi, Fatemeh; Rezaiimofrad, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-care management could empower patients to management of their health. Tele-health is the remote exchange of data between a patient and medical staff to improve healthcare quality. The aim: The aim of this research was developing common data elements to provide Tele self-care management and improve quality of care. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on Delphi approach was done in 2011. Data was extracted by three sessions’ of conversation with 20 faculty members. Data had more than 75% agreement was inserted in minimum data element list, data with lower than 50% agreement was considered as failed data and whom was agreed between 50%-75% of participants were reconsidered for conversation until three sessions and after re-voting it was failed or accepted. Results: Results showed that self-care divides in three main categories and also some sub-categories including:1-Immunity and Safety with two subcategories (A: Prevention of Disease and B: Awareness and Knowledge about Disease); 2-Health Security and Maintains in six subcategories (A: Labratoary Test Results; B: Vital Data Monitoring; C: Rehabilitation; D: Drug Information; E: Follow up and F: Dental Health), 3- Well-Being Education in four subcategories (A: Nutrition; B: Health Promotion; C: Life Style Improvement and D: Patient Activity). Discussion: Consideration of all aspects of self management including information about prevention of disease, knowledge about disease, laboratory test result, vital signs monitoring, rehabilitation, drug information, follow up, dental health, nutrition, health promotion, life style improvement and patient activities is necessary. PMID:24554797

  7. Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…

  8. How Technology in Care at Home Affects Patient Self-Care and Self-Management: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, José M.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Friele, Roland D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of technology in care at home has potential benefits such as improved quality of care. This includes greater focus on the patients’ role in managing their health and increased patient involvement in the care process. The objective of this scoping review is to analyse the existing evidence for effects of technology in home-based care on patients’ self-care and self-management. Using suitable search terms we searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Picarta and NIVEL dating from 2002 to 2012. Thirty-three studies (six review studies and twenty-seven individual studies) were selected. Effects were extracted from each study and were classified. In almost all the studies, the concepts self-care and self-management are not clearly defined or operationalized. Therefore, based on a meta-analysis, we made a new classification of outcome measures, with hierarchical levels: (1) competence (2) illness-management (3) independence (social participation, autonomy). In general, patient outcomes appear to be positive or promising, but most studies were pilot studies. We did not find strong evidence that technology in care at home has (a positive) effect on patient self-care and self-management according to the above classification. Future research is needed to clarify how technology can be used to maximize its benefits. PMID:24173139

  9. Role of self-care in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Matthie, Nadine; Jenerette, Coretta; McMillan, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Self-care is an important aspect of managing a chronic disease. In sickle cell disease (SCD), home self-care contributes to individual pain management and thus pain crisis prevention. A better understanding of self-care can help health care providers equip patients with the resources and skills necessary to participate in their disease management. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence self-care among young adults with SCD. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data analysis. Participants were recruited from two SCD clinics in the southeastern United States. The sample consisted of 103 young adults, ages 18 to 30 years, with SCD. Bivariate correlations and regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships among SCD self-efficacy, social support, sociodemographics, self-care, and hospital visits for pain crises. Study participants were primarily women (61.2%), unemployed or disabled (68%), lived with family (73.8%), and had an annual average of three hospital visits for pain crises. Participants, on average, had 12 years of education, an annual household income of $35,724, and were 24 years old. Social support (p = .001), SCD self-efficacy (p = .002), and years of education (p = .043) were significantly related to self-care. Of the hypothesized variables, only income was significantly associated with hospital visits for pain crises (r = -0.219, p = .05). Individuals with SCD may benefit from self-care interventions that enhance social support, SCD self-efficacy, and access to education. To inform intervention development, further investigation is needed regarding daily self-care behaviors used by young adults with SCD. PMID:25439112

  10. Telehealth for Persons with Severe Functional Disabilities and their Caregivers: Facilitating Self-care Management in the Home Setting

    PubMed Central

    Forducey, Pamela G.; Glueckauf, Robert L.; Bergquist, Thomas; Maheu, Marlene M.; Yutsis, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Persons with severe functional disabilities are the highest users of health care services. Caring for the needs of this population represents a significant percentage of our national health care costs. A growing body of research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-management strategies and caregiver engagement for effective long-term care for individuals with chronic medical conditions. Economic forces over the past decade have led to new challenges and resulted in major changes in health care delivery resulting in shortened length of inpatient stays and greater limits on the length of outpatient treatment. Telehealth is an innovative method for health care delivery and a means of meeting this new challenge. This paper highlights the findings of three pilot studies on the use of telecommunications technologies in promoting self-care management and enhancing health care outcomes in persons with severe disabilities and their family caregivers. The importance of matching technology to the needs of this population, lessons learned from these investigations, and future directions for research are addressed. PMID:22662729

  11. Testing a Model of Diabetes Self-Care Management: A Causal Model Analysis with LISREL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacek, George A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A diabetes-management model is presented, which includes an attitudinal element and depicts relationships among causal elements. LISREL-VI was used to analyze data from 115 Type-I and 105 Type-II patients. The data did not closely fit the model. Results support the importance of the personal meaning of diabetes. (TJH)

  12. Perspectives on Self-Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Isha D.; Richardson, Tenille A.; Moore, Darren D.; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks; Keeling, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Self-care for clinicians is much needed. To discover ways to implement self-care into our lives, we (four therapists) tried different self-care methods over a span of one to two weeks. After using practices that explored self-care through mindfulness meditation, autohypnosis, music, and spirituality, we wrote about the outcome of these experiences…

  13. iMHere: A Novel mHealth System for Supporting Self-Care in Management of Complex and Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pramana, Gede; Yu, Daihua Xie; Fairman, Andrea D; Dicianno, Brad E; McCue, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with chronic conditions are vulnerable to secondary complications that can be prevented with adherence to self-care routines. They benefit most from receiving effective treatments beyond acute care, usually in the form of regular follow-up and self-care support in their living environments. One such population is individuals with spina bifida (SB), the most common permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. A Wellness Program at the University of Pittsburgh in which wellness coordinators supervise the care of individuals with chronic disease has produced remarkably improved outcomes. However, time constraints and travel costs have limited its scale. Mobile telehealth service delivery is a potential solution for improving access to care for a larger population. Objective The project’s goal was to develop and implement a novel mHealth system to support complex self-care tasks, continuous adherence to regimens, monitoring of adherence, and secure two-way communications between patients and clinicians. Methods We developed and implemented a novel architecture of mHealth system called iMHere (iMobile Health and Rehabilitation) consisting of smartphone apps, a clinician portal, and a two-way communication protocol connecting the two. The process of implementing iMHere consisted of: (1) requirement analysis to identify clinically important functions that need to be supported, (2) design and development of the apps and the clinician portal, (3) development of efficient real-time bi-directional data exchange between the apps and the clinician portal, (4) usability studies on patients, and (5) implementation of the mHealth system in a clinical service delivery. Results There were 9 app features identified as relevant, and 5 apps were considered priority. There were 5 app features designed and developed to address the following issues: medication, skin care, bladder self-catheterization, bowel management, and mental health. The apps were designed to support a patient’s self-care tasks, send adherence data to the clinician portal, and receive personalized regimens from the portal. The Web-based portal was designed for clinicians to monitor patients’ conditions and to support self-care regimens. The two-way communication protocol was developed to facilitate secure and efficient data exchange between the apps and the portal. The 3 phases of usability study discovered usability issues in the areas of self-care workflow, navigation and interface, and communications between the apps and the portal. The system was used by 14 patients in the first 6 months of the clinical implementation, with 1 drop out due to having a poor wireless connection. The apps have been highly utilized consistently by patients, even those addressing complex issues such as medication and skincare. The patterns of utilization showed an increase in use in the first month, followed by a plateau. Conclusions The system was capable of supporting self-care and adherence to regimen, monitoring adherence, supporting clinician engagement with patients, and has been highly utilized. PMID:25100682

  14. Blood Sugar and Brothers' Voices: An Exploratory Study Of The Self-Care Management Experiences of African-American Men Living With Type 2 Diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Sherman, Ledric D

    2013-07-23

    Self-care is the key to living a long and healthy life for people with diabetes. Yet numerous studies show that self-care is far from optimal. This has resulted in attempts to understand the progress underlying self-care behavior in the efforts...

  15. Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of women with lymphoedema. The extensive use of injectable, oral and topical antibiotics by indigenous healers and women without medical supervision suggests a need for health education messages related to the risks of such practices. PMID:17187660

  16. [Self care in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de la Parra, S; Carbelo Baquero, B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to offer an analysis on the adolescence as stage of the life with some specific characteristics due to the transformations that happen so much at biological level as cognitive and psychosocial. During this period, the adolescent develops their autonomy and by so much starts their independence of the parents, some and other will experience situations that them will make be felt insecure in their/its performances until each one assume their new paper in the familiar environment and before itself. Parents and adolescent can need support and advice to obtain that this stage, in conflicting occasions, is developed normally, so that the adolescent become a capable adult about caring whether same and about others, with a life style that favor the integrated operation and the continued development. The family nurse can lend them the support and advice that need, since occupies a privileged place in the health equipment to guarantee the continuity of the assistance to the familiar group from the birth until the maturity. Basing us on the theory of the self-care developed by D. Orem, we will check the specific requirements of self-care of this stage of the vital cycle, of great transcendency for the step to the adult age. PMID:10514786

  17. Self-care practices of Chinese individuals with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, YUJUAN; LIAO, LI; SUN, MEI; HE, GUOPING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the self-care practices of Chinese individuals with diabetes. Data were collected from 163 Chinese individuals with diabetes using a one-to-one interview approach. The Chinese version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) was used to assess diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices. The majority of participants were aware of the importance of self-care in managing diabetes. However, only 70 participants (43%) scored >50% in the diabetes-related questionnaires. Mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were higher (P<0.04) for participants who had extra meals per day (46%). The majority of participants took oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs; 60.1%) and some were also treated with OHA-insulin combination therapy (17.8%). Participants with medication adherence (52%) tended to have lower FBG levels. Only 13% of participants practiced self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The predictors of a knowledge deficit or poor self-care were a low level of education (P<0.01) or old age (older than 53 years old; P=0.002). Deficits in diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices existed among the majority of patients with suboptimal blood glucose control. The understanding of the importance of self-care practices requires improvement in individuals with diabetes. The development of effective education strategies to improve the awareness of self-care practices by Chinese individuals with diabetes is necessary. PMID:23599736

  18. Self-care: a foundational science.

    PubMed

    Denyes, M J; Orem, D E; Bekel, G; SozWiss

    2001-01-01

    Further development of conceptual elements of the theory of self-care, one of the three constituent theories of Orem's self-care deficit theory of nursing, is reported. Five content areas of a practical science of self-care are identified; one content area, self-care requisites, is refined and developed. The nature of self-care requisites is reformulated; guides and standards for the expression of self-care requisites, examples of expressed self-care requisites, and a self-care practice guide are described. These developments are illustrated using the example of the requisite to maintain an adequate fluid intake. PMID:11873354

  19. A Functional Curriculum for Teaching Students with Disabilities. Volume I: Self-Care, Motor Skills, Household Management, and Living Skills. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Michael; And Others

    This first of three manuals providing a curriculum for students with disabilities focuses on the development of functional daily living skills. An introductory chapter provides an overview of the functional curriculum and offers guidelines for developing instructional plans for the four units of study which follow. Unit 1 is about self-care

  20. Human bites - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    A human bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. Human bites that break the skin can be very ... Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in two ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ...

  1. Investigation the Relationship Between Self-Care and Readmission in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Ali; Mohammad-Aliha, Jaleh; Ansari-Ramandi, Mohammadmostafa; Naderi, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with unpredictably increased prevalence of hospital admissions. Self-care is one of the most important aspects of management for patients with CHF. Self-care adequacy has led to increased satisfaction, independence in daily activities, reduced stress, and morbidity. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between self-care behavior and readmission rate in patients with heart failure. Patients and Methods: A total of 287 patients with a diagnosis of systolic CHF with a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 35% admitted for acute heart failure were enrolled. The self-care behavior was assessed using SCHFI questionnaires that have three domains (self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence). An acquired score greater than 70 was considered as proper self-care index. The study population was followed over three months after discharge for readmission. Results: This study showed that self-care behavior was improper in our study population. More than 75% of patients had a score less than 70 in the different domains for self-care. The multivariable regression analyses showed a significant relationship between self-care management (ß = 1.6, P = 0.006, OR (CI) = 2.66 (1.37-5.1) and self-care confidence (ß = 0.9, P = 0.02, OR (CI) = 2.01 (1.1-3.68) and readmission rate. Conclusions: We concluded that a good administration program such as education and a surveillance plan for the improvement of self-care behaviors would reduce hospital readmissions in patients with heart failure. PMID:25785253

  2. Integrating Self-Care into Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Lois Casden

    1998-01-01

    A mental-health curriculum in a nursing school was revised to include a self-care focus using group process and psychoeducational approaches. Course components include theory, a lab involving self-care concepts and activities, and clinical time in which self-care is practiced through interaction with patients. (SK)

  3. Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). Design A one-year follow-up study. Setting A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?45%). Main outcome measures Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Results Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p?self-care management (p?self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up. PMID:25396055

  4. Self-Care Agency and Self-Care Practice of Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida L. Slusher

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study were threefold: (a) to describe self-care agency, (b) to describe self-care practice, and (c) to describe the relationship between self-care agency and self-care practice in adolescents. The usefulness of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) with adolescents also was evaluated. Participants in this study included 173 adolescents, 14 to 19 years of age. Data were

  5. Health Literacy and Self-Care of Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aleda M. H.; Yehle, Karen S.; Plake, Kimberly S.; Murawski, Matthew M.; Mason, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Today’s complex health care system relies heavily on sophisticated self-care regimens. To navigate the system and follow self-care protocols, patients must be able to understand and use health information, which requires health literacy. However, nearly 90 million Americans lack the necessary health literacy skills to adequately care for themselves in the face of a complex healthcare system and self-care regimens. Understanding how to effectively care for one’s self is thought to improve heart failure symptoms and patient outcomes, but little is actually known about how health literacy influences self-care in patients with heart failure. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the relationship between health literacy and self-care of patients with heart failure. Subjects and Methods Patients with a diagnosis of heart failure were recruited from a variety of community settings. Participants completed the Short-Form Test of Functional Health Literacy (measured health literacy), the Self-Care Index of Heart Failure (measured self-care maintenance, management, and confidence), and a demographic questionnaire. Spearman’s Rho correlations were used to assess the strength of the relationship between health literacy level and self-care scores. Results and Conclusions Among the 49 participants recruited, health literacy was positively related to self-care maintenance (Rs=0.357, p=0.006). Health literacy had a negative relationship with self-care management (Rs=?0.573, p=0.001). There was no association between health literacy and self-care confidence (Rs=0.201, p=0.083). This project provides preliminary data regarding the association between health literacy and self-care in heart failure, showing support for higher health literate patients performing more self-care maintenance, which has been shown to improve patient outcomes in heart failure. Patients with higher health literacy trended toward having greater self-care confidence, which can increase the likelihood of performing self-care, but this finding was not significant. It was unexpected to find that lower health literate patients performed more self-care management. PMID:21263340

  6. Relationship among health state factors, foundational capabilities and urinary incontinence self-care in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Therese Trudell Dowd

    1994-01-01

    Provision of self-care for urinary incontinence requires continuous and energy consuming effort. Many women with urinary incontinence do not seek help because it is considered to be an inevitable nuisance which must be managed but cannot be treated.^ How do women's perceptions of the severity of the urinary incontinence they experience and their beliefs about it affect their self-care for

  7. Self-care agency: conceptualizations and operationalizations.

    PubMed

    Gast, H L; Denyes, M J; Campbell, J C; Hartweg, D L; Schott-Baer, D; Isenberg, M

    1989-10-01

    This article traces the interactive process between theory and research as it has been used to clarify the concept of self-care agency, a key concept in Orem's model of nursing. Theoretical constructions of self-care agency that have emerged in the work of Orem and the Nursing Development Conference Group are reviewed. Operational measures of self-care agency are described, particularly with regard to their underlying theoretical formulations. Factorial structures for some self-care agency instruments are related to the components of self-care agency in Orem's most recent conceptualization. Dimensions of self-care agency that are consistently supported by research studies of this phenomenon are identified. PMID:2506797

  8. Dorthea Orem's self care theory as related to nursing practice in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Dorthea Orem believed that people have a natural ability for self care, and nursing should focus on affecting that ability. Using a literature search of studies involving adults receiving hemodialysis for end stage renal disease (ESRD) in an outpatient dialysis setting and self-care/management publications in peer-reviewed journals and dissertations, this article explores the implementation of Dorthea Orem's Self Care Theory in the hemodialysis setting, considering the ways it relates to a population in which self-management is critical for patients' positive quality of life, nurses' ability to promote self care for this population, and potential health outcomes. In order to maximize the health of patients with ESRD, considerable lifestyle changes must be made. As healthcare professionals who provide direct care, nurses can assist with these changes by providing educational opportunities and strategies that increase self-care agency, thus making a positive impact on patient quality of life. PMID:19715109

  9. Self-care actions as a function of therapeutic self-care demand and self-care agency in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharie A Metcalfe

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were: (a) to describe the self-care capabilities and self-care actions in individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and (b) to test a middle-range theory, derived from Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory, of the relationships among basic conditioning factors, therapeutic self-care demand, self-care agency, and self-care in persons with COPD. A non-experimental correlation design was

  10. Spirituality and self care: Expanding self-care deficit nursing theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Louise White

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the theory of self-care deficit nursing by including specific constructs of religion, spirituality, and spiritual self-care practices within the structure suggested by Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory. Based on an extensive literature review, practice experience, and a discovery theory-building approach, a new mid-range theory called White's theory of spirituality and spiritual self-care

  11. Spirituality And Spiritual Self-Care: Expanding Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Louise White

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the theory of self-care deficit nursing by including specific constructs of religion, spirituality, and spiritual self-care practices within the structure suggested by Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory. Based on an extensive literature review, practice experience, and a discovery theory-building approach, a new mid-range theory called White's theory of spirituality and spiritual self-care

  12. [Self-care--the contribution of nursing sciences to health care].

    PubMed

    Bekel, Gerd; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Scupin, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    The future development of the German health care system needs to recognize patient views of medical treatment in order to foster their health care responsibility. In nursing sciences, practice and clinical research are based on the concepts of self-help and self-care. The principle of Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (S-CDNT), developed by the American nursing scientist D.E. Orem, defines self-care as a trainable and deliberate practice. The theory describes, among other factors, general and situation-specific needs of self-care and dependence care, forms of self-care com petence, and self-care deficit. Clinical studies have focused on self-care activities and deficits of particular patient groups, testing the effectiveness of care interventions. In view of the changes in the German health system (e.g., diagnosis-related groups, reduction of hospitalization periods), the S-CDNT is relevant not only for the treatment of individual patients, but also for the management of care provision. The fostering of self-care and dependence-care competence is an important tool to increase the autonomy of affected patients and their families, as well as to reduce the costs of health care. PMID:16433264

  13. Relationship between quality of life and self-care ability in patients receiving hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Heidarzadeh, Mehdi; Atashpeikar, Solmaz; Jalilazar, Tahereh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although hemodialysis has a therapeutic effect on end stage renal disease (ESRD), these patients encounter many physical, psychological, and social stressful factors that lead to a decrease in their quality of life (QOL). One of the factors that are effective on increasing the QOL is the self-care ability. Review of literature demonstrated a few studies done on different aspects of QOL in ESRD patients under hemodialysis and their relationships with self-care ability in Iran. So, in this research besides determining the quality of life and its dimensions and self-care ability of hemodialysis patients, we evaluated their relationships with each other. METHODS: For this purpose, all hemodialysis patients who had inclusion criteria and were hospitalized in hemodialysis wards of Bonab, Maragheh, and Miandoab hospitals were selected and data were collected by interview using a questionnaire that included three parts, demographic factors, quality of life, and self-care ability. RESULTS: The results indicated that quality of life in 34%, and self-care ability in 78.3% of hemodialysis patients were desirable, and there was a direct and significant relationship between these two variables (p < 0.001, r = 0.4), as self-care ability explained 29% of variance of QOL. In quality of life subsectors, social dimension in 98.3% of patients was desirable, while physical dimension (80%) and psychological dimension (63.5%) in most patients were undesirable. Physical dimension was the most impressible dimension of quality of life in self-care ability whereas self-care ability explained 27% of total variance of physical dimension of QOL. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly two thirds of mentioned patients had no desirable QOL and regarding the positive relationship between QOL and self-care ability, it is suggested that health care planner and managers prepare the condition that through educating and reinforcing self-care ability in these patients improve the QOL in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21589783

  14. Relationships between health literacy and heart failure knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care adherence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aleda M. H.; Yehle, Karen S.; Albert, Nancy M.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mason, Holly L.; Murawski, Matthew M.; Plake, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been argued that only 12 percent of adults have the necessary health literacy to manage their health care effectively, which can lead to difficulties in self-care activities, such as medication adherence. Prior research suggests that health literacy may influence knowledge, self-efficacy and self-care, but this has not been fully examined. Objective To test a model to explain the relationships between health literacy, heart failure knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care. Methods Prior to receiving clinic-based education, newly referred patients to 3 heart failure clinics completed assessments of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, self-efficacy, self-care, and demographics. Structural equation modeling was completed to examine the strength of the inter-variable relationships. Results Of 81 participants recruited, data from 63 patients were complete. Health literacy was independently associated with knowledge (p<0.001). Health literacy was not related to self-care. Self-efficacy was independently-associated with self-care adherence (p=0.016). No other relationships were statistically significant. The model had good fit (comparative fit index=1.000) and explained 33.6% of the variance in knowledge and 27.6% in self-care. Conclusions Health literacy influences knowledge about heart failure but not self-care adherence. Instead, self-efficacy influenced self-care adherence. Future research should incorporate additional factors that may better model the relationships between health literacy, knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care. PMID:23953756

  15. Defining the concept of self-care.

    PubMed

    Easton, K L

    1993-01-01

    Self-care is a concept frequently referred to in both the theory and the clinical practice of nursing. This article presents an overview of self-care theory as described by Henderson, Hall, and Orem. Self-care theory operates on the assumption that all individuals have a need to care for themselves. While this premise may be true, it poses difficult questions for the nurse who must intervene with patients who refuse to achieve their maximum level of independence. When a disease process occurs that alters self-image, some patients (particularly elderly females who have cared for others most of their adult lives) may consciously opt to become the ones cared for. This choice gives them a temporary sense of control over a situation in which they feel helpless. When nursing care is directed toward returning control of the situation to the patient, the process of self-care and healing can begin. PMID:7938895

  16. Diabetes self-care: Lessons from research on the family and broader contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    The foundation of diabetes management is the self-care behavior of the patient. All of the systems within which the person\\u000a with diabetes interacts, as well as the media and broader social and cultural values, affect this self-care behavior. In this\\u000a article I focus on recent research that has examined the link between relationships in the patient’s intimate network (ie,\\u000a family

  17. Young People's Participation in the Development of a Self-Care Intervention--A Multi-Site Formative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kime, Nicola; McKenna, Jim; Webster, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The poor outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions indicate that current services and self-care programmes are not meeting the needs of young people. How young people self-manage their condition impacts on long-term health outcomes, but there is little published evidence that details the development of self-care programmes and their…

  18. Effects of the Use of a Heart Failure Diary on Self-Care and Quality of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudette Walker

    2011-01-01

    Heart Failure is a growing and costly problem in the United States. There have been advancements in medical therapy, but unfortunately patients continue to have frequent exacerbations and hospital readmissions. The reason for this may be inadequate Heart Failure self-care, which is the most important aspect of disease management. Literature strongly encourages self-care, but there is minimal research focusing on

  19. Health Literacy, Diabetes Self-Care, and Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Bains, Sujeev S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although limited health literacy is a barrier to disease management and has been associated with poor glycemic control, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between health literacy and diabetes outcomes are unknown. We examined the relationships between health literacy, determinants of diabetes self-care, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. We collected information on demographics, health literacy, diabetes knowledge, diabetes fatalism, social support, and diabetes self-care, and hemoglobin A1c values were extracted from the medical record. Structural equation models tested the predicted pathways linking health literacy to diabetes self-care and glycemic control. Results No direct relationship was observed between health literacy and diabetes self-care or glycemic control. Health literacy had a direct effect on social support (r?=??0.20, P?self-care (r?=??0.07) and on glycemic control (r?=??0.01). More diabetes knowledge (r?=?0.22, P?self-care and through self-care were related to glycemic control (r?=??0.20, P?self-care and glycemic control through its association with social support. This suggests that for patients with limited health literacy, enhancing social support would facilitate diabetes self-care and improved glycemic control. PMID:20879964

  20. g:\\self care\\cold sore throat cough allergy 8/08 SELF CARE CHECK LIST FOR COLD, SORE

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    g:\\self care\\cold sore throat cough allergy 8/08 SELF CARE CHECK LIST FOR COLD, SORE THROAT, COUGH a sore throat? Analgesic (as above), cough drops, salt packets for gargling Do you have allergies for more information) #12;g:\\self care\\cold sore throat cough allergy 8/08 SELF CARE INSTRUCTIONS FOR COLDS

  1. Effective Intervention of Self-Care on Glycaemia Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zareban, Iraj; Niknami, Shamsodina; Hidarnia, Alireza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Karimy, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the most common diseases, which requires lifelong self-care to improve the quality of life. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the impact of self-care education programs on reducing HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: The current experimental study was conducted on 138 female patients with type 2 diabetes in Zahedan city, Iran. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire which included items on demographics, awareness, beliefs, Self-care behaviors. Before the educational intervention, the (HbA1c) test check list was completed for the patients in both groups. Then the training was applied for the intervention group in five 60-minute educational sessions within one month. Three months following the training, the data collection based on the check list was repeated for both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean scores of awareness, beliefs, Self-care behaviors of the educational group, were 46.6 ± 8.57, 46.5 ± 0.86 and 29.06 ± 10.02, respectively; and it was found that after the education, knowledge, attitude, and self-care scores increased significantly (P < 0.001 Before the training, the scores of self-care, beliefs, and awareness were less than average in the intervention and control groups. In addition, the levels of HbA1c in the patients were higher than the normal levels. Following the intervention, the mean of self-care and HbA1c of the intervention group significantly reduced as compared with those of the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-care training instructions led to improve knowledge, attitude, and performance of the subjects under study and also the average HbA1c. Therefore, the nurses and health care staff should be educated accordingly. PMID:25763251

  2. The influence of basic conditioning factors on menopausal self-care agency and menopausal self-care in midlife women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norma Rose Zehnder

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a mid-range theory of menopausal self-care deduced from Orem's Theory of Self-Care Deficit and Theory of Self-Care that was both theoretically and clinically relevant to nursing. Theoretically, this inquiry tested the relationship between basic conditioning factors and menopausal self-care agency and menopausal self-care. Selected basic conditioning factors included age, developmental state, sociocultural\\/economic

  3. Experiences of Burnout, Self-Care, and Recovery of Female University Counsellors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the burnout, self-care, and recovery experiences of female university counsellors working at a university counselling centre in Taiwan. The 9 participants had an average age of 42.44 years and had worked at the centre for an average of 11.3 years. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth…

  4. Evolution of Self-Care Education

    PubMed Central

    Ambizas, Emily M.; Bastianelli, Karen M.S.; Ferreri, Stefanie P.; Haines, Seena L.; Stutz, Misty M.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Wilhelm, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the curriculum content for nonprescription medication and self-care therapeutics has expanded significantly. Self-care courses ranging from stand-alone, required courses to therapeutic content and skills laboratories, have evolved in colleges and schools of pharmacy to accommodate rapid changes related to nonprescription medications and to meet the needs of students. The design of and content delivery methods used in self-care courses vary among institutions. Teaching innovations such as team-based learning, role playing/vignettes, videos, and social media, as well as interdisciplinary learning have enhanced delivery of this content. Given that faculty members train future pharmacists, they should be familiar with the new paradigms of Nonprescription Safe Use Regulatory Expansion (NSURE) Initiative, nonprescription medications for chronic diseases, and the growing trends of health and wellness in advancing patient-care initiatives. This paper reviews the significant changes that may be impacting self-care curriculums in the United States. PMID:24672061

  5. African American hypertensives: Cognition and self care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Louise Klymko

    2006-01-01

    Problem. While evidence is present supporting aging and hypertension's association with cognitive decline, few, if any, studies have related cognition, self-care, and blood pressure outcomes in African American elders with hypertension. Purpose. The purposes of this study were to: (a) describe types of cognitive functions in elder hypertensive African Americans, (b) test relationships among concepts in a mid-range theory derived

  6. College Student Self-Care Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Dintiman, George B.

    The purpose of this docoment is to help college students maintain health by keeping a weekly diary of health related behaviors including diet, exercise, and stress levels. In addition each weekly entry presents a self-care tip for health improvement. Discussions of the college student and health, health and lifestyle, instructions on use of the…

  7. Is self-care a social movement?

    PubMed

    Schiller, P L; Levin, J S

    1983-01-01

    Historically, social movements in health have often exerted considerable influence over health policy, public expectation in regards to health services, the structure of health professions and institutions and personal health practices. Self-care has been widely assumed to be a social movement by authors writing in the health arena. The validity of this assumption is questioned by (1) positing criteria and characteristics of social movements and (2) comparing the self-care phenomenon to four examples in the area of health (Temperance, Christian Science, Psychedelia, and Feminist Health) which appear to fit the thoroughly reviewed. It is concluded that self-care does not presently warrant consideration as a social movement. Several factors which include the rapid pace of technological innovation in medical care, the erosion of the traditional doctor/patient relationship and the increasing degree of the medicalization of previously non-medical aspects of social life are seen as contributory to the forming of preconditions of a potential self-care social movement. PMID:6359451

  8. Self-Care Strategies to Cope With Taste Changes After Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rehwaldt, Maureen; Wickham, Rita; Purl, Sandy; Tariman, Joseph; Blendowski, Carol; Shott, Susan; Lappe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe factors related to taste changes, to examine patients’ use of a self-care suggestion sheet to manage taste changes associated with chemotherapy, and to identify potentially useful strategies for managing specific taste changes after chemotherapy. Design Quasi-experimental, pre/post design. Setting Four outpatient urban and suburban oncology centers in Illinois. Sample 42 patients who had received at least two cycles of chemotherapy previously identified to be associated with taste changes. Methods Pre- and postintervention survey of taste changes; patient education regarding self-care for taste changes. Main Research Variables Taste changes, taste change strategies, and self-care. Findings Most patients that reported taste changes had affected their ability to eat. Taste changes and strategies varied somewhat according to chemotherapy regimen. Avoiding strong-smelling or -tasting foods, eating blander foods, drinking more water with foods, oral care before eating, and eating smaller, more frequent meals were reported to help. Conclusions Taste changes are common in patients receiving cisplatin, carboplatin, or cyclophosphamide. At-risk patients may benefit from prechemotherapy teaching regarding specific taste change management suggestions. Use of a taste change suggestion sheet encouraged self-care, and counseling patients regarding strategies to deal with taste changes may help them during chemotherapy. Implications for Nursing Nurses should incorporate patient education tools that promote self-care regarding the management of taste changes in patients with known factors that could affect taste early in their chemotherapy. PMID:19273394

  9. Complementary Self-Care Strategies for Healthy Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sondra

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on alternative self-care practices in terms of collaboration with the primary care physician and individual exploration of self-care practices such as acupuncture, meditation, and nutrition counseling. (JOW)

  10. Basic conditioning factors, self-care agency, self-care, and well-being in homeless adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Ann Meterko Anderson

    1996-01-01

    Nursing has a role in providing direct helping services to homeless individuals that promotes self-care leading to health and well-being. This study, within Orem's self-care deficit theory of nursing, explored the dimensions of self-care agency, self-care, and well-being while controlling for selected basic conditioning factors in homeless adults. A theoretical model of the relationships between these concepts was tested. This

  11. Predictors of self-care in adolescents with cystic fibrosis: A test and explication of Orem's theories of self-care and self-care deficit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois K Baker

    1991-01-01

    Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) frequently do not engage in self-care that is essential to their health. Nurses need a systematic way of viewing the self-care behaviors of this population. The purpose of this descriptive multivariate correlational study was twofold: (a) to test Orem's (1991) theoretical propositions about the relationships between selected basic conditioning factors, dimensions of self-care agency, and

  12. A pilot test of an integrated self-care intervention for persons with heart failure and concomitant diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Sandra B; Butts, Brittany; Reilly, Carolyn M; Gary, Rebecca A; Higgins, Melinda K; Ferranti, Erin P; Culler, Steven D; Butler, Javed

    2014-01-01

    Studies show 30% to 47% of people with heart failure (HF) have concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). Self-care for persons with both of these chronic conditions is conflicting, complex, and often inadequate. This pilot study tested an integrated self-care program for its effects on HF and DM knowledge, self-care efficacy, self-care behaviors, and quality of life (QOL). Hospitalized HF-DM participants (N = 71) were randomized to usual care or intervention using a 1:2 allocation and followed at 30 and 90 days after intervention. Intervention was an integrated education and counseling program focused on HF-DM self-care. Variables included demographic and clinical data, knowledge about HF and DM, HF- and DM-specific self-efficacy, standard HF and DM QOL scales, and HF and DM self-care behaviors. Analysis included descriptive statistics, multilevel longitudinal models for group and time effects, post hoc testing, and effect size calculations. Sidak adjustments were used to control for type 1 error inflation. The integrated HF-DM self-care intervention conferred effects on improved HF knowledge (30 days, p = .05), HF self-care maintenance (30 and 90 days, p < .001), HF self-care management (90 days, p = .05), DM self-efficacy (30 days, p = .03; 90 days, p = .004), general diet (30 days, p = .05), HF physical QOL (p = .04), and emotional QOL scores (p = .05) at 90 days within the intervention group. The participants in the usual care group also reported increased total and physical QOL. Greater percentages of participants in the intervention group improved self reported exercise between 0 and 30 days (p = .005 and moderate effect size ES = .47) and foot care between 0 and 90 days (p = .03, small ES = .36). No group differences or improvements in DM-specific QOL were observed. An integrated HF-DM self-care intervention was effective in improving essential components of self-care and had sustained (90 day) effects on selected self-care behaviors. Future studies testing HF-DM integrated self-care interventions in larger samples with longer follow-up and on other outcomes such as hospitalization and clinical markers are warranted. PMID:24211112

  13. Bridging the Self-care Deficit Gap: Remote Patient Monitoring and the Hospital-at-Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafazzo, Joseph A.; Leonard, Kevin; Easty, Anthony C.; Rossos, Peter G.; Chan, Christopher T.

    This study examines the use of a remote patient monitoring intervention to address the challenge of patient self-care in complex hospital-at-home therapies. It was shown that in a home hemodialysis patient group, remote patient monitoring facilitated self-care and was supported by patients and, in particular, family caregivers. This does not come without cost to the patient however, who now has greater personal responsibility and accountability for their health management. Promising results from this study indicate that most patients are willing to assume this cost in exchange for the possibility of improved health outcomes.

  14. Nursing and Self-Care Theory Applied to Utilization Review: Concepts and Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Harrison-Raines

    1993-01-01

    The following article demonstrates how Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory of Nursing serves as a the oretical framework for the hospital-based utilization review process. Orem's theory is a popular and prac tical one which dovetails beautifully with the goals of any department of utilization management.

