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Sample records for averrhoa carambola infested

  1. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities. PMID:27080855

  2. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Moresco, Henrique Hunger; Imazu, Priscila; da Silva, Cíntia Delai; Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; da Silveira Prudente, Arthur; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID50 value of 0.05 (range: 0.02–0.13) mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear). All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%). Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders. PMID:21785638

  3. Process optimization for osmo-dehydrated carambola (Averrhoa carambola L) slices and its storage studies.

    PubMed

    Roopa, N; Chauhan, O P; Raju, P S; Das Gupta, D K; Singh, R K R; Bawa, A S

    2014-10-01

    An osmotic-dehydration process protocol for Carambola (Averrhoacarambola L.,), an exotic star shaped tropical fruit, was developed. The process was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The experimental variables selected for the optimization were soak solution concentration (°Brix), soaking temperature (°C) and soaking time (min) with 6 experiments at central point. The effect of process variables was studied on solid gain and water loss during osmotic dehydration process. The data obtained were analyzed employing multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. Quadratic models were found to fit well (R(2), 95.58 - 98.64 %) in describing the effect of variables on the responses studied. The optimized levels of the process variables were achieved at 70°Brix, 48 °C and 144 min for soak solution concentration, soaking temperature and soaking time, respectively. The predicted and experimental results at optimized levels of variables showed high correlation. The osmo-dehydrated product prepared at optimized conditions showed a shelf-life of 10, 8 and 6 months at 5 °C, ambient (30 ± 2 °C) and 37 °C, respectively. PMID:25328186

  4. Antidotal activity of Averrhoa carambola (Star fruit) on fluoride induced toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Rupal A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit) is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in laboratory rats. A four-week exposure to fluoride caused sustained hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and, when the diet was supplemented with star fruit powder, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were restored significantly. It is surmised that the antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of star fruit in fluoride exposed rats could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit, which are all well known regulators of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. These findings suggest that star fruit can be used as a dietary supplement in fluoride endemic regions to contain fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress. PMID:26109886

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. PMID:26212939

  6. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  7. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  8. Optimisation of phenolic extraction from Averrhoa carambola pomace by response surface methodology and its microencapsulation by spray and freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2015-03-15

    Optimised of the extraction of polyphenol from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) pomace using response surface methodology was carried out. Two variables viz. temperature (°C) and ethanol concentration (%) with 5 levels (-1.414, -1, 0, +1 and +1.414) were used to design the optimisation model using central composite rotatable design where, -1.414 and +1.414 refer to axial values, -1 and +1 mean factorial points and 0 refers to centre point of the design. The two variables, temperature of 40°C and ethanol concentration of 65% were the optimised conditions for the response variables of total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity. The reverse phase-high pressure liquid chromatography chromatogram of the polyphenol extract showed eight phenolic acids and ascorbic acid. The extract was then encapsulated with maltodextrin (⩽ DE 20) by spray and freeze drying methods at three different concentrations. Highest encapsulating efficiency was obtained in freeze dried encapsulates (78-97%). The obtained optimised model could be used for polyphenol extraction from star fruit pomace and microencapsulates can be incorporated in different food systems to enhance their antioxidant property. PMID:25308654

  9. A comparison of the morphological and physiochemical characteristics of ten carambola cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) was grown on a Krome gravely loam soil (Loamy-skeletal, carbonic, hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents) in Miami, FL. Carambola morphological characteristics were determined by measuring fruit length, diameter and weight. Carambola physiochemical characteristics were det...

  10. A comparison of the morphological and physiochemical characteristics of 14 carambola cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety trial of 14 different carambola (Averrhoa carambola, L.) cultivars was conducted at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical Horticultural Research Station in Miami, FL. The study compared the morphological and physicochemical characteristics of 14 carambola varieties grown at the re...

  11. The antidiabetic compound 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, isolated from averrhoa carambola L., demonstrates significant antitumor potential against human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Huang, Renbin; Gong, Yixuan; Park, Hyo Sim; Wen, Qingwei; Almosnid, Nadin Marwan; Chippada-Venkata, Uma D.; Hosain, Najlaa Abdulrhman; Vick, Eric; Farone, Anthony; Altman, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) is a cyclohexanedione found in the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., commonly known as starfruit. Researchers have shown that DMDD has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes; however, the effects of DMDD on human cancers have never been reported. We investigated the cytotoxic effects of DMDD against human breast, lung and bone cancer cells in vitro and further examined the molecular mechanisms of DMDD-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. DMDD suppressed the growth of breast carcinoma cells, but not normal mammary epithelial cells, via induction of G1 phase cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and apoptosis. DMDD increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DMDD-induced ROS generation was found to be associated with the mitochondrial activity. The cytotoxicity that was induced by DMDD was attenuated by co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). DMDD-induced cell apoptosis involved the activation of both the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and the extrinsic receptor pathway. In addition, DMDD inhibited the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway at all steps, including TNF-α production, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα, as well as TNF-α activated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Collectively, our studies indicate that DMDD has significant potential as a safe and efficient therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26203774

  12. The antidiabetic compound 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, isolated from Averrhoa carambola L., demonstrates significant antitumor potential against human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Huang, Renbin; Gong, Yixuan; Park, Hyo Sim; Wen, Qingwei; Almosnid, Nadin Marwan; Chippada-Venkata, Uma D; Hosain, Najlaa Abdulrhman; Vick, Eric; Farone, Anthony; Altman, Elliot

    2015-09-15

    2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) is a cyclohexanedione found in the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., commonly known as starfruit. Researchers have shown that DMDD has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes; however, the effects of DMDD on human cancers have never been reported. We investigated the cytotoxic effects of DMDD against human breast, lung and bone cancer cells in vitro and further examined the molecular mechanisms of DMDD-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. DMDD suppressed the growth of breast carcinoma cells, but not normal mammary epithelial cells, via induction of G1 phase cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and apoptosis. DMDD increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DMDD-induced ROS generation was found to be associated with the mitochondrial activity. The cytotoxicity that was induced by DMDD was attenuated by co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). DMDD-induced cell apoptosis involved the activation of both the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and the extrinsic receptor pathway. In addition, DMDD inhibited the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway at all steps, including TNF-α production, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα, as well as TNF-α activated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation.Collectively, our studies indicate that DMDD has significant potential as a safe and efficient therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26203774

  13. Harvest maturity and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Arkin' carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 13.5), cut to 1 cm thick slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 d...

  14. Harvest maturity, pre-cutting wash and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Arkin’ carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 12), cut to 10 mm slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 days sto...

  15. Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID

  16. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Unahawutti, Udorn; Intarakumheng, Rachada; Oonthonglang, Pitawat; Phankum, Salukjit; Follett, Peter A

    2014-08-01

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly) and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (carambola fruit fly). Ripe commercial quality fruit (1 wk after harvest) that were either undamaged or damaged by puncturing or peeling the pericarp were exposed to a high density of gravid flies in screen cages and then held for 10 d and dissected to inspect for immature life stages. Undamaged mangosteen fruit were not infested by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae. Partially damaged fruit with shallow punctures in the pericarp that did not extend to the aril also were not infested. Both fruit flies could infest damaged fruit if the pericarp damage allowed oviposition in the aril. Results suggest that natural infestation of mangosteen by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae can only occur if fruit exhibit physical cracks or mechanical injury. Resistance appears to be due to the pericarp hardness and thickness as well as latex secretion. Nonhost status could be used without additional quarantine measures to achieve quarantine security against B. dorsalis and B. carambolae in mangosteen exported from Thailand. PMID:25195422

  17. Impact of micronized starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) fiber concentrate on lipid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Elvira-Torales, Laura I; Rodriguez-Miranda, Jesús; Torruco-Uco, Juan G; Carmona-García, Roselis; Mendoza-García, Patricia G; García, Hugo S; Soto-Rodríguez, Ida; Sánchez-Valdivieso, Enrique; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronized insoluble fiber from starfruit bagasse as an ingredient of a functional food (FF) or as micronized insoluble fiber-rich fraction (IFRF) and its effects in vivo on lipids metabolism in a murine model. Experimental animals were divided in four isoproteic (15.8%) treatments differing on the fiber and cholesterol level used. The micronized IFRF particle size ranged from 37.5 to 149 μm. Treatments with added IFRF and those including the FF lowered serum triacylglycerols, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) concentrations (IFRF: 14.2, 25.4, 55.06, and 12.18%, respectively; FF: 30.18, 39.47, 35.11, and 43.18%, respectively). IFRF produced the overall highest serum hypolipidemic effect and prevented the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver. Both the IFRF and the FF exhibited hypolipidemic effects that suggest a potential role of starfruit insoluble fiber as a component of FFs aimed against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24846002

  18. Quality attributes of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) juice treated with ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Ameran, Suhaida Binti; Voon, Han Ching; Karim, A A; Tze, Liong Min

    2011-07-15

    Starfruit juice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV-C) light for 0, 30 and 60min at room temperature (25±1°C). On exposure, the titratable acidity significantly decreased, while the decrease in °Brix and pH were not significant. With regard to colorimetric parameters, L(∗) value increased significantly with a subsequent decrease in a(∗) and b(∗) values corresponding to UV treatment time. Except for the ascorbic acid, other antioxidants measured (% DPPH inhibition, total phenols, flavonols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) showed enhancement on expsoure to UV (significant at 60min). Microbial studies showed reduction in APC, yeasts and mould counts by 2-log cycle on UV treatments. These results supports the application of UV as a measure of non-thermal and physical food preservation technique for starfruit juice that can be explored commercially to benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:23140712

  19. Carambola optics for recycling of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutz, Ralf; Fu, Ling; Ries, Harald

    2006-04-01

    Recycling of light allows the luminance (radiance) emitted by a light source to be increased at the cost of reducing the total luminous flux (radiant power). Recycling of light means returning part of the emitted light to the source, where part of it will escape absorption. An optical design that is suitable for multiple and controlled recycling is described. Carambola optics is named for its resemblance to star fruit. Several pairs of mirrors or prisms redirect light repeatedly onto the source, thus achieving multiple transits of the light through the source. This recycled light exits the carambola in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled.

  20. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    PubMed

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8. PMID:26787944

  1. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits. PMID:26411483

  2. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreeja; George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

  3. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

  4. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  5. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P

    2013-07-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

  6. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Laupland, Kevin B.; Valiquette, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Although the practice of infectious diseases involves a broad range of surgical and medical disciplines, interactions with psychiatry are infrequent. Delusional infestation is a condition where an individual has a firmly fixed false belief that they have an infection. Delusional infestation challenges the infectious diseases specialist who must diligently rule out the presence of a true infection. However, perhaps, more importantly, we may need to initiate therapy with neuroleptic medications for which we may have little specific knowledge and experience. In this note we review the diagnosis and management of patients with delusional infestation. PMID:27366186

  7. Delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  8. Dermatologic infestations.

    PubMed

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic. PMID:22250620

  9. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  10. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

  11. Pediatric ocular phthiriasis infestation.

    PubMed

    Kairys, D J; Webster, H J; Terry, J E

    1988-02-01

    Although pubic lice infestation of ocular regions is relatively uncommon, the optometrist needs to be aware of the diagnosis and treatment of louse-infested patients. A case report of ocular phthiriasis is presented along with a discussion of its etiology, clinical diagnosis and management. PMID:3361053

  12. Effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaf extract on blood glucose and lipids in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, P; Tan, C H; Tan, B K

    2000-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. leaves (Oxalidaceae, Common name: Bilimbi) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The optimal hypoglycemic dose (125 mg kg(-1)) was determined by performing the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both normal and STZ-diabetic rats. To investigate the effect of repeated administration of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi (ABe) leaves, diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (distilled water), ABe (125 mg kg(-1)) or metformin (500 mg kg(-1)) twice a day for 2 weeks. Like metformin, ABe significantly lowered blood glucose by 50% and blood triglyceride by 130% when compared with the vehicle. ABe also significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 60% compared with the vehicle. ABe thus significantly increased the anti-atherogenic index and HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio. However, like metformin, ABe did not affect total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but significantly reduced the kidney lipid peroxidation level. These data show that ABe has hypoglycemic, hypotriglyceridemic, anti-lipid peroxidative and anti-atherogenic properties in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:10967456

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using carambola fruit extract and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane Gavade, S. J.; Nikam, G. H.; Dhabbe, R. S.; Sabale, S. R.; Tamhankar, B. V.; Mulik, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    In this study well defined silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using carambola fruit extract. After exposing the silver ions to the fruit extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of stable AgNPs in solution due to the reducing and stabilizing properties of carambola fruit juice. The synthesized NPs were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction pattern. The as-synthesized AgNPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs were characterized by TEM to determine their size and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by agar well diffusion method. This newly developed method is eco-friendly and could prove a better substitute for the current physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of AgNPs.

  14. Pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol by males enhances sexual selection of Bactrocera carambolae.

    PubMed

    Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2007-06-01

    After pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol (ME), males of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) produced (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF) along with its endogenously synthesized pheromonal compounds. CF was shown to be released into the air by the ME-fed males only during the courtship period at dusk and attracted significantly more males and females than the ME-deprived males in wind tunnel assays. However, earlier onset of sexual attraction and a higher mating success were observed only in the wind tunnel and field cage assays on the third day posttreatment of ME. Field cage observations on the male-to-male interaction indicated that the ME-deprived males did not exhibit aggregation behavior, but that ME feeding promoted aggregation behavior in B. carambolae. Field cage observations revealed that the ME-deprived males were not only attracted to the ME-fed males, but also appeared to feed on their anal secretions. The secretions were subsequently confirmed to contain CF along with endogenously produced pheromonal compounds. Results obtained for B. carambolae were compared to those previously obtained from its sibling species, Bactrocera dorsalis, and are discussed in light of species advancement in fruit fly-plant relationships. PMID:17443401

  15. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  16. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

  17. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has improved the fruit fly control. However, matings between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. carambolae are incompatible, which hinder the application of the Salaya1 strain to control the carambola fruit fly. To solve this problem, we introduced genetic sexing components from the Salaya1 strain into the B. carambolae genome by interspecific hybridization. Results Morphological characteristics, mating competitiveness, male pheromone profiles, and genetic relationships revealed consistencies that helped to distinguish Salaya1 and B. carambolae strains. A Y-autosome translocation linking the dominant wild-type allele of white pupae gene and a free autosome carrying a recessive white pupae homologue from the Salaya1 strain were introgressed into the gene pool of B. carambolae. A panel of Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite loci of the Salaya1 strain served as markers for the introgression experiments. This resulted in a newly derived genetic sexing strain called Salaya5, with morphological characteristics corresponding to B. carambolae. The rectal gland pheromone profile of Salaya5 males also contained a distinctive component of B. carambolae. Microsatellite DNA analyses confirmed the close genetic relationships between the Salaya5 strain and wild B. carambolae populations. Further experiments showed that the sterile males of Salaya5 can compete with wild males for mating with wild females in field cage conditions. Conclusions Introgression of sex sorting components from the Salaya1 strain to a

  18. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  19. Cutaneous Infections and Infestations

    PubMed Central

    Tomecki, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Directed and preventive therapies for cutaneous infectious disease and infestation continue to evolve, providing physicians with new options for care. Common infectious diseases (e.g., genital herpes, herpes zoster, and head lice) occur in the outpatient and inpatient setting. This review of the literature highlights new therapies, including those still in development, such as novel drugs and vaccines, all of which should help to decrease the frequency and severity of common infectious diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. PMID:22191004

  20. Studies on the antihyperlipidemic properties of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit in rats.

    PubMed

    Ambili, Savithri; Subramoniam, Appian; Nagarajan, Natesan Shanmugam

    2009-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. fruit and its extracts were screened for antihypercholesterolemic activity using Triton-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats as a model. The fruit and its water extract, but not alcohol and hexane extracts, showed remarkable antihypercholesterolemic activity. An active fraction, which showed activity at a low dose of 0.8 mg/kg, was purified from the water extract. An active component was isolated from the active fraction, which showed optimum activity at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg. The efficacy of the fruit was tested in chronic high-fat diet fed hyperlipidemic rats. The fruit (125 mg/kg) as well as its water extract (50 mg/kg) were found to be effective in lowering lipids in the high-fat diet fed rats. The fruit was subjected to preliminary general toxicity evaluation in mice. Oral administration of the fruit homogenate daily for 15 days did not result in any toxic symptoms up to a dose of 1 g/kg studied. Thus, this fruit can be used as a dietary ingredient to prevent as well as treat hyperlipidemia. PMID:19031370

  1. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries may not

  2. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries

  3. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  4. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  5. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Conclusions: Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs. PMID:23826461

  6. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mominur; Habib, Md. Razibul; Hasan, Md. Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment. PMID:24497740

  7. Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs: an overview.

    PubMed

    Laha, R

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. It is the most common mange infestation of pigs. The parasite is distributed worldwide. Pig owners are generally concerned about the internal parasitic infections and ignored the external parasitic infestations. But the external parasitic infestation with S. scabiei var. suis has economic significance as it causes morbidity, mortality, decreased fertility and feed conversion ratio in pigs. Keeping in view of importance of S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, this communication discussed about the present and past research works done on S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, particularly its prevalence, life cycle, pathological lesions, clinical symptoms, haematobiochemical changes, diagnosis, treatment and control, to have an idea about this infestation at a glance. It has been concluded that the research work done on sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs in India is less in comparison to other countries. It may be due to its consideration as a neglected parasite or due to it's under report. Organization of awareness programs for the farmers by extension personalities or other authorities might be able to save the farmers from economic losses due to this infestation. PMID:26688620

  8. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-02-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  9. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  10. Negative Feedbacks on Bark Beetle Outbreaks: Widespread and Severe Spruce Beetle Infestation Restricts Subsequent Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sarah J.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  11. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  12. The mechanism of hypoglycemic action of the semi-purified fractions of Averrhoa bilimbi in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, P N; Tan, B K; Tan, C H

    2001-12-21

    In the present study, we have examined the possible mechanism of the hypoglycemic action of the semi-purified fractions of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn (Oxalidaceae) leaves (ABe) in streptozotocin-diabetic male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The ABe was partitioned with water and butanol to yield a butanol-soluble fraction (BuF) and a water-soluble fraction (AF). The AF was further partitioned with ethyl acetate and hexane to obtain ethyl acetate (EF) and hexane (HF) soluble fractions. The hypoglycemic property of each fraction was assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at a dose of 125-mg/kg-body weight in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats (STZ 60 mg/kg i.p.). Fractions AF, BuF and the reference drug metformin (500 mg/kg body weight), produced significant blood glucose-lowering effect in the diabetic rats when compared to the vehicle (distilled water). In the long-term study, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated orally by gavage with vehicle, AF (125 mg/kg body weight), BuF (125 mg/kg body weight), and metformin (500 mg/kg body weight) respectively twice a day for 14 days. On day 7 and day 14, AF and BuF, like the reference drug, metformin, lowered the fasting blood glucose concentration significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with the vehicle. The serum insulin level was significantly increased in the AF-treated rats only on day 14 when compared to that in the vehicle-treated rats on day zero (P < 0.05). The serum insulin level in BuF-treated rats was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) on both day 7 and day 14 compared to that on day zero. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity was significantly lower (P<0.05) in AF- and metformin-treated groups, but not in BuF-treated groups, compared to that in vehicle-treated group. However, there was no change in hepatic glycogen content in AF-, BuF- and metformin-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. These results indicate that AF is more potent than Bu

  13. [Imported infestations of nasopharyngeal parasites in dogs].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Barutzki, D; Schöl, H; Heinen, H

    1991-02-01

    In this paper infestations of the nasal cavity with Myxobdella annandalei in a dog after a sojourn in Nepal and with Linguatula serrata in 2 stray dogs from Turkey, which were imported to Germany, are described. PMID:2048114

  14. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  15. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  16. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  17. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  18. Delusional infestation: are you being bugged?

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Angeli; Ooi, Kenneth Gj; Assaad, Nagi; Coroneo, Minas

    2015-01-01

    This case report documents a 58-year-old male who presented to the clinic with a 12-month history of a burrowing sensation in his eyelids that he attributed to a parasitic infestation. After being extensively investigated and reviewed by relevant specialties, no evidence of parasitic infestation was found. He was diagnosed with and treated for blepharitis. Psychiatric referral for presumed delusional infestation (DI) was recommended. Despite this, he remained insistent in his belief of infestation, and was inevitably lost to follow-up. DI, previously known as delusional parasitosis, is a rare delusional disorder where affected individuals have a fixed, false belief that they have a parasitic infestation. Diagnosis can be challenging. Practitioners need to evaluate between primary and secondary DI carefully, as management differs depending on the etiology. Despite this, patients diagnosed with primary DI tend to be resistant to psychiatric referral. This report aims to optimize management by giving the reader a guideline for appropriate investigations and advice on patient approach. It is important to recognize hallmark features of DI to minimize self-inflicted trauma and associated psychosocial consequences. Effective treatment for DI is available, and devastating consequences, including blindness, can be avoided. PMID:26082608

  19. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  20. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  1. Signature Chemicals for Detection of Hidden Insect Infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are major pests worldwide, but infestation is difficult to detect since the larval stages are concealed within host fruits. Using grapefruit infested with the Caribbean fruit fly, we evaluated gas chromatography (GC) as a tool for detection of hidden infestation. We found sever...

  2. Constituents of Indonesian medicinal plant Averrhoa bilimbi and their cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2D6 inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Auw, Lidyawati; Subehan; Sukrasno; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    As constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves we identified three new compounds (1-3) together with 12 known ones (4-15); their inhibitory activities on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and 2D6 (CYP2D6) were examined. Among the isolated compounds, the mixture of 1 and 2, and compounds 4 and 9 showed strong inhibition on CYP3A4, but mild or no inhibition on CYP2D6. These compounds revealed the characteristics of 1) time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, 2) requirement of NADPH for the inhibition, 3) no protection by nucleophiles, and 4) suppression of the inhibition by competitive inhibitor. Thus, they are suggested to be mechanism-based inactivators of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. The kinetic parameters for the inactivation (k(inact) and K(I)) were 0.19 min(-1) and 36.7 μM for the mixture of 1 and 2, 0.126 min(-1) and 10.5 μM for 4, and 0.29 min(-1) and 23.4 μM for 9. PMID:25920220

  3. Nasal leech infestation causing persistent epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sarathi, Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are commonly encountered as a cause of epistaxis; however, nasal leech infestation as a cause of unilateral persistent epistaxis is very rare. Examination of nasal cavity revealed fleshy material in the left nostril, which was identified as leech. The leech was removed with the help of an artery forceps following irrigation of the left nostril with normal saline and adopting wait-and-watch policy. In developing countries, leech infestation as a cause of epistaxis should be suspected in patients with lower socioeconomic status or in those living in rural areas who give history of drinking polluted water from, or bathing in, stagnant ponds and puddles. PMID:21887037

  4. Botfly infestation (myiasis) masquerading as furunculosis.

    PubMed

    Gewirtzman, A; Rabinovitz, H

    1999-02-01

    With air travel so prevalent, diseases endemic to certain regions may appear anywhere. The botfly (Dermatobia hominis) is not native to North America. We describe a case of a young boy and his father who presented with furunculosis secondary to infestation with the botfly. The infected patients live in South Florida and had been vacationing in Central America. Standard surgical treatment as well as multiple native remedies are described. PMID:10071732

  5. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  6. Epidemiology of flea infestation of ruminants in Libya.

    PubMed

    Kaal, J F; Baker, K; Torgerson, P R

    2006-11-01

    The results of an epidemiological and clinical study of flea infestations of farm animals in northern Libya is reported. Of 12,130 sheep examined from 124 flocks, 150 sheep were found to be infested with fleas from 50 different flocks. Likewise 23 goats from 2981 examined, and 11 calves from 1124 cattle examined were infested No fleas were recovered from camels or horses. Of 1861 fleas recovered from farm livestock, 1857 were Ctenocephalides felis strongylus and 4 were Pulex irritans. Dogs from farms and local clinics were also examined. Eight farms dogs were found to be infested with P. irritans. Of 79 infested dogs examined in veterinary clinics, 53 were found infested with P. irritans, 11 with Ctenocephalides felis felis, 12 had a mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. felis felis. Single dogs had mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. canis; C. felis felis and C. canis; and P. irritans, C. felis felis and Echidnophaga gallinacia. C. felis felis was also found on 15 infested cats. C. felis felis was never found on large farm animals despite frequently sharing their environment with dogs or cats. Likewise C. felis stongylus was never isolated from dogs or cats. This is consistent with the hypothesis that C. felis strongylus has become adapted to large farm animals, whilst C. felis felis is better adapted to dogs and cats. However, four stockmen were found infested with a total of 176 C. felis strongylus, which suggests that this subspecies is also a potential zoonosis. A significantly higher proportion of intensive farms had animals with flea infestation compared to semi-intensive farms. Fleas were not found in nomadic herds. Infested farm animals often presented with excoriation, alopecia, pruritus and hyperkeratitis particularly on the lower limbs. These signs are consistent with the generation of flea-bite hypersensitivity. PMID:16962246

  7. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications. PMID:26081893

  8. Hookworm infestation as unexpected cause of recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ming; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Wang, Tzong-Luen; Lin, Aming Chor-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Parasite infestation is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Hookworm infestation is a very rare cause of pancreatitis. This parasitic infestation might be asymptomatic. Acute pancreatitis as a result of the hookworms migrating into the ampulla of Vater with chronic inflammation was a very rare complication. Were port a case of hookworm infestation that was associated with significant complication of recurrent pancreatitis. The patient was treated with mebendazole. He was asymptomatic and had gained weight at the 3-month follow-up. Our case demonstrates that pancreatitis secondary to hookworm infection can occur and may resolve after anthelmintic treatment. PMID:24768664

  9. Response of Grape Leaf Spectra to Phylloxera Infestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.

  10. Parasitic Infestation and Choice of Reproductive Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Sá Martins, J. S.

    The Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and asexual population inhabiting the same environment represented by a square lattice. With a small probability, a newborn from the sexual population mutates into an asexual one and vice versa. Then, the asexual population rapidly dominates the sexual one, which all but disappears. However, when an infestation by mutating genetically coupled parasites, that mimic trematodes that feed on gonads, is introduced, the outcome may be one in which both populations coevolve or one in which one of the populations overcomes the other, depending on the density of parasites on the lattice.

  11. [Management of lice infestations, recommendations for 2012].

    PubMed

    Maillard, Alexia; Trellu, Laurence Toutous; Eicher, Nicole; Michaud, Mélanie; Laffitte, Emmanuel

    2012-04-01

    Pediculosis is the most frequent and contagious ectoparasitic infestation in human, particularly in children from 3 to 8 years of age. Epidemics are observed from time to time, in schools or in adults in prisons. Even though benign, these infections remain unpleasant and can have an important psyco-social impact. Since a few years, caregivers have to face increasing problems while treating lice: appearance of insecticide resistances, lindane's withdrawal from the market and the marketing of new products which are not always well evaluated. This article offers first recalls about pediculoses and then a sum up of the different available treatments with an evidence based management strategy. PMID:22545493

  12. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  13. Impregnated Netting Slows Infestation by Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L.; Waller, Lance A.; Richards, Jean M.; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G. Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A.; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2008-01-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  14. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  15. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  16. Delusional infestation: an Australian multicentre study of 23 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Tran, M M A; Iredell, J R; Packham, D R; O'Sullivan, M V N; Hudson, B J

    2015-04-01

    Delusional infestation remains a debilitating condition that is therapeutically challenging for clinicians. This case series identifies 23 patients with delusional infestation in an Australian setting. The majority of patients are women and unlikely to have a psychiatric comorbid background. The use of unnecessary anti-parasitic medication is prevalent. PMID:25827513

  17. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. PMID:25676198

  18. Insects and Spiders: Infestations and Bites

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, E.W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961

  19. Anti-diabetic activity of the semi-purified fractions of Averrhoa bilimbi in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benny Kwong Huat; Tan, Chee Hong; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan

    2005-04-29

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of the semi-purified fractions of an ethanolic leaf extract of Averrhoa bilimbi (ABe) in high fat diet (HFD)-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 10 weeks (200-250 g) were fed with a high fat diet obtained from Glen Forrest stock feeders (Western Australia) for 2 weeks prior to intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg). The leaves of A.bilimbi were exhaustively extracted with 80% ethanol, concentrated at 40 degrees C using a rotavapor and partitioned successively with butanol, ethylacetate and hexane to get aqueous (AF), butanol (BuF), ethylacetate (EF), and hexane fractions (HF). The fractions were freeze-dried to obtain powders of each. To investigate the effect of long term administration of the hypoglycemic fractions, diabetic animals were treated with vehicle (distilled water), AF (125 mg/kg), or BuF (125 mg/kg), twice a day for 14 days. The long term administration of AF and BuF at a dose of 125 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) lowered blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations when compared to the vehicle. The hepatic glycogen content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in AF-treated rats when compared to diabetic control, however no change was found in the BuF-treated rats. Moreover, AF as well as BuF did not cause any significant change in the total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. There was also no difference in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and cytochrome P450 values between AF, BuF and vehicle-treated control rats. In conclusion, the results indicate that AF is more potent than BuF in the amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD fed-STZ diabetic rats. Hence, AF is a potential source for the isolation of active principle(s) for oral anti-diabetic therapy. PMID:15808883

  20. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  1. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  2. Leech (Hirudinea) infestations among waterfowl near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Trauger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen species of aquatic birds, including 11 species of ducks, were infested with leeches Theromyzon rude and Placobdella ornata near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Leeches infested 88% of 41 American Wigeon (Anas americana) and 31% of 86 Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) examined after death. Lesser Scaup captured by drive-trapping contained significantly more leeches than undisturbed ducks. Leeches were attached to the host within the mucosa of the nasal chamber, to the conjunctiva of the eye and on the skin of the body. Although only two deaths of ducklings were directly attributed to leech infestations, other birds probably died as a result of parasitism by leeches.

  3. Intestinal Infestations in Under-Five Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Kamukwamba; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%), and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90]) and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]). Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene.

  4. Cat Flea Infestation in a Hospital: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-01-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:22451739

  5. Control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting power poles.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit

    2010-12-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides. PMID:21309237

  6. Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

  7. Detecting Weed Infestations in Soybean Using Remote Sensing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, S. A.; Chang, J.; Clay, D. E.; Dalsted, K.; Reese, C.

    2007-12-01

    Can weed distribution maps be developed from remote sensed reflectance data? When are the appropriate times to collect these data during the season? What wavebands can be used to distinguish weedy from weed- free areas? This research examined if and when reflectance could be used to distinguish between weed-free and weed-infested (mixed species) areas in soybean and to determine the most useful wavebands to separate crop, weed, and soil reflectance differences. Treatments in the two-year study included no vegetation (bare soil), weed-free soybean, and weed-infested soybean and, in one year, 80% corn residue cover. Reflectance was measured at several sampling times from May through September in 2001 and 2002 using a hand-held multispectral radiometer equipped with band-limited optical interference filters (460 - 1650 nm). Pixel resolution was 0.8-m. Reflectance in the visible spectral range (460 to 700 nm) generally was similar among treatments. In the near-infrared (NIR) range (>700 to 1650 nm), differences among treatments were observed from soybean growth stage V-3 (about 4 weeks after planting) until mid-July to early August depending on crop vigor and canopy closure (76 cm row spacing in 2001 and 19 cm row spacing in 2002). Reflectance rankings in the NIR range when treatments could be differentiated were consistent between years and, from lowest to highest reflectance, were soil < weed-free < weed-infested areas. Increased reflectance from weed-infested areas was most likely due to increased biomass and canopy cover. Residue masked differences between weed-free and weed- infested areas during the early stages of growth due to high reflectance from the residue and reduced weed numbers in these areas. These results suggest that NIR spectral reflectance collected prior to canopy closure can be used to distinguish weed-infested from weed-free areas.

  8. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  9. Colonic obstruction and perforation related to heavy Trichuris trichiura infestation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahon, J; Poirriez, J; Creusy, C; Edriss, A N; Laget, J P; Dei Cas, E

    1997-01-01

    Heavy Trichuris trichiura infestation is rare in developed countries, and complications requiring surgical intervention have been described rarely in human trichuriasis. A case of colonic obstruction and perforation related to heavy whip-worm infection is described in an 84 year old woman. The woman was admitted to hospital because of a chest infection. Two days after admission she suffered nausea and vomiting followed a day later by bowel stoppage. Laparotomy indicated intestinal obstruction by a tumour. A partial right sided ileocolectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bowel revealed heavy infestation with T trichiura causing a pseudotumour following a proliferative inflammatory response. Images PMID:9306948

  10. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  11. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  12. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  13. Natural trematode infestation in feral Nebrodi Black pigs: pathological investigations.

    PubMed

    Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Catalano, Deborah; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Aronica, Vincenzo; Tomaselli, Amedeo; Lazzara, Alessandro; Amedeo, Stefano; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Dore, Bruno; Guarda, Franco

    2009-01-22

    Few studies describe the parasites of pigs bred in the wild state, although pigs are a known reservoir of trematode infestation. This article reports the results of a retrospective study carried out from January 2003 to June 2007 on 3021 Nebrodi Black male and female pigs, regularly slaughtered, aged between 8 months and 4 years. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum flukes were detected in 143 (4.37%) of 3021 livers. The predominant histological features were multifocal to diffuse chronic hepatitis, with fibrosis and severely thickened walls of the bile ducts and chronic parietal, sometimes nodular inflammation. F. hepatica infestation was frequently associated with marked hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the submucosal glands. The study results confirm the important role swine play in the transmission of trematode infestations, indicate the prevalence of these parasites in the Nebrodi Park area, and draw attention to the need for a prophylaxis plan to prevent the spread of infestation to ruminants and humans living in the area. PMID:19038498

  14. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  15. Parasitic infestation of lung: An unusual cause of interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth; Kate, Arvind H; Nester, Nora; Patole, Kamlakar; Leuppi, Joerg D; Chhajed, Prashant N

    2016-01-01

    Parasite infections are increasing worldwide due to increasing migration and traveling. Parasitic infections can affect lungs and present as a focal or diffuse lung diseases. High index of suspicion and detailed history are most important. We present a case of interstitial pneumonitis caused by parasite infestation, which was diagnosed on transbronchial lung biopsy. PMID:27051117

  16. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  17. Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, G.

