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Sample records for avian bornavirus infection

  1. Pathogenesis of Avian Bornavirus in Experimentally Infected Cockatiels

    PubMed Central

    Enderlein, Dirk; Herzog, Sibylle; Kaleta, Erhard F.; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Ressmeyer, Saskia; Herden, Christiane; Lierz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is the presumed causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a major fatal disease in psittacines. However, the influencing factors and pathogenesis of PDD are not known and natural ABV infection exhibits remarkable variability. We investigated the course of infection in 18 cockatiels that were intracerebrally and intravenously inoculated with ABV. A persistent ABV infection developed in all 18 cockatiels, but, as in natural infection, clinical disease patterns varied. Over 33 weeks, we simultaneously studied seroconversion, presence of viral RNA and antigens, infectious virus, histopathologic alterations, and clinical signs of infection in the ABV-infected birds. Our study results further confirm the etiologic role of ABV in the development of PDD, and they provide basis for further investigations of the pathogenetic mechanisms and disease-inducing factors for the development of PDD. PMID:22304809

  2. Impact of antigenic diversity on laboratory diagnosis of Avian bornavirus infections in birds.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Vanessa; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd; Staeheli, Peter; Rubbenstroth, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABVs) are a group of genetically diverse viruses within the Bornaviridae family that can infect numerous avian species and represent the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, an often fatal disease that is widely distributed in captive populations of parrots and related species. The current study was designed to assess the antigenic variability of the family Bornaviridae and to determine its impact on ABV diagnosis by employing fluorescent antibody assays. It was shown that polyclonal rabbit sera directed against recombinant bornavirus nucleoprotein, X protein, phosphoprotein, and matrix protein provided sufficient cross-reactivity for the detection of viral antigen from a broad range of bornavirus genotypes grown in cell culture. In contrast, a rabbit anti-glycoprotein serum and 2 monoclonal antibodies directed against nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein proteins reacted more specifically. Antibodies were readily detected in sera from avian patients infected with known ABV genotypes if cells persistently infected with a variety of different bornavirus genotypes were used for analysis. For all sera, calculated antibody titers were highest when the homologous or a closely related target virus was used for the assay. Cross-reactivity with more distantly related genotypes of other phylogenetic groups was usually reduced, resulting in titer reduction of up to 3 log units. The presented results contribute to a better understanding of the antigenic diversity of family Bornaviridae and further emphasize the importance of choosing appropriate diagnostic tools for sensitive detection of ABV infections. PMID:25135010

  3. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds. PMID:25973630

  4. Presence of avian bornavirus RNA and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in apparently healthy macaws.

    PubMed

    De Kloet, Siwo R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-12-01

    Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease. PMID:20095158

  5. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection. PMID:25417715

  6. No contact transmission of avian bornavirus in experimentally infected cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica).

    PubMed

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Brosinski, Katrin; Rinder, Monika; Olbert, Marita; Kaspers, Bernd; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed disease of parrots. Distinct ABV lineages were also found in various non-psittacine avian species, such as canaries, but the pathogenic role of ABV in these species is less clear. Despite the wide distribution of ABV in captive parrots and canaries, its mode of transmission is poorly understood: both horizontal transmission via the urofaecal-oral route and vertical transmission are discussed to play a role. In this study we investigated pathology and horizontal transmission of ABV in domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) and cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), two natural host species commonly used for experimental ABV infections. ABV inoculation resulted in persistent infection of all inoculated animals from both species. ABV-infected cockatiels exhibited PDD-like symptoms, such as neurologic signs or shedding of undigested seeds. In contrast, infected domestic canaries did not develop clinical disease. Interestingly, we did not detect viral RNA in cloacal swabs and organ samples or ABV-specific antibodies in serum samples of contact-exposed sentinel birds from either species at any time during a four months observation period. Our results strongly indicate that horizontal transmission of ABV by direct contact is inefficient in immunocompetent fully fledged domestic canaries and cockatiels. PMID:24933163

  7. Detection of Avian bornavirus in multiple tissues of infected psittacine birds using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Delnatte, Pauline; Mak, Matthew; Ojkic, Davor; Raghav, Raj; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale A

    2014-03-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV), the cause of proventricular dilation disease in psittacine birds, has been detected in multiple tissues of infected birds using immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the current study, real-time RT-PCR, using primers targeting the ABV matrix gene, was used to detect ABV in 146 tissues from 7 ABV-infected psittacine birds. Eighty-six percent of the samples tested positive, with crossing point values ranging from 13.82 to 37.82 and a mean of 22.3. These results were compared to the findings of a previous study using gel-based RT-PCR and IHC on the same samples. The agreement between the 2 RT-PCR techniques was 91%; when tests disagreed it was because samples were negative using gel-based RT-PCR but positive on real-time RT-PCR. Agreement with IHC was 77%; 16 out of 74 samples were negative using IHC but positive on real-time RT-PCR. The results suggest that real-time RT-PCR is a more sensitive technique than gel-based RT-PCR and IHC to detect ABV in tissues. The tissues that were ranked most frequently as having a high amount of viral RNA were proventriculus, kidney, colon, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Skeletal muscle, on the other hand, was found to have a consistently low amount of viral RNA. PMID:24518276

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis Supports Horizontal Transmission as a Driving Force of the Spread of Avian Bornaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schmidt, Volker; Rinder, Monika; Legler, Marko; Twietmeyer, Sönke; Schwemmer, Phillip; Corman, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Avian bornaviruses are a genetically diverse group of viruses initially discovered in 2008. They are known to infect several avian orders. Bornaviruses of parrots and related species (Psittaciformes) are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, a chronic and often fatal neurologic disease widely distributed in captive psittacine populations. Although knowledge has considerably increased in the past years, many aspects of the biology of avian bornaviruses are still undiscovered. In particular, the precise way of transmission remains unknown. Aims and Methods In order to collect further information on the epidemiology of bornavirus infections in birds we collected samples from captive and free-ranging aquatic birds (n = 738) and Passeriformes (n = 145) in Germany and tested them for the presence of bornaviruses by PCR assays covering a broad range of known bornaviruses. We detected aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1) in three out of 73 sampled free-ranging mute swans (Cygnus olor) and one out of 282 free-ranging Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus). Canary bornavirus 1 (CnBV-1), CnBV-2 and CnBV-3 were detected in four, six and one out of 48 captive common canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica), respectively. In addition, samples originating from 49 bornavirus-positive captive Psittaciformes were used for determination of parrot bornavirus 2 (PaBV-2) and PaBV-4 sequences. Bornavirus sequences compiled during this study were used for phylogenetic analysis together with all related sequences available in GenBank. Results of the Study Within ABBV-1, PaBV-2 and PaBV-4, identical or genetically closely related bornavirus sequences were found in parallel in various different avian species, suggesting that inter-species transmission is frequent relative to the overall transmission of these viruses. Our results argue for an important role of horizontal transmission, but do not exclude the additional possibility of vertical transmission

  9. Avian bornavirus genotype 4 recovered from naturally infected psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Last, Robert D; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nedorost, Nora; Shivaprasad, H L

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of proventricular dilatation disease caused by avian bornavirus (ABV) in captive psittacine birds has long been suspected in South Africa. This report documents the first detection by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequence analyses of ABV from three clinical cases of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in captive bred blue and gold macaws (Araara rauna) resident in this country. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, gastrointestinal myenteric gangioneuritis and leiomyositis were the most prominent histopathological changes and ABV genotype 4 was detected in tissues from all three birds. Immunohistochemical stains for ABV antigen revealed positive labelling of neurons and glial cells of the brain, myenteric ganglia and nerve fibres as well as smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract of all three birds. In one bird, positive labelling of the peripheral nerves was observed. The identical sequence of the analaysed genome fragment of all three samples, history that all of these birds had originated from the same breeding facility, and young age at presentation raise the question of possible vertical transmission. PMID:23327145

  10. Efficient isolation of avian bornaviruses (ABV) from naturally infected psittacine birds and identification of a new ABV genotype from a salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis).

    PubMed

    Rubbenstroth, D; Rinder, M; Kaspers, B; Staeheli, P

    2012-12-28

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) have been discovered in 2008 as the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacine birds. To date, six ABV genotypes have been described in psittacines. Furthermore, two additional but genetically different ABV genotypes were recognized in non-psittacine birds such as canary birds and wild waterfowl. This remarkable genetic diversity poses a considerable challenge to ABV diagnosis, since polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays may fail to detect distantly related or as yet unknown genotypes. In this study we investigated the use of virus isolation in cell culture as a strategy for improving ABV diagnosis. We found that the quail fibroblast cell line CEC-32 allows very efficient isolation of ABV from psittacine birds. Isolation of ABV was successful not only from organ samples but also from cloacal and pharyngeal swabs and blood samples collected intra vitam from naturally infected parrots. Importantly, using this experimental approach we managed to isolate a new ABV genotype, termed ABV-7, from a salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis). Phylogenetic analysis showed that ABV-7 is most closely related to the psittacine genotypes ABV-1, -2, -3, and -4 and clearly distinct from genotypes ABV-5 and -6. Our successful identification of ABV-7 emphasizes the necessity to consider the high genetic diversity when trying to diagnose ABV infections with high reliability and further shows that classical virus isolation may represent a useful diagnostic option, particularly for the detection of new ABV genotypes. PMID:22824256

  11. Antigen tissue distribution of Avian bornavirus (ABV) in psittacine birds with natural spontaneous proventricular dilatation disease and ABV genotype 1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Wünschmann, Arno; Honkavuori, Kirsi; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian; Shivers, Jan; Armien, Aníbal G.

    2014-01-01

    Tissues of 10 psittacines from aviary 1 (“case birds”) and 5 psittacines from different aviaries were investigated for the presence of Avian bornavirus (ABV) antigen by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal serum specific for the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. Seven of 10 case birds had clinical signs, and necropsy findings consistent with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) while 3 case birds and the 5 birds from other aviaries did not exhibit signs and lesions of this disease. In birds with clinical signs of PDD, ABV antigen was largely limited to neuroectodermal cells including neurons, astroglia, and ependymal cells of the central nervous system, neurons of the peripheral nervous system, and adrenal cells. ABV antigen was present in the nuclei and cytoplasm of infected cells. In 2 case birds that lacked signs and lesions of PDD, viral antigen had a more widespread distribution and was present in nuclei and cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the alimentary and urogenital tract, retina, heart, skeletal muscle, and skin in addition to the mentioned neuroectodermal cells. ABV RNA was identified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in tissues of all 7 case birds available for testing from aviary 1, including 4 birds with PDD lesions and the 3 birds without PDD lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of ABV genotype 1 in all cases. Findings further substantiate a role of ABV in PDD of psittacine bird species. PMID:21908314

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Bornavirus Genotype 1 from a Macaw with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L.; Tizard, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1). PMID:22628404

  13. Complete genome sequence of avian bornavirus genotype 1 from a Macaw with proventricular dilatation disease.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1). PMID:22628404

  14. Pathology and diagnosis of avian bornavirus infection in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) and mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Canada: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Delnatte, Pauline; Ojkic, Davor; Delay, Josepha; Campbell, Doug; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2013-04-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-five pathology cases collected in Ontario between 1992 and 2011 from wild free-ranging Canada geese, trumpeter swans and mute swans were retrospectively evaluated for the pathology associated with avian bornavirus (ABV) infection. Cases were selected based on the presence of upper gastrointestinal impaction, central nervous system histopathology or clinical history suggestive of ABV infection. The proportion of birds meeting at least one of these criteria was significantly higher at the Toronto Zoo (30/132) than elsewhere in Ontario (21/823). Central, peripheral and autonomic nervous tissues were examined for the presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells on histopathology. The presence of virus was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on frozen brains and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Among selected cases, 86.3% (44/51) were considered positive on histopathology, 56.8% (29/51) were positive by immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR was positive on 88.2% (15/17) of the frozen brains and 78.4% (40/51) of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Histopathological lesions included gliosis and lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffing in brain (97.7%), spinal cord (50%), peripheral nerves (55.5%) and myenteric ganglia or nerves (62.8%), resembling lesions described in parrots affected with proventricular dilatation disease. Partial amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid gene from seven geese were 100% identical amongst themselves and 98.1 to 100% identical to the waterfowl sequences recently described in the USA. Although ABV has been identified in apparently healthy geese, our study confirmed that ABV can also be associated with significant disease in wild waterfowl species. PMID:23581438

  15. Avian Bornavirus Associated with Fatal Disease in Psittacine Birds▿

    PubMed Central

    Staeheli, Peter; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to new technologies which enable rapid and unbiased screening for viral nucleic acids in clinical specimens, an impressive number of previously unknown viruses have recently been discovered. Two research groups independently identified a novel negative-strand RNA virus, now designated avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a severe lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis of the gastrointestinal tract of psittacine birds that is frequently accompanied by encephalomyelitis. Since its discovery, ABV has been detected worldwide in many captive parrots and in one canary with PDD. ABV induced a PDD-like disease in experimentally infected cockatiels, strongly suggesting that ABV is highly pathogenic in psittacine birds. Until the discovery of ABV, the Bornaviridae family consisted of a single species, classical Borna disease virus (BDV), which is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disorder that affects primarily horses, sheep, and some other farm animals in central Europe. Although ABV and BDV share many biological features, there exist several interesting differences, which are discussed in this review. PMID:20219910

  16. The detection of avian bornavirus within psittacine eggs.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Erin; Hoppes, Sharman; Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian

    2012-09-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a known cause of proventricular dilatation disease in parrots and encephalitis in waterfowl and is a significant cause of both morbidity and mortality in captive birds. Transmission is thought to occur primarily by the fecal-oral route. In an aviary setting, controlling the disease involves a thorough understanding of the complete transmission cycle, including determining whether vertical transmission occurs. In this study, vertical transmission of ABV was evaluated by using 61 eggs obtained from birds in 2 aviaries where proventricular dilatation disease was prevalent, and the presence of ABV had been confirmed by fecal reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction by using a primer set designed to detect ABV M protein. The contents of these eggs were then tested for the presence of ABV RNA. Of the eggs tested, 10 were determined to contain ABV RNA. These eggs ranged from apparently nonviable to those that contained developing embryos. ABV was detected in the brain tissue of 2 embryos. It remains to be proven that infected chicks can hatch from these eggs to complete the vertical transmission cycle; however, these findings suggest that vertical transmission of ABV may occur. PMID:23156976

  17. Detection of Avian bornavirus 5 RNA in Eclectus roratus with feather picking disorder.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masayuki; Ueda, Kengo; Ueda, Akiko; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2012-05-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) was discovered recently in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal neurological disease. Although ABV has been shown to be a causative agent of PDD, its virological characteristics are largely unknown. Here we report the detection of ABV genotype 5 RNA in an Eclectus roratus with feather picking disorder (FPD). Interestingly, although the bird was persistently infected with ABV5 for at least 8 months, it had no clinical signs of PDD. Although it remains unclear whether ABV5 is associated with FPD, these findings raise the importance of epidemiological studies of birds with diseases other than PDD. PMID:22309239

  18. Broad Tissue and Cell Tropism of Avian Bornavirus in Parrots with Proventricular Dilatation Disease▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rinder, Monika; Ackermann, Andreas; Kempf, Hermann; Kaspers, Bernd; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), representing a new genus within the family Bornaviridae, were recently discovered in parrots from North America and Israel with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). We show here that closely related viruses are also present in captive European parrots of various species with PDD. The six ABV strains that we identified in clinically diseased birds are new members of the previously defined ABV genotypes 2 and 4. Viruses of both genotypes readily established persistent, noncytolytic infections in quail and chicken cell lines but did not grow in cultured mammalian cells in which classical Borna disease virus strains replicate very efficiently. ABV antigens were present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of infected cells, suggesting nuclear replication of ABV. The genome organization of avian and mammalian bornaviruses is highly conserved except that ABV lacks a distinct control element in the 5′ noncoding region of the bicistronic mRNA encoding the viral proteins X and P. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of virus in many, if not all, organs of birds with PDD. Viral nucleic acid was also found in feces of diseased birds, suggesting virus transmission by the fecal-oronasal route. Immunohistochemical analysis of organs from birds with PDD revealed that infection with ABV is not restricted to cells of the nervous system. Thus, ABV exhibits a broad tissue and cell tropism that is strikingly different from classical Borna disease virus. PMID:19297496

  19. Use of Avian Bornavirus Isolates to Induce Proventricular Dilatation Disease in Conures

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Patricia; Hoppes, Sharman; Suchodolski, Paulette; Mirhosseini, Negin; Payne, Susan; Villanueva, Itamar; Shivaprasad, H.L; Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Briese, Thomas; Reddy, Sanjay M.

    2010-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a newly discovered member of the family Bornaviridae that has been associated with the development of a lethal neurologic syndrome in birds, termed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). We successfully isolated and characterized ABV from the brains of 8 birds with confirmed PDD. One isolate was passed 6 times in duck embryo fibroblasts, and the infected cells were then injected intramuscularly into 2 healthy Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonis). Clinical PDD developed in both birds by 66 days postinfection. PDD was confirmed by necropsy and histopathologic examination. Reverse transcription–PCR showed that the inoculated ABV was in the brains of the 2 infected birds. A control bird that received uninfected tissue culture cells remained healthy until it was euthanized at 77 days. Necropsy and histopathologic examinations showed no abnormalities; PCR did not indicate ABV in its brain tissues. PMID:20202423

  20. Isolation of avian bornaviruses from psittacine birds using QT6 quail cells in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HORIE, Masayuki; SASSA, Yukiko; IKI, Haruko; EBISAWA, Kazumasa; FUKUSHI, Hideto; YANAI, Tokuma; TOMONAGA, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABVs) were recently discovered as the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). Although molecular epidemiological studies revealed that ABVs exist in Japan, no Japanese isolate has been reported thus far. In this study, we isolated four strains of Psittaciform 1 bornavirus from psittacine birds affected by PDD using QT6 quail cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to isolate ABVs in Japan and to show that QT6 cells are available for ABV isolation. These isolates and QT6 cells would be powerful tools for elucidating the fundamental biology and pathogenicity of ABVs. PMID:26346745

  1. Identification of avian bornavirus in a Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) with neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Laura; Laniesse, Delphine; Beaufrère, Hugues; Pastor, Adriana; Ojkic, Davor; Smith, Dale A

    2015-01-01

    A one-year-old male Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) was presented for veterinary attention with a history of chronic wasting, weakness and ataxia. The bird died, and post-mortem findings included mild non-suppurative encephalitis and degenerative encephalopathy, lymphoplasmacytic myenteric ganglioneuritis (particularly of the proventriculus), and Wallerian degeneration of the sciatic nerves. Avian bornavirus (ABV) was identified in the brain by immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing of the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction product indicated the presence of ABV genotype 4, which is generally associated with disease in psittacine birds. Subsequent to the death of the pheasant, ABV genotype 4 was identified at autopsy from a juvenile white-bellied caique (Pionites leucogaster) in the same collection. We hypothesize that the pheasant became infected through contact with psittacine birds with which it shared an aviary. We believe this to be the first reported case of natural ABV infection in a bird in the Order Galliformes. PMID:25980634

  2. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl: prevalence of antibodies and cloacal shedding of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Éva; Ojkic, Davor; Leishman, David; Crawshaw, Graham; Elias, Kyle; Smith, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    We surveyed free-ranging Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to avian bornavirus (ABV) and of cloacal shedding of ABV RNA in southern Ontario, Canada. Blood samples and cloacal swabs were collected from 206 free-ranging Canada Geese, 135 Trumpeter Swans, 75 Mute Swans, and 208 Mallards at 10 main capture sites between October 2010 and May 2012. Sera were assessed for antibodies against ABV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and swabs were evaluated for ABV RNA using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Serum antibodies were detected in birds from all four species and at each sampling site. Thirteen percent of the geese caught on the Toronto Zoo site shed ABV RNA in feces compared with 0% in geese sampled at three other locations. The proportions of shedders among Mute Swans, Trumpeter Swans, and Mallards were 9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Birds that were shedding viral RNA were more likely to have antibodies against ABV and to have higher antibody levels than those that were not, although many birds with antibodies were not shedding. We confirmed that exposure to, or infection with, ABV is widespread in asymptomatic free-ranging waterfowl in Canada; however, the correlation between cloacal shedding, presence of antibodies, and presence of disease is not fully understood. PMID:24779463

  3. Investigation into the possibility of vertical transmission of avian bornavirus in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Eva; Ojkic, Davor; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of in ovo infection with avian bornavirus (ABV) in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 53 eggs were opportunistically collected at various stages of embryonic development from 16 free-ranging goose nests at a large urban zoo site where ABV infection is known to be present in this species. ABV RNA was detected in the yolk of one of three unembryonated eggs using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. ABV RNA was not identified in the brains from 23 newly hatched goslings or 19 embryos, nor from three early whole embryos. Antibodies against ABV were not detected in the plasma of any of the hatched goslings using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Possible reasons for the failure to detect ABV RNA in hatchlings or embryos include low sample size, eggs deriving from parents not actively infected with ABV, the testing of only brain tissue, and failure of the virus to replicate in Canada goose embryos. In conclusion, this preliminary investigation demonstrating the presence of ABV RNA in the yolk of a Canada goose egg provides the first evidence for the potential for vertical transmission of ABV in waterfowl. PMID:24801979

  4. Recovery of divergent avian bornaviruses from cases of proventricular dilatation disease: Identification of a candidate etiologic agent

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Amy L; Gancz, Ady; Clubb, Susan; Skewes-Cox, Peter; Fischer, Kael; Sorber, Katherine; Chiu, Charles Y; Lublin, Avishai; Mechani, Sara; Farnoushi, Yigal; Greninger, Alexander; Wen, Christopher C; Karlene, Scott B; Ganem, Don; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2008-01-01

    Background Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a fatal disorder threatening domesticated and wild psittacine birds worldwide. It is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the ganglia of the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to central nervous system disorders as well as disordered enteric motility and associated wasting. For almost 40 years, a viral etiology for PDD has been suspected, but to date no candidate etiologic agent has been reproducibly linked to the disease. Results Analysis of 2 PDD case-control series collected independently on different continents using a pan-viral microarray revealed a bornavirus hybridization signature in 62.5% of the PDD cases (5/8) and none of the controls (0/8). Ultra high throughput sequencing was utilized to recover the complete viral genome sequence from one of the virus-positive PDD cases. This revealed a bornavirus-like genome organization for this agent with a high degree of sequence divergence from all prior bornavirus isolates. We propose the name avian bornavirus (ABV) for this agent. Further specific ABV PCR analysis of an additional set of independently collected PDD cases and controls yielded a significant difference in ABV detection rate among PDD cases (71%, n = 7) compared to controls (0%, n = 14) (P = 0.01; Fisher's Exact Test). Partial sequence analysis of a total of 16 ABV isolates we have now recovered from these and an additional set of cases reveals at least 5 distinct ABV genetic subgroups. Conclusion These studies clearly demonstrate the existence of an avian reservoir of remarkably diverse bornaviruses and provide a compelling candidate in the search for an etiologic agent of PDD. PMID:18671869