  15. Assessing Sources Of Support For Diabetes Self-Care In Urban And Rural Underserved Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin A. Shaw; Mary P. Gallant; Mary Riley-Jacome; Linda S. Spokane

    2006-01-01

    The ability of adults with diabetes to manage their illness properly and prevent complications is, in part, a function of support provided by the people and institutions surrounding them. Using data from over 200 adults with diabetes in two medically underserved communities – one urban and one rural – this study examines the self-care specific support provided by four key

  16. Using the Open Airways Curriculum to Improve Self-Care for Third Grade Children with Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sharon D.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of a school-based asthma management program, which featured brief class sessions, for improving the knowledge and self-care of third graders with asthma and increasing parents' awareness. Pre- and postintervention parent and student surveys indicated that brief class sessions were feasible, and children demonstrated increased…

  17. Thermal management in high average power pulsed compression systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R.W.; Reed, K.W.; Harjes, H.C.; Weber, G.J.; Butler, M.; Penn, K.J.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    High average power repetitively pulsed compression systems offer a potential source of electron beams which may be applied to sterilization of wastes, treatment of food products, and other environmental and consumer applications. At Sandia National Laboratory, the Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) program is developing a 7 stage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an electron beam diode load. The RHEPP machine is being design to deliver 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60 ns FWHM, 2.5 MV, 3 kJ pulses at a repetition rate of 120 Hz. In addition to the electrical design considerations, the repetition rate requires thermal management of the electrical losses. Steady state temperatures must be kept below the material degradation temperatures to maximize reliability and component life. The optimum design is a trade off between thermal management, maximizing overall electrical performance of the system, reliability, and cost effectiveness. Cooling requirements and configurations were developed for each of the subsystems of RHEPP. Finite element models that combine fluid flow and heat transfer were used to screen design concepts. The analysis includes one, two, and three dimensional heat transfer using surface heat transfer coefficients and boundary layer models. Experiments were conducted to verify the models as well as to evaluate cooling channel fabrication materials and techniques in Metglas wound cores. 10 refs.

  18. Thermal management in high average power pulsed compression systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R.W.; Reed, K.W.; Harjes, H.C.; Weber, G.J.; Butler, M.; Penn, K.J.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-08-01

    High average power repetitively pulsed compression systems offer a potential source of electron beams which may be applied to sterilization of wastes, treatment of food products, and other environmental and consumer applications. At Sandia National Laboratory, the Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) program is developing a 7 stage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an electron beam diode load. The RHEPP machine is being design to deliver 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60 ns FWHM, 2.5 MV, 3 kJ pulses at a repetition rate of 120 Hz. In addition to the electrical design considerations, the repetition rate requires thermal management of the electrical losses. Steady state temperatures must be kept below the material degradation temperatures to maximize reliability and component life. The optimum design is a trade off between thermal management, maximizing overall electrical performance of the system, reliability, and cost effectiveness. Cooling requirements and configurations were developed for each of the subsystems of RHEPP. Finite element models that combine fluid flow and heat transfer were used to screen design concepts. The analysis includes one, two, and three dimensional heat transfer using surface heat transfer coefficients and boundary layer models. Experiments were conducted to verify the models as well as to evaluate cooling channel fabrication materials and techniques in Metglas wound cores. 10 refs.

  19. Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Templin, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was integrated within the theory of self-care (SCT) to explore the predictive value of extending TPB to measure attitudes and beliefs regarding a behavioral goal, and determine the ability of goal beliefs to predict engagement in the combined, multiple behaviors necessary to control BP. The hypothesized model was evaluated in a sample of 306 community-dwelling African Americans between 21 and 65 years of age. Scales developed for the study achieved acceptable reliability (?=.68–95). Structural equation modeling analysis resulted in a second-order factor structure with attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention modeled as indicators of a construct representing goal beliefs related to keeping BP within normal limits. This latent construct was conceptualized within the theory of self-care as “self-care motivation,” and predicted 18% of the variance in self-care behaviors necessary for BP control. The model achieved acceptable fit (CMIN/df = 2.32; CFI = .95; RMSEA = .066). Final assessment of fit was done using multi-group SEM and bootstrapping techniques. In this extension of the TPB attitudes and beliefs regarding the goal of keeping BP within normal limits were found to determine one's motivation to engage in the multiple behaviors necessary for BP control. PMID:20949834

  20. Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one’s health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health). Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions. PMID:23807842

  1. Nurses' lived experience of Reiki for self-care.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experience of nurses who practice Reiki for self-care. In-person interviews were conducted with 11 nurses who met specific study criteria, using open-ended questions to examine the experience of nurses who are Reiki practitioners, to understand their perceptions of Reiki use in self-treatment, and to appreciate its meaning for them. The Colaizzi method was utilized in data analysis and independent decision trail audits were completed to promote study rigor and trustworthiness of results. Thematic categories and major and minor thematic clusters emerged around the topics of daily stress management, self-healing, spirituality, and interconnectedness of self, others, and beyond. Implications of the study findings for nursing practice and nursing education are discussed. Potential applications of study findings to Jean Watson's transpersonal caring theory located within a caring science framework are explored and recommendations for future research are offered. PMID:19411991

  2. Self-care for stoma surgery: mastering independent stoma self-care skills in an elderly woman.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Laurie A

    2005-01-01

    According to Orem, active participation in caring for self contributes to the behavior of self-care. Before an individual is able to care for oneself, however, many factors must be considered. This article is based on an alert, oriented 85-year old widow, known as EL, who was recently diagnosed with rectal cancer. With postoperative hypertension and sinus tachycardia, EL is having difficulty learning self-care. This article demonstrates a scenario where Orem's self-care deficit theory of nursing assisted in developing an effective plan of self-care for an elderly woman who underwent an ileostomy. PMID:15574699

  3. An Innovative Approach to Home Health Education: The Critical Path to Self-Care for Adults with Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn K. Watson; Janet L. McDaniel; Mary Hope Gibson

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective chart audit of home health care clients with the primary diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) revealed that the average number of visits for care exceeded the average number of visits for teaching. Using Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing, a critical pathway was designed to extend the number of visits incorporating teaching and to sequence teaching so

  4. Self-care behaviors among patients with heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy T. Artinian; Morris Magnan; Michelle Sloan; M. Patricia Lange

    2002-01-01

    Background: One way to prevent frequent hospitalizations and promote positive health outcomes among patients with heart failure (HF) is to ensure that the amount and quality of self-care used is appropriate to the patient's situation. Objectives: The following are the purposes of this study: (a) examine the frequency of performance of self-care behaviors, (b) describe personal and environmental factors (basic

  5. Communication Strategies for Improving Diabetics' Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Burt; Mengel, Marvin C.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on various levels of diabetic patients' involvement in the care of their disease and effects of these levels on how closely they later followed self-care programs. Suggests that by participating in group discussions about excuses for not following a self-care regimen, and offering solutions to counter those excuses, diabetic patients…

  6. Diabetes self-care and the older adult.

    PubMed

    Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Smaldone, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues that impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients' self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

  7. Measures of self-care independence for children with osteochondrodysplasia: a clinimetric review.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Penelope; Johnston, Leanne M

    2012-02-01

    This systematic review evaluates the validity, reliability, and clinical utility of outcome measures used to assess self-care skills among children with congenital musculoskeletal conditions and assesses the applicability of these measures for children with osteochondrodysplasia aged 0-12 years. Electronic databases were searched to identify self-care assessments that addressed the self-care domain as defined by of the International Classification of Function Disability and included children with osteochondrodysplasia. Ten measures were identified and three met the inclusion criteria: the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), the Activities Scale for Kids (ASK), and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Although psychometric data specific to children with osteochondrodysplasia are limited, adequate to excellent reliability and evidence of validity were reported for all three instruments for children with physical disabilities. Further evaluation of psychometric properties of self-care instruments specifically for children with osteochondrodysplasia would be beneficial to help identify instruments that will assist with improved assessment and management. PMID:21728924

  8. Evaluation of self-care practices and emotional distress among people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mosha, Theobald C E; Rashidi, Heri

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine self-care practices and diabetes related emotional distress among people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross sectional survey-involving 121 Types 2 diabetics was conducted in 4 diabetic clinics located in Dar es Salaam. Anthropometric and biomedical measurements namely weight, height, waist, hip, mid-upper arm circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were measured. Self-care practices and diabetic related emotion distress were evaluated by using validated instruments. Results revealed that, the average fasting plasma glucose was 11.2 ± 5.5 mmol/l, blood pressure was 134.7/86.1 mm/Hg and the mean BMI for males and females were 25.0 ± 4.3 and 27.0 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), respectively. Subject's self-care score for general diet, specific diet, physical exercise, foot-care and medication were 4.6 ± 2.4, 3.7 ± 1.5, 3.4 ± 1.8, 3.6 ± 2.8 and 5.5 ± 2.8 days per week, respectively. Self-monitoring of blood glucose was irregular and only 46.3% of the subjects tested their levels of blood glucose at least once in between the appointments (90 days). Low income was the major limitation for complying with the self-care practices related to diet, blood glucose testing and medication. It is recommended that, the Government of Tanzania should in the short run subsidize the prices of diabetes drugs, remove all taxes on the glucose test kits and establish a national diabetes program that would coordinate and oversee provision of the basic services such as screening, glucose testing, medication, counseling and management of the condition. In the long run, the government should establish a preventive public health program in order to curtail the escalation of diabetes. Further research should be conducted to determine how factors such as socio-cultural and demographic, self-care, and psychosocial distress interact to determine biomedical outcomes such as blood pressure, blood glucose and body mass index. PMID:21883073

  9. The effect of social, family and individual conditioning factors on self-care agency and self-care of adult Mexican women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther C Gallegos

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the theoretical relationships between the self-care agency (SCA) and self-care (SC); and the influence of selected basic conditioning factors (BCFs) on women's self-care agency, and self-care actions. The Self-care Deficit Theory (SCDT) of Nursing (Orem, 1995) was the conceptual framework for this theory testing research. Both theoretical and practical relevance were achieved

  10. Knowledge expectations, self-care, and health complaints of heart failure patients scheduled for cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ingadottir, Brynja; Thylén, Ingela; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe what knowledge heart failure patients expect to acquire in relation to their upcoming cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation, to describe their self-care and health complaints, and to explore the relationship between knowledge expectations and self-care, health complaints, and background factors. Patients and methods Cross-sectional multicenter study with 104 patients scheduled for a first-time, elective CRT implantation in Swedish and Icelandic hospitals. Data were collected with the Knowledge Expectations of hospital patient Scale, European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale, and Adjusted Postoperative Recovery Profile. Results Patients expected most knowledge related to their disease and its treatment (median 4.0, interquartile range 0.13) and least on social issues (median 3.5, interquartile range 0.83). Their self-care was average (standardized mean 51.0±19.6) before the procedure. Patients had on average 8.2 (±4.7) health complaints and rated fatigue and sexual problems as the most severe. Age was independently associated with knowledge expectations (Exp? 0.049, P=0.033). Conclusion Heart failure patients waiting for a CRT device implantation have high expectations for multiple aspects of knowledge, including self-care issues, before their procedure. These expectations are similar to those of other surgical patients and they increase with age.

  11. Orem's Self-Care Model of Nursing: An Enumerative Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph, Comp.

    This document is a 119-item bibliography of literature which deals with Orem's self-care model of nursing. Sources of entries include journals, doctoral dissertations, abstracts, books, and conference papers. (JN)

  12. Self-Care Guide for the Heart Failure Patient

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Institution: NIH Library User Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Self-Care Guide for the Heart ... www.aahfnpatienteducation.com/index.php American College of Cardiology - www.cardiosmart.org/Heart-Conditions/Heart-Failure Previous ...

  13. The Effect of Self-Care Education on the Awareness, Attitude, and Adherence to Self-Care Behaviors in Hospitalized Patients Due to Heart Failure with and without Depression

    PubMed Central

    Navidian, Ali; Yaghoubinia, Fariba; Ganjali, Alireza; Khoshsimaee, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are among somatic disorders and psychological factors affect their onset, exacerbation, and treatment. This study was conducted on the hospitalized patients who had heart failure with and without depression. The study criteria was to evaluate the effect of self-care education on awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors on these patients. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, seventy patients with heart failure that met the inclusion criteria were recruited through purposive sampling method. They were assigned in to two equal size groups regarding their depression status. First, the eligible patients were selected; then Beck Depression Inventory was done on the patients followed by examination by the clinical psychologist. Patients with average and higher scores were classified in the depressed group and others who got lower than average scores were classified as the non -depressed group. A questionnaire containing items related to awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors was used to collect the data. First, self-care behavior was determined and then a four-sessions of educational intervention were held individually for both groups. The second round of questionnaires were completed at patients’ home twelve weeks after the discharge. The Collected data was analyzed using independent-samples and paired-sample t tests, Chi square, and statistical analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests through SPSS (version 21, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results After the educational sessions, the statistical analysis showed significant differences in the mean scores of awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors between the two groups (P<0.0001). Conclusion Self-care behavior education had lower effects on the depressed patients with heart failure. Therefore, before providing education for these patients, it is necessary to consider their psychological problems such as depression. PMID:26091101

  14. Taking good care of myself: a qualitative study on self-care behavior among Chinese persons with a permanent colostomy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Songwathana, Praneed; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Wang, Qingxi

    2014-12-01

    In Chinese culture, as a possible consequence of Confucianism, caring for the sick is considered a moral obligation of family members, while self-care is only the basis of fulfilling filial piety. This qualitative study aims to explore the self-care behavior among persons with a permanent colostomy in a Chinese cultural context of emphasizing the role of family caregiving. Data from in-depth interviews with seven Chinese adults at a university hospital in southwest China were analyzed using content analysis. Informants' self-care behavior was characterized by "taking good care of myself," which underlined individuals' efforts to manage colostomy-related impacts involving: (i) taking care of my colostomy with a proper degree of independence; (ii) taking care of my life by dealing with limitations; (iii) taking care of my mood in a positive way. Findings revealed that informants' self-care behavior was linked to their Confucian beliefs in family obligations, and also influenced by a happy-go-lucky outlook of life, a likely product of Taoism. The information is useful for nurses to design a culturally appropriate care plan to improve self-care behavior and proper family caregiving. PMID:25370020

  15. AVERAGING OF DISPERSION-MANAGED SOLITONS: EXISTENCE AND STABILITY

    E-print Network

    Zharnitsky, Vadim

    of the periodic nonlinear Schr¨odinger (NLS) equation: (i) a dynamical system for a Gaussian pulse and (ii fibers of op- posite dispersion are periodically concatenated into a line [1]. If the communication]. The chirped return-to-zero pulses are weakly broadened on the average due to transmission, and some post-transmission

  16. The meaning of self-care in persons with cervical spinal cord injury in Japan: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Professionals in Japan tend to regard the individual contexts of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) as the cause of their passive participation in self-care activities or self-management. However, the meaning of self-care involves variables that interrelate with sociocultural factors. Thus, it is necessary to uncover its meaning in the perceptions of persons with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) in order not only to implement better rehabilitation but also to understand the sociocultural constraints that determine the injured person’s attitudes to self-care and long-term health outcomes. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 29 CSCI participants from fourteen municipalities of Osaka, Hyogo, and Ehime prefectures were conducted. Participants contributed diverse perspectives on rehabilitation, lay-professional and family relationships, health promotion, and body conceptions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using the grounded theory approach to inter-relate categories and to develop theoretical constructions. Results Four main themes emerged from the data: rehabilitation for independence in ADLs; detachment from the body and self; embodiment; and self-management. From the participants’ point of view, rehabilitation programs in Japan aim at improving body functions for ADL performance, but provide little health education. These rehabilitation values might hinder some participants from developing self-esteem for their bodies. Moreover, socially-shaped family caregivers’ active engagement in the participants’ self-care allowed many participants to entirely rely on them for care. Through embodiment, participants found that self-care was not merely a means of independence in ADLs but also of self-management to enhance health and well-being, requiring collaborative relationships with caregivers. Conclusion Personal factors such as low motivation for self-care might be in part a reflection of social expectations of dependence for persons with CSCI. However, the shift in the meaning of self-care from ADLs to self-management implies more active participation in health care needs, shaped through social exchanges. Not only personal factors but also sociocultural factors influence the injured person’s valuation of self-care. There is a need for further research to better understand sociocultural influences on illness behaviors among persons with CSCI, so that clinical and community practice can develop accordingly. PMID:24134554

  17. A Smartphone Application Significantly Improved Diabetes Self-Care Activities with High User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Byun, Jong Kyu; Park, So Young; Hong, Soo Min; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Oh, Seungjoon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung Woon; Kim, Young Seol

    2015-01-01

    Background We developed for the first time a smartphone application designed for diabetes self-management in Korea and registered a patent for the relevant algorithm. We also investigated the user satisfaction with the application and the change in diabetes related self-care activities after using the application. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey on volunteers with diabetes who were using the application. Ninety subjects responded to the questionnaire between June 2012 and March 2013. A modified version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) was used in this study. Results The survey results exhibited a mean subject age of 44.0 years old, and males accounted for 78.9% of the subjects. Fifty percent of the subjects had diabetes for less than 3 years. The majority of respondents experienced positive changes in their clinical course after using the application (83.1%) and were satisfied with the structure and completeness of the application (86.7%). Additionally, the respondents' answers indicated that the application was easy to use (96.7%) and recommendable to others (97.7%) and that they would continue using the application to manage their diabetes (96.7%). After using the Diabetes Notepad application, diabetes related self-care activities assessed by SDSCA displayed statistically significant improvements (P<0.05), except for the number of days of drinking. Conclusion This smartphone-based application can be a useful tool leading to positive changes in diabetes related self-care activities and increase user satisfaction. PMID:26124991

  18. Self-care strategies and barriers among kidney transplant recipients: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Elisa J.; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Gallant, Mary; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We investigated kidney transplant recipients’ self-reported levels of exercise and fluid intake. We also examined attitudes about, barriers to undertaking, and strategies used to initiate and maintain adequate self-care for fluid intake, exercise and dietary practices. Methods A qualitative approach was used and supplemented by quantitative data to examine self-care among kidney transplant recipients (n = 82), including a semi-structured interview and survey of physical activity. Results One-third of patients (33%) reported drinking the recommended 3 L of fluid each day. However, the majority (60%) reported not receiving this or any specific fluid intake recommendation. Twenty percent reported engaging in moderate to regular physical activity while 78% were sedentary. However, many reported that clinicians did not specify the amount of exercise (39%) or did not discuss exercise (15%). Attitudes towards fluid intake, exercise and maintaining a low-salt diet were mostly positive; patients expressed relatively more negative attitudes towards maintaining a low-cholesterol diet. Major barriers to fluid intake were not feeling thirsty, difficulty breaking the habit of limiting fluid intake formed while on dialysis, feeling full and limited access to fluids. Patients devised creative strategies to initiate and maintain appropriate hydration, physical activity and dietary levels, including intentionally drinking when not thirsty, modifying the environment, tracking intake and relying on social supports. Conclusions Few kidney recipients practiced optimal self-care for fluid intake or physical activity. Most patients encountered barriers to self-care that should be ameliorated to assist patients with managing their transplant. Understanding barriers and strategies is essential for developing educational interventions. PMID:19474231

  19. Daily temporal self-care responses to osteoarthritis symptoms by older African Americans and whites

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Myrna; Nutini, Jean; Musa, Donald; King, Jennifer; Albert, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and is among the most prevalent chronic conditions in the United States. Because there is no known cure for OA, treatment is directed towards the alleviation of pain, improving function, and limiting disability. The major burden of care falls on the individual, who tailors personal systems of care to alleviate troublesome symptoms. To date, little has been known about the temporal variations in self-care that older patients with OA develop, nor has it been known to what extent self-care patterns vary with ethnicity and disease severity. This study was designed to demonstrate the self-care strategies used by older African Americans and whites to alleviate the symptoms of OA on a typical day and during specific segments of a typical day over the past 30 days. A sample of 551 older adults participated in in-depth interviews, and the authors clustered their responses into six categories. Findings showed that the frequency of particular behaviors varied by time of day, disease severity, and race. Overall, patterns of self-care behaviors were similar between African-Americans and whites, but African-Americans used them in different proportions than whites and in response to disease severity. Knowledge of what strategies persons with OA use to lessen their symptoms at various times of the day may enable practitioners and their patients to improve management of OA symptoms. Recognition that people may choose their strategies to ameliorate their symptoms by race and disease severity may further enable tailored symptom relief. PMID:18841454

  20. Family Influences on Heart Failure Self-care and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Quinn, Christina; Gary, Rebecca A.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2009-01-01

    Many patient education guidelines for teaching heart failure patients recommend inclusion of the family; however, family-focused interventions to promote self-care in heart failure are few. This article reviews the state of the science regarding family influences on heart failure self-care and outcomes. The literature and current studies suggest that family functioning, family support, problem solving, communication, self-efficacy, and caregiver burden are important areas to target for future research. In addition, heart failure patients without family and those who live alone and are socially isolated are highly vulnerable for poor self-care and should receive focused attention. Specific research questions based on existing science and gaps that need to be filled to support clinical practice are posed. PMID:18437068

  1. Family responses to children with diabetes and their influence on self-care.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, M S

    1996-04-01

    This study describes family responses to school-age children with diabetes and the influence of parents and siblings on self-care. Semistructured interviews of seven families living in a rural area of the Midwest were conducted. Major family responses included reminiscing about the time of diagnosis, changing the diet, scheduling daily routines, coping with and managing the diabetes, and worrying about insulin reactions. Mothers were the primary managers of the diabetes regimen. Blood-testing and self-injections were encouraged during less hurried times, particularly evenings and weekends. PMID:8935580

  2. Peer Collaboration: A Model to Support Counsellor Self-Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Constance A.; Phelan, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a larger case study on how continuous learning in the workplace could be achieved through the implementation of peer collaboration, the process of how counsellors engaged in self-care within a large health care organization became clearer. This article is based on data derived from a qualitative analysis of nine transcribed…

  3. Consumer Self-Care in Health. NCHSR Research Proceedings Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Services Research (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    This conference report presents research strategies and ethical considerations concerning consumer participation in the health care process. Section 1, background, lists the beginnings of self-care in health, the programs that have sprung up, and their supporting organizations, and the medical tasks performed by the consumers in those programs.…

  4. Developing Self-Care Practices in a Trauma Treatment Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patricia J.; Simmelink-McCleary, Jennifer; Im, Hyojin; Becher, Emily; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of self-care practices of social work students who were part of a larger study of students' experiences in a graduate course on the treatment of trauma. Consensual qualitative research methods were used to analyze 17 participant journals submitted at 4 times during the course. Findings indicated that…

  5. A Health Collaborative Network Focus on Self-care Processes in Personal Assistant Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, Ma Victoria; Ros, Lorenzo

    Public health is oriented to the management of an adequate health atmosphere which acts directly on health, as well as health education work and the supervision of environmental health threats. The work presented in this paper aims to reduce inequality, and give disabled people the tools to be integrated more effectively, reducing social exclusion, removing obstacles and barriers, and facilitating mobility and the use of technology. The work is planned to design a special healthcare collaborative network as the best solution for addressing the needs of the disabled self-care and health care community through the creation and implementation of an interconnected, electronic information infrastructure and adoption of open data standards.

  6. Development and Validation of the Hypertension Self-Care Profile: A Practical Tool to Measure Hypertension Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, Hwayun; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Kim, Miyong

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate self-care is crucial for blood pressure (BP) control. A number of hypertension (HBP) self-care instruments are available, but existing tools do not capture all the critical domains of HBP self-care and have limited evidence of reliability and validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new tool—the HBP Self-Care Profile (HBP SCP)—in a sample of inner-city residents. Methods The HBP SCP encompasses comprehensive domains of HBP self-care behaviors. Guided by two validated theoretical approaches—Orem’s self-care model and Motivational Interviewing—the HBP SCP includes three scales that can be used together or independently: Behavior, Motivation, and Self-Efficacy. The sample included 213 English-speaking inner-city residents with HBP (mean age = 68.6 years; 76.1% female; 81.7% African American). Results Item-total correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 for Behavior, 0.46 to 0.70 for Motivation, and 0.40 to 0.74 for Self-Efficacy scales, meeting the cutoff set a priori at 0.15. Internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 0.93. Concurrent and construct validities of the HBP SCP were achieved by significant correlations between HBP SCP scales and theoretically selected study instruments (P <0.05 for all correlation coefficients). The HBP SCP-Behavior scale also successfully discriminated between those with or without BP control (P <0.05). Conclusions The reliability and validity of the HBP SCP were supported in this sample of inner-city residents with HBP. The high reliability estimates and strong evidence of validity should allow researchers to use the HBP SCP to assess and identify gaps in HBP self-care behavior, motivation, and self-efficacy. Future research is warranted to evaluate the HBP SCP in diverse ethnic and age samples of hypertensive patient populations. PMID:24088621

  7. Self-Care Among Chronically Ill African Americans: Culture, Health Disparities, and Health Insurance Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gay Becker; Rahima Jan Gates; Edwina Newsom

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the self-care practices of chronically ill African Ameri- cans or how lack of access to health care affects self-care. Results from a quali- tative interview study of 167 African Americans who had one or more chronic ill- nesses found that self-care practices were culturally based, and the insured reported more extensive programs of self-care. Those who

  8. Self-care agency and factors related to this agency among patients with coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannele Lukkarinen; Maija Hentinen

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-care agency and factors related to this agency among patients with coronary heart disease (N = 250) measured with a self-care inventory (Self-as-Carer Inventory, SCI). A secondary aim was to analyze the ability of the SCI inventory based on Orem's self-care deficit theory to measure the self-care agency of patients with

  9. “We have become doctors for ourselves”: motives for malaria self-care among adults in southeastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria with effective medicines remains necessary if malaria control goals are to be achieved. The theoretical concepts from self-care and the health belief model were used to examine the motivations for malaria self-care among the adult population. Methods A qualitative study was conducted through eight focus group discussions with adult community members to explore their general opinions, views and perceptions of malaria and of its treatments. These groups were followed by 15 in-depth interviews of participants with a recent malaria experience to allow for an in-depth exploration of their self-care practices. The analysis followed principles of grounded theory and was conducted using Nvivo 9 qualitative data management software. Results The self-treatment of malaria at home was found to be a common practice among the study participants. The majority of the participants practiced self-medication with a painkiller as an initial response. The persistence and the worsening of the disease symptoms prompted participants to consider other self-care options. Perceptions that many malaria symptoms are suggestive of other conditions motivated participants to self-refer for malaria test. The accessibility of private laboratory facilities and drug shops motivated their use for malaria tests and for obtaining anti-malarial medicines, respectively. Self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy was common, motivated by their perceived effectiveness and availability. The perceived barriers to using the recommended combination treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, were related to the possible side-effects and to uncertainty about their effectiveness, and these doubts motivated some participants to consider self-medication with local herbs. Several factors were mentioned as motivating people for self-care practices. These included poor patient provider relationship, unavailability of medicine and the costs associated with accessing treatments from the health facilities. Conclusions Malaria self-care and self-treatment with anti-malarial monotherapy are common among adults, and are motivated by both individual characteristics and the limitations of the existing health care facilities. There is a need for public health interventions to take into account community perceptions and cultural schemas on malaria self-care practices. PMID:24986165

  10. Explication of the structure of the secondary concept of women's self-care developed within Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory: Instrumentation, psychometric evaluation and theory-testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Ann Weber

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the conceptualization, instrumentation, psychometric evaluation and theory-testing of a new secondary concept, women's self-care. It was the product of conjoining the theoretical frameworks of Self-In-Relation and Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing and the specific concepts of self-in-relation and self-care. Its significance was to provide a more general, abstract or theoretical level to particularized

  11. The relationship between empowerment support, motivation for self-care, mental health self-care, well-being, and incest trauma resolution in adult female survivors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan C Urbancic

    1992-01-01

    This study advanced the scientific base of nursing knowledge by providing support for propositions in Orem's self-care deficit theory to explain incest trauma resolution and well-being in adult female incest survivors. Basic conditioning factors of incest trauma and empowerment support, and independent variables of motivation for self-care and mental health self-care accounted for a significant amount of variance in subjective

  12. Self-care program for inpatients in a mental hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Voineskos, G.; Butler, J. A.; Bullock, L. J.; El-Gaaly, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Summary: A self-care program for selected inpatients in a mental hospital has been developed and has been in operation for more than a year. The 12-bed unit operates without any nursing or other professional staff during the night and weekend. Certain factors, including the mental hospital as an organization, tend to hamper the development of this type of program as well as the progress and growth of other programs in psychiatric hospitals. It is suggested that the much needed progress in the mental hospital would be facilitated by an open-systems approach to its organization. Mental hospitals should consider the introduction of self-care programs for selected patients, mainly in view of their therapeutic potential, but also because of the financial savings such programs offer. PMID:1111874

  13. Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise and Self Care for Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ades, Philip A.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Balady, Gary J; Houston-Miller, Nancy; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Mancini, Donna M.; Rich, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is highly prevalent in older individuals and a major cause of morbidity, mortality, hospitalizations and disability. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise training and CHF self-care counseling have each been shown to improve clinical status and clinical outcomes in CHF. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of CR exercise training alone (without counseling) have demonstrated consistent improvements in CHF symptoms in addition to reductions of cardiac mortality and hospitalizations, although individual trials have been less conclusive of the latter two findings. The largest single trial, HF-ACTION, showed a reduction in the adjusted risk for the combined end point of all-cause mortality or hospitalization (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81-0.99; P=0.03). Quality of life and mental depression also improved. CHF-related counseling whether provided in isolation or in combination with CR exercise training improves clinical outcomes and reduces CHF-related hospitalizations We review current evidence on the benefits and risks of CR and self-care counseling in patients with CHF, provide recommendations for patient selection for third party payers, and discuss the role of CR in promoting self-care and behavioral changes. PMID:24622007

  14. Integrating Virtual Patients Into a Self-Care Course

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop, implement, and evaluate the use of virtual patients as a teaching tool for third-professional year PharmD students within an advanced elective self-care course. Design Practicing community pharmacists, faculty members, and pharmacy residents with alias e-mail accounts served as virtual patients and corresponded on a weekly basis via e-mail with pharmacy students regarding an assortment of fictional health concerns. Self-care inquiries were e-mailed to the students who replied and then forwarded their response to the course coordinator for evaluation and class discussion. At the end of the course, students were asked to assess the value of the learning activity. Assessment Students demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge, problem-solving, communication, and professional skills upon course completion. Student's assessments of the virtual patient activity have suggested positive feedback on developing self-care skills, patient interactions, and group dynamics. Conclusion This teaching tool was designed to enhance student's knowledge base, assessment, and counseling skills when interacting with patients in various situations. Instructor evaluation of responses, student feedback, and self-evaluation indicated the activity improved overall knowledge and communication skills. PMID:17533439

  15. Health Literacy Influences Heart Failure Knowledge Attainment but Not Self-Efficacy for Self-Care or Adherence to Self-Care over Time

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aleda M. H.; Yehle, Karen S.; Albert, Nancy M.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mason, Holly L.; Murawski, Matthew M.; Plake, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Inadequate health literacy may be a barrier to gaining knowledge about heart failure (HF) self-care expectations, strengthening self-efficacy for self-care behaviors, and adhering to self-care behaviors over time. Objective. To examine if health literacy is associated with HF knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care adherence longitudinally. Methods. Prior to education, newly referred patients at three HF clinics (N = 51, age: 64.7 ± 13.0 years) completed assessments of health literacy, HF knowledge, self-efficacy, and adherence to self-care at baseline, 2, and 4 months. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted alpha levels was used to test longitudinal outcomes. Results. Health literacy was associated with HF knowledge longitudinally (P < 0.001) but was not associated with self-efficacy self-care adherence. In posthoc analyses, participants with inadequate health literacy had less HF knowledge than participants with adequate (P < 0.001) but not marginal (P = 0.073) health literacy. Conclusions. Adequate health literacy was associated with greater HF knowledge but not self-efficacy or adherence to self-care expectations over time. If nurses understand patients' health literacy level, they may educate patients using methods that promote understanding of concepts. Since interventions that promote self-efficacy and adherence to self-care were not associated with health literacy level, new approaches must be examined. PMID:23984058

  16. Narrated lived experiences of self-care and health among rural-living older persons with a strong sense of coherence

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Sense of coherence (SOC), with its components comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness, is a major factor in the ability to cope successfully with stressors and is closely related to health. Qualitative studies related to SOC are scarce, and in this phenomenological interview study, self-care is investigated in relation to SOC. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older home-dwelling individuals living in rural areas and who have a strong SOC. Eleven persons with a mean age of 73.5 years and a SOC value in the range of 153–188, measured by Antonovsky’s 29-item SOC scale, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a phenomenological descriptive method. The findings showed that successful self-care involves having, when needed, contact with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and/or others, and being satisfied and positive and looking forward. Formal and informal caregivers should be conscious of the importance of motivating and supporting older individuals with respect to these dimensions of self-care. PMID:22241954

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing of the brazilian version of the self-care of heart failure index version 6.2.

    PubMed

    Avila, Christiane Wahast; Riegel, Barbara; Pokorski, Simoni Chiarelli; Camey, Suzi; Silveira, Luana Claudia Jacoby; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the SCHFI v 6.2. Methods. With the approval of the original author, we conducted a complete cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument (translation, synthesis, back translation, synthesis of back translation, expert committee review, and pretesting). The adapted version was named Brazilian version of the self-care of heart failure index v 6.2. The psychometric properties assessed were face validity and content validity (by expert committee review), construct validity (convergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis), and reliability. Results. Face validity and content validity were indicative of semantic, idiomatic, experimental, and conceptual equivalence. Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant though moderate correlation (r = -0.51) on comparison with equivalent question scores of the previously validated Brazilian European heart failure self-care behavior scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original three-factor model as having the best fit, although similar results were obtained for inadequate fit indices. The reliability of the instrument, as expressed by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.40, 0.82, and 0.93 for the self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence scales, respectively. Conclusion. The SCHFI v 6.2 was successfully adapted for use in Brazil. Nevertheless, further studies should be carried out to improve its psychometric properties. PMID:24163765

  18. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Testing of the Brazilian Version of the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index Version 6.2

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Christiane Wahast; Riegel, Barbara; Pokorski, Simoni Chiarelli; Camey, Suzi; Silveira, Luana Claudia Jacoby; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the SCHFI v 6.2. Methods. With the approval of the original author, we conducted a complete cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument (translation, synthesis, back translation, synthesis of back translation, expert committee review, and pretesting). The adapted version was named Brazilian version of the self-care of heart failure index v 6.2. The psychometric properties assessed were face validity and content validity (by expert committee review), construct validity (convergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis), and reliability. Results. Face validity and content validity were indicative of semantic, idiomatic, experimental, and conceptual equivalence. Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant though moderate correlation (r = ?0.51) on comparison with equivalent question scores of the previously validated Brazilian European heart failure self-care behavior scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original three-factor model as having the best fit, although similar results were obtained for inadequate fit indices. The reliability of the instrument, as expressed by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.40, 0.82, and 0.93 for the self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence scales, respectively. Conclusion. The SCHFI v 6.2 was successfully adapted for use in Brazil. Nevertheless, further studies should be carried out to improve its psychometric properties. PMID:24163765

  19. The Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive Model to Facilitate Self-care of Patients with Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Lombard, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Álvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Menasalva Ruíz, Ernestina

    The patient, in his multiple facets of citizen and user of services of health, needs to acquire during, and later in his majority of age, favorable conditions of health to accentuate his quality of life and it is the responsibility of the health organizations to initiate the process of support for that patient during the process of mature life. The provision of services of health and the relation doctor-patient are undergoing important changes in the entire world, forced to a large extent by the indefensibility of the system itself. Nevertheless decision making requires previous information and, what more the necessity itself of being informed requires having a “culture” of health that generates pro activity and the capacity of searching for instruments that facilitate the awareness of the suffering and the self-care of the same. Therefore it is necessary to put into effect a ICT model (hiPAPD) that has the objective of causing Interaction, Motivation and Persuasion towards the surroundings of the diabetic Patient facilitating his self-care. As a result the patient himself individually manages his services through devices and AmI Systems (Ambient Intelligent).