    1994-10-01

    The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

  18. FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

  19. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  20. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation after treatment...

  1. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  2. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  3. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  4. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate...

  5. Russian Honey Bees and Their Response Toward Brood Infested with Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African bees are known to preferentially remove brood that is infested with small hive beetles (SHB). European honey bees (EHB) also remove infested brood but at a lower frequency. The response of different stocks of EHB to brood infested with SHB has not been studied. Therefore, this study was cond...

  6. Russian Honey Bees And Their Response Toward Brood Infested With Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African bees are known to preferentially remove brood that is infested with small hive beetles (SHB). European honey bees (EHB) also remove infested brood but at a lower frequency. The response of different stocks of EHB to brood infested with SHB has not been studied. Therefore, this study was cond...

  7. Aphid infestation affecting the biogeochemistry of European beech saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45μm < PN < 500 μm) in TF solution by 42% for K+, 59% for Mn2+ and 13% for PN relative to the control. In contrast, fluxes of NH4-N and SO4-S diminished during peaking aphid abundance by 26 and 16%, respectively. Differences in canopy-derived dissolved nitrogen and carbon compounds, sulfur (S), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ were < 10%. The effect of aphid abundance on nutrient dynamics was most notable in TF and SF and diminished in LL.Aphid infestation greatly altered the SF fluxes of DOC, K+, Mn2+, DON and sulfur-species, which were significantly concentrated at the tree base by "funneling" the rainfall through the canopy biomass to the trunk. Normalized to one square meter, water and nutrient fluxes were amplified by a factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.

  8. Geographical characterization of the triatomine infestations in north-central Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, J; Juárez, J; Nakatsuji, K; Akiyama, T; Hernandez, G; Macal, R; Flores, C; Ortiz, M; Marroquín, L; Bamba, T; Wakai, S

    2005-04-01

    In an entomological study in 2002, the degree of domestic and peridomestic infestation with triatomine bugs and the geographical distribution of such infestations were investigated in north-central Guatemala. The survey team searched for triatomines in houses constructed with mud walls or thatched roofs, in villages suspected of being infested. The level of infestation observed was lower than that seen in the same area and in eastern Guatemala, in a preliminary survey, 3 years earlier. Most of the infestations detected were of Triatoma dimidiata but even this species was found in <7% of the houses investigated. Infestations with Rhodnius prolixus or other potential vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi were much rarer. The generally low levels of infestation make the elimination of R. prolixus and the reduction of the domestic population of Tri. dimidiata feasible in the study area. The southern part of the study area had higher levels of domestic infestation and colonization than the north, and peridomestic infestation was highest in the south-west. Given such geographical variation in the pattern of infestation, it would seem wise to stratify the study region into areas of high, moderate and low-risk of human-triatomine contact, so that appropriate vector-control strategies can be targeted at the worst-affected areas. Regular entomological surveillance, ideally with community participation, is recommended. Analysis of the relationship between the geographical patterns of infestation and factors such as vegetation, altitude and vector migration would be useful. PMID:15829138

  9. Biophoton Emission from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Uefune, Masayoshi; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2004-08-01

    We studied spontaneous photon emission from kidney bean leaves infested with spider mites. Strong photon radiation was observed from the leaf veins where spider mites were crowding. Photon emission intensity increased with the decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis yield; these decreases represented the degree of damage caused by the pest. When both infested and un-infested leaves were put on the same wet cotton, photon emission from the un-infested leaf increased, too. Photon emission from the un-infested leaf might be induced by an aqueous elicitor released from the infested leaf. Such an elicitor activates the plant defense response. Therefore, it is suggested that photon emission from an infested leaf conveys information on the direct injury (physical stresses) and physiological (biochemical) actions associated with the defensive response.

  10. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity. PMID:12877826

  11. Spinosad for the treatment of head lice infestations.

    PubMed

    Villegas, S C

    2012-09-01

    Head lice infestations continue to be an issue in today's society, with an increase in economic cost and resistance. Spinosad 0.9% topical suspension was recently introduced in the U.S. market as a novel agent with both pediculicidal and ovicidal activity, approved in children 4 years of age and older for the treatment of head lice infestations. In clinical trials, it has demonstrated effectiveness against head lice with permethrin resistance. In two clinical trials comparing spinosad to permethrin, efficacy was observed in the spinosad-treated groups at 84.6% and 86.7%, respectively, when compared to the permethrin-treated groups (respective values of 44.9% and 42.9%; P < 0.001). Overall, spinosad was well tolerated in clinical trials. PMID:23032800

  12. Distribution pattern of phthirapterans infesting certain common Indian birds.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A K; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Nidhi; Mitra, J D; Ali, S A; Srivastava, Roshni

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence and frequency distribution patterns of 10 phthirapteran species infesting house sparrows, Indian parakeets, common mynas, and white breasted kingfishers were recorded in the district of Rampur, India, during 2004-05. The sample mean abundances, mean intensities, range of infestations, variance to mean ratios, values of the exponent of the negative binomial distribution, and the indices of discrepancy were also computed. Frequency distribution patterns of all phthirapteran species were skewed, but the observed frequencies did not correspond to the negative binomial distribution. Thus, adult-nymph ratios varied in different species from 1:0.53 to 1:1.25. Sex ratios of different phthirapteran species ranged from 1:1.10 to 1:1.65 and were female biased. PMID:17918388

  13. Efficient detection of internal infestation in wheat based on biophotonics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weiya; Jiao, Keke; Liang, Yitao; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    In the process of grain storage, there are many losses of grain quantity and quality for the sake of insects. As a result, it is necessary to find a rapid and economical method for detecting insects in the grain. The paper innovatively proposes a model of detecting internal infestation in wheat by combining pattern recognition and BioPhoton Analytical Technology (BPAT). In this model, the spontaneous ultraweak photons emitted from normal and insect-contaminated wheat are firstly measured respectively. Then, position, distribution and morphological characteristics can be extracted from the measuring data to construct wheat feature vector. Backpropagation (BP) neural network based on genetic algorithm is employed to take decision on whether wheat kernel has contaminated by insects. The experimental results show that the proposed model can differentiate the normal wheat from the insect-contaminated one at an average accuracy of 95%. The model can also offer a novel thought for detecting internal infestation in the wheat. PMID:26774558

  14. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

    2011-10-01

    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. PMID:21933231

  15. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin. PMID:7665947

  16. Characterization of ferritin 2 for the control of tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Hajdusek, Ondrej; Almazán, Consuelo; Loosova, Gabriela; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kopacek, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2010-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is one the most abundant tick species in Europe and these ticks transmit pathogens causing human and animal diseases. The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. However, a limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. Herein, the tick iron metabolism pathway was targeted in an effort to identify new tick protective antigens. Recombinant I. ricinus (IrFER2) and Rhipicephalus microplus (RmFER2) ferritin 2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and used to immunize rabbits and cattle, respectively. Vaccination with IrFER2 reduced I. ricinus tick numbers, weight and fertility in rabbits with an overall vaccine efficacy (E) of 98%. Control of cattle tick, R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations was obtained in vaccinated cattle with overall E of 64% and 72%, respectively. Notably, the efficacy of the RmFER2 vaccine was similar to that obtained with Bm86 against R. microplus. These collective results demonstrated the feasibility of using ferritin 2 to develop vaccines for the control of tick infestations. PMID:20171306

  17. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  18. Infestation and Hydraulic Consequences of Induced Carbon Starvation1

    PubMed Central

    Anderegg, William R.L.; Callaway, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests’ responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades. PMID:22665446

  19. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. PMID:27514888

  20. Immune adaptive response induced by Bicotylophora trachinoti (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infestation in pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, I S; Luvizzotto-Santos, R; Sampaio, L A N; Bianchini, A; Martínez, P E

    2006-09-01

    Fish have developed protective strategies against monogeneans through immunological responses. In this study, immune adaptive response to parasites was analysed in the pompano Trachinotus marginatus infested by Bicotylophora trachinoti. Hosts were pre-treated with formalin and after 10 days assigned to one of the following experimental treatments: (1) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti; (2) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti and experimentally re-infested by exposure to T. marginatus heavily infested with B. trachinoti. Samples were collected at 0, 15, and 30 days. Gills were dissected to check the presence of B. trachinoti. Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical assays. Spleen and head-kidney were dissected for phagocytosis assay. The spleen-somatic index was also calculated. Re-infested fish showed a faster and higher parasite infestation than infested ones. The parasite mean abundance at 15 days was 24.86+/-13.32 and 11.67+/-8.57 for re-infested and infested fish, respectively. In both groups, hosts showed an immune adaptive response to parasite infestation that was marked by an increased number of leukocytes. Also, phagocytosis (%) in spleen and head-kidney cells was stimulated after parasite infestation (92.50+/-3.73 and 66.00+/-9.54, respectively), becoming later depressed (77.39+/-6.69 and 53.23+/-9.14, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that monogenean infestation induces a biphasic response of the non-specific defence mechanisms in the pompano T. marginatus. This response is marked by an initial stimulation followed by a later depression of the non-specific defence mechanisms. PMID:16483796

  1. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  2. Relationships between beak condition, preening behavior and ectoparasite infestation levels in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Mullens, Bradley A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-09-01

    The effects of beak condition on ectoparasite populations and preening in laying hens were investigated. Beak-trimmed and beak-intact caged Hy-Line W-36 hens were infested with either chicken body lice or northern fowl mites using a 2×2 factorial design with 4 replicate cages (each containing 2 hens)/treatment: 1) BTL: (beak-trimmed lice-infested); 2) BTM: (beak-trimmed mite-infested); 3) BIL: (beak-intact lice-infested); and 4) BIM: (beak-intact mite-infested). Mite scores and lice numbers were estimated weekly. Hens were video recorded the wk before infestation and at wk 6 and 9 post-infestation. Time spent preening on 6 body areas and in total were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. There was a wk×beak condition interaction for lice loads, with BTL harboring approximately 17 times more lice than BIL from wk 7 to 10 post-infestation (P<0.0001). Beak condition affected mite loads (P<0.0001), with BTM having a higher mite score (3.8±0.26) than BIM (1.4±0.26). At peak infestation, BTL spent more total time preening (P=0.02, s±SE: 232.1±37.6) than prior to infestation (33.9±37.6) and directed their preening behavior towards the vent. In contrast, BIL (73.9±37.6), BTM (9.4±1.6), and BIM (8.6±1.6) did not increase total time spent preening over pre-infestation levels (103.6±37.6, 5.8±1.6, 6.7±1.6 respectively), although BTM did redirect their preening behavior toward the vent. This study confirmed previous studies showing that an intact beak is important for reducing ectoparasite infestations. Preening behavior increased in response to lice infestation, but only in beak-trimmed hens; preening behavior and louse load were correlated at peak infestation. In contrast, mite infestation did not lead to increased preening, and there was no correlation between preening and mite load. However, both lice- and mite-infested hens directed preening behavior predominantly towards the vent where these parasites are typically found. PMID:26155987

  3. Pathogenesis-related proteins protect extrafloral nectar from microbial infestation.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Eilmus, Sascha; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Heil, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Plants in more than 300 genera produce extrafloral nectar (EFN) to attract carnivores as a means of indirect defence against herbivores. As EFN is secreted at nectaries that are not physically protected from the environment, and contains carbohydrates and amino acids, EFN must be protected from infestation by micro-organisms. We investigated the proteins and anti-microbial activity in the EFN of two Central American Acacia myrmecophytes (A. cornigera and A. hindsii) and two related non-myrmecophytes (A. farnesiana and Prosopis juliflora). Acacia myrmecophytes secrete EFN constitutively at high rates to nourish the ants inhabiting these plants as symbiotic mutualists, while non-myrmecophytes secrete EFN only in response to herbivore damage to attract non-symbiotic ants. Thus, the quality and anti-microbial protection of the EFN secreted by these two types of plants were likely to differ. Indeed, myrmecophyte EFN contained significantly more proteins than the EFN of non-myrmecophytes, and was protected effectively from microbial infestation. We found activity for three classes of pathogenesis-related (PR) enzymes: chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase. Chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases were significantly more active in myrmecophyte EFN, and chitinase at the concentrations found in myrmecophyte EFN significantly inhibited yeast growth. Of the 52 proteins found in A. cornigera EFN, 28 were annotated using nanoLC-MS/MS data, indicating that chitinases and glucanases contribute more than 50% of the total protein content in the EFN of this myrmecophyte. Our study demonstrates that PR enzymes play an important role in protecting EFN from microbial infestation. PMID:19143997

  4. Detecting insect infestation with poly3-hexylthiophenethin thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2009-05-01

    The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude

  5. Phthriasis palpebrarum can resemble tick larva infestation in an eyelid.

    PubMed

    Dağdelen, Serkan; Aykan, Umit; Cetinkaya, Kubilay

    2013-08-01

    The similarities of the larval and nymph stages of the tick and louse (Pthirus pubis) may lead to misdiagnosis in rare cases of infestation of the eyelashes. The most frequent manifestations of tick in the eye are conjunctivitis, uveitis, keratitis, and vasculitis. Tick inoculation of the skin can locally lead to formation of granuloma and abscess. More concerning is the potential systemic sequelae that can result from transmission of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. P. pubis can cause pruritic eyelid margins or unusual blepharoconjunctivitis. We present a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 4-year-old boy. PMID:23993722

  6. Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10 years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

  7. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given. PMID:19265581

  8. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total

  9. Scabies infestation: the effect of intervention by public health education.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. F.; Thorne, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of scabies in an infested village; to educate the residents on self-treatment and prevention by the use of 5% monosulfiram soap; to evaluate the short term effectiveness of this intervention by determining, 2 weeks later, the compliance to self-treatment and prevention; and to determine the prevalence rate on the second visit. In 59 households (96.7% of the village) containing 313 persons, an educational session was held and a leaflet distributed on the use and availability of the soap. Thirteen persons (4.2%) from eight households (13.6%) had scabies. After 2 weeks, 7 persons (2.2%) (2 persisting and 5 new cases) from 5 households (8.5%) were infested. Thus a cure rate of 85% was obtained though the prevalence rate showed no statistically significant difference. Among the under 15 year olds, the numbers infected decreased from 10 to 3 while among the over 15 years olds, the numbers infected increased from 3 to 4, neither reading significance at the 5% level. PMID:2249723

  10. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura

    PubMed Central

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  11. Associations of wheat with pea can reduce aphid infestations.

    PubMed

    Lopes, T; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2015-06-01

    Increasing plant diversity within crops can be beneficial for pest control. In this field study, the effects of two wheat and pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) on aphid populations were compared with pure stands of both crops by observations on tillers and plants. Pea was more susceptible to infestations than wheat. As expected, the density of aphid colonies was significantly higher in pure stands during the main occurrence periods, compared with associations. Additionally, flying beneficials, such as not only aphidophagous adult ladybirds but also parasitoid, hoverfly and lacewing species that feed on aphids at the larval stage, were monitored using yellow pan traps. At specific times of the sampling season, ladybirds and hoverflies were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of pea and wheat, respectively, compared with associations. Few parasitoids and lacewings were trapped. This study showed that increasing plant diversity within crops by associating cultivated species can reduce aphid infestations, since host plants are more difficult to locate. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently adult beneficials into wheat and pea associations. PMID:26013274

  12. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:7258487

  13. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ≤5 m−2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m−2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  14. Infestation of wild and ornamental non-crop fruits by Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: 1) survey fruits in fields for natural infestation of D. ...

  15. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...

  16. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  17. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  18. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

  19. Evaluating airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains by far the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable band...

  20. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  1. Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

  2. Signature chemicals for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. Ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small sa...

  3. Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Birkemoe, Tone; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Soleng, Arnulf; Næss, Øyvind; Rukke, Bjørn Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations. Objective. Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area. Methods. The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6–12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics. Results. Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less. Conclusions. With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks. PMID:26511728

  4. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  5. Effects of Intensive Forest Management Practices on Insect Infestation Levels and Loblolly Pine Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.

    2000-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intensive management practices and insect infestation, maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine over four years using different levels of cultural treatments. Results indicate tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management can improve initial tree growth.

  6. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  7. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick...

  8. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick...

  9. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick...

  10. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ponson, Laura; Andersson, Frédéric; El-Hage, Wissam

    2015-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown. Case presentation Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Conclusion Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. PMID:25673993

  11. Effects of the Briarosaccus callosus infestation on the commercial golden king crab Lithodes aequispina.

    PubMed

    Shukalyuk, Andrey I; Isaeva, Valeria V; Pushchin, Igor I; Dolganov, Sergey M

    2005-12-01

    Commercial crab populations off the Kamchatka coasts are infested to a considerable degree by the rhizocephalan parasite Briarosaccus callosus: of 769 Lithodes aequispina males examined, 43 (5.7%) were parasitized. Infestations result in the feminization of the crabs, a significant decrease in the cheliped length, and a significant decrease in the carapace length and width. We suggest that commercial selection of healthy males, and the returning of unsuitable crabs, including infested ones, back into the sea, results in an increase of the proportion of infested crabs in the population, their elimination from reproduction, and, eventually, the gradual degradation of a whole population. To minimize as far as possible the negative effects of commercial crab harvesting, all infested crab specimens caught must be destroyed, either aboard or elsewhere, instead of throwing them back into the sea. PMID:16539043

  12. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  13. Effects of bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) juice on Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and the sensory properties of raw shrimps.

    PubMed

    Norhana, M N Wan; Azman, Mohd Nor A; Poole, Susan E; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2009-11-30

    The potential of using juice of bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) to reduce Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 populations on raw shrimps after washing and during storage (4 degrees C) was investigated. The uninoculated raw shrimps and those inoculated with approximately 9 log cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes Scott A and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 were washed (dipped or rubbed) in distilled water (SDW) (control), bilimbi or tamarind juice at 1:4 (w/v) concentrations for 10 and 5 min. Naturally occurring aerobic bacteria (APC), L. monocytogenes Scott A and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 counts, pH values and sensory analysis of washed shrimps were determined immediately after washing (day 0), and on days 3 and 7 of storage. Compared to SDW, bilimbi and tamarind juice significantly (p<0.05) reduced APC (0.40-0.70 log cfu/g), L. monocytogenes Scott A (0.84-1.58 log cfu/g) and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 (1.03-2.00 log cfu/g) populations immediately after washing (0 day). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in bacterial reduction between the dipping (0.40-0.41 log for APC; 0.84 for L. monocytogenes Scott A and 1.03-1.09 log for S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028) and rubbing (0.68-0.70 log for APC; 1.34-1.58 for L. monocytogenes Scott A and 1.67-2.00 log for S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028) methods. Regardless of washing treatments or methods, populations of S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 decreased slightly (5.10-6.29 log cfu/g on day 7 of storage) while populations of L. monocytogenes Scott A (8.74-9.20 log cfu/g) and APC (8.68-8.92 log cfu/g) increased significantly during refrigerated storage. The pH of experimental shrimps were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 0.15-0.22 pH units after washing with bilimbi and tamarind juice. The control, bilimbi or tamarind-washed shrimps did not differ in sensory panellist acceptability (p>0.05) throughout the storage except for odour (p<0.05) attributes at 0 day when acidic or lemony

  14. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13–22 years in Xi’an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16–18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13–15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ 2=60.6, P<0.001). Specifically, the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R 2=0.57, moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1, severe infestation OR=10.3). It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence. PMID:22135149

  15. Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

    1996-03-01

    Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

  16. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions. PMID:26394864

  17. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    PubMed Central

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366

  18. Optimum survival strategies against zombie infestations - a population dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    We model a zombie infestation by three coupled ODEs that jointly describe the time evolution of three populations: regular humans, zombies, and survivors (humans that have survived at least one zombie encounter). This can be generalized to take into account more levels of expertise and/or skill degradation. We compute the fixed points, and stability thereof, that correspond to one of three possible outcomes: human extinction, zombie extermination or, if one allows for a human non-zero birth-rate, co-habitation. We obtain analytically the optimum strategy for humans in terms of the model's parameters (essentially, whether to flee and hide, or fight). Zombies notwithstanding, this can also be seen as a toy model for infections of immune system cells, such as CD4+ T cells in AIDS, and macrophages in tuberculosis, whereby cells are both the target of infection, and mediate the acquired immunity response against the same infection. I thank FAPERJ for financial support.

  19. [Clinical course of isolated larval infestation of orbit in children].

    PubMed

    Dubovskaia, L A; Tumol'skaia, N I; Sidorenko, N I; Kotiasheva, G I; Odoshashvili, E D; Gorbunov, A V

    2000-01-01

    Clinical course of an isolated infestation of orbital tissues by larvae of helminths parasitizing in dogs (Toxocara canis) has been followed up in 5 patients aged 6-13 years. The process ran a wave-like course for 3-8 months and was characterized by cyclic inflammatory changes in the orbit, presenting by toxic allergic tenonitis, regional lymphadenitis, optic nerve perineuritis with formation of parasitic granuloma detected by computer-aided rhoentgenotomography of the orbit. No clinical or laboratory signs of common inflammatory and allergic reaction in the presence of Toxocara antigen sensitization were observed in any case, which was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies (IgG and IgE). Specific therapy with anti-nematode drug albendazol was effective. PMID:10918851

  20. Tick Infestation of the Eyelid With Histopathologic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ruju; Yoon, Michael K; Stacy, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided. PMID:25025390

  1. Reflectance confocal microscopy for cutaneous infections and infestations.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, E; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a high-resolution emerging imaging technique that allows non-invasive diagnosis of several cutaneous disorders. A systematic review of the literature on the use of RCM for the study of infections and infestations has been performed to evaluate the current use of this technique and its possible future applications in this field. RCM is particularly suitable for the identification of Sarcoptes scabies, Demodex folliculorum, Ixodes, Dermatophytes and Candida species in the clinical practice and for the follow-up after treatment. The cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and molluscipoxvirus is also detectable by this imaging technique even in a pre-vesicular stage. In addition, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies. PMID:26387660

  2. Detection of fruit-fly infestation in olives using X-ray imaging: Algorithm development and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  3. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. Cars or others vehicles which have carried cattle exposed to or infested with ticks within the...

  4. Studies on host resistance to tick infestations among trypanotolerant Bos indicus cattle breeds in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Ndung'U, J M; Stear, M J; Reid, S W; Gettinby, G; Murray, M

    1998-06-29

    Recent epidemiological studies carried out in East Africa have indicated that some Bos indicus cattle breeds such as the Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu have a degree of trypanotolerance worth exploitation by their introduction into trypanosomosis endemic areas where other cattle breeds cannot survive. However, in most areas of East Africa, trypanosomosis, ticks, and tick-borne diseases occur together. It is therefore important to obtain information on the susceptibility of these breeds to tick infestation and tick-borne diseases. This study was therefore designed to determine the susceptibility of these cattle breeds to tick infestations. They were compared with the Galana Boran (trypanosusceptible) and the Friesian (susceptible to tick infestations, tick-borne diseases, and trypanosomosis). The four breeds of cattle were exposed to natural tick challenge for a period of seven months and whole body weekly tick counts were done on each animal. Significant differences to tick infestations among the four breeds were observed. For both Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Boophilus decoloratus, susceptibility to infestation increased in the order, Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran, Galana Boran and Friesian. The results generated by this pilot study so far suggest that variation in susceptibility to tick infestations exists among the four breeds. The Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu showed greater resistance to tick-infestations than the Galana Boran and Friesian. This suggests that utilization of these trypanotolerant cattle breeds could be feasible even in the face of tick challenge and should therefore be considered when planning integrated trypanosomosis and tick control strategies. PMID:9668465

  5. Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-04-01

    Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes. PMID:24562815

  6. Oviposition behavior of the wheat stem sawfly when encountering plants infested with cryptic conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Buteler, Micaela; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2009-12-01

    Insect herbivores typically oviposit on the most suitable hosts, but choices can be modulated by detection of potential competition among conspecifics, especially when eggs are deposited cryptically. Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, developing within an already infested stem, experience elevated risk when only one will survive because of cannibalism. To increase our understanding of host selection when the choices made by females can lead to severe intraspecific competition, females were presented with either uninfested wheat plants or with plants previously exposed to other females in laboratory choice tests. The oviposition behavior of this insect was described by recording the behavioral sequences that lead to and follow the insertion of the ovipositor in both previously infested and uninfested stems. No significant differences were found in frequencies of specific behaviors or behavioral transitions associated with oviposition. In choice tests, there was no difference in the numbers of eggs laid in infested and uninfested plants. Taller plants received more eggs, irrespective of infestation. Females neither preferred nor avoided previously infested hosts. Other characteristics of the host, such as stem height, may be more important in determining suitability for oviposition. These findings support the use of management tactics relying on the manipulation of oviposition behavior, such as trap cropping. Given that there is no evidence for response to previously infested hosts, the infested plants in a trap crop would remain as suitable as they were when uninfested, which could also lead to an increase in mortality caused by intraspecific competition. PMID:20021767

  7. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073

  8. Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Duygu; Pekmezci, Didem; Meral, Yücel; Gokalp, Güvenç; Acici, Mustafa

    2008-04-01

    With this case report, we describe Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) which was brought to our clinics by the Directorship of Environmental and Forestry authorities of Samsun, Turkey in April, 2007. The male Little Bittern (I. minutus), with a black back and crown, and black wings with a large white patch on each wing, had thick Trombiculidae larvae infestation both on its legs. There were neither dermatological nor general conditional changes observed, except its superficial larval attachments to the skin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Trombiculidae larvae (N. autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (I. minutus) in Turkey. PMID:18266010

  9. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel. PMID:16416360

  10. Olfactory response of predatory mites to vegetative and reproductive parts of coconut palm infested by Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Melo, José Wagner S; Lima, Debora B; Pallini, Angelo; Oliveira, José Eudes M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2011-10-01

    The phytophagous mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. A promising method of control for this pest is the use of predatory mites. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram are predatory mites found in association with A. guerreronis in the field. To understand how these predators respond to olfactory cues from A. guerreronis and its host plant, the foraging behavior of the predatory mites was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer and on T-shaped arenas. The predators were subjected to choose in an olfactometer: (1) isolated parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of infested coconut plant or clean air stream; (2) isolated parts of non-infested or infested coconut plant; and (3) two different plant parts previously shown to be attractive. Using T-shaped arenas the predators were offered all possible binary combinations of discs of coconut fruit epidermis infested with A. guerreronis, non-infested discs or coconut pollen. The results showed that both predators were preferred (the volatile cues from) the infested plant parts over clean air. When subjected to odours from different infested or non-infested plant parts, predators preferred the infested parts. Among the infested plant parts, the spikelets induced the greatest attraction to predators. On the arenas, both predators preferred discs of coconut fruits infested with A. guerreronis over every other alternative. The results show that both predators are able to locate A. guerreronis by olfactory stimuli. Foraging strategies and implications for biological control are discussed. PMID:21499777

  11. HISTOPATHOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEOTROMBICULA MICROTI INFESTATION IN THE ENDANGERED AMARGOSA VOLE (MICROTUS CALIFORNICUS SCIRPENSIS).

    PubMed

    Ott-Conn, Caitlin N; Woods, Leslie W; Clifford, Deana L; Branston, Tammy; Foley, Janet

    2015-07-01

    The Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis) is a profoundly endangered rodent found only in the Central Mojave Desert, Inyo County, California, US. In 2010, severe cases of trombiculiasis, caused by larval Neotrombicula microti mites, were discovered among voles and sympatric small mammals. We evaluated Amargosa voles and sympatric rodents for infestation with N. microti December 2011-November 2012 and evaluated histopathology of ear tissue from 13 actively N. microti-infested Amargosa voles and 10 Amargosa voles with no gross evidence of current or past infestation. Rodents with current infestation had mites visible on tissue, typically ear pinnae, whereas mites were not seen on rodents with presumptive past infestation, but some of these animals had gross tissue scarring and loss consistent with healing from infestation. Ears from infested voles had severe granulocytic and necrotizing dermatitis, most associated with stylostome fragments, whereas few lesions were present in grossly uninfested voles. There was no association between body condition and infestation or severity of lesions. Significantly more voles were infested (37%) with N. microti than sympatric rodents (3%), suggesting that sympatric rodents do not serve as an important source of N. microti exposure to voles. Although this chigger infestation was common and induced severe localized pathology, we did not detect a fitness cost to infestation and recommend further evaluation of the disease to discern its significance in this conservation context. PMID:25919470

  12. A Door-to-Door Survey of Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Row Homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M.; Barbarin, Alexis M.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012–2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

  13. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

  14. Diel infestation dynamics of gnathiid isopod larvae parasitic on Caribbean reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkel, Paul C.; Schaumburg, Collin S.; Mathenia, Jeremy K.

    2006-11-01

    Infestation dynamics of parasitic gnathiid isopods on Caribbean reefs were studied throughout the 24-h diel cycle. Gnathiid infestation on caged longfin damselfish ( Stegastes diencaeus) peaked strongly at dawn, remained low during the remainder of the day, and increased again at night until about midnight. Gnathiids were less abundant during the pre-dawn period. Peak loads on fish retrieved at dawn were the highest reported in any study thus far. The dawn peak consisted almost exclusively of individuals from the smallest size class, whereas nocturnal activity consisted almost exclusively of individuals of the largest size class. Because of the high rates of infestation at night and dawn, and the high variation in parasite loads on fish collected during that time, reduction of parasite infestation may play an important role in the selection of nocturnal and crepuscular shelter holes and settlement sites by reef fishes.

  15. Remote detection of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations in southern New Hampshire and Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Justin P.

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an invasive pest damaging Eastern and Carolina hemlock on the east coast of the United States. Maine and New Hampshire are currently the northernmost front of HWA spread. Developing methods to remotely detect infested stands is paramount in monitoring the spread of this pest. The effect of HWA on hemlock needle reflectance was evaluated using laboratory spectroscopy, pigment extractions and fluorescence measurements. Hemlock habitat suitability was modeled using MaxEnt software and thirteen environmental predictor variables; overall accuracy was 68.2%. Partition modeling of multi-year (1995-2013) Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery was used to develop classification rules that detect and predict HWA infested areas (R 2 = 0.782). Overall agreement with known HWA infestations was 86.7% in conifer forests, 44.3% in mixed forests and 31.6% in deciduous forests. Targeted field surveys of fourteen stands predicted to be infested resulted in eleven new HWA detections.

  16. REVEGETATION SUCCESS OF MEDUSAHEAD-INFESTED RANGELANDS WITH PLATEAU® AND PRESCRIBED BURNING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an invasive annual grass that is rapidly invading rangelands. Medusahead invasion reduces the productivity and biodiversity of rangelands. Efforts to control medusahead and revegetation infested rangelands are often unsuccessful. We evaluated...

  17. 9 CFR 72.1 - Interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... No animals infested with ticks [Boophilus annulatus or Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Margaropus annulatus, Boophilus microplus or Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, or Babesiasis (Babesiosis) species vectors of Margaropus, Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, Demacentor, or Ixodes] or exposed to...

  18. The effect of ivomec super on dogs experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei isolated from a patient.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Abdel-Mawla, M Y; Morsy, A T

    2001-04-01

    Scabies infestation is a community health problem worldwide. This is particularly true in overcrowded and unhygienic areas. Seven dogs were experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei freshly recovered from a patient. The dogs after infestation were treated with a mixture of ivermectin and clorsulon (Ivomec Super). The dose given to a single dog was 1 ml/50 kg body weight. This is equivalent to 200 mcg ivermectin and 2 mg clorsulon per Kg body weight. Five of the dogs (71.43%) were completely cured with 1 ml/50 Kg body weight. The remaining two dogs needed each, another injection of the same dose two weeks later. So, ivomec super is effective against the human strain of Sarcoptes scabiei in experementally infested dogs. A general discussion was given. PMID:12557931

  19. [Nitrogen-containing mycotoxins of fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium species infesting grain and its products].

    PubMed

    Reshetilova, T A; Vinokurova, N G; L'vova, L S

    1993-01-01

    The review summarizes the literature data on distribution of nitrogen-containing mycotoxins (alkaloids) among Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi infesting grain and products of grain processing. Particular attention in given to clavins (ergotalkaloids) and tremorgens (roquefortine, verruculogen, penitrems). PMID:8295871

  20. Applying image transformation and classification techniques to airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping Ashe juniper infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz), in excessive coverage, reduces forage production, interferes with livestock management, and degrades watersheds and wildlife habitat in infested rangelands. The objective of this study was to apply minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and different cla...

  1. Developing food-grade coatings for dry-cured hams to protect against ham mite infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Williams, J B; Smith, B S; Schilling, M W

    2016-03-01

    Dry-cured hams may become infested with ham mites, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, during the aging process. Methyl bromide is the only known available fumigant pesticide that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations in dry cured ham plants. However, methyl bromide will be phased out of all industries as early as 2015 due to its status as an ozone-depleting substance. Research was conducted to develop and evaluate the potential of using food-grade film coatings to control mite infestations, without affecting the aging process and sensory properties of the dry-cured hams. Cubes coated with xanthan gum+20% propylene glycol and carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate+10% propylene glycol were effective at controlling mite infestations under laboratory conditions. Water vapor permeability was measured to estimate the impact of coatings during the aging process. It was evident that carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate coatings were permeable to moisture, which potentially makes them usable during aging. PMID:26624793

  2. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530

  3. [Diagnostic problems of Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acarida: Gamasida: Macronyssidae) infestation in humans].