  5. Anatomical distribution of avian bornavirus in parrots, its occurrence in clinically healthy birds and ABV-antibody detection

    PubMed Central

    Lierz, Michael; Hafez, Hafez M.; Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Gruber, Achim D.; Olias, Philipp; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M.; Kohls, Andrea; Lipkin, W. Ian; Briese, Thomas; Hauck, Ruediger

    2014-01-01

    Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a fatal infectious disease of birds that primarily affects psittacine birds. Although a causative agent has not been formally demonstrated, the leading candidate is a novel avian bornavirus (ABV) detected in post-mortem tissue samples of psittacids with PDD from the USA, Israel and, recently, Germany. Here we describe the presence of ABV in a parrot with PDD as well as in clinically normal birds exposed to birds with PDD. In two ABV-positive post-mortem cases, the tissue distribution of ABV was investigated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Viraemia was observed in a PDD-affected bird whereas a restriction of ABV to nerve tissue was found in the non- PDD-affected bird. Healthy birds from the same aviary as the affected birds were also found to harbour the virus; 19/59 (32.2%) birds tested positive for ABV RNA in cloacal swabs, providing the first evidence of ABV in clinically healthy birds. In contrast, 39 birds from the same geographic area, but from two different aviaries without PDD cases in recent years, had negative cloacal swabs. ABV RNA-positive, clinically healthy birds demonstrated the same serological response as the animal with confirmed PDD. These results indicate that ABV infection may occur without clinical evidence of PDD and suggest that cloacal swabs can enable the non-invasive detection of ABV infection. PMID:19937538

  6. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Findings Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. Conclusions This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered. PMID:24180621

  7. Discovery of a new avian bornavirus genotype in estrildid finches (Estrildidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schmidt, Volker; Rinder, Monika; Legler, Marko; Corman, Victor Max; Staeheli, Peter

    2014-01-31

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are known to be the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in parrots and their relatives (Psittaciformes). A broad range of ABV genotypes has been detected not only in psittacine birds, but also in other avian species including canary birds (Serinus canaria forma domestica) and Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata f. dom.), which are both members of the order songbirds (Passeriformes). During this study 286 samples collected from captive and wild birds of various passerine species in different parts of Germany were screened for the presence of ABV. Interestingly, only three ABV-positive samples were identified by RT-PCR. They originated from one yellow-winged pytilia (Pytilia hypogrammica) and two black-rumped waxbills (Estrilda troglodytes) from a flock of captive estrildid finches in Saxony. The ABV isolates detected here were only distantly related to ABV isolates found in passerine species in Germany and Japan and form a new genotype tentatively called ABV-EF (for "estrildid finches"). PMID:24389254

  8. Other avian paramyxovirus infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newca...

  9. The genome sequence of parrot bornavirus 5.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Although several new avian bornaviruses have recently been described, information on their evolution, virulence, and sequence are often limited. Here we report the complete genome sequence of parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5) isolated from a case of proventricular dilatation disease in a Palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus). The complete genome consists of 8842 nucleotides with distinct 5' and 3' end sequences. This virus shares nucleotide sequence identities of 69-74 % with other bornaviruses in the genomic regions excluding the 5' and 3' terminal sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the genomic regions demonstrated this new isolate is an isolated branch within the clade that includes the aquatic bird bornaviruses and the passerine bornaviruses. Based on phylogenetic analyses and its low nucleotide sequence identities with other bornavirus, we support the proposal that PaBV-5 be assigned to a new bornavirus species:- Psittaciform 2 bornavirus. PMID:26403158

  10. Birds and bornaviruses.

    PubMed

    Payne, Susan L; Delnatte, Pauline; Guo, Jianhua; Heatley, J Jill; Tizard, Ian; Smith, Dale A

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, avian bornaviruses (ABV) were identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a significant condition of captive parrots first identified in the late 1970s. ABV infection has subsequently been shown to be widespread in wild waterfowl across the United States and Canada where the virus infects 10-20% of some populations of ducks, geese and swans. In most cases birds appear to be healthy and unaffected by the presence of the virus; however, infection can also result in severe non-suppurative encephalitis and lesions similar to those seen in parrots with PDD. ABVs are genetically diverse with seven identified genotypes in parrots and one in canaries. A unique goose genotype (ABV-CG) predominates in waterfowl in Canada and the northern United States. ABV appears to be endemic in North American waterfowl, in comparison to what appears to be an emerging disease in parrots. It is not known whether ABV can spread between waterfowl and parrots. The discovery of ABV infection in North American waterfowl suggests that European waterfowl should be evaluated for the presence of ABV, and also as a possible reservoir species for Borna disease virus (BDV), a related neurotropic virus affecting horses and sheep in central Europe. Although investigations have suggested that BDV is likely derived from a wildlife reservoir, for which the shrew and water vole are currently prime candidates, we suggest that the existence of other mammalian and avian reservoirs should not be discounted. PMID:23253163

  11. Sequence determination of a new parrot bornavirus-5 strain in Japan: implications of clade-specific sequence diversity in the regions interacting with host factors.

    PubMed

    Komorizono, Ryo; Makino, Akiko; Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the genome sequence of a new parrot bornavirus-5 (PaBV-5) detected in Eclectus roratus was determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genus Bornavirus is divided into three major clades and that PaBV-5 belongs to clade 2, which contains avian viruses that exhibit infectivity to mammalian cells. Sequence comparisons of the regions known to interact with host factors indicated that the clade 2 avian viruses possess sequences intermediate between the clade 1 mammalian viruses and the clade 3 avian viruses, suggesting that the identified regions might contribute to the differences in virological properties between the three clades. PMID:27166599

  12. Detection and Characterization of a Distinct Bornavirus Lineage from Healthy Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J.; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates. PMID:21900161

  13. Detection and characterization of a distinct bornavirus lineage from healthy Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-11-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates. PMID:21900161

  14. Survey of bornaviruses in pet psittacines in Brazil reveals a novel parrot bornavirus.

    PubMed

    Philadelpho, Natalia A; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Guimarães, Marta B; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J

    2014-12-01

    Avian bornaviruses are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal neurological disease considered to be a major threat to psittacine bird populations. We performed a survey of the presence of avian bornaviruses and PDD in pet psittacines in Brazil and also studied PDD's clinical presentation as well as the genomic variability of the viruses. Samples from 112 psittacines with clinical signs compatible with PDD were collected and tested for the presence of bornaviruses. We found 32 birds (28.6%) positive for bornaviruses using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twenty-one (65.6%) of the 32 bornavirus-positive birds presented neurological signs, seven (21.9%) presented undigested seeds in feces, four (12.5%) showed proventricular dilatation, six (18.8%) regurgitation, three (9.4%) feather plucking and three (9.4%) sudden death. The results confirm that avian bornaviruses are present in pet psittacines in Brazil, and sequence analysis identified a distinct virus, named parrot bornavirus 8 (PaBV-8). PMID:25465670

  15. Coding-complete sequencing classifies parrot bornavirus 5 into a novel virus species.

    PubMed

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Gál, János; Ihász, Katalin; Kugler, Renáta; Lengyel, György; Jakab, Ferenc; Bakonyi, Tamás; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we determined the sequence of the coding region of an avian bornavirus detected in a blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) with pathological/histopathological changes characteristic of proventricular dilatation disease. The genomic organization of the macaw bornavirus is similar to that of other bornaviruses, and its nucleotide sequence is nearly identical to the available partial parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains formed a monophyletic group distinct from other mammalian and avian bornaviruses and in calculations performed with matrix protein coding sequences, the PaBV-5 and PaBV-6 genotypes formed a common cluster, suggesting that according to the recently accepted classification system for bornaviruses, these two genotypes may belong to a new species, provisionally named Psittaciform 2 bornavirus. PMID:26282234

  16. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Españ ...

  17. Ribavirin Inhibits Parrot Bornavirus 4 Replication in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Musser, Jeffrey M. B.; Heatley, J. Jill; Koinis, Anastasia V.; Suchodolski, Paulette F.; Guo, Jianhua; Escandon, Paulina; Tizard, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Parrot bornavirus 4 is an etiological agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a fatal neurologic and gastrointestinal disease of psittacines and other birds. We tested the ability of ribavirin, an antiviral nucleoside analog with antiviral activity against a range of RNA and DNA viruses, to inhibit parrot bornavirus 4 replication in duck embryonic fibroblast cells. Two analytical methods that evaluate different products of viral replication, indirect immunocytochemistry for viral specific nucleoprotein and qRT-PCR for viral specific phosphoprotein gene mRNA, were used. Ribavirin at concentrations between 2.5 and 25 μg/mL inhibited parrot bornavirus 4 replication, decreasing viral mRNA and viral protein load, in infected duck embryonic fibroblast cells. The addition of guanosine diminished the antiviral activity of ribavirin suggesting that one possible mechanism of action against parrot bornavirus 4 may likely be through inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibition. This study demonstrates parrot bornavirus 4 susceptibility to ribavirin in cell culture. PMID:26222794

  18. Ribavirin Inhibits Parrot Bornavirus 4 Replication in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Musser, Jeffrey M B; Heatley, J Jill; Koinis, Anastasia V; Suchodolski, Paulette F; Guo, Jianhua; Escandon, Paulina; Tizard, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Parrot bornavirus 4 is an etiological agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a fatal neurologic and gastrointestinal disease of psittacines and other birds. We tested the ability of ribavirin, an antiviral nucleoside analog with antiviral activity against a range of RNA and DNA viruses, to inhibit parrot bornavirus 4 replication in duck embryonic fibroblast cells. Two analytical methods that evaluate different products of viral replication, indirect immunocytochemistry for viral specific nucleoprotein and qRT-PCR for viral specific phosphoprotein gene mRNA, were used. Ribavirin at concentrations between 2.5 and 25 μg/mL inhibited parrot bornavirus 4 replication, decreasing viral mRNA and viral protein load, in infected duck embryonic fibroblast cells. The addition of guanosine diminished the antiviral activity of ribavirin suggesting that one possible mechanism of action against parrot bornavirus 4 may likely be through inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibition. This study demonstrates parrot bornavirus 4 susceptibility to ribavirin in cell culture. PMID:26222794

  19. Parrot bornavirus-2 and -4 RNA detected in wild bird samples in Japan are phylogenetically adjacent to those found in pet birds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Yukiko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Saitoh, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Koyama, Satoshi; Endoh, Daiji; Horie, Masayuki; Tomonaga, Keizo; Furuya, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Imai, Kunitoshi; Ogawa, Haruko; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    Bornaviruses (family Bornaviridae) are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Avian bornaviruses (ABVs), which are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, are a genetically diverse group with at least 15 genotypes, including parrot bornaviruses (PaBVs) and aquatic bird bornavirus 1(ABBV-1). Borna disease virus 1(BoDV-1), which infects mammals and causes neurological diseases, has also been reported to infect avian species, although the numbers of the cases have been markedly fewer than those of ABVs. In this study, we conducted genetic surveillance to detect ABVs (PaBV-1 to -5 and ABBV-1) and BoDV-1 in wild birds in Japan. A total of 2078 fecal or cloacal swab samples were collected from wild birds in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2011, in two regions of Japan. The results demonstrated the presence of PaBV-2 and -4 RNA, while no positive results for other PaBVs, ABBV-1, and BoDV-1 were obtained. PaBV-2 and -4 RNA were detected in 18 samples (0.9 %) of the genera Anas, Grus, Larus, Calidris, Haliaeetus, and Emberiza, in which either PaBV-2 RNA or PaBV-4 RNA, or both PaBV-2 and -4 RNA were detected in 15 (0.7 %), 5 (0.2 %), and 2 (0.1 %) samples, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of PaBV-2 and -4 detected in these samples from wild birds are phylogenetically close to those found in samples from pet birds in Japan, with identities ranging from 99.8 to 100 % and from 98.2 to 99.4 %, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the detection of PaBV-2 and -4 RNA detected in samples from wild birds. PMID:26315330

  20. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences. PMID:23763901

  1. The Avian Transcriptome Response to Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 postinfection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). We found considerable differences in the transcriptomes of infected and uninfected individuals, with a large number of genes differentially expressed during both peak and decreasing parasitemia stages. These genes were overrepresented among functions involved in the immune system, stress response, cell death regulation, metabolism, and telomerase activity. Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse) revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. By using RNA-sequencing we gained a more complete view of the host response, and were able to pinpoint not only well-documented host genes but also unannotated genes with clear significance during infection, such as microRNAs. This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe that it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections. PMID:25636457

  2. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  3. Pathogenesis and pathobiology of avian influenza virus infection in birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological features in chickens, AI viruses are categorized as, low (LP) and high pathogenicity (HP). Typically, LPAI (low pathogenicity avian influenza) viruses ...

  4. Comprehensive analysis of endogenous bornavirus-like elements in eukaryote genomes

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    Bornaviruses are the only animal RNA viruses that establish a persistent infection in their host cell nucleus. Studies of bornaviruses have provided unique information about viral replication strategies and virus–host interactions. Although bornaviruses do not integrate into the host genome during their replication cycle, we and others have recently reported that there are DNA sequences derived from the mRNAs of ancient bornaviruses in the genomes of vertebrates, including humans, and these have been designated endogenous borna-like (EBL) elements. Therefore, bornaviruses have been interacting with their hosts as driving forces in the evolution of host genomes in a previously unexpected way. Studies of EBL elements have provided new models for virology, evolutionary biology and general cell biology. In this review, we summarize the data on EBL elements including what we have newly identified in eukaryotes genomes, and discuss the biological significance of EBL elements, with a focus on EBL nucleoprotein elements in mammalian genomes. Surprisingly, EBL elements were detected in the genomes of invertebrates, suggesting that the host range of bornaviruses may be much wider than previously thought. We also review our new data on non-retroviral integration of Borna disease virus. PMID:23938751

  5. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an on going threat to the U.S. poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection. Because the early events of AIV infection can occur on tracheal ep...

  6. Opportunistic Pulmonary Bordetella hinzii Infection after Avian Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dupin, Clarisse; Bénézit, François; Goret, Julien; Piau, Caroline; Jouneau, Stéphane; Guillot, Sophie; Mégraud, Francis; Kayal, Samer; Desrues, Benoit; Le Coustumier, Alain; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We report 2 cases of pulmonary Bordetella hinzii infection in immunodeficient patients. One of these rare cases demonstrated the potential transmission of the bacteria from an avian reservoir through occupational exposure and its persistence in humans. We establish bacteriologic management of these infections and suggest therapeutic options if needed. PMID:26584467

  7. Evidence of previous avian influenza infection among US turkey workers.

    PubMed

    Kayali, G; Ortiz, E J; Chorazy, M L; Gray, G C

    2010-06-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic is looming, with new cases of sporadic avian influenza infections in man frequently reported. Exposure to diseased poultry is a leading risk factor for these infections. In this study, we used logistic regression to investigate serological evidence of previous infection with avian influenza subtypes H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, and H11 among 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys in the US Midwest and 82 unexposed controls. Our results indicate that farmers practising backyard, organic or free-ranging turkey production methods are at an increased risk of infection with avian influenza. Among these farmers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for elevated microneutralization assay titres against avian H4, H5, H6, H9, and H10 influenza strains ranged between 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-12.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 2.0-115.2) when compared to non-exposed controls. The measured ORs were adjusted for antibody titres against human influenza viruses and other exposure variables. These data suggest that sometime in their lives, the workers had been exposed to low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. These findings support calls for inclusion of agricultural workers in priority groups in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts. These data further support increasing surveillance and other preparedness efforts to include not only confinement poultry facilities, but more importantly, also small scale farms. PMID:19486492

  8. Measurement of avian cytokines with real time RT-PCR following infection with avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both functional and molecular techniques have been employed to measure the production of cytokines following influenza infection. Historically, the use of functional or antibody based techniques were employed in mammalian immunology. In avian immunology, only a few commercial antibodies are availa...

  9. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian invluenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an ongoing threat to the world poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection at mucosal respiratory sites. Chicken and duck tracheal epithelial ...

  10. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  11. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C.; Meik, J. M.; Dashevsky, D.; Card, D. C.; Castoe, T. A.; Schaack, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  12. Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infections in wild birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological features in chickens, AI viruses (AIV) are categorized as low pathogenicity (LPAI) or high pathogenicity (HPAI) viruses, and can be of any of...

  13. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  14. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. PMID:27486732

  15. Pathogenicity of avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Woods, K.L.; Iko, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) to the Hawaiian Islands (USA) is believed to have played a major role in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). This introduced disease is thought to be one of the primary factors limiting recovery of honeycreepers at elevations below 1,200 m where native forest habitats are still relatively intact. One of the few remaining species of honeycreepers with a wide elevational distribution is the Hawaii Amakihi (Hernignathus virens). We measured morbidity and mortality in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi that were captured in a high elevation, xeric habitat that is above the current range of the mosquito vector. Mortality among amakihi exposed to a single infective mosquito bite was 65% (13/20). All infected birds had significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss in body weight over the 60 day course of the experiment. Gross and microscopic lesions in birds that succumbed to malaria included enlargement and discoloration of the spleen and liver and parasitemias as high as 50% of circulating erythrocytes. Mortality in experimentally-infected amakihi was similar to that observed in Apapane (Himnatione sanguinea) and lower than that observed in Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) infected under similar conditions with the same parasite isolate. We conclude that the current elevational and geographic distribution of Hawaiian honeycreepers is determined by relative susceptibility to avian malaria.

  16. [SARS, avian influenza, and human metapneumovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Casas, Inmaculada; Pozo, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s respiratory viruses have been gradually discovered by isolation in cell cultures The last were the coronaviruses in the 1960s. No new respiratory viruses were discovered until 2001 when human metapneumovirus was found in respiratory specimens from children with bronchiolitis. A year later, in November 2002, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) suddenly appeared as atypical pneumonia. A novel virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family was found to be a cause of this infection. In 2004, a second coronavirus was discovered (CoV-NL63) and in 2005 a third new coronavirus was described (CoV-HKU1). In addition, several subtypes of the influenza A virus, previously known to infect only poultry and wild birds, were recently found to have been directly transmitted to humans. Respiratory infection has been a considerable problem for humans for centuries. Now, in the 21st century, with new associated viruses continuously emerging, it remains an important field for work. PMID:16159544

  17. Inhibition of Borna disease virus replication by an endogenous bornavirus-like element in the ground squirrel genome.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Kan; Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Merriman, Dana K; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2014-09-01

    Animal genomes contain endogenous viral sequences, such as endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons. Recently, we and others discovered that nonretroviral viruses also have been endogenized in many vertebrate genomes. Bornaviruses belong to the Mononegavirales and have left endogenous fragments, called "endogenous bornavirus-like elements" (EBLs), in the genomes of many mammals. The striking features of EBLs are that they contain relatively long ORFs which have high sequence homology to the extant bornavirus proteins. Furthermore, some EBLs derived from bornavirus nucleoprotein (EBLNs) have been shown to be transcribed as mRNA and probably are translated into proteins. These features lead us to speculate that EBLs may function as cellular coopted genes. An EBLN element in the genome of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), itEBLN, encodes an ORF with 77% amino acid sequence identity to the current bornavirus nucleoprotein. In this study, we cloned itEBLN from the ground squirrel genome and investigated its involvement in Borna disease virus (BDV) replication. Interestingly, itEBLN, but not a human EBLN, colocalized with the viral factory in the nucleus and appeared to affect BDV polymerase activity by being incorporated into the viral ribonucleoprotein. Our data show that, as do certain endogenous retroviruses, itEBLN potentially may inhibit infection by related exogenous viruses in vivo. PMID:25157155

  18. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  19. Evaluation of cytokine gene expression after avian influenza virus infection in avian cell lines and primary cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The innate immune responses elicited by avian influenza virus (AIV) infection has been studied by measuring cytokine gene expression by relative real time PCR (rRT-PCR) in vitro, using both cell lines and primary cell cultures. Continuous cell lines offer advantages over the use of primary cell cult...

  20. Susceptibility of avian hosts to experimental Gymnophalloides seoi infection.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Y S; Yoo, J C; Lee, S H; Chai, J Y

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether avian species are susceptible to infection with Gymnophalloides seoi (a human-infecting intestinal trematode), we exposed 7 species of birds with metacercariae obtained from oysters. The birds were necropsied at days 2, 4, and 6 postinfection (PI). The highest worm recovery at day 6 PI was obtained from the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus; mean = 56.0%), followed by the Mongolian plover (C. mongolus; 49.3%), and the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola; 32.3%). In contrast, no mature worms were recovered from the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), dunlin (C. alpina), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Among the plovers, the worms attained the greatest size at day 6 PI (254.1 x 190.4 microm) in the Kentish plover, with a significantly higher number of eggs in the uterus. The 3 species of plovers are highly susceptible to experimental G. seoi infection, suggesting that they could play a role as definitive hosts for these worms in nature. PMID:11318587

  1. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity. PMID:18680652

  2. Infections with Avian Pathogenic and Fecal Escherichia coli Strains Display Similar Lung Histopathology and Macrophage Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabiana; Corrêa, André Mendes Ribeiro; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Glodde, Susanne; Weyrauch, Karl Dietrich; Kaspers, Bernd; Driemeier, David; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare histopathological changes in the lungs of chickens infected with avian pathogenic (APEC) and avian fecal (Afecal) Escherichia coli strains, and to analyze how the interaction of the bacteria with avian macrophages relates to the outcome of the infection. Chickens were infected intratracheally with three APEC strains, MT78, IMT5155, and UEL17, and one non-pathogenic Afecal strain, IMT5104. The pathogenicity of the strains was assessed by isolating bacteria from lungs, kidneys, and spleens at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Lungs were examined for histopathological changes at 12, 18, and 24 h p.i. Serial lung sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), terminal deoxynucleotidyl dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) for detection of apoptotic cells, and an anti-O2 antibody for detection of MT78 and IMT5155. UEL17 and IMT5104 did not cause systemic infections and the extents of lung colonization were two orders of magnitude lower than for the septicemic strains MT78 and IMT5155, yet all four strains caused the same extent of inflammation in the lungs. The inflammation was localized; there were some congested areas next to unaffected areas. Only the inflamed regions became labeled with anti-O2 antibody. TUNEL labeling revealed the presence of apoptotic cells at 12 h p.i in the inflamed regions only, and before any necrotic foci could be seen. The TUNEL-positive cells were very likely dying heterophils, as evidenced by the purulent inflammation. Some of the dying cells observed in avian lungs in situ may also be macrophages, since all four avian E. coli induced caspase 3/7 activation in monolayers of HD11 avian macrophages. In summary, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic fecal strains of avian E. coli produce focal infections in the avian lung, and these are accompanied by inflammation and cell death in the infected areas. PMID:22848424

  3. High doses of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chicken meat are required to infect ferrets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused natural and experimental infections in various animals through consumption of infected bird carcasses and meat. However, little is known about the quantity of virus required and if all HPAIV subtypes can cause infections following c...