  20. 23is the average age of our MSc in Management students The Cass advantage

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    23is the average age of our MSc in Management students The Cass advantage Located in the heart of the City of London, one of the world's great financial centres, Cass Business School is home to one of Cass students, alumni and partners, and ideally positioned to embark on the next exciting stage of your

  1. California healthy and ready to work transition health care guide: developmental guidelines for teaching health care self-care skills to children.

    PubMed

    Betz, C L

    2000-01-01

    This article presents developmental guidelines that can be used by parents and nurses for teaching children health care self-care skills. These guidelines are intended to provide a framework for instructing parents and nurses about the developmentally appropriate skills children can learn to become self sufficient in managing their own health care needs. The guidelines are based on the developmental frameworks of Piaget and Erikson and self-care models of Orem. Although general in scope, these guidelines can be individualized to the needs of each child. PMID:11876345

  2. Cooperative care: an application of Orem's self-care theory.

    PubMed

    Weis, A

    1988-04-01

    Cooperative Care provides acute care patients the opportunity to function with maximum autonomy during all or part of their hospitalization. Based on the self-care theory of Orem, it enables patients and their families to have increased participation in the health care process. Nursing care is available but the role is primarily that of educator and skilled observer as the patients and families assume responsibility for activities of daily living. This paper describes the Cooperative Care Unit at the Medical Center Hospital of Vermont (MCHV). PMID:10302439

  3. [Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].

    PubMed

    Poplinger, A

    2010-04-01

    Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rati

  4. Self-care and HIV\\/aids patients: nursing care systematization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joselany Áfio Caetano; Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca

    2006-01-01

    This research aimed at systematizing nursing care to HIV\\/aids patients in view of Orem's Self-care Deficit Nursing Theory, using the convergent-care method and the Self-Care Nursing Process. Subjects were thirteen HIV\\/AIDS patients attended at a non-governmental organization in Fortaleza\\/CE, Brazil. We used interview techniques, physical examination, observation and information records, with a structured instrument, addressing requisites related to universal self-care,

  5. Adequate self-care of dialysed patients: a review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regula Ricka; Yves Vanrenterghem; Georges C. M. Evers

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to clarify the concept: ‘adequate self-care of patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)’. This was done by the specification of Orem's general definition of self-care and a review of the literature. Adequate self-care behaviours for preventing and regulating pathological processes and related disabilities e.g. following dialysis and medication prescriptions

  6. Self-care requirements for activity and rest: an Orem nursing focus.

    PubMed

    Allison, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    According to Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory, helping people to maintain a balance between activity and rest (a universal self-care requisite) is a legitimate concern of nursing. The meaning of activity and rest, the requirements and potential measures for meeting this self-care requisite, and factors that might influence the process are explored. Criteria for determining a need for nursing, guides for a nursing clinical assessment, and guides for nursing action are suggested as potential ways to assist persons to meet the action demands associated with this self-care requisite. PMID:17202518

  7. Empowering Older Patients to Engage in Self Care: Designing an Interactive Robotic Device

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Priyadarshi; Warren, Jim; Day, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and test an interactive robot mounted computing device to support medication management as an example of a complex self-care task in older adults. Method: A Grounded Theory (GT), Participatory Design (PD) approach was used within three Action Research (AR) cycles to understand design requirements and test the design configuration addressing the unique task requirements. Results: At the end of the first cycle a conceptual framework was evolved. The second cycle informed architecture and interface design. By the end of third cycle residents successfully interacted with the dialogue system and were generally satisfied with the robot. The results informed further refinement of the prototype. Conclusion: An interactive, touch screen based, robot-mounted information tool can be developed to support healthcare needs of older people. Qualitative methods such as the hybrid GT-PD-AR approach may be particularly helpful for innovating and articulating design requirements in challenging situations. PMID:22195203

  8. Self Care Behavior among Patients with Diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: The Health Belief Model Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Girma, Eshetu

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires lifelong medical treatments and a life style adjustment. To prevent serious morbidity and mortality, it requires dedication to demanding self-care behaviors in multiple domains. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. Methods From a total of 425 follow up diabetic patients, a quantitative cross sectional study was conducted among 222 of them from three different hospitals in Harar town, from March to April, 2011. The sample was taken using simple random sampling method. Data was collected using pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics multiple logistic regression analysis were also used to assess the predicators of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. Result Majority of the study respondents 134 (60.4%) were female and the mean age was 49.7 (SD±14.7) years. More than half 147(66.2%) of them were medically diagnosed with type-2 diabetes. 208(93.7%) had general knowledge about diabetes and specific knowledge about diabetes self care 207(93.2%). Large proportion of them had moderate perceived susceptibility 174(78.4%) and severity 112(50.5%). More than half of the respondents 149(67.1%) had less perceived barrier while only 30 (13.5%) of them had high self efficacy to self care practices related to diabetes mellitus. Only 87(39.2%) followed the recommended self care practices on diabetes. Conclusions Patients with less frequent information were less likely to take diabetes self care. Patients who were more educated, middle income, had high perceived severity of diabetes and less perceived barrier to self care were more likely to take diabetes self care. To increase the self care behavior, diabetes messages should focus on severity of diabetes and how to overcome barriers for self care by segmenting the audiences based on income and educational status with increasing the frequency and reach of message on diabetes. PMID:22530039

  9. Self-care and health in persons with cancer-related fatigue: Refinement and evaluation of Orem's self-care framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris A Magnan

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this theory-development and theory-testing inquiry was on the relationship of self-care to health. Orem, a nurse theorist, has made the assertion that self-care contributes to health, but the mechanisms underlying this process have not been fully illuminated. An analysis of Orem's theoretical work, suggests that two new concepts—desired focal condition and regulatory outcome—bring needed dimensions of explanation

  10. Grief as a basic conditioning factor affecting the self-care agency and self-care of family caregivers of persons with neurotrauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Lynn Goshorn Brown

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesis from a mid-range theory, Grief as a Basic Conditioning Factor in Family Caregivers of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), derived from Orem's (1995) theoretical framework. Testing involved (a) examining the effects of grief on the TBI caregivers' self-care agency and on the self-care outcomes of health and well-being and

  11. The development and testing of the Heart Failure Self-Care Inventory: An instrument for measuring heart failure self-care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Lynne Grass Ahrens

    2001-01-01

    Heart failure is a serious and costly chronic health problem for millions of older adults in the United States. The success of treatment depends on self-care. Currently there is no well-tested instrument to measure self-care of individuals with heart failure. ^ The purpose of this study was to develop and perform psychometric testing of such an instrument, the Heart Failure

  12. The relationship between depression and self-care agency in young adult women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Plummer West

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between selected basic conditioning factors, including level of depression and the substantive components of women's self-care agency. This theory testing study was conceptualized within Orem's (1991) Self-Care Deficit Theory (SCDT) of Nursing, and has both clinical and theoretical relevance. Clinically, depression is the most prevalent mental health difficulty affecting American

  13. Self-concept and self-care practices of healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    McCaleb, A; Edgil, A

    1994-08-01

    The purposes of this descriptive study were to describe the self-care practices of healthy adolescents and to ascertain any relationship between self-care practices and the covariates of self-concept and selected conditioning factors. Orem's Self-Care Model and developmental theory provided the framework for this investigation. Findings from the sample of (n = 160) 15- and 16-year olds showed that adolescents are engaging in self-care practices. The findings from this investigation were congruent with the theoretical proposition of a link between self-concept and self-care (Orem, 1971, 1980, 1985, 1991). Additionally, the influence of sociocultural characteristics on self-care activities was supported. Implications from the study include the need to continue research endeavors that describe, explain, and predict factors that influence self-care behavior in the adolescent population. Practicing nurses in the school, clinic, and community could consider the results of this study when assessing, planning, and implementing health education programs that enhance the self-concept and self-care activities of adolescents. PMID:7965591

  14. Appalachian Women: Health Beliefs, Self-Care, and Basic Conditioning Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Slusher; Fletcher C. Withrow; M. H. Whitaker

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (a) describe the health beliefs and self-care of Appalachian women; and (b) describe the relationships among health beliefs, self-care, and the basic conditioning factors of Appalachian women. Orem's SCDNT was used as the theory for this study. This study used qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The study participants included 129 Appalachian women. Health beliefs

  15. Learning Self-Care Skills. Functional Programming for People with Autism: A Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Valerie; Wheeler, Marci

    Many individuals with autism need systematic, intensive teaching in self-care skills due to deficits in language and attention skills, interfering behaviors, and/or sensory impairments. Teaching self-care skills should occur naturally during daily routines, in all environments. Assessments are done to determine current abilities, strengths, and…

  16. Social support, self-care, and quality of life in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Hanucharurnkul, S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support.

  17. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  18. The relationship between self-care and health status domains in Thai patients with heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Lee; Jom Suwanno; Barbara Riegel

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundLittle is known about the relationship between self-care in heart failure (HF) and outcomes like health status. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between HF self-care and Short Form-36 (SF-36) health status domains.

  19. Self-care of well adult Canadians and adult Canadians with end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Horsburgh, M E

    1999-12-01

    Empirical support for Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing [Orem, D.E., 1995. Nursing: Concepts of practice, 5th. ed. Mosby, Toronto] is accumulating. However, little is known about the relative usefulness of the theory with well and chronically ill adults. This research examined multiple relationships deduced from Orem's Theory in 109 well adults and 141 adults with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Relations among personality traits, gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-care agency, and self-care were examined. Qualitative and quantitative differences were evident for the two samples. For example, self-care agency was a stronger predictor of self-care in well adults. Implications for development of disease-specific, mid-range theory are explored. PMID:10576115

  20. Self-Care in the Classroom for Children with Chronic Illness: A Case Study of a Student with Cystic Fibrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Julie Elizabeth Jonson

    1994-01-01

    Describes the essential self-care of an eight-year old second-grade student. This study illustrates a school counselor's use of a multimodal, behavioral intervention to increase the level of self-care in the classroom. Relevant reinforcements, individual and group counseling, and peer support, resulted in improved self-care. (RJM)

  1. Frailty syndrome and self-care ability in elderly patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Wleklik, Marta; Gobbens, Robbert JJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure is a serious medical condition. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in frailty syndrome and self-care levels among patients with cardiovascular conditions. Demonstrating the influence of frailty syndrome on self-care could improve the quality of self-care and prevent the adverse effects of frailty syndrome. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of frailty syndrome on the self-care capabilities of patients with chronic heart failure, and to identify factors associated with frailty. Methods The data were collected between January and July 2014. The study included 110 patients with chronic heart failure who were hospitalized in the cardiology clinic. Frailty syndrome was assessed using the Tilburg Frailty Indicator, a self-report questionnaire, and self-care behavior was assessed using the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale. Results Fifty-four percent of the study patients were male and 46% were female. The mean age was 66±11 years, the mean Tilburg Frailty Indicator score was 7.45±3.02 points, and the mean self-care level was 27.6±7.13 points. Correlation analyses showed that patients with higher scores in the social components of the frailty scale had better self-care capabilities. Frailty was associated with age, education, duration of heart failure, number of hospitalizations, and New York Heart Association class. The effects of these patient characteristics differed across components of frailty (physical, psychological, social). Conclusion The social components of frailty syndrome adversely affect the ability to self-care in elderly patients with heart failure. It is relevant to use a multidimensional measurement of frailty. PMID:26028966

  2. Examining the Effects of Remote Monitoring Systems on Activation, Self-care, and Quality of Life in Older Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Lee, Jung-Ah; Moore, Alison A.; Motie, Marjan; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Mangione, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of remote monitoring systems (RMSs) in healthcare has grown exponentially and has improved the accessibility to and ability of patients to engage in treatment intensification. However, research describing the effects of RMSs on activation, self-care, and quality of life (QOL) in older patients with heart failure (HF) is limited. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 3-month RMS intervention on activation, self-care, and QOL of older patients versus a reference group matched on age, gender, race, and functional status (ie, New York Heart Association classification) who received standard discharge instructions after an acute episode of HF exacerbation requiring hospitalization. Methods A total of 21 patients (mean age, 72.7 ± 8.9 years; range, 58–83 years; 52.4% women) provided consent and were trained to measure their weight, blood pressure, and heart rate at home with an RMS device and transmit this information every day for 3 months to a centralized information system. The system gathered all data and dispatched alerts when certain clinical conditions were met. Results The baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 groups were comparable. Over time, participants in the RMS group showed greater improvements in activation, self-care, and QOL compared with their counterparts. Data showed moderately strong associations between increased activation, self-care, and QOL. Conclusion Our preliminary data show that the use of an RMS is feasible and effective in promoting activation, self-care, and QOL. A larger-scale randomized clinical trial is warranted to show that the RMS is a new and effective method for improving clinical management of older adults with chronic HF. PMID:24365871

  3. Development of an instrument to measure mothers' performance of self-care activities for children.

    PubMed

    Moore, J B; Gaffney, K F

    1989-10-01

    One who performs self-care activities for another is known as a dependent care agent, according to Orem. Attempts to study mothers' performance of self-care activities for children have been impeded by the lack of an instrument with which to measure dependent care agent performance. Findings based on a sample of 475 women indicate that the Dependent Care Agent (DCA) questionnaire developed in this study had a coefficient alpha of .91, with item-total correlations ranging from .27 to .63. Although Orem's expected dimensions of universal, developmental, and health deviation requisites were not represented in the factor analysis, individual requisites for self-care were clearly present. PMID:2506801

  4. Development of the Self-Care for Adults on Dialysis tool (SCAD).

    PubMed

    Costantini, Lucia; Beanlands, Heather; Horsburgh, Martha Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a norm-referenced tool that would measure the self-care abilities and behaviours for adults requiring dialysis therapy. Guided by the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (Orem, 2001) and an extensive review of the research literature, the Lay Care Giving for Adults on Dialysis tool (LC-GAD) (Horsburgh, Laing, Beanlands, Meng, & Harwood, 2008) was modified to develop the Self-Care for Adults on Dialysis (SCAD) measure. Content validity testing of the SCAD was conducted by a panel of 13 nephrology nursing experts. The tool was modified based on study findings. Further psychometric testing is required. When completed the SCAD tool will guide nurses to design and evaluate supportive self-care interventions for adults requiring dialysis. PMID:21894839

  5. Measuring Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Care Behaviors of African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Templin, Thomas N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and conduct preliminary psychometric assessment of instruments measuring knowledge and self-care practices regarding behaviors needed for blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans. Items were empirically derived and scored on a 7-point, bipolar scale. The instruments were evaluated in a sample of 306 community-dwelling African Americans. Results revealed acceptable reliability and validity of the BP Knowledge Scale. Results for the BP Self-Care Scale were mixed. A structural equation model of these scales, recorded BP, and covariates fit well. There was an unexpected positive correlation between self-care and BP suggesting a potential bi-directional relationship. The scales demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and, with minor revisions, may have clinical utility as measures of BP knowledge and self-care. PMID:18491375

  6. [Self-care among patients enrolled in a self-monitoring blood glucose program].

    PubMed

    Veras, Vivian Saraiva; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rodriguesc, Flavia Fernanda Luchetti; Arrelias, Clarissa Cordeiro Alves; Pedersoli, Tatiane Aparecida Martins; Zanetti, Maria Lúicia

    2014-12-01

    This cross-sectional study checks specific self-care activities of patients with diabetes mellitus enrolled in a self-monitoring blood glucose program from August to December 2012 in two Primary Health Care units in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil.The sample was composed of 74 female and male individuals, aged 18 years old or older. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire was used. It contains six dimensions: general diet, specific diet, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, foot care, medication usage, plus three items about smoking. Eight out of the 15 self-care activities were within desirable levels, namely: healthy diet, not eating sweets, blood glucose testing and as frequently as recommended, drying between toes after washing feet, and taking medications (three items).The results enabled the identification of gaps in specific self-care activities among patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:25842779

  7. Effect of healing touch training on self-care awareness in nurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Pegi

    Nursing focuses on supporting clients' health and health behaviors; however, they tend to exhibit unproductive behaviors when it comes to caring for themselves. As nurses' self-neglect can undermine client care, supporting nurses' self-care practices are expected to translate into clients' self-care. Healing Touch (HT) is one option for supporting nurses' self-care, as it is an accepted nursing practice and studies suggest that HT may have beneficial effects for those delivering it. This study examined the impact of a 2-day HT training on awareness of the need for self-care in nurses. HT training was offered as continuing education for 45 nurses at a Veteran's Administration hospital in Long Beach, CA. This mixed-methods study used a pre/post-test design to measure the effects of HT Level 1 training on nurses' self-care self-awareness. Independent samples t-tests and analyses of variance were used to detect whether any significant differences emerged based on participant demographic data. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests to determine whether participants' self-awareness changed over the study period. Effect size for any differences were calculated using Cohen's d. Open-ended responses were reviewed and common themes were identified related to what participants believed they learned and how it affected their care for themselves and their clients. Two increases were found to be significant and of sufficient power when comparing pre- to delayed post-test scores: physical self-care awareness (mean difference = 0.956, t(44) = 5.085, p = .000, r = .61) and professional self-care awareness (mean difference = .955, t(43) = 5.277, p = .000, r = .63). Qualitative findings suggested that changes in their awareness, self-directed practices, and patient care practices are anticipated, evident, and sustained based upon themes across the three tests. Nurses are advised to take a course that teaches specific self-care techniques and strategies and continue practicing, monitoring, and adapting the practice of self-care. Administrators are advised to recognize the importance of self-care for healthcare staff, institute programs that encourage such activities, and model their own self-care.

  8. Health promotion self-care actions of healthy, middle-aged women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Lee Hartweg

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the theoretical adequacy of health promotion self-care (HPSC) within Orem's general theory of nursing through describing self-care actions which healthy, middle-aged women perform to promote well-being. Utilizing a deliberate sampling model, 153 Black and White women, ages 40 to 59, with heterogeneous work and family patterns and from diverse socioeconomic conditions participated

  9. Self-Care Process as Experienced by Middle-Aged Thai Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manee Arpanantikul

    2006-01-01

    My purpose in this study was to explore the process of self-care actions in promoting health among middle-aged Thai women. Data were obtained from in-depth recorded interviews with 15 middle-aged Thai women living in Bangkok. Findings showed that the process of self-care actions for achieving health among middle-aged Thai women moved through a series of five stages: (1) perceiving health

  10. Nutritional self-care in two older Norwegian males: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about how to support nutritional self-care in the vulnerable elderly living in their own homes is an important area for health care professionals. The aim of this case study was to evaluate the effects of nutritional intervention by comparing perceived health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and nutritional risk in two older home-dwelling individuals before, during, and after intervention and to describe their experiences of nutritional self-care before and after intervention. Methods: A study circle was established to support nutritional self-care in two older home-dwelling individuals (?65 years of age), who participated in three meetings arranged by health professionals over a period of six months. The effects of this study circle were evaluated using the Nutritional Form For the Elderly, the Self-care Ability Scale for the Elderly (SASE), the Appraisal of Self-care Agency scale, the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and responses to a number of health-related questions. Qualitative interviews were performed before and after intervention to interpret the changes that occurred during intervention. Results: A reduced risk of undernutrition was found for both participants. A higher total score on the SASE was obtained for one participant, along with a slightly stronger preference for self-care to maintain sufficient food intake, was evident. For the other participant, total score on the SASE decreased, but the SOC score improved after intervention. Decreased mobility was reported, but this did not influence his food intake. The study circle was an opportunity to express personal views and opinions about food intake and meals. Conclusion: An organized meeting place for dialogue between older home-dwelling individuals and health care professionals can stimulate the older person’s engagement, consciousness, and learning about nutritional self-care, and thereby be of importance in reducing the risk of undernutrition. PMID:23807843

  11. Acts-Hf: Attention, Cognition and Self-Care in Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Murks

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) are required to participate in self-care activities. This activities include taking prescribed medications, monitoring for symptoms, intervening appropriately and evaluating the response to the treatment. Cognitive impairment occurs relatively frequently in this population. Few studies have attempted to describe the nature of the relationship between self-care and cognitive impairment in this population.\\u000aPurpose:\\/ This

  12. Effects of Mobile Phone Usage in Supporting Leg Lymphedema Self-care

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Ayako; Koiyabashi, Kikuyo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to implement self-care support for leg lymphedema patients using mobile phones and to investigate the effects thereof. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with lymphedema following female genital cancer surgery (stages I to II) who were referred from a nearby gynecologist were randomly divided into groups for routine self-care support (control group) and mobile telephone-assisted support (intervention group) and received the self-care support appropriate to their group. The (total) circumference of the leg with edema, FACT-G (cancer patient QOL), MHP (mental health status), and self-care self-assessment were comparatively investigated at three months after the initial interview. Results: No significant reduction in the (total) circumferences of legs with edema was confirmed in either the control or intervention group. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of the activity circumstances and FACT-G mental status at three months after the initial interview. The intervention group was also significantly better in psychological, social, and physical items in the MHP. The intervention group was significantly better than the control group in terms of circumstances of self-care implementation at three months after the initial interview. Additionally, comparison of the circumstances of implementation for different aspects of self-care content showed that the intervention group was significantly better at selecting shoes, observing edema, moisturizing, self-drainage, wearing compression garments, and implementing bandaging. Conclusion: Compared with routine self-care support, mobile telephone-assisted support is suggested to be effective for leg lymphedema patients’ QOL and mental health status as well as their self-care behaviors. PMID:25648778

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial of a One-minute Intervention Changing Oral Self-care Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. F. Sniehotta; V. Araújo Soares; S. U. Dombrowski

    2007-01-01

    Non-compliance with oral self-care recommendations, despite education and motivation, is a major problem in preventive dentistry. Forming concrete if-then action plans has been successful in changing self-care behavior in other areas of preventive medicine. This is the first trial to test the effects of a brief planning intervention on interdental hygiene behavior. Two hundred thirty-nine participants received a packet of

  14. Diabetes self-care among a multiethnic sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Traywick, Lavona S; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy; Kart, Cary S

    2008-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes constitutes a leading and increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults, particularly African Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and rural dwellers. To understand diabetes self-care, an essential determinant of diabetic and overall health outcomes, 80 middle aged and older adults from these four disproportionately affected racial/ethnic/residential groups engaged in in-depth interviews, focusing on approaches to and explanations for diabetes self-care. Certain self-care activities (medication-taking, diet, foot care) were performed regularly while others (blood glucose monitoring, exercise) were practiced less frequently. Despite research suggestions to the contrary, only one in four elders used unconventional diabetes therapies, and only one-third listed someone other than a health care provider as a primary information source. Few self-care differences emerged according to race/ethnicity/residence, perhaps because of the influential and common circumstance of low income. Thematic analyses suggest that inadequate resources, perceived efficacy of medication, great respect for biomedical authority, and lack of familiarity with and concerns about unconventional therapies are influential in establishing these patterns of self-care. We discuss the similarity of self-care practices and perspectives irrespective of race/ethnicity/residence and the predominance of biomedical acceptability. PMID:18369715

  15. Effectiveness of oral self-care among adult Gullah-speaking African Americans with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Hon K; Tress, Mary E; Salinas, Carlos F; Slate, Elizabeth H

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of plaque removal after an oral self-care demonstration among adult Gullah-speaking African Americans with diabetes. Fifty-four adults with diabetes completed an observed, uninstructed oral self-care demonstration with their normal mode of oral self-care. Before and after the oral self-care demonstration, the plaque levels of six test teeth were assessed using the Plaque Index. The mean percentage of plaque removal after the oral self-care demonstration was 27.4%. The mandibular teeth and the lingual surface had less plaque removal compared with the maxillary teeth and buccal surfaces. Only approximately 10% of participants achieved 50% or more plaque removal after the oral self-care demonstration. Thus, the majority of the participants did not achieve an acceptable level of plaque removal. Dental health professionals should emphasize better oral home care for people with diabetes and teach them how to access the lingual surfaces, especially of the mandibular teeth. PMID:19938252

  16. Effectiveness of oral self-care among adult Gullah-speaking African Americans with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hon K.; Tress, Mary E.; Salinas, Carlos F.; Slate, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of plaque removal after an oral self-care demonstration among adult Gullah-speaking African Americans with diabetes. Fiftyfour adults with diabetes completed an observed, uninstructed oral self-care demonstration with their normal mode of oral self-care. Before and after the oral self-care demonstration, the plaque levels of six test teeth were assessed using the Plaque Index. The mean percentage of plaque removal after the oral self-care demonstration was 27.4%. The mandibular teeth and the lingual surface had less plaque removal compared with the maxillary teeth and buccal surfaces. Only approximately 10% of participants achieved 50% or more plaque removal after the oral self-care demonstration. Thus, the majority of the participants did not achieve an acceptable level of plaque removal. Dental health professionals should emphasize better oral home care for people with diabetes and teach them how to access the lingual surfaces, especially of the mandibular teeth. PMID:19938252

  17. The effect of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zareban, Iraj; Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Haidarnia, Alireza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes as the most common diseases caused by metabolic disorders is an important global challenge. This is a disease that requires lifelong self-care because self-care and improved quality of life is cost effective. This study is aimed to determine the impact of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c, type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental study done on 138 diabetic female patients in Zahedan city, in 2011 (1390). This sampling method of patients was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of the Diabetes Center, at Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital (AS) in Zahedan. Samples were divided randomly in to two groups: 69 cases and 69 controls. Data collected included validity and reliability confirmed questionnaire. Checklist was based on patients ‘performance of reporting and (HbA1c) testing. Before the educational intervention, the checklist of questions for recording the (HbA1c) test for both the groups were completed, and study samples received 5 sessions of education (with the group discussion and film show) for a month. However, the control group received only routine training. Three months after the educational intervention, both groups completed the questionnaire and the check list and data using SPSS software and the appropriate tests were analyzed. Results: Findings showed that the mean domain scores of area of knowledge, attitude and practice educational groups, were recorded as (46.6 ± 8.57, 46.5 ± 0.86 and 29.06 ± 10.02), respectively. And after education scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were recorded as (52.80 ± 2.20, 12.98 ± 1.02 and 39.69 ± 4.74), respectively, and in study group significant difference (P < 0/001) was seen. Conclusion: Self-care training in striation leads to improve knowledge, attitude and self-care performance of the study samples and also improves the average (HbA1c). Because it seems to increase the active participation of learners in their care that they have experienced with this training method and their motivation enhanced them to learn better self-care. So this type of care education should be given to the attention of nurses and healthcare's staff. PMID:25540796

  18. A preliminary study of a cloud-computing model for chronic illness self-care support in an underdeveloped country

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Mendoza-Avelares, Milton O.; Ganser, Martha; Mohamed, Muhima; Marinec, Nicolle; Krishnan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Background Although interactive voice response (IVR) calls can be an effective tool for chronic disease management, many regions of the world lack the infrastructure to provide these services. Objective This study evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of an IVR program using a cloud-computing model to improve diabetes management in Honduras. Methods A single group, pre-post study was conducted between June and August 2010. The telecommunications infrastructure was maintained on a U.S. server, and calls were directed to patients’ cell phones using VoIP. Eighty-five diabetes patients in Honduras received weekly IVR disease management calls for six weeks, with automated follow-up emails to clinicians, and voicemail reports to family caregivers. Patients completed interviews at enrollment and a six week follow-up. Other measures included patients’ glycemic control (A1c) and data from the IVR calling system. Results 55% of participants completed the majority of their IVR calls and 33% completed 80% or more. Higher baseline blood pressures, greater diabetes burden, greater distance from the clinic, and better adherence were related to higher call completion rates. Nearly all participants (98%) reported that because of the program, they improved in aspects of diabetes management such as glycemic control (56%) or foot care (89%). Mean A1c’s decreased from 10.0% at baseline to 8.9% at follow-up (p<.01). Most participants (92%) said that if the service were available in their clinic they would use it again. Conclusions Cloud computing is a feasible strategy for providing IVR services globally. IVR self-care support may improve self-care and glycemic control for patients in under-developed countries. PMID:21565655

  19. The Oral Health Self-Care Behavior and Dental Attitudes among Nursing Home Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Meckstroth, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The need for nursing home care will increase for the next several decades. Rural areas will be impacted in particular, as many older adults live in rural areas. Daily oral infection control changes when a person moves from independent living to institutional living. Oral care to dependent individuals is influenced by many factors. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of oral health self-care behavior with dental attitudes in nursing home personnel in a rural state. A survey was provided to attendees at an oral health conference. Questions were asked to determine dental knowledge, oral health self-care behavior, and dental care attitudes. Of 128 long term care health care facilities’ personnel invited, there were 31 attendees, and 21 of the attendees participated (67.7%). Nursing home personnel had a high level of dental knowledge. Oral health self-care behavior was independently influenced by dental knowledge (?=0.17; p=0.0444) and dental attitudes (?=0.55; p=.0081). Further investigation is needed to determine if oral health self-care attitudes and oral self-care behavior of nursing home personnel are factors in the provision of quality daily oral infection control for dependent nursing home residents living in rural areas. PMID:25349776

  20. Econometric analysis to evaluate the effect of community-based health insurance on reducing informal self-care in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Hill, Allan; Liu, Yuanli; Souares, Aurélia; Savadogo, Germain; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines the role of community-based health insurance (CBHI) in influencing health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Community-based health insurance was introduced in Nouna district, Burkina Faso, in 2004 with the goal to improve access to contracted providers based at primary- and secondary-level facilities. The paper specifically examines the effect of CBHI enrolment on reducing the prevalence of seeking modern and traditional methods of self-treatment as the first choice in care among the insured population. Methods Three stages of analysis were adopted to measure this effect. First, propensity score matching was used to minimize the observed baseline differences between the insured and uninsured populations. Second, through matching the average treatment effect on the treated, the effect of insurance enrolment on health-seeking behaviour was estimated. Finally, multinomial logistic regression was applied to model demand for available health care options, including no treatment, traditional self-treatment, modern self-treatment, traditional healers and facility-based care. Results For the first choice in care sought, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of self-treatment among the insured and uninsured populations, reaching over 55% for each group. When comparing the alternative option of no treatment, CBHI played no significant role in reducing the demand for self-care (either traditional or modern) or utilization of traditional healers, while it did significantly increase consumption of facility-based care. The average treatment effect on the treated was insignificant for traditional self-care, modern self-care and traditional healer, but was significant with a positive effect for use of facility care. Discussion While CBHI does have a positive impact on facility care utilization, its effect on reducing the prevalence of self-care is limited. The policy recommendations for improving the CBHI scheme’s responsiveness to population health care demand should incorporate community-based initiatives that offer attractive and appropriate alternatives to self-care. PMID:21414993

  1. Evaluation of a hand-held, computer-based intervention to promote early self-care behaviors after lung transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Dew, Mary Amanda; Myers, Brad; Begey, Alex; Hawkins, Robert; Ren, Dianxu; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Oconnell, Erin; McCurry, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lung transplant recipients are expected to perform self-care behaviors to maximize transplant-related health outcomes. Despite high non-adherence rates in performing these self-care behaviors, and the dire clinical consequences of such non-adherence, interventions are lacking. Pocket Personal Assistant for Tracking Health (Pocket PATH) is a hand-held device developed for patients to record health data, review data trends, and report condition changes to the transplant team. Methods A pilot trial was conducted to compare self-care agency, self-care behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between recipients randomized to use Pocket PATH (n = 15) vs. standard care (n = 15) for the first two months following hospital discharge after lung transplantation. Results Baseline characteristics were equivalent across groups. Patients in the Pocket PATH group showed significantly higher ratings of self-care agency, performed self-care behaviors at significantly higher rates, and reported significantly better HRQOL than standard care controls. Conclusion Pocket PATH is more efficacious than standard care in promoting early self-care agency, self-care behaviors, and HRQOL in lung recipients. A large-scale randomized controlled trial is needed to test the impact of Pocket PATH on long-term self-care behaviors. PMID:19473201

  2. A survey of lay and professional interest in self-care

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Maria Bremer; Richardson, Ann

    1987-01-01

    This article describes a survey of the extent of interest among medical professionals and representatives and members of patient organizations in expanding the use of self-care by people with chronic complaints. Patient organizations are essentially `interest' groups, generally centred around a particular handicap or disease. From interviews with representatives from 52 patient organizations and with a random sample of 20 general practitioners, 21 specialists, 20 community nurses and 20 members of patient organizations, considerable interest was found in extending the practice of self-care. There was, however, some uncertainty about how to do this effectively. This study is part of a wider programme of research on the area between conventional health care and self-care. PMID:3449634

  3. The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory as a curriculum conceptual framework in baccalaureate education.

    PubMed

    Berbiglia, Violeta A

    2011-04-01

    Although Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory has been used for curricula framework for years, it was not until 2001 that Orem identified the nursing practice sciences and the foundational nursing sciences and specified the appropriate content for the two sciences. The broad purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance of utilizing nursing theories as curricular conceptual frameworks. The specific purpose is to delineate the appropriate content for baccalaureate programs that adopt a Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory conceptual framework for their curriculum. PMID:21471038

  4. Effects of Orem-based nursing intervention on nutritional self-care of myocardial infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Aish, A E; Isenberg, M

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of nursing care based on Orem's nursing theory on nutritional self-care of myocardial infarction patients. Self-efficacy was explored as a disposition which may motivate behavioral change. One hundred and four subjects were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. The nursing intervention, which took place during the first 6 weeks following hospital discharge, was effective in supporting healthy low-fat eating behavior. Nursing care influenced patients' self-care agency but lacked impact on self-efficacy for healthy eating. PMID:8736471

  5. 25.5is the average age of our MSc in Actuarial Management students

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    graduates from the 2010/11 intake of the MSc in Actuarial Management are working: · Deloitte-General,AssistantDirector-Singapore · AXAAsia-RiskManagement,Actuarial Analyst-HongKong · PearlRiverLife-ActuarialDepartment, ActuarialConsultant-China) · PensionsandOtherBenefits(ST4) · GeneralInsurance-ReservingandCapital Modelling (ST7) · Financeand

  6. Contingency Management to Increase Grade Point Average among Fraternity Members: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, Ryan A.; Irons, Jessica G.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective for inducing behavior change among a variety of populations and for a variety of behaviors. The current study examined whether contingency management techniques can help students change behaviors in an effort to raise their grade point…

  7. The health literacy, self-care, and medication hassles of patients with heart failure and their caregivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleda M Hess

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 90 million Americans lack the necessary health literacy skills to adequately care for themselves in the face of a complex healthcare system and self-care regimens. Patients with heart failure are particularly challenged by meeting with multiple healthcare providers, who may emphasize different self-care strategies, which can be difficult for patients to interpret. Understanding how to effectively care for one's

  8. Effects of Orem-based nursing intervention on nutritional self-care of myocardial infarction patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie Isenberg

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of nursing care based on Orem's nursing theory on nutritional self-care of myocardial infarction patients. Self-efficacy was explored as a disposition which may motivate behavioral change. One hundred and four subjects were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. The nursing intervention, which took place during the first 6 weeks

  9. A philosophical inquiry of Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E Banfield

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the metaphysical and epistemological foundations of Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory (SCDNT). Two conceptual problems were addressed: (a) the lack of explicitness of the philosophical position regarding the nature of human beings that is foundational to the SCDNT and (b) the absence of discussion and direction related to the identification of research

  10. Social support, self-care, and quality of life in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somchit Hanucharurnkul

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was two fold. First, to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socioeconomic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled. Second, to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality

  11. Basic need status and health-promoting self-care behavior in adults.

    PubMed

    Acton, G J; Malathum, P

    2000-11-01

    Health-promoting self-care behavior emphasizing positive lifestyle practices may improve the health and quality of life of adults. One variable that may influence health-related decisions is the status of basic needs as described by Maslow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among basic need satisfaction, health-promoting self-care behavior, and selected demographic variables in a sample of community-dwelling adults. A convenience sample of 84 community-dwelling adults was recruited to complete the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and demographic information. Results of the study indicated that self-actualization, physical, and love/belonging need satisfaction accounted for 64% of the variance in health-promoting self-care behavior. The findings of this study are consistent with Maslow's theory of human motivation and suggest that persons who are more fulfilled and content with themselves and their lives, have physical need satisfaction, and have positive connections with others may be able to make better decisions regarding positive health-promoting self-care behaviors. PMID:11077548

  12. Young Cancer Patients' Perceptions of a Video Game Used to Promote Self Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Ivan L.; Marin-Bowling, Veronica M.; Guthrie, Nicole: Kato, Pamela M.