    PubMed

    Betke, P; Ribbeck, R; Schultka, H

    1987-05-01

    We established an infestation with the tropical rat mite in a baby. At the beginning, the infestation was not recognized. Later it was found that it had already existed for several months, since the baby's third week. The main symptoms of the infestation were nocturnal restlessness and urticaria-like dermatitis, especially in the joint bends of the extremities. The focus of infestation were house rats (Rattus rattus) living in the garret. The Ornithonyssus bacoti mites had got into the living-room through a hole in the ceiling. Control measures against Ornithonyssus bacoti, which were successful within a short time, included eradication of the rats, closing of the hole in the ceiling, acaricide application in the garret and intensive cleaning of the living-room, the baby's nursery table, pram and bassinet. PMID:3619112

  4. Spatial stratification of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in La Rioja, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gorla, David E; Porcasi, Ximena; Hrellac, Hugo; Catalá, Silvia S

    2009-03-01

    Vectorial transmission of Chagas disease has been decreasing over the past few decades because of effective vector control programs in the southern cone of South America. However, the disease is still actively transmitted within the Gran Chaco region. In this area, vector populations are abundant and highly prevalent in poor rural houses. This study analyses the spatial pattern of rural house infestation by Triatoma infestans in a 56,000 km(2) area in the province of La Rioja, Argentina, before the re-initiation of systematic activity on vector control intervention. Data on 5,045 rural houses show that infestation has high spatial heterogeneity, with highly infested localities concentrated in a few areas. House infestation has a negative significant relationship with locality size. Rural houses in the region are highly dispersed and this feature has been and will remain a challenge for any vigilance system to be installed in the region. PMID:19270290

  5. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood.

    PubMed

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R

    2016-01-01

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530

  6. Natural infestation of Pimeliaphilus joshuae on scorpion species from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to study the acarine parasite, Pimeliaphilus joshuae (Prostigmata: Pterygosomatidae) on various scorpion species from Egypt to determine its prevalence, abundance and intensity in relation to host species, size and sex. A total of 95 Leiurus quinquestriatus, 98 Androctonus australis, 40 A. amoreuxi, 30 Scorpio maurus palmatus and 46 Orthochirus scrobicuosus were examined during August 2009. Prevalence and mean abundance of P. joshuae varied significantly in relation to host species, host size and sex. In L. quinquestriatus, A. australis, and A. amoreuxi, the prevalence was 76.8, 13.3, and 50.0%, whereas the mean abundance was 47.6, 6.7 and 14.3%, respectively. Prevalence and mean abundance of P. joshuae were both positively correlated with host size in L. quinquestriatus and A. australis. We conclude that P. joshuae is found in a wide range of scorpion species exhibiting a low degree of host specificity. Controlled laboratory infection experiments are required to explain why S. m. palmatus and O. scrobicuosus are not susceptible to infestation by P. joshuae. PMID:21465333

  7. Mixed trichuroid infestation in a dog from Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria boehmi and Trichuris vulpis are trichuroid nematodes affecting wild and companion animals all over the World. The canine intestinal whipworm, T. vulpis, is the most common and well- known in veterinary practice, whereas the respiratory C. aerophila and C. boehmi have been rarely reported in pets as a likely consequence of overlapping morphometric and morphological features of the eggs, which impair a correct etiological diagnosis. Findings In December 2011, a mixed infestation by T. vulpis, C. aerophila and C. boehmi was diagnosed in an asymptomatic dog living in central Italy. Morphometric and morphological findings and pictures of the eggs found at the copromicroscopic analysis are herein reported. Conclusions The present work demonstrates that when trichuroid eggs are found in a faecal sample from a dog, a careful morphological and morphometric analysis of individual parasite elements is mandatory. Key diagnostic features (i.e., size, wall surface pattern and aspects of plugs) should be carefully examined when eggs with overlapping shape and appearance are detected. In conclusion, given the importance in clinical practice of canine trichuroids and the zoonotic potential of C. aerophila, these nematodes should be included into the differential diagnosis of intestinal and respiratory parasitoses of dogs by a thorough microscopic analysis of all trichuroid ova present in microscopic fields. PMID:22731958

  8. Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.M.F.; Jodice, P.G.R.; O'Reilly, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  9. An outbreak of bed bug infestation in an office building.

    PubMed

    Baumblatt, Jane A Gwira; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Stull-Lane, Annica; Jones, Timothy F

    2014-04-01

    Since 2000, resurgence in bed bugs has occurred in the U.S. Reports of infestations of homes, hospitals, hotels, and offices have been described. On September 1, 2011, complaints of itching and bites among workers in an office were reported to the Tennessee Department of Health. A retrospective cohort study and environmental assessments were performed in response to the complaints. Canines certified to detect live bed bugs were used to inspect the office and arthropod samples were collected. Of 76 office workers, 61 (80%) were interviewed; 39 (64%) met the case definition. Pruritic maculopapular lesions were consistent with arthropod bites. One collected arthropod sample was identified as a bed bug by three entomologists. Exposures associated with symptoms included working in a cubicle in which a canine identified bed bugs (risk ratio [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6), and self-reported seasonal allergies (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Bed bugs represent a reemerging and challenging environmental problem with clinical, psychological, and financial impacts. PMID:24749221

  10. Dermanyssus gallinae (chicken mite): an underdiagnosed environmental infestation.

    PubMed

    Collgros, H; Iglesias-Sancho, M; Aldunce, M J; Expósito-Serrano, V; Fischer, C; Lamas, N; Umbert-Millet, P

    2013-06-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a mite that normally parasitizes small birds but may occasionally bite humans. We report an unusual case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and bite-like lesions over her trunk. Other members of the household were also affected. On physical examination, mites < 1 mm in size were found on the patient's body. The family were residing in the city centre and had no pets, but there were pigeon nests in close proximity to the house. Most dermatologists have difficulties identifying ectoparasitosis. In the case of D. gallinae, the small size of the mites and the fact that they leave the host after feeding means that they may not be seen at presentation, thus such infestations are likely to be underdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware that infection with this mite is possible even in patients from urban areas, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions causing recurrent pruritus unresponsive to standard treatments. PMID:23530520

  11. Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Lisa M F; Jodice, Patrick G R; O'Reilly, Kathleen M

    2010-03-01

    Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. PMID:19716827

  12. Ornithonyssus bacoti infestation and elimination from a mouse colony.

    PubMed

    Cole, Joan S; Sabol-Jones, Michelle; Karolewski, Brian; Byford, Tracylea

    2005-09-01

    Skin lesions, consisting of nonspecific bites with intense pruritus and excoriation of the skin, were found on personnel working in an animal colony primarily housing mice. The tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, was diagnosed from mites trapped on insect-monitoring sticky traps and collected from mouse cages in the colony. Because these mites do not live on mice but only come to feed when the animals are in their nest, an initial attempt was made to eliminate the mites with a thorough cleaning of the facility. Clidox foam was applied to the entire room with a foaming machine. Then the mice were transferred into the sanitized cages in the cleaned room. The numbers of mites were reduced to the point that they were no longer noticed in the colony, but the mites returned within 2 weeks. The mites were successfully eliminated with the use of permethrin-impregnated cotton balls in the mouse cages for 8 weeks and treatment of the premises. Treatment of the premises included spraying floors and walls of all rooms housing mice and adjacent hallways in the colony with pyrethrin spray by a commercial pest control company. To prevent one room of rabbits from maintaining the infestation, they were treated weekly with an organic pyrethrin dust. Insect sticky traps have remained negative for mites for more than 3 years after treatment. PMID:16138778

  13. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  14. Public street lights increase house infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Tucuch, Freddy Santiago; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gourbière, Sébastien; Dumonteil, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease. We previously documented the spatio-temporal infestation of houses by this species in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and found that non-domiciliated triatomines were specifically attracted to houses. However, the factors mediating this attraction remained unclear. Artificial light has been known for a long time to attract many insect species, and therefore may contribute to the spread of different vector-borne diseases. Also, based on the collection of different species of triatomines with light traps, several authors have suggested that light might attract triatomines to houses, but the role of artificial light in house infestation has never been clearly demonstrated and quantified. Here we performed a spatial analysis of house infestation pattern by T. dimidiata in relation to the distribution of artificial light sources in three different villages from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. In all three villages, infested houses were significantly closer to public street light sources than non-infested houses (18.0 ± 0.6 vs 22.6 ± 0.4 m), and street lights rather than domestic lights were associated with house infestation. Accordingly, houses closer to a public street lights were 1.64 times more likely to be infested than houses further away (OR, CI95% 1.23-2.18). Behavioral experiments using a dual-choice chamber further confirmed that adult male and females were attracted to white light during their nocturnal activity. Attraction was also dependent on light color and decreased with increasing wavelength. While public lighting is usually associated with increased development, these data clearly show that it also directly contributes to house infestation by non-domiciliated T. dimidiata. PMID:22558384

  15. Factors promoting infestation of newly planted, nonbearing apple orchards by dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2005-12-01

    The initiation and level of infestation by dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was tracked over three consecutive years in two nonbearing apple (Malus spp.) orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards were planted on a number of rootstock-variety (approximately cultivar) combinations and grown using different cultural practices. Infestations were detected during the first season after planting and continued to increase annually. The amount of burr knot tissue had the greatest impact on dogwood borer populations, because increasing amounts of burr knot tissue resulted in higher infestation rates. The use of plastic spiral wrap tree guards seemed to increase the development of burr knot tissue, resulting in significantly greater infestation compared with trees without tree guards in the West Virginia orchard. Variety also had a significant effect, because 'Idared' trees on M.26 had significantly greater levels of infestation compared with 'Buckeye Gala' on M.26, with or without tree guards, in the Virginia orchard. Mounding soil around the rootstock to a height just above the graft union prevented or tremendously curtailed infestation by dogwood borer, but it led to scion rooting that seemed to have an impact on size-controlling features of dwarfing rootstocks. Removal of the mounds at the beginning of the third growing season resulted in infestation of the rooted tissue during the same season. As long as apple cultivars continue to be planted on size-controlling rootstocks, dogwood borer will likely remain a serious pest, requiring either chemical treatments or a behavioral control strategy, such as mating disruption, to protect trees from infestation and damage. PMID:16539141

  16. Yield response of dual-toxin Bt cotton to Helicoverpa zea infestations.

    PubMed

    Gore, J; Adamczyk, J J; Catchot, A; Jackson, R

    2008-10-01

    Field cage experiments were conducted to determine the impact of bollworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), on yields of Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. One-day-old bollworm larvae were infested in white flowers of Bollgard II and in white flowers and terminals of Widestrike cotton. The infestation levels included 0, 50, and 100% of white flowers for each type of cotton. Terminal infestations included one or two larvae per terminal on Widestrike cotton. Larvae were placed in flowers of Bollgard II cotton each day for 1 to 4 wk during the first 4 wk of flowering during 2003, 2004, and 2005 seasons and in the flowers or terminals of Widestrike cotton each day for 1 to 3 wk. Averaged across years and durations of infestation, yields of Bollgard II cotton were significantly reduced compared with noninfested Bollgard II cotton when 100% of white flowers were infested. For Widestrike cotton, there was a reduction in yield when 100% of white flowers were infested in 2005, but not in 2006. There was a significant relationship for cumulative numbers of white flowers infested on seedcotton yield of Bollgard II during one of the 3 yr of the experiment. The regression equation during that year had a slope of -0.77. No significant relationships were observed for cumulative numbers of white flowers infested on yields of Widestrike cotton. Results of the current experiment suggest bollworms will rarely cause yield losses of Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton. Future research will need to focus on developing specific thresholds for bollworms on Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton. PMID:18950041

  17. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion. PMID:26787920

  18. Volatiles from apple trees infested with light brown apple moth larvae attract the parasitoid Dolichogenidia tasmanica.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Twidle, A M; Gibb, A R; Manning, L M; Mitchell, V J; Sullivan, T E S; Wee, S L; El-Sayed, A M

    2012-09-26

    The volatile compounds emitted from uninfested apple seedlings, cv. Royal Gala, and apple seedlings infested with generalist herbivore Epiphyas postvittana larvae were sampled using headspace collection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine additional compounds were only detected in infested apple seedlings [including benzyl alcohol, (E)-β-ocimene, benzyl cyanide, indole, (E)-nerolidol, and four unidentified compounds]. Infested apple seedlings produced larger amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate than uninfested plants. Female parasitoids flew exclusively upwind to infested and not to uninfested apple seedlings in wind tunnel choice tests and preferred infested leaflets in still air, even after the removal of larvae. The attraction of a parasitoid to infested apple seedlings in the laboratory and in the field to apple and many other plants in at least six families supports considerable generality of the tritrophic signaling process. PMID:22950817

  19. Physiological and Molecular Alterations Promoted by Schizotetranychus oryzae Mite Infestation in Rice Leaves.

    PubMed

    Buffon, Giseli; Blasi, Édina A R; Adamski, Janete M; Ferla, Noeli J; Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Yates, John R; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O; Sperotto, Raul A

    2016-02-01

    Infestation of phytophagous mite Schizotetranychus oryzae in rice causes critical yield losses. To better understand this interaction, we employed Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) approach to identify differentially expressed proteins. We detected 18 and 872 unique proteins in control and infested leaves, respectively, along with 32 proteins more abundant in control leaves. S. oryzae infestation caused decreased abundance of proteins related to photosynthesis (mostly photosystem II-related), carbon assimilation and energy production, chloroplast detoxification, defense, and fatty acid and gibberellin synthesis. On the contrary, infestation caused increased abundance of proteins involved in protein modification and degradation, gene expression at the translation level, protein partitioning to different organelles, lipid metabolism, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and synthesis of jasmonate, amino acid, and molecular chaperones. Our results also suggest that S. oryzae infestation promotes cell-wall remodeling and interferes with ethylene biosynthesis in rice leaves. Proteomic data were positively correlated with enzymatic assays and RT-qPCR analysis. Our findings describe the protein expression patterns of infested rice leaves and suggest that the acceptor side of PSII is probably the major damaged target in the photosynthetic apparatus. These data will be useful in future biotechnological approaches aiming to induce phytophagous mite resistance in rice. PMID:26667653

  20. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food. PMID:25420687

  1. Infestation of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in sweet corn as predicted by time of oviposition.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Steve M; Calvin, Dennis D; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2003-04-01

    Oviposition by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübn, was examined in relation to sweet corn development from 1994 to 1996, and related to harvest infestation levels. Stepwise multiple regression and linear regression showed that 79-87% of the variability of larvae per ear or proportion of ears infested at harvest was explained by the number of egg masses laid from about anthesis to brown silk stages. The analyses indicated three periods of oviposition with differing implications to harvest infestation level: (1) eggs laid from 784-337 degree-days (DD) before harvest (before green tassel) had very low correlation to harvest infestation; (2) eggs laid from 336-169 DD before harvest (green tassel to green silk) were highly correlated with harvest infestation; and (3) eggs laid during the last 168 DD of sweet corn development (green silk to harvest) had low to moderate correlation with harvest infestation. The 336-169 DD period corresponded to the anthesis to brown silk growth stages, which was approximately 14-21 d long, and would be the likely period for optimum chemical control. The results of this study are compared with existing recommendations from the midwestern and northeastern U.S., and potential explanations for the patterns observed are discussed. PMID:14994809

  2. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya.

    PubMed

    Hosni, M M; Maghrbi, A A El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  3. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    PubMed Central

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  4. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  5. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  6. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks.

    PubMed

    Larson, Diane L; Rabie, Paul A; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  7. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of infestation by stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), under natural infestation conditions.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vazquez, C; Carvajal Márquez, J; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Vitela-Mendoza, I; Ramos-Parra, M

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae applied by aspersion to control of Stomoxys calcitrans flies in dairy cattle naturally infested. Was applied by aspersion an aqueous formulation of M. anisopliae sensu lato (Ma134), at a concentration of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, four times with seven day intervals, on a group of eight Holstein cows; a control group of eight Holstein cows, received a water solution with Tween 80 (0.1%). The average number of flies per animal was estimated one day before each application, and then daily counts were done in both groups. The effectiveness of the formulation was calculated using the Abbott's formula. At the same time, defensive behaviors of stamp/kicks and tail movements were evaluated daily, estimating relative frequency per hour. The Ma134 formulation had an infestation control efficacy of 73%, taking into consideration the four study weeks. The population reduction effect was observed since the first week post-application (p<0.05), and the effect increased with the subsequent applications. Defensive behaviors were reduced beginning from the first application, reaching a reduction of 66% and 70%, respectively, during the four weeks of study. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation to control infestation by S. calcitrans, as well as reduce defensive behaviors which involves the infestation. PMID:26209932

  8. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  9. Spatial Heterogeneity and Risk Maps of Community Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Rural Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Spillmann, Cynthia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Kitron, Uriel

    2012-01-01

    Background Fifty years of residual insecticide spraying to control Triatoma infestans in the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia shows that vertically coordinated interventions aiming at full coverage have limited effects and are unsustainable. We quantified the spatial distribution of T. infestans domestic infestation at the district level, identified environmental factors associated with high infestation and then explored the usefulness of risk maps for the spatial stratification of interventions. Methods and Findings We performed spatial analyses of house infestation data collected by the National Chagas Service in Moreno Department, northern Argentina (1999–2002). Clusters of high domestic infestation occurred in the southwestern extreme of the district. A multi-model selection approach showed that domestic infestation clustered in areas of low elevation, with few farmlands, high density of rural houses, high mean maximum land surface temperature, large NDVI, and high percentage of degraded and deforested lands. The best model classified 98.4% of the communities in the training dataset (sensitivity, 93.3%; specificity, 95.4%). The risk map evidenced that the high-risk area only encompassed 16% of the district. By building a network-based transportation model we assessed the operational costs of spatially contiguous and spatially targeted interventions. Targeting clusters of high infestation would have reached ∼80% of all communities slated for full-coverage insecticide spraying, reducing in half the total time and economic cost incurred by a spatially contiguous strategy. Conclusions and Significance In disperse rural areas where control programs can accomplish limited coverage, consideration of infestation hot spots can contribute to the design and execution of cost-effective interventions against Chagas disease vectors. If field validated, targeted vertical control in high risk areas and horizontal control in medium to low risk

  10. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Woli, P; Ortiz, B V; Buntin, D; Flanders, K

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is expected to have an influence on the population of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a serious insect pest of winter wheat in the southeastern United States. This study had two objectives: 1) to examine the effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Hessian fly infestation and 2) to develop a weather-based Hessian fly infestation model for wheat yield loss prediction. At least 20 years of Hessian fly infestation and wheat yield records from two locations in South Georgia were used for this study. The yearly values of infestation were separated by ENSO phase and tested to assess the infestation differences across ENSO phases. Each year, yield losses from infestation were calculated by subtracting the yields of resistant varieties from those of susceptible ones. The yield losses were then separated by ENSO phase and tested. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the contribution of monthly weather variables and changes in wheat acreage to Hessian fly infestation. Results showed that Hessian fly infestation and yield losses were greatest during the La Niña and least during the El Niño phase. The weather conditions that significantly increased the risk for infestation were those of the August-February period. The risk of infestation was higher during August-September under wetter, cooler conditions and during October-February under drier, warmer conditions. These findings could help wheat growers reduce the risk of infestation in the years that are expected to have more infestation through the adoption of necessary mitigation measures before the crop season. PMID:25290163

  11. The effect of northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; King, Annie J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-05-01

    The northern fowl mite (NFM),Ornithonyssus sylviarum, is the most common ectoparasite of laying hens in North America. Infestation can cause a reduction in egg production, egg weights, and feed conversion efficiency. However, there is a lack of information on the effects of NFM on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality. Singly caged beak-trimmed White Leghorn hens (N=32) were infested with mites at 25 wk of age. The condition of each hen was assessed at wk 0 (infestation) and wk 5 and 7 post-infestation to determine comb temperatures and feather, skin, and comb condition. Heterophil-lymphocyte (H/L) ratios and body weight (BW) were evaluated at wk 0 and wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infestation. Egg weight, egg specific gravity, yolk color, Haugh unit (HU), and eggshell thickness were determined prior to infestation (wk -1) and at 1, 3, 5, and 7 wk post-infestation. The H/L ratio (P<0.0001), HU (P<0.0001), and egg specific gravity (P=0.001) were lowest, and the egg yolk color was lightest (P=0.087) at wk 5, the peak of infestation. At wk 5 and 7, more than 65% of the hens had red skin and more than 75% had scabs on the vent; in addition more than 84% had grey-black vent feathers. There were no effects of infestation on comb color, comb temperature, feather cover, BW, or eggshell thickness. It was concluded that infestation with NFM has negative effects on interior egg quality and hen integument. A decrease in H/L ratio was also observed at the peak of infestation. However, the effects of NFM on the immune system are unclear, and H/L ratio might not be a good stress measure in hens highly infested with NFM. PMID:26944982

  12. Pea aphid infestation induces changes in flavonoids, antioxidative defence, soluble sugars and sugar transporter expression in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Mai, Van Chung; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Kühn, Christina; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The perception of aphid infestation induces highly coordinated and sequential defensive reactions in plants at the cellular and molecular levels. The aim of the study was to explore kinetics of induced antioxidative defence responses in leaf cells of Pisum sativum L.cv. Cysterski upon infestation of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum at varying population sizes, including accumulation of flavonoids, changes of carbon metabolism, and expression of nuclear genes involved in sugar transport. Within the first 96 h, after A. pisum infestation, flavonoid accumulation and increased peroxidase activity were observed in leaves. The level of pisatin increased after 48 h of infestation and reached a maximum at 96 h. At this time point, a higher concentration of flavonols was observed in the infested tissue than in the control. Additionally, strong post-infestation accumulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) transcription products was also found. The levels of sucrose and fructose in 24-h leaves infested by 10, 20, and 30 aphids were significantly lower than in the control. Moreover, in leaves infested by 30 aphids, the reduced sucrose level observed up to 48 h was accompanied by a considerable increase in the expression level of the PsSUT1 gene encoding the sucrose transporter. In conclusion, A. pisum infestation on pea leads to stimulation of metabolic pathways associated with defence. PMID:26239447

  13. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address the

  14. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O.; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests’ biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host’s defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address

  15. Influence of Household Rat Infestation on Leptospira Transmission in the Urban Slum Environment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C.; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N.; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13–11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06–7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28–6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21–6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71–0.84). Conclusions/Significance Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may

  16. Targeted versus standard bait station placement affects subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestation rates.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan C

    2003-10-01

    A major challenge to termite baiting in soil habitats is the prolonged time that it may take for subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) to infest stations. The objective of this research study was to determine whether the location of food sources (Sentricon in-ground monitoring stations and wooden monitors) influences the likelihood of infestation by termites. In field trials conducted at 15 structures in central Ohio, standard placement of stations at 3-4.5 m intervals was compared with targeted placements based on evidence of termite activity indoors and outdoors as well as conducive moisture conditions. Termites infested significantly more targeted placements (70/374) than standard placements (35/372) around structures. At the targeted placement sites, termites infested more wooden monitors than Sentricon stations, but this was not statistically significant. This implies that placement, rather than cellulose composition, was the more important factor. Termites first infested stations/monitors an average of 38 d sooner at targeted sites than standard placement sites. This research indicates that evidence of termite activity indoors and outdoors should be a prime consideration when placing in-ground stations. PMID:14650527

  17. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-01

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27164447

  18. Spectral Analysis of Ultraweak Chemiluminescence from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2005-02-01

    We performed the spectral analysis of ultraweak-photon emissions from kidney bean leaves infested by the kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). We also measured the spectrum of photon emissions from artificially wounded leaves, and compared the result with spectral data obtained from the mite-infested leaves. Photon emissions from both the mite-infested and wounded leaves primarily consisted of wavelengths ranging from 500 to 700 nm, and photon intensity at these wavelengths increased steadily after perturbation. In contrast, photon intensity of the mite-infested leaves at 300-400 nm exhibited only differential changes; it began increasing at 20 h, and showed two peaks at 72 and 120 h. We previously reported that photon emissions from infested leaves might be the result of both insect damage and plant self-protection. Plant defensive responses, such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), are induced by insect elicitors via insect damage. Therefore, photon intensity at 500-700 nm might be related to direct injury (physiological stress), while photon intensity at 300-400 nm may signify a physiological (biochemical)-action-related defensive response.

  19. A meta-analysis of association between acne ulgaris and Demodex infestation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ya-e; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-ping; Ma, Jun-xian

    2012-01-01

    Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42 130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34–3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18 477, suggesting that at least 18 477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered. PMID:22374611

  20. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  1. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events. PMID:26553505

  2. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events.

  3. Impact of Oebalus pugnax (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestation Timing on Rice Yields and Quality.

    PubMed

    Awuni, G A; Gore, J; Cook, D; Musser, F; Catchot, A; Dobbins, C

    2015-08-01

    Sleeve and large field cage experiments were conducted in Stoneville, MS, in 2010 and 2011 to assess adult rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), injury in rice. 'Cocodrie' and 'Wells' were infested at bloom, milk, and soft dough stages of panicle development. Twenty rice panicles were infested individually in the sleeve cage experiment as replicates with 0, 1, or 2 O. pugnax in a split-plot, completely randomized design. The large cage experiment had four replications infested with 9 or 18 O. pugnax per square meter over multiple rice panicles in a split-plot, randomized complete block design per cultivar. Caged uninfested controls were included in each experiment. Rough rice yield and percentage of clean, damaged, and blank kernels were evaluated. In both experiments, stage of panicle development impacted grain yield and quality. Yield loss was greatest during the bloom stage, while kernel damage was greatest during the milk and soft dough stages. Rice yield decreased with increased infestation density. Kernel damage increased with increased infestation density. Blank kernels affect yield, while kernel damage affects grain quality. While grain yield is the bottom line, grain quality affects marketability, which directly affects yield profitability. Based on these results, this study considers O. pugnax injury significant in all three stages of panicle development and concludes that a more aggressive threshold is recommended from panicle emergence through soft dough. More research is needed to determine the specific threshold, but it appears to be lower than the current threshold of 5 per 10 sweeps. PMID:26470315

  4. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  5. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka. PMID:27441212

  6. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801

  7. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yongqiang; Li, Pei; Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Lang; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves. PMID:27124300

  8. Alterations in the nitrogen dynamics of European beech trees infested by the woolly beech aphid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.

    2012-12-01

    Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.

  9. A case of an apparent infestation by Proisotoma spp. springtails (Collembola: Isotomidae) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Beccati, Massimo; Gallo, Maria G; Chiavassa, Elisa; Peano, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This case report is presumed to be the first case of infestation of a cat by springtails which are small arthropods closely related to insects. The organisms, found by skin scrapings, were identified as Proisotoma spp. (Collembola: Isotomidae). The cat presented with dermatological lesions (itchy, furfuraceous dermatitis), and we speculate that they were due to this infestation. The pathogenic role of the Collembola was hypothesized because of the large number of organisms, the presence of eggs indicating an active reproduction cycle, the lack of other pathogens (fleas, mites or lice) and the clinical recovery accompanied by the disappearance of Collembola following treatment. The owner seemed to be affected by the infestation, because a few days after having purchased the cat, she developed a pruriginous papular dermatitis on the neck and the arms, which disappeared shortly after treatment of the kitten and a careful washing of all of its toys and other accoutrements. PMID:22049948

  10. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species. PMID:8952073

  11. Prehistorical Pediculus humanus capitis infestation: quantitative data and low vacuum scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Juliana M F; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; Souza, Wanderley de; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Souza, Sheila Mendonça de; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  12. PREHISTORICAL Pediculus humanus capitis INFESTATION: QUANTITATIVE DATA AND LOW VACUUM SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Juliana M.F.; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  13. A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Methods Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Results Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 – 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. Conclusions High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention. PMID:24171704

  14. Antibody and blood leukocyte response in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) tick-infested dogs and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Matias P J; Aoki, Vanessa L; Sanches, Françoise P S; Aquino, Lúcia P T C T; Garcia, Marcos V; Machado, Rosângela Z; Bechara, Gervásio H

    2003-07-10

    The dog is considered to be the natural host of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and is unable to develop appreciable resistance even after repeated feedings. The guinea pig develops strong resistance after one infestation with adult ticks. Antibody (IgG) titres against tick salivary gland antigens (SGAs) and blood leukocyte numbers in dogs and guinea pigs undergoing experimental R. sanguineus tick infestations were measured to detect a possible correlation with susceptibility or resistance of hosts. Since infested dogs develop an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to R. sanguineus antigens, total and anti-R. sanguineus SGA IgE levels were also measured in this host species. IgG and IgE antibody levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) along three consecutive infestations of both hosts. Most dogs and guinea pigs displayed low IgG levels against R. sanguineus SGAs, though marked differences in individual response were observed. Although dog's total serum IgE levels increased significantly after infestations, no change in the amount of anti-salivary gland IgE was detected. Total and differential blood cell counts were determined in dogs and guinea pigs during primary and secondary infestation. In dogs, a tertiary infestation and a subsequent higher infestation level were also evaluated. Infested dogs did not display any alteration in blood leukocyte counts throughout the experiment. Guinea pigs, on the other hand, developed a significant basophilia during primary infestation which increased further during secondary infestation. These data reveal similarities and differences in the reactions of resistant and non-resistant hosts to ticks. They contribute for the understanding of such host-parasite relationships and will hopefully aid in the development of immune control of ticks. PMID:12860067

  15. Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and

  16. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable. PMID:23068169

  17. Tick infestation in birds and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from different places in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Christine; Gethmann, Jörn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Ziegler, Ute; Heller, Martin; Beer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds. Mean tick infestation per bird ranged between 2 (long-distance migratory bird) and 4.7 (sedentary bird), in some single cases up to 55 ticks per bird were found. With the exception of three nymphs of Haemaphysalis spp., all ticks belonged to Ixodes spp., the most frequently detected tick species was Ixodes ricinus. Birds were mostly infested by nymphs (65.1 %), followed by larvae (32.96 %). Additionally, ticks collected from birds were examined for several pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Sindbisvirus with real-time RT-PCR, Flaviviruses, Simbuviruses and Lyssaviruses with broad-range standard RT-PCR-assays, and Borrelia spp. with a Pan-Borrelia real-time PCR. Interestingly, no viral pathogens could be detected, but Borrelia spp. positive ticks were collected from 76 birds. Borrelia (B.) garinii, B. valaisiaina, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. afzelii were determined. The screening of ticks and birds for viral pathogens with broad range PCR-assays was tested and the use as an "early warning system" is discussed. PMID:27048511

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Dimeticone in the Treatment of Lice Infestation through Prophylaxis of Classmates

    PubMed Central

    FERRARA, Pietro; DEL BUFALO, Francesca; ROMANO, Valerio; TIBERI, Eloisa; BOTTARO, Giorgia; ROMANI, Lorenza; MALAMISURA, Monica; IANNIELLO, Francesca; CENI, Laura; MOTTINI, Giovanni; GATTO, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted a study to evaluate efficacy and safety of dimeticone 4%, a lotion with no conventional insecticide activity, to cure lice infection and to prevent spread of infestation/reinfestation by prophylaxis of classmates. Methods: The study is carried out between April 2008 and June 2008 in Petranova International Institute in Rome. A total of 131 children, aged 3 to 13 years (median age: 7 years) were included in the study. All participants received treatment with dimeticone 4% that was applied both to children with the infestation, to cure it, and to all classmates, to prevent the spreading of the infestation. They have been controlled after 7 and 30 days from the application of dimeticone. Results: At baseline we found a positivity of lice infestation in 23/131 children (17.6%), whereas 108/131 (82.4%) children were free from lice. After 7 days of treatment with dimeticone 4%, 7/23 (30.4%) positive children still had lice infestation, with a cure rate of 69.6% (16/23). At 30 days 26/131 children (19.9%) were infested: 15 children were lice free at baseline whereas 11 had lice at both evaluations; the cure rate amounted to 52.2% (12/23). The reinfestation rate (percentage of positive children that showed negativity at baseline) was 5.3% (7/131) at 7 days and 11.5% (15/131) at 30 days. Conclusion: The lower reinfestation rate showed in our trial suggests that this approach could be effective in reducing spreading of head lice in small communities. More studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24427749

  19. Vaccination with proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions reduces vector infestations and pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Merino, Octavio; Antunes, Sandra; Mosqueda, Juan; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Rodríguez, Sergio; Domingos, Ana; de la Fuente, José

    2013-12-01

    Tick-borne pathogens cause diseases that greatly impact animal health and production worldwide. The ultimate goal of tick vaccines is to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. Tick genetic traits are involved in vector-pathogen interactions and some of these molecules such as Subolesin (SUB) have been shown to protect against vector infestations and pathogen infection. Based on these premises, herein we characterized the efficacy of cattle vaccination with tick proteins involved in vector-pathogen interactions, TROSPA, SILK, and Q38 for the control of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. SUB and adjuvant/saline placebo were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results showed that vaccination with Q38, SILK and SUB reduced tick infestations and oviposition with vaccine efficacies of 75% (Q38), 62% (SILK) and 60% (SUB) with respect to ticks fed on placebo control cattle. Vaccination with TROSPA did not have a significant effect on any of the tick parameters analyzed. The results also showed that vaccination with Q38, TROSPA and SUB reduced B. bigemina DNA levels in ticks while vaccination with SILK and SUB resulted in lower A. marginale DNA levels when compared to ticks fed on placebo control cattle. The positive correlation between antigen-specific antibody titers and reduction of tick infestations and pathogen infection strongly suggested that the effect of the vaccine was the result of the antibody response in vaccinated cattle. Vaccination and co-infection with A. marginale and B. bigemina also affected the expression of genes encoding for vaccine antigens in ticks fed on cattle. These results showed that vaccines using tick proteins involved in vector-pathogen interactions could be used for the dual control of tick infestations and pathogen infection. PMID:24084474

  20. Effect of a herbal compound for treatment of sarcoptic mange infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Das, S S

    1996-06-01

    Charmil gel, a herbal product was tried against Sarcoptes scabei var canis on dogs and its efficacy was compared with that of amitraz. Mite scrapings examined at scheduled intervals after the topical application of Charmil gel caused complete recovery after 14 days in severe infestation and 7 to 10 days in mild to moderate infestations with regrowth of hair on Day 28 post-treatment. No adverse reactions were observed except mild irritation and restlessness, which persisted for a few hours soon after application. PMID:8966996

  1. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide "Four-Pest Elimination" campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000-2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999-2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  2. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    PubMed Central

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Anagnostopoulou, Rimma; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, Anna; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%), 11 with cockroaches (52.3%), three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96%) traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03), and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007), no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02), and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05). Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03). Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more persistent in older

  3. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  4. Impact of Mountain Pine Beetle Infestation on Snowmelt: Variations with Vegetation Structure and Geographical Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni-Meister, W.