  4. Ascorbic acid inhibits replication and infectivity of avian RNA tumor virus

    SciTech Connect

    BISSELL, MINA J; HATIE, CARROLL; FARSON, DEBORAH A.; SCHWARZ, RICHARD I.; SOO, WHAI-JEN

    1980-04-01

    Ascorbic acid, at nontoxic concentrations, causes a substantial reduction in the ability of avian tumor viruses to replicate in both primary avian tendon cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts. The virus-infected cultures appear to be less transformed in the presence of ascorbic acid by the criteria of morphology, reduced glucose uptake, and increased collagen synthesis. The vitamin does not act by altering the susceptibility of the cells to initial infection and transformation, but instead appears to interfere with the spread of infection through a reduction in virus replication and virus infectivity. The effect is reversible and requires the continuous presence of the vitamin in the culture medium.

  5. Ascorbic acid inhibits replication and infectivity of avian RNA tumor virus

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, M.J.; Hatie, C.; Farson, D.A.; Schwarz, R.I.; Soo, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    Ascrobic acid, at nontoxic concentrations, causes a substantial reduction in the ability of avian tumor viruses to replicate in both primary avian tendon cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts. The virus-infected cultures appear to be less transformed in the presence of ascorbic acid by the criteria of morphology, reduced glucose uptake, and increased collagen synthesis. The vitamin does not act by altering the susceptibility of the cells to initial infection and transformation, but instead appears to interfere with the spread of infection through a reduction in virus replication and virus infectivity. The effect is reversible and requires the continuous presence of the vitamin in the culture medium.

  6. Detection of Persistent West Nile Virus RNA in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Avian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Reisen, William K.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) persistent infection in avian hosts may potentially serve as an overwintering mechanism, House Sparrows and House Finches, experimentally and naturally infected with several strains of WNV, and two naturally infected Western Scrub-Jays were held in mosquito-proof outdoor aviaries from 2007–March 2008. Overall, 94% (n = 36) of House Sparrows, 100% (n = 14) of House Finches and 2 Western Scrub-Jays remained WNV antibody positive. When combined by species, 37% of the House Sparrows, 50% of the House Finches, and 2 Western Scrub-Jays were WNV RNA positive at necropsy, up to 36 weeks post-infection. Infectious WNV was not detected. Our study supports the hypothesis that some avian hosts support the long-term persistence of WNV RNA, but it remains unresolved whether these infections relapse to restart an avian-arthropod transmission cycle and thereby serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. PMID:22826479

  7. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral infection of birds that varies in severity from asymptomatic infections to mild respiratory and reproductive diseases to an acute, highly fatal systemic disease of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and other avian species. Avian influenza viruses are divided into two ...

  8. Investigating Avian Influenza Infection Hotspots in Old-World Shorebirds

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Ould El Mamy, Ahmed B.; Cappelle, Julien; Caron, Alexandre; Cumming, Graeme S.; Grosbois, Vladimir; Gil, Patricia; Hammoumi, Saliha; de Almeida, Renata Servan; Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Abolnik, Celia; Mundava, Josphine; Fofana, Bouba; Ndlovu, Mduduzi; Diawara, Yelli; Hurtado, Renata; Newman, Scott H.; Dodman, Tim; Balança, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) associated with a single species at a specific location and time (ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres at Delaware Bay, USA, in May). This unique case, though a valuable reference, limits our capacity to explore and understand the general properties of AIV hotspots in shorebirds. Unfortunately, relatively few shorebirds have been sampled outside Delaware Bay and they belong to only a few shorebird families; there also has been a lack of consistent oropharyngeal sampling as a complement to cloacal sampling. In this study we looked for AIV hotspots associated with other shorebird species and/or with some of the larger congregation sites of shorebirds in the old world. We assembled and analysed a regionally extensive dataset of AIV prevalence from 69 shorebird species sampled in 25 countries across Africa and Western Eurasia. Despite this diverse and extensive coverage we did not detect any new shorebird AIV hotspots. Neither large shorebird congregation sites nor the ruddy turnstone were consistently associated with AIV hotspots. We did, however, find a low but widespread circulation of AIV in shorebirds that contrast with the absence of AIV previously reported in shorebirds in Europe. A very high AIV antibody prevalence coupled to a low infection rate was found in both first-year and adult birds of two migratory sandpiper species, suggesting the potential existence of an AIV hotspot along their migratory flyway that is yet to be discovered. PMID:23029383

  9. An avian-only Filippov model incorporating culling of both susceptible and infected birds in combating avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Chong, Nyuk Sian; Dionne, Benoit; Smith, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Depopulation of birds has always been an effective method not only to control the transmission of avian influenza in bird populations but also to eliminate influenza viruses. We introduce a Filippov avian-only model with culling of susceptible and/or infected birds. For each susceptible threshold level [Formula: see text], we derive the phase portrait for the dynamical system as we vary the infected threshold level [Formula: see text], focusing on the existence of endemic states; the endemic states are represented by real equilibria, pseudoequilibria and pseudo-attractors. We show generically that all solutions of this model will approach one of the endemic states. Our results suggest that the spread of avian influenza in bird populations is tolerable if the trajectories converge to the equilibrium point that lies in the region below the threshold level [Formula: see text] or if they converge to one of the pseudoequilibria or a pseudo-attractor on the surface of discontinuity. However, we have to cull birds whenever the solution of this model converges to an equilibrium point that lies in the region above the threshold level [Formula: see text] in order to control the outbreak. Hence a good threshold policy is required to combat bird flu successfully and to prevent overkilling birds. PMID:26865385

  10. Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

  11. Serum and egg yolk antibody detection in chickens infected with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections has primarily relied on labor intensive collection and serological testing of serum, but for many poultry diseases, easier to collect yolk samples have replaced serum for surveillance testing. A time course LPAIV infection s...

  12. Intranasal application of alpha interferon reduces morbidity associated with low pathogenic avian influenza infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type I interferons, including interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), are expressed rapidly after viral infection, and represent a first line of defense initiated by the innate immune response. Following infection of chickens with avian influenza virus (AIV), transcription of IFN-alpha is quickly up regulate...

  13. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  14. Little Evidence of Subclinical Avian Influenza Virus Infections among Rural Villagers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gregory C.; Krueger, Whitney S.; Chum, Channimol; Putnam, Shannon D.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Heil, Gary L.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R.; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Blair, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1%) were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0%) had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6), 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9), and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5). With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these

  15. Genome Wide Host Gene Expression Analysis in Chicken Lungs Infected with Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gandhale, Pradeep N.; Kumar, Himanshu; Kulkarni, Diwakar D.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza infection varies greatly with individual bird species and virus strain. The molecular pathogenesis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) or the low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection in avian species remains poorly understood. Thus, global immune response of chickens infected with HPAI H5N1 (A/duck/India/02CA10/2011) and LPAI H9N2 (A/duck/India/249800/2010) viruses was studied using microarray to identify crucial host genetic components responsive to these infection. HPAI H5N1 virus induced excessive expression of type I IFNs (IFNA and IFNG), cytokines (IL1B, IL18, IL22, IL13, and IL12B), chemokines (CCL4, CCL19, CCL10, and CX3CL1) and IFN stimulated genes (OASL, MX1, RSAD2, IFITM5, IFIT5, GBP 1, and EIF2AK) in lung tissues. This dysregulation of host innate immune genes may be the critical determinant of the severity and the outcome of the influenza infection in chickens. In contrast, the expression levels of most of these genes was not induced in the lungs of LPAI H9N2 virus infected chickens. This study indicated the relationship between host immune genes and their roles in pathogenesis of HPAIV infection in chickens. PMID:27071061

  16. Serological Evidence of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A H7virus in Egyptian Poultry Growers

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R.; Kandeil, Ahmed; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Elabd, Mona A.; Zaki, Shaimaa A.; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S.; Mousa, Adel A.; Farag, Mohamed M.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses circulate widely in birds, with occasional human infections. Poultry-exposed individuals are considered to be at high risk of infection with avian influenza viruses due to frequent exposure to poultry. Some avian H7 viruses have occasionally been found to infect humans. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against influenza A/H7N7 virus among poultry-exposed and unexposed individuals in Egypt were assessed during a three-years prospective cohort study. The seroprevalence of antibodies (titer, ≥80) among exposed individuals was 0%, 1.9%, and 2.1% annually while the seroprevalence among the control group remained 0% as measured by virus microneutralization assay. We then confirmed our results using western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Although human infection with H7 in Egypt has not been reported yet, our results suggested that Egyptian poultry growers are exposed to avian H7 viruses. These findings highlight the need for surveillance in the people exposed to poultry to monitor the risk of zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses. PMID:27258357

  17. Genomic Mining Reveals Deep Evolutionary Relationships between Bornaviruses and Bats

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Bats globally harbor viruses in order Mononegavirales, such as lyssaviruses and henipaviruses; however, little is known about their relationships with bornaviruses. Previous studies showed that viral fossils of bornaviral origin are embedded in the genomes of several mammalian species such as primates, indicative of an ancient origin of exogenous bornaviruses. In this study, we mined the available 10 bat genomes and recreated a clear evolutionary relationship of endogenous bornaviral elements and bats. Comparative genomics showed that endogenization of bornaviral elements frequently occurred in vesper bats, harboring EBLLs (endogenous bornavirus-like L elements) in their genomes. Molecular dating uncovered a continuous bornavirus-bat interaction spanning 70 million years. We conclude that better understanding of modern exogenous bornaviral circulation in bat populations is warranted. PMID:26569285

  18. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte K.; Chriél, Mariann; Smith, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%–99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%–98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1 from geese in North America. PMID:26584356

  19. Avian influenza virus infection dynamics in shorebird hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using serial cross-sectional data from 2000-2008 and generalized linear models, we examined temporal trends of springtime avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and antibody prevalence in four Charadriiformes species at the Delaware Bay migratory stopover site. Prevalence of AIV in Ruddy Turnstones ...

  20. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Mallards with Homo- and Heterosubtypic Immunity Induced by Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Starick, Elke; Beer, Martin; Wilking, Hendrik; Kalthoff, Donata; Grund, Christian; Häuslaigner, Rafaela; Breithaupt, Angele; Lange, Elke; Harder, Timm C.

    2009-01-01

    The potential role of wild birds as carriers of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 is still a matter of debate. Consecutive or simultaneous infections with different subtypes of influenza viruses of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) are very common in wild duck populations. To better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HPAIV H5N1 infections in natural ecosystems, we investigated the influence of prior infection of mallards with homo- (H5N2) and heterosubtypic (H4N6) LPAIV on exposure to HPAIV H5N1. In mallards with homosubtypic immunity induced by LPAIV infection, clinical disease was absent and shedding of HPAIV from respiratory and intestinal tracts was grossly reduced compared to the heterosubtypic and control groups (mean GEC/100 µl at 3 dpi: 3.0×102 vs. 2.3×104 vs. 8.7×104; p<0.05). Heterosubtypic immunity induced by an H4N6 infection mediated a similar but less pronounced effect. We conclude that the epidemiology of HPAIV H5N1 in mallards and probably other aquatic wild bird species is massively influenced by interfering immunity induced by prior homo- and heterosubtypic LPAIV infections. PMID:19693268

  1. Low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses infect chicken layers by different routes of inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop better control measures against avian influenza (AI) it’s necessary to understand how the virus transmits in poultry. In a previous study in which the infectivity and transmissibility of the pandemic H1N1influenza virus was examined in different poultry species, we found that no ...

  2. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect fecal-oral route involving fecal-contaminated water. In this study, the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water was examined. A single cla...

  3. Pathobiology of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks and other wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza type A viruses which normally are nonpathogenic in these birds. However, the Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses have evolved from producing no disease or mild respiratory infections in ducks, to some strains producing se...

  4. Experimental infection studies of avian influenza in wild birds as a complement to surveillance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last ten years, an unprecedented amount of experimental and field research has expanded our understanding of AI virus infection in wild birds. The majority of this work, however, has specifically focused on H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, which is a biologically uni...

  5. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic A(H7N7) Avian Influenza Virus, Italy, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, Giada; Facchini, Marzia; Vaccari, Gabriele; Di Trani, Livia; Di Martino, Angela; Gaibani, Paolo; Vocale, Caterina; Cattoli, Giovanni; Bennett, Michael; McCauley, John W.; Rezza, Giovanni; Moro, Maria Luisa; Rangoni, Roberto; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Landini, Maria Paola; Castrucci, Maria Rita; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    During an influenza A(H7N7) virus outbreak among poultry in Italy during August–September 2013, infection with a highly pathogenic A(H7N7) avian influenza virus was diagnosed for 3 poultry workers with conjunctivitis. Genetic analyses revealed that the viruses from the humans were closely related to those from chickens on affected farms. PMID:25271444

  6. Avian Influenza (H7N9) Virus Infection in Chinese Tourist in Malaysia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    William, Timothy; Thevarajah, Bharathan; Lee, Shiu Fee; Suleiman, Maria; Jeffree, Mohamad Saffree; Menon, Jayaram; Saat, Zainah; Thayan, Ravindran; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2015-01-01

    Of the ≈400 cases of avian influenza (H7N9) diagnosed in China since 2003, the only travel-related cases have been in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Detection of a case in a Chinese tourist in Sabah, Malaysia, highlights the ease with which emerging viral respiratory infections can travel globally. PMID:25531078

  7. Serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus infection associated with vertical transmission in chicks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-hui; Zhao, Jing; Qin, Xiu-hui; Zhang, Guo-zhong

    2015-11-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically. In the present study, we report a typical case of AEV infection in broiler breeder chickens and their progeny identified by clinical survey of the disease, antibody detection, and reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. PMID:26493005

  8. Experimental co-infection of chickens and turkeys with avian influenza and newcastle disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are the two most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. The goal of this study was to examine the i...

  9. A primary chicken tracheal cell culture system for the study of infection with avian respiratory viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major route of infection of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens is through cells of the airway epithelium. Here we describe the development and optimization of conditions for culture of tracheal epithelial cells from chicken embryos as well as their use in st...

  10. STUDIES OF SUBGROUP J AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS INFECTION AND TUMORS IN A NATURALLY INFECTED COMMERCIAL BROILER BREEDER FLOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickens were pedigree hatched from a commercial broiler breeder flock that had been identified by the company to have a relatively high incidence (20% - 60%) of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection. Unexpectedly, only one of 175 (0.6%) of chicks hatched at our laboratory tested positiv...

  11. Serological evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among Romanian agriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Chereches, Razvan M; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections in Romanian poultry. In 2005 HPAI infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. We sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among Romanian agriculture workers. Between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) swine workers in Tulcea and small, traditional backyard farmers in Cluj-Napoca were enrolled, as well as a non-animal exposed control group from Cluj-Napoca. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of previous infection with 9 avian and 3 human influenza virus strains. Serologic assays showed no evidence of previous infection with 7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses or with HPAI H5N1. However, 33 participants (9.1%) had elevated microneutralization antibody titers against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 5 with titers ≥ 1:80 whom all reported exposure to poultry. Moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated titers after controlling for the subjects' age (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12.1). There was no evidence that previous infection with human H3N2 or H2N2 viruses were confounding the H9N2 seroreactivity. These data suggest that H9N2 virus may have circulated in Romanian poultry and occasionally infected man. PMID:23999337

  12. Avian Plasmodium infection in field-collected mosquitoes during 2012-2013 in Tarlac, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Aure, Wilfredo E; Cruz, Estrella Irlandez; Malbas, Fedelino F; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2015-12-01

    Global warming threatens to increase the spread and prevalence of mosquito-transmitted diseases. Certain pathogens may be carried by migratory birds and transmitted to local mosquito populations. Mosquitoes were collected in the northern Philippines during bird migration seasons to detect avian malaria parasites as well as for the identification of potential vector species and the estimation of infections among local mosquito populations. We used the nested PCR to detect the avian malaria species. Culex vishnui (47.6%) was the most abundant species collected and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (13.8%) was the second most abundant. Avian Plasmodium parasites were found in eight mosquito species, for which the infection rates were between 0.5% and 6.2%. The six Plasmodium genetic lineages found in this study included P. juxtanucleare -GALLUS02, Tacy7 (Donana04), CXBIT01, Plasmodium species LIN2 New Zealand, and two unclassified lineages. The potential mosquito vectors for avian Plasmodium parasites in the Philippines were Cq. crassipes, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. vishnui, and Ma. Uniformis; two major genetic lineages, P. juxtanucleare and Tacy7, were identified. PMID:26611975

  13. Expression of Immune-Related Genes of Ducks Infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Jinzhou; Wang, Yao; Liu, Jiyuan; Cai, Yumei; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause severe disease in ducks, characterized by perihepatitis, pericarditis, and airsacculitis. Although the studies of bacteria isolation and methods of detection have been reported, host immune responses to APEC infection remain unclear. In response, we systemically examined the expression of immune-related genes and bacteria distribution in APEC-infected ducks. Results demonstrated that APEC can quickly replicate in the liver, spleen, and brain, with the highest bacteria content at 2 days post infection. The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were tested in the liver, spleen, and brain of infected ducks. TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR15 showed different expression patterns, which indicated that they all responded to APEC infection. The expression of AvBD2 was upregulated in all tested tissues during the 3 days of testing, whereas the expression of AvBD4, AvBD5, AvBD7, and AvBD9 were downregulated, and though MHC-I was upregulated on all test days, MHC-II was dramatically downregulated. Overall, our results suggest that APEC can replicate in various tissues in a short time, and the activation of host immune responses begins at onset of infection. These findings thus clarify duck immune responses to APEC infection and offer insights into its pathogenesis. PMID:27199963

  14. Effects of chronic avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) infection on reproductive success of Hawaii Amakihi (Hemignathus virens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, A.M.; Lapointe, D.A.; Atkinson, C.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Lease, J.K.; Reiter, M.E.; Gross, K.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of chronic avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) infections on the reproductive success of a native Hawaiian honeycreeper, Hawaii Amakihi (Hemignathus virens). Chronic malaria infections in male and female parents did not significantly reduce reproductive success as measured by clutch size, hatching success, fledging mass, number of nestlings fledged, nesting success (daily survival rate), and minimum fledgling survival. In fact, nesting success of pairs with chronically infected males was significantly higher than those with uninfected males (76% vs. 38%), and offspring that had at least one parent that had survived the acute phase of malaria infection had a significantly greater chance of being resighted the following year (25% vs. 10%). The reproduction and survival of infected birds were sufficient for a per-capita population growth rate >1, which suggests that chronically infected Hawaii Amakihi could support a growing population. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.

  15. Effect of homosubtypic and heterosubtypic low pathogenic avian influenza exposure on H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in wood ducks (Aix sponsa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus...

  16. Cross reactive antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes from avian influenza H9N2 infected chickens against homologous and heterologous avian influenza isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunity against avian influenza (AI) is largely based on the induction of neutralizing antibodies produced against the hemagglutinin, although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL’s) have been reported as critical for clearance of virus from infected cells. Antibody production against a particular virus ...

  17. Early Indicators of Disease in Ferrets Infected with a High Dose of Avian Influenza H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Long, James P.; Vela, Eric M.; Stark, Gregory V.; Jones, Kelly J.; Miller, Stephen T.; Bigger, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are widespread in birds, contagious in humans, and are categorized as low pathogenicity avian influenza or highly pathogenic avian influenza. Ferrets are susceptible to infection with avian and human influenza A and B viruses and have been widely used as a model to study pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy. In this report, the natural history of the H5N1 influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/04 influenza infection in ferrets was examined to determine clinical and laboratory parameters that may indicate (1) the onset of disease and (2) survival. In all, twenty of 24 animals infected with 7 × 105 TCID50 of A/Vietnam/1203/04 succumbed. A statistical analysis identified a combination of parameters including weight loss, nasal wash TCID50, eosinophils, and liver enzymes such as alanine amino transferase that might possibly serve as indicators of both disease onset and challenge survival. PMID:23240077

  18. Studies on avian malaria in vectors and hosts of encephalitis in Kern County, California. I. Infections in avian hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reeves, W.C.; McClure, H.E.; French, E.M.; Hammon, W.M.

    1954-01-01

    ranged from 64 to 100 per cent in the house finch and 17 to 68 per cent in the English sparrow in different areas and years. Marked differences were found in the prevalence rates in different summer months, years and areas. It is believed these differences reflect variation in a number of environmental factors. This study indicates the extensive distribution of Plasmodium infection in a wide range of wild avian hosts. The observations are of possible importance in epidemiological studies of other arthropod-borne diseases such as the viral encephalitides for which these birds serve as hosts.