    2006-01-01

    A video game called "Re-Mission" has recently been investigated with adolescent and young adult cancer patients enrolled in a multi-site randomized controlled evaluation of the game as a psycho-educational intervention. The main focus of the trial was to determine effects of the game on self-care and other health-related outcomes. It was also…

  13. The relationships among self-care, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Slonim, Jessica; Kienhuis, Mandy; Di Benedetto, Mirella; Reece, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207) aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62) across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being. PMID:26112354

  14. Complementary\\/alternative medicine in chronic illness as informed self-care decision making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Thorne; Barbara Paterson; Cynthia Russell; Annette Schultz

    2002-01-01

    The reasons that persons with chronic illness explore complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have not been well understood. Using data from a study of self-care decision making in chronic illness, we conducted a qualitative secondary analysis to interpret the rationale underlying decisions to experiment with and use various CAM practices and products. The findings confirm that CAM use can be

  15. Hit for service: a model of self-care for parish nurses.

    PubMed

    Daffron, Cristy

    2013-01-01

    The caregiving role of parish nurses extends to multiple settings including family, church, community, and secular employment. A lack of personal boundaries combined with the wholistic nature of parish nursing can produce caregiver role strain. Examining the life of Jesus reveals a pattern of intentional self-care practices that are a model for parish nurses. PMID:23607159

  16. Towards intelligent self-care: Multisensor monitoring and neuro-fuzzy behavior modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Chan; D. Wang; M. Pasquier

    2008-01-01

    The work reported in this paper investigates the problem of intelligent patient monitoring, whereby a combination of smart sensor technology and computational intelligence techniques is used to observe then understand the behavior of a person in a self-care context, such as a patient in his hospital room or an elderly in her home. The key objective is to automatically derive

  17. Adherence to Self-Care Interventions for Depression or Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Russell; McCusker, Jane; Sewitch, Maida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesise and describe adherence to intervention in published studies of supported self-care for depression or anxiety, and to identify participant characteristics associated with higher adherence. Methods: We searched the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PSYCINFO for the period from January…

  18. A Program Design To Motivate Individuals with SCI for Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotzin, Martha

    The report compares a skin care education program with a standard rehabilitation program to determine whether the program improved the self care motivations of spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegic and quadriplegic inpatients (N=42). Study findings suggest that the skin care educational program was successful in changing patients' thinking about…

  19. Effectiveness of an educational program in nursing in the self-care of patients with heart failure: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gázquez, María de los Ángeles; Arredondo-Holguín, Edith; Herrera-Cortés, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Unblinded randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program in nursing (educational meetings, home visits, telenursing and a printed book) in the improvement of self-care behaviors in patients with heart failure was evaluated. Thirty-three people participated in the intervention group and thirty in the control group. At the beginning and at the end of the study (ninth month), Nancy Artinian's Heart Failure Self-care Behaviors Scale was applied to assess the level of self-care. 66.0% of the intervention group versus 26.6% of the control group improved the self-care score by at least 20% (p<0.001). The Number Needed to Treat was 2.5. The findings suggest that the educational intervention has beneficial effects on the self-care behaviors of people with heart failure. PMID:22699730

  20. Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active. Methods Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi. Results Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They acknowledged physical and mental limitations, yet they felt they were in good health. Conclusion Health professionals and politicians should identify places where fellowship and relationships can be built, as well as encourage older people to use their competence by engagement in volunteering. These interventions are important to support older people’s self-care and health. This may also be a way to reduce ageism in Western societies. PMID:23390363

  1. Relationships between children's descriptions of pain, self-care and dependent-care, and basic conditioning factors of development, gender, and ethnicity: ``Bears in my throat''

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie M Neuman

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine 3 to 11 year old children's descriptions of pain, and of self-care and dependent-care actions specific to pain, and to determine if descriptions differed by developmental state, gender and ethnicity. The findings were examined using the concepts of self-care agency, self-care, dependent-care, and basic conditioning factors in Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of

  2. Event-averaged maximum likelihood estimation and information-based sensor management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Schmaedeke; Keith D. Kastella

    1994-01-01

    This paper present an information-theoretic approach to sensor management for multitarget tracking using a sensor that operates in one of two modes: a fast, low-resolution mode and a slow, high-resolution mode. The error correlations between nearby target pairs, the sensor rates, the sensor resolutions and the target plant noise all play a role in the optimum choice of mode. The

  3. [Promoting self-care to patients suffering headache through the oriental perspective of health].

    PubMed

    Wink, Solange; Cartana, Maria do Horto Fontoura

    2007-01-01

    The present work is an experience report that aimed at elaborating, implementing and evaluating a project of nursing care practice to students of a Nursing graduation course, who presented headaches. Built from a subject of the Nursing Master Course of Federal University of Santa Catarina, the project was based in the concept of competence for self-care of Orem, understood through an oriental perspective of health. Three strategies of care were applied: the pain dairy, the focusing and the cranium-acupuncture, in monthly-weekly meetings and in individual meetings, for a two-month period. The participants related results of pain relief, discover of non-physical causes for pain and increase of welfare. It was possible to verify that the participants presented an individualized process of self-care development and that the strategies selected are suitable for the care. PMID:17585533

  4. Self-care of well adult Canadians and adult Canadians with end stage renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha E. Horsburgh

    1999-01-01

    Empirical support for Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing [Orem, D.E., 1995. Nursing: Concepts of practice, 5th. ed. Mosby, Toronto] is accumulating. However, little is known about the relative usefulness of the theory with well and chronically ill adults. This research examined multiple relationships deduced from Orem's Theory in 109 well adults and 141 adults with end stage renal disease

  5. Diabetes Self-care among a Multiethnic Sample of Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy E. Schoenberg; LaVona S. Traywick; Joy Jacobs-Lawson; Cary S. Kart

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes constitutes a leading and increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults, particularly African\\u000a Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and rural dwellers. To understand diabetes self-care, an essential determinant\\u000a of diabetic and overall health outcomes, 80 middle aged and older adults from these four disproportionately affected racial\\/ethnic\\/residential\\u000a groups engaged in in-depth interviews, focusing on approaches to

  6. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate. Monteith RG , Pearce LDR . Self-care decontamination within a chemical exposure mass-casualty incident. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(3):1-9. PMID:25915603

  7. Technology-Based Self-Care Methods of Improving Antiretroviral Adherence: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Parya; Johnson, Mallory O.

    2011-01-01

    Background As HIV infection has shifted to a chronic condition, self-care practices have emerged as an important topic for HIV-positive individuals in maintaining an optimal level of health. Self-care refers to activities that patients undertake to maintain and improve health, such as strategies to achieve and maintain high levels of antiretroviral adherence. Methodology/Principal Findings Technology-based methods are increasingly used to enhance antiretroviral adherence; therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to examine technology-based self-care methods that HIV-positive individuals utilize to improve adherence. Seven electronic databases were searched from 1/1/1980 through 12/31/2010. We included quantitative and qualitative studies. Among quantitative studies, the primary outcomes included ARV adherence, viral load, and CD4+ cell count and secondary outcomes consisted of quality of life, adverse effects, and feasibility/acceptability data. For qualitative/descriptive studies, interview themes, reports of use, and perceptions of use were summarized. Thirty-six publications were included (24 quantitative and 12 qualitative/descriptive). Studies with exclusive utilization of medication reminder devices demonstrated less evidence of enhancing adherence in comparison to multi-component methods. Conclusions/Significance This systematic review offers support for self-care technology-based approaches that may result in improved antiretroviral adherence. There was a clear pattern of results that favored individually-tailored, multi-function technologies, which allowed for periodic communication with health care providers rather than sole reliance on electronic reminder devices. PMID:22140446

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Dietary Salt Reduction Self-Care Behavior Scale.

    PubMed

    Srikan, Pratsani; Phillips, Kenneth D

    2014-06-19

    Valid, reliable, and culturally-specific scales to measure salt reduction self-care behavior in older adults are needed. The purpose of this study was to develop the Dietary Salt Reduction Self-Care Behavior Scale (DSR-SCB) for use in hypertensive older adults with Orem's self-care deficit theory as a base. Exploratory factor analysis, Rasch modeling, and reliability were performed on data from 242 older Thai adults. Nine items loaded on one factor (factor loadings = 0.63 to 0.79) and accounted for 52.28% of the variance (Eigenvalue = 4.71). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin method of sampling adequacy was 0.89, and the Bartlett's test showed significance (?(2) (df =36) = 916.48, p < 0.0001). Infit and outfit mean squares ranged from 0.81 to 1.25, while infit and outfit standardized mean squares were located at ±2. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. The 9-item DSR-SCB is a short and reliable scale. PMID:24951525

  9. Self-efficacy, planning and action control in an oral self-care intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline and 1 month later. The self-regulation intervention improved levels of oral self-care, dental planning and action control. Moreover, a moderated mediation model with planning as the mediator between experimental conditions and dental outcome, and self-efficacy as well as action control as moderators elucidated the mechanism of change. More self-efficacious participants in the self-regulation condition benefitted in terms of more planning, and those who monitored their actions yielded higher levels of oral hygiene. Dental self-efficacy, dental planning and action control are involved in the improvement of oral self-care. Their joint consideration may contribute to a better understanding of health behavior change. PMID:26187914

  10. An innovative self-care module for palliative care medical learners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyon C; Rapp, Elaine; Gill, Ashlinder; Myers, Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Palliative care is a uniquely demanding field in that clinicians routinely address the complex needs of patients living with incurable illness. Due to their relative inexperience, medical learners completing a palliative care educational experience are particularly vulnerable to the stresses that are often encountered. To address this educational need, a structured Self-Care Module was developed for medical learners rotating through a palliative care clinical rotation. Components of this module include completion of a process recording exercise, a structured reflection, and participation in a facilitated group discussion. An examination of the acceptability, utility, and operational feasibility of the module demonstrated that 86% (n=35) of learners found the module helpful in reflecting on their clinical encounters, 86% (n=35) gained an appreciation for the importance of self-reflection and self-awareness as a component of self-care and 97% (n=35) gained a greater appreciation for sharing clinical experiences with other learners. This novel Self-Care Module was found to be a well accepted, useful, and operationally feasible educational experience for postgraduate and undergraduate learners completing a palliative care educational experience. PMID:23631613

  11. The physician payments sunshine act: what the average radiologist and manager need to know.

    PubMed

    Haramati, Nogah

    2013-06-01

    The Physician Payments Sunshine Act (PPSA) was enacted in 2010 and requires applicable manufacturers of medical devices, drugs, biological material, or medical supplies to report payments or transfers of value that are provided to physicians or teaching hospitals. PPSA has value in creating greater transparency in the financial relationships between industry, physicians, and teaching hospitals, and in potentially reducing problematic conflicts of interest. PPSA requires that this data be published, in searchable form, on a public website. CMS has delayed the reporting under PPSA until after January 1, 2013, and has yet to issue its final rules for PPSA; however, Physician Payments data already exist in a publically searchable database. It is important to realize that names of individuals may appear in the PPSA public database, even if those individuals did not actually receive a transfer of value. As with all broad-stroke legislation, consequences not anticipated or not considered sufficiently important for our government leaders may well present a problem for individuals. It behooves all physicians and healthcare managers to carefully follow the CMS PPSA regulations. In advance of meeting or interacting with any PPSA-applicable manufacturer, obtain a clear and mutual understanding regarding what reportable value, if any, will be prepared for and provided by the applicable manufacturer. In this, as in all situations in which government regulations are at play, "knowledge is strength." PMID:23735270

  12. Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory: its philosophic foundation and the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S G; Geden, E; Isaramalai, S; Wongvatunyu, S

    2000-04-01

    There is a preponderance of descriptive studies, ranging from those using a simple descriptive correlational approach to multivariate approaches. Only one study is clearly identified as an experimental study (Moore, 1987) and two clearly identified as replication studies (Lenatsch, 1999; Schott-Baer, Fisher, & Gregory, 1995). Fewer than half make clear links between the variables being examined and situations of nursing practice; that is, they examine elements of the theory of self-care without making the link to nursing practice an explicit part of the study. While this work is increasing our knowledge about self-care (Stage II), further work needs to be done to put the results of these in the context of nursing practice as in Stages III, IV, or V. Most of the studies reviewed are Stage II and provide an enhanced or broader description of an element or component of the theory, empirically describing the relationships between or among age, gender, self-care actions, disease, and so forth. These studies add to our understanding of existing and known or proposed relationships within the extant theory. The majority of studies examine self-care and/or self-care deficits. There are many studies but little evidence that sustained research programs are developing and expanding the theory. The bricks are piling up around the framework, but only a few scholars are working on building the walls. These programs of research are occurring in universities where a critical mass of interested scholars and students can be found. The use of theoretical language is sometimes imprecise and at other times inaccurate. Valid new terms are introduced but the relationship to existing theoretical constructs is not always explicit. There is little critical review of research in the literature. Ongoing dialog among scholars is minimal. There is a need for nurse scholars to come together and to engage in such a dialogue to enhance the work. Given the relatively short history of nursing research and, more importantly, the conduct of nursing theory-based research, the number and quality of the work being conducted is quite remarkable. There has been a substantial amount of work produced and the quality of it has improved over time. Orem has provided nurse researchers with a theoretical system comprising an ontological structure, related epistemology, and numerous models that give direction to scholarly efforts. Scholars using this theoretical system would be well-advised to use these in conceptualizing and interpreting their work. PMID:11847693

  13. [French validation of the "Exercise of self-care agency" scale for heart patients].

    PubMed

    Robichaud-Ekstrand, A S; Loiselle, C G

    1998-09-01

    Self-care agency is the practice of health-related activities that individuals deliberately initiate and perform in order to maintain life, health and well-being (OREM, 1987). A tool measuring self-care agency is useful to nurses for identifying patients lacking knowledge, motivation, and for those with limited self-care agency. KEARNEY and FLEISCHER (1979) have developed the Exercise of Self-care Agency (ESCA) scale to asses the extent to which individuals take action toward their health care. Several studies suggest that the ESCA scale possesses adequate psychometric properties (KEARNEY & FLEISCHER, 1979; LUCAS, MORRIS & ALEXANDER, 1988; MCBRIDE, 1987; RIESCH & HAUCK, 1988). The lack of a validated tool measuring self-care agency among french speaking populations, led us to translate the ESCA scale and to examine its psychometric properties in a sample of French Canadian individuals who have survived a recent non-complicated myocardial infarction (MI). At 8 and 14 weeks after their MI, 83 subjects aged 52 +/- 10 years with a 1,857 +/- 1,605 U/L MI and an ejection fraction of 51 +/- 10% completed the french-ESCA scale. Mean scores were 112.6 +/- 13.3 at 8 weeks and 117.9 +/- 14.0 at 14 weeks post-MI. Internal consistency coefficients of the french-ESCA scale (at 8 and 14 weeks post-MI) are acceptable (0.84 and 0.88, respectively). Internal consistency coefficients are similar to those obtained in previous studies whereas mean scores on the ESCA scale are somewhat higher (RIESCH & HAUCK, 1988). Cronbach alphas for the french-ESCA scale's sub-scales are generally lower: Self-concept (0.57 and 0.69), Initiative/responsibility (0.72 and 0.80), Knowledge/information seeking (0.80 and 0.79), and Taking actions (0.49 and 0.62). The french-ESCA scale appears stable within the 6 weeks period (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). We recommend to further assess the french-ESCA scale's psychometric properties using larger samples of subjects with or without various health problems. PMID:10661287

  14. Self-care and adherence to medication: a survey in the hypertension outpatient clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gohar, Faekah; Greenfield, Sheila M; Beevers, D Gareth; Lip, Gregory YH; Jolly, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Background Self-care practices for patients with hypertension include adherence to medication, use of blood pressure self-monitoring and use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) The prevalence of CAM use and blood pressure self-monitoring have not been described in a UK secondary care population of patients with hypertension and their impact on adherence to medication has not been described. Adherence to medication is important for blood pressure control, but poor adherence is common. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-care behaviours in patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. 196 patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic in a teaching hospital serving a multiethnic population, Birmingham, UK. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of use of CAM, home monitors, adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Results CAM use in previous 12 months was reported by 66 (43.1%) respondents. CAM users did not differ statistically from non-CAM users by age, gender, marital status or education. Vitamins, prayer a dietary supplements were the most commonly used CAM. Nine (12.7%) women reported using herbal CAM compared to one man (1.2%), (p = 0.006). Ten (6.7%) respondents reported ever being asked by a doctor about CAM use. Perfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication was reported by 26 (44.8%) CAM-users and 46 (60.5%) non-CAM users (p = 0.07). Being female and a CAM user was significantly associated with imperfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Older and white British respondents were significantly more likely to report perfect adherence. Blood pressure monitors were used by 67 (43.8%) respondents, which was not associated with gender, CAM use or adherence to medication. Conclusion Hypertensive patients use a variety of self-care methods, including CAM, home blood pressure monitors, and adherence to prescribed medication. This study found the prevalence of CAM use in hypertensive patients was higher than in the UK population. It is important to acknowledge the self-care behaviour of hypertensive patients, in order to assess potential harm, and encourage effective methods of self-care. PMID:18261219

  15. Health-deviation self-care, dependent-care, disclosure, and health of children with perinatal HIV\\/AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret A Harris

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research, conceptualized within Orem's (2001) self-care deficit theory of nursing, was to examine health-deviation self-care, health-deviation dependent-care (including disclosure), and health of school aged children with perinatal HIV\\/AIDS (P-HIV\\/AIDS). Basic conditioning factors of child age, SES, and type of caregiver were also examined. Child\\/caregiver pairs (N = 31) completed the Modified Family Responsibility Questionnaire to assess

  16. Mexican-American cultural meanings, expressions, self-care and dependent-care actions associated with experiences of pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Maria Villarruel

    1993-01-01

    The purposes of this ethnographic study were to discover Mexican-American cultural meanings, expressions, self-care, and dependent-care actions associated with experiences of pain and to examine the appropriateness of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing (1991) for use with Mexican-Americans. Data were obtained from 20 key informants from 13 families and 20 general informants in the family and community context. Thematic

  17. The contribution of personality to adult well-being: A test and explication of Orem's theory of self-care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Elizabeth Horsburgh

    1994-01-01

    This cross-sectional, correlational research study explored the articulation of the Five Factor Model of Personality Traits (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness; McCrae & Costa, 1987) with Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing (1991) for the purpose of further explicating and testing Orem's Theory and enhancing nursing's understanding of how personality traits contribute to selected basic conditioning factors (BCFs), self-care agency

  18. Self-care self-efficacy, depression, and quality of life among patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiow-Luan Tsay; Marilyn Healstead

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among self-care self-efficacy, depression, and quality of life in 160 patients receiving hemodialysis. The study is a descriptive, correlational design. Measures include Strategies Used by People to Promote Health, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Quality of Life Index.Results indicate that self-care self-efficacy and depression are the significant predictors of quality

  19. Developing a program to promote stress resilience and self-care in first-year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Suzanne E.; Haney, Myra K.; Pelic, Chris M.; Shaw, Darlene; Wong, Jeffrey G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Facilitating stress resilience in future physicians is an important role of medical educators and administrators. We developed an extracurricular program and pilot tested the program on first year medical students. Methods Presentations on topics related to mental health, help-seeking, and stress resilience were presented (one topic per session). Attendance was voluntary. Attendees were requested to complete anonymous evaluations following each presentation. Primary outcome variables were rates of agreement that the presentation (1) was interesting, (2) provided valuable information, and (3) provided information relevant for the student’s future practice as a physician. Results Each of the seven topics was attended on average by approximately half of the student body. Evaluations were very positive that presentations were interesting and provided information useful to maintaining balance during medical school (all had ?85% rates of agreement). Evaluations by students were variable (41%-88% rates of agreement) on whether each presented information relevant for future practice. Conclusions The results support that first-year medical students value explicit guidance on ways to bolster stress resilience and self-care during medical school. It is important to clarify with each presentation how the information is relevant to their future practice as a physician. PMID:21822458

  20. Health Status and Self-care Outcomes Following an Education-Support Intervention for People with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Angela P.; McDougall, Graham; Riegel, Barbara; Joiner-Rogers, Glenda; Innerarity, Sheri; Meraviglia, Martha; Delville, Carol; Davila, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising cost of hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) care mandates intervention models to address education for self-care success. The effectiveness of memory enhancement strategies to improve self-care and learning needs further examination. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an education-support intervention delivered in the home setting, using strategies to improve health status and self-care in adults/older adults with class I-III HF. Our secondary purpose was to explore participants’ subjective perceptions of the intervention. Methods This study used a randomized, 2 group design. Fifty people were enrolled for 9 months and tested at 4 time points—baseline; following a 3-month education-support intervention; at 6 months, following 3-months of telephone/email support; and 9 months, following a 3-month period of no contact. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) delivered the intervention. Memory enhancement methods were built into the teaching materials and delivery of the intervention. We measured the intervention’s effectiveness on health status outcomes (functional status, self-efficacy, quality of life, emotional state/depressive symptoms, and metamemory) and self-care outcomes (knowledge/knowledge retention, self-care ability). Subjects evaluated the usefulness of the intervention at the end of the study. Results The mean age of the sample was 62.4 years, with a slight majority of female participants. Participants were well educated and had other concomitant diseases, including diabetes (48%), and an unexpected degree of obesity. The intervention group showed significant improvements in functional status, self-efficacy and quality of life (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-KCCQ); metamemory Change and Capacity subscales (Metamemory in Adulthood Questionnaire-MIA); self-care knowledge (HF Knowledge Test-HFKT); and self-care (Self-Care in Heart Failure Index—SCHFI). Participants in both groups improved in depressive scores (Geriatric Depression Scale-GDS). Conclusions An in-home intervention delivered by APRNs was successful in several health status and self-care outcomes, including self-efficacy, quality of life, metamemory, self-care status, and HF knowledge. PMID:24978157

  1. The effects of self-care training on quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sahebalzamani, Mohammad; Zamiri, Maryam; Rashvand, Farnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive disease of the central nervous system with debilitating symptoms and complications. Therefore, education and appropriate interventions, including self-care education, are necessary to increase the quality of life in these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-care education on quality of life in MS patients affiliated to Iranian MS Association. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study assessed a single group of MS patients before and after training. Totally, 50 MS patients were selected non-randomly from the patients referring to Iranian MS Association. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first part included demographic information and the second part consisted of a quality of life questionnaire (MSQOL-54) including 54 items in 3 sections and 14 subgroups. The scores ranges from zero to a hundred in each subgroup. The reliability of the questionnaire has been confirmed (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96). The questionnaires were filled out by the patients before training. After at least six 50-minute training sessions during three months, the same questionnaire was again completed by the participants. Statistical analyses, including absolute and relative frequency tables and mean and standard deviation for descriptive analysis, and t-test and Pearson correlation for descriptive analysis, were performed by SPSS. Findings: The mean values of quality of life in physical health, pain, fatigue, health conception, changes in health status, sexual activities, as well as overall quality of life scores differed significantly after training. Moreover, except for cognitive activity, there were significant differences in values of mental health before and after training. Conclusions: Designing and applying the self-care programs based on the educational needs of MS patients has a positive effect on physical and psychological aspects of their quality of life. PMID:23493483

  2. Mobile Phone-Based Video Messages for Diabetes Self-Care Support

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Amanda M.; Fonda, Stephanie J.; Walker, M. Susan; Schmidt, Virginia; Vigersky, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examined whether mobile phone-based, one-way video messages about diabetes self-care improve hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Methods This was a 1-year prospective randomized trial with two groups. The active intervention lasted 6 months. The study enrolled 65 people with A1C >8.0% who were established (>6 months) patients in the endocrinology clinics of the Walter Reed Health Care System. Participants were randomized to receive “usual care” or self-care video messages from their diabetes nurse practitioner. Video messages were sent daily to cell phones of study participants. Hemoglobin A1c and SMBG data were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results Participants who received the messages had a larger rate of decline in A1C than people who received usual care (0.2% difference over 12 months, adjusting for covariates; p = .002 and p = .004 for the interaction between time and group and for the quadratic effect of time by group, respectively). Hemoglobin A1c decline was greatest among participants who received video messages and viewed >10 a month (0.6% difference over 12 months, adjusting for covariates; p < .001 for the interaction between time and group and the quadratic effect). Self-monitoring of blood glucose metrics were not related to the intervention. Conclusions A one-way intervention using mobile phone-based video messages about diabetes self-care can improve A1C. Engagement with the technology is an important predictor of its success. This intervention is simple to implement and sustain. PMID:22538140

  3. Telehomecare Communication and Self-Care in Chronic Conditions: Moving Towards a Shared Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Kimberly; Chamoff, Breanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Remote telemonitoring of patients’ vital signs is a rapidly increasing practice. While methods of communication in remote electronic monitoring differ from those in traditional home health care, the understanding shared by the nurse, patient, and family members remains the same: patients’ self-care behaviors affect exacerbations of chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between communication and information integration into the daily lives of patients with chronic illnesses and offer best practice recommendations for telehomecare nurses. Methods The original study utilized the Social Relations Model to examine relationships within 43 triads composed of patients with chronic conditions, home helpers and their nurse (THN) involved in telehomecare at three Veterans Health Administrations. This secondary descriptive and correlational analysis compared 43 patients’ and 9 THNs’ ratings of themselves and each other on communication (frequency, timeliness and understanding) and the use of patients’ daily telemonitored information. Results There was almost no correlation between patients’ perception of THNs’ communication (frequency [r = .05], timeliness [r = .09] and understandability [r = .03]) and patients’ integration of information into daily health practices. However, significant correlations were found between the THNs’ perception of patients’ communication frequency and timeliness, and integration, (p = .02), (p < .001) respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that frequent phone communication may lead the remote THN to believe patients are integrating blood pressure, weight and other information into daily self-care behaviors, when in fact the patient reports that they are not. The influence of a halo effect on the THN may cloud an accurate perception of what is actually occurring. Remote communication may require more attention to THNs educating patients about shared understandings when using telemonitoring. Best practices for THN should include explicit goals and intentions for telemonitored home care with individualized instructions about how to use the information for self-care. PMID:22409374

  4. Socio-economic inequalities in health, habits and self-care during pregnancy in Spain.

    PubMed

    Larrañaga, Isabel; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Begiristain, Haizea; Machón, Mónica; Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Rodriguez-Bernal, Clara L; Fernandez, Mariana F

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage can be harmful for mother's health and can influence child's health long term. The aim of this study is to analyse social inequalities between pregnant women from four INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) cohorts. The analysis included 2,607 pregnant women recruited between 2004 and 2008 from four INMA cohorts. Data on maternal characteristics were collected through two questionnaires completed in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal health, dietary intake, lifestyle habits and self-care related variables was modelled using logistic regression analysis. 33.5 % of women had a university level of education and 47 % had high occupational class. Women with higher SES reported healthier habits, fewer complications during pregnancy, better weight gain control and attended more prenatal appointments than women with lower SES. The risk of sedentary behaviour and passive smoking was higher among women with a lower level of education (OR = 1.7, 95 % CI 1.3-2.2 and OR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.2-2.3, respectively) and with less skilled occupations (OR = 1.7, 95 % CI 1.4-2.0 and OR = 1.2, 95 % CI 1.0-1.5, respectively). Although both SES indicators-occupation and education-act as social determinants of diet, occupation was a more powerful determinant than education. For other lifestyle and self-caring variables, education was a more powerful predictor than occupation. Social inequalities were observed in health, habits and self-care during pregnancy. Proper care during pregnancy requires the control of common clinical variables and the knowledge of socioeconomic conditions of the pregnant women. PMID:22983810

  5. Health promotion self-care within Orem's general theory of nursing.

    PubMed

    Hartweg, D L

    1990-01-01

    The growing emphasis on health promotion by society and the increasing utilization of Orem's general theory of nursing to guide practice, education and research create a need to clarify health promotion activity within the model. The concept of health promotion self-care is developed after an analysis of statements by Pender and Orem for their logical congruence. Further in-depth analysis of Orem's model facilitates the placement of the new concept within its current structure. The potential strength of the model for guiding health promotion practice is discussed, as well as areas for needed development. PMID:2406315

  6. An Internet-Based Counseling Intervention With Email Reminders that Promotes Self-Care in Adults With Chronic Heart Failure: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ada YM; Ross, Heather; White, Michel; D'Antono, Bianca; Chan, Sammy; Barr, Susan I; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Nigam, Anil; Perreault, Sylvie; Farkouh, Michael; McDonald, Michael; Goodman, Jack; Thomas, Scott; Zieroth, Shelley; Isaac, Debra; Oh, Paul; Rajda, Miroslaw; Chen, Maggie; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liu, Sam; Zbib, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a public health priority. Its age-standardized prevalence has increased over the past decade. A major challenge for the management of CHF is to promote long-term adherence to self-care behaviors without overtaxing available health care resources. Counseling by multidisciplinary health care teams helps to improve adherence to self-care behaviors and to reduce the rate of death and hospitalization. In the absence of intervention, adherence to self-care is below recommended standards. Objective This trial aims to establish and evaluate a Canadian e-platform that will provide a core, standardized protocol of behavioral counseling and education to facilitate long-term adherence to self-care among patients with CHF. Methods Canadian e-Platform to Promote Behavioral Self-Management in Chronic Heart Failure (CHF-CePPORT) is a multi-site, double blind, randomized controlled trial with a 2 parallel-group (e-Counseling + Usual Care vs e-Info Control + Usual Care) by 3 assessments (baseline, 4-, and 12-month) design. We will identify subjects with New York Heart Association Class II or III systolic heart failure from collaborating CHF clinics and then recruit them (n=278) by phone. Subjects will be randomized in blocks within each site (Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver). The primary outcome will be improved quality of life, defined as an increased number of subjects with an improvement of ?5 points on the summary score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We will also assess the following secondary outcomes: (1) diet habits, depression, anxiety, smoking history, stress level, and readiness for change using self-report questionnaires, (2) physical activity level, current smoking status, and vagal-heart rate modulation by physiological tests, and (3) exercise capacity, prognostic indicators of cardiovascular functioning, and medication adherence through medical chart review. The primary outcome will be analyzed using generalized estimation equations with repeated measures on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes will be analyzed using repeated-measures linear mixed models with a random effects intercept. All significant main effects or interactions in the statistical models will be followed up with post hoc contrasts using a Bonferroni correction with a 2-sided statistical significance criterion of P<.05. Results This 3.5-year, proof-of-principle trial will establish the e-infrastructure for a pan-Canadian e-platform for CHF that is comprised of a standardized, evidence-based protocol of e-Counseling. Conclusions CHF-CePPORT is designed to improve long-term adherence to self-care behaviors and quality of life among patients with CHF. It will demonstrate a distinct Canadian initiative to build capacity for preventive eHealth services for patients with CHF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01864369; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01864369 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Iiv6so7E). PMID:24480783

  7. The application of Orem's Self-Care Model to burn care.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joan; Gramling, Lou

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies from burn nurses are present in the literature, very little information is found that indicates a theory-based approach to care. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the deficiency of nursing theory in the specialty of burn nursing and to suggest Orem's Self-Care Model as a valid basis for delivering care and increasing the level of professionalism in this specialty area. The correlation of Orem's three systems (ie, wholly compensatory system, partially compensatory system, and supportive/educative system) to the unique care needs of burn patients with varying levels of acuity are the keys to understanding the application of this theory to the practice of burn care. In applying theory to practice, clinicians discover that no single theory addresses each aspect of care precisely. Because of this characteristic, gaps in theory exist. Consideration of various components of alternate theories is appropriate as integration of theory and practice is developed. Although Orem's theory is quite applicable to burn care, certain components of Watson's Caring Theory and Roy's Adaptation Model is also applicable to those aspects of burn care not addressed by Orem. Those in the field of burn nursing should begin looking forward and adapting a specific theory to this specialty practice. Orem's Self-Care Model is the most applicable to burn care and provides a beginning point for theory usage in burn nursing care. PMID:19692925

  8. An Active Learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine Session in a Self-Care Therapeutics Class

    PubMed Central

    Nemec, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To provide an interactive, non-supplement based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) session in a self-care therapeutics class and to evaluate the effect of the session on pharmacy students’ perceptions and knowledge of CAM. Design. Second professional year pharmacy students enrolled in a required 3-credit course titled Self-Care Therapeutics participated in an active learning session on CAM. Students physically engaged in 5 separate active learning CAM sessions including massage therapy, Tai Chi, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, and Reiki. Assessment. Students were assessed on both knowledge and perception of CAM. Concept mastery was assessed using a written examination and individual readiness assurance tests (iRAT) and team readiness assurance tests (tRAT). Perception of CAM was measured using both a presession and a postsession survey. Conclusion. Participating in an intensive, active learning CAM session provided an opportunity to increase students’ knowledge of CAM and an effective strategy for providing the learner with the experience to better envision incorporation into patient therapies. PMID:25258446

  9. The effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngju; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; An, Duk-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mirror therapy with tasks on upper extremity unction and self-care in stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n=15) or a control group (n=15). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group received mirror therapy with tasks, and those in the control group received a sham therapy; both therapies were administered, five times per week for six weeks. The main outcome measures were the Manual Function Test for the paralyzed upper limb and the Functional Independence Measure for self-care performance. [Results] The experimental group had more significant gains in change scores compared with the control group after the intervention. [Conclusion] We consider mirror therapy with tasks to be an effective form of intervention for upper extremity function and self-care in stroke patients.