    2015-12-01

    The warming climate resulted in the current outbreak of mountain pine beetles (MPB) in western and northwestern US. and Western Canada. Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, and British Columbia are also currently experiencing widespread mountain pine beetle infestations. Forest disturbance due to MPB can have a large impact on hydrological processes specifically snow accumulation and snowmelt. In those regions, spring snowmelt is a major water resource and MPB infestations can have a big impact on water resource management. MPB infestations cause forest canopies to gradually diminish over the course of several years, they therefore impact snow interception and radiation balance at snow surface, thus snowmelt. Past studies on this topic have achieved contradicting results. This study focuses on understanding how the impacts of MPB infestations on snow surface radiation balance and snowmelt rates vary with vegetation structure and geographical locations. We selected four sites in northern Colorado and four sites in the Cascade Mountains in Oregon with varying intensities of MPB. Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) data from SNOTEL sites and MPB-caused forest disturbance data extracted from Landsat time series disturbance maps were used for our analysis. Our results show that MPB sites show larger snow accumulation for sites in Colorado and Cascade Mountains. However snowmelt rate varies differently. For sites in Colorado, snow melts faster in the MPB sites than in the healthy forest sites. In contrary, in the Cascade Mountains, snow stays longer in MPB sites than in healthy and undisturbed sites. Our modeling study shows that shortwave radiation is a dominant factor for radiation balance in the mid-latitude region (Colorado). There, MPB infestations lead to increased shortwave radiation and faster snowmelt. However, long wave radiation plays an important role for radiation balance in high latitude areas. MPB infestations decrease longwave radiation and result in snow

  5. Infestation by Pyemotes tritici (Acari, Pyemotidae) causes death of stingless bee colonies (Hymenoptera: Meliponina).

    PubMed

    Menezes, C; Coletto-Silva, A; Gazeta, G S; Kerr, W E

    2009-01-01

    We report the infestation of stingless bee nests by the mite Pyemotes tritici, which killed four colonies of Tetragonisca angustula and one colony of Frieseomelitta varia in Brazil. The first infected colony, a colony of T. angustula, came from an area between Uberlândia and Araguari, Minas Gerais. The transfer of the mites to the other colonies occurred through the transfer of infected combs and subsequent manipulations. Other colonies in the same meliponary, which had not been manipulated, were not infected. The infestation was terminated by isolating the dead colonies from the meliponary. PMID:19554756

  6. Field trials of bromadiolone against infestations of warfarin-resistant Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C. G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Baiting with 0·005% bromadiolone in medium oatmeal or soaked wheat completely controlled infestations of warfarin-resistant rats on farms when surplus amounts of the poisoned baits were maintained until rats ceased to feed on them. The speed with which control was achieved was the same as with other anticoagulants that have been tested in this way. Poison baiting with 0·005% bromadiolone for only 1, 4 or 7 days achieved respectively about 49, 77 and 81% control of similar farm rat infestations. PMID:7240736

  7. Field trials of WBA 8119 (PP 581, brodifacoum) against warfarin-resistant infestations of Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed Central

    Rennison, B. D.; Dubock, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    Baiting with medium oatmeal or soaked wheat containing 0.002, 0.001 or 0.0005% brodifacoum completely controlled infestations of warfarin-resistant rats on farms when the poisoned baits were maintained until rats ceased to feed on them. The concentration of brodifacoum did not affect the duration of these treatments which lasted from 11 to 25 days. Poison baiting with 0.002% brodifacoum for only 1,4 and 7 days achieved, respectively, only about 41, 51 and 68% control of similar farm infestations, and so emphasized the need to continue baiting for longer periods. PMID:621382

  8. Infestation and Pathological Alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-01-01

    A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi. PMID:24341764

  9. [Persistent scalp infestation by Dermanyssus gallinae in an Emilian country-woman].

    PubMed

    Pampiglione, S; Pampiglione, G; Pagani, M; Rivasi, F

    2001-09-01

    A case of persistent infestation of the scalp due to Dermanyssus gallinae.--Infestation due to Dermanyssus gallinae, the common red mite of poultry, in a country-woman aged 69 years from Crevalcore (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy), is described. The case was unusual either for its location, the scalp, and for its persistence, 9 months. Specimens of the mite were also found in the henhouse adjacent to the patient's house. Apparently the woman recovered by means of daily washing of camomile tea. PMID:11921537

  10. Hospital infestations by the moth fly, Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodinae), in Germany.

    PubMed

    Faulde, M; Spiesberger, M

    2012-06-01

    The moth fly Clogmia albipunctata, formerly a Mediterranean species, is now present in Germany, at latitudes exceeding 53°N. Its synanthropic behaviour allows frequent, year-round infestations in hospital buildings. Hospital infestations have been most common in shower and rest rooms in patient wards, followed by cellar storage rooms, and then rest and shower rooms in hospital kitchens. Preferred breeding sites included hair-clogged sinks in patient shower cubicles, infrequently used toilets and urinals as well as water sources stemming from neglected leaking pipes, suggesting that enhanced hospital water and pest management are necessary for control. PMID:22560402

  11. Investigation of the detection and monitoring of forest insect infestations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The detection of insect infestations through the use of ERTS-1 imagery alone is very promising. In the field of features other than insect infestation, it is possible to detect: timber vs. non-timber; timber density in broad categories; lakes, major stream courses, rock outcrops and domes; riparian vegetation, cultivated fields, pasture land, and glaciers.

  12. Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab–a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment. PMID:24176040

  13. Protection against Boophilus annulatus infestations in cattle vaccinated with the B. microplus Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac. off.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, H; Rad, P H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Herrera, L; de la Fuente, J

    1998-12-01

    Tick infestations by Boophilus spp. constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The use of traditional control methods has been only partially successful and tick infestations remain a serious problem. Recently, the gut antigen Bm86 was isolated from B. microplus. Recombinant preparations of this antigen have been used in vaccines for the control of B. microplus infestations. However, in several regions of the world, B. microplus coexists with other Boophilus species, mainly B. annulatus and B. decoloratus. Therefore, there is a need for the simultaneous control of infestations by different Boophilus species. To test the capacity of the P. pastoris-derived Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana) to control B. annulatus infestations, controlled experiments were conducted in Mexico and Iran. Cattle were vaccinated with Gavac or not vaccinated and then artificially infested with B. annulatus larvae. The results showed for the first time a high protection efficacy (> 99.9%) of Gavac in the control of B. annulatus infestations. These results support the application of Bm86-containing vaccines for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:9796055

  14. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  15. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. 72.11 Section 72.11 Animals and...; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. Cattle of...

  16. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  17. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  18. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  19. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  20. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

    2009-12-01

    The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region. PMID:19323850

  1. Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots using Spectral Vegetation Indices Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology was used to distinguish corn infested with European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis, from corn that was not infested. In 2004 and 2005, eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Manual inocu...

  2. Likelihood of mated females of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) entering an area from infested grapefruits discarded onto backyard compost piles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Backyard composting of infested fruit is a pathway for entry of exotic fruit flies. Experimentally infested grapefruits were discarded onto forty compost pile replicates. Males and possibly-mated females emerged from 43% (17) of the piles. From this experiment, based on the number of fruit discar...

  3. Automatic image analysis and spot classification for detection of fruit fly infestation in hyperspectral images of mangoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm has been developed to identify spots generated in hyperspectral images of mangoes infested with fruit fly larvae. The algorithm incorporates background removal, application of a Gaussian blur, thresholding, and particle count analysis to identify locations of infestations. Each of the f...

  4. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  5. Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Infested Cases with Pediculus capitis and P. corporis in Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Riabi, H Ramezani Awal; Atarodi, AR

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. Methods In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. Results The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Conclusion Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi. PMID:23133477

  6. Discovery of a novel aquaporin ZmPIP2-8 from southern corn rootworm infested maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common paradigm of infestation by chewing insects is a jasmonic acid (JA) cascade that results in the induction of JA responsive genes. However examination of several maize genes induced by Southern corn rootworm (SCR) infestation, an insect that chews into and significantly damages maize roots, ...

  7. Exuberant granulation tissue response associated with Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae) infestation in two cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Hurley-Sanders, J; Harms, C; Christiansen, E; Clarke, E; Law, J

    2016-03-01

    Monogenean parasite infestations are common in captive marine teleosts, and are generally found on the skin and gills. This report describes an unusual pathological presentation of exuberant granulation tissue of the gills, suspected to be related to Neobenedenia infestation in two cobia housed together at a North Carolina aquarium. PMID:25864868

  8. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  9. Influence of Worker Age on the Infestation of Resistant and Susceptible Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) with Tracheal Mites (Acarapis woodi)*

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier study, resistant and susceptible workers exposed to tracheal mites one, two, three or four days post-emergence showed a decline in infestation. I further investigated the combined effects of worker age and of strain on infestation with tracheal mites. In four separate tests, workers we...

  10. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  11. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  12. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  13. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  14. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  15. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  16. BACKYARD COMPOSTING OF INFESTED FRUIT: A POTENTIAL PATHWAY FOR INTRODUCTION OF ANASTREPHA FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) INTO FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of infested fruit directly into the environment is a potential pathway for pest introduction. This study estimated the likelihood of exotic fruit flies entering south Florida through backyard composting. Grapefruits infested with Caribbean fruit fly larvae, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), wer...

  17. Olfactory response of predatory Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) to the odours host plant infested by Bemisia tabaci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Khalid A.; Roff, M. N. Mohamad; Salam, Mansour; Hanifah Mohd, Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    Plant infested with herbivores, release volatile that can be used by natural enemies to locate their herbivorous prey. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the olfactory responses of predator Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae), to chili plant infected with eggs, nymphs of Bemisia tabaci, using Y-tube olfactometer. The results shown that predator, M. caliginosus has ability to discriminate between non-infested and infested plant by B. tabaci. Moreover, the predator preferred plants with nymphs over plants with eggs. This suggested that M. caliginous uses whitefly-induced volatile as reliable indicators to distinguish between infested chili plants by nymphs, eggs and non-infested plants. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by M. caliginosus to plant with and without Bemisia tabaci.

  18. Infestation of Raoiella indica Hirst (Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) on Host Plants of High Socio-Economic Importance for Tropical America.

    PubMed

    Otero-Colina, G; González-Gómez, R; Martínez-Bolaños, L; Otero-Prevost, L G; López-Buenfil, J A; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, R M

    2016-06-01

    The mite Raoiella indica Hirst was recently introduced into America, where it has shown amazing ability to disseminate and broaden its range of hosts. An experiment was conducted in Cancún, Mexico, to determine infestation levels of this mite on plants recorded as hosts: coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) of cultivars Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids Deli x Ghana and Deli x Nigeria, Dwarf Giant banana (Musa acuminata, AAA subgroup Cavendish), Horn plantain (M. acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB subgroup Plantain), lobster claw (Heliconia bihai), and red ginger (Alpinia purpurata). Nursery plants of these host species or cultivars were artificially infested with R. indica in February 2011. In the four replications of 10 plants, each plant was infested with 200 R. indica specimens, and the numbers of infesting mites were recorded for 6 months. A maximum of 18,000 specimens per plant were observed on coconut Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, followed by lobster claw, with a maximum of 1000 specimens per plant. Infestations were minimal for the remaining plants. Mite numbers on all plants declined naturally during the rainy season. All plant materials sustained overlapping mite generations, indicating that they are true hosts. Complementarily, infestation level was determined in backyard bananas and plantains. Correlations of infestation with plant height, distance from coconuts, and exposure to direct sunlight were estimated. Both bananas and plantains were infested by R. indica even when situated far from infested coconut palms. A Spearman correlation was found between infestation and plant height, although it was significant only for Silk plantain. PMID:26874954

  19. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against five common tick species infesting dogs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Everett, William R; Young, David R; Carter, Lori; Mahabir, Sean P; Honsberger, Nicole A; Myers, Melanie R; Holzmer, Susan; Chapin, Sara; Rugg, Jady J

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral treatment with sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against five tick species known to infest dogs in the United States. A total of 10 laboratory studies, two against each species, were conducted using adult purpose-bred mongrels or Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis or Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg. Tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions during any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly lower (P≤0.0001) in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all timepoints. Treatment with sarolaner resulted in ≥99.6% efficacy against existing infestations of all five tick species within 48h. The efficacy against weekly post-treatment re-infestations of all tick species was ≥96.9% for at least 35 days after treatment. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2mg/kg, resulted in excellent efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and against weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide rapid treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in the US. PMID:26935819

  20. Multiple infestation by seed predators: the effect of loculate fruits on intraspecific insect larval competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, José M.; Delgado, Juan A.; López, Francisco; Acosta, Francisco J.; Fungairiño, Sara G.

    2001-06-01

    Many morphological features of fruits are important factors affecting predispersal seed predation by insects. This paper analyses the predispersal seed predation process of a major predator (a Noctuidae lepidopteran larvae) in loculate fruits of a bushy perennial plant, Cistus ladanifer. The main aim of the study is to assess the potential effect of internal valvae (which partition groups of seeds) in the intraspecific competition between larvae in multiple-infested fruits. Our results show that larvae do not reject already infested fruits, but they avoid the proximity of other larvae within the fruit, keeping an average minimum distance of one locule. In multiple-infested fruits, larval mortality increases and the proportion of seeds consumed by each larvae decreases. In those situations in which valvae keep apart larvae within a fruit, these only suffer the cost of exploitation competition with a low acquisition of resources. However, when all valvae between them are pierced by the larvae, competition switches to an interference component and larval mortality increases markedly. The existence of valvae within a fruit allows larvae to diminish the cost of intraspecific competition, obtaining high life expectancies (70%), even in triple-infested fruits.

  1. Plastic detection comb better than visual screening for diagnosis of head louse infestation.

    PubMed

    Balcioglu, C; Burgess, I F; Limoncu, M E; Sahin, M T; Ozbel, Y; Bilaç, C; Kurt, O; Larsen, K S

    2008-10-01

    Finding lice can be difficult in head louse infestation. We compared a new louse detection comb with visual inspection. All children in two rural Turkish schools were screened by the two methods. Those with lice were offered treatment and the results monitored by detection combing. Children with nits only were re-screened to identify latent infestations. Using visual inspection we found 214/461 children (46%) with nits but only 30 (6.5%) with live lice. In contrast detection combing found 96 (21%) with live lice, of whom 20 had no nits. Detection combing was 3.84 times more effective than visual inspection for finding live lice. Only 10/138 (7.2%) children with nits and no lice were found to have active infestation by day 16. We found that the detection comb is significantly (P<0.001) more effective than visual screening for diagnosis; that nits are not a good indicator of active infestation; and that treatment with 1% permethrin was 89.6% effective. PMID:18177517

  2. Comparative study of the volatiles' composition of healthy and larvae-infested Artemisia ordosica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jinlin; Cao, Chuanjian

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by healthy Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) and plants infested with larvae of Sphenoptera sp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) or Holcocerus artemisiae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) were obtained using a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight major compounds were identified, and qualitative and quantitative differences were compared. The novel green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen-1-ol 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, the terpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-cedrene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and the ester methyl salicylate were present in all infested plants. Volatiles from healthy plants were dominated by D-limonene (32.14%), beta-pinene (16.63%), beta-phellandrene (16.06%), and sabinene (12.88%). Volatiles from Sphenoptera sp. larvae-infested plants were dominated by D-limonene (24.74%), beta-pinene (21.05%), alpha-pinene (19.39%), and sabinene (11.64%), whereas volatiles from H. artemisiae larvae-infested plants were dominated by D-limonene (31.76%), sabinene (18.49%), ocimene (15.93%), and beta-phellandrene (10.59%). In addition to the qualitative variation, a larvae-induced quantitative change in the proportion of terpenoids in the blends was also a noticeable feature. PMID:23659167

  3. Mapping cotton root rot infestations over a 10-year interval with airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the pathogen Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a very serious and destructive disease of cotton grown in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate information regarding temporal changes of cotton root rot infestations within fields is important for the management and c...

  4. Present status of head louse (Pediculus capitis) infestation among school children in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Kuo, C L; Hsu, H M; Chow, C Y

    1991-04-01

    In December 1990, 35 children in one kindergarten; 7,870 children in twenty-six primary schools and 2,657 students in three junior high schools in Kou-Hu, Ku-Keng and Szu-Hu Districts in Yunlin County, Taiwan, were examined by naked eye observation (NEO) for head louse infestation. The overall infestation rate was 16%. The infestation rate was highest in Kou-Hu (25%) and lowest in Ku-Keng (8%). The rate was higher among primary school children (21%) than among junior high school students (2%). The infestation rate of girls (34% in primary school children and 4% in junior high school students) was higher than that of boys (9%, less than 1% respectively). Among the primary school children the rate was highest in girls in grade 5 (39%) and boys in grade 4 (14%). The lowest rates were in girls in grade 6 (27%) and in boys in grades 5 and 6 (6%). In junior high school students, the rate of grade 1 (4%) was higher than those of grade 2 (less than 1%) and 3 (less than 1%). PMID:2030521

  5. Infestation of apricot by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state and British Columbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Tephritidae), is native to the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. and British Columbia in Canada and is known to attack and develop in the fruit of 12 plant species in nature. Here we report that R. indifferens in nature infests yet another plant,...

  6. Use of insecticide-treated house screens to reduce infestations of dengue virus vectors, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lenhart, Audrey; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I

    2015-02-01

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control. PMID:25625483

  7. 7 CFR 301.80-2a - Regulated areas; generally infested and suppressive areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated areas; generally infested and suppressive areas. 301.80-2a Section 301.80-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Witchweed Quarantine and Regulations §...

  8. 7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. 301.85-2a Section 301.85-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...

  9. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  10. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  11. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  12. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  13. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  14. Greenhouse investigations on the effect of guava on infestations of Asian citrus psyllid in grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports from Vietnam indicate interplanting guava with citrus dramatically reduces infestations of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). We therefore conducted greenhouse studies to assess the effect of different guava cultivars on adult psyllids. The effects of cotton and tomato were also evalu...

  15. ACOUSTIC ESTIMATION OF INFESTATIONS AND POPULATION DENSITIES OF WHITE GRUBS (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE) IN TURFGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidental sounds produced by Phyllophaga and Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grubs were acoustically monitored in turf fields and golf course fairways. A one-sensor acoustic system was used to assess the likelihood of infestation and a four-sensor array was used to facilitate localization ...

  16. Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...

  17. Termite infestation associated with type of soil in pulau pinang, malaysia (isoptera: rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-12-01

    Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil. PMID:24575252

  18. Comparison of Three Near Infrared Spectrophotometers for Infestation Detection in Wild Blueberries Using Multivariate Calibration Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method for automated non-destructive detection of insect infestation internal to small fruit is desirable because of the zero-to-zero tolerance of the fresh and processed fruit markets. Three NIRS instruments: the Ocean Optics SD2000, the Perten DA7000 and the Ori...

  19. Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs in a hilly region of Meghalaya.

    PubMed

    Das, M; Laha, R; Devi, P; Bordoloi, R K; Naskar, S

    2010-06-01

    Skin lesions were collected from 15 adult crossbred pigs maintained at the pig farm of ICAR Research Complex for the North-Eastern Hill Region, Umiam, a hilly region of the state of Meghalaya, India. Skin scrapings of these 15 animals were examined by KOH digestion method. Presence of mites were detected in five animals which were indistinguishable from Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. Infected pigs were treated with a single dose of Ivermectin at 200 ug/kg body weight, subcutaneously. No mites were recovered from treated pigs after a period of 10 days of post-treatment. The presence of S. scabiei var. suis in pigs from this part of the country has never been reported. This infestation has great significance because it affects the growth rate and feed conversion significantly, specially to the grower and weaned pigs. It can be concluded that S. scabiei var. suis infestation is prevalent in hilly region of Meghalaya. The pig producers are generally unaware about the severity of the problem of mite infestation, so precaution should be taken to prevent their valuable pigs from S. scabiei var. suis infestation. PMID:20041347

  20. Use of Insecticide-Treated House Screens to Reduce Infestations of Dengue Virus Vectors, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lenhart, Audrey; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J.; Kroeger, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control. PMID:25625483

  1. First Report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ Associated with Psyllid-Infested Carrots in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in commercial carrot fields in Lower Saxony, Germany in September 2014. The fields were infested with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the infection rate was about 50...

  2. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  3. Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a potential natural enemy of corn-infesting Ulidiidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four-species complex of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) are primary sweet corn pests in Florida. Few natural enemies of these flies are known. The pupal parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was discovered in a laboratory colony of Euxesta eluta Loew (Dipte...

  4. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  5. Hyperspectral spectrometry as a means to differentiate uninfested and infested winter wheat by greenbug (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although spectral remote sensing techniques have been used to study many ecological variables and biotic and abiotic stresses to agricultural crops over decades, the potential use of these techniques for greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) infestations and damage to wheat,...

  6. Bees with Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene Preferentially Remove Mite-infested Pupae Aged <5 Days Postcapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suppressed mite reproduction (SMR) is a heritable trait of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) that provides resistance to thee ectoparasite, Varroa destructor. The primary mechanism of resistance in SMR bees is the hygienic removal of infested pupae from capped brood, and a better name for them is V...

  7. Impact of irrigation on larval density of stem-infesting pests of cultivated sunflower in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Dectes texanu...

  8. Variation in Sharwil avocado maturity during the harvest season and resistance to fruit fly infestation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Avocados cannot be exported from Hawaii without a quarantine treatment to prevent the spread of fruit flies. Research on the maturity and infestability of ‘Sharwil’ avocados was conducted to support development of a systems approach for quarantine security of exported fruit. Th...

  9. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  10. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•−) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•− was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•− generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  11. Feasibility of NIR Spectroscopy to detect olive fruit infested by Bactrocera oleae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly infestation is a significant problem for the milling process. In most cases, damage from insects is ‘hidden’, i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional visual sorting techniques are generally inadequate for the detection and removal of olives with i...

  12. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  13. Severe water intoxication and secondary depressive syndrome in relation to delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jianbo; Lu, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a case of severe water intoxication in a female patient with delusional infestation. Self-induced excessive water ingestion is a rare medical condition, which has not been reported in patients with delusional infestation yet. The patient in this case study was a 60-year-old Chinese woman, who was admitted to our hospital because of a feeling of skin infestation. She suffered from loss of consciousness and generalized tonic-clonic seizure after drinking 12 L of water during bowel cleansing before colonoscopy. Sufficient laboratory and imaging examinations were performed to exclude other possible causes of severe hyponatremia, such as hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Besides, the cystic lesion in the posterior pituitary revealed by cranial magnetic resonance imaging was not accountable for her delusional symptoms as well as excessive drinking behavior. Her delusional symptoms were in complete remission with a combination of risperidone and aripiprazole. However, nearly 3 months after discharge, this patient suffered from depressed mood and was diagnosed with depressive syndrome, and even attempted suicide. This case highlights the possibility of self-induced water intoxication in patients with delusional infestation, inevitably adding to the complexity of the disease, and indicates the necessity of precautions for secondary psychotic or mood problems after symptomatological remission. PMID:27013878

  14. Notoedres muris infestation in a naked-tailed rat Melomys cervinipes.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Green, P E; Knox, E

    1976-10-01

    Large numbers of Notoedres muris were present in thick crusty lesions on both ears, the nose, one forelimb and tail-base of a free-living naked-tailed rat, Melomys cervinipes, on North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia. The source of infestation was obscure. PMID:16502682

  15. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. PMID:26503344

  16. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  17. Resistance among cultivated sunflower germplasm to stem-infesting pests in the central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 7-year field study evaluated 61 sunflower accessions and 31 interspecific crosses for resistance to attack by naturally occurring populations of three stem-infesting pests, the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a longhorned beetle, Dectes texa...

  18. Tillage impacts cereal-aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestations in spring small grains.

    PubMed

    Hesler, L S; Berg, R K

    2003-12-01

    We compared infestation levels of cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in spring-seeded wheat and barley grown with and without preplant tillage for 8 site yr in eastern South Dakota. Crop residue covered approximately 25% of the soil surface with preplant tillage, whereas without preplant tillage 50% or more of surface residue was conserved. Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) comprised nearly 90% of all cereal aphids sampled, and R. maidis (Fitch), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and Sitobion avenae (F.) collectively comprised the remainder. R. padi routinely infested lower parts of tillers and were generally concealed by surface residue in plots with no preplant tillage. Across 7 site yr, R. padi were more abundant in plots with no preplant tillage than with preplant tillage (272.6 +/- 54.4 versus 170.1 +/- 37.2 aphid days per 25 tillers). However, in comparisons at individual site years, R. padi were greater in no-preplant tillage plots only once. For all cereal-aphid species combined, infestations were greater in plots with no preplant tillage for 1 of 8 site yr, but did not differ with tillage when compared across all site years. Cereal aphids were never more abundant in plots with preplant tillage. Our results show that conservation tillage leads to greater infestations of R. padi in spring small grains, as increased surface residue provides a favorable microhabitat for this aphid. PMID:14977117

  19. Chemical control of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting avocado (Persea americana) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were undertaken to determine the effectiveness of insecticides against Scolytinae infesting avocado between 2010 and 2011. These included contact and systemic insecticides applied either to trees or to avocado logs. Efficacy of the insecticides was determined either by the number of ent...

  20. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  1. Allelopathic potential of well water fromPluchea lanceolata-infested cultivated fields.

    PubMed

    Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

    1996-06-01

    Pluchea lanceolata, an allelopathic perennial weed, has an extensive deep root and rhizome system. The objective of the present study was to determine the allelopathic potential of well water collected from weed-infested cultivated fields. Results indicate that well water recovered fromP. lanceolata-infested cultivated fields inhibited the shoot growth of pea, chick pea, mustard, and wheat under greenhouse conditions. Two phenolic compounds, phenol and phloroglucinol, were isolated and identified from collected well water using UV spectroscopy. The allelopathic potential of the aqueous extract of the two compounds was determined by growth experiments with 10(4) M solutions of the compounds. As a consequence of repeated irrigation with well water fromP. lanceolata-infested fields, higher levels of phenolics can accumulate in the soil, which may contribue to increased interference to crop plants. The present study is of significance since it cautions on the use of well water for irrigating cultivated fields infested with the perennial allelopathic weed (P. lanceolata) with dense subterranean systems and emphasizes the importance of controlling such weeds in cultivated fields. PMID:24225932

  2. The oxidative status and inflammatory level of the peripheral blood of rabbits infested with Psoroptes cuniculi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psoroptes cuniculi can parasitise the ear canal of the rabbit, and cause the afflicted animals to cease feeding and become severely debilitated, sometimes resulting in death. In this study, we examined the oxidative status and inflammatory level of the peripheral blood of rabbits infested with Psoroptes cuniculi and investigated the pathogenesis of this disease. Methods A total of 24 rabbits were divided into a healthy rabbit group and two infested rabbit groups. After weighing the rabbits, approximately 5 ml of blood was obtained from each animal. Then, the blood serum was extracted and used to assess the levels of antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory factors. Results Compared to the healthy rabbits, the activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase and the level of malonyldialdehyde were increased, but the activity of superoxide dismutase was reduced in the infested rabbits. At the same time, a variety of inflammatory cells were activated, and the levels of inflammatory factors such as prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor-β1 were increased in peripheral blood. Conclusion Animal acariasis was associated with immunosuppressive disorders and inflammatory reaction. These results advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of Psoroptes cuniculi infestation in rabbits and can help guide the effectual treatment of this disease in clinics. PMID:24667000

  3. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. PMID:27047971

  4. Seasonal dynamics of the flower head infestation of Smallanthus maculatus by two nonfrugivorous tephritids.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Cauich, José F; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Rico-Gray, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of the capitula infested by Dictyotrypeta sp. and Rhynencina spilogaster (Steyskal) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated throughout the flowering cycle of their host plant the sunflower, Smallanthus maculatus (Cavanilles) Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). In central Veracruz, Mexico, along 16 consecutive weeks, a total of 1,017 mature capitula were collected, recording the presence and abundance of immature stages (larvae and pupae) and their related parasitoids. Both fly species were present throughout the entire season, with overall infestation of 51.5% of the capitula examined. However, Dictyotrypeta sp. infested 11.3%, representing about one-fifth of them, and R. spilogaster was most abundant infesting four times as many capitula (42.9%), whereas both species were found together in only 2.6% of the capitula examined. Based on the temporal occurrence of larvae and pupae into flower heads as well as their associated parasitoids and times of emergence, Dictyotrypeta sp. had two yearly generations, and it seems that the second generation could enter a seasonal diapause; in contrast, R. spilogaster was a univoltine species that entered diapause that lasted until the next year. PMID:25368091

  5. Detection of Wheat Kernels with Hidden Insect Infestations Using an Electrically Conductive Roller Mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory roller mill system was modified to measure and analyze the electrical conductance of wheat as it was crushed. The electrical conductance of normal wheat kernels is normally low and fairly constant. In contrast, the electrical conductance of wheat kernels infested with live insects is su...

  6. Grape hosts infested with glassy-winged sharpshooters produce volatile compounds which may attract egg parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells, which causes Pierce’s disease in grapes. Current management strategies in GWSS infested areas include mass release of the egg parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault and related s...

  7. Concurrent infestations by Aethina tumida and Varroa destructor alters thermoregulation in Apis mellifera winter clusters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, and the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, are parasites of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Both parasites overwinter in honeybee colonies. The efficacy of thermoregulation might be reduced in beetle and mite infested clusters, due to altered activity of host...

  8. Chemical and hot water treatments to control Rhizoctonia AG P infesting stem cuttings of azalea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southern and eastern U.S., azalea 'Gumpo' stems cut during the spring for propagation may be infested with Rhizoctonia spp. Multiple methods were evaluated for the purpose of eliminating Rhizoctonia spp. from stem cuttings to prevent spread into the propagation house. Stems were inoculated w...

  9. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... contagion of splenetic, Southern or Texas fever when imported for animal feed or bedding; therefore,...

  10. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... contagion of splenetic, Southern or Texas fever when imported for animal feed or bedding; therefore,...

  11. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... contagion of splenetic, Southern or Texas fever when imported for animal feed or bedding; therefore,...

  12. Oil palm pest infestation monitoring and evaluation by helicopter-mounted, low altitude remote sensing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samseemoung, Grianggai; Jayasuriya, Hemantha P. W.; Soni, Peeyush

    2011-01-01

    Timely detection of pest or disease infections is extremely important for controlling the spread of disease and preventing crop productivity losses. A specifically designed radio-controlled helicopter mounted low altitude remote sensing (LARS) platform can offer near-real-time results upon user demand. The acquired LARS images were processed to estimate vegetative-indices and thereby detecting upper stem rot (Phellinus Noxius) disease in both young and mature oil palm plants. The indices helped discriminate healthy and infested plants by visualization, analysis and presentation of digital imagery software, which were validated with ground truth data. Good correlations and clear data clusters were obtained in characteristic plots of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)LARS and green normalized difference vegetation indexLARS against NDVISpectro and chlorophyll content, by which infested plants were discriminated from healthy plants in both young and mature crops. The chlorophyll content values (μmol m-2) showed notable differences among clusters for healthy young (972 to 1100), for infested young (253 to 400), for healthy mature (1210 to 1500), and for infested mature (440 to 550) oil palm. The correlation coefficients (R2) were in a reasonably acceptable range (0.62 to 0.88). The vegetation indices based on LARS images, provided satisfactory results when compared to other approaches. The developed technology showed promising scope for medium and large plantations.

  13. Ectoparasitic infestations of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in Urmia city, Iran: First report

    PubMed Central

    Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh; Pour-Reza, Behzad; Naem, Soraya; Tavassoli, Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals that become popular in the world and have significant role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Some of the agents are transmitted by ticks and fleas such as rickettsial agents. For these reason, a survey on ectoparasites in European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) carried out between April 2006 and December 2007 from different parts of Urmia city, west Azerbaijan, Iran. After being euthanized external surface of body of animals was precisely considered for ectoparasites, and arthropods were collected and stored in 70% ethanol solution. Out of 34 hedgehogs 23 hedgehogs (67.70%) were infested with ticks (Rhipicephalus turanicus). Fleas of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei were found on 19 hedgehogs of 34 hedgehogs (55.90%). There was no significant differences between sex of ticks (p > 0.05) but found in fleas (p < 0.05). The prevalence of infestation in sexes and the body condition of hedgehogs (small, medium and large) with ticks and fleas did not show significant differences (p > 0.05). Highest occurrence of infestation in both tick and flea was in June. Among three seasons of hedgehog collection significant differences was observed (p < 0.05). The result of our survey revealed that infestation rate in hedgehog was high. According to zoonotic importance of this ectoparasite and ability to transmission of some pathogens, more studies are needed to investigate hedgehog parasites in different parts of Iran. PMID:25653796

  14. Severe water intoxication and secondary depressive syndrome in relation to delusional infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jianbo; Lu, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a case of severe water intoxication in a female patient with delusional infestation. Self-induced excessive water ingestion is a rare medical condition, which has not been reported in patients with delusional infestation yet. The patient in this case study was a 60-year-old Chinese woman, who was admitted to our hospital because of a feeling of skin infestation. She suffered from loss of consciousness and generalized tonic–clonic seizure after drinking 12 L of water during bowel cleansing before colonoscopy. Sufficient laboratory and imaging examinations were performed to exclude other possible causes of severe hyponatremia, such as hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Besides, the cystic lesion in the posterior pituitary revealed by cranial magnetic resonance imaging was not accountable for her delusional symptoms as well as excessive drinking behavior. Her delusional symptoms were in complete remission with a combination of risperidone and aripiprazole. However, nearly 3 months after discharge, this patient suffered from depressed mood and was diagnosed with depressive syndrome, and even attempted suicide. This case highlights the possibility of self-induced water intoxication in patients with delusional infestation, inevitably adding to the complexity of the disease, and indicates the necessity of precautions for secondary psychotic or mood problems after symptomatological remission. PMID:27013878

  15. Influence of maize and pigweed on tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations infesting cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of maize, lea mays L., and pigweed, Amaranthus spp., on populations of tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), adults infesting cotton, Gossypium hirsucum L., in the Mississippi Delta was studied using stable isotope analyses. Cotton fields adjacent to maize and th...

  16. Gas chromatography for detection of fruit fly infestation(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT. Tephritid fruit flies are one of the most serious economic pests of fruit crops worldwide. Detection of infestation is difficult since the larval stages are concealed within host fruits. At U.S. ports of entry, quarantine inspectors currently check only ~2% of incoming shipments by man...