  19. In ovo and in vitro susceptibility of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to avian influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Temple, Bradley L; Finger, John W; Jones, Cheryl A; Gabbard, Jon D; Jelesijevic, Tomislav; Uhl, Elizabeth W; Hogan, Robert J; Glenn, Travis C; Tompkins, S Mark

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the most ubiquitous viruses within our biosphere. Wild aquatic birds are believed to be the primary reservoir of all influenza viruses; however, the spillover of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and the recent swine-origin pandemic H1N1 viruses have sparked increased interest in identifying and understanding which and how many species can be infected. Moreover, novel influenza virus sequences were recently isolated from New World bats. Crocodilians have a slow rate of molecular evolution and are the sister group to birds; thus they are a logical reptilian group to explore susceptibility to influenza virus infection and they provide a link between birds and mammals. A primary American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) cell line, and embryos, were infected with four, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains to assess susceptibility to infection. Embryonated alligator eggs supported virus replication, as evidenced by the influenza virus M gene and infectious virus detected in allantoic fluid and by virus antigen staining in embryo tissues. Primary alligator cells were also inoculated with the LPAI viruses and showed susceptibility based upon antigen staining; however, the requirement for trypsin to support replication in cell culture limited replication. To assess influenza virus replication in culture, primary alligator cells were inoculated with H1N1 human influenza or H5N1 HPAI viruses that replicate independent of trypsin. Both viruses replicated efficiently in culture, even at the 30 C temperature preferred by the alligator cells. This research demonstrates the ability of wild-type influenza viruses to infect and replicate within two crocodilian substrates and suggests the need for further research to assess crocodilians as a species potentially susceptible to influenza virus infection. PMID:25380354

  20. Homo- and Heterosubtypic Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure on H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Taiana P.; Brown, Justin D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Swayne, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus has been shown to modulate the outcome of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in multiple domestic avian species, but few studies have addressed this effect in wild birds. In this study, the effect of pre-exposure to homosubtypic (homologous hemagglutinin) and heterosubtypic (heterologous hemagglutinin) low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses on the outcome of a H5N1 HPAI virus infection in wood ducks (Aix sponsa) was evaluated. Pre-exposure of wood ducks to different LPAI viruses did not prevent infection with H5N1 HPAI virus, but did increase survival associated with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. The magnitude of this effect on the outcome of the H5N1 HPAI virus infection varied between different LPAI viruses, and was associated both with efficiency of LPAI viral replication in wood ducks and the development of a detectable humoral immune response. These observations suggest that in naturally occurring outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI, birds with pre-existing immunity to homologous hemagglutinin or neuraminidase subtypes of AI virus may either survive H5N1 HPAI virus infection or live longer than naïve birds and, consequently, could pose a greater risk for contributing to viral transmission and dissemination. The mechanisms responsible for this protection and/or the duration of this immunity remain unknown. The results of this study are important for surveillance efforts and help clarify epidemiological data from outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI virus in wild bird populations. PMID:21253608

  1. Putative Human and Avian Risk Factors for Avian Influenza Virus Infections in Backyard Poultry in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Sheta, Basma M.; Fuller, Trevon L.; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Aziz, Soad Abdel; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A.; Elbokl, Mohamed M.; Habbak, Lotfy Z.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1,084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010–2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242)and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n = 51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F = 15.7, p< 0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F= 29.5, p< 0.0001). PMID:24315038

  2. Putative human and avian risk factors for avian influenza virus infections in backyard poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sheta, Basma M; Fuller, Trevon L; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Abdel Aziz, Soad; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A; Elbokl, Mohamed M; Habbak, Lotfy Z; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-01-10

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010-2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242) and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n=51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F=15.7, p<0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F=29.5, p<0.0001). PMID:24315038

  3. Does avian malaria infection affect feather stable isotope signatures?

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Elizabeth; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Lee, Raymond W; Bolshakov, Casimir V; Bensch, Staffan

    2011-12-01

    It is widely accepted that stable isotope ratios in inert tissues such as feather keratin reflect the dietary isotopic signature at the time of the tissue synthesis. However, some elements such as stable nitrogen isotopes can be affected by individual physiological state and nutritional stress. Using malaria infection experiment protocols, we estimated the possible effect of malaria parasite infections on feather carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope signatures in juvenile common crossbills Loxia curvirostra. The birds were experimentally infected with Plasmodium relictum (lineage SGS1) and P. ashfordi (GRW2), two widespread parasites of passerines. Experimental birds developed heavy parasitemia of both parasites and maintained high levels throughout the experiment (33 days). We found no significant difference between experimental and control birds in both δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of feathers re-grown. The study shows that even heavy primary infections of malaria parasites do not affect feather δ(13)C and δ(15)N isotopic signatures. The results of this experiment demonstrate that feather isotope values of wild-caught birds accurately reflect the dietary isotopic sources at the time of tissue synthesis even when the animal's immune system might be challenged due to parasitic infection. PMID:21671039

  4. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population. PMID:26104333

  5. Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in a patient in China, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Smith, G.J.D.; Zhou, B.; Qiu, C.; Wu, W.L.; Li, Y.; Lu, P.; Duan, L.; Liu, S.; Yuan, J.; Yang, G.; Wang, H.; Cheng, J.; Jiang, H.; Peiris, J.S.M.; Chen, H.; Yuen, K.Y.; Zhong, N.; Guan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background  Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has caused increasing human infection in Eurasia since 2004. So far, H5N1 human infection has been associated with over 50% mortality that is partly because of delay of diagnosis and treatment. Objectives and methods  Here, we report that an H5N1 influenza virus infected a 31‐year‐old patient in Shenzhen in June 2006. To identify the possible source of the infection, the human isolate and other H5N1 influenza viruses obtained from poultry and wild birds in southern China during the same period of time were characterized. Results  Genetic and antigenic analyses revealed that the human H5N1 influenza virus, Shenzhen/406H/06, is of purely avian origin and is most closely related to viruses detected in poultry and wild birds in Hong Kong in early 2006. Conclusions  The findings of the present study suggest that the continued endemicity of H5N1 influenza virus in the poultry in southern China increases the chance for introduction of the virus to humans. This highlights the importance of continued surveillance of poultry and wild birds for determining the source for human H5N1 infection. PMID:19453428

  6. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  7. Susceptibility of selected wild avian species to experimental infection with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused mortality in wide diversity of wild avian species but, to date, the role that different species play in the transmission and maintenance of H5N1 HPAI viruses is poorly understood. To begin to address these uncertainties a...

  8. Identification of avian RIG-I responsive genes during influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Megan RW; Aldridge, Jerry R; Fleming-Canepa, Ximena; Wang, Yong-Dong; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

    2013-01-01

    Ducks can survive infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses that are lethal to chickens. We showed that the influenza detector, RIG-I, can initiate antiviral responses in ducks, but this gene is absent in chickens. We can reconstitute this pathway by transfecting chicken DF-1 embryonic fibroblast cells with duck RIG-I, which augments their antiviral response to influenza and decreases viral titre. However, the genes downstream of duck RIG-I that mediate this antiviral response to influenza are not known. Using microarrays, we compared the transcriptional profile of chicken embryonic fibroblasts transfected with duck RIG-I or empty vector, and infected with low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Transfected duck RIG-I expressed in chicken cells was associated with the marked induction of many antiviral innate immune genes upon infection with both viruses. We used real-time PCR to confirm upregulation of a subset of these antiviral genes including MX1, PKR, IFIT5, OASL, IFNB, and downregulation of the influenza matrix gene. These results provide some insight into the genes induced by duck RIG-I upon influenza infection, and provide evidence that duck RIG-I can function to elicit an interferon-driven, antiviral response against influenza in chicken embryonic fibroblasts. PMID:23220072

  9. Sustained live poultry market surveillance contributes to early warnings for human infection with avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shisong; Bai, Tian; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Zhu, Wenfei; Wang, Dayan; Cheng, Jinquan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N6) virus have been reported in different provinces in China since April 2014. From June 2015 to January 2016, routine live poultry market (LPM) surveillance was conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. H5N6 viruses were not detected until November 2015. The H5N6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in December 2015, and viruses were detected in LPMs in all districts of the city. Coincidently, two human cases with histories of poultry exposure developed symptoms and were diagnosed as H5N6-positive in Shenzhen during late December 2015 and early January 2016. Similar viruses were identified in environmental samples collected in the LPMs and the patients. In contrast to previously reported H5N6 viruses, viruses with six internal genes derived from the H9N2 or H7N9 viruses were detected in the present study. The increased H5N6 virus-positive rate in the LPMs and the subsequent human infections demonstrated that sustained LPM surveillance for avian influenza viruses provides an early warning for human infections. Interventions, such as LPM closures, should be immediately implemented to reduce the risk of human infection with the H5N6 virus when the virus is widely detected during LPM surveillance. PMID:27485495

  10. Successful treatment of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) infection using convalescent plasma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Peng, Xiu-Ming; Ou, Hui-Lin; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-12-01

    In January 2015, there was an outbreak of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus in Zhejiang Province, China. A 45-year-old man was admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University with a high fever that had lasted 7 days, chills, and a cough with yellow sputum. Laboratory testing confirmed infection with the H7N9 virus, likely obtained from contact with poultry at a local live poultry market. A large dense shadow was apparent in the patient's left lung at the time of admission. Treatment with oseltamivir (75mg twice daily) did not improve the patient's condition. The decision was made to try using convalescent plasma to treat the infection. Convalescent plasma was administered 3 days after the patient was admitted to the hospital and led to a marked improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of convalescent plasma to treat a case of H7N9 infection in China. These results suggest that the combination of convalescent plasma and antiviral drugs may be effective for the treatment of avian-origin H7N9 infection. PMID:26482389

  11. Experimental co-infection studies with avian influenza viruses and Newcastle Disease viruses in chickens, turkeys and domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-infections of poultry with Newcastle Disease viruses (NDVs) and Avian Influenza viruses (AIVs) present a problem both from the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. Little has been done to understand the interactions between these two viruses when infecting poultry. Exposur...

  12. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of avian influenza (AI) vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test that clearly discriminates naturally infected from vaccinated only animals (DIVA) was available. Because the non-structural protein (NS1) is expressed in infected cells, and is not pac...

  13. Age at infection affects the pathogenicity of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses have changed from producing no disease or mild respiratory infections in ducks to some strains causing systemic disease and death. Differences in pathogenicity between four of these viruses as well as the effect of host age on the outcome of infection were...

  14. Co-infection of mallards with low virulence Newcastle disease virus and low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl are considered the natural reservoirs of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) and low virulence Newcastle disease viruses (loNDV). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of co-infections with loNDV and LPAIV on the infectivity and excretion of these viruses in ...

  15. Avian Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious viral disease of birds. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as ... often causing no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause ...

  16. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MORIGUCHI, Sachiko; ONUMA, Manabu; GOKA, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  17. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Onuma, Manabu; Goka, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  18. Severe Infection With Avian Influenza A Virus is Associated With Delayed Immune Recovery in Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianing; Cui, Guangying; Lu, Chong; Ding, Yulong; Gao, Hainv; Zhu, Yixin; Wei, Yingfeng; Wang, Lin; Uede, Toshimitsu; Li, Lanjuan; Diao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human infection with avian influenza A virus (H7N9) is a concern because of the mortality rate. Previously, we characterized immunological responses during active infection with it and reported evidence of impaired antigen-presenting capability, particularly in severely affected individuals. Here we describe an investigation of immunological responses during a 1-year follow-up of survivors of H7N9 infection. Survivors of H7N9 infection were classified as having had mild (n = 42) or severe infection (n = 26). Their immune status, including human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on monocytes, and their ability to mount cytokine responses were assessed at 1, 3, and 12 months postinfection. The total lymphocyte count and the percentages of different types of lymphocytes had normalized by 1 month postinfection. However, there was evidence of ongoing impairment of immune responses in those who had had severe infection. This included reduced human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on CD14+ monocytes, reduced interferon-γ production by T cells, and higher plasma levels of the matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 9. By 3 months postinfection, these had all normalized. After severe H7N9 infection, recovery of the antigen-presenting capability of monocytes and T-cell responses are delayed. This may lead to an increased vulnerability to secondary bacterial infections. PMID:26844470

  19. H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus experimental infection trials in wild birds: what have we learned and what questions remain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to 2002, there were very few reports of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infections in wild birds. Since 2002; however, a variety of wild avian species have died from infection with Asian lineage H5N1 HPAI viruses and a growing body of evidence suggests migratory waterfowl may h...

  20. Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world and are separated into nine serotypes (APMV-1 to -9). Only in the case of APMV-1, the infection of non-avian species has been investigated. The APMVs presently are being considered as human vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the replication and pathogenicity of all nine APMV serotypes in hamsters. The hamsters were inoculated intranasally with each virus and monitored for clinical disease, pathology, histopathology, virus replication, and seroconversion. On the basis of one or more of these criteria, each of the APMV serotypes was found to replicate in hamsters. The APMVs produced mild or inapparent clinical signs in hamsters except for APMV-9, which produced moderate disease. Gross lesions were observed over the pulmonary surface of hamsters infected with APMV-2 & -3, which showed petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, respectively. Replication of all of the APMVs except APMV-5 was confirmed in the nasal turbinates and lungs, indicating a tropism for the respiratory tract. Histologically, the infection resulted in lung lesions consistent with bronchointerstitial pneumonia of varying severity and nasal turbinates with blunting or loss of cilia of the epithelium lining the nasal septa. The majority of APMV-infected hamsters exhibited transient histological lesions that self resolved by 14 days post infection (dpi). All of the hamsters infected with the APMVs produced serotype-specific HI or neutralizing antibodies, confirming virus replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that all nine known APMV serotypes are capable of replicating in hamsters with minimal disease and pathology. PMID:21345199

  1. Subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection inhibits autophagy in DF-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection can induce tumor-related diseases in chickens. Previous studies by our laboratory demonstrated that ALV-J infection of DF-1 cells resulted in altered activity and phosphorylation of AKT. However, little is known about the subsequent activation of host DF-1 cells. Results In the current study, autophagy inhibition was observed for ALV-J infected DF-1 cells. Our data showed that the autophagosome protein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), was reduced considerably in DF-1 cells infected with active ALV-J, while no change was observed for cells infected with inactivated ALV-J. Autophagy inhibition was also confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, when autophagy was promoted by rapamycin, the titers of ALV-J replication were decreased, and the replication level of ALV-J was significantly enhanced when atg5 (autophagy-related gene 5) was knocked out. Conclusions These results suggested that ALV-J infection could down-regulate autophagy in DF-1 cells during viral replication. This study is the first to report on the relationship between ALV-J infection and autophagy in DF-1 cells. PMID:23773913

  2. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    PubMed

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  3. Immune Reaction and Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis after Infection of Primary Avian Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  4. Individual genetic diversity and probability of infection by avian malaria parasites in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    PubMed

    Ferrer, E S; García-Navas, V; Sanz, J J; Ortego, J

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the importance of host genetic diversity for coping with parasites and infectious diseases is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. Here, we study the association between probability of infection by avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and individual genetic diversity in three blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) populations that strongly differ in prevalence of this parasite. For this purpose, we screened avian malaria infections and genotyped 789 blue tits across 26 microsatellite markers. We used two different arrays of markers: 14 loci classified as neutral and 12 loci classified as putatively functional. We found a significant relationship between probability of infection and host genetic diversity estimated at the subset of neutral markers that was not explained by strong local effects and did not differ among the studied populations. This relationship was not linear, and probability of infection increased up to values of homozygosity by locus (HL) around 0.15, reached a plateau at values of HL from 0.15 to 0.40 and finally declined among a small proportion of highly homozygous individuals (HL > 0.4). We did not find evidence for significant identity disequilibrium, which may have resulted from a low variance of inbreeding in the study populations and/or the small power of our set of markers to detect it. A combination of subtle positive and negative local effects and/or a saturation threshold in the association between probability of infection and host genetic diversity in combination with increased resistance to parasites in highly homozygous individuals may explain the observed negative quadratic relationship. Overall, our study highlights that parasites play an important role in shaping host genetic variation and suggests that the use of large sets of neutral markers may be more appropriate for the study of heterozygosity-fitness correlations. PMID:25264126

  5. Generation of Influenza Virus from Avian Cells Infected by Salmonella Carrying the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Xin, Wei; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Domestic poultry serve as intermediates for transmission of influenza A virus from the wild aquatic bird reservoir to humans, resulting in influenza outbreaks in poultry and potential epidemics/pandemics among human beings. To combat emerging avian influenza virus, an inexpensive, heat-stable, and orally administered influenza vaccine would be useful to vaccinate large commercial poultry flocks and even migratory birds. Our hypothesized vaccine is a recombinant attenuated bacterial strain able to mediate production of attenuated influenza virus in vivo to induce protective immunity against influenza. Here we report the feasibility and technical limitations toward such an ideal vaccine based on our exploratory study. Five 8-unit plasmids carrying a chloramphenicol resistance gene or free of an antibiotic resistance marker were constructed. Influenza virus was successfully generated in avian cells transfected by each of the plasmids. The Salmonella carrier was engineered to allow stable maintenance and conditional release of the 8-unit plasmid into the avian cells for recovery of influenza virus. Influenza A virus up to 107 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50)/ml were recovered from 11 out of 26 co-cultures of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells upon infection by the recombinant Salmonella carrying the 8-unit plasmid. Our data prove that a bacterial carrier can mediate generation of influenza virus by delivering its DNA cargoes into permissive host cells. Although we have made progress in developing this Salmonella influenza virus vaccine delivery system, further improvements are necessary to achieve efficient virus production, especially in vivo. PMID:25742162

  6. AVIAN POXVIRUS INFECTION IN A FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER) OF THE LISBON ZOO.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Ana M; Fagulha, Teresa; Duarte, Margarida; Ramos, Fernanda; Barros, Sílvia C; Luís, Tiago; Bernardino, Rui; Fernandes, Teresa L; Lapão, Narciso; da Silva, José Ferreira; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Avian poxviruses (APV) are very large viruses spread worldwide in a variety of hosts. They are responsible for a disease usually referred to as pox, mainly characterized by nodular lesions on feather-free regions of the body. On May 2010, a young American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) of the Lisbon Zoo (Portugal) developed a nodular lesion suggestive of poxvirus infection on its right foot. Avipoxvirus was isolated from the lesion and a fragment of the P4b-encoding gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequence of the amplicon was determined and analyzed. A close relationship (100% identity) was observed between the flamingo poxvirus and isolates from great bustard (Hungary 2005), house sparrow (Morocco 2009), MacQueen's bustard (Morocco 2011), and Houbara bustard (Morocco 2010 and 2011), suggesting interspecies transmission as a possible source of infection. To strengthen the investigation, the 5' and 3' ends of genes cnpv186 and cnpv 187, respectively, were also analyzed. The cnpv186-187 fragment exhibited 100% identity with MacQueen's bustard and Houbara bustard isolates, both from Morocco 2011. Phylogenetic analyses based in both fragments grouped the flamingo isolate consistently within clade B2 of canarypox. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the different representatives of avian poxviruses were more comprehensive in the tree based on the concatenated coding sequences of the cnpv186-187 fragment, rather than on the P4b-coding gene. The clearer displacement and distribution of the isolates regarding their host species in this last tree suggests the potential usefulness of this genomic region to refine avian poxvirus classification. PMID:27010277

  7. Other avian paramyxoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newcas...

  8. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  9. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Christina; Stallknecht, David; Swayne, David; Brown, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are believed to be transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect faecal–oral route involving contaminated water. This study examined the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water. Clams were placed into individual flasks with distilled water inoculated 1:100 with a low pathogenic (LP) AI virus (A/Mallard/MN/190/99 (H3N8)). Viral titres in water with clams were significantly lower at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation compared to LPAI-infected water without clams. To determine whether clams affected the infectivity of AI viruses, 18 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were divided into test groups and inoculated with a variety of treatments of clam supernatants, whole clams and water exposed to a high pathogenic (HP) AI (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 (H5N1)). None of the wood ducks inoculated with HPAI-infected water that was filtered by clams or that was inoculated with or fed tissue from these clams exhibited morbidity or mortality. All wood ducks exposed to either HPAI-infected water without clams or the original viral inoculum died. These results indicate that filter-feeding bivalves can remove and reduce the infectivity of AI viruses in water and demonstrate the need to examine biotic environmental factors that can influence AI virus transmission. PMID:19656788

  10. Comparing presence of avian paramyxovirus-1 through immunohistochemistry in tracheas of experimentally and naturally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Brown, Corrie C; Sullivan, Lauren; Dufour-Zavala, Louise; Kulkarni, Arun; Williams, Susan; Susta, Leonardo; Zhang, Jian; Sellers, Holly

    2013-03-01

    Tracheas from chickens infected both in the field and experimentally with lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (also known as avian paramyxovirus-1 [APMV-1] and referred to here as "lentogenic NDV") were examined histopathologically to score degree of pathologic changes and by immunohistochemistry to determine presence of viral protein. In the field cases there was often a striking lack of correlation between severity of tracheal lesions and amount of immunohistochemical signal for APMV-1 protein. Experimental cases had minimal pathologic changes and also minimal immunohistochemical signal. Positive cells were often associated with surface deciliation. It may be that lentogenic NDV has only a minor role as a respiratory pathogen, merely compromising the mucosa to allow other respiratory pathogens to infect and worsen the clinical and pathologic presentation. PMID:23678727

  11. Exaptation of Bornavirus-Like Nucleoprotein Elements in Afrotherians

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Horie, Masayuki; Nakano, Ayumi; Murata, Koichi; Itou, Takuya; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs), the nucleotide sequence elements derived from the nucleoprotein gene of ancient bornavirus-like viruses, have been identified in many animal genomes. Here we show evidence that EBLNs encode functional proteins in their host. Some afrotherian EBLNs were observed to have been maintained for more than 83.3 million years under negative selection. Splice variants were expressed from the genomic loci of EBLNs in elephant, and some were translated into proteins. The EBLN proteins appeared to be localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum in African elephant cells, in contrast to the nuclear localization of bornavirus N. These observations suggest that afrotherian EBLNs have acquired a novel function in their host. Interestingly, genomic sequences of the first exon and its flanking regions in these EBLN loci were homologous to those of transmembrane protein 106B (TMEM106B). The upstream region of the first exon in the EBLN loci exhibited a promoter activity, suggesting that the ability of these EBLNs to be transcribed in the host cell was gained through capturing a partial duplicate of TMEM106B. In conclusion, our results strongly support for exaptation of EBLNs to encode host proteins in afrotherians. PMID:27518265

  12. Spleen transcriptome response to infection with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is detrimental to poultry health and its zoonotic potential is a food safety concern. Regulation of antimicrobials in food-production animals has put greater focus on enhancing host resistance to bacterial infections through genetics. To better define effective mechanism of host resistance, global gene expression in the spleen of chickens, harvested at two times post-infection (PI) with APEC, was measured using microarray technology, in a design that will enable investigation of effects of vaccination, challenge, and pathology level. Results There were 1,101 genes significantly differentially expressed between severely infected and non-infected groups on day 1 PI and 1,723 on day 5 PI. Very little difference was seen between mildly infected and non-infected groups on either time point. Between birds exhibiting mild and severe pathology, there were 2 significantly differentially expressed genes on day 1 PI and 799 on day 5 PI. Groups with greater pathology had more genes with increased expression than decreased expression levels. Several predominate immune pathways, Toll-like receptor, Jak-STAT, and cytokine signaling, were represented between challenged and non-challenged groups. Vaccination had, surprisingly, no detectible effect on gene expression, although it significantly protected the birds from observable gross lesions. Functional characterization of significantly expressed genes revealed unique gene ontology classifications during each time point, with many unique to a particular treatment or class contrast. Conclusions More severe pathology caused by APEC infection was associated with a high level of gene expression differences and increase in gene expression levels. Many of the significantly differentially expressed genes were unique to a particular treatment, pathology level or time point. The present study not only investigates the transcriptomic regulations of APEC infection, but also the degree of

  13. A human-infecting H10N8 influenza virus retains a strong preference for avian-type receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; de Vries, Robert P; Tzarum, Netanel; Zhu, Xueyong; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; Wilson, Ian A

    2015-03-11

    Recent avian-origin H10N8 influenza A viruses that have infected humans pose a potential pandemic threat. Alterations in the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), typically are required for influenza A viruses to cross the species barrier for adaptation to a new host, but whether H10N8 contains adaptations supporting human infection remains incompletely understood. We investigated whether H10N8 HA can bind human receptors. Sialoside glycan microarray analysis showed that the H10 HA retains a strong preference for avian receptor analogs and negligible binding to human receptor analogs. Crystal structures of H10 HA with avian and human receptor analogs revealed the basis for preferential recognition of avian-like receptors. Furthermore, introduction of mutations into the H10 receptor-binding site (RBS) known to convert other HA subtypes from avian to human receptor specificity failed to switch preference to human receptors. Collectively, these findings suggest that the current H10N8 human isolates are poorly adapted for efficient human-to-human transmission. PMID:25766296

  14. A human-infecting H10N8 influenza virus retains a strong preference for avian-type receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xueyong; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent avian-origin H10N8 influenza A viruses that have infected humans pose a potential pandemic threat. Alterations in the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), typically allow influenza A viruses to cross the species barrier for adaptation to a new host, but whether H10N8 contains adaptations supporting human infection remains incompletely understood. We investigated whether the H10N8 HA can bind human receptors. Sialoside glycan microarray analysis showed that the H10 HA retains a strong preference for avian receptor analogs and negligible binding to human receptor analogs. Crystal structures of H10 HA with avian and human receptor analogs revealed the basis for preferential recognition of avian-like receptors. Furthermore, introduction of mutations into the H10 receptor-binding site (RBS) known to convert other HA subtypes from avian to human receptor specificity failed to switch the preference to human receptors. Collectively, these findings suggest the current H10N8 human isolates are poorly adapted for efficient human-to-human transmission. PMID:25766296

  15. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  16. THERMAL INACTIVATION OF H5N1 HIGH PATHOGENICITY AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NATURALLY INFECTED CHICKEN MEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal inactivation of the H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus strain A/chicken/Korea/ES/2003 (Korea/03) was quantitatively measured in thigh and breast meat harvested from infected chickens. The average Korea/03 titers in uncooked meat samples were 8.0 log 10 EID50/g (thigh) and 7...