  10. [Conceptual and theoretical bases of an instrument developed to identify self care needs in women treated for depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Page, C; Ricard, N

    1996-01-01

    Nursing research in the field of psychiatry and mental health must be based on nursing models if it is to make a real contribution to the development of a body of knowledge specific to nursing. This article describes the conceptual foundations and different stages involved in the development of an instrument (The Self-care Needs Inventory) in the framework of a study based on the Orem self-care nursing model (1991, 1995). The objective of this comparative descriptive study was to describe self-care requisites of women treated for depression. The concept of self-care requisites, the fundamental aspect on which this research is based, refers to the expression of a general goal that individuals pursue or should pursue in order to maintain or improve their health and well-being (Orem, 1991). To study the concept and pinpoint its major components, we correlated the concept with intermediate-level theories: social adjustment of women during and after an acute depressive episode, self-affirmation and realization, clinical manifestations of depression and how they are treated. These components were then made operational, i.e. measurable in concrete terms. A list of statements of specific self-care requisites was put together from various measurement tools used to evaluate identified components. The list was submitted to experts to establish its nominal validity. The instrument thus constituted was used with two groups : a group of women treated for depression (n = 30) and a group of women not treated for depression (n = 30). The women were asked to assign a value to each statement to reflect the importance they attached to the statement. The values were then compared to identify self-care requisites specific to women treated for depression. PMID:8997942

  11. [Nursing activities in self-care and rehabilitation of patients who suffered stroke].

    PubMed

    Lessmann, Juliana Cristina; De Conto, Fernanda; Ramos, Greice; Borenstein, Míriam Susskind; Meirelles, Betina Homer Schlindwein

    2011-01-01

    There can be serious damage to motor, sensatory, and perceptive capabilities when the brain suffers vascular alterations. With this in mind, the objective of this study is to report and share Nursing care to the individual who has suffered a cerebral vascular accident, emphasizing Orem-based rehabilitation and self-care. This study is a report of a practical care experiment, carried out in May and July of 2006 involving 15 individuals and their families in a rehabilitation center in southern Brazil. Integral Nursing care occurs with stimulation to sensatory, motor, postural control, movement amplitude, and marching practice activities when accompanied by health care education actions. These abilities grant nurses performance capacities, in turn proportioning reductions in damage and incapacities. PMID:21468511

  12. Occupational conditions, self-care, and obesity among clergy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Todd W; Andercheck, Brita; Tom, Joshua C; Martinez, Brandon C; Stroope, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that a variety of occupational conditions such as long work hours are associated with increased likelihood of obesity. In this study, we use the specific case of the clergy to explore how occupational conditions are linked to increased or decreased odds of being obese. We hypothesize that stressful conditions are associated with increased odds of obesity and that self-care practices are associated with decreased odds. Using the 2008/9 U.S. Congregational Life Survey's national sample of clergy from multiple religious traditions, we find support for our hypotheses. Clergy who experience more stress, work more hours, or are bi-vocational have higher odds of obesity. Those who take a day off each week, have taken a sabbatical, or are involved in a support group experience lower odds. For Protestant clergy, being involved in a support group or taking a day off moderates the association between certain stressful occupational conditions and obesity. PMID:25432617

  13. Self-Care Guidelines for the Management of Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stover H. Snook

    2004-01-01

    Low back pain is a very common disorder among adults. However, most low back pain is nonspecific; it has no known cause and cannot be given a precise pathoanatomical diagnosis. Nonspecific low back pain can be very painful, but it is not serious; it is basically an age-related disorder that is affected by differences in occupation, genetics, and personal behavior.

  14. Relationships among basic conditioning factors, motivational dispositions, and the power element of self-care agency in people beginning a weight loss program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Elizabeth Vannoy

    1989-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study examined the relationships among motivational dispositions, basic conditioning factors, and the power element of self-care agency in people who had just begun a weight loss program. Orem's self-care agency model provided the organizing framework for the research. The motivational dispositions studied included affiliation motivation, power motivation, achievement motivation, and specific motivations for weight loss. The study

  15. Use of Self-Care and Practitioner-Based Forms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine before and after a Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Link, Alissa R.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Jacobson, Judith S.; Abrahamson, Page; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Terry, Mary Beth; Teitelbaum, Susan; Neugut, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We examine factors associated with self-care, use of practitioner-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and their timing in a cohort of women with breast cancer. Methods. Study participants were women with breast cancer who participated in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Self-care is defined as the use of multivitamins, single vitamins, botanicals, other dietary supplements, mind-body practices, special diets, support groups, and prayer. Within each modality, study participants were categorized as continuous users (before and after diagnosis), starters (only after diagnosis), quitters (only before diagnosis), or never users. Multivariable logistic regression was used for the main analyses. Results. Of 764 women who provided complete data, 513 (67.2%) initiated a new form of self-care following breast cancer diagnosis. The most popular modalities were those that are ingestible, and they were commonly used in combination. The strongest predictor of continuous use of one type of self-care was continuous use of other types of self-care. Healthy behaviors, including high fruit/vegetable intake and exercise, were more strongly associated with continuously using self-care than starting self-care after diagnosis. Conclusions. Breast cancer diagnosis was associated with subsequent behavioral changes, and the majority of women undertook new forms of self-care after diagnosis. Few women discontinued use of modalities they used prior to diagnosis. PMID:23997792

  16. Effects of a self-care program on quality of life of cirrhotic patients referring to Tehran Hepatitis Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitra Zandi; Mohsen Adib-Hajbagheri; Robabeh Memarian; Anooshiravan Kazem Nejhad; Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease especially liver cirrhosis is one of the medical problems that substantially reduces the quality of life of its victims. Because of the chronic and irreversible nature of the disease, it needs self-care programs to be developed according to client's needs and to maintain their independence and sense of well-being. The purpose of this study was to

  17. An investigation of a nursing system to support nutritional self-care in post myocardial infarction patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlene Elizabeth Aish

    1993-01-01

    This study of men and women (N = 104) who recently experienced myocardial infarction (MI), investigated the effect of nursing intervention based on Orem's (1991) theory of nursing on nutritional self-care related to dietary fat and cholesterol. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. Patients were randomly assigned to groups before being interviewed in hospital (Time 1). The treatment

  18. Basic conditioning factors and self-care agency of unmarried women at risk for sexually transmitted disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Metzger McQuiston

    1993-01-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) is an area of increasing concern. Yet in spite of counseling regarding the numerous high risks involved, some women continue to engage in risk behaviors and are repeatedly exposed to and contract a variety of sexually transmitted diseases. Using Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory, a predictive-correlational design was used to examine the impact of selected basic

  19. Self-tuning for job engagement: Ugandan nurses' self-care strategies in coping with work stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline Bakibinga; Hege F. Vinje; Maurice B. Mittelmark

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored self-care among 15 Ugandan nurses with reputations for thriving despite having difficult working conditions. The analysis revealed that in the face of potential threats to the nurses' job engagement, they engaged in ‘self-tuning’, a salutogenic process involving introspection, sensibility and reflection leading to coping in one or several of these ways: sharing of experiences, trusting in

  20. Effectiveness of Parent and Therapist Collaboration Program (PTCP) for Teaching Self-Care and Domestic Skills to Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavkaytar, Atilla; Pollard, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and determine the effectiveness of a Parent and Therapist Collaboration Program for teaching self care and domestic skills to individuals with autism with varying educational needs, age, and severity of disability. Three individuals with autism, one habilitation provider, and three parents participated in…

  1. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

  2. Effect of a Pediatric Self-Care Book on Utilization of Services in a Group Model HMO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric K. France; Mark J. Selna; Ella E. Lyons; Arne L. Beck; B. Ned Calonge

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a pediatric self-care book (SCB) with nurse telephone support on use of health services. The study was performed in a pediatric department of Kaiser Permanente in a suburb of Denver, Colorado. Well patients seen at age 2 weeks to 2.5 months (infant group) or 14 to 19 months (toddler

  3. A Competency-Based Approach to Teaching Professional Self-Care: An Ethical Consideration for Social Work Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Jason M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating material on professional self-care into social work course content is valuable to the education of neophyte social work practitioners. This article presents a review of the literature on professional burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue, including the risk factors associated with the experience of these…

  4. Increasing Independence in Self-Care Tasks for Children with Autism Using Self-Operated Auditory Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole McGaha; Heflin, L. Juane

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of self-operated auditory prompting systems (SOAPs) on independent self-care task completion of elementary-school-aged children with autism and intellectual disabilities. Prerecorded verbal prompts on a student-operated tape recorder were employed to facilitate independence in washing hands and…

  5. Health promotion through self-care and community participation: Elements of a proposed programme in the developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khanindra Kumar Bhuyan; Kumar Bhuyan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during 1970s, primarily out of concerns about the limitation of professional health system. Since then there have been rapid growth in these areas in the developed world, and there is evidence of effectiveness of such interventions. These areas are still in infancy in the developing countries. There is a

  6. Contribution of stochastic control singular perturbation averaging and team theories to an example of large-scale systems: Management of hydropower production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Delebecque; J. Quadrat

    1978-01-01

    We present a global model describing a hydropower production system and the related management problem. Using averaging and singular perturbation techniques, we define a nearby optimal problem. The optimization in the class of local feedbacks leads to a team problem which can be solved numerically.

  7. Self-care among caregivers of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kakola location, Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Geteri, Leila Moraa; Angogo, Evelyn Mandela

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in Kakola Location of Nyando District in Kenya. The aim of study was to determine the factors influencing the practice of self-care among caregivers for person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) as well as their practice of self-care. A study by World Health Organization approximated that in developing countries, the need for long-term care will increase by as much as 40% in the coming years. HIV/AIDS has been cited as one of the challenges in long-term care. As demand for long-term care increases, the assumption that extended family networks can meet all the needs of their members deteriorates. The community-based survey employed descriptive cross-sectional design, involving primary caregivers of PLWHAs in Kakola location who had practiced care giving for more than 3 months. A household survey was conducted with 150 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 11.0. Simple frequencies and cross tabulations to compare variables were produced. Microsoft Excel was used to produce tables and graphs. Majority of the respondents 124 (82.7%) were female, while 26 (17.3%) were male. Self-care elements most practiced by the respondents in all the age categories were infection prevention and nutritional care. Female respondents had the highest proportions in all the practices of self-care. The results also showed that gender, relationship of patient to caregiver and marital status were the main demographic factors that significantly influenced the practice of self-care among caregivers. There was a significant relationship between main sources of income of caregivers with the practice of self-care. The study also revealed that respondents with no education had the lowest number of respondents practicing all the six practices of self-care and belonging to a support group. Recommendations for the study included, forging partnerships among stakeholders, training of caregivers and review of the home-based care policy. PMID:24090080

  8. Effects of self-care on quality of life in adults with heart failure and their spousal caregivers: testing dyadic dynamics using the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Vellone, Ercole; Chung, Misook L; Cocchieri, Antonello; Rocco, Gennaro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Riegel, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Emotions are contagious in couples. The purpose of this study was to analyze the manner in which adults with chronic heart failure (HF) and their informal caregivers influence each other's self-care behavior and quality of life (QOL). A sample of 138 HF patients and spouses was enrolled from ambulatory centers across Italy. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to analyze dyadic data obtained with the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), the Caregivers Contribution to the SCHFI, and the Short Form 12. Both actor and partner effects were found. Higher self-care was related to lower physical QOL in patients and caregivers. Higher self-care maintenance in patients was associated with better mental QOL in caregivers. In caregivers, confidence in the ability to support patients in self-care was associated with improved caregivers' mental QOL, but worsened physical QOL in patients. Interventions that build the caregivers' confidence are needed. PMID:24189325

  9. Quaternion Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  10. Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Findings Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life. Conclusion Health care professionals should be aware of these findings in order to support self-care in older people, and they should pay attention to the social aspects at meals. PMID:23271914

  11. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Background Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care. Methods An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons’ own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks. Results The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care. Conclusion Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health. PMID:25670905

  12. Self-care telephone talks as a health-promotion intervention in urban home-living persons 75+ years of age: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a telephone-based self-care intervention among urban living individuals 75+ years of age by comparing self-reported perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency before and after the intervention. Materials and methods In a randomized controlled study, 15 persons answered a questionnaire about perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency. In a sex- and age-matched control group (n=15), the same questions were answered. Data were collected before and after intervention. An open-ended question about experiences of the intervention was included in the last questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a first meeting with health professionals and additional five self-care telephone calls. The control group did not receive any intervention or attention except for the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study group. To compare the intervention group and control group on nominal and ordinal levels, the McNemar test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively, were chosen. Results Thirty individuals (14 females and 16 males) participated in the study, ranging in age between 75 and 93 years. A significant difference was obtained in the intervention group regarding mental health. Mental health improved significantly in the intervention group (P=0.037). In the control group, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency showed worse outcome results after the intervention (19 weeks). Conclusion Self-care telephone talks improved mental health significantly in our sample, and mental health focus could be understood as a possible condition for health promotion to take place. Structured self-care telephone talks have proved to be successful and a relevant method to use in practice. PMID:24421638

  13. A case study: perspectives on a self-care deficit nursing theory-based curriculum.

    PubMed

    Berbiglia, V A

    1991-10-01

    This case study provides a descriptive analysis of administrative, faculty and student perspectives on use of and satisfaction with Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) in one baccalaureate nursing programme's curriculum elements of (a) goals and objectives, (b) materials, (c) content, (d) nursing foci, and (e) evaluation. The need for such an analysis is indicated by the wide acceptance and use of the SCDNT in education and the absence of any similar study. Curriculum is conceptualized in the context of the Curriculum Model for the Study of Schooling, USA. Administrative representatives included the dean of nursing, the director of the nursing programme, the two curriculum chairpersons and the programme co-ordinator. The faculty and students from two specific courses provided the instructional and experiential perspectives. Data collection included structured personal interviews and document review. The investigator developed from the ideal perspective of the literature (Orem and related scholars) criteria for judging if the SCDNT indeed was implemented in the curriculum elements and the satisfaction with the theory. The faculty perspective was the most similar to the ideal, and the administration's was the least similar. Student and faculty perceptions were extremely similar. All three perspectives were in near agreement with the ideal on the use of the SCDNT in: goals and objectives, content and evaluation. A major inconsistency was found. Each perspective expressed varying interpretations of the nursing process. Pronounced patterns were examined, and implications for nursing education were stated. PMID:1757680

  14. Telephone follow-up program evaluation: application of Orem's self-care model.

    PubMed

    Closson, B L; Mattingly, L J; Finne, K M; Larson, J A

    1994-01-01

    The traditional model of nursing, in which patients are discharged with a follow-up medical appointment, is no longer sufficient in the current healthcare environment. Primary nurses working in a 58-bed rehabilitation unit located in a 1,700-bed tertiary care medical center implemented a follow-up telephone call program to support the patient's transition from acute rehabilitation nursing care to community living. Patients discharged to home within a five-state area were called 2 weeks and 6 weeks after discharge. Notes on the telephone conversations were entered on a data collection form and later analyzed using Orem's self-care deficit theory (Orem, 1991). A total of 144 follow-up calls were made. During the first call (n = 105), 157 problems (1.5 per call) were noted, whereas 79 (2.0 per call) were identified during the second call (n = 39). Medication, safety, and bladder problems were most often cited as concerns by patients and caregivers after discharge. The most frequently used helping interventions during both the first and the second telephone calls were guiding and supporting. PMID:7855394

  15. A comparison of female and male cardiac patients' response to nursing care promoting nutritional self-care.

    PubMed

    Aish, A

    1996-01-01

    Men and women were compared on their responses to Orem-based nursing care designed to support nutritional self-care in myocardial infarction patients, sixty-two men and 42 women were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups, interviewed in hospital, and assessed for eating habits 7 weeks after discharge. Nursing care took place with the treatment group in their homes the week after they were discharged from hospital. Seven weeks later the 3-day diet record analysis showed that although eating habits differed between the sexes, both men and women responded to the nursing care by consuming less total fat and saturated fat compared to controls. There were no significant differences between males and females regarding incidence of obesity or diabetes, their smoking pattern, or on measures of self-care agency or self-efficacy. Men perceived higher levels of social support for healthy eating. PMID:9136305

  16. Incorporating positive body image into the treatment of eating disorders: A model for attunement and mindful self-care.

    PubMed

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine P

    2015-06-01

    This article provides a model for understanding the role positive body image can play in the treatment of eating disorders and methods for guiding patients away from symptoms and toward flourishing. The Attuned Representational Model of Self (Cook-Cottone, 2006) and a conceptual model detailing flourishing in the context of body image and eating behavior (Cook-Cottone et al., 2013) are discussed. The flourishing inherent in positive body image comes hand-in-hand with two critical ways of being: (a) having healthy, embodied awareness of the internal and external aspects of self (i.e., attunement) and (b) engaging in mindful self-care. Attunement and mindful self-care thus are considered as potential targets of actionable therapeutic work in the cultivation of positive body image among those with disordered eating. For context, best-practices in eating disorder treatment are also reviewed. Limitations in current research are detailed and directions for future research are explicated. PMID:25886712

  17. Family culture, family resources, dependent care, caregiver burden and self-care agency of spouses of cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darlene Schott-Baer

    1989-01-01

    A descriptive correlational design was used to examine the relationship between the self-care agency of caregivers providing dependent-care to a spouse with cancer and a set of variables assessing the family system. The following basic conditioning factors associated with the family system were selected for this study: family culture, family resources, level of dependent-care, and caregiver burden. Spouses (N =

  18. Development and evaluation of a self care program on breastfeeding in Japan: A quasi-experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayo Awano; Keiko Shimada

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the importance of breastfeeding is well known in Japan, in recent years less than 50% of mothers were fully breastfeeding at one month after birth. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-care program for breastfeeding aimed at increasing mothers' breastfeeding confidence and to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was conducted in Japan.

  19. Self-Care Activities Among Patients with Diabetes Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mangalore Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekharan, D; Kulkarni, V; Unnikrishnan, B; Kumar, N; Holla, R; Thapar, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing prevalence of diabetes in India is resulting in an epidemiological transition. The care of the people with diabetes is traditionally seen as doctor centered, but the concept of self-care of people with diabetes is a new domain and is proven beneficial. Aim: The aim was to determine the practice of self-care activities among people with diabetes attending a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore. Subjects and Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Government Wenlock Hospital, Mangalore during September–October 2012. A total of 290 patients with >1-year duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) were asked to respond to summary diabetes self-care activities questionnaire after obtaining the consent from them. The statistical analysis was performed in terms of descriptive statistics and association between the variables was tested using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: A healthy eating plan on a daily basis was followed by 45.9% (133/290) of the participants, daily exercises for 30 min were followed by 43.4% (126/290), and regular blood sugar monitoring was done by 76.6% (222/290). Regarding the adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin, daily adherence to medication was seen among 60.5% (155/256) and 66.9% (138/206) were found to be adherent to insulin injections on a daily basis. Conclusions: Self-care practices were found to be unsatisfactory in almost all aspects except for blood sugar monitoring and treatment adherence. As these practices are essential for prevention of complications and better quality-of -life, more efforts should be put to educate the people with diabetes. PMID:25745579

  20. Effects of education and support on self-care and resource utilization in patients with heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Jaarsma; R. Halfens; H. Huijer Abu-Saad; K. Dracup; T. Gorgels; J. van Ree; J. Stappers

    1999-01-01

    Aims To test the eVect of education and support by a nurse on self-care and resource utilization in patients with heart failure. Methods A total of 179 patients (mean age 73, 58% male, NYHA III-IV) hospitalized with heart failure were evalu- ated prospectively. Patients were randomized to the study intervention or to 'care as usual'. The supportive educative intervention consisted

  1. The role of email guidance in internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-care treatment for bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Varinia C; Munro, Calum; Startup, Helen; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Email has been progressively used as a means for providing therapeutic guidance and support for cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) self-care programmes. Many aspects of the use of email in self-care need to be explored such as the content of therapists' emails. Such information would optimise the delivery of self-care treatments. To date no study has looked at the content of the therapists' emails. We analysed the content of emails (n?=?712) sent by therapists to participants (n?=?71) of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of internet-based CBT with email support for bulimic disorders. 14.7% of the emails therapists sent contained at least one CBT comment, while 95.4% had at least one supportive comment and 13.6% had at least one technical comment. The mean time spent on providing email support to each participant across the complete programme was 45 minutes. Emails sent by therapists were mainly supportive in content, with only a small amount of time being required by therapists to provide email support. PMID:21394832

  2. Average Names

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-19

    In this activity, learners compare the number of letters in the names of the people in their families or group of friends. Learners write out the names in graph paper, with one letter in each square, and cut out the names. Learners sort the names from shortest to longest and then find the average length of the names by cutting and scrambling up the letters. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

  3. Long-term Urinary Catheter Users Self-Care Practices and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Mary; McDonald, Margaret V.; Brasch, Judith; McMahon, James M.; Fairbanks, Eileen; Shah, Shivani; Tang, Wan; Scheid, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aims were to characterize a sample of 202 adult community-living long-term indwelling urinary catheter users, to describe self-care practices and catheter problems, and to explore relationships among demographics, catheter practices, and problems. Background Long-term urinary catheter users have not been well studied, and persons using the device indefinitely for persistent urinary retention are likely to have different patterns of catheter practices and problems. Design The study was a cross-sectional descriptive and exploratory analysis. Methods Home interviews were conducted with catheter users who provided information by self-reported recall over the previous two months. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and tests of association between demographics, catheter practices, and catheter problems. Results The sample was widely diverse in age (19–96 years), race, and medical diagnosis. Urethral catheters were used slightly more often (56%) than suprapubic (44%), for a mean of 6 yrs. (SD 7 yrs.). Many persons were highly disabled, with 60% having difficulty in bathing, dressing, toileting, and getting out of the bed; 19% also required assistance in eating. A high percentage of catheter problems were reported with: 43% experiencing leakage (bypassing of urine), 31% having had a urinary tract infection, 24% blockage of the catheter, 23% catheter-associated pain, and 12% accidental dislodgment of the catheter. Treatments of catheter-related problems contributed to additional health care utilization including extra nurse or clinic visits, trips to the emergency department, or hospitalization. Symptoms of catheter associated urinary tract infections were most often related to changes in the color or character of urine or generalized symptoms. Conclusions Catheter related problems contribute to excess morbidity and health care utilization and costs. Relevance to clinical practice More research is needed in how to minimize catheter associated problems in long-term catheter users. Information from this study could help inform the development of interventions in this population. PMID:23301577

  4. After-School Supervision and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Contributions of the Setting and Intensity of After-School Self-Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua A. Mott; Paul A. Crowe; Jean Richardson; Brian Flay

    1999-01-01

    This paper looks at the independent contributions of the setting and the intensity of after-school self-care to the cigarette smoking behaviors of 2352 ninth graders. We controlled for a variety of correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking that have not been accounted for in existing research. Results indicated that the intensity of the self-care experience was significantly associated with adolescent smoking

  5. Teaching Self-Care to Caregivers: Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on the Mental Health of Therapists in Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shauna L. Shapiro; Kirk Warren Brown; Gina M. Biegel

    2007-01-01

    Preparation for the role of therapist can occur on both professional and personal levels. Research has found that therapists are at risk for occupationally related psychological problems. It follows that self-care may be a useful complement to the professional training of future therapists. The present study examined the effects of one approach to self-care, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), for therapists

  6. Intra-oral myofascial therapy versus education and self-care in the treatment of chronic, myogenous temporomandibular disorder: a randomised, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Myogenous temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are considered to be a common musculoskeletal condition. No studies exist comparing intra-oral myofascial therapies to education, self-care and exercise (ESC) for TMD. This study evaluated short-term differences in pain and mouth opening range between intra-oral myofascial therapy (IMT) and an ESC program. Methods Forty-six participants with chronic myogenous TMD (as assessed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria Axis 1 procedure) were consecutively block randomised into either an IMT group or an ESC group. Each group received two sessions per week (for five weeks) of either IMT or short talks on the anatomy, physiology and biomechanics of the jaw plus instruction and supervision of self-care exercises. The sessions were conducted at the first author’s jaw pain and chiropractic clinic in Sydney, Australia. Primary outcome measures included pain at rest, upon opening and clenching, using an eleven point ordinal self reported pain scale. A secondary outcome measure consisted of maximum voluntary opening range in millimetres. Data were analysed using linear models for means and logistic regression for responder analysis. Results After adjusting for baseline, the IMT group had significantly lower average pain for all primary outcomes at 6 weeks compared to the ESC group (p?

  7. Pre-chirping management of a self-similar Yb-fiber amplifier towards 80 W average power with sub-40 fs pulse generation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Wenxue; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Heping

    2014-12-29

    We report on the generation of 80-W average power 38-fs laser pulse from a 2-m polarization-maintaining large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier with high pump absorption coefficient. The pre-chirping management was demonstrated to play a key role on the self-similar amplification. The achieved spectral bandwidth and compressed pulse duration were determined by the interplay between self-phase modulation and finite gain bandwidth. The power scaling in the self-similar fiber amplifier system was eventually limited by the onset of stimulated Raman scattering. PMID:25607187

  8. Managing the rate of increase in average co-ancestry in a rolling front tree breeding strategy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R J; McRae, T A; Dutkowski, G W; Tier, B

    2015-04-01

    In breeding forest trees, as for livestock, the goal is to capture as much genetic gain as possible for the breeding objective, while limiting long- and short-term inbreeding. The Southern Tree Breeding Association (STBA) is responsible for breeding Australia's two main commercial forest tree species and has adopted algorithms and methods commonly used in animal breeding to achieve this balance. Discrete generation breeding is the norm for most tree breeding programmes. However, the STBA uses an overlapping generation strategy, with a new stream of breeding initiated each year. A feature of the species bred by the STBA (Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus) is the long interval (up to 7 years) between when an individual is mated and when its progeny is first assessed in field trials and performance data included in the national performance database. Mate selection methods must therefore recognize the large pool of unmeasured progeny generated over recent years of crossing. In addition, the substantial delay between when an individual is selected in a field trial and when it is clonally copied into a mating facility (breeding arboretum) means that selection and mating must occur as a two-step process. In this article, we describe modifications to preselection and mate selection algorithms that allow unmeasured progeny (juveniles) to be recognized. We also demonstrate that the addition of hypothetical new progeny to the juvenile pool is important for computing the increase in average co-ancestry in the population. Methods outlined in this article may have relevance to animal breeding programmes where between mating and progeny measurement, new rounds of mating are initiated. PMID:25823837

  9. The Norwegian, Danish and Dutch version of the Appraisal of Self-care Agency Scale; comparing reliability aspects.

    PubMed

    van Achterberg, T; Lorensen, M; Isenberg, M A; Evers, G C; Levin, E; Philipsen, H

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to test reliability aspects of a scale that was developed to measure the theoretical concept of self-care agency (Orem 1985). Equivalence and internal consistency of the scale were studied with populations of elderly patients and their nurses in The Netherlands, Norway and Denmark. Data was provided by 120 patients and 233 nurses. Not all criteria for reliability could be met for the Danish and the Norwegian versions of the scale. Nevertheless it is concluded that the results are indications for the reliability of the Dutch, as well as the Danish and Norwegian versions of the scale. PMID:2047615

  10. Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts-Cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum.

    PubMed

    Martin Salzmann-Erikson, R N; Henrik Eriksson, R N T

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others' anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice. PMID:22053162

  11. "You teach us to listen,… but you don't teach us about suffering": self-care and resilience strategies in medical school curricula.

    PubMed

    Outram, Sue; Kelly, Brian

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the pre-vocational preparation of doctors to cope with the demands of clinical practice, drawing on literature from across a number of domains: mental health, psychological stress among medical students and medical practitioners; and self-care strategies in medicine curricula. High rates of psychological distress in medical students and medical practitioners were consistently reported. A number of questions remain pertinent to medical education: how does the experience of medical education impact on this level of distress, and possibly exacerbate pre-existing student vulnerabilities? What will help future doctors respond to, and cope with, suffering in their patients? Can the formal curriculum build resilience? Medical schools and educators have a responsibility to address these questions and to provide effective self-care curricula. In this review promising interventions such as mindfulness training are reported, frameworks to guide self-awareness in medical students are suggested, and recommendations for a self-care curriculum are made. PMID:25395229

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; ?oboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; ?oboz-Grudzie?, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

  13. The Effect of Educating Health Promotion Strategies on Self-Care Self-Efficacy in Patients Undergoing Kidney Transplantation: A Double Blind Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soltannezhad, Fateme; Farsi, Zahra; Jabari Moroei, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-care self-efficacy in patients with end stage renal disease, waiting for kidney transplantation, probably decreases due to facing new conditions and side effects of treatment. Objectives: The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of educating health promotion strategies on self-care self-efficacy in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods: A double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 52 patients undergoing kidney transplantation in Baqiyatallah Hospital in 2012. Patients were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. The questionnaire of Strategies Used by People to Promote Health (SUPPH) was employed to measure self-care self-efficacy. At first, the two groups filled the questionnaire. Then, the intervention group was trained regarding health promotion strategies within 4 sessions before the transplantation. The control group was trained according to routine protocol of the transplantation unit. Then, the two groups were followed up for two months, and reassessed at the end of the first and second months after the transplantation. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics including independent samples T test, Chi square and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: In the intervention group, the mean of total self-care self-efficacy was 106.96 ± 25.1 at first, and changed to 135.81 ± 9.65 and 111.19 ± 12.45 after the first and second post-test respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, the mean of total self-care self-efficacy was 112.73 ± 14.33 at first, and changed to 118.58 ± 17.59 and 108.73 ± 15.93 after the first and second post-test respectively (P = 0.001). Significant differences were observed between the two groups in the first post-test regarding total score of self-care self-efficacy (P = 0.001) and dimensions of reduction of stress (P = 0.001), enjoying life (P = 0.01), and coping (P = 0.001). The mean scores of the intervention group were higher than those of the controls in all domains of self-care self-efficacy in the second post-test. However, the difference was only significant in decision-making dimension (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Educating health promotion strategies was effective in improving self-care self-efficacy in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Establishment of a holistic caring program is suggested to integrate the pre-transplantation educations with a continual post discharge follow-up. PMID:25414881

  14. Psychometric analysis of the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care inventory-revised version questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Jansà, Margarida; Vidal, Mercè; Giménez, Marga; Conget, Ignacio; Galindo, Mercedes; Roca, Daria; Colungo, Cristina; Esmatjes, Enric; Salamero, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory-Revised Version (SCI-R) questionnaire to assess the degree of adherence to self-care among adults with diabetes. Methods We validated the Spanish and Catalan translation from, and back translation to, English and cultural adaptation of the SCI-R in type 1 diabetes patients on multiple insulin doses or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and in type 2 diabetes patients on oral agents and/or insulin. Internal reliability, structural validity, and external validity (correlation with glycated hemoglobin) were evaluated. Responsiveness to change was assessed in patients 1 year after onset of type 1 diabetes and following a structured education program. Results The SCI-R presented good internal reliability Cronbach’s ?: 0.75, test-retest reliability (r = 0.82) and structural validity (r > 0.40). The external validity was also good; the SCI-R correlated with HbA1c in patients with type 1 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = ?0.50) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (r = ?0.66) and in patients with type 2 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = ?0.62). However, it was not satisfactory in patients on oral agents (r = ?0.20) and/or bedtime insulin (r = ?0.35). Responsiveness to change was analyzed in 54 patients (age 27.3±7.4 years, 26% men, HbA1c 6.8% ±1.1%); the SCI-R score was 72.3% ±13.7% and correlated negatively with glycated hemoglobin (r = ?0.42) and 3 scales of the Diabetes Quality of Life questionnaire (lower score indicating better perception): Impact (r = ?0.37), Social Worry (r = ?0.36) and Diabetes Worry (r = ?0.38), all at P < 0.05. Conclusion The Spanish and Catalan versions of the SCI-R questionnaire show good psychometric properties and both could be considered as useful tools for evaluating self-care behavior in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, there are still some subgroups of patients with type 2 diabetes in which the validity of this questionnaire needs further evaluation. PMID:24124352

  15. [Strategies to promote self-esteem, autonomy and self-care practices for people with chronic wounds].

    PubMed

    Bedin, Liarine Fernandes; Busanello, Josefine; Sehnem, Graciela Dutra; da Silva, Fernanda Machado; Poll, Márcia Adriana

    2014-09-01

    This is a qualitative study of an exploratory nature that aims to identify the strategies used by nurses in primary care, in situations involving nursing care, to promote self-esteem, autonomy and self-care practices for people with chronic wounds. The study included eight nurses. Data were collected by means of a focus group in July 2012. The thematic analysis technique was used to identify the following categories: Nursing care from the perspective of comprehensiveness; Recovering support networks: family and social movements; Multidisciplinary work; Autonomy and nurses. It was concluded that the presented strategies value, above all, the social environment of these individuals, the family, religion and the nurse's approximation to the realities of people with chronic wounds. PMID:25474842

  16. Evolution of the concept of self-care and implications for nurses: A literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Wilkinson; Lisa Whitehead

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundWorldwide, the increasing prevalence of chronic disease evokes concern on a number of levels, including quality of life, health care costs and workforce issues to meet increasing demands on services. One response has been a shift in governmental health policy to encourage greater involvement of the chronically ill individual in their health care through participation in self-management programmes. Embedded in

  17. Power, self-care, and health in women living in urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan: A test of Orem's theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn Bell Lee

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of selected conditioning factors, perceptions of power, and other components of self-care in explaining health outcomes of women living in urban squatter settlements was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan. Statement's in Orem's theory were used to construct a theoretical model which was tested using four hypotheses about: (a) the role of

  18. The influence of health status, burden, and degree of cognitive impairment on the self-care agency and dependent-care agency of caregivers of elders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Marie Baiardi

    1997-01-01

    Caregiving for cognitively impaired elders is often a stressful experience. Orem's (1995) theoretical framework is useful to examine the caregiving experience. The purposes of this correlational study were to examine the relationship between dependent-care agency (DCA) and self-care agency (SCA) in caregivers of cognitively impaired elderly and the influence of selected basic conditioning factors (BCF) on the DCA and SCA

  19. The Effects of Employment and Mental Health Status on the Balance of Work, Play\\/Leisure, Self-Care, and Rest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia H. Crist; Christine G. Davis; Patricia S. Coffin

    2000-01-01

    In occupational therapy, a fundamental belief is that a healthy lifestyle reflects the adapted balance between work, play\\/leisure, self-care and rest activities, which promotes occupational function. Adolph Meyer (1922) stated that our existence is structured through occupation. The occupational balance may be disrupted when an individual experiences a mental health problem. Mental health problems vary in terms of diagnosis, but

  20. Friends or Foes? A Review of Peer Influence on Self-Care and Glycemic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Creswell, J. David

    Friends or Foes? A Review of Peer Influence on Self-Care and Glycemic Control in Adolescents for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods We searched PsychInfo and MedLine databases and personal archives between person and social context. Key words adherence; adolescent; friends; glycemic control; peers; self

  1. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  2. Living with joint hypermobility syndrome: patient experiences of diagnosis, referral and self-care

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Rohini H; Rimes, Katharine A; Clark, Carol J; Simmonds, Jane V; Horwood, Jeremy P

    2015-01-01

    Background. Musculoskeletal problems are common reasons for seeking primary health care. It has been suggested that many people with ‘everyday’ non-inflammatory musculoskeletal problems may have undiagnosed joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS), a complex multi-systemic condition. JHS is characterized by joint laxity, pain, fatigue and a wide range of other symptoms. Physiotherapy is usually the preferred treatment option for JHS, although diagnosis can be difficult. The lived experience of those with JHS requires investigation. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine patients’ lived experience of JHS, their views and experiences of JHS diagnosis and management. Methods. Focus groups in four locations in the UK were convened, involving 25 participants with a prior diagnosis of JHS. The focus groups were audio recorded, fully transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method to inductively derive a thematic account of the data. Results. Pain, fatigue, proprioception difficulties and repeated cycles of injury were among the most challenging features of living with JHS. Participants perceived a lack of awareness of JHS from health professionals and more widely in society and described how diagnosis and access to appropriate health-care services was often slow and convoluted. Education for patients and health professionals was considered to be essential. Conclusions. Timely diagnosis, raising awareness and access to health professionals who understand JHS may be particularly instrumental in helping to ameliorate symptoms and help patients to self-manage their condition. Physiotherapists and other health professionals should receive training to provide biopsychosocial support for people with this condition. PMID:25911504

  3. A Comparison of Face to Face and Video-Based Self Care Education on Quality of Life of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati Maslakpak, Masumeh; Shams, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease negatively affects the patients’ quality of life. There are different educational methods to help these patients. This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of self-care education in two methods, face to face and video educational, on the quality of life in patients under treatment by hemodialysis in education-medical centers in Urmia. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 120 hemodialysis patients were selected randomly; they were then randomly allocated to three groups: the control, face to face education and video education. For face to face group, education was given individually in two sessions of 35 to 45 minutes. For video educational group, CD was shown. Kidney Disease Quality Of Life- Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire was filled out before and two months after the intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS software by using one-way ANOVA. Results ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference in the quality of life scores among the three groups after the intervention (P=0.024). After the intervention, Tukey’s post-hoc test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of video and face to face education regarding the quality of life (P>0.05). Conclusion Implementation of the face to face and video education methods improves the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. So, it is suggested that video educational should be used along with face to face education. PMID:26171412

  4. Moving toward comprehensive acute heart failure risk assessment in the emergency department: the importance of self-care and shared decision making.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean P; Storrow, Alan B

    2013-08-01

    Nearly 700,000 emergency department (ED) visits were due to acute heart failure (AHF) in 2009. Most visits result in a hospital admission and account for the largest proportion of a projected $70 billion to be spent on heart failure care by 2030. ED-based risk prediction tools in AHF rarely impact disposition decision making. This is a major factor contributing to the 80% admission rate for ED patients with AHF, which has remained unchanged over the last several years. Self-care behaviors such as symptom monitoring, medication taking, dietary adherence, and exercise have been associated with decreased hospital readmissions, yet self-care remains largely unaddressed in ED patients with AHF and thus represents a significant lost opportunity to improve patient care and decrease ED visits and hospitalizations. Furthermore, shared decision making encourages collaborative interaction between patients, caregivers, and providers to drive a care path based on mutual agreement. The observation that “difficult decisions now will simplify difficult decisions later” has particular relevance to the ED, given this is the venue for many such issues. We hypothesize patients as complex and heterogeneous as ED patients with AHF may need both an objective evaluation of physiologic risk as well as an evaluation of barriers to ideal self-care, along with strategies to overcome these barriers. Combining physician gestalt, physiologic risk prediction instruments, an evaluation of self-care, and an information exchange between patient and provider using shared decision making may provide the critical inertia necessary to discharge patients home after a brief ED evaluation. PMID:24159563

  5. Perspectives of the person with mitral valve prolapse syndrome: a study of self-care needs derived from a health deviation.