  17. Broad Mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) infestation and injury in watermelon and potential sources of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the summer of 2006, we observed severe broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) injury and infestations on watermelon plant introductions (PI) and commercial cultivars grown in the field in Charleston, SC. Broad mites have previously not been reported on watermelons in the U.S.A. However, the...

  18. Mapping burn severity, pine beetle infestation, and their interaction at the High Park Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Brandon

    North America's western forests are experiencing wildfire and mountain pine beetle (MPB) disturbances that are unprecedented in the historic record, but it remains unclear whether and how MPB infestation influences post-infestation fire behavior. The 2012 High Park Fire burned in an area that's estimated to have begun a MPB outbreak cycle within five years before the wildfire, resulting in a landscape in which disturbance interactions can be studied. A first step in studying these interactions is mapping regions of beetle infestation and post-fire disturbance. We implemented an approach for mapping beetle infestation and burn severity using as source data three 5 m resolution RapidEye satellite images (two pre-fire, one post-fire). A two-tiered methodology was developed to overcome the spatial limitations of many classification approaches through explicit analyses at both pixel and plot level. Major land cover classes were photo-interpreted at the plot-level and their spectral signature used to classify 5 m images. A new image was generated at 25 m resolution by tabulating the fraction of coincident 5 m pixels in each cover class. The original photo interpretation was then used to train a second classification using as its source image the new 25 m image. Maps were validated using k-fold analysis of the original photo interpretation, field data collected immediately post-fire, and publicly available classifications. To investigate the influence of pre-fire beetle infestation on burn severity within the High Park Fire, we fit a log-linear model of conditional independence to our thematic maps after controlling for forest cover class and slope aspect. Our analysis revealed a high co-occurrence of severe burning and beetle infestation within high elevation lodgepole pine stands, but did not find statistically significant evidence that infected stands were more likely to burn severely than similar uninfected stands. Through an inspection of the year-to-year changes in

  19. Tree diversity and the role of non-host neighbour tree species in reducing fungal pathogen infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hantsch, Lydia; Bien, Steffen; Radatz, Stine; Braun, Uwe; Auge, Harald; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which plant pathogen infestation occurs in a host plant is expected to be strongly influenced by the level of species diversity among neighbouring host and non-host plant species. Since pathogen infestation can negatively affect host plant performance, it can mediate the effects of local biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. We tested the effects of tree diversity and the proportion of neighbouring host and non-host species with respect to the foliar fungal pathogens of Tilia cordata and Quercus petraea in the Kreinitz tree diversity experiment in Germany. We hypothesized that fungal pathogen richness increases while infestation decreases with increasing local tree diversity. In addition, we tested whether fungal pathogen richness and infestation are dependent on the proportion of host plant species present or on the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species. Leaves of the two target species were sampled across three consecutive years with visible foliar fungal pathogens on the leaf surface being identified macro- and microscopically. Effects of diversity among neighbouring trees were analysed: (i) for total fungal species richness and fungal infestation on host trees and (ii) for infestation by individual fungal species. We detected four and five fungal species on T. cordata and Q. petraea, respectively. High local tree diversity reduced (i) total fungal species richness and infestation of T. cordata and fungal infestation of Q. petraea and (ii) infestation by three host-specialized fungal pathogen species. These effects were brought about by local tree diversity and were independent of host species proportion. In general, host species proportion had almost no effect on fungal species richness and infestation. Strong effects associated with the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species on fungal species richness and infestation were, however, recorded. Synthesis. For the first time, we experimentally

  20. Association of bovine Toll-like receptor 4 with tick infestation rates and blood histamine concentration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G; Yu, M; Cui, Q-W; Zhou, X; Zhang, J-C; Li, H-X; Qu, K-X; Wang, G-L; Huang, B-Z

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu→Gln and Gln→His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs. PMID:23479166

  1. Identification of semiochemicals released by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, upon infestation by the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Oliveira, Janser N; da Costa, Joao G; Bleicher, Ervino; Santana, Antonio E G; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae), is increasing in importance as a pest worldwide since the introduction of Bt-cotton, which controls lepidopteran but not homopteran pests. The chemical ecology of interactions between cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae), A. gossypii, and the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), was investigated with a view to providing new pest management strategies. Behavioral tests using a four-arm (Pettersson) olfactometer showed that alate A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the presence of odor from uninfested cotton seedlings compared to clean air, but significantly less time in the presence of odor from A. gossypii infested plants. A. gossypii also spent significantly more time in the presence of headspace samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained from uninfested cotton seedlings, but significantly less time with those from A. gossypii infested plants. VOCs from uninfested and A. gossypii infested cotton seedlings were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the identification of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT), which were produced in larger amounts from A. gossypii infested plants compared to uninfested plants. In behavioral tests, A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the control (solvent) arms when presented with a synthetic blend of these four compounds, with and without the presence of VOCs from uninfested cotton. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (EAG) recordings with the lacewing C. lucasina showed significant antennal responses to VOCs from A. gossypii infested cotton, suggesting they have a role in indirect defense and indicating a likely behavioral role for these compounds for the predator as well as the aphid. PMID:21671083

  2. Impact of Oebalus pugnax (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestation Timing on Rice Yields and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Awuni, G. A.; Gore, J.; Cook, D.; Musser, F.; Catchot, A.; Dobbins, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sleeve and large field cage experiments were conducted in Stoneville, MS, in 2010 and 2011 to assess adult rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), injury in rice. ‘Cocodrie’ and ‘Wells’ were infested at bloom, milk, and soft dough stages of panicle development. Twenty rice panicles were infested individually in the sleeve cage experiment as replicates with 0, 1, or 2 O. pugnax in a split-plot, completely randomized design. The large cage experiment had four replications infested with 9 or 18 O. pugnax per square meter over multiple rice panicles in a split-plot, randomized complete block design per cultivar. Caged uninfested controls were included in each experiment. Rough rice yield and percentage of clean, damaged, and blank kernels were evaluated. In both experiments, stage of panicle development impacted grain yield and quality. Yield loss was greatest during the bloom stage, while kernel damage was greatest during the milk and soft dough stages. Rice yield decreased with increased infestation density. Kernel damage increased with increased infestation density. Blank kernels affect yield, while kernel damage affects grain quality. While grain yield is the bottom line, grain quality affects marketability, which directly affects yield profitability. Based on these results, this study considers O. pugnax injury significant in all three stages of panicle development and concludes that a more aggressive threshold is recommended from panicle emergence through soft dough. More research is needed to determine the specific threshold, but it appears to be lower than the current threshold of 5 per 10 sweeps. PMID:26470315

  3. A conceptual comparison of bioenergy options for using mountain pine beetle infested wood in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is nearly carbon neutral and can be used for the production of various liquid fuels and chemicals. Decisions on biomass utilization should be based on the most economical and mature route. This study analyzes mountain pine beetle (MPB) killed wood as the feedstock for production of bio-ethanol and bio-oil and compares it with the direct combustion route to produce electricity. The MPB infestation of British Columbia's (BC), a western province of Canada, forest has reached an epidemic proportion and is spread over an area of 10 millionha. According to the current estimates of BC's Ministry of Forests and Range, about 1 billion m(3) of trees would be killed by MPB by 2013. This infestation would result in large scale loss of jobs and the standing dead trees are a fire hazard and if left unharvested will decay and release carbon back to the atmosphere. The cost of bio-ethanol production from a 2100dry tonne/day plant using the infested wood for two locations (one remote and other near the industry) in BC is in the range of C$0.37-C$0.40/l (C$1.40-C$1.51/gallon). Similarly, cost of bio-oil production from a 220dry tonne/day plant using the infested wood for same two locations in BC is in the range of C$0.27-C$0.29/l (C$1.02-C$1.09/gallon). The cost of producing electricity using this bio-oil is above C$100/MWh which is higher than the current power price in BC. This cost is also higher than the cost of production of electricity by direct combustion of infested wood in a boiler (C$68-C$74/MWh). PMID:18614359

  4. Hematology and serum biochemistry in debilitated, free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) infested with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) have been reported in Japan. Although many raccoon dogs are brought to Kanazawa Zoological Garden (Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan) because of S. scabiei infestation and debilitation, some of them die of asthenia. The clinical status of severely debilitated raccoon dogs must be determined to save their lives. In this study, we compared hematological and serum biochemical values between severely debilitated and nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. The total protein, albumin, glucose, and calcium values of debilitated raccoon dogs were significantly lower than those of nondebilitated raccoon dogs. On the other hand, debilitated raccoon dogs had significantly higher aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, chloride, and phosphorus values than did nondebilitated raccoon dogs. The increase in the blood urea nitrogen value was particularly dramatic. The present study revealed that debilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei exhibited abnormal hematological values compared with nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. Clinically, the raccoon dogs developed malnutrition and sepsis if the mange infestation was untreated. Moreover, dehydration associated with appetite loss may have resulted in insufficient renal perfusion. These findings suggest that chronic S. scabiei infestations debilitated the raccoon dogs and resulted in physiological changes that were detected with hematological and serum biochemical tests. PMID:21749931

  5. Determinants and effects of sinus worm Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidae) infestation in invasive American mink Neovison vison in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Pohl, D; Steinbach, P; Salazar, L Cantú; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2016-09-01

    Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842) are geographically widespread nematodes that parasitize the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of smaller mustelids. As most prior work was solely based on the analysis of bone injuries of museum skull, little is known about the determinants and effects of infestation in the host species. Working on fresh skulls, we aimed to analyze infestation patterns in American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) from nine study areas in northern Germany and to identify factors that explained infestation prevalence and intensity in the host species. The prevalence (46.7-62.9 %) and infestation intensity values (4.5-10.89 nematodes) reported here were relatively large, especially compared to other American mink populations in Europe. Considering mink diet, our study sites probably harbored a larger number of infested paratenic hosts and climate did not have a substantial negative influence on survival of S. nasicola larvae. We did not observe any significant sex-age differences in either prevalence or intensity of S. nasicola infestation. We did not find a negative impact of an infestation on the host animals' body weight, confirming prior results that the parasite is not a significant mortality factor in mustelids. Our study suggests that this holds even outside the native distributional range where the host's defenses might not be optimally adapted to an autochthonous parasite. PMID:27160332

  6. Protective efficacy of bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed BM95 antigenic peptides for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Canales, Mario; Labruna, Marcelo B; Soares, João F; Prudencio, Carlos R; de la Fuente, José

    2009-12-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 glycoproteins are homologous proteins that protect cattle against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that the recombinant chimeric protein comprising tick BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the A. marginale MSP1a N-terminal region for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane was protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. This system provides a novel and simple approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on live E. coli and suggests the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions for vaccination against cattle tick infestations. PMID:19835826

  7. Delusional Infestation in a Patient with Renal Failure, Metabolic Syndrome, and Chronic Cerebrovascular Disease Treated with Aripiprazole: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica; Tuveri, Raffaella

    2011-01-01

    Delusional infestation is an aspecific psychiatric condition manifested either as a primary psychotic disorder or a secondary disorder induced by a wide range of very different medical conditions. Both primary and secondary delusional infestations seem to respond to typical and atypical antipsychotics. The latter are considered the first-line treatment although the use of second-generation antipsychotics featuring a higher metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal tolerability is preferable in secondary cases, which often occur in patients with multiple, severe medical conditions. We report a case of a 72-year-old patient affected by delusional infestation associated with severe renal failure, metabolic syndrome, hypertensive cardiopathy, and chronic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:22174718

  8. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; de Vos, Christa; Anderson, Andrew; Larsen, Diane L; Jeannin, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (AFX + MO) combination chewables (NexGard Spectra®, Merial) and AFX single-entity chewables (NexGard®, Merial) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated in dogs. Thirty dogs were assigned to blocks of three animals each based on pre-allocation tick counts and were randomly allocated to one of three groups: untreated (control), treated with a combination of AFX + MO chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX + MO (2.5 + 0.5 mg per kg body weight), and treated with a combination of NexGard® chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX (2.5 mg per kg body weight). Treatments were administered orally once on day 0. Starting 2 days before treatment administration, each dog was infested with approximately 50 ticks weekly for six consecutive weeks. Live ticks were counted at ∼48 h post-treatment (removal count) and at ∼48 h (in situ counts) and ∼72 h (removal counts) following each post-treatment infestation. Treatment with both AFX + MO and NexGard® chewables rapidly eliminated the existing tick infestations (100 % efficacy) within 2 days following treatment administration. Weekly re-infestations were controlled for a minimum of 5 weeks with the efficacy ranging from 92.2 to 99.7 % based on ∼48 h post-treatment in situ counts and between 99.0 and 100 % based on ∼72 h post-treatment removal counts (p < 0.0001 at each occasion). This study demonstrated a high efficacy of both AFX + MO chewable and NexGard® chewable treatments against infestations of dogs with D. reticulatus ticks for at least 5 weeks. In addition, this study indicated no interference between the two compounds with respect to the acaricidal activity provided by AFX. PMID:26815036

  9. What's bugging you? An update on the treatment of head lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Tebruegge, Marc; Pantazidou, Anastasia; Curtis, Nigel

    2011-02-01

    Head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) is a common problem in paediatric practice. It can cause considerable distress to children and their families and may lead to bullying and social stigmatisation. Therapy with "conventional" topical pediculicides with neurotoxic mode of action-such as malathion, permethrin, phenothrin and carbaryl-is increasingly associated with treatment failure as a result of the emergence of resistance within the parasite population. This review provides an overview of the natural history, clinical symptoms and diagnosis of head lice infestation. It also discusses general management principles and summarises the current data on novel treatment strategies, including wet combing, dimeticone, isopropyl myristate, benzyl alcohol, plant-based compounds and oral medication. PMID:20688849

  10. Clonorchis sinensis Infestation Promotes Three-Dimensional Aggregation and Invasion of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jihee; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Sun Min; Shin, Yoojin; Chung, Seok; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infestation and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the role of C. sinensis in the increased invasiveness and proliferation involved in the malignancy of CCA has not been addressed yet. Here, we investigated the possibility that C. sinensis infestation promotes expression of focal and cell-cell adhesion proteins in CCA cells and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Adhesion proteins help maintain cell aggregates, and MMPs promote the three-dimensional invasion of cells into the neighboring extracellular matrix (ECM). Using a novel microfluidic assay, we quantitatively addressed the role of excretory-secretory products (ESPs) gradients from C. sinensis in promoting the invasion of cells into the neighboring ECM. PMID:25340585

  11. Concurrent infestation of Notoedres, Sarcoptic and Psoroptic acariosis in rabbit and its management.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, P N; Mohanty, B N; Gupta, A R; Patra, R C; Dey, S

    2016-09-01

    Acariotic mange in rabbits is one of the important constraints in rabbit husbandry. Sarcoptes scabies var. cuniculi and Psoroptes cuniculi are most common mites prevailed in rabbits, but Notoedres cati, is the rarest mite ever been reported in rabbit. Two New Zealand white rabbits were presented with clinical signs of pruritus, alopecia, scab and crust formation and lichenification on the upper lip, ear pinnae, eyelids, lower jaw and limbs. Deep skin scraping was taken separately from 4 to 5 different skin lesions from each rabbit, revealed mixed infestations of N. cati, S. cuniculi and P. cuniculi. Subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at weekly intervals for four weeks resulted in remission of clinical signs and improvement of health condition in rabbits. This is the first report of N. cati infestation of rabbit in Odisha. PMID:27605843

  12. Novel ophiostomatalean fungi from galleries of Cyrtogenius africus (Scolytinae) infesting dying Euphorbia ingens.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Johannes Alwyn; Six, Diana L; De Beer, Wilhelm Z; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

    2016-04-01

    Euphorbia ingens trees have been dying in large numbers in the Limpopo Province of South Africa for approximately 15 years. The ambrosia beetle Cyrtogenius africus is often found infesting diseased and dying trees. The aim of this study was to identify the ophiostomatoid fungi occurring in the galleries of C. africus. Logs infested with this beetle were collected from the KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces of South Africa. Fungi belonging to the Ophiostomatales were identified based on morphology and comparison of sequence data for the β-tubulin, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and LSU gene regions. A novel species of Ophiostoma and a novel genus in the Ophiostomatales were identified. Inoculation studies with these fungi produced lesions in the branches of healthy E. ingens trees. PMID:26846285

  13. In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Banzhaf, Christina Alette; Themstrup, Lotte; Ring, Hans Christian; Welzel, Julia; Mogensen, Mette; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Background Sarcoptes scabiei can be visualized with different imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may have the potential to describe the changes in skin morphology due to scabies infestation and visualize the parasite. Methods Five patients from the Departments of Dermatology, Augsburg, Germany, and Roskilde, Denmark, were OCT scanned (VivoSight®; Michelson Diagnostics Ltd., UK). Mites were identified by epiluminescence and light microscopy to confirm the diagnosis. Results OCT identified S. scabiei mites in all patients in vivo. Mites and burrows were visualized, and some detail on burrow content was provided. Conclusion OCT can visualize S. scabiei mites in vivo, suggesting that it may be used to study the biology of the mites in vivo and provide early assessment of scabicide therapy. OCT is able to visualize structures in the skin with an 8-μm resolution. Therefore, this technology could potentially allow rapid, non-invasive, in vivo diagnosis and analysis of infestations. PMID:23874291

  14. Field trials of flocoumafen against warfarin-resistant infestations of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus Berk.).

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    The anticoagulant rodenticide flocoumafen was tested against warfarin-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) infesting farm buildings. Complete control was obtained in 10-21 days (mean 14.2 days) in six treatments in which baits poisoned with 0.005% flocoumafen were maintained, in surplus, until rats ceased to feed from them. A further six treatments, in which the application of poisoned bait was restricted to periodic placements of 50 g, were also completely successful in 15-30 days (mean 21.0 days). Less poisoned bait was used in the restricted flocoumafen treatments than in the unrestricted treatments but the time taken to control the rat infestations was significantly longer. PMID:3755451

  15. Field trials of difenacoum against warfarin-resistant infestations of Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed Central

    Rennison, B. D.; Hadler, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    The anticoagulant difenacoum was tested at two concentrations, 0-005 and 0-01%, in bait against warfarin-resistant rat infestations in farm buildings. Twelve out of the 14 treatments in which the lower concentration of the anticoagulant was used resulted in complete control. One of the remaining two treatments was probably also completely successful, but in the other a few rats, that were not eating the poisoned baits, were still active after 30 days of baiting. All six treatments done using the stronger concentration of poison were completely effective. Since it took as long to control infestations with 0.01% as with 0.005% difenacoum in treatments carried out under similar conditions, the lower concentration is recommended for use against warfarin-resistant rats. PMID:1056965

  16. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    PubMed

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended. PMID:26732926

  17. Untargeted Metabolomics of Tomato Plants after Root-Knot Nematode Infestation.

    PubMed

    Eloh, Kodjo; Sasanelli, Nicola; Maxia, Andrea; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2016-07-27

    After 2 months from the infestation of tomato plants with the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, we performed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry untargeted fingerprint analysis for the identification of characteristic metabolites and biomarkers. Principal component analysis, and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis suggested dramatic local changes of the plant metabolome. In the case of tomato leaves, β-alanine, phenylalanine, and melibiose were induced in response to RKN stimuli, while ribose, glycerol, myristic acid, and palmitic acid were reduced. For tomato stems, upregulated metabolites were ribose, sucrose, fructose, and glucose, while fumaric acid and glycine were downregulated. The variation in molecular strategies to the infestation of RKNs may play an important role in how Solanum lycopersicum and other plants adapt to nematode parasitic stress. PMID:27389052

  18. Epistaxis Due to Leech Infestation in Nose: A Report of Six Cases and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Santanu; Saha, Somnath; Pal, Sudipta

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to report unusual cause of epistaxis due to leech infestation in nose in hilly area and its management. The study was carried out for a period of 4 years (2008-2012) in a secondary level hospital in hilly area of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India with data collected from the OPD and Emergency register of the patients. This retrospective case series consisted of six cases. All the cases presented with unilateral recurrent epistaxis and foreign body nose. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed fleshy greenish brown mobile mass inside the nasal cavity which was removed by forceps. The animate foreign body was identified as leech in all the cases. To conclude, in hilly areas leech infestation can present as animate foreign body in nose and it should be considered as important cause of epistaxis. PMID:27066409

  19. Development of precipitating antibody in chickens experimentally infested with northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    PubMed

    Murano, T; Namiki, K; Uchino, T; Shimizu, S; Fujisaki, K

    1989-06-01

    In order to examine the immune response of chickens to different population levels of mites, a microscopic slide modification of the Ouchterlony double-gel diffusion technique was adopted for examination of circulating antibody against the extract of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum. Precipitating antibodies were detected in all the chickens infested with the mite. One to three clearly defined precipitation lines appeared in almost all the serum samples of infested birds. Titers of antibody correlated with population levels of the mite on chickens, and no differences in antibody development of hens and roosters were distinguished. These results suggest that the titration of precipitating antibodies appears to be useful for the assessment of mite population levels on chickens. PMID:2505245

  20. Recurrent amoebic gill infestation in rainbow trout cultured in a semiclosed water recirculation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, A.C.; Herman, R.L.; Noga, E.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Five lots of commercially purchased juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (17-44 g) stocked in a continuous-production water recirculation system became infested with gilt amoebae. The amoebae were introduced into the recirculation system, as evidenced by their presence on gills of fish held in quarantine tanks. Based on their morphology, as seen in histological sections and by electron microscopy, the amoebae appeared to be more closely related to the family Cochliopodiidae than to other taxa of free living amoebae. Attempts to culture the amoebae in different media, at different temperatures of incubation, and in fish cell culture were not successful. Initial treatment of the recirculation system with formalin at 167 parts per million (ppm) for 1 h eliminated amoebae from the gills. Subsequent treatments of the entire system with formalin at 50-167 ppm reduced the intensity of further infestations.

  1. Distribution of cattle fever tick infestations detected in the U.S. along the Texas/Mexico border

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species identification and coordinates of geographical premises for infestations of cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say) and R. (B.) microplus (Canestrini) were determined for 782 specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory during the eleven years betw...

  2. [Developmental bilharziasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni discovered 37 years after infestation].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Bertrand, G; Leroux, J P; Gauthey, N; Hocquet, P

    1985-01-01

    The authors report a case of Mansoni Schistosomiasis whose course in always running thirty-seven years after the first and alone infestation in a fifty-six old man who come back from Madagascar in February 1948 and lives in France since this period eggs of schistosomiasis were living in a biopsy of rectal and sigmoid mucosea. Problem of adult worms longevity and clinical importance of such prolonged inapparent schistosomiasis are discussed. PMID:3936631

  3. Correlation between Ocular Demodex Infestation and Serum Immunoreactivity to Bacillus Proteins in Patients with Facial Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianjing; O'Reilly, Niamh; Sheha, Hosam; Katz, Raananah; Raju, Vadrevu K.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum. Design A prospective study to correlate clinical findings with laboratory data. Participants We consecutively enrolled 59 patients: 34 men and 25 women with a mean age of 60.4±17.6 years (range, 17–93). Methods Demodex counting was performed based on lash sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis. Facial rosacea, lid margin, and ocular surface inflammation were documented by photography and graded in a masked fashion. Main Outcome Measures Statistical significance based on correlative analyses of clinical and laboratory data. Results These 59 patients were age matched, but not gender matched, regarding serum immunoreactivity, ocular Demodex infestation, or facial rosacea. There was a significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and facial rosacea (P = 0.009), lid margin inflammation (P = 0.040), and ocular Demodex infestation (P = 0.048), but not inferior bulbar conjunctival inflammation (P = 0.573). The Demodex count was significantly higher in patients with positive facial rosacea (6.6±9.0 vs. 1.9±2.2; P = 0.014). There was a significant correlation of facial rosacea with lid margin inflammation (P = 0.016), but not with inferior bulbar conjunctival inflammation (P = 0.728). Ocular Demodex infestation was less prevalent in patients with aqueous tear-deficiency dry eye than those without (7/38 vs. 12/21; P = 0.002). Conclusions The strong correlation provides a better understanding of comorbidity between Demodex mites and their symbiotic B oleronius in facial rosacea and blepharitis. Treatments directed to both warrant future investigation. PMID:20079929

  4. Understanding Changes to Interrelated Hydrologic and Trace Metal Cycles in Mountain Pine Beetle Infested Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearup, L.; Maxwell, R. M.; Clow, D. W.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    Changing climate in the Rocky Mountain West and worldwide has led to insect infestation and resultant tree mortality at epidemic levels. This unprecedented change in land cover is known to impact tree-scale hydrologic processes in forested watersheds, with possible implications for water quality. In this work, soil and streamwater samples from a mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested watershed were analyzed for metals and stable isotopes to understand how the loss of forest cover over large spatial and temporal extent changes interrelated hydrologic and metal transport processes. An increase in trace metal fluxes from pine forest soils is a potential result of increases in organic matter and alterations in pH. To understand the implication for MPB-infested forests, the mobility of eight metals of interest (Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) were compared from soils beneath impacted and living trees. Preliminary results from this study found significant decreases in solid - liquid partitioning coefficients among the majority of metals analyzed, particularly in organic horizon samples. These results suggest an increase in potential mobilization from deposited litter and underlying soil horizons after beetle attack. Differences were also observed between aspects, with more pronounced mobility increases on south facing slopes. Sequential extractions are underway to better elucidate the important mechanisms and possible change in metal fractionation under different tree phases. In addition to increased metal release, changes in transport processes are also possible. Stable isotopes (∂18O and ∂D) and streamwater chemistry were analyzed to distinguish potential changes of water sources. Observed increases in soil moisture under impacted trees suggest possible increases in flow through the shallow subsurface that could have implications for contaminant transport. Clarifying important metal release mechanisms at the tree scale and changes in flow processes at the watershed

  5. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. PMID:22928296

  6. How do land management practices affect net ecosystem CO2 exchange of an invasive plant infestation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnentag, O.; Detto, M.; Runkle, B.; Kelly, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem gas and energy exchanges of invasive plant infestations under different land management practices have been subject of few studies and thus little is known. Our goal is to characterize seasonal changes in net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) through the processes of photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) of a grassland used as pasture yet infested by perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. We analyze eddy-covariance supported by environmental and canopy-scale hyperspectral reflectance measurements acquired in 2007-2009. Our study covers three summer drought periods with slightly different land management practices. Over the study period the site was subject to year-round grazing, and in 2008 the site was additionally mowed. Specific questions we address are a) how does pepperweed flowering affect GEP, b) does a mowing event affect NEE mainly through GEP or Reco, and c) can the combined effects of phenology and mowing on pepperweed NEE potentially be tracked using routinely applied remote sensing techniques? Preliminary results indicate that pepperweed flowering drastically decreases photosynthetic CO2 uptake due to shading by the dense arrangement of white flowers at the canopy top, causing the infestation to be almost CO2 neutral. In contrast, mowing causes the infestation to act as moderate net CO2 sink, mainly due to increased CO2 uptake during regrowth. We demonstrate that spectral regions other than commonly-used red and near-infrared might be more promising for pepperweed monitoring because of its spectral uniqueness during the flowering phase. Our results have important implications for land-use land-cover (LULC) change studies when biological invasions and their management alter ecosystem structure and functioning but not necessarily the respective LULC class.

  7. Economic impact of Przhevalskiana silenus infestation in native goats of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anish; Katoch, Rajesh; Khajuria, Jitender Kumar; Katoch, Meenu; Rastogi, Ankur

    2012-03-01

    Economic losses incurred by Przhevalskiana silenus in goats of Jammu province of Jammu and Kashmir (North India) were assessed from July 2005 to June 2006. Abattoir studies revealed holes in hides for 112 days (mid-December 2005 to first week of April 2006) and trimming of carcass for 243 days (July 2005 to February 2006) during a lifecycle, leading to annual losses of Rs. 7,391,432 and Rs. 10,510,837, respectively. An effect on production traits (weight gain and milk) was assessed on naturally P. silenus-infested Beetal goats. The mean body weight loss of warbled goats was 2.40 kg (equal to 1.096 kg of meat, assuming 45.7% dressing percentage of goat) leading to an annual loss of Rs. 35,473,265. The mean milk yield loss per warbled goat per day was 101.7 g resulting in losses to the tune of Rs. 19,879,012. It can be concluded that P. silenus infestation resulted in an overall loss of Rs. 73,254,547, i.e. 73.26 million annually (equivalent to US $1.62 million; US $1 = Rs. 45.24), where reduced growth alone contributed 49% of the total losses. A study recommends that a control scheme against P. silenus infestation in goats using an effective insecticide should be followed to prevent huge economic losses in hide, milk and meat production. Economic losses associated with P. silenus infestation in goats were estimated for the first time from India. PMID:21814752

  8. Factors affecting deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (Alces alces) in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), a hematophagous ectoparasite of Cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia. In Norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (Alces alces) is the definitive host. However, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. The objectives of our study were to (i) determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii) evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population density are determinants of deer ked abundance on moose. Methods In order to identify key factors for deer ked abundance, a total of 350 skin samples from the neck of hunted moose were examined and deer keds counted. Infestation intensity was analyzed in relation to moose age and sex, moose population density and landscape characteristics surrounding the killing site. Results Deer ked infestation prevalence was 100%, but infestation intensity varied from 0.001 to 1.405 keds/cm2. Ked intensity was highest in male yearlings (~1.5 years) and positively associated with longitude and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated habitat and negatively associated with bogs and latitude. Moose population density during autumn showed a tendency to be positively associated, while altitude tended to be negatively associated with ked intensity. Conclusions Deer keds exploit the whole moose population within our study area, but are most prevalent in areas dominated by Scots pine. This is probably a reflection of Scots pine being the preferred winter browse for moose in areas with highest moose densities in winter. Ked intensity decreases towards the northwest and partly with increasing altitude, probably explained by the direction of dispersal and reduced temperature, respectively. Abundant deer ked harm humans and domestic animals. Moose management authorities should therefore be aware of the close relationship between moose, deer ked and habitat, using the knowledge as a

  9. Serum antibody to Sarcoptes scabiei and house dust mite prior to and during infestation with S. scabiei.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S

    2000-07-01

    In this study, serum antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (SS), Dermatophagoides farinae (DF), and D. pteronyssinus (DP) were determined in 19 healthy, random-source dogs prior to infestation with scabies then again during a primary infestation, cure and challenge infestation with scabies. Prior to scabies infestation, serum of 11 dogs contained faintly detectable amounts of IgE and/or IgG to proteins in SS extract, probably resulting from sensitization to dust mites that share cross-reactive antigenic epitopes with SS. After becoming infested with scabies, the response to SS antigens became stronger with antibodies appearing to more antigens as the scabies infestation progressed. Three of the newly recognized proteins were 170, 155 and 142/133kD and could be used in a diagnostic test since antibodies to them appeared during the primary infestation. In addition, during the primary infestation, 14 of 15 dogs developed IgE to 1-11 new SS proteins in addition to an increase in IgE binding to those proteins recognized prior to infestation. Overall, the strongest antibody responses (IgE and IgG) were exhibited during cure of the first infestation, when dead mites were still present in the stratum corneum. As expected, the antibody response was strong and rapid during challenge when the infestation self-cured. The immunogenic SS proteins identified by serum antibody binding during challenge, when the hosts self-cured, are candidates for inclusion in a vaccine. These candidate proteins are 200, 185, 170, 155, 142/133, 112, 97, 74, 57, 45/42, 32 and 22kD. Some of the proteins in SS that exhibited new or increased antibody binding during the experiment also had IgE and IgG binding to proteins with similar molecular weights in DF and DP extracts. These results illustrate the difficulties involved in understanding and interpreting serum antibody for developing a serological test for the diagnosis of scabies, isolating relevant SS antigens that could be included in a

  10. In vitro studies on peroxidative changes leading to hemolysis of erythrocytes infested with malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Meera, S; Rao, A V; D'Souza, V; Rao, S B

    1999-07-01

    Blood erythrocytes of 25 confirrhed malarial patients infested with P. vivax were analyzed for peroxidation and hemolysis and results compared with 10 uninfected normal control samples. Results indicated significant increase in peroxide formation measured as malondialdehyde, both in presence and absence of H2O2, in parasite infested erythrocytes. These changes induced hemolysis of infected erythrocytes which was increased manifold in presence of H2O2 and could probably be the reason for extensive anemia reported in malaria. PMID:10522162

  11. [Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract].