  17. Use of molecularly cloned avian leukosis virus to study antigenic variation following infection of meat-type chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecularly cloned strain of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) termed R5-4 was used to study antigenic variation following infection of meat-type chickens. Chickens were inoculated with R5-4 virus at either 8 days of embryonation or at 1 week of age. Each chicken was housed in a separate is...

  18. Characterization of cytokine expression induced by avian influenza virus infection with real-time RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of how birds react to infection from avian influenza virus is critical to understanding disease pathogenesis and host response. The use of real-time (R), reverse-transcriptase (RT), PCR to measure innate immunity, including cytokine and interferon gene expression, has become a standard tec...

  19. Dispersal in a patchy landscape reveals contrasting determinants of infection in a wild avian malaria system.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Sarah C L; Wood, Matthew J; Alves, Ricardo; Sheldon, Ben C

    2014-03-01

    Understanding exactly when, where and how hosts become infected with parasites is critical to understanding host-parasite co-evolution in natural populations. However, for host-parasite systems in which hosts or parasites are mobile, for example in vector-borne diseases, the spatial location of infection and the relative importance of parasite exposure at successive host life-history stages are often uncertain. Here, using a 6-year longitudinal data set from a spatially referenced population of blue tits, we test the extent to which infection by avian malaria parasites is determined by conditions experienced at natal or breeding sites, as well as by postnatal dispersal between the two. We show that the location and timing of infection differs markedly between two sympatric malaria parasite species. For one species (Plasmodium circumflexum), our analyses indicate that infection occurs after birds have settled on breeding territories, and because the distribution of this parasite is temporally stable across years, hosts born in malarious areas could in principle alter their exposure and potentially avoid infection through postnatal dispersal. Conversely, the spatial distribution of another parasite species (Plasmodium relictum) is unpredictable and infection probability is positively associated with postnatal dispersal distance, potentially indicating that infection occurs during this major dispersal event. These findings suggest that hosts in this population may be subject to divergent selection pressures from these two parasites, potentially acting at different life-history stages. Because this implies parasite species-specific predictions for many coevolutionary processes, they also illustrate the complexity of predicting such processes in multi-parasite systems. PMID:24117384

  20. Human and avian extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: infections, zoonotic risks, and antibiotic resistance trends.

    PubMed

    Mellata, Melha

    2013-11-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) constitutes ongoing health concerns for women, newborns, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals due to increased numbers of urinary tract infections (UTIs), newborn meningitis, abdominal sepsis, and septicemia. E. coli remains the leading cause of UTIs, with recent investigations reporting the emergence of E. coli as the predominant cause of nosocomial and neonatal sepsis infections. This shift from the traditional Gram-positive bacterial causes of nosocomial and neonatal sepsis infections could be attributed to the use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis against Gram-positive bacteria and the appearance of antibiotic (ATB) resistance in E. coli. While ExPEC strains cause significant healthcare concerns, these bacteria also infect chickens and cause the poultry industry economic losses due to costs of containment, mortality, and disposal of carcasses. To circumvent ExPEC-related costs, ATBs are commonly used in the poultry industry to prevent/treat microbial infections and promote growth and performance. In an unfortunate linkage, chicken products are suspected to be a source of foodborne ExPEC infections and ATB resistance in humans. Therefore, the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) among avian E. coli has created major economic and health concerns, affecting both human healthcare and poultry industries. Increased numbers of immunocompromised individuals, including the elderly, coupled with MDR among ExPEC strains, will continue to challenge the treatment of ExPEC infections and likely lead to increased treatment costs. With ongoing complications due to emerging ATB resistance, novel treatment strategies are necessary to control ExPEC infections. Recognizing and treating the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC would greatly enhance food safety and positively impact human health. PMID:23962019

  1. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  2. ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS, WEST NILE VIRUS, AND AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS INFECTION AND ANTIBODY STATUS IN BLUE-WINGED TEAL (ANAS DISCORS) IN THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES.

    PubMed

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Leighton, Frederick A; Epp, Tasha; Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Lindsay, Robbin; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Canadian prairies are one of the most important breeding and staging areas for migratory waterfowl in North America. Hundreds of thousands of waterfowl of numerous species from multiple flyways converge in and disperse from this region annually; therefore this region may be a key area for potential intra- and interspecific spread of infectious pathogens among migratory waterfowl in the Americas. Using Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors, BWTE), which have the most extensive migratory range among waterfowl species, we investigated ecologic risk factors for infection and antibody status to avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), and avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) in the three prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) prior to fall migration. We used generalized linear models to examine infection or evidence of exposure in relation to host (age, sex, body condition, exposure to other infections), spatiotemporal (year, province), population-level (local population densities of BWTE, total waterfowl densities), and environmental (local pond densities) factors. The probability of AIV infection in BWTE was associated with host factors (e.g., age and antibody status), population-level factors (e.g., local BWTE population density), and year. An interaction between age and AIV antibody status showed that hatch year birds with antibodies to AIV were more likely to be infected, suggesting an antibody response to an active infection. Infection with AIV was positively associated with local BWTE density, supporting the hypothesis of density-dependent transmission. The presence of antibodies to WNV and APMV-1 was positively associated with age and varied among years. Furthermore, the probability of being WNV antibody positive was positively associated with pond density rather than host population density, likely because ponds provide suitable breeding habitat for mosquitoes, the primary vectors for transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of

  3. Characteristics of human infection with avian influenza viruses and development of new antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Dong-ying; Yang, Zhan-qiu

    2013-01-01

    Since 1997, several epizootic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been transmitted to humans, causing diseases and even deaths. The recent emergence of severe human infections with AIV (H7N9) in China has raised concerns about efficient interpersonal viral transmission, polygenic traits in viral pathogenicity and the management of newly emerging strains. The symptoms associated with viral infection are different in various AI strains: H5N1 and newly emerged H7N9 induce severe pneumonia and related complications in patients, while some H7 and H9 subtypes cause only conjunctivitis or mild respiratory symptoms. The virulence and tissue tropism of viruses as well as the host responses contribute to the pathogenesis of human AIV infection. Several preventive and therapeutic approaches have been proposed to combat AIV infection, including antiviral drugs such as M2 inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, attachment inhibitors and signal-transduction inhibitors etc. In this article, we summarize the recent progress in researches on the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenicity determinants, and available or potential antivirals of AIV. PMID:24096642

  4. Can the same species of Platynosomum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) infect both mammalian and avian hosts?

    PubMed

    Pinto, H A; Mati, V L T; Melo, A L

    2016-05-01

    The importance of platynosomiasis has increased in feline veterinary practice, but aspects related to the specificity of Platynosomum spp. in definitive hosts requires further study. Although morphological traits suggest that the same species, P. illiciens, may infect both birds and mammals, the synonymies previously proposed have not been widely accepted, likely because host specificity is assumed. In addition, the name P. fastosum has frequently been used for parasites recovered from mammals. In the present study, metacercariae (n= 100/animal) of P. illiciens recovered from lizards (Hemidactylus mabouia) in Brazil were fed to Australian parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) and mice. Two parasites were recovered from the liver of one M. undulatus specimen during a necropsy that was performed 105 days after infection, and all mice were found to be infected with 37 ± 12 (18-48) parasites. The morphology of the P. illiciens obtained from the parakeet was similar to that of parasites obtained from mice and those described previously from naturally infected birds and mammals. Non-specificity of P. illiciens in hosts is discussed briefly, based on the parasitological and morphological results obtained during the avian experimental platynosomiasis and the epidemiology and geographical distribution of this parasite. PMID:25781630

  5. Leukocyte transcriptome from chickens infected with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli identifies pathways associated with resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sandford, Erin E.; Orr, Megan; Shelby, Mandy; Li, Xianyao; Zhou, Huaijun; Johnson, Timothy J.; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Liu, Peng; Nolan, Lisa K.; Lamont, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis, which is responsible for morbidity and mortality in chickens. Gene expression patterns have previously been demonstrated to differ between chicken populations that are resistant vs. susceptible to bacterial infection, but little is currently known about gene expression response to APEC. Increased understanding of gene expression patterns associated with resistance will facilitate genetic selection to increase resistance to APEC. Male broiler chicks were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age and challenged with APEC at 4 weeks of age. Peripheral blood leukocytes were collected at 1 and 5 day post-infection. Lesions on the liver, pericardium, and air sacs were used to assign a mild or severe pathology status to non-vaccinated, challenged chicks. Ten treatment groups were therefore generated with a priori factors of vaccination, challenge, day post-infection, and the a posteriori factor of pathology status. Global transcriptomic response was evaluated using the Agilent 44K chicken microarray. APEC infection resulted in more up-regulation than down-regulation of differentially expressed genes. Immune response and metabolic processes were enriched with differentially expressed genes. Although vaccination significantly reduced lesions in challenged bird, there was no detectable effect of vaccination on gene expression. This study investigated the transcriptomic differences in host responses associated with mild vs. severe pathology, in addition to the effects of vaccination and challenge, thus revealing genes and networks associated with response to APEC and providing a foundation for future studies on, and genetic selection for, genetic resistance to APEC. PMID:24371566

  6. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host for avian influenza virus (AIV) is in wild birds, including ducks, gulls, and shorebirds, where the virus causes primarily an enteric infection with little disease. However, AIV can infect a wide variety of host species, and with a certain level of adaptation for the aberrant host ...

  7. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; i....

  8. AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of avian influenza virus H7N9 infection in a renal transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Cui, Dawei; Chen, Jian; Dai, Yuzhu; Sun, Changgui

    2014-01-01

    A renal transplant recipient who had atypical clinical manifestations, unclear epidemiological exposure history and negative results from influenza virus antigen and nucleic acid amplification in throat swab specimens was admitted into our hospital on April 17, 2013. He was finally diagnosed as avian influenzavirus H7N9 infection. Here, we reviewed the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of this patient. We speculated that the specimens should be collected repeatedly at different sites for suspected cases or special cases needing differential diagnosis; different methods or kits should be used for laboratory testing; atypical clinical manifestations caused by the special nature of patients such as long-term use of immunosuppressive agents and autoimmune diseases should also be taken into account. PMID:24600505

  10. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of newcastle disease virus prevents infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses, but little is known on the interactions b...

  11. Immunological Competence of Different Domestic Chicken Breeds Against Avian Influenza Infection.

    PubMed

    Blohm, Ulrike; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Donata

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for high laying performance on the capacity to respond to an infection with avian influenza virus (AIV), four different chicken lines were tested: A white layer and a brown layer breed originating from a commercial breeding program, and a white layer and a brown layer line maintained as a conservation flock for decades without any selection. The different chicken breeds were infected with AIV of different pathotypes (low pathogenic to high pathogenic) to evaluate and compare their immunological competence. Morbidity and mortality rates, as well as viral shedding, were investigated as parameters of virus infection. Immune cells in blood samples collected after different time points following inoculation were identified. In general, the chickens of the two phylogenetically related brown layer lines (irrespective of the performance type) were more resistant to infection with the selected AIVs, reflected by a lower mortality rate (low virulent AIV) or a prolonged length of survival before succumbing to the disease (highly virulent AIV). Corresponding to these results, CD8-positive cell counts were reduced in both white layer lines. This observation was also confirmed in an in vivo allogenic transfer experiment, in which brown layers eliminated the transferred cells in a shorter time period. In conclusion, our results do not support the theory of reduced immunological competence of high-performance layer breeds, at least against AIV infection. Instead, brown layer strains had a faster CD8-positive immune cell response after viral or allogenic stimulus than the phylogenetically distant white layers, resulting in better resistance against AIV infection. PMID:27309066

  12. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs. PMID:26034886

  13. Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lina; Guan, Dawei; Kang, Min; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Rutherford, Shannon; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification, the epizootic avian influenza A H7N9 virus has continued to cause infections in China. Two waves were observed during this outbreak. No cases were reported from Guangdong Province during the first wave, but this province became one of the prime outbreak sites during the second wave. In order to identify the transmission potential of this continuously evolving infectious virus, our research group monitored all clusters of H7N9 infections during the second wave of the epidemic in Guangdong Province. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data on these patients were collected and analyzed. Three family clusters including six cases of H7N9 infection were recorded. The virus caused severe disease in two adult patients but only mild symptoms for all four pediatric patients. All patients reported direct poultry or poultry market exposure history. Relevant environment samples collected according to their reported exposures tested H7N9 positive. Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving, the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong Province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission. PMID:25339399

  14. Non-Human Primates Harbor Diverse Mammalian and Avian Astroviruses Including Those Associated with Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Freiden, Pamela; Feeroz, MM; Matsen, Frederick A; San, Sorn; Hasan, M Kamrul; Wang, David; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Astroviruses (AstVs) are positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses transmitted to a wide range of hosts via the fecal-oral route. The number of AstV-infected animal hosts has rapidly expanded in recent years with many more likely to be discovered because of the advances in viral surveillance and next generation sequencing. Yet no study to date has identified human AstV genotypes in animals, although diverse AstV genotypes similar to animal-origin viruses have been found in children with diarrhea and in one instance of encephalitis. Here we provide important new evidence that non-human primates (NHP) can harbor a wide variety of mammalian and avian AstV genotypes, including those only associated with human infection. Serological analyses confirmed that >25% of the NHP tested had antibodies to human AstVs. Further, we identified a recombinant AstV with parental relationships to known human AstVs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests AstVs in NHP are on average evolutionarily much closer to AstVs from other animals than are AstVs from bats, a frequently proposed reservoir. Our studies not only demonstrate that human astroviruses can be detected in NHP but also suggest that NHP are unique in their ability to support diverse AstV genotypes, further challenging the paradigm that astrovirus infection is species-specific. PMID:26571270

  15. Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds: Infection and population impacts across species and elevations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Hart, P. J.; LaPointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has played an important role in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds. However, few studies have attempted to estimate disease transmission and mortality, survival, and individual species impacts in this distinctive ecosystem. We combined multi-state capture-recapture (longitudinal) models with cumulative age-prevalence (cross-sectional) models to evaluate these patterns in Apapane, Hawai‘i Amakihi, and Iiwi in low-, mid-, and high-elevation forests on the island of Hawai‘i based on four longitudinal studies of 3–7 years in length. We found species-specific patterns of malaria prevalence, transmission, and mortality rates that varied among elevations, likely in response to ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance. Malaria infection was highest at low elevations, moderate at mid elevations, and limited in high-elevation forests. Infection rates were highest for Iiwi and Apapane, likely contributing to the absence of these species in low-elevation forests. Adult malaria fatality rates were highest for Iiwi, intermediate for Amakihi at mid and high elevations, and lower for Apapane; low-elevation Amakihi had the lowest malaria fatality, providing strong evidence of malaria tolerance in this low-elevation population. Our study indicates that hatch-year birds may have greater malaria infection and/or fatality rates than adults. Our study also found that mosquitoes prefer feeding on Amakihi rather than Apapane, but Apapane are likely a more important reservoir for malaria transmission to mosquitoes. Our approach, based on host abundance and infection rates, may be an

  16. Synergistic pathogenic effects of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuan; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang; Ju, Sidi; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    To study interactions between avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the effects of co-infection on pathogenicity of these viruses, 1-day-old broiler chicks were infected with ALV-J, REV or both ALV-J and REV. The results indicated that co-infection of ALV-J and REV induced more growth retardation and higher mortality rate than ALV-J or REV single infection (P < 0.05). Chickens co-infected with ALV-J and REV also showed more severe immunosuppression than those with a single infection. This was manifested by significantly lower bursa of Fabricius and thymus to body weight ratios and lower antibody responses to Newcastle disease virus and H9-avian influenza virus (P < 0.05). Perihepatitis and pericarditis related to severe infection with Escherichia coli were found in many of the dead birds. E. coli was isolated from each case of perihepatitis and pericarditis. The mortality associated with E. coli infection in the co-infection groups was significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Among 516 tested E. coli isolates from 58 dead birds, 12 serotypes of the O-antigen were identified in two experiments. Different serotypes of E. coli strains were even isolated from the same organ of the same bird. Diversification of O-serotypes suggested that perihepatitis and pericarditis associated with E. coli infection was the most frequent secondary infection following the immunosuppression induced by ALV-J and REV co-infection. These results suggested that the co-infection of ALV-J and REV caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects, growth retardation, immunosuppression, and secondary E. coli infection in broiler chickens. PMID:25484188

  17. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Essam A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI) in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1) and the other fifteen (Group 2) were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1). The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis). Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1) became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs. PMID:27047014

  18. The dynamics of avian influenza in Lesser Snow Geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Hall, Jeffrey S; Brown, Justin D; Goldberg, Diana R; Ip, Hon; Baranyuk, Vasily V

    2015-10-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging and, despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway Lesser Snow Geese, Chen caerulescens, to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3000 sera samples from Snow Geese at two breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from >4000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between Snow Goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering, and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations. PMID:26591451

  19. A Recombinant Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J for Directly Monitoring Viral Infection and the Selection of Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaofei; Ji, Xiaolin; Wang, Jingfei; Shen, Nan; Gao, Yulong; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Zhang, Shide; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has induced serious clinical outbreaks and has become a serious infectious disease of chickens in China. We describe here the creation of a recombinant ALV-J tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (named rHPRS-103EGFP). We successfully utilize the rHPRS-103EGFP to visualize viral infection and for development of a simplified serum-neutralization test. PMID:25522008

  20. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in 2 Travelers Returning from China to Canada, January 20151

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Catharine; Gustafson, Reka; Purych, Dale B.; Tang, Patrick; Bastien, Nathalie; Krajden, Mel; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In January 2015, British Columbia, Canada, reported avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in 2 travelers returning from China who sought outpatient care for typical influenza-like illness. There was no further spread, but serosurvey findings showed broad population susceptibility to H7N9 virus. Travel history and timely notification are critical to emerging pathogen detection and response. PMID:26689320

  1. Variability in pathobiology of South Korean H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection for 5 species of migratory waterfowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological outcome of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in wild waterfowl is poorly understood. This study examined infectivity and pathobiology of A/chicken/Korea/IS/06 (H5N1) HPAI virus infection in Mute swans (Cygnus olor), Greylag geese (Anser anser), Ruddy Sheld...

  2. Dynamic changes in host gene expression associated with H5N8 avian influenza virus infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Jin; Kumar, Mukesh; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Seong, Rak-Kyun; Han, Kyudong; Song, Jae-min; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young-Ki; Shin, Ok Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Emerging outbreaks of newly found, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses have been reported globally. Previous studies have indicated that H5N8 pathogenicity in mice is relatively moderate compared with H5N1 pathogenicity. However, detailed mechanisms underlying avian influenza pathogenicity are still undetermined. We used a high-throughput RNA-seq method to analyse host and pathogen transcriptomes in the lungs of mice infected with A/MD/Korea/W452/2014 (H5N8) and A/EM/Korea/W149/2006 (H5N1) viruses. Sequenced numbers of viral transcripts and expression levels of host immune-related genes at 1 day post infection (dpi) were higher in H5N8-infected than H5N1-infected mice. Dual sequencing of viral transcripts revealed that in contrast to the observations at 1 dpi, higher number of H5N1 genes than H5N8 genes was sequenced at 3 and 7 dpi, which is consistent with higher viral titres and virulence observed in infected lungs in vivo. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a more significant upregulation of death receptor signalling, driven by H5N1 than with H5N8 infection at 3 and 7 dpi. Early induction of immune response-related genes may elicit protection in H5N8-infected mice, which correlates with moderate pathogenicity in vivo. Collectively, our data provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms of the differential pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses. PMID:26576844

  3. Dynamic changes in host gene expression associated with H5N8 avian influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Jin; Kumar, Mukesh; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Seong, Rak-Kyun; Han, Kyudong; Song, Jae-min; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young-Ki; Shin, Ok Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Emerging outbreaks of newly found, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses have been reported globally. Previous studies have indicated that H5N8 pathogenicity in mice is relatively moderate compared with H5N1 pathogenicity. However, detailed mechanisms underlying avian influenza pathogenicity are still undetermined. We used a high-throughput RNA-seq method to analyse host and pathogen transcriptomes in the lungs of mice infected with A/MD/Korea/W452/2014 (H5N8) and A/EM/Korea/W149/2006 (H5N1) viruses. Sequenced numbers of viral transcripts and expression levels of host immune-related genes at 1 day post infection (dpi) were higher in H5N8-infected than H5N1-infected mice. Dual sequencing of viral transcripts revealed that in contrast to the observations at 1 dpi, higher number of H5N1 genes than H5N8 genes was sequenced at 3 and 7 dpi, which is consistent with higher viral titres and virulence observed in infected lungs in vivo. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a more significant upregulation of death receptor signalling, driven by H5N1 than with H5N8 infection at 3 and 7 dpi. Early induction of immune response-related genes may elicit protection in H5N8-infected mice, which correlates with moderate pathogenicity in vivo. Collectively, our data provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms of the differential pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses. PMID:26576844

  4. Evidence of Infection by H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Healthy Wild Waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Hammoumi, Saliha; Newman, Scott H.; Hagemeijer, Ward; Takekawa, John Y.; Cappelle, Julien; Dodman, Tim; Joannis, Tony; Gil, Patricia; Monne, Isabella; Fusaro, Alice; Capua, Ilaria; Manu, Shiiwuua; Micheloni, Pierfrancesco; Ottosson, Ulf; Mshelbwala, John H.; Lubroth, Juan; Domenech, Joseph; Monicat, François

    2008-01-01

    The potential existence of a wild bird reservoir for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recently questioned by the spread and the persisting circulation of H5N1 HPAI viruses, responsible for concurrent outbreaks in migratory and domestic birds over Asia, Europe, and Africa. During a large-scale surveillance programme over Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, we detected avian influenza viruses of H5N2 subtype with a highly pathogenic (HP) viral genotype in healthy birds of two wild waterfowl species sampled in Nigeria. We monitored the survival and regional movements of one of the infected birds through satellite telemetry, providing a rare evidence of a non-lethal natural infection by an HP viral genotype in wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5N2 viruses revealed close genetic relationships with H5 viruses of low pathogenicity circulating in Eurasian wild and domestic ducks. In addition, genetic analysis did not reveal known gallinaceous poultry adaptive mutations, suggesting that the emergence of HP strains could have taken place in either wild or domestic ducks or in non-gallinaceous species. The presence of coexisting but genetically distinguishable avian influenza viruses with an HP viral genotype in two cohabiting species of wild waterfowl, with evidence of non-lethal infection at least in one species and without evidence of prior extensive circulation of the virus in domestic poultry, suggest that some strains with a potential high pathogenicity for poultry could be maintained in a community of wild waterfowl. PMID:18704172

  5. Evidence of infection by H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in healthy wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaidet, N.; Cattoli, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Newman, S.H.; Hagemeijer, W.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Cappelle, J.; Dodman, T.; Joannis, T.; Gil, P.; Monne, I.; Fusaro, A.; Capua, I.; Manu, S.; Micheloni, P.; Ottosson, U.; Mshelbwala, J.H.; Lubroth, J.; Domenech, J.; Monicat, F.