    PubMed

    Utz, S W; Whitmire, V M; Grass, S

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in the United States indicate that 5% of the population or nearly 7 million people have Mitral Valve Prolapse. This incidence has also been confirmed by British physicians. Approximately half of these persons seek medical care for treatment of symptoms. Persons with symptoms are often said to have "Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome." The purpose of this study was to describe experiences and self-care needs of persons diagnosed with Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome (MVPS). In Phase I of the study, medical records of 124 subjects were reviewed to identify the medical experience and typical symptoms associated with MVPS. In Phase II, 20 subjects with typical symptoms were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire based on health deviation self-care requisites developed by Orem. Results of this pilot study indicate that interviewed subjects with MVPS frequently had unresolved health concerns and were seeking help. Nursing assistance may therefore be needed to help such clients understand this health deviation, to make decisions regarding appropriate actions, and to accomplish self-care actions. PMID:8372086

  6. Demographic and personal factors associated with metabolic control and self-care in youth with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neylon, Orla M; O'Connell, Michele A; Skinner, Timothy C; Cameron, Fergus J

    2013-05-01

    Optimal use of recent technological advances in insulin delivery and glucose monitoring remain limited by the impact of behaviour on self-care. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in psychosocial methods of optimizing care in youth with type 1 diabetes. We therefore sought to examine the literature for demographic, interpersonal and intrapersonal correlates of self-care and/or metabolic control. Studies for this systematic review were obtained via an electronic search of Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsycINFO databases. Seventy studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These studies have indicated that identifiable individual characteristics in each domain are robustly associated with metabolic control and/or self-care in children and adolescents. We present these characteristics and propose a theoretical model of their interactions and effect on diabetes outcomes. There is currently no consensus regarding patient selection for insulin pump therapy. In this era of scarce healthcare resources, it may be prudent to identify youth requiring increased psychosocial support prior to regimen intensification. The importance of this review lies in its potential to create a framework for rationally utilizing resources by stratifying costly therapeutic options to those who, in the first instance, will be most likely to benefit from them. PMID:23364787

  7. Family variables as moderators between beliefs towards medicines and adherence to self-care behaviors and medication in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Graça; Pedras, Susana; Machado, José Cunha

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed whether family variables such as marital adjustment, partner support, family coping, and family stress moderated the relationship between negative beliefs about medicines and adherence to self-care behaviors (diet, glucose monitoring, exercise, foot care, and medication), in Type 2 diabetes patients. The sample was composed of 387 individuals with Type 2 diabetes, diagnosed in the past 12 months. Patients were assessed on self-care behaviors in diabetes, medication adherence, beliefs about medicines, family coping, family stress, marital adjustment, and partner support. The results showed marital adjustment, family coping, partner support, and family stress as moderators in the relationship between negative beliefs and adherence. Patients with negative beliefs regarding medicines, but who reported good marital adjustment and family coping were more likely to test their blood glucose; and if they reported low support from their partners were less likely to adhere to their prescribed diet. Finally, patients with negative beliefs about medicines, but who reported high family stress, were less likely to take their medication. The results emphasize the importance of family variables on adherence to self-care behaviors and medication. This study revealed the importance of including partners on interventions regarding Type 2 diabetes because they seem to play an important role in patient's adherence. PMID:24707825

  8. Constipation - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lettuce, spinach, and cabbage will also help. Legumes (navy beans, kidney beans, chickpeas, soybeans, and lentils), peanuts, ... nausea, or a sore throat while taking laxatives. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and children under ...

  9. Breastfeeding - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Small amounts of caffeine will not hurt your baby. Limit your caffeine intake. Keep your coffee or tea at 1 cup per day. If you drink larger amounts of caffeine, your baby may get agitated and have trouble ...

  10. Vaginitis - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of all ages. It can be caused by: Yeast , bacteria, viruses, and parasites Bubble baths, soaps, vaginal ... Creams or suppositories are used to treat yeast infections in the ... at drug stores, some grocery stores, and other stores. Treating ...

  11. Evaluation of quality of life among patients with ischemic heart disease who practiced self-care activities at home after elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Takematsu, Yuriko; Hasebe, Yukari; Moriwaki, Yoshimi; Kotera, Naomi; Yamada, Chie; Nakagami, Tomoko; Shinoda, Kozo; Furubayashi, Akira; Kato, Sayoko; Sugimoto, Ikuko; Shibayama, Kenzo

    2015-04-01

    The present study compares health-related QOL between patients who practiced self-care activities comprising exercise and diet at home for at least 6 months (SA group; n = 84) after elective PCI and those who did not (NA group; n = 54). Health-related (HR) QOL was measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. Scores for two mental and three physical parameters of the HRQOL were increased in the SA, but not in the NA group. These findings indicated that the QOL was far superior among patients who exercised and consumed an appropriate diet at home for at least 6 months after elective PCI compared with those who did not. PMID:25154402

  12. One-hour and eight-hour average ozone in the California South Coast air quality management district: trends in peak values and sensitivity to precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Qin; G. S. Tonnesen; Z. Wang

    2004-01-01

    Exceedences of the 1 and 8h O3 air quality standard were identified for 24 routine air quality monitor stations in the California South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) from 1980 to 2001. Yearly trends, temporal and spatial distributions of O3 exceedences and “weekend effect” on O3 exceedences are presented. There were considerably more exceedences of the 8h O3 standard

  13. Striving for Control: Cognitive, Self-Care, and Faith Strategies Employed by Vulnerable Black and White Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne R. Leach; Nancy E. Schoenberg

    2008-01-01

    The average older adult reaches age 65 with at least two chronic, co-occurring illnesses, or multiple morbidities (MM). We\\u000a currently lack critical information about the specific strategies older adults use to attempt to control these MM. To increase\\u000a our understanding of how older adults attempt to manage these MM and retain control of their health, in-depth interviews were\\u000a conducted with

  14. Staging Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction in Elderly Community-Dwelling Persons According to Difficulties in Self-Care and Domestic Life Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Stineman, Margaret G.; Henry-Sánchez, John T.; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Pan, Qiang; Xie, Dawei; Saliba, Debra; Zhang, Zi; Streim, Joel E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to describe the conceptual foundation and development of an activity limitation and participation restriction staging system for community-dwelling people 70 yrs or older according to the severity and types of self-care (activities of daily living [ADLs]) and domestic life (instrumental ADLs (IADLs)) limitations experienced. Design Data from the second Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 9447) were used to develop IADL stages through the analyses of self- and proxy-reported difficulties in performing IADLs. An analysis of activity limitation profiles identified hierarchical thresholds of difficulty that defined each stage. IADL stages are combined with ADL stages to profile status for independent living. Results IADL stages define five ordered thresholds of increasing activity limitations and a “not relevant” stage for those who normally have someone else do those activities. Approximately 42% of the population experience IADL limitations. To achieve a stage, a person must meet or exceed stage-specific thresholds of retained functioning defined for each activity. Combined ADL and IADL stages de-fine 29 patterns of activity limitations expressing the individual’s potential for participating in life situations pertinent to self-care and independent community life. Conclusions ADL and IADL stages can serve to distinguish between groups of people according to both severity and the types of limitations experienced during home or outpatient assessments, in population surveillance, and in research. PMID:22248806

  15. [Development of an instrument to measure self-care agency for the chronic ill in later adulthood--the first step of development].

    PubMed

    Honjo, K

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the instrument to measure self-care agency for the Japanese chronic ill in later adulthood and to test reliability and validity of that. First, the Self-Care Agency instrument draft which consists of 56 items rated along a 5-point Likert scale was developed. This draft was based upon the work of Orem (1991) and qualitative data of the Japanese chronic patients. Second, reliability and validity of this instrument was tested. The instrument was reviewed by 5 expert nurses and 16 nursing researchers for content validity. And this instrument was reviewed by 19 Japanese chronic patients for face validity. By result of content validity and face validity, this draft was refined. Next, the internal consistency, stability, and construct validity of this refined instrument was tested. The internal consistency of the instrument, as measured by the Cronbach's alpha, was 0.90 for a sample of 200 Japanese chronic patients. This instrument had a test-retest coefficient of r = 0.86 for a sample of 104 Japanese chronic patients. Using factor analytic techniques, five subscales emerged. These subscales gave some agreement with subscales that had been obtained before factor analysis. Therefore, construct validity of the instrument was established in some degree. And the subscale 'get a valid support' which emerged in this instrument was reflect Japanese cultural factor. Reliability and validity of this instrument were obtained in some degree. Further, it is necessary to refine this instrument, considering this research result. PMID:10426075

  16. Stimulating Healthy Aging with a Model Nurse-Managed Free Clinic in a Senior Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ruth H.

    As part of a Geriatric Education and Health Management program, a model nurse-managed free clinic has been established at an urban senior center by faculty and students of the University of New Mexico College of Nursing. Funded by a 3-year grant from the Department of Health and Human Services, the weekly clinic is based on Orem's self-care theory…

  17. The Limits of Self-Management: Community and Health Care System Barriers Among Latinos With Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine Jurkowski

    2010-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine diabetes self-care, few regard ecological framework correlates such as community and institutional level factors as fundamental for understanding diabetes management for Latinos. This article addresses the dearth of research that exists regarding social contextual forces and diabetes management for Latinos. Given the scarcity of research on this topic, studies of non-Latino groups were reviewed to illustrate

  18. Monthly Average Temperature Modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Andrade-Bejarano

    This research is associated with the goal of the horticultural sector of the Colombian southwest, which is to obtain climatic\\u000a information, specifically, to predict the monthly average temperature in sites where it has not been measured. The data correspond\\u000a to monthly average temperature, and were recorded in meteorological stations at Valle del Cauca, Colombia, South America.\\u000a Two components are identified

  19. Home visits in brain tumor patient: how nurse and family members cooperate in tumor patient’s family self-care

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhiyue

    2013-01-01

    Purposes We reported the roles and functions of nurses in home visits for brain tumor patients using the family health assessment guide in the study. Methods One patient of brain glioma was chosen as the case illustration. The nurses assessed the patients’ situation, their families and living environment individually. All these factors were analyzed together. Results The nurses then implemented their knowledge and skills to adopt different measures in different conditions, investigated the patients’ health problems and carried out personalized effective actions. Conclusions Nurses should put effort into community nursing to allow patients to live in a safe environment, to satisfy the health needs of human being and their needs for health knowledge, and enhance their self-care abilities. PMID:24385701

  20. Average Rate of Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2005-04-21

    This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

  1. Self-Care Fact Sheet for Influenza A & Influenza-Like Illness This fact sheet provides members of the University community who have been diagnosed with an influenza-like

    E-print Network

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    Self-Care Fact Sheet for Influenza A & Influenza-Like Illness This fact sheet provides members of the University community who have been diagnosed with an influenza-like illness (ILI) or Influenza of ILI and Influenza A are similar to seasonal influenza and include fever, cough, sore throat, body

  2. MODELO DE ATENCIÓN DOROTHEA OREM Y CAMBIOS ACTITUDINALES DEL PACIENTE PEDIÁTRICO ESCOLAR CON CRISIS ASMÁTICA EN ESSALUD Y MINSA 2006 Dorothea Orems Self Care Model and Actitudinal Change of School Pediatric Patient with Asthmatic Crisis in Essalud and Minsa 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Verán Aylas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of the application of Dorotea Orems self care model in the actitudinal changes of the school pediatric patients with asthmatic crisis in EsSALUD and MINSA 2006. Material and method: qualitative, quantitative, cuasi experimental, prospective, cross sectional study. We worked with groups already formed before the experiment. A pretest was applied to the school children of

  3. Self-care strategies for nurses: A psycho-educational intervention for stress reduction and the prevention of burnout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Kravits; Randi McAllister-Black; Marcia Grant; Christina Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and evaluate a psycho-educational program that assists nurses to develop stress management plans. Discussion of nursing-specific risk factors, practice with relaxation techniques, and exploration via art are used as interventions. Quantitative and qualitative measures of stress and burnout are conducted pre- and postcourse using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Draw-a-Person-in-the-Rain Art Assessment, and

  4. Covariant approximation averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  5. Toward a Middle-Range Theory of Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Stephanie; Peters, Rosalind M; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2014-06-19

    The authors of this paper present the middle-range theory of weight management that focuses on cultural, environmental, and psychosocial factors that influence behaviors needed for weight control. The theory of weight management was developed deductively from Orem's theory of self-care, a constituent theory within the broader self-care deficit nursing theory and from research literature. Linkages between the conceptual and middle-range theory concepts are illustrated using a substruction model. The development of the theory of weight management serves to build nursing science by integrating extant nursing theory and empirical knowledge. This theory may help predict weight management in populations at risk for obesity-related disorders. PMID:24951526

  6. Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…

  7. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2002-01-01

    In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

  8. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  9. Measuring exertion during caregiving of children and young adults with cerebral palsy who require assistance for mobility and self-care.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Marcella; Bolt, Daniel M; Braun, Michael; Benedict, Ruth E

    2013-08-01

    Our purpose was to compare objective and subjective measures of energy exertion during caregiving tasks. Participants were primary caregivers (N = 19) of children and young adults (aged 3 -22 years) with cerebral palsy (CP) who require assistance for mobility and self-care (67% classified in level V on the Gross Motor Function Classification System). Measures of exertion were collected during two caregiving tasks: (1) transfers and (2) dressing. Objective measures included volume of oxygen (V02), heart rate (HR), and the subjective measure was a rating of perceived exertion (Borg RPE). Controlling for baseline status, perceived exertion correlated with VO2 (0.43, p < .01) and HR (0.29, p < .01) during the tasks. Caregivers with high baseline HR and VO2, had high Borg RPE scores following a task. Correlations were found between HR and VO2 during caregiving tasks (0.63, p < .01). Patterns of association with caregiver and child characteristics were similar for VO2 and Borg RPE. Subjective measures of exertion appear to capture the strain of caregiving. Understanding a caregiver's perception of exertion can guide therapists in assessing the need for equipment, pharmacological, or respite interventions. PMID:23356332

  10. Student-Led Stress Management Program for First-Year Medical Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K. Redwood; Michael H. Pollak

    2007-01-01

    Background: The medical education community has emphasized repeatedly the importance of teaching stress management and self-care skills to medical students. However, descriptions and evaluations of intervention programs are infrequent. This article describes a student-led stress management program for 1st-year medical students and summarizes program evaluation data from 1,111 participants.Description: The Stress Management Program is a voluntary activity that involves small

  11. Merging P4P and Disease Management: How Do You Know Which One Is Working?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLEN L. SMITH

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An intervention movement in managed care, disease manage- ment (DM), is a system of coordinated health care interventions and communi- cation for populations with conditions in which patient self-care efforts are sig- nificant. Another managed care intervention movement, pay for performance (P4P), involves an incentive component in which payment is defined based on meeting specific, previously agreed-upon process or

  12. The effectiveness of selected Tai Chi exercises in a program of strategic rehabilitation aimed at improving the self-care skills of patients aroused from prolonged coma after severe TBI

    PubMed Central

    Ma?ko, Grzegorz; Zió?kowski, Artur; Mirski, Andrzej; K?osi?ski, Micha?

    2013-01-01

    Background Difficulties in self-care constitute a very common problem for patients recovering from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, and a major factor reducing their quality of life. Effective new rehabilitation programs that would help solve this problem are urgently needed. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate improvement in this respect in a group of patients aroused from prolonged coma who participated in a goal-oriented rehabilitation program (Rehab-3), enhanced with selected elements of Tai-Chi. Material/Methods We examined 40 patients aroused from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, undergoing long-term rehabilitation according to a standard phased rehabilitation program. These patients were divided into two numerically even groups: a control group treated according to the standard program, and an experimental group, who received an additional goal oriented program enhanced with selected Tai-Chi exercises. The research methods included analysis of documentation (MRI, CT), a structured clinical interview, and the Standard Self-Care Scale. Results The experimental group achieved significant improvement of self-care skills, whereas in the control group the improvement was slight and not statistically significant. The value of co-efficient j (0.64) indicates a very strong association between the rehabilitation procedure and improved self-care in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Conclusions Our results confirmed that a goal-oriented rehabilitation program enhanced with elements of Tai-Chi was more effective than the standard program in improving the performance of activities of daily living. PMID:24036691

  13. Blood Sugar and Brothers' Voices: An Exploratory Study Of The Self-Care Management Experiences of African-American Men Living With Type 2 Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Sherman, Ledric D

    2013-07-23

    to 50 African-American men, ages 18-70, living with type 2 diabetes. Participants had one-on-one semi structured interviews with the primary investigator. The instruments that were used consisted of two parts: one was a self-administered paper...

  14. Parvalbumin Cell Ablation of NMDA-R1 Causes Increased Resting Network Excitability with Associated Social and Self-Care Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Billingslea, Eddie N; Tatard-Leitman, Valerie M; Anguiano, Jaynie; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Suh, Jimmy; Saunders, John A; Morita, Susumu; Featherstone, Robert E; Ortinski, Pavel I; Gandal, Michael J; Lin, Robert; Liang, Yuling; Gur, Raquel E; Carlson, Gregory C; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Siegel, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that net excitation propagated by impaired NMDAR signaling on GABAergic interneurons may be of particular interest in mediating several aspects of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which behavioral domains are governed by a net increase of excitation and whether modulating downstream GABAergic signaling can reverse neural and thus behavioral deficits. The current study determines the selective contributions of NMDAR dysfunction on PV-containing interneurons to electrophysiological, cognitive, and negative-symptom-related behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia using mice with a PVcre-NR1flox-driven ablation of NR1 on PV-containing interneurons. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of one agent that directly modulates GABAergic signaling (baclofen) and one agent that indirectly modifies NMDAR-mediated signaling through antagonism of mGluR5 receptors (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP)). The data indicate that loss of NMDAR function on PV interneurons impairs self-care and sociability while increasing N1 latency and baseline gamma power, and reducing induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation. Baclofen normalized baseline gamma power without corresponding effects on behavior. MPEP further increased N1 latency and reduced social behavior in PVcre/NR1+/+ mice. These two indices were negatively correlated before and following MPEP such that as N1 latency increases, sociability decreases. This finding suggests a predictive role for N1 latency with respect to social function. Although previous data suggest that MPEP may be beneficial for core features of autism spectrum disorders, current data suggest that such effects require intact function of NMDAR on PV interneurons. PMID:24525709

  15. Going mobile with diabetes support: a randomized study of a text message-based personalized behavioral intervention for type 2 diabetes self-care.

    PubMed

    Capozza, Korey; Woolsey, Sarah; Georgsson, Mattias; Black, Jeff; Bello, Nelly; Lence, Clare; Oostema, Steve; North, Christie

    2015-05-01

    Objective. Patients with type 2 diabetes often fail to achieve self-management goals. This study tested the impact on glycemic control of a two-way text messaging program that provided behavioral coaching, education, and testing reminders to enrolled individuals with type 2 diabetes in the context of a clinic-based quality improvement initiative. The secondary aim examined patient interaction and satisfaction with the program. Methods. Ninety-three adult patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (A1C >8%) were recruited from 18 primary care clinics in three counties for a 6-month study. Patients were randomized by a computer to one of two arms. Patients in both groups continued with their usual care; patients assigned to the intervention arm also received from one to seven diabetes-related text messages per day depending on the choices they made at enrollment. At 90 and 180 days, A1C data were obtained from the electronic health record and analyzed to determine changes from baseline for both groups. An exit survey was used to assess satisfaction. Enrollment behavior and interaction data were pulled from a Web-based administrative portal maintained by the technology vendor. Results. Patients used the program in a variety of ways. Twenty-nine percent of program users demonstrated frequent engagement (texting responses at least three times per week) for a period of ?90 days. Survey results indicate very high satisfaction with the program. Both groups' average A1C decreased from baseline, possibly reflecting a broader quality improvement effort underway in participating clinics. At 90 and 180 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of change in A1C (P >0.05). Conclusions. This study demonstrated a practical approach to implementing and monitoring a mobile health intervention for self-management support across a wide range of independent clinic practices. PMID:25987806

  16. Online Averaging Wavelet Denoising Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Khadem Olama; H. Jazayeri-Rad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the non-stationary noises are challenged by an online averaging wavelet method filter. The novelty of the filter is using averaging method of combining mean values of each resolution in approximation spaces that computes the average overall frequency in a specific point. The key structure is a mirror usage of data handling the zero abnormality of the filter

  17. Average-Atom Thomson Scattering

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Walter R.

    Average-Atom Thomson Scattering Applications Xray Scattering from Warm Dense Matter Thomson Scattering in the Average-Atom Approximation W. R. Johnson, Notre Dame Collaborators: Joe Nilsen & K. T. Cheng, LLNL July 10, 2012 Atomic Physics Seminar Xray Scattering #12;Average-Atom Thomson Scattering

  18. Average-Atom Thomson Scattering

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Walter R.

    Average-Atom Thomson Scattering Applications Xray Scattering from WDM Thomson Scattering in the Average-Atom Approximation W. R. Johnson, Notre Dame Collaborators: Joe Nilsen & K. T. Cheng, LLNL Computational Challenges in WDM PLWS-4 Xray Scattering #12;Average-Atom Thomson Scattering Applications Outline

  19. Averaging Quaternions F. Landis Markley

    E-print Network

    Crassidis, John L.

    Averaging Quaternions F. Landis Markley NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 Yang that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions

  20. AVERAGING QUATERNIONS , F. Landis Markley

    E-print Network

    Crassidis, John L.

    AAS 07-213 AVERAGING QUATERNIONS Yang Cheng , F. Landis Markley , John L. Crassidis , and Yaakov Oshman§ This paper presents an algorithm to average a set of quaternion observa- tions. The average quaternion is determined by minimizing the weighted sum of the squared Frobenius norms of the corresponding

  1. Beyond good intentions: The role of proactive coping in achieving sustained behavioural change in the context of diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Thoolen, Bart Johan; de Ridder, Denise; Bensing, Jozien; Gorter, Kees; Rutten, Guy

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a brief self-management intervention to support patients recently diagnosed with type-2 diabetes to achieve sustained improvements in their self-care behaviours. Based on proactive coping, the intervention emphasizes the crucial role of anticipation and planning in maintaining self-care behaviours. In a randomised controlled trial among recent screen-detected patients, participants who received the intervention were compared with usual-care controls, examining changes in proximal outcomes (intentions, self-efficacy and proactive coping), self-care behaviour (diet, physical activity and medication) and weight over time (0, 3 and 12 months). Subsequently, the contribution of proactive coping in predicting maintenance of behavioural change was analysed using stepwise hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for baseline self-care behaviour, patient characteristics, and intentions and self-efficacy as measured after the course. The intervention was effective in improving proximal outcomes and behaviour with regard to diet and physical activity, resulting in significant weight loss at 12 months. Furthermore, proactive coping was a better predictor of long-term self-management than either intentions or self-efficacy. Proactive coping thus offers new insights into behavioural maintenance theory and can be used to develop effective self-management interventions. PMID:20204991

  2. Self-Care After Disasters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma Assessment Assessment Overview Adult Interviews Adult Self Report Child Measures Deployment Measures DSM-5 Validated Measures PTSD Screens Trauma Exposure Measures Assessment Request Form List of ...

  3. Anal itching - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods and beverages Scents or dyes in toilet paper or soap Diarrhea Hemorrhoids , which are swollen veins ... wipes, a wet washcloth, or wet unscented toilet paper. Avoid soaps with dyes or fragrances. Pat dry ...

  4. Venous ulcers - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of venous insufficiency Obesity Pregnancy Smoking Sitting or standing for a long periods (usually for work) Long ... Wear compression socks every day. Avoid sitting or standing for long periods of time. Check your feet ...

  5. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is best. You can also drink ginger ale, lemon-lime sodas, and fruit juices. Drink enough liquids ... as milk, cheese, yogurt, oysters, and tofu. Eat lemons or oranges, or drink lemonade. Citrate in these ...

  6. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... likely worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ... carry the virus. Although there is no cure, genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider’s ...

  7. Prostatitis- bacterial - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    You have been diagnosed with bacterial prostatitis . This is an infection of the prostate gland. ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or naproxen, may help with pain or discomfort. Ask your doctor ...

  8. Spitting up - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Orenstein S, Peters J, Khan S, Youssef N, Hussain SZ. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th edition. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Shin splints - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... overloading your shin bone. Shin splints happen from overuse with too much activity or a change in ... 2 to 4 weeks of rest from your sport or exercise. Avoid repetitive exercise of your lower ...

  10. Rotator cuff - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when one of the tendons is torn from overuse or injury ... It is best to avoid playing sports until you have no pain during rest or activity. Also, when examined by your doctor or physical therapist, you should have: Full ...

  11. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, ... the-counter cortisone creams or lotions if your skin is inflamed. Look for moisturizers that contain ceramides.

  12. MIT BLOSSOMS - Flaws of Averages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MIT BLOSSOMS

    2011-06-23

    This learning video presents an introduction to the Flaws of Averages using three exciting examples: the “crossing of the river” example, the “cookie” example, and the “dance class” example. Averages are often worthwhile representations of a set of data by a single descriptive number. The objective of this module, however, is to simply point out a few pitfalls that could arise if one is not attentive to details when calculating and interpreting averages. Most students at any level in high school can understand the concept of the flaws of averages presented here. The essential prerequisite knowledge for this video lesson is the ability to calculate an average from a set of numbers. Materials needed include: pen and paper for the students; and a blackboard or equivalent. During this video lesson, students will learn about three flaws of averages: (1) The average is not always a good description of the actual situation, (2) The function of the average is not always the same as the average of the function, and (3) The average depends on your perspective. To convey these concepts, the students are presented with the three real world examples mentioned above. The total length of the four in-class video segments is 12 minutes, leaving lots of time in a typical class session for the teacher to work with the students on their own learning examples (such as those from the supplementary notes) to firm up the ideas presented here on the flaws of averages.

  13. Prevalence, correlates, and self-management of HIV-related depressive symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Eller; E. H. Bunch; D. J. Wantland; C. J. Portillo; N. R. Reynolds; K. M. Nokes; C. L. Coleman; J. K. Kemppainen; K. M. Kirksey; I. B. Corless; M. J. Hamilton; P. J. Dole; P. K. Nicholas; W. L. Holzemer; Y.-F. Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent yet undertreated in people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLHAs). As part of a larger study of symptom self-management (N=1217), this study examined the prevalence, correlates, and characteristics (intensity, distress, and impact) of depressive symptoms, and the self-care strategies used to manage those symptoms in PLHAs in five countries. The proportion of respondents from each country in

  14. Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Cotta-Schönberg

    2000-01-01

    The area of management is a naturally fertile ground for theory making, development of models and ... fads! Moreover, gurus, consultant firms, and publishers alike have vested interests in keeping the management mill going. Finally, our political lords and masters regularly come up with new trendy demands on public managers. So, it is no wonder that library managers may sometimes

  15. Effect of Orem Self-Care Program on the Life Quality of Burn Patients Referred to Ghotb-al-Din-e-Shirazi Burn Center, Shiraz, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Fatemeh; Rahimi Dolatabad, Fatemeh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Ayaz, Mehdi; Zare, Najaf; Mansouri, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Advances in treatment and critical care have largely improved the survival following burns; therefore, the importance of quality of life in burn patients is an issue beyond question. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Orem self-care program on Quality of Life of burn patients. Methods: A randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 110 eligible burn patients who were selected using easy sampling method and allocated randomly into two groups of experiment and control. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, containing demographic and burn information and burn-specific health scale–brief (BSHS-B) questionnaire. For the experiment group, 5 sessions of theoretical training and 75-90 minutes of practical training were accomplished. The quality of life of the patients with burns was assessed in three phases by the BSHS-B questionnaire. The data were analyzed in SPSS-17 using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Independent t-test and repeated measurement multivariate test. Results: After one month and two months of the use of self-care model, the quality of life of the cases improved from 73.33% to 83.78% and 98.12%, respectively (P<0.001). But the changes in the quality of life of the patients in the control group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the obtained results of this study, designing and implementing a self-care program based on Orem’s model and the needs of burn patients will improve their quality of life. Therefore, it is recommended that this program should be considered as a part of treatment program for these patients. Trial Registration Number: 2013042112129N1 PMID:25349844

  16. Average Speed and Unit Conversion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    Students will determine average speeds from data collected and convert units for speed problems. Students try to roll the ball with a prescribed average speed based on intuition. Then, based on unit conversion we will see how accurate the rolls really were.

  17. When good = better than average

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don A. Moore

    2007-01-01

    People report themselves to be above average on simple tasks and below average on difficult tasks. This paper proposes an explanation for this effect that is simpler than prior explanations. The new explanation is that people conflate relative with absolute evaluation, especially on subjective measures. The paper then presents a series of four studies that test this conflation explanation. These

  18. The effectiveness of hospital-based diabetes case management: an example from a northern Taiwan regional hospital.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Chang, Yue-Cune; Lee, Su-Mei; Chen, Mei-Fang; Huang, Mei-Ching; Peng, Chin-Lin; Yan, Ching-Yun

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design, implement and evaluate disease outcomes at a regional hospital- based case management program of care for patients with type 2 diabetes. A medical team and practice guidelines were established in line with the health insurance strategy of Taiwan's Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Care for Diabetes (2003 edition). Also, a set of self-care booklets was designed suitable for use by the subject group. The study was prospective and followed the patients from enrollment to one year. Patient outcomes were determined based on laboratory examinations and recorded self-care behavior. Data were collected at enrollment and over 4 follow-up times within a one year period. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used for repeated measurements and adjustments of the effects of specific prognostic factors. Sixty subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (mean duration 3.25 years) were recruited. All participants were married with a mean age of 52.5 years. A majority (58.3%) was male and 65% were ethnic Hakka. Self-care knowledge and behavior accomplishment rates were: taking medications by oneself, 91.3% (knowing medicines, 25.4%); hypoglycemia management, 23.3%; monitoring blood sugar, 46.7%; exercise, 35.8%; diet management, 51.7% and foot care, 92.8%. Significantly improved ADA diabetes care standard items included HbA1C (p< .0001), fasting glucose (p< .01) and triglycerides (p< .05). The study incorporated evidence-based guidelines, public health insurance strategies and self-care booklets into a protocol to provide comprehensive care. The implemented diabetes program achieved diabetes care goals and improved patient self-care. PMID:18080974

  19. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  20. Distributed averaging in dynamic networks

    E-print Network

    Rajagopalan, Shreevatsa

    2010-01-01

    The question of computing average of numbers present at nodes in a network in a distributed manner using gossip or message-passing algorithms has been of great recent interest across disciplines -- algorithms, control and ...

  1. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis.

  2. High average power pockels cell

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  3. Time-averaged digital holography.

    PubMed

    Picart, Pascal; Leval, Julien; Mounier, Denis; Gougeon, Samuel

    2003-10-15

    We demonstrate that it is possible to study the modal structures of a vibrating object with digitally recorded holograms by use of the time-averaging principle. We investigate the numerical reconstruction from a theoretical point of view, and we show that the numerically reconstructed object from a digital hologram is modulated by the zeroth-order Bessel function. Results of experiments in time-averaged digital holography are presented. PMID:14587769

  4. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  5. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  6. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Obesity in the Kaiser Permanente Patient Population and Positive Outcomes of Online Weight-Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Keith H; Histon, Trina M; Remmers, Carol

    2007-01-01

    We review what is known about the effects of obesity in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) population and discuss outcomes for two nationally available effective online programs, HealthMedia Balance® (Balance) and 10,000 Steps®. Obese KP patients often have health problems related to overweight and report difficulties with self-care, yet with the proper support, they can avail themselves of effective treatment to manage both obesity and associated conditions that affect quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of potential problems with functional status and self-care in their obese patients, provide brief assessment and advice, and refer obese patients to effective national and regional weight-management programs. PMID:21461090

  8. Average of Synthetic Exact Filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Bolme; Bruce A. Draper; J. Ross Beveridge

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a class of correlation filters called average of synthetic exact filters (ASEF). For ASEF, the correlation output is completely specified for each training image. This is in marked contrast to prior methods such as synthetic discriminant functions (SDFs) which only specify a single output value per training image. Advantages of ASEF training include: insensitivity to over-fitting, greater

  9. Averaging facial expression over time

    PubMed Central

    Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time. PMID:20053064

  10. Averaging inhomogenous cosmologies - a dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchert, T.

    The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.

  11. Averaging inhomogeneous cosmologies - a dialogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchert, T.

    The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.