    PubMed

    Soares, Nilce M; Tucci, Edna C; Guastalli, Elizabeth A L; Yajima, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2% is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite. PMID:19265573

  12. Impact of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) infestation and squash silverleaf disorder on zucchini yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang; McAuslane, Heather J; Carle, R Bruce; Webb, Susan E

    2004-12-01

    Fruit yield and quality of zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., plants infested with Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring were evaluated in a screenhouse under spring and fall growing conditions by using closely related sister lines that were either susceptible (ZUC61) or tolerant (ZUC76-SLR) to squash silverleaf disorder. Our objective was to test separately the effects of level of whitefly infestation and expression of silverleaf symptoms on zucchini yield and quality. In a second experiment, yield and quality of fruit produced by silverleaf-tolerant zucchini genotypes incorporating two different sources of tolerance (ZUC76-SLR and ZUC33-SLR/PMR) were compared with that of 'Zucchini Elite', a silverleaf-susceptible commercial hybrid. Zucchini fruit yield was reduced in plants exposed to repeated infestations of whiteflies in spring and fall of both experiments. In addition, fruit grew to harvestable size more slowly under the highest whitefly infestations. Fruit quality was reduced at high infestations because of uneven and reduced pigmentation. The fruit yield and quality of ZUC61 and ZUC76-SLR were similarly affected by whitefly infestation despite differences in their susceptibility to squash silverleaf disorder. Fruit from infested plants showed decreased levels of chlorophyll and carotenoids causing the "blanching" of the fruit that is associated with loss of quality and reduced marketability. Leaves of infested plants of all genotypes had reduced levels of photosynthetic and photoprotectant pigments, possibly leading to reduced photosynthesis and consequently reduced yield. We conclude that feeding by high whitefly populations rather than expression of squash silverleaf disorder is responsible for yield and quality reduction in zucchini. PMID:15666769

  13. Epidemiology of Oestrus ovis (Linneo, 1761) infestation in goats in Spain.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, M; Reina, D; Frontera, E; Navarrete, I

    2005-06-30

    This survey was conducted to determine the chronobiology and seroprevalence of nasal bot infestation (Oestrus ovis) in Spain and to identify the risk factors associated with this disease in caprine herds. A total of 1590 sera from adult goats were collected at random on 175 farms in southwestern Spain. Sera were tested by ELISA, using crude protein from second stage larvae as antigen. The mean seroprevalence was 46.04% and mean percentage of optical densities was 41.83. These data indicate a high prevalence of this parasite in the investigated areas. The serological survey revealed that goats managed at higher altitudes, at meridians latitudes and on farms with small herds had a smaller probability of infestation. Eighty goat heads, obtained from abattoirs in the central region of Spain, were collected and examined for nasal botflies from February to October 2002. O. ovis larval stages were recovered from the nasal-sinus cavities of 23 goats, reaching a prevalence of 34.94%. The mean larval burden was 3.9 larvae per infested head. No first instars were found during February and March, when the second instar reached its larger count. The third instar was observed in very small number during the whole period of study, with one peak occurring in July--August. These data show the existence of a favourable period for the development of larval instars of O. ovis in goats that starts in February and finishes in September. PMID:15899552

  14. A Survey of Ectoparasite Infestations in Stray Dogs of Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Jeong-Hyun; Kwon, Jung-Kee; Cho, Ho-Seong; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Lee, Yu-Jin; Abd El-Aty, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the incidence of ectoparasite infestation among stray dogs in Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea. A total of 103 stray dogs collected in the Animal Shelter of Gwang-ju City from November 2003 to August 2005 were investigated in this study. Ectoparasites of one or more genera were detected in 45.6% (47 / 103) of the dogs examined for dermatologic lesions and/or skin scrapings (from 3-5 affected areas). Otodectes cynotis was found to be the most frequent parasite (22.%, 23 / 103), followed by Sarcoptes scabiei var canis (19.4%, 20 / 103), Ctenocephalides canis (6.8%, 7 / 103), Demodex canis (4.9%, 5 / 103), and Trichodectes canis (1.0%, 1 / 103). Monospecific infestation was found in 83.0% (39 / 47) of the affected dogs, whereas concurrent infestations with 2 or more ectoparasites per animal were found in 17.0% (8 / 47) of the affected dogs. Trichodectes canis is reported for the first time in the Republic of Korea. Dogs less than 1 yr old were more heavily infected than other age groups (66.7%), and small-sized dogs of less than 3 kg body weight were more heavily infected than larger dogs (41.7%). PMID:18344673

  15. A ten-year review of commercial vaccine performance for control of tick infestations on cattle.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Pérez de la Lastra, José Manuel; Kocan, Katherine M; Willadsen, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Ticks are important ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, and tick infestations economically impact cattle production worldwide. Control of cattle tick infestations has been primarily by application of acaricides which has resulted in selection of resistant ticks and environmental pollution. Herein we discuss data from tick vaccine application in Australia, Cuba, Mexico and other Latin American countries. Commercial tick vaccines for cattle based on the Boophilus microplus Bm86 gut antigen have proven to be a feasible tick control method that offers a cost-effective, environmentally friendly alternative to the use of acaricides. Commercial tick vaccines reduced tick infestations on cattle and the intensity of acaricide usage, as well as increasing animal production and reducing transmission of some tick-borne pathogens. Although commercialization of tick vaccines has been difficult owing to previous constraints of antigen discovery, the expense of testing vaccines in cattle, and company restructuring, the success of these vaccines over the past decade has clearly demonstrated their potential as an improved method of tick control for cattle. Development of improved vaccines in the future will be greatly enhanced by new and efficient molecular technologies for antigen discovery and the urgent need for a tick control method to reduce or replace the use of acaricides, especially in regions where extensive tick resistance has occurred. PMID:17692140

  16. Infestation and Quantification of Ochratoxigenic Fungi in Barley and Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, Julie; Hegstad, Justin; Lee, Hyun Jung; Simons, Kristin; Ryu, Dojin; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    Cereal grains are a significant source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the human diet. Multiple ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. have been reported as contaminants on various cereal grains around the world, although relatively few species dominate in any given location. Efforts to mitigate the risk of fungal contamination and OTA accumulation can be made pre- and postharvest. Still, a rapid and reliable screening method is sought that can be used to predict the OTA level of a sample and to inform risk assessments prior to processing. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of two OTA-related indices for OTA level prediction. Infestation rates were determined by direct plating for freshly harvested and stored barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples (n = 139) with known OTA levels. Presumptive ochratoxigenic isolates were tested for their ability to produce OTA. The nonribosomal peptide synthase (otanpsPN) involved in OTA biosynthesis was used to quantify ochratoxigenic fungi in barley and wheat. Viable Penicillium verrucosum was present in 45% of the samples. In total, 62.7% (n = 110) of the P. verrucosum isolates tested produced OTA on dichloran yeast extract sucrose 18% glycerol agar. Both OTA level and infestation rate (r = 0.30), as well as OTA level and otanpsPN concentration (r = 0.56), were weakly correlated. Neither infestation rate nor otanpsPN concentration is a reliable predictor of OTA level in a sample. PMID:26197287

  17. The effect of Psoroptes ovis infestation on ovine epidermal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sheep scab is an intensively pruritic, exudative and allergic dermatitis of sheep caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of P. ovis infestation on different components of the ovine epidermal barrier within the first 24 hours post-infestation (hpi). To achieve this, the expression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) genes and epidermal barrier proteins, the nature and severity of epidermal pathology and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were evaluated. By 1 hpi a significant dermal polymorphonuclear infiltrate and a significant increase in TEWL with maximal mean TEWL (598.67 g/m2h) were observed. Epidermal pathology involving intra-epidermal pustulation, loss of epidermal architecture and damage to the basement membrane was seen by 3 hpi. Filaggrin and loricrin protein levels in the stratum corneum declined significantly in the first 24 hpi and qPCR validation confirmed the decrease in expression of the key EDC genes involucrin, filaggrin and loricrin observed by microarray analysis, with 5.8-fold, 4.5-fold and 80-fold decreases, respectively by 24 hpi. The present study has demonstrated that early P. ovis infestation disrupts the ovine epidermal barrier causing significant alterations in the expression of critical barrier components, epidermal pathology, and TEWL. Many of these features have also been documented in human and canine atopic dermatitis suggesting that sheep scab may provide a model for the elucidation of events occurring in the early phases of atopic sensitisation. PMID:23398847

  18. Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Signorini, Manuela; Teshale, Sori; Tessarin, Cinzia; Duguma, Reta; Ayana, Dinka; Martini, Marco; Cassini, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n = 577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n = 290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n = 287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n = 85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species. PMID:23846769

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K; Andrewes, Samuel W; Wu, Christopher S; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J

    2015-09-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. PMID:26336209

  20. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  1. Linking Stream Nitrate to Forest Response and Recovery after Severe Bark Beetle Infestation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, C.; Hubbard, R. M.; Elder, K.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical responses and ecosystem recovery from bark beetle outbreaks are influenced by pre-disturbance forest structure and composition and catchment conditions. Over the past decade, the mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees at the Fraser Experimental Forest and throughout the Colorado Rockies. Here we compare stream nitrogen (N) concentrations during the outbreak with data from the previous two decades in four research catchments with distinct forest management history, stand age structure and watershed characteristics. In two old growth forest catchments, stream nitrate concentrations were significantly higher during the infestation in the snowmelt and base flow seasons. The beetle infestation elevated nitrate export 43 and 74% in these two catchments though the amounts of N released in streamwater (0.04 and 0.15 kg N ha-1) were < 2% of annual atmospheric inputs. In contrast, nitrate concentrations were unaffected by beetle infestation in two catchments comprised of a mixture of second-growth (30-60 year old) and old-growth (250-350 year old) forest stands where the density of residual live trees was higher on average. Mortality of overstory trees from bark beetles has stimulated the growth of understory and overstory trees with likely consequences for nutrient demand and retention in recovering forests.

  2. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72 hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day. Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  3. Surveys for Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated parasitoids infesting avocados in Perú.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2012-04-01

    Surveys for Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, the avocado seed moth, and its associated larval parasitoids were conducted in the Departments of Junín, Huánuco, Cusco, and Madre de Dios in Perú. Fruit infestation levels in some areas ranged from 0 to 58%, and parasitism of S. catenifer larvae in Junín and Huánuco was 23%. Five species of hymenopteran parasitoid in two families, Braconidae (Apanteles sp., Hypomicrogaster sp., and Chelonus sp.) and Ichneumonidae (Pristeromerus sp. and Xiphosomella sp.), were reared from larvae, and one species of tachinid fly (Chrysodoria sp.) emerged from pupae. The dominant larval parasitoid, a gregarious Apanteles sp., accounted for 55% of parasitized hosts. Branch and twig tunneling by S. catenifer larvae in a commercial Hass avocado orchard was observed in Cusco. The field attractiveness of the sex pheromone of S. catenifer was demonstrated with 73% of monitoring traps deployed in three departments (Junín, Huánuco, and Cusco) catching male moths. Approximately 55% of avocado fruit sourced from the Province of Chanchamayo (Junin) and purchased at the Mercado Modelo de Frutas in La Victoria, in central Lima were infested with larvae of S. catenifer. Infested avocado fruit sold at this market could represent a potential incursion threat to coastal Hass avocado production regions in Perú that are reportedly free of this pest. PMID:22606810

  4. Severe head lice infestation in an Andean mummy of Arica, Chile.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Bernardo; Orellana, Nancy C; Barbosa, Helene S; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Araújo, Adauto; Standen, Vivien

    2012-04-01

    Pediculus humanus capitis is an ancient human parasite, probably inherited from pre-hominid times. Infestation appears as a recurrent health problem throughout history, including in pre-Columbian populations. Here, we describe and discuss the occurrence of pre-Columbian pediculosis in the Andean region of the Atacama Desert. Using a light microscope and scanning electron microscopy, we studied a highly infested Maitas Chiribaya mummy from Arica in northern Chile dating to 670-990 calibrated years A.D. The scalp and hair of the mummy were almost completely covered by nits and adult head lice. Low- and high-vacuum scanning electron microscopy revealed a well-preserved morphology of the eggs. In addition, the excellent preservation of the nearly 1,000-yr-old adult head lice allowed us to observe and characterize the head, antennae, thorax, abdomen, and legs. Leg segmentation, abdominal spiracles, and sexual dimorphism also were clearly observed. The preservation of the ectoparasites allowed us to examine the micromorphology using scanning electron microscopy; the opercula, aeropyles, and spiracles were clearly visible. This case study provides strong evidence that head lice were a common nuisance for Andean farmers and herders. Head lice are transmitted by direct head-to-head contact; thus, this ancient farmer and herder was potentially infesting other people. The present study contributes to the body of research focusing on lice in ancient populations. PMID:22010860

  5. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors. PMID:22679860

  6. Unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum infestation in a child during occlusion therapy for amblyopia: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Biler, Elif Demirkilinc; Selver, Ozlem Barut; Palamar, Melis; Uner, Ahmet; Uretmen, Onder

    2015-01-01

    An 8-year-old mentally retarded boy is brought to the hospital because of itching and burning at his right eye for 10 days. He was on full time right eye occlusion therapy for left amblyopia. Slit lamp examination revealed nits and adult lice anchored to the eyelashes in his occluded eye. Eyelashes and all detected lice and nits were mechanically trimmed, and sent for parasitological examination, which confirmed the diagnosis. Upon familial evaluation for additional infestation, the father was also found to have genital phthiriasis pubis and received appropriate treatment. While phthiriasis palpebrarum in children may signify sexual abuse, a detailed investigation by a child psychiatrist was performed and revealed no sign of abuse. Since the infestation was at only on occluded eye, the most possible explanation for the transmission was evaluated as the misusage of the adhesive patch in our case. In conclusion, sexual abuse should be excluded in children with phthiriasis palpebrarum and parents of amblyopic children on occlusion therapy should be warned about the importance of the hygiene of the patching in order to avoid any kind of infection and infestation. PMID:26949367

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K.; Andrewes, Samuel W.; Wu, Christopher S.; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J.

    2015-01-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. PMID:26336209

  8. Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, N N; Piper, E K; Constantinoiu, C C

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in cattle has many effector mechanisms, each of which is likely to be modulated by complex, interacting factors. Some of the mechanisms of host resistance and their modulating factors have been identified and quantified, although much remains to be explained. The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle. Tick resistance is mostly manifest against attaching larvae, which attempt to feed often and without success, death occurring mostly within 24 h of finding a host. There is evidence of innate and adaptive immune response to tick infestation, and it appears that the relative importance of each differs between indicine and taurine cattle. There is conflicting information regarding the role of humoral immunity in tick resistance, and recent studies indicate that strong IgG responses to tick antigens are not protective. A strong T-cell-mediated response directed against larval stages, as mounted by indicine cattle, seems to be protective. Variation in the extracellular matrix of skin (epidermal growth factors, collagens and other matrix components such as lumican) also contributes to variation in host resistance. PMID:25313455

  9. Shell damage in the Tehuelche scallop Aequipecten tehuelchus caused by Polydora rickettsi (Polychaeta: Spionidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Diez, M E; Orensanz, J M; Márquez, F; Cremonte, F

    2013-10-01

    The different types of shell damage caused to the commercially valuable Tehuelche scallop (Aequipecten tehuelchus) by the polychaete Polydora rickettsi are described. X-rays, computerized tomography, shell sections, scanning electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), mineralogical analyses and geometric morphometrics were applied to that end. Scallop shells presented three types of damage: (1) spots, (2) calcareous alterations, and (3) mud blisters. Microstructural alterations consisted of a simple conchiolin membranous layer in the case of spots, a series of interleaved layers of different degree of calcifications in calcareous alterations, and two different surface morphologies (muddy and mucous layers) in mud blisters. Damage was localized mainly along concentric growth rings, coincidentally with the location of most burrows, as shown by X-ray. Mineralogical analysis showed that in all cases (including non-infested shells) calcite was the calcium carbonate polymorph present. Geometric morphometrics showed that only 5% of shape variation was explained by infestation with P. rickettsi, irrespective of the type of damage. Number of worms per infested shell varied significantly among four beds. Left shells (upward-oriented) were significantly more affected than right shells, which are in closer contact with the bottom. PMID:23871854

  10. Susceptibility and physiological responses of Jatropha curcas accessions to broad mite infestation.

    PubMed

    Evaristo, Anderson Barbosa; Venzon, Madelaine; Matos, Fábio Santos; de Freitas, Ricardo Galvão; Kuki, Kacilda Naomi; Dias, Luiz Antônio Dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus is a key pest of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). The purpose of this study was to identify physic nut accessions that are less susceptible to P. latus, in support of the breeding program of J. curcas. We first evaluated population growth rate and injury symptoms of P. latus on different J. curcas accessions and then carried out physiological analyses on P. latus-infested and uninfested accessions. From the germplasm bank of the Federal University of Viçosa, 15 physic nut accessions with high seed oil content, with different genetic background, were tested. The following traits were evaluated: instantaneous population growth rate of P. latus (r i ), injury symptoms, relative leaf water content, specific leaf area, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, nitrogen and biomass of the aerial part. Significant differences were observed for P. latus population growth rate and injury symptoms among accessions. A positive correlation between P. latus growth rate and injury was found. The UFVJC72 accession stood out as the more resistant, considering P. latus growth rate and injury symptoms, compared with most accessions. Physiological responses did not vary among accessions, but did between infested and uninfested plants. In P. latus-infested plants, net photosynthesis was on average 50.5 % lower than in uninfested plants, whereas stomatal conductance and transpiration decreased by 46.2 and 51.6 %, respectively. PMID:23456604

  11. House-Level Risk Factors for Triatoma dimidiata Infestation in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Cardona, Ángela Segura; Quirós-Gómez, Oscar; Angulo, Víctor; Alexander, Neal

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, are Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. T. dimidiata is present in the east region of Colombia as domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic populations, resulting in difficulties for its control. A cost-effective way to prioritize houses for treatment is to stratify houses based on risk factors. In this study, risk factors were evaluated for potential associations with domicile infestation of T. dimidiata. There was an increased likelihood of domestic infestation associated with the presence of mixed roofs (odds ratio [OR] = 36.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 12.21–106.97), cats (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 1.36–11.38), rock piles (OR = 5.28, 95% CI = 1.64–16.98), and bushes with height above 10 m (OR = 11.21, 95% CI = 2.08–60.45). These factors could be used to target surveillance and control of T. dimidiata to houses with an increased risk of being infested. PMID:25349372

  12. Bots (Diptera: Oestridae) infesting a neotropical forest rodent, Proechimys semispinosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), in Panama.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gregory H; Davis, Shannon L; Carvajal, Alejandra

    2003-08-01

    Botfly larvae (Cuterebra sp.) infesting spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus) in 8 small islands in the Panama Canal were studied. Rats were live trapped monthly on each island from January 1991 through February 2000 and visually examined for the presence of bots. Overall, bot prevalence was 4.6% and differed statistically among island rat populations. Rats were simultaneously infested by as many as 4 bots. Overall bot intensity was 1.3 bots per infested rat and did not differ among islands. Mean bot density across all islands was 0.0111 and was greater during the dry seasons than during the rainy seasons, but it did not differ among islands. Bots were found during all the 12 calendar months, suggesting a multivoltine reproductive schedule. Although bot activity varied seasonally, there was little synchrony of bot activity among islands. Bot density was related negatively to rainfall but was not related to host density, suggesting that drier ambient conditions may promote reproduction by adult bot flies in this system. PMID:14533675

  13. Richness, infestation and specificity of spinturnicid mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Colín-Martínez, Helisama; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Studies of mites on bats in the Mexican state Oaxaca are scarce. Our objective was therefore to evaluate the richness, infestation, and specificity of spinturnicid mites on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats were monthly captured from April 2010 to February 2011, in four sites using four mist-nets; also, we visited natural (crevices) and artificial roosts (tunnel). Of each bat we account the number of spinturnicid mites, considering the area of the body where they were collected. Mites were preserved in 70 % ethanol and later they were mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium. We captured bats of 15 species, of which eight species were infested. We recorded seven spinturnicid mites: five of the genus Periglischrus, one of the genus Cameronieta, and one of the genus Mesoperiglischrus. Periglischrus caligus, P. iheringi, and Periglischrus sp. are new records on Artibeus lituratus, Glossophaga soricina, and G. commissarisi, respectively. More infested bat species were Artibeus jamaicensis (93.8 %), A. lituratus (88.9 %), G. commissarisi and Sturnira parvidens (both 66.7 %). Prevalence of A. jamaicensis and A. lituratus was significantly higher than most other bat species. Although prevalence percentage was high, mean and median intensity were low. Spinturnicid mites were recorded in particular areas of a bat's body; therefore, they could be an additional tool for the taxonomic identification of bats. PMID:27431824

  14. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    PubMed

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. PMID:18942974

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Topical Lime Sulfur in Mice Infested with Myocoptes musculinus

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer S; Courtney, Cynthia L; Lieber, Karen A; Lee, Vanessa K

    2013-01-01

    Current treatment options for murine fur mites have limitations in safety and efficacy. This study evaluated whether topical lime sulfur (LS) is an adjunct or alternative to traditional treatment options for Myocoptes musculinus. To evaluate the safety of topical LS, mice were dipped in a 3% LS solution at 34 and 41 d of age. Mice were observed daily for side effects and mortality, with blood work and necropsy at 42 d of age to evaluate for pathologic changes. To determine the efficacy of topical LS, postweanling mice infested with M. musculinus were treated with LS once weekly for 2 wk and then housed with uninfested sentinel mice for 4 wk. Weekly tape tests and postmortem tape tests and skin scrapings were performed on all mice. Treated postweanling mice had significantly lower Hgb levels and higher BUN levels than did control animals. In mite-infested mice, the number of positive cages at euthanasia was the same between treated and control animals. Although topical LS did not cause gross or microscopic changes to organ systems, it may cause clinicopathologic changes, and topical LS is not effective as a sole treatment for M. musculinus infestation of postweanling mice. PMID:23849408

  16. Information to Act: Household Characteristics are Predictors of Domestic Infestation with the Chagas Vector Triatoma dimidiata in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Dulce María Bustamante; Hernández, Marianela Menes; Torres, Nuria; Zúniga, Concepción; Sosa, Wilfredo; de Abrego, Vianney; Escobar, María Carlota Monroy

    2015-01-01

    The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma dimidiata in central America is a public health challenge that cannot be resolved by insecticide application alone. In this study, we collected information on previously known household risk factors for infestation in 11 villages and more than 2,000 houses in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, and we constructed multivariate models and used multimodel inference to evaluate their importance as predictors of infestation in the region. The models had moderate ability to predict infested houses (sensitivity, 0.32–0.54) and excellent ability to predict noninfested houses (specificity higher than 0.90). Predictive ability was improved by including random village effects and presence of signs of infestation (insect feces, eggs, and exuviae) as fixed effects. Multimodel inference results varied depending on factors included, but house wall materials (adobe, bajareque, and palopique) and signs of infestation were among the most important predictive factors. Reduced models were not supported suggesting that all factors contributed to predictions. Previous knowledge and information from this study show that we have evidence to prioritize rural households for improvement to prevent house infestation with Triatoma dimidiata in Central America. House improvement will most likely have other health co-benefits. PMID:25870430

  17. Information to act: household characteristics are predictors of domestic infestation with the Chagas vector Triatoma dimidiata in Central America.

    PubMed

    Bustamante Zamora, Dulce María; Hernández, Marianela Menes; Torres, Nuria; Zúniga, Concepción; Sosa, Wilfredo; de Abrego, Vianney; Monroy Escobar, María Carlota

    2015-07-01

    The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma dimidiata in central America is a public health challenge that cannot be resolved by insecticide application alone. In this study, we collected information on previously known household risk factors for infestation in 11 villages and more than 2,000 houses in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, and we constructed multivariate models and used multimodel inference to evaluate their importance as predictors of infestation in the region. The models had moderate ability to predict infested houses (sensitivity, 0.32-0.54) and excellent ability to predict noninfested houses (specificity higher than 0.90). Predictive ability was improved by including random village effects and presence of signs of infestation (insect feces, eggs, and exuviae) as fixed effects. Multimodel inference results varied depending on factors included, but house wall materials (adobe, bajareque, and palopique) and signs of infestation were among the most important predictive factors. Reduced models were not supported suggesting that all factors contributed to predictions. Previous knowledge and information from this study show that we have evidence to prioritize rural households for improvement to prevent house infestation with Triatoma dimidiata in Central America. House improvement will most likely have other health co-benefits. PMID:25870430

  18. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) have low infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor in different ecological regions in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Medina-Flores, C A; Guzmán-Novoa, E; Hamiduzzaman, M M; Aréchiga-Flores, C F; López-Carlos, M A

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies of African and European descent were compared for levels of Varroa destructor infestation in 3 different ecological regions in Mexico. The 300 colonies that were studied were located in subtropical, temperate sub-humid, and temperate dry climates. The morphotype and mitotype of adult bees as well as their rates of infestation by varroa mites were determined. Additionally, the number of combs with brood and covered with bees was recorded for each colony. The highest frequency of colonies that were classified as African-derived was found in the subtropical environment, whereas the lowest occurred in the temperate dry region. Overall, the colonies of African genotype had significantly lower mite infestation rates (3.5±0.34%) than the colonies of European genotype (4.7±0.49%) regardless of the region sampled. Significant effects of genotype and region on Varroa infestation rates were evident, and there were no differences in bee population or capped brood between genotypes. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in the colonies of the temperate dry region than in the colonies of the other 2 regions. These results are discussed within the context of results from studies that were previously conducted in Brazil. This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of Africanization and ecological environment on V. destructor infestation rates in honey bee colonies in North America. PMID:24634296

  19. Changing stream water sources in insect-infested forests: a combined field and modeling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearup, Lindsay; Maxwell, Reed

    2014-05-01

    Climate-exacerbated mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has resulted in tree death over the last decade that is unprecedented in recorded history. The subsequent perturbation to tree-scale water budget processes such as interception, transpiration, and evaporation often combine non-uniformly and produce variable catchment responses across different regional analyses. Specifically, potentially offsetting perturbations such as decreased transpiration with tree death and increased exposure and evaporation with needle fall can produce changes in peak streamflow and water yield that are undetectable above typical interannual variability. These combined perturbations, however, may change streamflow generating processes and water sources that impact water quality in important mountain headwater streams. To determine the potential impact of widespread land cover change on catchment contributions to streamflow, this study combines a chemical and isotopic separation analysis using paired watersheds and pre-infestation controls with a novel Lagrangian modeling approach that determines idealized surface and groundwater contributions to streamflow. Field observations and hydrograph separation analysis suggests that groundwater contributions to streamflow increase with recent insect infestation, as transpiration ceases to remove water from the subsurface but potentially increased ground evaporation removes water from the land and subsurface with relative uniformity. Comparing these field observations with a modeled hillslope provides additional spatial and temporal controls on inherently challenging field heterogeneities as well as a way of testing the influence of natural properties such as precipitation and topography on perturbations to streamflow partitioning from insect infestation. The modeling approach uses the physically based, integrated model PARFLOW-CLM to determine surface and subsurface fluxes representative of a range of forest

  20. Parasites of domestic owned cats in Europe: co-infestations and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats can be infested by a large range of parasite species. Parasitic infestations may cause very different clinical signs. Endoparasites and ectoparasites are rarely explored in the same study and therefore multiparasitism is poorly documented. The present survey aimed to improve knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with ecto- and endoparasite infestations in owned cats in Europe. Methods From March 2012 to May 2013, 1519 owned cats were included in a multicenter study conducted in 9 veterinary faculties throughout Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Romania and Spain). For each cat, ectoparasites were checked by combing of the coat surface associated with otoscopic evaluation and microscopy on cerumen samples. Endoparasites were identified by standard coproscopical examinations performed on fresh faecal samples. Risk factors and their influence on parasitism were evaluated by univariate analysis followed by a multivariate statistical analysis (including center of examination, age, outdoor access, multipet status, and frequency of treatments as main criteria) with logistic regression models. Results Overall, 50.7% of cats resulted positive for at least one internal or one external parasite species. Ectoparasites were found in 29.6% of cats (CI95 27.3-32.0%). Otodectes cynotis was the most frequently identified species (17.4%), followed by fleas (15.5%). Endoparasites were identified in 35.1% of the cats (CI95 32.7-35.7%), including gastro-intestinal helminths in 25.7% (CI95 23.5-28.0), respiratory nematodes in 5.5% (CI95 4.2-7.0%) and protozoans in 13.5% (CI95 11.8-15.3%). Toxocara cati was the most commonly diagnosed endoparasite (19.7%, CI95 17.8-21.8%). Co-infestation with endoparasites and ectoparasites was found in 14.0% of the cats, and 11.9% harbored both ectoparasites and gastro-intestinal helminths. Age, outdoor access, living with other pets, and anthelmintic or insecticide treatments were significantly

  1. Mistletoe (Viscum album) infestation in the Scots pine stimulates drought-dependent oxidative damage in summer.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Salih; Ilhan, Veli; Turkoglu, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the detrimental effect of the mistletoe (Viscum albumL.), a hemiparasitic plant, on the mortality of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.). Fieldwork was conducted in the town of Kelkit (Gumushane province, Turkey) from April to October in 2013. Pine needles of similar ages were removed from the branches of mistletoe-infested and noninfested Scots pine plants, then transported to the laboratory and used as research materials. The effects of the mistletoe on the Scots pine during infestation were evaluated by determining the levels of water, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA, being a product of lipid peroxidation) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2 (-•)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). In addition, the activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were measured in the same samples. The highest level of drought stress was found in summer (especially in August) as a result of the lowest water content in the soil and the highest average temperature occurring in these months. The drought stress induced by mistletoe infestation caused a regular decrease in water content, while it increased the levels of EL, MDA and ROS (H2O2, O2 (-•)and(•)OH). The infestation also stimulated the activities of CAT and POX, with the exception of SOD. On the other hand, in August, when the drought conditions were the harshest, the levels of EL and MDA, which are two of the most important indicator parameters for oxidative stress, as well as the levels of H2O2and(•)OH, which are two of the ROS leading to oxidative stress, reached the highest values in both infested and noninfested needles, whereas the O2 (-•)level decreased. For the same period and needles, CAT activity increased, while SOD activity decreased. Peroxidase activity, however, did not exhibit a significant change. Our findings indicate

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Corn Flea Beetle Populations Infested with Pantoea stewartii, Causal Agent of Stewart's Disease of Corn.

    PubMed

    Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In order to better understand the epidemiology of the Stewart's disease of corn pathosystem, quantitative information concerning the temporal dynamics of the amount of pathogen inoculum present in the form of Pantoea stewartii-infested corn flea beetles (Chaetocnema pulicaria) is needed. Temporal changes in the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetle populations were monitored by testing individual corn flea beetles for the presence of P. stewartii using a peroxidase-labeled, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 90 corn flea beetles were collected each week from seven locations in Iowa from September 1998 through October 2000 using sweep nets. The proportion of P. stewartii-infested beetles at the end of the 1998 growing season ranged from 0.04 to 0.19. In spring 1999, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.10 to 0.11 and did not differ significantly from the previous fall based on chi(2). During the 1999 corn-growing season, the proportion of infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.04 to 0.86, with the highest proportions occurring in August. In fall 1999, the proportion of beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.20 to 0.77. In spring 2000, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.08 to 0.30; these proportions were significantly lower than the proportions observed in fall 1999 at Ames, Chariton, and Nashua. During the 2000 corn-growing season, the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.08 to 0.53, and the highest observed proportions again occurred in August. Corn flea beetle populations sampled in late fall 2000 had proportions of infested beetles ranging from 0.08 to 0.20. This is the first study to quantify the temporal population dynamics of P. stewartii-infested C. pulicaria populations in hybrid corn and provides new quantitative information that should be useful in

  3. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against four common tick species infesting dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Becskei, Csilla; Grace, Sarah; Strube, Christina; Doherty, Padraig; Liebenberg, Julian; Mahabir, Sean P; Slootmans, Nathalie; Lloyd, Anne; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of single oral treatment of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against four tick species known to commonly infest dogs in Europe. Eight laboratory studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 animals were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult Dermacentor reticulatus (two studies), Ixodes hexagonus (three studies), Ixodes ricinus (two studies) or Rhipicephalus sanguineus (one study) ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2.0mg/kg bodyweight and tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions in any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly (P≤0.0001) lower in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all time-points. A single oral administration of sarolaner resulted in 100% efficacy against existing infestations of all tick species except R. sanguineus, for which the efficacy was 99.7%, within 48h. Efficacy against weekly re-infestations was ≥97.5% for all tick species for 35 days. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2 mg/kg, resulted in ≥99.7% efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and in ≥97.5% efficacy against weekly re-infestations, for at least 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in Europe. PMID:27068640

  4. Hormonal and behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic experimental infestation with Psoroptes cuniculi in the domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic diseases are important in animal production because they cause high economic losses. Affected animals often exhibit stereotypical behavioral alterations such as anorexia and inactivity, among others. Among the diseases that commonly affect domestic rabbits is mange, which is caused by the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Therefore, within the context of the host-parasite relationship, it is critical to understand the mechanisms involved in the alteration of host behavior, in order to better utilize sick animal behavior as a strategy for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Methods Rabbits were infested placing mites in the ear conduct. We characterized changes in exploratory behavior and scent marking evoked by acute (1-9 days) and chronic (25-33 days) experimental infestation. Behavior was recorded during ten minutes while the animals were in a 120 cm × 120 cm open field arena divided into 9 squares. Serum cortisol was measured individually using radioimmunoassay kits. Locomotor activity, chinning, rearing and body weight were compared using a Friedman test, the effect of treatment (infested versus non-infested) across time was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA, and the Pearson test was used to determine whether chinning and ambulation scores were significantly correlated. Serum cortisol levels and food consumption were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test and body temperature was analyzed with an ANOVA test. Results We observed a significant decrease in rearing behavior as early as two days post-infestation, while chinning and locomotor activity were significantly decreased four days post-infestation. Chronic infestation was associated with decreased food intake, significant weight loss, and a trend toward increased serum cortisol levels, while no changes were observed in body temperature. Conclusions The presence of visible lesions within the ear canal is commonly used to detect mite infestation in rabbits, but this is possible only after

  5. In vivo experimental drug resistance study in Trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave; McCulloch, Richard; Goddeeris, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Ethiopia, particularly in the Northwest region, is affected by both tsetse fly and non-tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA) or isometamidium chloride (ISM), respectively. However, since these two trypanocides have been on the market for more than 40 years, this may have resulted in drug-resistance. Therefore, in vivo drug resistance tests on two Ethiopian isolates of Trypanosoma vivax were completed, one from an area where tsetse flies are present and one from an area where tsetse flies are not present. Twenty four cattle (Bos indicus) aged between 6 and 12 months, purchased from a trypanosome-free area (Debre Brehan: Northcentral Ethiopia) and confirmed to be trypanosome-negative, were randomly assigned into four groups of six animals, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area, and in each case treated with curative doses of DA or ISM. Each animal were inoculated intravenously 3×10(6) trypanosomes from donor animals. Parasitaemia became patent earlier in infections with non-tsetse T. vivax (∼7 days post-infection) than tsetse (∼14 days post-infection). Both groups were treated at the highest peak parasitaemia with DA or ISM and nine cattle, four with non-tsetse T. vivax (two ISM- and two DA-treated) and five with tsetse T. vivax (three ISM- and two DA-treated) showed relapses of parasitaemia. Moreover, treatment did not improve diagnostic host markers of trypanosome infections in these animals. In conclusion, in vivo drug tests indicated the presence of resistant parasites (>20% of treated animals in each group relapsed) against recommended doses of both available trypanocidal drugs. PMID:25792418

  6. Lack of acquired resistance in dogs to successive infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from Brazil and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Évora, Patricia Martinez; Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; Alves, Lucas Bocchini Rodrigues; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2015-09-01

    Comparative studies between brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus populations from Brazil (Jaboticabal, São Paulo) and Argentina (Rafaela, Santa Fé) showed significant biological, morphological and genetic differences between them. This work aimed to study, in a comparative way, the acquisition of resistance in domestic dogs to R. sanguineus from Jaboticabal and Rafaela, after successive and controlled infestations. Ticks were kept in a BOD incubator under controlled conditions (27 °C, 80 % relative humidity, 12-h photoperiod). Ten dogs, Dachshund breed, males and females, 6 months old, short- or long-haired, without prior contact with ticks, were used as hosts. They were distributed into two experimental groups composed of five animals each: G1 infested with ten adult couples of R. sanguineus (Jaboticabal) per animal, and G2 infested with ten adult couples of R. sanguineus (Rafaela) per animal. Ticks' biological parameters and titration of antibodies from the dogs' sera by ELISA test were used for comparison between the strains. Results of the biological parameters showed that the dogs did not acquire immunity to either of the R. sanguineus strains after repeated infestations. The ELISA test showed low antibody titers in sera of dogs from G2, in successive infestations, and higher antibody responses post second and third infestations in G1. It also demonstrated cross-reactivity between sera of dogs infested with R. sanguineus (Jaboticabal) and antigens from R. sanguineus (Rafaela) and vice versa. We conclude that Dachshund dogs did not develop resistance against neither Jaboticabal nor Rafaela strains of R. sanguineus. PMID:26063405

  7. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. PMID:26314014

  8. Effect of households' social networks on lice infestation among vulnerable Mexican children: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Marín, Lydia; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Lara-López, Luz M; Moncada, Ligia I; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of pediculosis is high among elementary and secondary school children, which favors the belief that infestation occurs more often in schools than in homes. This study explored the role of households' social networks in the transmission of head lice. Seventeen school children and their social networks (n = 22) from Acatlipa (Morelos, Mexico) participated in a prospective observational study during school vacation. The hair of all the school children was washed with shampoo containing permethrin at the beginning of the study and the incidence of pediculosis (O) was evaluated at the beginning of the school term (follow-up at 1.5 months). The sets included in the qualitative comparative analysis were sex (S), length of hair (H), baseline diagnostic of pediculosis (I) and degree (D) and infestation index (N) obtained through the analysis of social networks. The prevalence of pediculosis was the same at the beginning and the end of follow-up (17.6%). The degree of the school children's networks ranged between 2 and 14. There were 8 configurations, the most frequent being F*i*d*n*h. The most parsimonious configuration associated with the incidence of pediculosis was F*I*d*H (female, previous infestation, low degree and long hair), with a coverage of 0.344 and a consistency of 0.941. Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice. Individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and, therefore, structural actions should be favored. PMID:23751254

  9. Sticky Traps Baited with Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Predict Fruit Orchard Infestations of Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Toyama, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Mishiro, Koji; Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    The brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, mainly reproduces on Japanese cedar or cypress cones in Japanese plantation forests during summer and autumn. It often depletes its food sources in forest habitats and moves to cultivated crops in large numbers. To establish an easy method for assessing the risk of fruit orchard infestation by P. stali, we conducted a 3-yr field survey that monitored the attraction of bugs to the synthetic P. stali aggregation pheromone using a sticky trap. We used a morphological indicator, variable body size depending on food intake, to estimate the nutritional status in nymphs, which showed that nymphs attracted to the synthetic pheromone were starving. Comparisons between increasing changes in the number of stylet sheaths left on the cones by P. stali and the number of trapped nymphs show that monitoring nymphs with the pheromone-baited sticky trap is useful for inferring conditions regarding food resources in forest habitats. The trend toward trapping second instars can provide a timely overview of resource competition for cones. Trapping middle-to-late (third-fifth) instars is a warning that the cones are finally depleted and that there is a high probability that adults will leave the forests and invade the orchards. In addition, trends in trapping adults suggest that there is a potential risk of orchard infestation by the pest and predict the intensity and period of the invasion. The pheromone-baited sticky trap is an easy but useful survey tool for predicting P. stali orchard infestations. PMID:26453725

  10. The efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of naturally acquired infestations of sarcoptes scabiei on dogs.