    2008-01-01

    The potential existence of a wild bird reservoir for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recently questioned by the spread and the persisting circulation of H5N1 HPAI viruses, responsible for concurrent outbreaks in migratory and domestic birds over Asia, Europe, and Africa. During a large-scale surveillance programme over Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, we detected avian influenza viruses of H5N2 subtype with a highly pathogenic (HP) viral genotype in healthy birds of two wild waterfowl species sampled in Nigeria. We monitored the survival and regional movements of one of the infected birds through satellite telemetry, providing a rare evidence of a non-lethal natural infection by an HP viral genotype in wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5N2 viruses revealed close genetic relationships with H5 viruses of low pathogenicity circulating in Eurasian wild and domestic ducks. In addition, genetic analysis did not reveal known gallinaceous poultry adaptive mutations, suggesting that the emergence of HP strains could have taken place in either wild or domestic ducks or in non-gallinaceous species. The presence of coexisting but genetically distinguishable avian influenza viruses with an HP viral genotype in two cohabiting species of wild waterfowl, with evidence of non-lethal infection at least in one species and without evidence of prior extensive circulation of the virus in domestic poultry, suggest that some strains with a potential high pathogenicity for poultry could be maintained in a community of wild waterfowl.

  6. Highly (H5N1) and low (H7N2) pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in falcons via nasochoanal route and ingestion of experimentally infected prey.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Busquets, Núria; Abad, Francesc Xavier; García de la Fuente, Jorge; Solanes, David; Cordón, Iván; Costa, Taiana; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2012-01-01

    An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006) or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009), both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5-7 days post-infection (dpi) after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR), which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds of prey and

  7. Application of Molecular and Serological Methods for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infection (Avian mycoplasmosis).

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jafar A; Al-Mouqati, Salwa A; Al-Ali, Ebtesam M; Ben-Haji, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Mycoplasma infection is a major problem in veterinary medicine and in poultry production. The pathogen has many strains, so that diagnosis of the disease using culture method is not effective. The objective of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in Kuwait poultry farms using serology and molecular methods in comparison to the culture under specific conditions. A total of 50 swab samples from choanal cleft and tracheal samples and blood samples were obtained from three different local farms, the blood samples were processed for an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detection and the swab samples for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and culture methods detection. A PCR diagnostic kit (VenoMGs) and ELISA diagnostic kit (ProFLOK), were used in comparison to the traditional culture method, to study the spread of this disease in samples from broiler and layer flocks. Fifty chicken samples were tested for mycoplasmosis, samples tested with ELISA gave 24 positive (48%) and 29 were positive by PCR (58%) and only seven (14%) were positive with culture methods. Swab samples obtained from the choanal cleft gave more positive (60%) with PCR than tracheal samples (56.6%). The culture gave 20 and 5% positive, respectively for tracheal and choanal samples. The methods reported here are of high sensitivity and specificity for Mycoplasma. Both the PCR and ELISA methods are superior to culture method for detection of avian mycoplasmosis. This study showed that MG infection is prevalent in commercial broiler and layer chickens in Kuwait poultry farms. The use of these methods for surveillance of the disease will establish data concerning the predominant Mycoplasmosis diseases in Kuwait if done on a large scale. PMID:26364358

  8. West Nile virus infection rates and avian serology in east-central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lampman, Richard L; Krasavin, Nina M; Ward, Mike P; Beveroth, Tara A; Lankau, Emily W; Alto, Barry W; Muturi, Ephantus; Novak, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the geographic role of different species of mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts in West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycles can facilitate the development and implementation of targeted surveillance and control measures. This study examined the relationship between WNV-antibody rates in birds and mosquito infection rates and bloodfeeding patterns in east-central Illinois. The earliest detection of WNV-RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction TaqMan was from Culex restuans; however, amplification typically coincided with an increase in abundance of Cx. pipiens. Trap type influenced annual estimates of infection rates in Culex species, as well as estimation of blood meal source. Bird species with the highest WNV-antibody rates (i.e., Mourning Doves [Zenaida macroura], Northern Cardinals [Cardinalis cardinalis], American Robins [Turdus migratorius], and House Sparrows [Passer domesticus]) were also the common species found in Culex blood meals. Although antibody rates were not directly proportional to estimated avian abundance, the apparent availability of mammal species did influence proportion of mammal to bird blood meals. Antibody prevalence in the American Robin was lower than expected based on the strong attraction of Culex to American Robins for blood meals. Age-related differences in serology were evident, antibody rates increased in older groups of robins and sparrows, whereas 1st-year hatch and older adults of Mourning Doves and Northern Cardinals had equally high rates of antibody-positive serum samples. The vector and host interactions observed in east-central Illinois (Champaign County), an urban area surrounded by agriculture, are compared to studies in the densely population areas of southern Cook County. PMID:23923325

  9. Neuropathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1) in experimentally infected chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of neuroinvasion of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) into the central nervous system (CNS) of chickens, specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with a H7N1 HPAIV. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nasal cavity and brain tissue samples were obtained from 1 to 4 days post-inoculation (dpi) of infected and control chickens. Viral antigen topographical distribution, presence of influenza A virus receptors in the brain, as well as, the role of the olfactory route in virus CNS invasion were studied using different immunohistochemistry techniques. Besides, viral RNA load in CSF and blood was quantified by means of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Viral antigen was observed widely distributed in the CNS, showing bilateral and symmetrical distribution in the nuclei of the diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. Viral RNA was detected in blood and CSF at one dpi, indicating that the virus crosses the blood-CSF-barrier early during infection. This early dissemination is possibly favoured by the presence of Siaα2,3 Gal and Siaα2,6 Gal receptors in brain vascular endothelial cells, and Siaα2,3 Gal receptors in ependymal and choroid plexus cells. No viral antigen was observed in olfactory sensory neurons, while the olfactory bulb showed only weak staining, suggesting that the virus did not use this pathway to enter into the brain. The sequence of virus appearance and the topographical distribution of this H7N1 HPAIV indicate that the viral entry occurs via the haematogenous route, with early and generalized spreading through the CSF. PMID:21982125

  10. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection. PMID:21385394

  11. Predicting Avian Influenza Co-Infection with H5N1 and H9N2 in Northern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean G; Carrel, Margaret; Malanson, George P; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Human outbreaks with avian influenza have been, so far, constrained by poor viral adaptation to non-avian hosts. This could be overcome via co-infection, whereby two strains share genetic material, allowing new hybrid strains to emerge. Identifying areas where co-infection is most likely can help target spaces for increased surveillance. Ecological niche modeling using remotely-sensed data can be used for this purpose. H5N1 and H9N2 influenza subtypes are endemic in Egyptian poultry. From 2006 to 2015, over 20,000 poultry and wild birds were tested at farms and live bird markets. Using ecological niche modeling we identified environmental, behavioral, and population characteristics of H5N1 and H9N2 niches within Egypt. Niches differed markedly by subtype. The subtype niches were combined to model co-infection potential with known occurrences used for validation. The distance to live bird markets was a strong predictor of co-infection. Using only single-subtype influenza outbreaks and publicly available ecological data, we identified areas of co-infection potential with high accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) 0.991). PMID:27608035

  12. Evaluation of serum chemistry values associated with avian malaria infections in African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Bicknese, E J

    1995-01-01

    The value profiles of 5 intracellular enzymes, 15 metabolites (with 2 associated ratios), and 3 electrolytes were monitored over time in 9 captive-reared African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus) with different avian malaria clinical status: uninfected, subclinically infected, and clinically infected with fatal outcome. Fatal infections were caused by Plasmodium relictum. Numerous schizonts were visible in the lungs, liver, spleen, and interstitial tissue of the kidneys. The reference ranges of 23 serum clinical chemistry parameters and 2 ratios were established for S. demersus. The mean values obtained for 8 of 23 parameters of the infected penguins were significantly different from those recorded for the uninfected birds, indicating impaired renal function, hepatic dysfunction, and nonspecific tissue damage related to the infestation with exoerythrocytic schizonts. Analysis of sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (PPVs) showed that gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatinine reached PPVs and a specificity over 57% for avian malaria infections in penguins. Creatinine, ALT, and GGTP values should be consulted in evaluation of the clinical malaria status of S. demersus. PMID:7624290

  13. Post-mortem findings in a patient with avian influenza A (H5N6) virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, R; Pan, M; Li, X; Zou, X; Zhao, X; Li, T; Yang, H; Zou, S; Bo, H; Xu, J; Li, S; Zhang, M; Li, Z; Wang, D; Zaki, S R; Shu, Y

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza A (H5N6) has been found to infect humans, and has resulted in ten cases with six deaths in China since 2014. Here, we describe the systematic post-mortem pathology of a patient fatally infected with H5N6 virus and evaluate the associated pathogenesis compared with H1N1 pdm09 fatal cases. The most prominent histopathological features were diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary vasculitis in the lungs of the patient. The virus disseminated to extrapulmonary organs, including the brain. Compared with H1N1 pdm09 fatal infection, H5N6 infection induced a more exacerbated immune response involving overt pulmonary inflammation, which led to alveolar damage and respiratory failure. PMID:27040806

  14. Poultry farms as a source of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus reassortment and human infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Donglin; Zou, Shumei; Bai, Tian; Li, Jing; Zhao, Xiang; Yang, Lei; Liu, Hongmin; Li, Xiaodan; Yang, Xianda; Xin, Li; Xu, Shuang; Zou, Xiaohui; Li, Xiyan; Wang, Ao; Guo, Junfeng; Sun, Bingxin; Huang, Weijuan; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiang; Gao, Rongbao; Shen, Bo; Chen, Tao; Dong, Jie; Wei, Hejiang; Wang, Shiwen; Li, Qun; Li, Dexin; Wu, Guizhen; Feng, Zijian; Gao, George F.; Wang, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Fan, Ming; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-01-01

    Live poultry markets are a source of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. On February 21, 2014, a poultry farmer infected with H7N9 virus was identified in Jilin, China, and H7N9 and H9N2 viruses were isolated from the patient's farm. Reassortment between these subtype viruses generated five genotypes, one of which caused the human infection. The date of H7N9 virus introduction to the farm is estimated to be between August 21, 2013 (95% confidence interval [CI] June 6, 2013-October 6, 2013) and September 25, 2013 (95% CI May 28, 2013-January 4, 2014), suggesting that the most likely source of virus introduction was the first batch of poultry purchased in August 2013. The reassortment event that led to the human virus may have occurred between January 2, 2014 (95% CI November 8, 2013-February 12, 2014) and February 12, 2014 (95% CI January 19, 2014-February 18, 2014). Our findings demonstrate that poultry farms could be a source of reassortment between H7N9 virus and H9N2 virus as well as human infection, which emphasizes the importance to public health of active avian influenza surveillance at poultry farms. PMID:25591105

  15. Ecologic risk factor investigation of clusters of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tiensin, Thanawat; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Songserm, Thaweesak; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Wongkasemjit, Surapong; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Chanachai, Karoon; Thanapongtham, Weerapong; Chotinan, Suwit; Stegeman, Arjan; Nielen, Mirjam

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate space and time clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection and to determine risk factors at the subdistrict level in Thailand. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) was diagnosed in 1890 poultry flocks located in 953 subdistricts during 2004-2007. The ecologic risk for H5N1 virus infection was assessed on the basis of a spatial-based case-control study involving 824 case subdistricts and 3296 control subdistricts from 6 study periods. Risk factors investigated in clustered areas of H5N1 included human and animal demographic characteristics, poultry production systems, and wild birds and their habitats. Six variables remained statistically significant in the final model: flock density of backyard chickens (odds ratio [OR], 0.98), flock density of fighting cocks (OR, 1.02), low and high human density (OR, 0.60), presence of quail flocks (OR, 1.21), free-grazing duck flocks (OR, 2.17), and a poultry slaughterhouse (OR, 1.33). We observed a strong association between subdistricts with H5N1 virus-infected poultry flocks and evidence of prior and concomitant H5N1 infection in wild birds in the same subdistrict. PMID:19416075

  16. Use of genomic interspecies microarray hybridization to detect differentially expressed genes associated with H5N1 avian influenza virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have changed from producing mild respiratory infections in ducks, to some strains producing severe disease and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in host response to infection with H5N1 HPAI viruses w...

  17. Using mean infectious dose of wild duck-and poultry-origin high and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses as one measure of infectivity and adaptation to poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mean infectious doses of selected avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates, determined in domestic poultry under experimental conditions, were shown to be both host and virus dependent and could be considered one measure of the infectivity and adaptation to a specific host. As such, the mean infect...

  18. Differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) using recombinant fowlpox-H5 Avian-Influenza vaccine and standard serological tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines protect chickens from morbidity and mortality and reduce, but do not completely prevent, respiratory and intestinal replication of an AI challenge virus. Therefore, surveillance programs must be developed to differentiate infected from non-infected flocks of vaccinated ...

  19. Differential expression of immune-related cytokine genes in response to J group avian leukosis virus infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanni; Liu, Yongzhen; Guan, Xiaolu; Li, Xiaofei; Yun, Bingling; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2015-03-01

    Infection with J group avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) can result in immunosuppression and subsequently increased susceptibility to secondary infection. The innate immune system is the first line defense system in prevention of further bacterial and viral infections. Cytokines play key roles in the innate immune system. In this study, we used RT-qPCR technology to test the cytokine mRNA expression levels in various immune tissues, including the spleen, bursa of fabricius and cecal tonsil, in the days following ALV-J infection. The results indicated that in the infected group, the expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, interferon-α (IFN-α) and IFN-γ significantly increased in the spleen and reached peak levels that were thousandfolds higher than baselines at 9-12 days post-infection (d.p.i.). The levels in the bursa of fabricius slightly increased, and the levels in the cecal tonsil were not significantly altered. Moreover, the pattern of the expression of these three cytokines in the spleens of the infected group was similar to the pattern of viremia of this group. These results suggest that the spleen plays an important role in the interaction between ALV-J infection and the innate immune system. This study contributes to the understanding of innate immune responses to ALV-J infection and also elucidates the mechanisms of the pathogenicity of ALV-J in chickens. PMID:25438822

  20. First reported detection of a low pathogenicity avian influenza virus subtype H9 infection in domestic fowl in England.

    PubMed

    Parker, C D; Reid, S M; Ball, A; Cox, W J; Essen, S C; Hanna, A; Mahmood, S; Slomka, M J; Irvine, R M; Brown, I H

    2012-10-13

    In December 2010, infection with a H9N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus was detected in a broiler breeder flock in East Anglia. Disease suspicion was based on acute drops in egg production in two of four sheds on the premises, poor egg shell quality and evidence of diarrhoea. H9N1 LPAI virus infection was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Sequencing revealed high nucleotide identity of 93.6 per cent and 97.9 per cent with contemporary North American H9 and Eurasian N1 genes, respectively. Attempted virus isolation in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) fowls' eggs was unsuccessful. Epidemiological investigations were conducted to identify the source of infection and any onward spread. These concluded that infection was restricted to the affected premises, and no contacts or movements of poultry, people or fomites could be attributed as the source of infection. However, the infection followed a period of extremely cold weather and snow which impacted on the biosecurity protocols on site, and also led to increased wild bird activity locally, including waterfowl and game birds around the farm buildings. Analysis of the N1 gene sequence suggested direct introduction from wild birds. Although H9 infection in poultry is not notifiable, H9N2 LPAI viruses have been associated with production and mortality episodes in poultry in many parts of Asia and the Middle East. In the present H9N1 outbreak, clinical signs were relatively mild in the poultry with no mortality, transient impact on egg production and no indication of zoonotic spread. However, this first reported detection of H9 LPAI virus in chickens in England was also the first H9 UK poultry case for 40 years, and vindicates the need for continued vigilance and surveillance of avian influenza viruses in poultry populations. PMID:22949546

  1. Subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection of chicken dendritic cells induces apoptosis via the aberrant expression of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Di; Dai, Manman; Zhang, Xu; Cao, Weisheng; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that causes immunosuppression and enhances susceptibility to secondary infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense in preventing bacterial and viral infections, and dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in innate immunity. Because bone marrow is an organ that is susceptible to ALV-J, the virus may influence the generation of bone marrow-derived DCs. In this study, DCs cultured in vitro were used to investigate the effects of ALV infection. The results revealed that ALV-J could infect these cells during the early stages of differentiation, and infection of DCs with ALV-J resulted in apoptosis. miRNA sequencing data of uninfected and infected DCs revealed 122 differentially expressed miRNAs, with 115 demonstrating upregulation after ALV-J infection and the other 7 showing significant downregulation. The miRNAs that exhibited the highest levels of upregulation may suppress nutrient processing and metabolic function. These results indicated that ALV-J infection of chicken DCs could induce apoptosis via aberrant microRNA expression. These results provide a solid foundation for the further study of epigenetic influences on ALV-J-induced immunosuppression. PMID:26830017

  2. Transmission of an H5N8-Subtype Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus from Infected Hens to Laid Eggs.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yuko; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Tanikawa, Taichiro; Kanehira, Katsushi; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    We showed here that an H5N8-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was transmitted to both the internal contents and shells of eggs laid by white leghorn hens experimentally infected with the virus. Seven of eight HPAIV-infected hens laid eggs until 4 days postinoculation (dpi). The mean number of eggs laid per head daily decreased significantly from 0.58 before inoculation to 0.18 after viral inoculation. The virus was detected in the eggs laid by three of the seven hens. Viral transmission was detectable beginning on 3 dpi, and virus titers in tracheal and cloacal swabs from the hens that laid the contaminated eggs exceeded 2.9 log10 EID50. The level of viral replication and its timing when virus replicates enough to be detected in oviduct after virus inoculation appear to be key factors in the transmission of H5N8 HPAIV from infected hens to laid eggs. PMID:27309286

  3. The comparison of pathology in ferrets infected by H9N2 avian influenza viruses with different genomic features.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rongbao; Bai, Tian; Li, Xiaodan; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Yiwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Ye; Bo, Hong; Zou, Shumei; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-15

    H9N2 avian influenza virus circulates widely in poultry and has been responsible for sporadic human infections in several regions. Few studies have been conducted on the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV isolates that have different genomic features. We compared the pathology induced by a novel reassortant H9N2 virus and two currently circulating H9N2 viruses that have different genomic features in ferrets. The results showed that the three viruses can induce infections with various amounts of viral shedding in ferrets. The novel H9N2 induced respiratory infection, but no pathological lesions were observed in lung tissues. The other two viruses induced mild to intermediate pathological lesions in lung tissues, although the clinical signs presented mildly in ferrets. The pathological lesions presented a diversity consistent with viral replication in ferrets. PMID:26638019

  4. Wildlife disease and conservation in Hawaii: pathogenicity of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in experimentally infected Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Woods, K.L.; Dusek, R.J.; Sileo, L.S.; Iko, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forest birds are facing a major extinction crisis with more than 75% of species recorded in historical times either extinct or endangered. Reasons for this catastrophe include habitat destruction, competition with non-native species, and introduction of predators and avian diseases. We tested susceptibility of Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea), a declining native species, and Nutmeg Mannikins (Lonchura punctulata), a common non-native species, to an isolate of Plasmodium relictum from the island of Hawaii. Food consumption, weight, and parasitaemia were monitored in juvenile Iiwi that were infected by either single (low-dose) or multiple (high-dose) mosquito bites. Mortality in both groups was significantly higher than in uninfected controls, reaching 100% of high-dose birds and 90% of low-dose birds. Significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss of body weight occurred in malaria-infected birds. Both sex and body weight had significant effects on survival time, with males more susceptible than females and birds with low initial weights more susceptible than those with higher initial weights. Gross and microscopic lesions in malaria fatalities included massive enlargement of the spleen and liver, hyperplasia of the reticuloendothelial system with extensive deposition of malarial pigment, and overwhelming anaemia in which over 30% of the circulating erythrocytes were parasitized. Nutmeg Mannikins, by contrast, were completely refractory to infection. Our findings support previous studies documenting high susceptibility of native Hawaiian forest birds to avian malaria. This disease continues to threaten remaining high elevation populations of endangered native birds.