  12. Average of Synthetic Exact Filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Bolme; Bruce A. Draper; J. Ross Beveridge

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a class of correlation filters called Average of Synthetic Exact Filters (ASEF). For ASEF, the correlation output is completely specified for each training image. This is in marked contrast to prior methods such as Synthetic Discriminant Functions (SDFs) which only spec- ify a single output value per training image. Advantages of ASEF training include: insenitivity to over-fitting,

  13. Bayesian Model Averaging: A Tutorial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Hoeting; David Madigan; Adrian E. Raftery; Chris T. Volinsky

    Standard statistical practice ignores model uncertainty. Data analysts typically select a model from some class of models and then proceed as if the selected model had generated the data. This approach ignores the uncertainty in model selection, leading to over-confident in- ferences and decisions that are more risky than one thinks they are. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) provides a coherent

  14. Averaging of globally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, James W.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Wiesenfeld, Kurt

    1992-03-01

    We study a specific system of symmetrically coupled oscillators using the method of averaging. The equations describe a series array of Josephson junctions. We concentrate on the dynamics near the splay-phase state (also known as the antiphase state, ponies on a merry-go-round, or rotating wave). We calculate the Floquet exponents of the splay-phase periodic orbit in the weak-coupling limit, and find that all of the Floquet exponents are purely imaginary; in fact, all the Floquet exponents are zero except for a single complex conjugate pair. Thus, nested two-tori of doubly periodic solutions surround the splay-phase state in the linearized averaged equations. We numerically integrate the original system, and find startling agreement with the averaging results on two counts: The observed ratio of frequencies is very close to the prediction, and the solutions of the full equations appear to be either periodic or doubly periodic, as they are in the averaged equations. Such behavior is quite surprising from the point of view of generic dynamical systems theory-one expects higher-dimensional tori and chaotic solutions. We show that the functional form of the equations, and not just their symmetry, is responsible for this nongeneric behavior.

  15. Errors due to average velocities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Denardo; Selmer Wong; Alpha Lo

    1989-01-01

    The error caused when the average velocity over an interval is used to approximate the instantaneous velocity at either the time or spatial midpoint of the interval is calculated for one-dimensional constant acceleration and for simple harmonic motion. The results for simple harmonic motion are applied to the computed energy, which these velocity approximations cause to deviate from constancy. Also

  16. Patient outcomes and experiences of an acupuncture and self-care service for persistent low back pain in the NHS: a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Supported self-management, acupuncture and information can help reduce the symptoms of low back pain. These approaches are currently recommended by NICE guidance as treatment options for patients with persistent low back pain. However, there has been no previous evaluation of a service providing them together for this common problem. The purpose of this service evaluation was to report patient outcomes and experiences of the Beating Back Pain Service (BBPS), a pilot service based in a primary and community care setting, delivering acupuncture, self-management and information to patients with chronic low back pain. Methods Patients completed a questionnaire at three time points: pre-BBPS, immediately post-BBPS and three months post-BBPS. Outcome measures included the Bournemouth Questionnaire (measuring musculoskeletal, MSK, problems), EuroQoL-5D (measuring quality of life), Pain and Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and additional questions on medication use, physical activity, understanding of pain and positive well-being. Additionally, the STarT Back (measuring risk of developing chronic pain) was collected at BBPS information sessions. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate pre- and post- variables. Questionnaires also collected qualitative data (open-text responses) regarding patient views and experiences of the BBPS, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Results 80 (out of 108) patients who attended the initial BBPS information session agreed to participate in the service evaluation (mean age 47 years, 65% female). 65 patients attended subsequent BBPS acupuncture and/or self-management sessions and were asked to complete post-treatment questionnaires; complete datasets were available for 61 patients. There were statistically significant improvements over time for pain (p <0.0001), quality of life (p?=?0.006), understanding of pain (p <0.001), physical activity (p?=?0.047) and relaxation (p?=?0.012). Post-hoc analysis revealed that scores improved between baseline and post-treatment, these improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up (except relaxation). Patients receiving a combination of acupuncture and self-management sessions produced the most positive results. Patient satisfaction with the BBPS was high. Conclusions The BBPS provided a MSK pain management service that many patients found effective and valuable. Combining self-management with acupuncture was found to be particularly effective, although further consideration is required regarding how best to engage patients in self-management. PMID:24180515

  17. Web 2.0 systems supporting childhood chronic disease management: A pattern language representation of a general architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toomas Timpka; Henrik Eriksson; Johnny Ludvigsson; Joakim Ekberg; Sam Nordfeldt; Lena Hanberger

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic disease management is a global health concern. By the time they reach adolescence, 10–15% of all children live with a chronic disease. The role of educational interventions in facilitating adaptation to chronic disease is receiving growing recognition, and current care policies advocate greater involvement of patients in self-care. Web 2.0 is an umbrella term for new collaborative Internet

  18. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND

    E-print Network

    385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

  19. Monthly Average Temperature for Boston, MA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is monthly average temperature data for Boston, MA from March 1872 until September 2000. In addition to monthly averages, the National Weather Service table also shows the yearly average temperature.

  20. Measuring complexity through average symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamino, Roberto C.

    2015-07-01

    This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle—measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalized, including to continuous cases and general networks. By applying this measure to a series of objects, it is shown that it can be consistently used for both small scale structures with exact symmetry breaking and large scale patterns, for which, differently from similar measures, it consistently discriminates between repetitive patterns, random configurations and self-similar structures

  1. Spectral and Parametric Averaging for Integrable Systems

    E-print Network

    Tao Ma; R. A. Serota

    2013-06-03

    We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos - spectral averaging and parametric averaging. For spectral averaging, we introduce a new procedure - rescaled spectral averaging. Unlike traditional spectral averaging, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance. Parametric averaging, while not as accurate as rescaled spectral averaging for the correlation function of spectral staircase and interval level number variance, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

  2. Information Capacity of Optical Fiber Channels with Zero Average Dispersion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Turitsyn; S. A. Derevyanko; I. V. Yurkevich; S. K. Turitsyn

    2003-01-01

    We study the statistics of optical data transmission in a noisy nonlinear fiber channel with a weak dispersion management and zero average dispersion. Applying analytical expressions for the output probability density functions both for a nonlinear channel and for a linear channel with additive and multiplicative noise we calculate in a closed form a lower bound estimate on the Shannon

  3. Estimating Average Temperatures on Appalachian Summits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Leffler

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between average temperatures, latitudes and summit elevations throughout the Appalachian Mountains is examined. Regression equations relating summit elevations to monthly and annual average daily temperature ranges are derived. Linear equations for computing 30-year average monthly and average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for each month of the year on summits with no data are developed. Analysis of the

  4. Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a disease with high prevalence and significant impact in terms of mortality and morbidity. The increased prevalence of the disease requires the implementation of new strategies to promote patient self-management. The Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP) has proven to be effective in other settings. The objective of this study is to assess its effectiveness in terms of care for DM2 patients in primary care settings within the Basque Health Service – Osakidetza (Spain). Method/Design This is a randomised clinical trial in which patients diagnosed with DM2, 18–79 years of age, from four health regions within the Basque Health Service will be randomised into two groups: an intervention group, who will follow the SDSMP, and a control group, who will receive usual care in accordance with the clinical guidelines for DM2 and existing regulations in our region. The intervention consists of 2,5 hour-group sessions once a week for six weeks. The sessions cover target setting and problem solving techniques, promotion of physical exercise, basic knowledge of nutrition, proper use of medication, effective communication with relatives and health professionals, and basic knowledge about DM2 and its complications. This content is complemented by educational material: books, leaflets and CDs. The primary outcome measure will be the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and secondary outcome measures will include changes in levels of physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables, cardiovascular risk, quality of life, self-efficacy, number of consultations and drug prescriptions. The results will be analysed 6, 12 and 24 months after the intervention. Discussion If the intervention were to be effective, the programme should be spread to the entire diabetic population in the Basque Country and it could also be applied for other diseases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01642394 PMID:23718222

  5. Adolescent and parent assessments of diabetes mellitus management at school.

    PubMed

    Hayes-Bohn, Rachel; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Mellin, Alison; Patterson, Joan

    2004-05-01

    This study explored opinions, concerns, and recommendations regarding care of Type 1 diabetes in schools. Thirty adolescent females and their parents participated in semi- structured, individual interviews that were audiotaped, transcribed, coded, and qualitatively analyzed. Responses emerged in three categories: knowledge/training of school staff; foods offered/available at school; and school rules. Participants expressed concerns that school personnel, particularly classroom teachers, possess limited knowledge of diabetes; that healthy food/beverage options are limited in the cafeteria, vending machines, and classrooms; and that school rules impede self-care of diabetes. Implications for enhancing diabetes management at school are noted. PMID:15283497

  6. Elderly self-management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Salehi, Shayesteh; Taleghani, Fariba; Abedi, Heidar Ali

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The population of elderly in Iran and in the world is increasing. It is predicted that the population of elderly reaches to 10 millions in Iran by the year 2019. Elders more than other age groups are at risk of chronic diseases and health problems; and elderly affects their self-management and makes them feel disabled. Since the knowledge of self-management for Iranian elderly is not well developed, this paper aimed to determine the concept of self-management for Iranian elders. METHODS: This was a qualitative study with grounded theory approach on Iranian elderly self-management. Data were collected through deep interviews with 26 participants in a period of one year and were analyzed using a Strauss Corbin analysis method. RESULTS: Self-management in the context of power means using different managing methods in dealing with daily life needs, especially in interactions with others in a way that accelerates affairs with efficiency and satisfaction. The main categories emerged from this qualitative study included: managing plans, managing life goals and policies, persuading the desired goals, managing self-care, directing others, coordinating and consulting with others. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study provided a deep understanding of elderly perceptions of self-management in their lives. These findings can be a baseline for future researches on developing effective health interventions such as developing a nursing model for increasing the elderly self-management abilities in Iran. Such a model can provide a strong basis for nursing care. PMID:21589781

  7. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…

  8. A pilot study of a chiropractic intervention for management of chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder

    PubMed Central

    DeVocht, James W.; Goertz, Christine M.; Hondras, Maria A.; Long, Cynthia R.; Schaeffer, Wally; Thomann, Lauren; Spector, Michael; Stanford, Clark M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular pain has multiple etiologies and a range of therapeutic options. In this pilot study, the authors assessed the feasibility of conducting a larger trial to evaluate chiropractic treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Methods The authors assigned 80 participants randomly into one of the following four groups, all of which included a comprehensive self-care program: reversible interocclusal splint therapy (RIST), Activator Method Chiropractic Technique (AMCT) (Activator Methods International, Phoenix), sham AMCT and self-care only. They made assessments at baseline and at month 2 and month 6, including use of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Results The authors screened 721 potential participants and enrolled 80 people; 52 participants completed the six-month assessment. The adjusted mean change in current pain over six months, as assessed on the 11-point numerical rating scale, was 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1-3.0) for RIST, 1.7 (0.9-2.5) for self-care only, 1.5 (0.7-2.4) for AMCT and 1.6 (0.7-2.5) for sham AMCT. The authors also assessed bothersomeness and functionality. Conclusions The authors found the study design and methodology to be manageable. They gained substantial knowledge to aid in conducting a larger study. AMCT, RIST and self-care should be evaluated in a future comparative effectiveness study. Practical Implications. This pilot study was a necessary step to prepare for a larger study that will provide clinicians with information that should be helpful when discussing treatment options for patients with TMD. PMID:24080932

  9. EXPONENTIAL DECAY OF DISPERSION MANAGED SOLITONS FOR VANISHING AVERAGE DISPERSION

    E-print Network

    Erdogan, Mehmet

    via amplitude modulation of a carrier wave through a fiber-optical cable where the dispersion, for practical purposes, one can assume to be piecewise constant. In fiber optic cables, the information can is varied periodically along the fiber, see, e.g., [3, 27, 30]. In (1.1) t corresponds to the distance along

  10. EXPONENTIAL DECAY OF DISPERSION MANAGED SOLITONS FOR VANISHING AVERAGE DISPERSION

    E-print Network

    Erdogan, Mehmet

    the waveguide, which, for practical purposes, one can assume to be piecewise constant. In fiber optic cables.1) It describes the amplitude of a signal transmitted via amplitude modulation of a carrier wave through a fiber-optical cable where the dispersion is varied periodically along the fiber, see, e.g., [3, 27, 29]. In (1

  11. A World Average of Fluorescence Yield Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, R.

    2011-09-01

    Twelve measurements of air fluoescence yield made by six different groups are put into a common format then averaged. The methods used to convert them are described. The results obtained by Rosado et al. are also averaged.

  12. RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

    2009-05-04

    RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

  13. Averaging in LRS class II spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar

    2015-02-01

    We generalize Buchert's averaged equations (Gen Relativ Gravit 32; 105, 2000; Gen Relativ Gravit 33; 1381, 2001) to LRS class II dust model in the sense that all Einstein equations are averaged, not only the trace part. We derive the relevant averaged equations and we investigate backreaction on expansion and shear scalars in an approximate LTB model. Finally we propose a way to close the system of averaged equations.

  14. Optimal perturbation models for averaged orbit generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Long; W. D. McClain

    1976-01-01

    Averaging techniques applied to the variation of parameters (VOP) formulation of the equations of motion are being investigated as methods for long-term prediction of artificial satellite orbits. Analytically averaged equations were compared with numerically averaged equations with respect to accuracy and efficiency for computation of zonal and nonresonant third-body perturbations. Numerically averaged equations were also evaluated for computation of long-period

  15. Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

  16. Information capacity of optical fiber channels with zero average dispersion

    E-print Network

    K. S. Turitsyn; S. A. Derevyanko; I. V. Yurkevich; S. K. Turitsyn

    2003-03-26

    We study the statistics of optical data transmission in a noisy nonlinear fiber channel with a weak dispersion management and zero average dispersion. Applying path integral methods we have found exactly the probability density functions of channel output both for a non-linear noisy channel and for a linear channel with additive and multiplicative noise. We have obtained analytically a lower bound estimate for the Shannon capacity of considered nonlinear fiber channel.

  17. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions While Reading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis L. Molfese; A. F. Key; S. Kelly; N. Cunningham; S. Terrell; M. Ferguson; V. J. Molfese; T. Bonebright

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between chil- dren with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP amplitudes and peak latencies decreased as reading skills in- creased. Furthermore, hemisphere differences

  18. Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

  20. Spatially averaged turbulent stress and its partitioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dubravka Pokrajac; Ian McEwan; Vladimir Nikora

    2008-01-01

    Double averaging of the fundamental flow equations is an attractive methodology for investigating spatially heterogeneous\\u000a flows. The resulting double-averaged equations can be used as a framework for development of turbulence models. In order to\\u000a fully explore the potential of such models the stress terms that appear in the momentum equation as a result of each averaging\\u000a step needs to be

  1. Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.

    1994-02-01

    A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

  2. Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

    1990-01-01

    A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

  3. Spectral and parametric averaging for integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Serota, R. A.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos, spectral averaging (SA) and parametric averaging (PA). For SA, we introduce a new procedure, namely, rescaled spectral averaging (RSA). Unlike traditional SA, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase (CFSS) and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance (IV). PA while not as accurate as RSA for the CFSS and IV, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance (GV) and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

  4. Type 2 diabetes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body has trouble using the insulin it ... can get too high. Over time, people with type 2 diabetes may not have enough insulin. Most people with ...

  5. Urinary incontinence products - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have problems with urinary incontinence (leakage), wearing special products will keep you dry and help you avoid ... you can buy many types of urinary incontinence products. These products help keep your skin dry and ...

  6. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diabetes medicine Not eating enough during meals or snacks after you have taken insulin or diabetes medicine ... your blood sugar levels. Make sure you have snacks with you. Talk to your doctor about reducing ...

  7. Generalized anxiety disorder - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... times. For example, take it every day at breakfast. Check with your health care provider about the best time to take your medicine. Ask your health care provider about side effects and what to do if they occur.

  8. Student Affairs HEALTH SELF-CARE KIT

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    /paper tape · tissues · ICE (In Case of Emergency) entry in cell phone #12;HEALTH.BINGHAMTON.EDU 13 get on campus to program the telephone number for Harpur's Ferry into your phone. MINOR EMERGENCIES is your responsibility). LOURDES HOSPITAL'S EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT includes the Fast Track for minor

  9. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    are presented in two tables. The first table gives long-term hourly average data. The hourly data are averaged for each month and then averaged over each year that has hourly data for that month. The second table has daily data averaged for each month for which data were gathered. This table also contains the monthly

  10. Alignment blur in coherently averaged images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Monro; D. M. Simpson

    1996-01-01

    Blurring of coherently averaged images due to imperfect alignment is studied, and two restoration methods are proposed and evaluated. It is shown that iterative realignment is more powerful than post-filtering in reducing blur. The value of averaging and restoration is illustrated on human subjects in noisy video sequences

  11. Average Bit-Complexity of Euclidean Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Akhavi; Brigitte Vallée

    2000-01-01

    We obtain new results regarding the precise average bit- complexity of ve algorithms of a broad Euclidean type. We develop a general framework for analysis of algorithms, where the average-case complexity of an algorithm is seen to be related to the analytic behaviour in the complex plane of the set of elementary transformations determined by the algorithms. The methods rely

  12. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  13. ON THE AVERAGE ENERGIES OF MOLECULAR IONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stevenson

    1959-01-01

    The average excitation energy e-bar with which molecule ions are formed ; by electron impact-induced ionization in relation to the average energy expended ; in the formation of molecule ions is considered. Under the assumption of an ; essential applicability of a quasi-equilibrium rate theory to mass spectra, e-bar ; can be related to two observable mass spectral qualities. The

  14. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-print Network

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  15. Averages of Forecasts: Some Empirical Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spyros Makridakis; Robert L. Winkler

    1983-01-01

    An alternative to using a single forecasting method is to average the forecasts obtained from several methods. In this paper we investigate empirically the impact of the number and choice of forecasting methods on the accuracy of simple averages. It is concluded that the forecasting accuracy improves, and that the variability of accuracy among different combinations decreases, as the number

  16. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…

  17. Forecasting Inflation Using Dynamic Model Averaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Koop; Dimitris Korobilis

    2010-01-01

    We forecast quarterly US inflation based on the generalized Phillips curve using econometric methods which incorporate dynamic model averaging. These methods not only allow for coe¢ cients to change over time, but also allow for the entire forecasting model to change over time. We nd that dynamic model averaging leads to substantial forecasting improvements over simple benchmark regressions and more

  18. Averaged shifted chi-square test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyh-Shyang Wu; Wen-Shuenn Deng

    2012-01-01

    A simple procedure based on the average of shifted chi-square statistics (ASCS) is proposed to improve the classical chi-square procedure for testing whether a random sample has been drawn from a specified continuous distribution. We repeatedly partition the sample space, say, ? times to obtain ? respective chi-square statistics. The proposed test statistic is defined as the average value of

  19. Averaged shifted chi-square test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyh-Shyang Wu; Wen-Shuenn Deng

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure based on the average of shifted chi-square statistics (ASCS) is proposed to improve the classical chi-square procedure for testing whether a random sample has been drawn from a specified continuous distribution. We repeatedly partition the sample space, say, ? times to obtain ? respective chi-square statistics. The proposed test statistic is defined as the average value of

  20. Flexibility of spatial averaging in visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Lombrozo, Tania; Judson, Jeff; MacLeod, Donald I.A

    2005-01-01

    The classical receptive field (RF) concept—the idea that a visual neuron responds to fixed parts and properties of a stimulus—has been challenged by a series of recent physiological results. Here, we extend these findings to human vision, demonstrating that the extent of spatial averaging in contrast perception is also flexible, depending strongly on stimulus contrast and uniformity. At low contrast, spatial averaging is greatest (about 11?min of arc) within uniform regions such as edges, as expected if the relevant neurons have orientation-selective RFs. At high contrast, spatial averaging is minimal. These results can be understood if the visual system is balancing a trade-off between noise reduction, which favours large areas of averaging, and detail preservation, which favours minimal averaging. Two distinct populations of neurons with hard-wired RFs could account for our results, as could the more intriguing possibility of dynamic, contrast-dependent RFs. PMID:15870034

  1. Small scale magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pfirsch, D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-8046 Garching (Germany)); Sudan, R.N. (Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States))

    1994-08-01

    By relaxing exact magnetic flux conservation below a scale [lambda] a system of flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived from Hamilton's principle with modified constraints. An energy principle can be derived from the linearized averaged system because the total system energy is conserved. This energy principle is employed to treat the resistive tearing instability and the exact growth rate is recovered when [lambda] is identified with the resistive skin depth. A necessary and sufficient stability criteria of the tearing instability with line tying at the ends for solar coronal loops is also obtained. The method is extended to both spatial and temporal averaging in Hamilton's principle. The resulting system of equations not only allows flux reconnection but introduces irreversibility for appropriate choice of the averaging function. Except for boundary contributions which are modified by the time averaging process total energy and momentum are conserved over times much longer than the averaging time [tau] but not for less than [tau]. These modified boundary contributions correspond to the existence, also, of damped waves and shock waves in this theory. Time and space averaging is applied to electron magnetohydrodynamics and in one-dimensional geometry predicts solitons and shocks in different limits.

  2. Averaging in cosmology based on Cartan scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kašpar, P.; Svítek, O.

    2014-05-01

    We present a new approach for averaging in general relativity and cosmology. After a short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, we consider two ways of dealing with averaging based on Cartan scalars. We apply the theory for two different Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi models. In the first one, the correlation term behaves as a positive cosmological constant, in the second example, the leading correlation term behaves like spatial curvature. We also show the non-triviality of averaging for linearized monochromatic gravitational wave.

  3. Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

    Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

  4. Pleasing the Masses: Messages for Daily Life Management in African American Women's Popular Media Sources

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the “strong Black woman” (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Methods. Using the search term “strong Black woman,” we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Results. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management (“please the masses”), emotional suppression (“game face”), and postponement of self-care (“last on the list”) incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Conclusions. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources. PMID:21088274

  5. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  6. Ensemble Averages when ?is a Square Integer

    E-print Network

    Christopher D. Sinclair

    2010-08-25

    We give a hyperpfaffian formulation of partition functions and ensemble averages for Hermitian and circular ensembles when L is an arbitrary integer and \\beta=L^2 and when L is an odd integer and \\beta=L^2 +1.

  7. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 ...certification averaging program. Include only motorcycles certified under this subpart and intended...for which you manufacture or import motorcycles. (d) Calculate your...

  8. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 ...certification averaging program. Include only motorcycles certified under this subpart and intended...for which you manufacture or import motorcycles. (d) Calculate your...

  9. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 ...certification averaging program. Include only motorcycles certified under this subpart and intended...for which you manufacture or import motorcycles. (d) Calculate your...

  10. SAMPLE AVERAGE APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR COMPOUND ...

    E-print Network

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... Sample Average Approximation (SAA) method (also known as ..... ? ? X, with rate (of a numerical sequence) 1/?n and distribution ?, if there is a ...... In [32] this property was attached a status ...... tics Reports, 34 (1990), pp.

  11. Convergence speed in distributed consensus and averaging

    E-print Network

    Olshevsky, Alexander

    We study the convergence speed of distributed iterative algorithms for the consensus and averaging problems, with emphasis on the latter. We first consider the case of a fixed communication topology. We show that a simple ...

  12. Convergence speed in distributed consensus and averaging

    E-print Network

    Olshevsky, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We propose three new algorithms for the distributed averaging and consensus problems: two for the fixed-graph case, and one for the dynamic-topology case. The convergence times of our fixed-graph algorithms compare favorably ...

  13. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  14. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  15. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  16. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  17. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  18. Reasonable Averages That Give Wrong Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)

    Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion gives an insight into the nature of the error.

  19. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  20. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    PubMed

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures. PMID:16043055

  1. Applications of high average power nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-02-05

    Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.

  2. Averaging for split-step scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim Zharnitsky

    2003-01-01

    The split-step Fourier method for solving numerically nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLS) is considered as NLS with rapidly varying coefficients. This connection is exploited to justify the split-step approximation using an averaging technique. The averaging is done up to the second order and it is explained why (in this context) symmetric split-step produces a higher order scheme. The same approach is

  3. Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1995-01-01

    The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  4. A high average power pockels cell

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, T.P.

    1986-02-10

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduced the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  5. Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.

    PubMed

    Fernando, K Vince

    2008-10-01

    The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images. PMID:18662790

  6. completely vegetarian Average spend per person per

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    completely vegetarian 3% 11.5% 15.8% 10% Average spend per person per week in the UK on food-stats-food-family-annual-2009/pdf Average spend per person per week on eating out, out of total food spend, was 26% (£8.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/ UK SPEND ON FOOD ALL HOUSEHOLDS LOWEST FIFTH GLOBAL POPULATION BY BODY MASS INDEX UK SPEND

  7. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second, a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the circular unitary ensemble (CUE) average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like 1/\\sqrt{N} as the dimension N of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as N\\to ? such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order 1/{{N}2}) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE-type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  8. Improved averaging for non-null interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleig, Jon F.; Murphy, Paul E.

    2013-09-01

    Arithmetic averaging of interferometric phase measurements is a well-established method for reducing the effects of time varying disturbances, such as air turbulence and vibration. Calculating a map of the standard deviation for each pixel in the average map can provide a useful estimate of its variability. However, phase maps of complex and/or high density fringe fields frequently contain defects that severely impair the effectiveness of simple phase averaging and bias the variability estimate. These defects include large or small-area phase unwrapping artifacts, large alignment components, and voids that change in number, location, or size. Inclusion of a single phase map with a large area defect into the average is usually sufficient to spoil the entire result. Small-area phase unwrapping and void defects may not render the average map metrologically useless, but they pessimistically bias the variance estimate for the overwhelming majority of the data. We present an algorithm that obtains phase average and variance estimates that are robust against both large and small-area phase defects. It identifies and rejects phase maps containing large area voids or unwrapping artifacts. It also identifies and prunes the unreliable areas of otherwise useful phase maps, and removes the effect of alignment drift from the variance estimate. The algorithm has several run-time adjustable parameters to adjust the rejection criteria for bad data. However, a single nominal setting has been effective over a wide range of conditions. This enhanced averaging algorithm can be efficiently integrated with the phase map acquisition process to minimize the number of phase samples required to approach the practical noise floor of the metrology environment.

  9. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

  10. Volume averaging in the quasispherical Szekeres model

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Bolejko

    2008-11-22

    This paper considers the volume averaging in the quasispherical Szekeres model. The volume averaging became of considerable interest after it was shown that the volume acceleration calculated within the averaging framework can be positive even though the local expansion rate is always decelerating. This issue was intensively studied within spherically symmetric models. However, since our Universe is not spherically symmetric similar analysis is needed in non symmetrical models. This papers presents the averaging analysis within the quasispherical Szekeres model which is a non-symmetrical generalisation of the spherically symmetric Lema\\^itre--Tolman family of models. Density distribution in the quasispherical Szekeres has a structure of a time-dependent mass dipole superposed on a monopole. This paper shows that when calculating the volume acceleration, $\\ddot{a}$, within the Szekeres model, the dipole does not contribute to the final result, hence $\\ddot{a}$ only depends on a monopole configuration. Thus, the volume averaging within the Szekeres model leads to literally the same solutions as obtained within the Lema\\^itre--Tolman model.

  11. Pain Management in Ambulatory Surgery—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Jan G.

    2014-01-01

    Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional ?-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3–5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures. PMID:25061796

  12. Exploiting scale dependence in cosmological averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Teppo; Ronkainen, Maria, E-mail: teppo.mattsson@helsinki.fi, E-mail: maria.ronkainen@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland); Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2008-02-15

    We study the role of scale dependence in the Buchert averaging method, using the flat Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model as a testing ground. Within this model, a single averaging scale gives predictions that are too coarse, but by replacing it with the distance of the objects R(z) for each redshift z, we find an O(1%) precision at z<2 in the averaged luminosity and angular diameter distances compared to their exact expressions. At low redshifts, we show the improvement for generic inhomogeneity profiles, and our numerical computations further verify it up to redshifts z{approx}2. At higher redshifts, the method breaks down due to its inability to capture the time evolution of the inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that the running smoothing scale R(z) can mimic acceleration, suggesting that it could be at least as important as the backreaction in explaining dark energy as an inhomogeneity induced illusion.

  13. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  14. The synchronous (time domain) average revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S.

    2011-05-01

    Synchronous averaging is one of the most powerful techniques for the extraction of periodic signals from a composite signal. It is based on averaging periodic sections, necessitating an a-priori knowledge of the period sought. It is one of the most effective signal processing tools applied to rotating machinery, and has been known and used for decades.It will be shown that synchronous average is actually just one of the many possible "synchronous filters" which could be used to extract the above periodic components performance. A novel signal analysis, geared to periodic signals will be introduced, with the potential of extracting more complex phenomena typical of some rotating machinery. Examples given are based on periodic oscillating transients, with various additive interferences. The possibility of additional signal processing approaches is also discussed.

  15. An improved moving average technical trading rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papailias, Fotis; Thomakos, Dimitrios D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a modified version of the widely used price and moving average cross-over trading strategies. The suggested approach (presented in its 'long only' version) is a combination of cross-over 'buy' signals and a dynamic threshold value which acts as a dynamic trailing stop. The trading behaviour and performance from this modified strategy are different from the standard approach with results showing that, on average, the proposed modification increases the cumulative return and the Sharpe ratio of the investor while exhibiting smaller maximum drawdown and smaller drawdown duration than the standard strategy.

  16. The modulated average structure of mullite.

    PubMed

    Birkenstock, Johannes; Pet?í?ek, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al4.8Si1.2O9.6) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al4.82?(3)Si1.18?(1)O9.59?(5)) and by average structure refinements. 8?(5) to 20?(13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137?(2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021?(5) 0.1834?(2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009?(5) -0.1834?(2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real structure of mullite is locally ordered (as previously known), but on the long-range its average is not completely disordered, the modulated structure of mullite may be denoted the true `average structure of mullite'. PMID:26027012

  17. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  18. Average magnitude difference function pitch extractor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ross; H. Shaffer; A. Cohen; R. Freudberg; H. Manley

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a method for using the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) and associated decision logic to estimate the pitch period of voiced speech sounds. The AMDF is a variation on autocorrelation analysis where, instead of correlating the input speech at various delays (where multiplications and summations are formed at each value of delay), a difference signal is formed

  19. Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Neil S.

    1988-01-01

    Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.

  20. Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

  1. Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ballatore

    2004-01-01

    Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices

  2. Science of NHL Hockey: Statistics & Averages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    Being a top goalie in the NHL takes more than quick reflexes and nerves of steel, it also requires a firm grip on the numbers. Namely, the key averages and statistics of goaltending. "Science of NHL Hockey" is a 10-part video series produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation and the National Hockey League.

  3. Relaxed Averaged Alternating Reflections for Diraction Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Russell Luke

    We report on progress in algorithms for iterative phase retrieval. The theory of convex optimisation is used to develop and to gain insight into counterparts for the nonconvex problem of phase retrieval. We propose a relaxation of averaged alternating reflectors and determine the fixed point set of the related operator in the convex case. A numerical study supports our theoretical

  4. Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Russell Luke

    2005-01-01

    We report on progress in algorithms for iterative phase retrieval. The theory of convex optimization is used to develop and to gain insight into counterparts for the nonconvex problem of phase retrieval. We propose a relaxation of averaged alternating reflectors and determine the fixed-point set of the related operator in the convex case. A numerical study supports our theoretical observations

  5. Bayesian Model Averaging for Linear Regression Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian E. Raftery; David Madigan; Jennifer A. Hoeting

    1998-01-01

    We consider the problem of accounting for model uncertainty in linear regressionmodels. Conditioning on a single selected model ignores model uncertainty, and thusleads to the underestimation of uncertainty when making inferences about quantitiesof interest. A Bayesian solution to this problem involves averaging over all possiblemodels (i.e., combinations of predictors) when making inferences about quantities ofAdrian E. Raftery is Professor of

  6. Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

  7. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  8. Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Alan

    1997-01-01

    During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

  9. Average case complexity for finite Boolean functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Chashkin

    2001-01-01

    The average time of computing Boolean functions by straight-line programs with a conditional stop is considered. A straight-line program consists of operators of two types. Every operator of the first type computes a binary Boolean function whose arguments are either the values computed by preceding operators or the values of the input variables. Every operator of the second type either

  10. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...

  11. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...

  12. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...

  13. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...

  14. 40 CFR 90.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...

  15. Hyperplane Arrangements with Large Average Diameter

    E-print Network

    2007-09-23

    Sep 23, 2007 ... Abstract: The largest possible average diameter of a bounded cell of a simple hyperplane arrangement ... timization problem min{cT x : x ? P}. Dedieu ..... [7] L. Finschi: Oriented matroids database http://www.om.math.ethz.ch .

  16. THE AVERAGE CASE ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS

    E-print Network

    Flajolet, Philippe

    & Princeton Saddle Point Asymptotics October 22, 1994 &&&&&&&&&& #12; #12; i THE AVERAGE CASE ANALYSIS of Generating Functions; 6. Saddle Point Asymptotics; 7. Mellin Transform Asymptotics; 8. Functional Equations numbers, Stir­ ling's formula and the asymptotic counting of integer partitions. 6.1 Introduction Saddle

  17. Lay Management of Chronic Disease: A Qualitative Study of Living with Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Webster, Noah J.; Blixen, Carol E.; McCormick, Richard A.; Perzynski, Adam T.; Kanuch, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Neal V.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine management strategies and goals reported by people diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. Methods We analyzed data from semi-structured interviews (N=42) and from electronic sources [illness narratives (N=79) and Internet threaded discussions (N=264)]. Line-by-line coding, comparisons, and team discussions generated catalogs of lay management strategies and goals. We analyzed code-based files to identify informants’ selection of specific strategies for each goal. Results We classified lay management strategies into 3 categories: Medical Self-care, Behavior Change, and Coping. These strategies were used selectively in addressing multiple goals, categorized as Fighting the Virus, Strengthening the Body, and Managing Consequences. Conclusions Results underscore the diversity of strategies for living with a disease characterized by uncertain prognosis and variable expression of symptoms. PMID:19182983

  18. Ensemble averaging vs. time averaging in molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordiz, Kiarash; Singh, David J.; Henry, Asegun

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we compare time averaging and ensemble averaging as two different methods for phase space sampling in molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of thermal conductivity. For the comparison, we calculate thermal conductivities of solid argon and silicon structures, using equilibrium MD. We introduce two different schemes for the ensemble averaging approach and show that both can reduce the total simulation time as compared to time averaging. It is also found that velocity rescaling is an efficient mechanism for phase space exploration. Although our methodology is tested using classical MD, the approaches used for generating independent trajectories may find their greatest utility in computationally expensive simulations such as first principles MD. For such simulations, where each time step is costly, time averaging can require long simulation times because each time step must be evaluated sequentially and therefore phase space averaging is achieved through sequential operations. On the other hand, with ensemble averaging, phase space sampling can be achieved through parallel operations, since each trajectory is independent. For this reason, particularly when using massively parallel architectures, ensemble averaging can result in much shorter simulation times (˜100-200X), but exhibits similar overall computational effort.

  19. Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Jean; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

  20. jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.

    PubMed

    Posada, David

    2008-07-01

    jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:18397919

  1. Average gluon and quark jet multiplicities

    E-print Network

    A. V. Kotikov

    2014-11-30

    We show the results in [1,2] for computing the QCD contributions to the scale evolution of average gluon and quark jet multiplicities. The new results came due a recent progress in timelike small-x resummation obtained in the MSbar factorization scheme. They depend on two nonperturbative parameters with clear and simple physical interpretations. A global fit of these two quantities to all available experimental data sets demonstrates by its goodness how our results solve a longstandig problem of QCD. Including all the available theoretical input within our approach, alphas(Mz)=0.1199 +- 0.0026 has been obtained in the MSbar scheme in an approximation equivalent to next-to-next-to-leading order enhanced by the resummations of ln x terms through the NNLL level and of ln Q2 terms by the renormalization group. This result is in excellent agreement with the present world average.