    PubMed

    Shanks, D J; McTier, T L; Behan, S; Pengo, G; Genchi, C; Bowman, D D; Holbert, M S; Smith, D G; Jernigan, A D; Rowan, T G

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin, a novel avermectin, was evaluated for its effect on naturally occurring infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei in 42 dogs. In two controlled and masked laboratory studies conducted in the USA and Italy, infested dogs received treatment with either selamectin (6mgkg(-1); range: 6-12mgkg(-1)) or the vehicle only (negative control). Treatments were administered topically to the skin on each animal's back at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Study day 0 was defined as the first day of treatment administration. Dogs were treated on days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by counting viable mites recovered from skin scrapings performed on each dog on days 14, 29 or 30, 44, and 60, and by categorising the clinical signs of canine scabies on the same days. Percentage reductions in geometric mean mite counts for selamectin, compared with vehicle, on days 14, 29 or 30, 44, and 60 were > or =98.1, > or =93.5, 100, and 100%, respectively. Analysis of variance, confirmed by Savage Scores, showed that ln(mite counts+1) values for selamectin-treated dogs were significantly lower (P< or =0.0391) than those for vehicle-treated dogs on all post-treatment assessment days. Clinical signs of scabies were markedly reduced in selamectin-treated dogs, compared with vehicle-treated dogs. Topical administration to the skin in a single spot of a single unit dose of selamectin, or of two unit doses given 1 month apart, each providing at least the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1), was highly effective against naturally acquired infestations of S. scabiei in dogs, reducing mite counts by >93% (single dose) and 100% (two doses). PMID:10940528

  11. Systemic response to aphid infestation by Myzus persicae in the phloem of Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Divol, Fanchon; Vilaine, Françoise; Thibivilliers, Sandra; Amselem, Joëlle; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe; Kusiak, Chantal; Dinant, Sylvie

    2005-03-01

    Little is known about the molecular processes involved in the phloem response to aphid feeding. We investigated molecular responses to aphid feeding on celery (Apium graveolenscv. Dulce) plants infested with the aphid Myzus persicae, as a means of identifying changes in phloem function. We used celery as our model species as it is easy to separate the phloem from the surrounding tissues in the petioles of mature leaves of this species. We generated a total of 1187 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), corresponding to 891 non-redundant genes. We analysed these ESTs in silico after cDNA macroarray hybridisation. Aphid feeding led to significant increase in RNA accumulation for 126 different genes. Different patterns of deregulation were observed, including transitory or stable induction 3 or 7 days after infestation. The genes affected belonged to various functional categories and were induced systemically in the phloem after infestation. In particular, genes involved in cell wall modification, water transport, vitamin biosynthesis, photosynthesis, carbon assimilation and nitrogen and carbon mobilisation were up-regulated in the phloem. Further analysis of the response in the phloem or xylem suggested that a component of the response was developed more specifically in the phloem. However, this component was different from the stress responses in the phloem driven by pathogen infection. Our results indicate that the phloem is actively involved in multiple adjustments, recruiting metabolic pathways and in structural changes far from aphid feeding sites. However, they also suggest that the phloem displays specific mechanisms that may not be induced in other tissues. PMID:15821978

  12. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean = 7.27; P < 0.001), whereas the number of dead ticks collected from untreated rabbits (mean = 6.53) was significantly lower than those recovered from treated rabbits (mean = 18.62; P < 0.001). In addition, free and continually reinfested rabbits freely ingested low doses of spinosad, reducing the tick burden from 48.00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs. PMID:26336305

  13. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (P<0.05) and explained 32.87% of the explainable proportion of the heterogeneity noted between studies The prevalence was found to be higher in goats in lowland agro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested. PMID:26872931

  14. Genetic parameters for growth and faecal worm egg count following Haemonchus contortus experimental infestations using pedigree and molecular information

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemonchosis is a parasitic disease that causes severe economic losses in sheep industry. In recent years, the increasing resistance of the parasite to anthelmintics has raised the need for alternative control strategies. Genetic selection is a promising alternative but its efficacy depends on the availability of genetic variation and on the occurrence of favourable genetic correlations between the traits included in the breeding goal. The objective of this study was twofold. First, to estimate both the heritability of and the genetic correlations between growth traits and parasite resistance traits, using bivariate linear mixed animal models, from the phenotypes and genotypes of 1004 backcross lambs (considered as a single population), which underwent two subsequent experimental infestations protocols with Haemonchus contortus. Second, to compare the precision of the estimates when using two different relationship matrices: including pedigree information only or including also SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) information. Results Heritabilities were low for average daily gain before infestation (0.10 to 0.15) and average daily gain during the first infestation (0.11 to 0.16), moderate for faecal egg counts during the first infestation (0.21 to 0.38) and faecal egg counts during the second infestation (0.48 to 0.55). Genetic correlations between both growth traits and faecal egg count during the naïve infestation were equal to zero but the genetic correlation between faecal egg count during the second infestation and growth was positive in a Haemonchus contortus free environment and negative in a contaminated environment. The standard errors of the estimates obtained by including SNP information were smaller than those obtained by including pedigree information only. Conclusions The genetic parameters estimates suggest that growth performance can be selected for independently of selection on resistance to naïve infestation. Selection for increased

  15. Circulating oxidative stress status in dromedary camels infested with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mostafa A; Mahran, Osman M; Bassam Al-Salahy, M

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging activity, resulting in oxidation products and tissue damage. This study was aimed to evaluate the status of oxidative stress indices in blood of camels naturally infested with S. scabiei. Forty-seven male camels (Camelus dromedaries) were divided according to the extent of the infested area with Sarcoptes scabiei into four groups, mild (MID, n = 12), moderate (MOD, n = 10), severely infested (SEV, n = 10) and healthy control group (n = 15). Blood was used for determination of red cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), serum nitric oxide (NO(•), a free radical), ascorbate and albumin concentrations, and erythrocytic values of malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation), protein carbonyls (PC, an indicator of protein oxidation), glutathione (GSH) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Decreased levels (P < 0.05) of RBC, Hb, PCV, albumin and ascorbate were noticed in MOD and SEV compared to controls with the lowest values (P < 0.05) in SEV except for ascorbate, where MOD did not differ from SEV. Compared to controls, NO(•) gradually increased (P < 0.05) in MID followed by MOD and SEV, whereas MDA and PC were higher (P < 0.05) in MOD and SEV. PC was higher (P < 0.05) in MOD than SEV. In addition, the antioxidants GSH, SOD and CAT were higher (P < 0.05) in MID and lower (P < 0.05) in MOD and SEV compared to controls. GSH was lower (P < 0.05) in SEV compared to MOD. Besides, Hb was negatively correlated with NO(•) (r = -0.68, P < 0.001), MDA (r = -0.53, P < 0.001) and PC (r = -0.73, P < 0.001). In conclusion, dromedary sarcoptosis is accompanied by a state of oxidative stress process, which increased by increasing the area of infestation, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:21082344

  16. Lethal Temperature for Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Infested Wood Using Microwave Energy

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Kelli; Uzunovic, Adnan; Gething, Brad; Dale, Angela; Leung, Karen; Ostiguy, Nancy; Janowiak, John J.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the risks associated with global transport of wood infested with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, microwave irradiation was tested at 14 temperatures in replicated wood samples to determine the temperature that would kill 99.9968% of nematodes in a sample of ≥ 100,000 organisms, meeting a level of efficacy of Probit 9. Treatment of these heavily infested wood samples (mean of > 1,000 nematodes/g of sapwood) produced 100% mortality at 56 °C and above, held for 1 min. Because this “brute force” approach to Probit 9 treats individual nematodes as the observational unit regardless of the number of wood samples it takes to treat this number of organisms, we also used a modeling approach. The best fit was to a Probit function, which estimated lethal temperature at 62.2 (95% confidence interval 59.0-70.0) °C. This discrepancy between the observed and predicted temperature to achieve Probit 9 efficacy may have been the result of an inherently limited sample size when predicting the true mean from the total population. The rate of temperature increase in the small wood samples (rise time) did not affect final nematode mortality at 56 °C. In addition, microwave treatment of industrial size, infested wood blocks killed 100% of > 200,000 nematodes at ≥ 56 °C held for 1 min in replicated wood samples. The 3rd-stage juvenile (J3) of the nematode, that is resistant to cold temperatures and desiccation, was abundant in our wood samples and did not show any resistance to microwave treatment. Regression analysis of internal wood temperatures as a function of surface temperature produced a regression equation that could be used with a relatively high degree of accuracy to predict internal wood temperatures, under the conditions of this study. These results provide strong evidence of the ability of microwave treatment to successfully eradicate B. xylophilus in infested wood at or above 56 °C held for 1 min. PMID:22736846

  17. Lethal temperature for pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in infested wood using microwave energy.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Kelli; Uzunovic, Adnan; Gething, Brad; Dale, Angela; Leung, Karen; Ostiguy, Nancy; Janowiak, John J

    2010-06-01

    To reduce the risks associated with global transport of wood infested with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, microwave irradiation was tested at 14 temperatures in replicated wood samples to determine the temperature that would kill 99.9968% of nematodes in a sample of ≥ 100,000 organisms, meeting a level of efficacy of Probit 9. Treatment of these heavily infested wood samples (mean of > 1,000 nematodes/g of sapwood) produced 100% mortality at 56 °C and above, held for 1 min. Because this "brute force" approach to Probit 9 treats individual nematodes as the observational unit regardless of the number of wood samples it takes to treat this number of organisms, we also used a modeling approach. The best fit was to a Probit function, which estimated lethal temperature at 62.2 (95% confidence interval 59.0-70.0) °C. This discrepancy between the observed and predicted temperature to achieve Probit 9 efficacy may have been the result of an inherently limited sample size when predicting the true mean from the total population. The rate of temperature increase in the small wood samples (rise time) did not affect final nematode mortality at 56 °C. In addition, microwave treatment of industrial size, infested wood blocks killed 100% of > 200,000 nematodes at ≥ 56 °C held for 1 min in replicated wood samples. The 3(rd)-stage juvenile (J3) of the nematode, that is resistant to cold temperatures and desiccation, was abundant in our wood samples and did not show any resistance to microwave treatment. Regression analysis of internal wood temperatures as a function of surface temperature produced a regression equation that could be used with a relatively high degree of accuracy to predict internal wood temperatures, under the conditions of this study. These results provide strong evidence of the ability of microwave treatment to successfully eradicate B. xylophilus in infested wood at or above 56 °C held for 1 min. PMID:22736846

  18. Mosquito larval productivity in rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwingira, V S; Mayala, B K; Senkoro, K P; Rumisha, S F; Shayo, E H; Mlozi, M R S; Mboera, L E G

    2009-01-01

    Azolla (Salviniales: Azollaceae) is known to reduce oviposition and adult emergence of a number of mosquito species. Several species of Azolla are reportedly indigenous to Tanzania. However, the potential of Azolla as a biocontrol agent against malaria mosquitoes has not been evaluated in the country. This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess mosquito larval productivity in irrigated rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania. A systematic larval sampling covering all open water bodies along designed transect was carried in rice-fields. Larval density was estimated by dipping water bodies with or without Azolla. The degree of Azolla coverage was categorized as 0%, <50%, 50%, and >80%. Larvae densities were categorised as low (<50/m2), medium (50-500/m2) and high (> or = 500/m2) productivity. A total of 120 water bodies were surveyed and 105 (87.5%) had Azolla microphyla and A. pinnata at varying degrees of coverage. Of the total 105 water bodies with Azolla, 80 (76.2%) had a green Azolla mat, and 25 (23.8%) a brown Azolla mat. Eighty-eight (73.3%) of the sites were infested with anophelines and 109 (90.8%) with culicine larvae. Seventy percent of all water bodies contained anophelines and culicines in sympatric breeding, while 20.8% and 3.3% had only culicines and anophelines, respectively. The majority (82%) of mosquito breeding sites were found in area with Azolla substrate. Mosquito larva productivity was low in sites with highest (>80%) Azolla coverage. Seventy-two (81.8%) of the anopheline and 90 (82.6%) culicine breeding sites were infested with Azolla. Water bodies infested with green Azolla were more productive than those covered by brown coloured Azolla substrates for both culicines (13%) and anophelines (8%). Of the 1537 field collected larvae that hatched to adult stage, 646 (42.03%) were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 42 (2.73%) were An. funestus and 769 (50.03%) were Culex quinquefasciatus. These findings suggest that the

  19. Fungal infections and parasitic infestations in sports: expedient identification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Rebecca C; Dexter, William W

    2004-10-01

    Common fungal infections include tinea corporis, capitis, cruris, versicolor, and pedis, as well as onychomycosis. Prevention of spread is important and involves frequent skin surveillance, avoidance of shared equipment, and regular equipment cleaning. The NCAA recommends treatment of tinea corporis and capitis infections and covering any exposed infection before return to play. Parasitic infestations occur because of the close physical contact of team members and athletes in contact sports. Both scabies and pediculosis should be treated before return to play, according to NCAA guidelines. Cutaneous larva migrans, a chronic parasitic infection caused by a hookworm, may be seen in beach volleyball players. PMID:20086381

  20. A case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum infestation involving the left eye

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Mohammad; Waris, Abdul; Kumar, Ashwini; Akhtar, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is a rare cause of eyelid infestation. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum. A 28-year-old man presented with moderate itching associated with lacrimation and irritation in the left eye. The initial evaluation of the patient revealed multiple white dots on the left upper eyelashes. Slit-lamp examination revealed multiple nits attached to the base and shaft of the cilia. There was no hyperaemia or discharge present in the conjunctiva and the cornea was clear and shiny. The right eye was perfectly normal. The patient was treated with moxifloxacin eye ointment and was completely cured in 1 week. PMID:24907211

  1. Chiggers recently infesting Spea spp., in Texas, USA, were Eutrombicula alfreddugesi, not Hannemania sp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mertins, James W.; Torrence, Shannon; Sterner, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Upon re-examination of preserved larval chiggers collected from spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons and Spea multiplicata) in the Southern High Plains of Texas, USA, and identified previously as Hannemania sp., we found them to be Eutrombicula alfreddugesi. A review of previous reports of Eutrombicula spp. chiggers on amphibian hosts provides context for current findings. All members of the genus Hannemania are specialized larval parasites of amphibians, whereas larval E. alfreddugesi are generalist parasites of a wide variety of terrestrial vertebrate hosts that infrequently includes amphibians. Spadefoot toads are previously undocumented hosts for E. alfreddugesi, and observed infestations were unusually prevalent and intense for this chigger on an amphibian host.

  2. A case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum infestation involving the left eye.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mohammad; Waris, Abdul; Kumar, Ashwini; Akhtar, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is a rare cause of eyelid infestation. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum. A 28-year-old man presented with moderate itching associated with lacrimation and irritation in the left eye. The initial evaluation of the patient revealed multiple white dots on the left upper eyelashes. Slit-lamp examination revealed multiple nits attached to the base and shaft of the cilia. There was no hyperaemia or discharge present in the conjunctiva and the cornea was clear and shiny. The right eye was perfectly normal. The patient was treated with moxifloxacin eye ointment and was completely cured in 1 week. PMID:24907211

  3. Abundance of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, in relation to environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Tälleklint-Eisen, L; Eisen, R J

    1999-09-01

    We examined the impact of environmental characteristics, such as habitat type, topographic exposure and presence of leaf litter, on the abundance of Ixodes pacificus ticks infesting the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) at the University of California Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC), Mendocino County, California. A total of 383 adult lizards were slip-noosed and examined for tick infestation in April and May 1998. At least 94% of the lizards were infested by ticks and at least 20% of the females and 33% of the males carried > 15 ticks. This intensive utilization of western fence lizards (which do not serve as natural reservoirs for Lyme disease spirochetes) by subadult ticks, is probably the primary reason for the low prevalence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in I. pacificus nymphs and adults previously recorded at the HREC. Tick loads were higher on male than female lizards. Also, male lizards were generally more heavily infested in late April than in late May. The prevalence of tick infestation exceeded 88% in all habitat types but males collected in woodland and grass/woodland edges had higher tick loads than those collected in open grassland. Male lizards captured in open, exposed grassland tended to carry heavier tick loads in northern/eastern, as compared to southern/western, exposures, and when leaf litter was present. PMID:10581712

  4. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Infestation and Container Productivity Measured Using Pupal and Stegomyia Indices in Northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, F. M.; Espinosa, M. O.; Weinberg, D.; Coto, H. D.; Gaspe, M. S.; Gürtler, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with ≈2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65–84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline. PMID:19769052

  5. Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Moreno-Cantú, Orlando; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Galindo, Ruth C; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. In this study, we extended these results by expressing SUB-MSP1a, EF1a-MSP1a and UBQ-MSP1a fusion proteins on the E. coli membrane using this system and demonstrating that bacterial membranes containing the chimeric proteins BM95-MSP1a and SUB-MSP1a were protective (>60% vaccine efficacy) against experimental R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations in cattle. This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. PMID:22085549

  6. Neem seed extract shampoo, Wash Away Louse, an effective plant agent against Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sobhy, Hassan; Semmler, Margit

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of water-free neem seed extract shampoo Wash Away Louse, provided by Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany), was investigated against Sarcoptes scabiei infesting dogs in Egypt. Ten naturally infested dogs were collected from different areas in the Nile delta. The occurrence of lesions, hair loss, and skin inflammation were regarded as signs of infestation and proved by detection of adult parasites and their developmental stages in scrapings of infested lesions. Adequate amount of the provided shampoo was applied topically and spread on the infested areas daily for 14 successive days. Scraping examinations were used to follow up the healing process. At day 7 of application, four dogs were completely free of mites as was proven by the disappearance of adults and/or any developmental stages of mites. The remaining six dogs showed a clear decrease in mite counts. By the end of the treatment (after 14 days), only a small number of mites were found in two dogs, while eight dogs were completely cured as was proven by mite counts and disappearance of clinical signs. No remarkable signs of side effects or adverse reactions were observed throughout the study. PMID:18769941

  7. A First Report of Infestation by Pseudolynchia canariensis in a Herd of Pigeons in Shahrekord (Southwest of Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Dehghani-Samani, Amir; Ahmadi-Baberi, Nader; Najafzadeh, Vida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pigeons (Columba livia) have been kept as pet and reared for food in several countries including Iran. Ectoparasites are regarded as the basic causes of retardation in growth, lowered vitality and poor conditions of the birds. Pseudolynchia canariensis a hippoboscidae fly is one of the important ectoparasites of pigeons and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens to birds and humans same as pathogenic protozoan Haemoproteus columbae. Methods: A herd of domestic pigeons contained 50 pigeons in Shahrekord, southwest Iran was evaluated clinically infested by ectoparasites. Ectoparasites were removed. The samples were collected and then referred to the Laboratory of Parasitology of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran. Results: Usin diagnostic key for diptera fly, these flies were find P. canariensis. This is a rare report of infestation of pigeons herd by P. canariensis in Iran. The infestation rate was 40% that rate of infestation in pipers was more than females and in females was more than males. Conclusion: The rate of infested pipers was more than adults that maybe the less potential of pipers in removing of ectoparasites is reason of this higher rate. PMID:27308301

  8. [Composition, abundance and infestation rate of ant species in a children's hospital in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bragança, Marcos A L; Lima, Jefferson D

    2010-01-01

    This first survey of the ant fauna in a children's hospital in the city of Palmas, state of Tocantins, compares species composition, abundance and infestation rate of ants between rainy and dry seasons, day and night periods, and among 15 hospital sectors. Forty-eight collections, being 12 diurnal and 12 nocturnal in each season using five attractive baits distributed per sector, maintained for 3h per sampling. A total of 34,309 ants were collected, distributed in 12 species: Acromyrmex sp., Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus spp. (four morphospecies), Dorymyrmex sp., Tetramorium sp., Solenopsis globularia (Creighton), Solenopsis saevissima Smith, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) and Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille). The hospital presented an average building infestation rate (40.3%), when compared with hospitals from other Brazilian regions. In general, there was no difference in the species composition between seasons and the period of the day, although abundance of ants was higher at night. The dry season and the nocturnal period showed the highest infestation rate, mainly by T.melanocephalum and S.globularia. Gynecologic ward, lactation unit, preconception and pediatric ward access ramp showed higher infestation rate, although these varied between seasons. The significant infestation levels by the three species above, especially in sectors with restricted access such as lactation unit, laboratory, Intensive Care Unit e surgery center, indicate potential risks for contamination of patients by multi resistant pathogens possibly present in ants' bodies, as verified in others studies. PMID:20305908

  9. A Study Of Ips Typographus Pest Infestation With The Use Of Multi-Angular CHRIS-Proba Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchev, Lachezar; Panayotov, Momchil; Ling, Feilong

    2013-12-01

    Insects' infestations of coniferous forests have been in the focus of the forestry community for decades. Research that is dealing with the assessment of the impacts on forests and assessment of the area affected by the infestations has been assisted by remotely sensed data after the onset of civilian remote sensing era and making the large archives of satellite data centres of NASA, ESA, and JAXA available to the researcher's community. The present study assesses the impact from European Bark beetle (Ips typhographus L.) outbreak on Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.) forests in the UNESCO MAB reserve Bistrishko Branishte in Bulgaria using the ESA's third-party mission multiangular satellite CHRIS/PROBA Mode 1 spectroradiometer data. The study aims at assessing the impact of the infestation by comparing the pre- and post-fire CHRIS/PROBA Mode 1 narrow-band vegetation indices (VIs). In order to achieve the study objective the ‘dead spruce forest' areas were extracted using eight target detection algorithms. Statistics from the CHRIS/PROBA Mode 1 VIs was drawn and compared with one another for the two dates of acquisition. It was found that the areas affected by pest infestation can be well differentiated on CHRIS/PROBA data but the results vary due to the date of acquisition, illumination conditions, and season changes. The results from the study suggest that continuous space monitoring of insect infested coniferous forests can be successfully carried out by employing present-day available hyperspectral satellite data.

  10. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Yang, Ling; Li, Mei; Ma, Bojun; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective. PMID:26633389

  11. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weilin; Yang, Ling; Li, Mei; Ma, Bojun; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective. PMID:26633389

  12. Infestation of rural houses by Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in southern area of Gran Chaco in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Porcasi, X; Catalá, S S; Hrellac, H; Scavuzzo, M C; Gorla, D E

    2006-09-01

    The impact of control activities against Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in South America has a marked contrast within and outside the Gran Chaco region. Development of a geographic information system, as part of an improvement in control program activities, allowed analysis of the spatial pattern of house infestations by T. infestans before and after house spraying with deltamethrin in the San Martin Department (an arid Chaco region of central Argentina). The overall peridomestic infestation index decreased from 48.2 to 28.2% after insecticide application. House infestation was spatially clustered in regions with low or high infestation levels that were located east and southwest of the department, respectively. This pattern was detected both before and after the insecticide application. Three environmental variables calculated from a temporal series of MODIS imagery (average of night temperature, maximum of day temperature, and temporal variation of vegetation index) were capable of correctly discriminating 96% of the places belonging to either high or low house infestation observed after the insecticide application. PMID:17017246

  13. Differences in Varroa destructor infestation rates of two indigenous subspecies of Apis mellifera in the Republic of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Ashley N; Schmehl, Daniel R; Allsopp, Mike; Bustamante, Tomas A; Kimmel, Chase B; Dykes, Mark E; Ellis, James D

    2016-04-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Varroa) is a damaging pest of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, in North America, Europe, and Asia. However, Varroa infestations have not produced equivalent colony losses of African subspecies of honey bee throughout Africa and parts of the Americas. We surveyed the Varroa infestation rates (number of Varroa per 100 adult honey bees) in colonies of A. m. scutellata, A. m. capensis, and hybrids of the two subspecies throughout the Republic of South Africa in the fall of 2014. We found that A. m. scutellata colonies had significantly higher Varroa infestations than did A. m. capensis colonies. Furthermore, hybridized colonies of the two subspecies had Varroa infestations intermediate to those of A. m. scutellata and A. m. capensis. This is the first documentation of a clear difference in Varroa infestation rates of A. m. scutellata, A. m. capensis, and hybridized colonies in South Africa. Furthermore, our data confirm that Varroa populations in A. m. scutellata colonies are within the range of populations that are damaging to European honey bees. PMID:26704261

  14. Comparative biochemical changes in young Zebu cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave J; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2014-10-15

    Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne protozoan disease of animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, particularly the northwest region is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and compare differences in virulence of Trypanosoma vivax infection between tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia on the basis of serum biochemical values in Zebu cattle. Eighteen cattles purchased from trypanosome free area and aged between 9 and 12 months were assigned into three groups of six animals (Group TT=infected with T. vivax from tsetse infested area, Group NT=infected with T. vivax from non-tsetse infested area and Group C=non-infected control). For each experimental animal 3 ml of blood from naturally infected cattle was inoculated intravenously at 10(6) trypanosomes/ml except the control. Blood sample was collected once a week for 8 consecutive weeks for analyzing serum biochemical values (glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and enzymes including GOT, GPT and ALP) using a Humastar 80 clinical chemistry analyzer. Both T. vivax parasites caused an acute infection with parasites appearing in circulation on 6 and 12 days post-infection for NT and TT cattle, respectively. A significant reduction (P<0.001) in glucose levels was observed in infected groups compared with the control with mean values of 33.8 ± 3.6 mg/dl for TT, 34.3 ± 3.6 mg/dl for NT and 70.9 ± 3.0 mg/dl for control groups. A similar reduction was also seen in total cholesterol values (P=0.001) with 70.4 ± 10.6 mg/dl for TT and 78.0 ± 10.6 mg/dl for NT groups compared to 139.5 ± 8.7 mg/dl for the control group. No difference was observed for total serum protein between the three groups (P=0.260) whereas the mean albumin level was significantly (P<0.001) decreased (3.5 ± 0.1g/dl and 2.9 ± 0.1g/dl in TT and NT groups respectively) compared to that for control cattle (4.5 ± 0.1g

  15. Persistent Pediatric Gastro-Intestinal Myiasis: A Case Report of Fly Larval Infestation with Musca Domestica with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Lal, Sandeep Kumar; Akhila; Shruthi; Sandhya, K.; Simar, Harender; Pranuthi, Mispah; Kumar, Moses Vinay; Anand, Kalaskar; Rao, Sanjeev D.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae. PMID:24049366

  16. Identification of volatile compounds emitted by Artemisia ordosica (Artemisia, Asteraceae) and changes due to mechanical damage and weevil infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Dayong; Luo, Youqing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by healthy, mechanically damaged, and weevil-infested Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) were obtained through a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight compounds in all were identified, and the qualitative as well as quantitative differences were compared. The green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were present in all of the damaged plants, but in relatively lower portions when plants were infested by the weevil Adosopius sp., while the terpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-cedrene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and the ester methyl salicylate were only present in weevil-damaged plants. The volatiles from healthy and weevil-infested leaves were dominated by D-limonene, whereas mechanically damaged leaves emitted beta-pinene as the dominant compound. PMID:24066517

  17. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; González, Jorge Werdin; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Serralunga, Gabriela; Yañez, Loreto; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2012-09-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is a worldwide public health concern. This human obligate ectoparasite usually infests school age children. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of head lice in kindergarten children from Bahia Blanca. In addition, the influence of risk factors for pediculosis infestation, such as gender, hair characteristics, and socioeconomic class, was studied in relation to the prevalence of this ectoparasite. From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 42.7 %. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (53.6 %) than in boys (28.4 %) and in medium, long, and very long hairs. No differences were found between socioeconomic classes. This indicated that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca. PMID:22752696

  18. Influence of nematode Anguillicoloides crassus infestation on the cellular and humoral innate immunity in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.)

    PubMed Central

    Terech-Majewska, Elżbieta; Siwicki, Andrzej K.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic invasions are recognized as one of the primary factors responsible for decreasing populations of European eel. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of infestation with the nematode Anguillicoloides crassus on the innate immunity in European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Anguillicoloides crassus parasitizes the swim bladder of this fish. Levels of the following immunological parameters were measured: spleen phagocyte respiratory burst activity, spleen phagocyte potential killing activity, pronephros lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavaline A or lipopolisaccharide, plasma lysozyme and ceruloplasmin activity, total protein and immunoglobulin (Ig) serum levels. The analyses of the results of humoral and cellular immunity indicate that all studied parameters were statistically significant higher (p < 0.05) in non-infested fish compared to the ones with anguillicolosis except for ceruloplasmin level. These data suggest that the A. crassus infestation in European eel is responsible for a decreased immune response what could result in higher susceptibility to other pathogenic conditions. PMID:26557024

  19. [Photosensitization in cattle grazing on pastures of Brahciaria decumbens Stapf infested with Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis].