  5. Seasonal pattern of avian Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and implications for parasite transmission in central Panama.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J

    2013-11-01

    Aedeomyia squamipennis and Culex (Melanoconion) ocossa, two ubiquitous Neotropical mosquito species, are likely involved in the transmission of several bird pathogens in Gamboa, central Panama. However, knowledge on their eco-epidemiological profiles is still incomplete. Our goal in this study was to investigate temporal trends of vector density and their relationship with avian plasmodia prevalence. This information is central to identifying the risk posed by each vector species to the avian community locally. We found that A. squamipennis maintains stable population size across climatic seasons and thus maybe a more efficient vector of avian malaria than C. ocossa. In contrast, C. ocossa, which undergoes considerable population expansion in the rainy season and contraction in the dry season, is likely only an important avian malaria vector during part of the year. This is consistent with the larger number of parasite isolations and Plasmodium cyt b lineages recovered from A. squamipennis than from C. ocossa and might be explained by marked differences in their seasonality and host-feeding preferences. More Plasmodium PCR testing in mosquito communities from other areas of Panama might reveal additional vectors of avian plasmodia. PMID:23974324

  6. Comparative pathology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in avian species in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen species of ducks, geese, swans and gulls present in the North American wild bird populations were inoculated intranasally with A/Whooper Swan/Mongolia/244/05 (H5N1) avian influenza virus to evaluate the range of viral shedding and pathology within these two avian orders. Based on mortality...

  7. Natural Infection with Avian Hepatitis E Virus and Marek's Disease Virus in Brown Layer Chickens in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuqing; Wang, Liyuan; Sun, Shuhong

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and serotype-1 strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV-1) were detected from a flock of 27-wk-old brown layer hens in China, accompanied by an average daily mortality of 0.44%. Postmortem examination of 25 sick hens and five apparently healthy hens selected randomly from the flock showed significant pathologic changes consistent with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS), including hepatomegaly, peritoneal fluid, and hepatic subcapsular hemorrhages. Microscopic examination of these livers showed multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and mild lymphocytic infiltration. These liver samples were investigated for HEV by reverse-transcription PCR. The overall detection rate of HEV RNA in samples of sick chickens was about 56% (14/25), while in samples from apparently healthy hens, it was 80% (4/5). Sequencing analysis of three 242-base-pair fragments of the helicase gene revealed 95.5% to 97.9% nucleotide identity compared with published avian HEV genotype 3, whereas identities demonstrated only 77.3% to 86.0% similarity when compared with genotypes 1, 2, and 4. Unexpectedly, the MDV meq gene was detected in livers from both apparently healthy chickens (2/5) and sick chickens (12/25) by PCR analysis. The meq gene (396 base pairs) was determined to belong to MDV-1 by further sequencing. The co-infection rate of avian HEV and MDV in this flock was 30% (9/30). This is the first report of dual infection of a nonenvelope RNA virus (HEV) with a herpesvirus (MDV) in chickens in China. PMID:27610734

  8. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus, a powerful tool for control of the disease, may result in issues related to surveillance programs and international trade of poultry and poultry products. The use of AI vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test...

  9. Aberrant expression of liver microRNA in chickens infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus primarily causing myeloid leukosis (ML) in broilers. Although ALV is well under control in a few countries including the U.S.A., poultry industry in many parts of the world continues suffering from serious economic loss due to sporad...

  10. Avian haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida): A comparative analysis of different polymerase chain reaction assays in detection of mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Bernotienė, Rasa; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana; Murauskaitė, Dovilė; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-04-01

    Mixed infections of different species and genetic lineages of haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida) predominate in wildlife, and such infections are particularly virulent. However, currently used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection methods often do not read mixed infections. Sensitivity of different PCR assays in detection of mixed infections has been insufficiently tested, but this knowledge is essential in studies addressing parasite diversity in wildlife. Here, we applied five different PCR assays, which are broadly used in wildlife avian haemosporidian research, and compared their sensitivity in detection of experimentally designed mixed infections of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites. Three of these PCR assays use primer sets that amplify fragments of cytochrome b gene (cyt b), one of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and one target apicoplast genome. We collected blood from wild-caught birds and, using microscopic and PCR-based methods applied in parallel, identified single infections of ten haemosporidian species with similar parasitemia. Then, we prepared 15 experimental mixes of different haemosporidian parasites, which often are present simultaneously in wild birds. Similar concentration of total DNA was used in each parasite lineage during preparation of mixes. Positive amplifications were sequenced, and the presence of mixed infections was reported by visualising double-base calling in sequence electropherograms. This study shows that the use of each single PCR assay markedly underestimates biodiversity of haemosporidian parasites. The application of at least 3 PCR assays in parallel detected the majority, but still not all lineages present in mixed infections. We determined preferences of different primers in detection of parasites belonging to different genera of haemosporidians during mixed infections. PMID:26821298

  11. Annual survival of ruddy turnstones is not affected by natural infection with low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Angela M; Porter, Ronald R; Luttrell, M Page; Goekjian, Virginia H; Dey, Amanda D; Kalasz, Kevin S; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

    2012-09-01

    The population of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres morinella) that migrates through Delaware Bay has undergone severe declines in recent years, attributable to reduced availability of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs at this critical spring migration stopover site. Concurrently, this population has experienced annual low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemics at this same site. Using a prospective cohort study design with birds individually flagged during May-June 2006-2008, we evaluated resighting rates (a proxy for annual survival) between AIV-infected and uninfected birds at 1 yr after capture, testing, and measurement. Overall resighting rate was 46%, which varied by year and increased with relative mass of the bird when captured. Resighting rates were not different between AIV-infected and uninfected birds in any period. In multivariate analyses, infection status was also unrelated to resighting rate after controlling for year, day, state, sex, body size, mass index, or whether the bird was blood-sampled. Thus, apparent annual survival in ruddy turnstones was not reduced by AIV infection at this migratory stopover. However, it is unknown whether intestinal AIV infection might cause subtle reductions in weight gain which could negatively influence reproduction. PMID:23050475

  12. Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur. PMID:15847721

  13. Avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary A; Maslow, Melanie J

    2006-03-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004 alone, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate over 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantines, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent increased human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short, interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems offer promise, should a pandemic occur. PMID:16566867

  14. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Exposure to lentogenic NDV, either from live vaccines or field strains, is nearly unavoidable for poultry, and co-infections with low pathogenic (LP) AIV are expected to ...

  15. Experimental infection with low and high pathogenicity H7N3 Chilean avian influenza viruses in Chiloe Wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been associated with natural, lethal infections in wild aquatic birds which have been reproduced experimentally. Some aquatic bird species have been suggested as potential transporters of H5N1 HPAI virus via migration. However, ...

  16. Variation in infectivity and adaptation of wild duck- and poultry-origin high pathogenicity and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses vary in their adaptation which impacts transmission between and infection of different bird species. We determine the intranasal mean bird infectious doses (BID50) for 11 high pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses for layer type chickens (LC), and three low pathogenicity (LP) A...

  17. EMERGENCE OF SUBGROUP J AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODY ESCAPE VARIANTS IN MEAT-TYPE CHICKENS INFECTED WITH VIRUS AT HATCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of meat-type chickens at hatch with field isolates of Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV J) results in a high incidence of chickens with persistent viremia even in the presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against the inoculated parental virus (V+A+). The purpose of this study was t...

  18. Experimental co-infection of chickens with lentogenic, mesogenic and velogenic strains of Newcastle disease viruses and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from the clinical point of view and diagnosis of these viruses, but little is known on t...

  19. Host antiviral defenses induced by a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus prevents infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. To evaluate the dynamics of AIV-NDV co-i...

  20. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens decrease egg production and eggs that are laid contain HPAIV. Vaccination once or twice was examined as a way to protect chickens from Vietnamese H5N1 HPAIV. Eighty-three percent of hens without vaccination died within 3 days ...

  1. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens produce a negative impact on egg production, and virus is deposited on surface and internal contents of eggs. Previously, vaccination maintained egg production and reduced egg contamination when challenged with a North American H...

  2. COMPARISON OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES FROM AVIAN GUT TISSUES AFTER E. ACERVULINA AND E. MAXIMA INFECTIONS USING cDNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the host response during pathogen infection will extend our knowledge of pathogenesis and enhance the development of novel preventive methodologies against important infectious diseases. In the current study, we developed 9.6K avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarra...

  3. Avian Influenza in Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... and even kill certain domesticated bird species including chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Infected birds can shed avian ... virus’ ability to cause disease and mortality in chickens in a laboratory setting [2.5 MB, 64 ...

  4. Profiles of acute cytokine and antibody responses in patients infected with avian influenza A H7N9.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Qin; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Hao, Yingying; Zhang, Kui; Liu, Yong; Dong, Danjiang; Wang, Shixia; Huang, Zuhu; Lu, Shan; Wu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The influenza A H7N9 virus outbreak in Eastern China in the spring of 2013 represented a novel, emerging avian influenza transmission to humans. While clinical and microbiological features of H7N9 infection have been reported in the literature, the current study investigated acute cytokine and antibody responses in acute H7N9 infection. Between March 27, 2013 and April 23, 2013, six patients with confirmed H7N9 influenza infection were admitted to Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China. Acute phase serum cytokine profiles were determined using a high-throughput multiplex assay. Daily H7 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA responses were monitored by ELISA. Neutralizing antibodies specific for H7N9 viruses were determined against a pseudotyped virus expressing the novel H7 subtype HA antigen. Five cytokines (IL-6, IP-10, IL-10, IFNγ, and TNFα) were significantly elevated in H7N9-infected patients when compared to healthy volunteers. Serum H7 HA-specific IgG, as well as IgM and IgA responses, were detected within 8 days of disease onset and increased in a similar pattern during acute infection. Neutralizing antibodies developed shortly after the appearance of binding antibody responses and showed similar kinetics as a fraction of the total H7 HA-specific IgG responses. H7N9 infection resulted in hallmark serum cytokine increases, which correlated with fever and disease persistence. The novel finding of simultaneous development of IgG, IgM, and IgA responses in acute H7N9 infection points to the potential for live influenza viruses to elicit fast and potent protective antibodies to limit the infection. PMID:25003343

  5. Transcription factor regulation and cytokine expression following in vitro infection of primary chicken cell culture with low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) induced proinflammatory cytokine expression is believed to contribute to the disease pathogenesis following infection of poultry. However, there is limited information on the avian immune response to infection with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). Methods To gain a better understanding of the early viral-host interactions of LPAIV in chickens, primary chicken embryo hepatocytes (CEH) were infected with four different LPAIVs of U.S. origin. Kinetics of virus replication, transcription factor (c-Jun, p50 and IRF-3) activation and immune response gene (IL-6, IL-1beta, IFN-alpha and Mx) expression were studied at four different time points (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) post infection and compared to non-infected controls. Results CEH can support growth of the tested LPAIVs when with trypsin supplementation. All four immune response genes tested were upregulated following infection as were transcription factors c-Jun, p50 and IRF-3. Amplification of these genes was dependant on virus replication (e.g. inclusion of trypsin), such that immune response genes and transcription factors were upregulated as viral titers increased. Conclusion The results of these studies demonstrate the requirement of virus replication for innate immune regulation and broaden our understanding of transcription factor responses related to LPAIV infection in chickens. PMID:24252391

  6. Environmental connections of novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus infection and virus adaptation to the human.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yu, Xinfen; Pu, Xiaoying; Xie, Li; Sun, Yongxiang; Xiao, Haixia; Wang, Fenjuan; Din, Hua; Wu, Ying; Liu, Di; Zhao, Guoqiu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Jingcao

    2013-06-01

    A novel H7N9 influenza A virus has been discovered as the causative identity of the emerging acute respiratory infection cases in Shanghai, China. This virus has also been identified in cases of infection in the neighboring area Hangzhou City in Zhejiang Province. In this study, epidemiologic, clinical, and virological data from three patients in Hangzhou who were confirmed to be infected by the novel H7N9 influenza A virus were collected and analyzed. Human respiratory specimens and chicken feces from a contacted free market were tested for influenza virus by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and sequencing. The clinical features of the three cases were similar featured with high fever and severe respiratory symptoms; however, only one of the patients died. A certain degree of diversity was observed among the three Hangzhou viruses sequenced from human samples compared with other reported H7N9 influenza A viruses. The sequences of the novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses from Hangzhou City contained important amino acid substitutions related to human adaptation. One of the Hangzhou viruses had gained a novel amino acid substitution (Q226I) in the receptor binding region of hemagglutinin. More importantly, the virus sequenced from the chicken feces had a 627E substitution in the PB2 protein instead of the mammalian-adapted 627K substitution that was found in the PB2 proteins from the Hangzhou viruses from the three patients. Therefore, the newly-emerging H7N9 virus might be under adaptation pressure that will help it "jump" from avian to human hosts. The significance of these substitutions needs further exploration, with both laboratory experiments and extensive field surveillance. PMID:23657795

  7. Roles of avian herpesvirus microRNAs in infection, latency, and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robin W; Burnside, Joan

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been reported for the avian herpesviruses Marek's disease virus 1 (MDV1; oncogenic), Marek's disease virus 2 (MDV2; non-oncogenic), herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). No obvious phylogenetic relationships exist among the avian herpesvirus microRNAs, but the general genomic locations of microRNA clusters are conserved, with microRNAs being located in the repeat regions of the genomes. In some cases, microRNAs are antisense to open reading frames. Among MDV1 field isolates with different virulence properties, microRNAs are highly conserved, and variations that have been observed lie in putative promoter regions. One cluster of MDV1 microRNAs lies upstream of the meq gene, and this cluster is more highly expressed in tumors caused by an extremely virulent MDV1 isolate compared to tumors caused by a less virulent isolate. Several of the avian herpesvirus microRNAs are orthologs of microRNAs in other species. For example, mdv1-miR-M4 shares a seed sequence with gga-miR-155 (also shared with Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) kshv-miR-K12), mdv2-miR-M21 shares a seed with miR-29b, and hvt-miR-H14 shares a seed sequence with miR-221. Functional analyses of avian herpesvirus microRNAs include a variety of in vitro assays to demonstrate potential function as well as the use of mutants that can exploit the ability to assess phenotypes experimentally in the natural host. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled:MicroRNA's in viral gene regulation. PMID:21683170

  8. Human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Li, Hong; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus has caused four human infections in China. This study reports the preliminary findings of the first known human case of H5N6 in Yunnan province. The patient initially developed symptoms of sore throat and coughing on 27 January 2015. The disease rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunctions and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the patient died on 6 February. Virological analysis determined that the virus belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 and it has obtained partial ability for mammalian adaptation and amantadine resistance. Environmental investigation found H5 in 63% of the samples including poultry faeces, tissues, cage surface swabs and sewage from local live poultry markets by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that the expanding and enhancing of surveillance in both avian and humans are necessary to monitor the evolution of H5 influenza virus and to facilitate early detection of suspected cases. PMID:27030920

  9. Deterioration of eggshell quality in laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xuefeng; Tan, Dan; Wu, Chengqi; Tang, Chao; Li, Tao; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Liu, Caihong; Li, Ruiqiao; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) affects eggshell quality. Thirty-week-old specific pathogen free egg-laying hens were inoculated with the chicken-origin H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) or with inoculating media without virus by combined intraocular and intranasal routes. The time course for the appearance of viral antigen and tissue lesions in the oviduct was coincident with the adverse changes in egg production in the infected hens. The viral loads of AIV have a close correlation with the changes in the uterus CaBP-D28k mRNA expression as well as the Ca concentrations in the eggshells in the infected hens from 1 to 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Ultrastructural examination of eggshells showed significantly decreased shell thickness in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi (P < 0.05). Furthermore, obvious changes in the structure of the external shell surface and shell membrane were detected in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi as compared with the control hens. In conclusion, this study confirmed that H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) infection is associated with severe lesions of the uterus and abnormal expression of CaBP-D28k mRNA in the uteri of the infected hens. The change of CaBP-D28k mRNA expression may contribute to the deterioration of the eggshell quality of the laying hens infected with AIV. It is noteworthy that the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV strains may vary depending on the virus strain and host preference. PMID:26915662

  10. Parrot Bornavirus (PaBV)-2 isolate causes different disease patterns in cockatiels than PaBV-4.

    PubMed

    Piepenbring, Anne K; Enderlein, Dirk; Herzog, Sibylle; Al-Ibadi, Basim; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Heckmann, Julia; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Herden, Christiane; Lierz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Psittaciform 1 bornavirus (PaBV) has already been shown to be the aetiologic agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a significant disease of birds. However, the pathogenesis of PaBV infection has not yet been resolved and valid data regarding the pathogenicity of different PaBV species are lacking. Thus, the present study was aimed to characterize the influence of two different PaBV species on the course of disease. Eighteen cockatiels were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with a PaBV-2 isolate under the same conditions as in a previous study using PaBV-4. Birds were surveyed and sampled for 33 weeks to analyse the course of infection and disease in comparison to that of PaBV-4. Similar to PaBV-4, PaBV-2 induced a persistent infection with seroconversion (from day 6 p.i. onwards) and shedding of viral RNA (from day 27 p.i. onwards). However, in contrast to PaBV-4, more birds displayed clinical signs and disease progression was more severe. After PaBV-2 infection, 12 birds exhibited clinical signs and 10 birds revealed a dilated proventriculus in necropsy. After PaBV-4 infection only four birds revealed clinical signs and seven birds showed a dilatation of the proventriculus. Clinically, different courses of disease were observed after PaBV-2 infection, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. This had not been detected after PaBV-4 infection where more neurological signs were noted. The results provide evidence for different disease patterns according to different PaBV species, allowing the comparison between the infection with two PaBV species, and thus underlining the role of viral and individual host factors for disease outcome. PMID:27100150

  11. gga-miR-375 plays a key role in tumorigenesis post subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused in part by subgroup J avian leukosis virus J (ALV-J). Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play pivotal oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in tumour development and progression. However, little is known about the potential role of miRNAs in avian leukosis...

  12. Serologic surveillance of swine H1 and H3 and avian H5 and H9 influenza A virus infections in swine population in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Song, Dae-Sub; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Oh, Jin-Sik; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2007-05-16

    Influenza A is a respiratory disease common in the swine industry. Three subtypes, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, are currently co-circulating in swine populations in Korea. An outbreak of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus occurred in domestic bird farms in Korea during the winter season of 2003. Pigs can serve as hosts for avian influenza viruses, enabling passage of the virus to other mammals and recombination of mammalian and avian influenza viruses, which are more readily transmissible to humans. This study reports the current seroprevalence of swine H1 and H3 influenza in swine populations in Korea by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. We also investigated whether avian H5 and H9 influenza transmission occurred in pigs from Korea using both the HI and neutralization (NT) tests. 51.2% (380/742) of serum samples tested were positive against the swine H1 virus and 43.7% (324/742) were positive against the swine H3 virus by HI assay. The incidence of seropositivity against both the swine H1 virus and the swine H3 virus was 25.3% (188/742). On the other hand, none of the samples tested showed seropositivity against either the avian H5 virus or the avian H9 virus by the HI and NT tests. Therefore, we report the high current seroprevalence and co-infectivity of swine H1 and H3 influenza viruses in swine populations and the lack of seroepidemiological evidence of avian H5 and H9 influenza transmission to Korean pigs. PMID:17223213

  13. Evaluating the cell mediated immune response of avian species to avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measurement of avian cellular immunity is critical to understanding the role and regulation of avian lymphocytes following avian influenza virus infection. Although the ability to measure avian T cell responses has steadily increased over the last few years, few studies have examined the role o...

  14. Global and quantitative proteomic analysis of dogs infected by avian-like H3N2 canine influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Tian, Jin; Hong, Malin; Zhou, Pei; Lu, Gang; Zhu, Huachen; Zhang, Guihong; Lai, Alexander; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Canine influenza virus A (H3N2) is a newly emerged etiological agent for respiratory infections in dogs. The mechanism of interspecies transmission from avian to canine species and the development of diseases in this new host remain to be explored. To investigate this, we conducted a differential proteomics study in 2-month-old beagles inoculated intranasally with 106 TCID50 of A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2) virus. Lung sections excised at 12 h post-inoculation (hpi), 4 days, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) were processed for global and quantitative analysis of differentially expressed proteins. A total of 17,796 proteins were identified at different time points. About 1.6% was differentially expressed between normal and infected samples. Of these, 23, 27, and 136 polypeptides were up-regulated, and 14, 18, and 123 polypeptides were down-regulated, at 12 hpi, 4 dpi, and 7 dpi, respectively. Vann diagram analysis indicated that 17 proteins were up-regulated and one was down-regulated at all three time points. Selected proteins were validated by real-time PCR and by Western blot. Our results show that apoptosis and cytoskeleton-associated proteins expression was suppressed, whereas interferon-induced proteins plus other innate immunity proteins were induced after the infection. Understanding of the interactions between virus and the host will provide insights into the basis of interspecies transmission, adaptation, and virus pathogenicity. PMID:25883591

  15. A confirmed severe case of human infection with avian-origin influenza H7N9: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CAO, HUI-FANG; LIANG, ZHONG-HUI; FENG, YING; ZHANG, ZI-NAN; XU, JING; HE, HE

    2015-01-01

    A male patient, aged 77 years, was admitted to hospital with the chief complaint of persistent hyperpyrexia that had presented for four days. The patient also suffered from hypoxemia, and a large white shadow in the left lung was observed on a chest radiograph, indicating inflammation. No therapeutic effect was observed with anti-infection treatment. The patient admitted a history of direct contact with live chickens two weeks prior to hospital admission. The day after admission to the Jingnan District Centre Hospital of Shanghai (Shanghai, China), the patient was diagnosed with severe H7N9 avian influenza infection by nasopharyngeal swab and blood sampling detection. Although the patient received anti-infective drugs, intubated assisted ventilation and circulation support, the condition of the patient continued to rapidly deteriorate. Oxygen saturation decreased and gastrointestinal bleeding occurred, with the body temperature fluctuating between 39 and 40°C. By day 6 after admission, the patient presented with circulatory failure, with liver and renal failure. On day 7, the blood pressure of the patient was unable to be measured, and the patient was diagnosed with multiple organ dysfunction. Subsequently, clinical death was declared with the patient exhibiting asystole and no spontaneous breathing. PMID:25667615

  16. Host Regulatory Network Response to Infection with Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengjun; Bankhead, Armand; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Hatta, Yasuko; Jeng, Sophia; Chang, Jean H.; Aicher, Lauri D.; Proll, Sean; Ellis, Amy L.; Law, G. Lynn; Waters, Katrina M.; Neumann, Gabriele; Katze, Michael G.; McWeeney, Shannon; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, more than half of humans infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have died, yet virus-induced host signaling has yet to be clearly elucidated. Airway epithelia are known to produce inflammatory mediators that contribute to HPAI H5N1-mediated pathogenicity, but a comprehensive analysis of the host response in this cell type is lacking. Here, we leveraged a system approach to identify and statistically validate signaling subnetworks that define the dynamic transcriptional response of human bronchial epithelial cells after infection with influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1, VN1203). Importantly, we validated a subset of transcripts from one subnetwork in both Calu-3 cells and mice. A more detailed examination of two subnetworks involved in the immune response and keratinization processes revealed potential novel mediators of HPAI H5N1 pathogenesis and host response signaling. Finally, we show how these results compare to those for a less virulent strain of influenza virus. Using emergent network properties, we provide fresh insight into the host response to HPAI H5N1 virus infection and identify novel avenues for perturbation studies and potential therapeutic interventions for fatal HPAI H5N1 disease. PMID:21865398