  2. Models of space averaged energetics of plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouthier, O. M.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of high frequency vibrations in plates is of particular interest in the study of structure borne noise in aircrafts. The current methods of analysis are either too expensive (finite element method) or may have a confidence band wider than desirable (Statistical Energy Analysis). An alternative technique to model the space and time averaged response of structural acoustics problems with enough detail to include all significant mechanisms of energy generation, transmission, and absorption is highly desirable. The focus of this paper is the development of a set of equations which govern the space and time averaged energy density in plates. To solve this equation, a new type of boundary value problem must be treated in terms of energy density variables using energy and intensity boundary conditions. A computer simulation verification study of the energy governing equation is performed. A finite element formulation of the new equations is also implemented and several test cases are analyzed and compared to analytical solutions.

  3. Average magnification effect of clumping of matter

    E-print Network

    Kibble, T W B; Lieu, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to re-examine the question of the average magnification in a universe with some inhomogeneously distributed matter. We present an analytic proof, valid under rather general conditions, including clumps of any shape and size, and strong lensing, that so long as the clumps are uncorrelated the average \\emph{reciprocal} magnification (in only one of at least four possible meanings of the words) is precisely the same as in a homogeneous universe with equal mean density. We also discuss, in the context of observations of discrete and extended sources, the physical significance of the various different measures of magnification and the circumstances in which they are appropriate. The interpretation of quasar, type 1A supernovae and cosmic microwave background data could be significantly biased if the wrong measure is employed.

  4. SOME NEW VELOCITY AVERAGING RESULTS MICHAEL WESTDICKENBERG

    E-print Network

    is bounded in the Sobolev space W1/2,2 (Rn ). Hence we have a gain of one half derivative here. Golse, Lions Lp(Rn ×Rn ), then ¯f Ws,p (Rn ) for all s strictly less than min{1/p, 1/p }. DiPerna, Lions & MeyerPerna, Lions & Meyer [10] show for this case, that the average is contained in a Besov space built on Lorentz

  5. Potential of Average Force in a Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Theimer; P. Kepple

    1966-01-01

    The potential of average force W1,2qq' experienced by a charge q' at a distance|r1-r2| from a charge q is calculated from the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon equations of classical statistical mechanics without linearization or equivalent approximations. Diverging integrals are eliminated by the condition that bound-particle states with negative internal energy, e.g., atoms, be excluded from the partition function. The 3-particle distribution functions required

  6. The Average Velocity in a Queue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frette, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

  7. Average chemical composition of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The available data on the chemical composition of the lunar surface at eleven sites (3 Surveyor, 5 Apollo and 3 Luna) are used to estimate the amounts of principal chemical elements (those present in more than about 0.5% by atom) in average lunar surface material. The terrae of the moon differ from the maria in having much less iron and titanium and appreciably more aluminum and calcium.

  8. Gridded electron guns for high average power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Gallagher

    1962-01-01

    The design and performance of electron guns producing high-average-power beams which are controlled by an intercepting-type grid are described. The design consists of a modification of the design of Pierce-type electron guns to allow for the effect of grid insertion, and calculation of the amplification factors based on the potential distribution. The performance is evaluated in terms of the beam

  9. Averaging analysis of adaptive control algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Stephen M.; Kosut, Robert L.; Franklin, Gene F.

    1988-01-01

    The method of averaging is used to analyze discrete-time indirect adaptive control. The analysis focuses on various prediction-error-driven identification algorithms coupled with a general linear control law. The plant is not required to be in the model set of the identifier, which accounts for systems with unmodeled plant dynamics. Exogenous input signals including known command signals and unknown disturbances are also included. Both gradient and Newton-based algorithms are considered.

  10. Time averaging of instantaneous quantities in HYDRA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McCallen

    1996-01-01

    For turbulent flow the evaluation of direct numerical simulations (DNS) where all scales are resolved and large-eddy simulation (LES) where only large-scales are resolved is difficult because the results are three-dimensional and transient. To simplify the analysis, the instantaneous flow field can be averaged in time for evaluation and comparison to experimental results. The incompressible Navier-Stokes flow code HYDRA has

  11. Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    1998-11-15

    We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

  12. Optimal Averaging of Incomplete Climatological Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gebhardt; B. Kusserow; A. Hense

    2000-01-01

    Summary   We present a multivariate statistical interpolation method for optimal averaging of incomplete climatological data. This\\u000a objective analysis is based on a linear regression of the data under the constraints of unbiasedness and minimized analysis\\u000a error variance. One of the important features of the presented interpolation is the efficient exchange of common information\\u000a between the analysed variables. This exchange is

  13. Disk-Averaged Synthetic Spectra of Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanna Tinetti; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp; William Fong; Thangasamy Velusamy; Heather Snively

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the

  14. [Signal averaging electrocardiography in chronic alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Pochmalicki, G; Genest, M; Jibril, A; Abdmoulah, M; Chatila, M; Zemir, H; Cayla, J M

    1998-03-01

    Cardiovascular death is the main cause of mortality in chronic alcoholics, perhaps due to a pro-arrhythmogenic effect of alcohol associated with infraclinical myocardial lesions. The authors investigated prospectively 41 patients (average age: 49.7 years) who were chronic alcoholics but had no acute alcoholic episodes for cardiac disease (ECG, signal averaging for late ventricular potentials, echocardiography and Holter ECG monitoring) and hepatic disease (liver biopsy). The history of alcoholism was 14 +/- 9 years, the quantity of alcohol ingested before they stopped drinking being 89 +/- 31 grammes/day. Thirty per cent of patients displayed 2 or 3 criteria of late ventricular potentials (LP). The authors demonstrated a correlation between the daily quantity of alcohol consumed before stopping drinking and the duration of the filtered QRS complex (p = 0.02). Moreover, the frequency of fatty infiltration found on liver biopsy, greater in alcoholics with LP (35% versus 19%, p = 0.025) correlated with the amplitude of the last 40 ms of the average QRS (p = 0.0485), with the duration of potentials of less than 40 microvolts (p = 0.05) and, above all, with the number of criteria of LP (p = 0.02). Finally, the presence of LP was also related to the following biological abnormalities: GGT (p = 0.027), ASAT (p = 0.046), ALAT (p = 0.039). The ECG abnormalities may reflect early infra-clinical myocardial lesions secondary to cellular metabolic abnormalities perhaps analogous to the fatty hepatic changes. However, the prognostic value of these signal-averaging ECG abnormalities remains unknown. PMID:9749235

  15. Digital Averaging Phasemeter for Heterodyne Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Donald; Spero, Robert; Shaklan, Stuart; Halverson, Peter; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A digital averaging phasemeter has been built for measuring the difference between the phases of the unknown and reference heterodyne signals in a heterodyne laser interferometer. This phasemeter performs well enough to enable interferometric measurements of distance with accuracy of the order of 100 pm and with the ability to track distance as it changes at a speed of as much as 50 cm/s. This phasemeter is unique in that it is a single, integral system capable of performing three major functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate systems: (1) measurement of the fractional-cycle phase difference, (2) counting of multiple cycles of phase change, and (3) averaging of phase measurements over multiple cycles for improved resolution. This phasemeter also offers the advantage of making repeated measurements at a high rate: the phase is measured on every heterodyne cycle. Thus, for example, in measuring the relative phase of two signals having a heterodyne frequency of 10 kHz, the phasemeter would accumulate 10,000 measurements per second. At this high measurement rate, an accurate average phase determination can be made more quickly than is possible at a lower rate.

  16. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    E-print Network

    Tinetti, G; Fong, W; Meadows, V S; Snively, H; Velusamy, T; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Meadows, Victoria S.; Snively, Heather; Tinetti, Giovanna; Velusamy, Thangasamy

    2004-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-cur...

  17. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  18. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-08-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin. PMID:16078866

  19. A New Formula of Averaging Physical Quantities (Application to calculation of the average radius of tapering tube and average flow velocity in the tube)

    E-print Network

    I. A. Stepanow

    2006-03-22

    The traditional method of finding the average value of a physical quantity often gives wrong results. Another formula of averaging is derived which gives correct results. It is applied to calculation of the average radius of tapering tube and the average flow velocity in the tube. The new formula is applicable to many other processes.

  20. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-08-14

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171

  1. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-print Network

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  2. Problems in the use of statistical average atom potentials for estimating average degree of ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Zakowicz; I. J. Feng; R. H. Pratt

    1982-01-01

    Consequences of a simple integral definition of electron charge bound to an ion are examined for Thomas-Fermi (TF) and Debye-Huckel-Thomas-Fermi (DHTF) average atom statistical potentials used to describe high temperature high density plasmas. A self-consistent scheme for calculating average degree of ionization within the DHTF approach is described. With the simple integral definition of bound charge the DHTF model, unlike

  3. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  4. Averaging in the presence of sliding errors

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, G.P. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    In many cases the precision with which an experiment can measure a physical quantity depends on the value of that quantity. Not having access to the true value, experimental groups are forced to assign their errors based on their own measured value. Procedures which attempt to derive an improved estimate of the true value by a suitable average of such measurements usually weight each experiment`s measurement according to the reported variance. However, one is in a position to derive improved error estimates for each experiment from the average itself, provided an approximate idea of the functional dependence of the error on the central value is known. Failing to do so can lead to substantial biases. Techniques which avoid these biases without loss of precision are proposed and their performance is analyzed with examples. These techniques are quite general and can bring about an improvement even when the behavior of the errors is not well understood. Perhaps the most important application of the technique is in fitting curves to histograms.

  5. Analysis of averaged multichannel delay times

    E-print Network

    N. G. Kelkar; M. Nowakowski

    2008-05-05

    The physical significances and the pros and cons involved in the usage of different time delay formalisms are discussed. The delay time matrix introduced by Eisenbud, where only s-waves participate in a reaction, is in general related to the definition of an angular time delay which is shown not to be equivalent to the so-called phase time delay of Eisenbud and Wigner even for single channel scattering. Whereas the expression due to Smith which is derived from a time delayed radial wave packet is consistent with a lifetime matrix which is Hermitian, this is not true for any Eisenbud-type lifetime matrix which violates time reversal invariance. Extending the angular time delay of Nussenzveig to multiple channels, we show that if one performs an average over the directions and subtracts the forward angle contribution containing an interference of the incident and scattered waves, the multichannel angle dependent average time delay reduces to the one given by Smith. The present work also rectifies a recently misinterpreted misnomer of the relation due to Smith.

  6. Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

  7. MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jordan; Trent Allison; Richard Evans; James Coleman; Albert Grippo

    2003-05-01

    A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.

  8. hp calculators HP 50g Average sales prices

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Frederick J.

    hp calculators HP 50g Average sales prices The STAT menu Averages and Standard Deviations Practice finding average sale prices and standard deviations #12;hp calculators HP 50g Average sales prices hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Average sales prices The STAT menu The Statistics menu is accessed from the ORANGE

  9. Managing upper extremity clonus with intramuscular botulinum toxin-a injections in a patient poststroke.

    PubMed

    Kassam, Adam; Phadke, Chetan P; Ismail, Farooq; Boulias, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Spasticity and clonus are common clinical signs of upper motor neuron lesions poststroke. Intramuscular botulinum toxin-A injections have been shown to reduce spasticity and to improve quality of life. Upper extremity clonus can have a significant impact upon activities of daily living and can pose challenges to comfort, self-care, hygiene, and appearance. Although less common than in the ankle, it is important to understand how upper extremity clonus management may be beneficial to patients presenting with this finding. The majority of previous reports have focused on management of clonus in the lower extremity, but very few have addressed the management of upper extremity clonus. We present a case of poststroke upper extremity clonus with marked improvements following intramuscular botulinum toxin-A injections. PMID:25459654

  10. Psychological treatment of asthma: effectiveness of a self-management program with and without relaxation training.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, M I; Buceta, J M

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-seven asthmatic children were allocated to three experimental conditions. The first group received an asthma self-management program; the second group received the same program together with progressive relaxation training; the third group was maintained initially as a control. The self-management program was effective in increasing the frequency of asthma care behavior, but no significant changes were observed in clinical or pulmonary function variables. The relaxation technique did not improve the efficacy of treatment. When the comparison was restricted to children who displayed a low level of self-care practices, the self-management program proved to be effective in reducing attack duration, negative consequences of asthma for the child, and the level of therapeutic response to attacks. PMID:8325826

  11. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-print Network

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  12. Average gait differential image based human recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

  13. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  14. Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  16. Using NDVI to assess departure from average greenness and its relation to fire business. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgan, R.E.; Hartford, R.A.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Satellite-derived vegetation greenness maps of the contiguous United States have been available to fire managers since 1989. This report describes a new map, departure from average, which is designed to compare current-year vegetation greenness to average greenness for the same time of year and describes it relationship to fire business.

  17. High average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Neau, E.L.

    1995-05-01

    Which current pulsed accelerator technology was developed during the late 60`s through the late 80`s to satisfy the needs of various military related applications such as effects simulators, particle beam devices, free electron lasers, and as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. The emphasis in these devices is to achieve very high peak power levels, with pulse lengths on the order of a few 10`s of nanoseconds, peak currents of up to 10`s of MA, and accelerating potentials of up to 10`s of MV. New which average power systems, incorporating thermal management techniques, are enabling the potential use of high peak power technology in a number of diverse industrial application areas such as materials processing, food processing, stack gas cleanup, and the destruction of organic contaminants. These systems employ semiconductor and saturable magnetic switches to achieve short pulse durations that can then be added to efficiently give MV accelerating, potentials while delivering average power levels of a few 100`s of kilowatts to perhaps many megawatts. The Repetitive High Energy Puled Power project is developing short-pulse, high current accelerator technology capable of generating beams with kJ`s of energy per pulse delivered to areas of 1000 cm{sup 2} or more using ions, electrons, or x-rays. Modular technology is employed to meet the needs of a variety of applications requiring from 100`s of kV to MV`s and from 10`s to 100`s of kA. Modest repetition rates, up to a few 100`s of pulses per second (PPS), allow these machines to deliver average currents on the order of a few 100`s of mA. The design and operation of the second generation 300 kW RHEPP-II machine, now being brought on-line to operate at 2.5 MV, 25 kA, and 100 PPS will be described in detail as one example of the new high average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology.

  18. College Grade Point Average as a Personnel Selection Device: Ethnic Group Differences and Potential Adverse Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip L. Roth; Philip Bobko

    2000-01-01

    College grade point average (GPA) is often used in a variety of ways in personnel selection. Unfortunately, there is little empirical research literature in human resource management that informs researchers or practitioners about the magnitude of ethnic group differences and any potential adverse impact implications when using cumulative GPA for selection. Data from a medium-sized university in the Southeast (N

  19. Information Capacity of Optical Fiber Channels with Zero Average Dispersion K. S. Turitsyn,1

    E-print Network

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    Information Capacity of Optical Fiber Channels with Zero Average Dispersion K. S. Turitsyn,1 S. A the statistics of optical data transmission in a noisy nonlinear fiber channel with a weak dispersion management interest to the information theory of non- Gaussian nonlinear communication channels [2­7]. Optical fiber

  20. Average Characteristic Polynomials of Determinantal Point Processes

    E-print Network

    Adrien Hardy

    2015-01-07

    We investigate the average characteristic polynomial $\\mathbb E\\big[\\prod_{i=1}^N(z-x_i)\\big] $ where the $x_i$'s are real random variables which form a determinantal point process associated to a bounded projection operator. For a subclass of point processes, which contains Orthogonal Polynomial Ensembles and Multiple Orthogonal Polynomial Ensembles, we provide a sufficient condition for its limiting zero distribution to match with the limiting distribution of the random variables, almost surely, as $N$ goes to infinity. Moreover, such a condition turns out to be sufficient to strengthen the mean convergence to the almost sure one for the moments of the empirical measure associated to the determinantal point process, a fact of independent interest. As an application, we obtain from a theorem of Kuijlaars and Van Assche a unified way to describe the almost sure convergence for classical Orthogonal Polynomial Ensembles. As another application, we obtain from Voiculescu's theorems the limiting zero distribution for multiple Hermite and multiple Laguerre polynomials, expressed in terms of free convolutions of classical distributions with atomic measures.

  1. Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru; Sapozhnikov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-15

    The average structure of the monoclinic modification of lazurite Ca{sub 1.26}Na{sub 6.63}K{sub 0.04}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](SO{sub 4}){sub 1.53}S{sub 0.99}Cl{sub 0.05} (discovered in the Lake Baikal region) incommensurately modulated along the c axis is solved by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.069(1) A, b = 12.868(1) A, c = 12.872(1) A, {gamma} = 90.19(1) deg., sp. gr. Pa, R = 6.9%, 2057 reflections. The AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a partially ordered framework. The positions in the cavities of the framework are split and randomly occupied by Na and Ca atoms and the SO{sub 4}, S{sub 2}, S{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} anionic groups. The structure of the mineral is compared with the superstructure of triclinic lazurite. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of the incommensurate modulation in monoclinic and other lazurites.

  2. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  3. NGC 4151: an intrinsically average Seyfert 1

    E-print Network

    Andrzej A. Zdziarski; Karen M. Leighly; Masaru Matsuoka; Massimo Cappi; Tatehiro Mihara

    2002-03-18

    We present a detailed analysis of a long, 100 ksec, observation of NGC 4151 by ASCA, contemporaneous with an observation by the CGRO/OSSE. We fit the data with physical models including an Fe K line and Compton reflection both relativistically broadened and coupled according to theoretical results. The model also includes a narrow Fe K component, which is emitted by both an extended plasma region and the X-ray absorber. Our study of the absorber shows strong evidence for the presence of more than one partial-covering cloud in the line of sight. Taking these points into account, our best intrinsic model includes a Comptonization continuum with an X-ray slope of Gamma=1.9 from a thermal plasma with an electron kT=70 keV or so and a disk line with an equivalent width of about 70 eV. The broadening of the line and reflection indicate their origin from innermost parts of an accretion disk. Our results indicate that NGC 4151 has an intrinsic X-ray spectrum and variability properties similar to those of average Seyfert 1s.

  4. Contrast of time-averaged images of the solar granulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Brandt; A. V. Getling

    2004-01-01

    The time-averaged images of the solar granulation exhibit a slower decrease in contrast with the averaging time than do time-averaged images of numerically simulated granulation and time-averaged random fields with some parameters typical of granulation. This confirms the hints for long-lived structures in the granulation pattern.

  5. Development and evaluation of a hybrid averaged orbit generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. McClain; A. C. Long; L. W. Early

    1978-01-01

    A rapid orbit generator based on a first-order application of the Generalized Method of Averaging has been developed for the Research and Development (R&D) version of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The evaluation of the averaged equations of motion can use both numerically averaged and recursively evaluated, analytically averaged perturbation models. These equations are numerically integrated to obtain the

  6. An algorithm to compute averages on matrix Lie groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Fiori; Toshihisa Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Averaging is a common way to alleviate errors and random fluctuations in measurements and to smooth out data. Averaging also provides a way to merge structured data in a smooth manner. The present paper describes an algorithm to compute averages on matrix Lie groups. In particular, we discuss the case of averaging over the special orthogonal group of matrices, the

  7. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation of global 21-cm signal measurements are detections of Lyman Alpha Emitters at high redshifts and constraints on the midpoint of reionization, both of which are among the primary science objectives of ongoing or near-future experiments.

  8. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  9. What do bloggers do: an average day on an average political blog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura McKenna; Antoinette Pole

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether average political bloggers engage in four distinct activities: informing readers, checking\\u000a the media, engaging in political advocacy, and gathering money for charitable causes. Findings show that most bloggers inform\\u000a their readers about articles in the media or to draw attention to key posts on other blogs. Somewhat less frequently, most\\u000a bloggers write posts that detect errors

  10. Strategies for managing behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type: a systematic overview.

    PubMed

    Forbes, D A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic overview was to summarize research findings on strategies for managing the behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. A search of the published and unpublished literature resulted in 265 articles, 45 of which were judged to be relevant. Using validity criteria, 1 article was judged to be strong, 6 moderate, 20 weak, and 18 poor. Strategies such as planned walking, pet therapy, an attention-focusing program, functional skills training, music, and visual barriers demonstrated promising results in improving: (a) aggressive, agitated, and disruptive behaviours, (b) social interaction, (c) self-care ability, (d) day-night disturbances, or (e) wandering. The findings indicate that there is existing research, although in its infancy, to support the use of strategies for managing the behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. PMID:9807289

  11. Scaling of average weighted shortest path and average receiving time on weighted hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Dai, Meifeng; Xi, Lifeng

    Recent work on the networks has focused on the weighted hierarchical networks that are significantly different from the un-weighted hierarchical networks. In this paper we study a family of weighted hierarchical networks which are recursively defined from an initial uncompleted graph, in which the weights of edges have been assigned to different values with certain scale. Firstly, we study analytically the average weighted shortest path (AWSP) on the weighted hierarchical networks. Using a recursive method, we determine explicitly the AWSP. The obtained rigorous solution shows that the networks grow unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded. Then, depending on a biased random walk, we research the mean first-passage time (MFPT) between a hub node and any peripheral node. Finally, we deduce the analytical expression of the average of MFPTs for a random walker originating from any node to first visit to a hub node, which is named as the average receiving time (ART). The obtained result shows that ART is bounded or grows sublinearly with the network order relating to the number of initial nodes and the weighted factor or grows quadratically with the iteration.

  12. Reach-averaged sediment routing model of a canyon river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, S.M.; Wilcock, P.R.; Grams, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial complexity in channel geometry indicates that accurate prediction of sediment transport requires modeling in at least two dimensions. However, a one-dimensional model may be the only practical or possible alternative, especially for longer river reaches of practical concern in river management or landscape modeling. We have developed a one-dimensional model of the Colorado River through upper Grand Canyon that addresses this problem by reach averaging the channel properties and predicting changes in sand storage using separate source and sink functions coupled to the sand routing model. The model incorporates results from the application of a two-dimensional model of flow, sand transport, and bed evolution, and a new algorithm for setting the near-bed sand boundary condition for sand transported over an exposed bouldery bed. Model predictions were compared to measurements of sand discharge during intermittent tributary inputs and varying discharges controlled by dam releases. The model predictions generally agree well with the timing and magnitude of measured sand discharges but tend to overpredict sand discharge during the early stages of a high release designed to redistribute sand to higher-elevation deposits.

  13. Effects of being uninsured on ethnic minorities' management of chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Gay

    2001-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness with which insured and uninsured persons with chronic illnesses managed their health care. Design Recruited volunteers diagnosed with a variety of chronic illnesses who underwent 3 semistructured interviews in a 1-year period. Setting Volunteers were recruited through referrals, flyers, and face-to-face contacts from community health clinics, senior centers, acute care hospitals, and home care services in 2 urban counties in California between December 1997 and December 2000. Participants A total of 297 persons between the ages of 23 and 97 years (35% African American, 33% Latino, and 32% Filipino American), of whom 42 (14%) had no health insurance. Main outcome measures Qualitative analysis of interview data compared insured and uninsured respondents on a series of components of chronic illness management, including control over illness, frequency of health crises, procuring medication, use of medication, understanding of the illness, knowledge of self-care measures, and awareness of risk factors. Whether respondents were under the care of a regular physician was also assessed. Results Compared with insured respondents, uninsured respondents were much less effective at managing their illnesses. The uninsured had poorly controlled illnesses, frequent health crises, difficulty procuring medication, used medication incorrectly, demonstrated poor understanding of their illness, and displayed little knowledge of self-care measures or risk awareness. They rarely had a regular physician or attended a specific health clinic. Conclusions The findings suggest that not only did uninsured persons with chronic health conditions lack adequate health care, their illnesses were also poorly controlled. Inadequately educated about their health, uninsured persons lacked the information, insight, and tools that would have allowed them to manage their illnesses more effectively. PMID:11431394

  14. Heart Failure Patients' Perceptions and Use of Technology to Manage Disease Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Virginia; Harris, Amy; McArthur, Kara; Dacso, Clifford; Colton, Lara M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Technology use for symptom management is beneficial for both patients and physicians. Widespread acceptance of technology use in healthcare fuels continued development of technology with ever-increasing sophistication. Although acceptance of technology use in healthcare by medical professionals is evident, less is known about the perceptions, preferences, and use of technology by heart failure (HF) patients. This study explores patients' perceptions and current use of technology for managing HF symptoms (MHFS). Materials and Methods: A qualitative analysis of in-depth individual interviews using a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Fifteen participants (mean age, 64.43 years) with HF were recruited from hospitals, cardiology clinics, and community groups. Results: All study participants reported use of a home monitoring device, such as an ambulatory blood pressure device or bathroom scale. The majority of participants reported not accessing online resources for additional MHFS information. However, several participants stated their belief that technology would be useful for MHFS. Participants reported increased access to care, earlier indication of a worsening condition, increased knowledge, and greater convenience as potential benefits of technology use while managing HF symptoms. For most participants financial cost, access issues, satisfaction with current self-care routine, mistrust of technology, and reliance on routine management by their current healthcare provider precluded their use of technology for MHFS. Conclusions: Knowledge about HF patients' perceptions of technology use for self-care and better understanding of issues associated with technology access can aid in the development of effective health behavior interventions for individuals who are MHFS and may result in increased compliance, better outcomes, and lower healthcare costs. PMID:24483939

  15. Average New Yorker Sits 7 Hours Each Day

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152787.html Average New Yorker Sits 7 Hours Each Day: Study Rates ... in the "City That Never Sleeps," but most New Yorkers still sit around a lot -- an average ...

  16. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib...

  17. Averaging algorithms and distributed anonymous discrete function computation

    E-print Network

    Tsitsiklis, John N.

    In distributed consensus and averaging algorithms, processors exchange and update certain values ("estimates" or "opinions") by forming a local average with the values of their neighbors. Under suitable conditions, such ...

  18. Subdiffusion in time-averaged, confined random walks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Neusius; Igor M. Sokolov; Jeremy C. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Certain techniques characterizing diffusive processes, such as single-particle tracking or molecular dynamics simulation, provide time averages rather than ensemble averages. Whereas the ensemble-averaged mean-squared displacement (MSD) of an unbounded continuous time random walk (CTRW) with a broad distribution of waiting times exhibits subdiffusion, the time-averaged MSD, delta2¯ , does not. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the unbounded CTRW, in

  19. Damage averaging and the formation of class action suits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Marceau; Steeve Mongrain

    2003-01-01

    Within a class action suit, similarly injured individuals can collectively obtain compensation through the justice system. Damage averaging occurs when the compensation awarded by the court to individual members is partly or completely determined by the average damage of the class. The key role of damage averaging in influencing the identity of the individual that will initiate the class action

  20. Interaction between directional epistasis and average mutational effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus O. Wilke; Christoph Adami

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the average fitness decay due to single mutations and the strength of epistatic interactions in genetic sequences. We observe that epistatic interactions between mutations are correlated to the average fitness decay, both in RNA secondary structure prediction as well as in digital organisms replicating in silico. This correlation implies that during adaptation, epistasis and average

  1. On averaging face images for recognition under pose variations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaozheng Zhang; Sanqiang Zhao; Yongsheng Gao

    2008-01-01

    Recently, psychological studies showed that averaging human face images greatly improves the performance of face recognition under various pose, illumination, expression, and\\/or aging conditions. This paper investigates quantitatively the mechanism of the face averaging process in face recognition specifically against pose variations. Facilitated with 3D face dataset, the process of face averaging is tested on face images free from human

  2. 26 CFR 1.1301-1 - Averaging of farm income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 true Averaging of farm income. 1.1301-1 Section 1.1301-1...Averaging § 1.1301-1 Averaging of farm income. (a) Overview. An...the individual's current year electible farm income as defined in paragraph (e)...

  3. Averaging and Globalising Quotients of Informetric and Scientometric Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of impact factors for "Journal Citation Reports" subject categories focuses on the difference between an average of quotients and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages. Applications in the context of informetrics and scientometrics are given, including journal prices and subject discipline influence scores. (Author/LRW)

  4. Sample Size Bias in Judgments of Perceptual Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul C.; Kimura, Nicole M.; Smith, Andrew R.; Marshall, Lindsay D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative,…

  5. MULTIRESOLUTION BASED ON WEIGHTED AVERAGES OF THE HAT FUNCTION II

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    MULTIRESOLUTION BASED ON WEIGHTED AVERAGES OF THE HAT FUNCTION II: NON­LINEAR RECONSTRUCTION the properties of the multiresolution analysis corresponding to dis­ cretization by local averages with respect­linear multiresolution schemes for the hat­average multiresolution setting. These schemes are based on the Essentially

  6. Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wei; D. Gottlieb; A. Harten

    1990-01-01

    A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods

  7. Average L-shell fluorescence, Auger, and electron yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Krause

    1980-01-01

    The dependence of the average L-shell fluorescence and Auger yields on the initial vacancy distribution is shown to be small. By contrast, the average electron yield pertaining to both Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions is shown to display a strong dependence. Numerical examples are given on the basis of Krause's evaluation of subshell radiative and radiationless yields. Average yields are calculated

  8. 20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Average-monthly-wage method. 404.220 Section 404.220 Employees...Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.220 Average-monthly-wage method. (a) Who is eligible for this...

  9. Hyperplane Arrangements with Large Average Diameter: a Computational Approach

    E-print Network

    Deza, Antoine

    . simple hyperplane arrangements, average diameter, Hirsch conjecture, oriented matroids. #12;2 A. Deza, HHyperplane Arrangements with Large Average Diameter: a Computational Approach Antoine Deza, Hiroyuki Miyata, Sonoko Moriyama, and Feng Xie Abstract. We consider the average diameter of a bounded cell

  10. Fault management Fault management

    E-print Network

    Fault management Pag. 1 Fault management Andrea Bianco T l i ti N t k G Network Management and Qo Torino #12;Fault management Pag. 2 The impact of network failures Cable 1101011000110101011 1 cable x 200 fibers/cable x 160 /fiber x 10 Gb/s/ = 320 Tb/s 5 billion telephone lines (@ 64 kb/s) Network Management

  11. Fault management Fault management

    E-print Network

    Fault management Pag. 1 Fault management Network Management and QoS Provisioning - 1Andrea Bianco traffic · May translate to revenue losses 5 billion telephone lines (@ 64 kb/s) 60.000 full CDs per second #12;Fault management Pag. 2 Fibers Network Management and QoS Provisioning - 4Andrea Bianco ­ TNG

  12. Cortical averaging 1101 Figure 17.15: Matching an individual's cortex to the average cortex. 3D variability patterns

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    for the group using matrix exponentiation to define average transformations [58]. Images and a large set-based elastic warping [31­33,38]. These warping fields reconfigured each subject's 3D image into the average anatomic configuration for the group. By averaging the reconfigured images (after intensity normalization

  13. Volume averaging for determining the effective dispersion tensor: Closure using periodic unit cells and comparison with ensemble averaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Wood; Fabien Cherblanc; Michel Quintard; Stephen Whitaker

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we use the method of volume averaging to determine the effective dispersion tensor for a heterogeneous porous medium; closure for the averaged equation is obtained by solution of a concentration deviation equation over a periodic unit cell. Our purpose is to show how the method of volume averaging with closure can be rectified with the results obtained

  14. Calculating High Speed Centrifugal Compressor Performance from Averaged Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Fangyuan; Fleming, Ryan; Key, Nicole L.

    2012-12-01

    To improve the understanding of high performance centrifugal compressors found in modern aircraft engines, the aerodynamics through these machines must be experimentally studied. To accurately capture the complex flow phenomena through these devices, research facilities that can accurately simulate these flows are necessary. One such facility has been recently developed, and it is used in this paper to explore the effects of averaging total pressure and total temperature measurements to calculate compressor performance. Different averaging techniques (including area averaging, mass averaging, and work averaging) have been applied to the data. Results show that there is a negligible difference in both the calculated total pressure ratio and efficiency for the different techniques employed. However, the uncertainty in the performance parameters calculated with the different averaging techniques is significantly different, with area averaging providing the least uncertainty.

  15. Exploring preferences for symptom management in primary care: a discrete choice experiment using a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    McAteer, Anne; Yi, Deokhee; Watson, Verity; Norwood, Patricia; Ryan, Mandy; Hannaford, Philip C; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms are important drivers for the use of primary care services. Strategies aimed at shifting the focus away from the GP have broadened the range of primary healthcare available. Aim To explore preferences for managing symptoms and investigate trade-offs that the public are willing to make when deciding between different primary care services. Design and setting UK-wide postal questionnaire survey of 1370 adults. Method A discrete choice experiment examined management preferences for three symptoms of differing seriousness (diarrhoea, dizziness, and chest pain). Willingness-to-pay estimates compared preferences between symptoms, and by sex, age, and income. Results Preferences differed significantly between symptoms. ‘Self-care’ was the preferred action for diarrhoea and ‘consulting a GP’ for dizziness and chest pain. ‘Waiting time’ and ‘chance of a satisfactory outcome’ were important factors for all three symptoms, although their relative importance differed. Broadly, people were more prepared to wait longer and less prepared to trade a good chance of a satisfactory outcome for symptoms rated as more serious. Generally, preferences within subgroups followed similar patterns as for the whole sample, although there were differences in the relative strength of preferences. Conclusion Despite increased choices in primary care, ‘traditional’ actions of ‘self-care’ for minor symptoms and ‘GP consultation’ for more serious symptoms were preferred. The present findings suggest, however, that people may be willing to trade between different health services, particularly for less serious symptoms. Understanding the relative importance of different factors may help inform interventions aimed at changing management behaviour or improving services. PMID:26077269

  16. Nonlinear NonLocal Averaging for Image Denoising

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radu Ciprian Bilcu; Markku Vehvilainen

    2006-01-01

    The non-local (NL) averaging method for image de-noising was recently introduced. The method shows very good filtering properties for additive Gaussian distributed noise. However, the performances of the NL averaging method for non-Gaussian, especially impulsive, noise is not satisfactory. In this paper, we propose a novel filtering scheme, called nonlinear non-local (NLNL) averaging that has better performances in mixed (Gaussian

  17. Simplified intersubject averaging on the cortical surface using SUMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenna D. Argall; Ziad S. Saad; Michael S. Beauchamp

    2006-01-01

    Task and group comparisons in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are often accomplished through the creation of intersubject average activation maps. Compared with traditional volume-based intersubject averages, averages made using computational models of the cortical surface have the potential to increase statistical power because they reduce intersubject variability in cortical folding patterns. We describe a two-step method for creating

  18. Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2009-10-15

    A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.

  19. A parametric model to average time–intensity taste data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Garrido; A. Calviño; G. Hough

    2001-01-01

    Time–intensity (T–I) curves are often summarized by average curves. In this study, a different method is proposed. A parametric model is derived in which intensity is described by a continuous function of time. Using this model, an average curve may be calculated by averaging the parameters derived from adjusting the individual T–I curves to the model. The parameters of the

  20. An Excel macro for transformed and weighted averaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley A. Klein

    1992-01-01

    An Excel macro is presented for averaging spreadsheet data. The macro has several special features: (1) The data are weighted\\u000a by the inverse variance of each datum to decrease the contribution-of noisy outliers. (2) There is a provision for a power\\u000a or a log transform of the data before averaging. The rationale for transforming the data before averaging is discussed