    PubMed

    Andrade, S O; da Silva Lopes, H O; de Almeida Barros, M; Leite, G G; Dias, S M; Saueressig, M; Nobre, D; Temperini, J A

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of photosensitization in bovines grazing on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf infested with Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis infested all pastures 45(2):117-136, 1978. This paper reports experimental studies on photosensitization in bovines grazing on different pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in the "Cerrados" region (Planaltina, DF). Climatic conditions, zinc content and occurence of fungi on pastures were investigated. Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis infested all pastures examined. Photosensitization was observed in one animal maintained on a pasture of B. decumbens formed with seeds from Australia. Clinical and necropsy data were similar to those related in literature for sporidesmin-intoxicated animals. An isolate of P. chartarum and samples of bovine bile were assayed for sporidesmin presence. PMID:573108

  20. Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Casais, Rosa; Dalton, Kevin P; Millán, Javier; Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Alvaro; Solano, Paloma; Goyache, Félix; Prieto, José Miguel; Parra, Francisco

    2014-06-16

    Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system. PMID

  1. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations

  2. Effect of owner-controlled acaricidal treatment on tick infestation and immune response to tick-borne pathogens in naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tick-borne infections resulting from regular tick infestation in dogs are a common veterinary health problem all over the world. The application of repellent and acaricidal agents to prevent transmission of pathogens is a major protection strategy and has been proven to be highly effective in several trials under laboratory and natural conditions in dogs. Despite such promising results, many dog owners still report tick infestation in their dogs although acaricidal agents are used. Information about the current infection status and changes of the infection status regarding tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs treated by the owner’s controlled acaricide application is lacking. Methods In this study 30 dogs were each treated with permethrin, fipronil + S-methoprene, or served as untreated controls. Application of the acaricide was performed by the owner who decided when and how often to use the spot on preparation. Over a period of 11 months, dogs were clinically examined and sampled for antibody responses against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., and TBE virus before the study started, 6 months later and at the end of the investigation period. Results The permethrin acaricide was applied on average 3.40 times within the examination period, whereas the fipronil + S-methoprene medication was applied 3.03 times. Approximately 2/3 of all dogs, independent of the group, had a positive immune response to one or more pathogens. Three dogs developed clinical symptoms of canine babesiosis, all other dogs remained healthy. Individual number of ticks per dog or number of infections per dog did not correlate with the application rate, and the number of ticks per dog did not influence the number of infections per dog. As owners did not apply the acaricides regularly no influence on the number of infections could be documented although the number of ticks was clearly reduced by the application of the spot-on drugs. Conclusions

  3. Identification and Characterization of Trichoderma Species Damaging Shiitake Mushroom Bed-Logs Infested by Camptomyia Pest.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Young; Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-05-28

    The shiitake mushroom industry has suffered from Camptomyia (gall midges) pest, which feeds on the mycelium of shiitake mushroom during its cultivation. It has been postulated that fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs is associated with infestation by the insect pest, but this is not well understood. To understand the fungal damage associated with Camptomyia pest, various Trichoderma species were isolated, identified, and characterized. In addition to two previously known Trichoderma species, T. citrinoviride and T. deliquescens, two other Trichoderma species, T. harzianum and T. atroviride, were newly identified from the pestinfested bed-log samples obtained at three mushroom farms in Cheonan, Korea. Among these four species, T. harzianum was the most evident. The results of a chromogenic media-based assay for extracellular enzymes showed that these four species have the ability to produce amylase, carboxyl-methyl cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase, thus indicating that they can degrade wood components. A dual culture assay on PDA indicated that T. harzianum, T. atroviride, and T. citrinoviride were antagonistic against the mycelial growth of a shiitake strain (Lentinula edodes). Inoculation tests on shiitake bed-logs revealed that all four species were able to damage the wood of bed-logs. Our results provide evidence that the four green mold species are the causal agents involved in fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs infested by Camptomyia pest. PMID:26930351

  4. Mitigation of unionid mortality caused by zebra mussel infestation: cleaning of unionids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha have infested and caused mortality of native unionids in the Great Lakes since 1986; no other such parasitism of native unionids occurs in North America. Survival of unionids threatened by zebra mussel infestation was tested by suspending uncleaned and cleaned unionids in nearshore waters of western Lake Erie. Survival was determined, and newly settled zebra mussels were removed from clean unionids at eight intervals that ranged from 21 d to 77 d between 5 July 1990 and 3 July 1991. After 1 year, survival rates of uncleaned and cleaned unionids were 0% and 42%, respectively. Of the 10 species examined, only indivduals from 3 species (Amblema plicata plicata, Fusconaia flava, and Quadrula quadrula) survived 1 year. These species have relatively thick shells, which may have contributed to their survival. Removal of newly settled zebra mussels may be important to unionid survival because 98% of the zebra mussels removed after the initial cleaning were small mussels (<10 mm long) that could rapidly grow and cover unionids. At present, we do not know how zebra mussels cause mortality of unionids, but the removal of zebra mussels from unionids is the only method known that successfully reduces unionid mortality in waters colonized by zebra mussels.

  5. Diversity of containers and buildings infested with Aedes aegypti in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Fattore, Gladys; Abril, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main domestic vector of the dengue virus. Control measures to prevent dengue transmission focus on the treatment and elimination of this vector's oviposition sites. There is limited biological information on Ae. aegypti in Argentina. The aim of this study was to characterize Ae. aegypti oviposition sites in the city of Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We surveyed an area covering nine neighborhoods in 2005. We identified 191 premises as positive for Ae. aegypti, giving a general house index of 9.6%. Premises classified as residential and vacant lots presented the highest number of infested premises, with 9% and 22% respectively. The total number of surveyed containers was 29,600. The overall container index (CI) was 1.1. The most frequently infested containers were water tanks (CI = 37). These preliminary results suggest that vacant lots and water tanks provide suitable breeding areas and environmental conditions, improving the chances of Ae. aegypti survival in Puerto Iguazú. PMID:23033195

  6. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    PubMed

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges. PMID:27583438

  7. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting birds in an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Pacheco, Richard C; Uezu, Alexandre; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-09-01

    Brazil has the third richest bird diversity of the world; however, there are few data concerning ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parazitizing birds. The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds from an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil. During 2 yr, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in 12 forest sites. A total of 1,725 birds were captured representing 80 species from 24 families. In total, 223 (13%) birds were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks: 1,800 larvae and 539 nymphs. The prevalence of ticks was higher among birds from the families Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, and Momotidae. The most common tick parasitizing birds was Amblyomma nodosum Koch. Other tick species, Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense (F.), Amblyomma ovale Koch, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, and Amblyomma naponense (Packard), were found sporadically. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense was the most common, followed by A. coelebs, A. naponense, Amblyomma brasilense Aragão, and Hemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley. PMID:19769058

  8. Host Status of Five Weed Species and Their Effects on Pratylenchus zeae Infestation of Maize.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, E M; De Waele, D

    1988-10-01

    The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae infestation of subsequently grown maize. When goose grass, khaki weed, and mealie crotalaria were grown in association with maize in soil infested with P. zeae, goose grass and khaki weed severely suppressed maize root development; this resulted in a low number of nematodes per maize root system and a high number of nematodes per maize root unit. Mealie crotalaria did not restrict maize root growth and did not affect nematode densities per maize root system or maize root unit. Special attention should be given to the control of mealie crotalaria, which is a good host for P. zeae, and goose grass, which, in addition to its ability to compete with maize, is also a suitable host for P. zeae. PMID:19290263

  9. Host Status of Five Weed Species and Their Effects on Pratylenchus zeae Infestation of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; De Waele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae infestation of subsequently grown maize. When goose grass, khaki weed, and mealie crotalaria were grown in association with maize in soil infested with P. zeae, goose grass and khaki weed severely suppressed maize root development; this resulted in a low number of nematodes per maize root system and a high number of nematodes per maize root unit. Mealie crotalaria did not restrict maize root growth and did not affect nematode densities per maize root system or maize root unit. Special attention should be given to the control of mealie crotalaria, which is a good host for P. zeae, and goose grass, which, in addition to its ability to compete with maize, is also a suitable host for P. zeae. PMID:19290263

  10. Assay of alterations in oxidative stress markers in pigs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis.

    PubMed

    Dimri, Umesh; Bandyopadhyay, S; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Ranjan, Rakesh; Mukherjee, R; Yatoo, M I; Patra, P H; De, U K; Dar, A A

    2014-09-15

    The present study aimed to examine the status of antioxidant systems of the pigs naturally suffering from sarcoptic mange. Fifty nine pigs were divided into three groups, healthy control (group I, n=15), subclinical sarcoptic mange (group II, n=22) and clinical sarcoptic mange (group III, n=22). To assess the status of antioxidant systems; lipid peroxides (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), ascorbic acid, zinc and copper concentrations in the blood samples as well as LPO, SOD, CAT and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities in the skin were measured. The GSH, SOD, GPx, ascorbic acid, zinc, copper concentrations in blood were significantly lower in the pigs suffering from clinical and subclinical sarcoptic mange, when compared with the healthy control. However, LPO content of these infested pigs was significantly higher. The CAT, SOD and GST activities in the skin of the diseased pigs were significantly lower, whereas LPO was significantly higher as compared to the healthy control. From the present study, it may be concluded that sarcoptic mange bestows remarkable alterations in the oxidative stress markers and imposes compromisation of the antioxidant status of the infested pigs. PMID:24986463

  11. An Unusual Cause of Bleeding on the Floor of Mouth: Leech Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kantekin, Yunus; Sarı, Kamran; Özkırış, Mahmut; Kapusuz Gencer, Zeliha

    2015-12-01

    Leech infestation is a very rare phenomenon in humans. It mostly occurs in humans when rural untreated water is drunk or while swimming in streams or lakes. When leeches adhere to the mucous membrane, they ingest blood. Thus, they can sometimes cause severe anemia that may require blood transfusion. We report a case that was referred to emergency service with bleeding in the floor of the mouth. A 10-year-old child was referred to the emergency service of a city hospital with a complaint of swelling in the floor of the mouth and spitting of blood. The patient was promptly taken to the operating room. Using local anesthesia, a surgical incision was made, and a moving, dark brown foreign body was removed from the floor of the mouth and identified as a leech. Leech endoparasitism should be considered as a cause of unexplained anemia due to bleeding from the throat. Accordingly, leech infestation must be considered in differential diagnosis when a patient complains of spitting of blood, hoarseness, or dysphagia. PMID:26809923

  12. Infestation by Hypoderma tarandi in reindeer calves from northern Finland--prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Åsbakk, Kjetil; Kumpula, Jouko; Oksanen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-02-24

    Serum samples from 953 reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus) calves-of-the-year from 21 reindeer herding co-operatives in Finland in slaughter season 2006/2007 were assayed for antibodies against Hypodermin C by an ELISA detecting IgG. Data on presence of Hypoderma tarandi larvae on 12,327 reindeer hides from 17 of the 21 herding co-operatives in slaughter season 2005/2006 were included for support. ELISA showed a seroprevalence of 60.9%, with no significant difference between females and males, and increase with latitude (southernmost and northernmost co-operatives examined, Pudasjärvi and Kaldoaivi, 11.8 and 100% of seropositives, respectively). The proportion of larva positive hides (range 0.5-60% per co-operative) was low compared to the proportion of seropositives. Also the proportion of larva positive hides increased with latitude. Our findings indicated that high latitude combined with open landscape, presence of low vegetation and high reindeer density provided more favorable conditions for sustaining of high degree of warble fly infestation, and furthermore, that any possible effect of ivermectin treatment on infestation rate was ruled out by the higher effect by the above factors. PMID:24412359

  13. Characterization of a genotoxic impact compound in Alternaria alternata infested rice as Altertoxin II.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Christoph; Tiessen, Christine; Kreutzer, Martin; Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris

    2012-12-01

    Toxicity-guided fractionation was used to identify DNA strand breaking impact compounds in extracts obtained from rice heavily infested with the Alternaria alternata strains DSM 62006 and DSM 62010. The major genotoxic potential measured in the comet assay using human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) could be attributed to three unknown peaks, whereas the fractions containing alternariol, its monomethylether or tenuazonic acid showed no significant DNA damaging effects. According to (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, one genotoxic impact compound was identified as Altertoxin II (ATXII). ATXII showed potent DNA damaging properties in HT29 cells with substantial induction of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites. However, no effect was observed with respect to the cellular redox status, measured in the DCF assay and as total glutathione. The induction of apoptosis could be excluded as a potential reason for enhanced DNA damage. After 24 h of incubation with 1 μM ATX II, a significant increase of cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase was observed together with an inhibition of cell proliferation in the sulforhodamine B assay. Taken together, ATX II was found to contribute substantially to the genotoxic effects of complex extracts obtained from Alternaria alternata infested rice. The results demonstrate the high genotoxic potency of ATX II in human cells, underlining the necessity for further studies on the occurrence in food and its relevance for food safety. PMID:23076116

  14. Identification of brome grass infestations in southwest Oklahoma using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    The extensive infestation of brome grasses (Cheatgrass, Rye brome and Japanese brome) in southwest Oklahoma imposes negative impacts on local economy and ecosystem in terms of decreasing crop and forage production and increasing fire risk. Previously proposed methodologies on brome grass detection are found ill-suitable for southwest Oklahoma as a result of similar responses of background vegetation to inter-annual variability of rainfall. In this study, we aim to identify brome grass infestations by detecting senescent brome grasses using the 2011 Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets and the difference Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) derived from multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landsat imageries acquired on May 18th and June 10th 2013 by Operational Land Imager and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus were used. The imagery acquisition dates correspond to the peak growth and senescent time of brome grasses, respectively. The difference NDII was calculated by subtracting the NDII image acquired in May from the June NDII image. Our hypotheses is that senescent brome grasses and crop/pasture fields harvested between the two image acquisition dates can be distinguished from background land cover classes because of their increases in NDII due to decreased water absorption by senescent vegetation in the shortwave infrared region. The Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets were used to further separate senescent brome grass patches from newly harvested crop/pasture fields. Ground truth data collected during field trips in June, July and August of 2013 were used to validate the detection results.

  15. A study on rate of infestation to Sarcocystis cysts in supplied raw hamburgers.

    PubMed

    Nematollahia, Ahmad; Khoshkerdar, Afsaneh; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Shahbazi, Parisa; Hassanzadeh, Parviz

    2015-06-01

    This study was carried on for determination of presence of Sarcocystis cysts in raw hamburgers in Tabriz North West of Iran. Ninety-six samples of industrial (70 % meat content) and traditional (30 % meat content) hamburgers (80 samples industrial and 16 samples traditional) were obtained from retail fast food stores. The samples were examined by gross examination, and microscopic examination methods consist impression smear and peptic digestion. Macroscopic cysts did not observed in any of the samples in gross examination. Microscopic study showed that from 96 samples 54 (56.25 %) samples were infected by at least one bradyzoites of Sarcocystis. From 54 infected samples, 45 industrial hamburgers and nine traditional hamburgers samples were infected. Statistical analysis showed that there was not significant differences between industrial and traditional hamburgers in infection to Sarcocystis. Infestation of hamburgers to Sarcocystis in summer was higher than other seasons but this difference was not significant. In Iran, beef meat is used for preparation of 70 % of hamburger and infestation of cattle to sarcocystosis was reported in many investigations in Iran. With regard to the high prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in meat products such as hamburgers in this study, it is strongly recommended to avoid eating raw or under-cooked hamburgers or keep them at freezing temperature for at least 3-5 days. PMID:26064017

  16. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Charles; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of “metabolic hijacking” by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor. PMID:26684003

  17. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

  18. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line. PMID:26785567

  19. Laser diagnostic technology for early detection of pathogen infestation in orange fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco; Lai, Antonella; Piccinelli, Delinda; Puiu, Adriana

    2010-11-01

    Due to an increased expectation of food products that respect high quality and safety standards, there is a need for the growth of accurate, fast, objective and non-destructive technologies for quality determination of food and agricultural products. For this purpose, a diagnostic system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was developed at ENEA Frascati Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory (Italy). In the design of the photoacoustic detector, particular emphasis was placed in attaining a high sensitivity in detecting ethylene (ET) down to sub-parts per billion level (minimum detectable concentration 0.2 ppb). This was required due to the necessity to monitor and follow up ET production at a single fruit scale. ET is normally synthesised in very low amounts by healthy citrus fruits; however stress conditions such as pathogen attack may induce a substantial increase in the synthesised ET. In the present paper, the comparison between the ET emitted by healthy oranges ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cv Navel and by Phytophthora citrophthora infested Navel orange fruits are reported. The obtained results show a well evident increase in ET emission from the infested fruit with respect to the healthy one, even 24 h after the inoculation with the pathogen; at that time the tissue necrosis was not yet visible, and the fruit was also not yet damaged. The possibility to perform a real time non-destructive detection of ET traces makes the LPAS a powerful tool for monitoring the healthy state of the citrus fruits.

  20. Efficiency of partial treatment of cattle infested with horn fly using 40% diazinon.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Fabiana Alves; Alari, Fernando de Oliveira; Seno, Maria Conceição Zocoller; de Lima, Marco Monteiro; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Chiquitelli Neto, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group). The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon), respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control). The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33) and from 3 to 11 (group G100). However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite. PMID:24473881

  1. Residual Infestation and Recolonization during Urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru1

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, Alison M.; Pumahuanca, Maria-Luz Hancco; Calderón, Javier E. Quintanilla; Salazar, Renzo; Carrión, Malwina; Rospigliossi, Andy Catacora; Chavez, Fernando S. Malaga; Alvarez, Karina Oppe; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease vector control campaigns are being conducted in Latin America, but little is known about medium-term or long-term effectiveness of these efforts, especially in urban areas. After analyzing entomologic data for 56,491 households during the treatment phase of a Triatoma infestans bug control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, during 2003–2011, we estimated that 97.1% of residual infestations are attributable to untreated households. Multivariate models for the surveillance phase of the campaign obtained during 2009–2012 confirm that nonparticipation in the initial treatment phase is a major risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 21.5, 95% CI 3.35–138). Infestation during surveillance also increased over time (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15–2.09 per year). In addition, we observed a negative interaction between nonparticipation and time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53–0.99), suggesting that recolonization by vectors progressively dilutes risk associated with nonparticipation. Although the treatment phase was effective, recolonization in untreated households threatens the long-term success of vector control. PMID:25423045

  2. An Assessment of European Spruce Bark Beetle Infestation Using WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchev, L.

    2012-05-01

    During the past three decades the spectral responses of declining forest health due to pest infestations as well as various methods for detection of trees' health status have been extensively studied. A set of narrow-band and broad-band Vegetation Indices (VIs) have been developed to assess the changes in the vegetation reflectance. The main objective of the study is to assess the damages caused by European Spruce Bark Beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation in 'Bistrishko Branishte' UNESCO Man And Biosphere (MAB) reserve using WorldView-2 satellite data. The analysis was performed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest using the VIs indicative for forest stress: NDVI, SR, EVI, ARVI, CRI, CSc, and ARI. By applying density slice on the VIs, the main regions for stressed vegetation have been delineat ed. The CSc has been found to perform better in detecting the pattern of stressed spruce trees compared to ARI. The area affected by Ips typographus was determined by CSc index to 5.97% (0.373 km2) of the study area.

  3. Control of multiple arthropod vector infestations with subolesin/akirin vaccines.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Villar, Margarita; Jiménez, Maribel; Pinal, Rocío; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Molina, Ricardo; Lucientes, Javier; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2013-02-01

    Diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and sand flies greatly impact human and animal health and thus their control is important for the eradication of vector-borne diseases (VBD). Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several VBD by targeting their common vector. Recent results have suggested that subolesin/akirin (SUB/AKR) is good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations. Here we describe the comparative effect of vaccination with SUB, AKR and Q38 and Q41 chimeras containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on tick, mosquitoes and sand flies vector mortality, molting, oviposition and/or fertility. We demonstrated that SUB vaccination had the highest efficacy (E) across all vector species (54-92%), Q41 vaccination had the highest vaccine E in mosquitoes (99%) by reducing female survival and fertility, and Q38 vaccination had the highest effect on reducing mosquito (28%) and sand fly (26%) oviposition. The effect of vaccination on different developmental processes in several important arthropod vectors encourages the development of SUB/AKR universal vaccines for the control of multiple vector infestations and reduction of VBD. PMID:23291476

  4. Rootstock Effects on Pistachio Trees Grown in Verticillium dahliae-Infested Soil.

    PubMed

    Epstein, L; Beede, R; Kaur, S; Ferguson, L

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT In a field trial in soil infested with Verticillium dahliae, we compared the yield, growth, incidence of symptoms of Verticillium wilt, and mortality of two interspecific hybrid pistachio tree rootstocks (UCBI and PGII) with the standard rootstocks: the V. dahliae-resistant and susceptible Pistacia integerrima and P. atlantica, respectively. After 10 years, the trees were destructively sampled for V. dahliae in the xylem at the graft union. The results indicate that trees on the (P. atlantica 'KAC' x P. integerrima) hybrid UCBI rootstock grew and yielded as well as those on P. integerrima. Trees on the hybrid PGII yielded the least. Analysis of variance and log-linear models indicate that in soil infested with V. dahliae, three associations significantly affect pistachio nut yield. Rootstock affects scion vigor and extent of infection. Third, the extent of infection and scion vigor are inversely associated. Although trees on the P. integerrima rootstock had the highest ratings in a visual assessment of vigor, 65% were infected with V. dahliae in the trunk in the graft region compared with 73% in P. atlantica and 25% in UCBI. Thus, P. integerrima and UCBI have at least one different mechanism for resistance to V. dahliae. PMID:18944115

  5. Ditylenchus dipsaci Infestation of Trifolium repens. I. Temperature Effects, Seedling Invasion, and a Field Survey

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, G. S.; Cook, R.; Mizen, K. A.

    1997-01-01

    Rates of development of stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) in white clover (Trifolium repens) seedlings were found to be linearly related to temperature. Basal developmental temperature (Tb) was 3 °C, and the thermal constant (S) for development of gravid adult females from freshly laid eggs was 270 accumulated day-degrees above the Tb. Only 12% at 20 °C and 4% at 4 °C of the gravid female nematodes inoculated into seedling axils successfully penetrated seedling epidermis. These nematodes slowly migrated within the seedling and after a lag of 5 days at 20 °C started to lay eggs. The maximal rate of egg production was temperature-dependent, being 0.8 and 3.1 eggs female⁻¹ day⁻¹ at 10 and 20 °C, respectively. Nematodes emigrated rapidly from infested stolons when they were immersed in water, with rates being highest at 25 °C and lowest at 4 °C. The sensitivity to temperature of many of the parameters that govern nematode population dynamics indicates that climatic changes will have a marked effect upon this host-parasite system. A study of infested stolons from the field indicated that nematode numbers increased up to 3,000 or more before tissue senesence, triggered by nematode damage, caused a mass emigration of nematodes from the stolon. PMID:19274148

  6. Urban stray cats infested by ectoparasites with zoonotic potential in Greece.

    PubMed

    Lefkaditis, Menelaos A; Sossidou, Anna V; Panorias, Alexandros H; Koukeri, Smaragda E; Paştiu, Anamaria I; Athanasiou, Labrini V

    2015-10-01

    A large population of stray cats is encountered in many urban areas sharing the same environment with people, usually being in a close direct contact with them. A variety of ectoparasites can infest such cats, causing mild dermatological abnormalities to more severe systemic disorders. In order to determine the extent of which stray cats carry ectoparasites, particularly those of zoonotic potential, 341 stray cats originating from the urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece, were examined between 2012 and 2014. The signalment of each cat such as gender, hair length, and roughly estimated age were recorded. From a total of 341 examined stray cats, 127 (37.24%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.14-42.64) were infested with at least one of the following ectoparasites: mites-Otodectes cynotis (15.8%), Notoedres cati (2.35%), Cheyletiella blakei (2.05%); fleas-Ctenocephalides felis (24.3%); ticks-Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.88%); and lice-Felicola subrostratus (0.59%). A significantly higher prevalence of ectoparasites was observed in long-haired individuals (p < 0.00001). The above ectoparasites may either cause or transmit diseases not only in cats but also in humans Therefore, antiparasitic control should be included in stray cat neutering campaigns while public health education for taking preventive measures will decrease the risk of transmission to humans. PMID:26319525

  7. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    PubMed Central

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Gerritsen, Lonne; Cornelissen, Bram; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; van Langevelde, Frank; Blacquière, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. Methodology/Principal Findings Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated). We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts) increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. PMID:22558421

  8. Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of infestation with major gastrointestinal nematodes in equines in and around Shashemane, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tesfaye, Mulualem; Derso, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of major gastrointestinal nematode infestation in equines were studied through a cross-sectional survey in 384 equids from October 2013 to April 2014 in and around Shashemane, southern Ethiopia. Three hundred and fifteen equids (82 %) were demonstrated harbouring one or more gastrointestinal (GIT) nematodes using the faecal flotation technique. The prevalence of GIT nematode infestation was 73.4, 85 and 86.5 % for horses, mules and donkeys, respectively. The identified nematodes were strongyle type (73.4 %), Parascaris equorum (21.4 %) and Oxyuris equi (4.4 %). Species of equines had a significant (χ (2) = 9.35, P < 0.01) association with the occurrence of GIT nematode infestation. Donkeys were two times (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.27-4.28, P < 0.01) more likely getting GIT nematode infestation than horses. Moreover, donkeys had the highest mean faecal egg counts (1831.2 egg per gram (EPG)) followed by mules (915.7 EPG) and horses (772.5 EPG). There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between mean EPG and body condition score in each equine species. In conclusion, this study provides information which might help in designing upcoming control strategies to control nematode infestation in equines. Moreover, suitable tropical climatic conditions, low level of management and owners' awareness, and poor animal health services are expected to contribute for high nematode infestation. Therefore, emphasis should be given to awareness creation about the strategic deworming, animal welfare and management. PMID:26205906

  9. Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Eisenia fetida andrei coelomic fluid: transcription and translation regulation of lysozyme and proteins evidenced after bacterial infestation.

    PubMed

    Hirigoyenberry, F; Lassalle, F; Lassegues, M

    1990-01-01

    1. After bacterial infestation lysozyme and antibacterial activities are enhanced, peaking at 4 hr and 3 days, respectively. 2. Both humoral defenses require RNA and protein de novo synthesis in response to pathogenic bacteria injection (actinomycin D and cycloheximide experiments). 3. Antibacterial activity exists naturally at some basic level, involving regular translation of stable RNAs. 4. When antibacterial activity reaches its maximum after bacterial injection, proteins responsible for it undergo a turn-over. 5. Lysozyme and antibacterial proteins cannot account for the whole response to bacterial infestation; some cellular defense mechanisms like phagocytosis are involved at the same time. PMID:2331874

  11. Targeting arthropod subolesin/akirin for the development of a universal vaccine for control of vector infestations and pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Kocan, Katherine M; Galindo, Ruth C; Almazán, Consuelo; Blouin, Edmour F

    2011-09-01

    Diseases caused by arthropod-borne pathogens greatly impact on human and animal health. Recent research has provided evidence that tick protective antigens can be used for development of vaccines with the dual target of controlling arthropod infestations and reducing their vector capacity for pathogens. As reviewed herein, protective antigens such as subolesin/akirin, which are highly conserved across vector species, show promise for use in development of a universal vaccine for the control of arthropod infestations and the reduction of pathogen transmission. However, further research is needed in critical areas towards achieving this goal. PMID:21561715

  12. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  13. Changes in free amino acids and polyamine levels in Satsuma leaves in response to Asian citrus psyllid infestation and water stress.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nasir S A; Perez, Jose L; Kunta, Madhurababu; Patt, Joseph M; Mangan, Robert L

    2014-12-01

    The effects of biotic and abiotic stresses on changes in amino acids and polyamine levels in Satsuma orange (Citrus unshiu; cultivar Owari) leaves were investigated. Asian citrus psyllids Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (ACP) infestation was used to induce biotic stress while a water deficit was imposed to induce abiotic stress. Potted trees were infested by placing 50 psyllids on 3 citrus leaves enclosed in nylon mesh bags for 5 d. A parallel set of plants were kept water stressed by maintaining the soil at 20% water holding capacity for 5 d. Levels of total free amino acids were higher in water stressed and ACP infested leaves. Polyamine putrescine increased in infested leaves but not in water stressed leaves. Proline was the most abundant amino acid and its levels significantly increased by both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proline levels in infested leaves were significantly higher than the water stressed leaves. Histidine, methionine, asparagine, arginine, serine, and leucine levels also increased significantly in infested leaves, but in water stressed leaves only leucine, methionine, and threonine increased. Levels of amino acids, such as tyrosine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and alanine, declined in infested leaves. Under water stress asparagine, phenylalanine, serine, and histidine also declined compared to controls. This indicates that while proteolysis occurred under both stresses, metabolic conversion of amino acids was different under the two stresses. In ACP infested leaves some amino acids may be used as feeding material and/or converted into secondary metabolites for defense. PMID:24178691

  14. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction. PMID:26905564

  15. Comparison of percent hatch and fungal infestation in channel catfish eggs after copper sulfate, diquat bromide, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced survival is often a result of fungal (Saprolegnia spp.) infestation of fish eggs. However, timely chemical treatments often limit these infestations and increase survival. The effect of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP - 10 mg/L), diquat bromide (25 mg/L diquat cation), formalin (433 mg/L)...

  16. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. PMID:26287180

  17. The effectiveness of repeated tank treatments of copper sulfate and formalin on gill flukes and Ich in naturally infested white bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasites infesting the gills of juvenile fish reared in tanks can cause serious fish losses. Multiple treatments of formalin and copper sulfate (CuSO4) were evaluated for effectiveness against a natural infestation of gill flukes Onchocleidus mimus (Monogenoidea: Ancyrocephalidae) and Ichthyop...

  18. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction. PMID:26905564

  19. Detection of lesser grain borer larvae in internally infested kernels of brown rice and wheat using an electrically conductive roller mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications were made to a small laboratory mill to enable the detection of rice kernels infested by immature, hidden stored-grain insects. The mill, which was originally designed for wheat, monitors the electrical conductance through the grain and detects kernels that are infested with live inse...

  20. [The influence of the degree of infestation with trematode parthenites on the structure of penial glands in the mollusks Littorina saxatilis of different age].

    PubMed

    Ganzha, E V; Starunova, Z I

    2011-01-01

    Histological and confocal microscopy studies of the structure of penial glands in the Littorina saxatilis males were carried out. The examined mollusks belong to two age groups and were at different stages of spontaneous infection with a trematode from the pygmaeus species group (Microphallus piriformes). Based on comparative analysis of microscopic sections of copulative organs in infested and non-infested mollusks, data on the modifications in histological structure ofpenial glands were obtained. From these data we can suggest that the infestation have an influence on all parts of the gland. Decrease of secret production and reduction of muscular capsule (down to its disappearance) were observed. We suppose that changes in the penial glands structure prevent their normal functioning. In the mollusks infested on reaching the sexual maturity, gradual reduction of distal part of reproductive system was observed, while in the mollusks infested before the sexual maturity, development of ancillary part of reproductive system was blocked. PMID:22384680

  1. Effect of water temperature and salinity in oviposition, hatching success and infestation of Aphanoblastella mastigatus (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) on Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, N C; Gonçalves, E L T; Tancredo, K R; Pereira-Junior, J; Garcia, J R E; Martins, M L

    2015-11-01

    Several environmental parameters may influence biological processes of several aquatic invertebrates, such as the Monogenea. Current analysis investigates oviposition, hatching success and infestation of Aphanoblastella mastigatus, a parasite of the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen at different temperatures (~ 24 and 28 °C) and salinity (by adding sodium chloride to water, at concentrations 0, 5 and 9 g/L) in laboratory. There was no significant difference in oviposition rate and in A. mastigatus infestation success at 24 and 28 °C. On the other hand, the concentration 9 g/L of sodium chloride in the water impaired the parasite's survival and the viability of the eggs. Results show that its usage is efficient as a possible prophylactic treatment. Eclosion rate of A. mastigatus's eggs was significantly higher at 28 °C, although it was significantly less from 5 g/L. Two oviposition peaks (06h15 and 18h15) occurred during a 24-hour period, or rather, during the highest variations in luminosity. Further studies are recommended with greater temperature intervals and more intense experimental infestations to verify the effects of temperature in the life span and infestation success of A. mastigatus. PMID:26628218

  2. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  3. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  4. Role of syrphid larvae and other predators in suppressing aphid infestations in organic lettuce on California's Central Coast.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E; Bensen, Tiffany A

    2008-10-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., growers on the Central Coast of California rely on conservation biological control to manage Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and other aphid pests of lettuce. In 2006, we carried out five replicated field trials to determine the importance of syrphid larvae in the suppression of N. ribisnigri and other aphids infesting organic romaine lettuce. We used Entrust, a spinosad-based insecticide approved for use on organic farms, to suppress syrphid larvae in aphid-infested romaine. Romaine treated with Entrust was unmarketable at harvest because of aphid infestation, whereas insecticide-free romaine was marketable. Syrphid larvae composed 85% or more of total predators in most trials, and they were the only predators consistently recovered from romaine that was infested with aphids early and largely aphid-free by harvest. The species mix of nonsyrphid predators varied from site to site. Applications of Entrust suppressed nonsyrphid predators in two trials, and so was an imperfect tool for selectively suppressing syrphid larvae. The relative importance of syrphid larvae and other predators in the conservation biological control of aphids in organic romaine is discussed. We conclude that syrphid larvae are primarily responsible for the suppression of aphids in organic romaine on California's Central Coast. PMID:18950033

  5. The effect of time of whitefly infestation and plant nutrition on the development of tomato irregular ripening disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato irregular ripening (TIR) is a physiological plant disorder caused by Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding on foliage and resulting in incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit.Our objective was to determine the effect of time of whitefly infestation and plant nutrition on the developm...

  6. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633

  7. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

  8. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

  9. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

  10. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with ticks or exposed... interstate movement of cattle....

  11. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

  12. The effect of time of sweetpotato whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and development of tomato irregular ripening disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato irregular ripening (TIR) disorder is associated with Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding and is characterized by incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit. Our objective was to determine the effect of time of whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and the development of tomato irreg...

  13. Winter losses of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera): The role of infestations with Aethina tumida and Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple infections and infestations of honeybee colonies with pathogens and parasites are inevitable due to the ubiquitous ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and might be one of the mechanisms underlying winter losses. Here we investigated the role of adult small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, alo...

  14. Factors influencing the temporal and spatial patterns of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in newly planted apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of infestation by larval dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was studied during 2002–2004 in two newly planted apple orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards contained several rootstock-variety combinations grown under different cultural manage...

  15. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  16. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  17. REVEGETATING RUSSIAN KNAPWEED (ACROPTILON REPENS)AND RABBITBRUSH (ERICAMERIA TERETIFOLIA)INFESTED RANGELAND IN A SINGLE ENTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test the potential for using a single-entry procedure to revegetate Russian knapweed– and green rabbitbrush–infested rangeland. I hypothesized that simultaneously applying an herbicide and seeding in the fall would produce the highest establishment and growth of de...

  18. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2013-01-01

    Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522

  19. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  20. Paguristione uniuropodus, a new genus and a new species of Pseudioninae infesting hermit crabs from China (Crustacea, Isopoda, Bopyridae).

    PubMed

    An, Jianmei; Zhao, Qiuping; Markham, John C

    2016-01-01

    Paguristione uniuropodus gen. n., sp. n. infests Paguristes sp. in the East China Sea. Paguristione gen. n. differs from the closely related genera Pseudione and Pagurion by its females having indistinct lateral plates on the last two pleomeres and its male with a long tapering pleon of six pleomeres, lacking both pleopoda and uropoda. PMID:27110188