  17. Mhc supertypes confer both qualitative and quantitative resistance to avian malaria infections in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Sepil, Irem; Lachish, Shelly; Hinks, Amy E.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes are believed to play a key role in the genetic basis of disease control. Although numerous studies have sought links between Mhc and disease prevalence, many have ignored the ecological and epidemiological aspects of the host–parasite interaction. Consequently, interpreting associations between prevalence and Mhc has been difficult, whereas discriminating alleles for qualitative resistance, quantitative resistance and susceptibility remains challenging. Moreover, most studies to date have quantified associations between genotypes and disease status, overlooking the complex relationship between genotype and the properties of the Mhc molecule that interacts with parasites. Here, we address these problems and demonstrate avian malaria (Plasmodium) parasite species-specific associations with functional properties of Mhc molecules (Mhc supertypes) in a wild great tit (Parus major) population. We further show that correctly interpreting these associations depends crucially on understanding the spatial variation in risk of infection and the fitness effects of infection. We report that a single Mhc supertype confers qualitative resistance to Plasmodium relictum, whereas a different Mhc supertype confers quantitative resistance to Plasmodium circumflexum infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate common functional properties of Plasmodium-resistance alleles in passerine birds, suggesting this is a model system for parasite–Mhc associations in the wild. PMID:23516242

  18. Risk Distribution of Human Infections with Avian Influenza H7N9 and H5N1 virus in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Lou; Yang, Yang; Sun, Ye; Chen, Wan-Jun; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Liu, Kun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Liang, Song; Yao, Hong-Wu; Gray, Gregory C; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    It has been documented that the epidemiological characteristics of human infections with H7N9 differ significantly between H5N1. However, potential factors that may explain the different spatial distributions remain unexplored. We use boosted regression tree (BRT) models to explore the association of agro-ecological, environmental and meteorological variables with the occurrence of human cases of H7N9 and H5N1, and map the probabilities of occurrence of human cases. Live poultry markets, density of human, coverage of built-up land, relative humidity and precipitation were significant predictors for both. In addition, density of poultry, coverage of shrub and temperature played important roles for human H7N9 infection, whereas human H5N1 infection was associated with coverage of forest and water body. Based on the risks and distribution of ecological characteristics which may facilitate the circulation of the two viruses, we found Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, along with a few spots on the southeast coastline, to be the high risk areas for H7N9 and H5N1. Additional, H5N1 risk spots were identified in eastern Sichuan and southern Yunnan Provinces. Surveillance of the two viruses needs to be enhanced in these high risk areas to reduce the risk of future epidemics of avian influenza in China. PMID:26691585

  19. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G R William; Robinson, Timothy P; Tatem, Andrew J; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease. PMID:24937647

  20. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G. R. William; Robinson, Timothy P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P.; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Hay, Simon I.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease. PMID:24937647

  1. Risk Distribution of Human Infections with Avian Influenza H7N9 and H5N1 virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Lou; Yang, Yang; Sun, Ye; Chen, Wan-Jun; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Liu, Kun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Liang, Song; Yao, Hong-Wu; Gray, Gregory C.; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    It has been documented that the epidemiological characteristics of human infections with H7N9 differ significantly between H5N1. However, potential factors that may explain the different spatial distributions remain unexplored. We use boosted regression tree (BRT) models to explore the association of agro-ecological, environmental and meteorological variables with the occurrence of human cases of H7N9 and H5N1, and map the probabilities of occurrence of human cases. Live poultry markets, density of human, coverage of built-up land, relative humidity and precipitation were significant predictors for both. In addition, density of poultry, coverage of shrub and temperature played important roles for human H7N9 infection, whereas human H5N1 infection was associated with coverage of forest and water body. Based on the risks and distribution of ecological characteristics which may facilitate the circulation of the two viruses, we found Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, along with a few spots on the southeast coastline, to be the high risk areas for H7N9 and H5N1. Additional, H5N1 risk spots were identified in eastern Sichuan and southern Yunnan Provinces. Surveillance of the two viruses needs to be enhanced in these high risk areas to reduce the risk of future epidemics of avian influenza in China. PMID:26691585

  2. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Infection Among Egyptians: A Prospective, Controlled Seroepidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R.; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Elabd, Mona A.; Zeid, Dina Abu; Zaki, Shaimaa A.; El Rifay, Amira S.; Sherif, Lobna S.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Kayali, Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    Background. A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) avian influenza viruses are enzootic in Egyptian poultry, and most A(H5N1) human cases since 2009 have occurred in Egypt. Our understanding of the epidemiology of avian viruses in humans remains limited. Questions about the frequency of infection, the proportion of infections that are mild or subclinical, and the case-fatality rate remain largely unanswered. Methods. We conducted a 3-year, prospective, controlled, seroepidemiological study that enrolled 750 poultry-exposed and 250 unexposed individuals in Egypt. Results. At baseline, the seroprevalence of anti-A(H5N1) antibodies (titer, ≥80) among exposed individuals was 2% significantly higher than that among the controls (0%). Having chronic lung disease was a significant risk factor for infection. Antibodies against A(H9N2) were not detected at baseline when A(H9N2) was not circulating in poultry. At follow-up, A(H9N2) was detected in poultry, and consequently, the seroprevalence among exposed humans was between 5.6% and 7.5%. Vaccination of poultry, older age, and exposure to ducks were risk factors for A(H9N2) infection. Conclusions. Results of this study indicate that the number of humans infected with avian influenza viruses is much larger than the number of reported confirmed cases. In an area where these viruses are enzootic in the poultry, human exposure to and infection with avian influenza becomes more common. PMID:25355942

  3. Infection Risk for Persons Exposed to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Virus-Infected Birds, United States, December 2014-March 2015.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Carmen S; Nelson, Deborah I; Deliberto, Thomas J; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Levine, Min Z; Trock, Susan C; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A H5 viruses have caused outbreaks among birds in the United States. These viruses differ genetically from HPAI H5 viruses that previously caused human illness, most notably in Asia and Africa. To assess the risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission in the United States, we determined the number of persons with self-reported exposure to infected birds, the number with an acute respiratory infection (ARI) during a 10-day postexposure period, and the number with ARI who tested positive for influenza by real-time reverse transcription PCR or serologic testing for each outbreak during December 15, 2014-March 31, 2015. During 60 outbreaks in 13 states, a total of 164 persons were exposed to infected birds. ARI developed in 5 of these persons within 10 days of exposure. H5 influenza virus infection was not identified in any persons with ARI, suggesting a low risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission. PMID:26583382

  4. Infection Risk for Persons Exposed to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Virus–Infected Birds, United States, December 2014–March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Deborah I.; Deliberto, Thomas J.; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Levine, Min Z.; Trock, Susan C.; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A H5 viruses have caused outbreaks among birds in the United States. These viruses differ genetically from HPAI H5 viruses that previously caused human illness, most notably in Asia and Africa. To assess the risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission in the United States, we determined the number of persons with self-reported exposure to infected birds, the number with an acute respiratory infection (ARI) during a 10-day postexposure period, and the number with ARI who tested positive for influenza by real-time reverse transcription PCR or serologic testing for each outbreak during December 15, 2014–March 31, 2015. During 60 outbreaks in 13 states, a total of 164 persons were exposed to infected birds. ARI developed in 5 of these persons within 10 days of exposure. H5 influenza virus infection was not identified in any persons with ARI, suggesting a low risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission. PMID:26583382

  5. Host Avian Beta-Defensin and Toll-Like Receptor Responses of Pigeons following Infection with Pigeon Paramyxovirus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Xu, Qianqian; Zhang, Tingting; Gao, Mengying; Wang, Qiuling; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao

    2015-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality in pigeons caused by pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) highlights the need for new insights into the host immune response and novel treatment approaches. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are key components of the innate immune system. In this study, three novel avian β-defensins (AvBDs 2, 7, and 10) were characterized in pigeons and shown to possess direct antiviral activity against PPMV-1 in vitro. In addition, we evaluated the mRNA expression of these AvBDs and other immune-related genes in tissues of 2-month-old infected pigeons at 3 and 7 days postinfection. We observed that the expression of AvBD2 in the cecal tonsil, lungs, and proventriculus, as well as the expression of AvBD10 in the spleen, lungs, proventriculus, and kidneys, was upregulated in infected pigeons. Similarly, the expression of both Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR7 was increased in the spleen, trachea, and proventriculus, while TLR15 expression was increased only in the lungs of infected pigeons. In addition, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was upregulated in the spleen, the bursa of Fabricius, the trachea, and the proventriculus of infected pigeons. Furthermore, we observed a high correlation between the expression of AvBD2 and the expression of either TLR7 or TLR15, as well as between AvBD10 expression and either TLR3 or TLR7 expression in respective tissues. The results suggest that PPMV-1 infection can induce innate host responses characterized by the activation of TLRs, particularly TLR3 and TLR7, AvBDs (2 and 10), and iNOS in pigeons. PMID:26162868

  6. Chlamydia psittaci infection increases mortality of avian influenza virus H9N2 by suppressing host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Tianyuan; Han, Er; Zhao, Peng; Khan, Ahrar; He, Cheng; Wu, Yongzheng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2) and Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) are frequently isolated in chickens with respiratory disease. However, their roles in co-infection remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that C. psittaci enhances H9N2 infection through suppression of host immunity. Thus, 10-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated intra-tracheally with a high or low virulence C. psittaci strain, and were simultaneously vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Significant decreases in body weight, NDV antibodies and immune organ indices occurred in birds with the virulent C. psittaci infection, while the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells increased significantly compared to that of the lower virulence strain. A second group of birds were inoculated with C. psittaci and H9N2 simultaneously (C. psittaci+H9N2), C. psittaci 3 days prior to H9N2 (C. psittaci/H9N2), or 3 days after H9N2 (H9N2/C. psittaci), C. psittaci or H9N2 alone. Survival rates were 65%, 80% and 90% in the C. psittaci/H9N2, C. psittaci+H9N2 and H9N2/C. psittaci groups, respectively and respiratory clinical signs, lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and higher pathogen loads were found in both C. psittaci/H9N2 and C. psittaci+H9N2 groups. Hence, virulent C. psittaci infection suppresses immune response by inhibiting humoral responses and altering Th1/Th2 balance, increasing mortality in H9N2 infected birds. PMID:27405059

  7. Chlamydia psittaci infection increases mortality of avian influenza virus H9N2 by suppressing host immune response.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Tianyuan; Han, Er; Zhao, Peng; Khan, Ahrar; He, Cheng; Wu, Yongzheng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2) and Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) are frequently isolated in chickens with respiratory disease. However, their roles in co-infection remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that C. psittaci enhances H9N2 infection through suppression of host immunity. Thus, 10-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated intra-tracheally with a high or low virulence C. psittaci strain, and were simultaneously vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Significant decreases in body weight, NDV antibodies and immune organ indices occurred in birds with the virulent C. psittaci infection, while the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells increased significantly compared to that of the lower virulence strain. A second group of birds were inoculated with C. psittaci and H9N2 simultaneously (C. psittaci+H9N2), C. psittaci 3 days prior to H9N2 (C. psittaci/H9N2), or 3 days after H9N2 (H9N2/C. psittaci), C. psittaci or H9N2 alone. Survival rates were 65%, 80% and 90% in the C. psittaci/H9N2, C. psittaci+H9N2 and H9N2/C. psittaci groups, respectively and respiratory clinical signs, lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and higher pathogen loads were found in both C. psittaci/H9N2 and C. psittaci+H9N2 groups. Hence, virulent C. psittaci infection suppresses immune response by inhibiting humoral responses and altering Th1/Th2 balance, increasing mortality in H9N2 infected birds. PMID:27405059

  8. The Avian XPR1 Gammaretrovirus Receptor Is under Positive Selection and Is Disabled in Bird Species in Contact with Virus-Infected Wild Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carrie; Buckler-White, Alicia; Wollenberg, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Xenotropic mouse leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) are broadly infectious for mammals except most of the classical strains of laboratory mice. These gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 receptor for entry, and the unique resistance of laboratory mice is due to two mutations in different putative XPR1 extracellular loops. Cells from avian species differ in susceptibility to X-MLVs, and 2 replacement mutations in the virus-resistant chicken XPR1 (K496Q and Q579E) distinguish it from the more permissive duck and quail receptors. These substitutions align with the two mutations that disable the laboratory mouse XPR1. Mutagenesis of the chicken and duck genes confirms that residues at both sites are critical for virus entry. Among 32 avian species, the 2 disabling XPR1 mutations are found together only in the chicken, an omnivorous, ground-dwelling fowl that was domesticated in India and/or Southeast Asia, which is also where X-MLV-infected house mice evolved. The receptor-disabling mutations are also present separately in 5 additional fowl and raptor species, all of which are native to areas of Asia populated by the virus-infected subspecies Mus musculus castaneus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the avian XPR1 gene is under positive selection at sites implicated in receptor function, suggesting a defensive role for XPR1 in the avian lineage. Contact between bird species and virus-infected mice may thus have favored selection of mouse virus-resistant receptor orthologs in the birds, and our data suggest that similar receptor-disabling mutations were fixed in mammalian and avian species exposed to similar virus challenges. PMID:23843647

  9. Evaluation of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect avian influenza virus antibodies in multiple experimentally infected avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, AI surveillance in wild birds has relied on virus detection strategies including virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction. To evaluate the efficacy of a commerc...

  10. Complete Genomic and Lysis-Cassette Characterization of the Novel Phage, KBNP1315, which Infects Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Seok; Jang, Ho Bin; Kim, Ki Sei; Kim, Tae Hwan; Im, Se Pyeong; Kim, Si Won; Lazarte, Jassy Mary S; Kim, Jae Sung; Jung, Tae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a major pathogen that causes avian colibacillosis and is associated with severe economic losses in the chicken-farming industry. Here, bacteriophage KBNP1315, infecting APEC strain KBP1315, was genomically and functionally characterized. The evolutionary relationships of KBNP1315 were analyzed at the genomic level using gene (protein)-sharing networks, the Markov clustering (MCL) algorithm, and comparative genomics. Our network analysis showed that KBNP1315 was connected to 30 members of the Autographivirinae subfamily, which comprises the SP6-, T7-, P60-, phiKMV-, GAP227- and KP34-related groups. Network decomposition suggested that KBNP1315 belongs to the SP6-like phages, but our comparison of putative encoded proteins revealed that key proteins of KBNP1315, including the tail spike protein and endolysin, had relative low levels of amino acid sequence similarity with other members of the SP6-like phages. Thus KBNP1315 may only be distantly related to the SP6-like phages, and (based on the difference in endolysin) its lysis mechanism may differ from theirs. To characterize the lytic functions of the holin and endolysin proteins from KBNP1315, we expressed these proteins individually or simultaneously in E. coli BL21 (DE3) competent cell. Interestingly, the expressed endolysin was secreted into the periplasm and caused a high degree of host cell lysis that was dose-dependently delayed/blocked by NaN3-mediated inhibition of the SecA pathway. The expressed holin triggered only a moderate inhibition of cell growth, whereas coexpression of holin and endolysin enhanced the lytic effect of endolysin. Together, these results revealed that KBNP1315 appears to use a pin-holin/signal-arrest-release (SAR) endolysin pathway to trigger host cell lysis. PMID:26555076

  11. Human infection with an avian influenza A (H9N2) virus in the middle region of China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiwei; Li, Xiaodan; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Bozhong; Jiang, Yonglin; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wenfei; Hu, Shixiong; Zhou, Siyu; Tang, Yunli; Xiang, Xingyu; Li, Fangcai; Li, Wenchao; Gao, Lidong

    2015-10-01

    During the epidemic period of the novel H7N9 viruses, an influenza A (H9N2) virus was isolated from a 7-year-old boy with influenza-like illness in Yongzhou city of Hunan province in November 2013. To identify the possible source of infection, environmental specimens collected from local live poultry markets epidemiologically linked to the human case in Yongzhou city were tested for influenza type A and its subtypes H5, H7, and H9 using real-time RT-PCR methods as well as virus isolation, and four other H9N2 viruses were isolated. The real-time RT-PCR results showed that the environment was highly contaminated with avian influenza H9 subtype viruses (18.0%). Sequencing analyses revealed that the virus isolated from the patient, which was highly similar (98.5-99.8%) to one of isolates from environment in complete genome sequences, was of avian origin. Based on phylogenetic and antigenic analyses, it belonged to genotype S and Y280 lineage. In addition, the virus exhibited high homology (95.7-99.5%) of all six internal gene lineages with the novel H7N9 and H10N8 viruses which caused epidemic and endemic in China. Meanwhile, it carried several mammalian adapted molecular residues including Q226L in HA protein, L13P in PB1 protein, K356R, S409N in PA protein, V15I in M1 protein, I28V, L55F in M2 protein, and E227K in NS protein. These findings reinforce the significance of continuous surveillance of H9N2 influenza viruses. PMID:25965534

  12. Complete Genomic and Lysis-Cassette Characterization of the Novel Phage, KBNP1315, which Infects Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Seok; Jang, Ho Bin; Kim, Ki Sei; Kim, Tae Hwan; Im, Se Pyeong; Kim, Si Won; Lazarte, Jassy Mary S.; Kim, Jae Sung; Jung, Tae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a major pathogen that causes avian colibacillosis and is associated with severe economic losses in the chicken-farming industry. Here, bacteriophage KBNP1315, infecting APEC strain KBP1315, was genomically and functionally characterized. The evolutionary relationships of KBNP1315 were analyzed at the genomic level using gene (protein)-sharing networks, the Markov clustering (MCL) algorithm, and comparative genomics. Our network analysis showed that KBNP1315 was connected to 30 members of the Autographivirinae subfamily, which comprises the SP6-, T7-, P60-, phiKMV-, GAP227- and KP34-related groups. Network decomposition suggested that KBNP1315 belongs to the SP6-like phages, but our comparison of putative encoded proteins revealed that key proteins of KBNP1315, including the tail spike protein and endolysin, had relative low levels of amino acid sequence similarity with other members of the SP6-like phages. Thus KBNP1315 may only be distantly related to the SP6-like phages, and (based on the difference in endolysin) its lysis mechanism may differ from theirs. To characterize the lytic functions of the holin and endolysin proteins from KBNP1315, we expressed these proteins individually or simultaneously in E. coli BL21 (DE3) competent cell. Interestingly, the expressed endolysin was secreted into the periplasm and caused a high degree of host cell lysis that was dose-dependently delayed/blocked by NaN3-mediated inhibition of the SecA pathway. The expressed holin triggered only a moderate inhibition of cell growth, whereas coexpression of holin and endolysin enhanced the lytic effect of endolysin. Together, these results revealed that KBNP1315 appears to use a pin-holin/signal-arrest-release (SAR) endolysin pathway to trigger host cell lysis. PMID:26555076

  13. Little Evidence of Avian or Equine Influenza Virus Infection among a Cohort of Mongolian Adults with Animal Exposures, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia’s migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were <1∶80 and none were statistically associated with avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective

  14. Differential Selection of Cells with Proviral c-myc and c-erbB Integrations after Avian Leukosis Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Min; Semus, Helen L.; Bird, Kelly J.; Stramer, Brian J.; Ruddell, Alanna

    1998-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection induces bursal lymphomas in chickens after proviral integration within the c-myc proto-oncogene and induces erythroblastosis after integration within the c-erbB proto-oncogene. A nested PCR assay was used to analyze the appearance of these integrations at an early stage of tumor induction after infection of embryos. Five to eight distinct proviral c-myc integration events were amplified from bursas of infected 35-day-old birds, in good agreement with the number of transformed bursal follicles arising with these integrations. Cells containing these integrations are remarkably common, with an estimated 1 in 350 bursal cells having proviral c-myc integrations. These integrations were clustered within the 3′ half of c-myc intron 1, in a pattern similar to that observed in bursal lymphomas. Bone marrow and spleen showed a similar number and pattern of integrations clustered within 3′ c-myc intron 1, indicating that this region is a common integration target whether or not that tissue undergoes tumor induction. While all tissues showed equivalent levels of viral infection, cells with c-myc integrations were much more abundant in the bursa than in other tissues, indicating that cells with proviral c-myc integrations are preferentially expanded within the bursal environment. Proviral integration within the c-erbB gene was also analyzed, to detect clustered c-erbB intron 14 integrations associated with erythroblastosis. Proviral c-erbB integrations were equally abundant in the bone marrow, spleen, and bursa. These integrations were randomly situated upstream of c-erbB exon 15, indicating that cells carrying 3′ intron 14 integrations must be selected during induction of erythroblastosis. PMID:9621008

  15. Analysis of the crow lung transcriptome in response to infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Periyasamy; Mishra, Anamika; Ranaware, Pradip B; Kolte, Atul P; Kulkarni, Diwakar D; Burt, David W; Raut, Ashwin Ashok

    2015-03-15

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, currently circulating in Asia, causes severe disease in domestic poultry as well as wild birds like crow. However, the molecular pathogenesis of HPAIV infection in crows and other wild birds is not well known. Thus, as a step to explore it, a comprehensive global gene expression analysis was performed on crow lungs, infected with HPAI H5N1 crow isolate (A/Crow/India/11TI11/2011) using high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) (GS FLX Titanium XLR70). The reference genome of crow is not available, so RNA seq analysis was performed on the basis of a de novo assembled transcriptome. The RNA seq result shows, 4052 genes were expressed uniquely in noninfected, 6277 genes were expressed uniquely in HPAIV infected sample and of the 6814 genes expressed in both samples, 2279 genes were significantly differentially expressed. Our transcriptome profile data allows for the ability to understand the molecular mechanism behind the recent lethal HPAIV outbreak in crows which was, until recently, thought to cause lethal infections only in gallinaceous birds such as chickens, but not in wild birds. The pattern of differentially expressed genes suggest that this isolate of H5N1 virus evades the host innate immune response by attenuating interferon (IFN)-inducible signalling possibly by down regulating the signalling from type I IFN (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) and type II IFN receptors, upregulation of the signalling inhibitors suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3 and altering the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs). This may be the reason for disease and mortality in crows. PMID:25592823

  16. Deep Sequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Chicken Spleen in Response to Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Qinghua; Sandford, Erin E.; Zhang, Xiquan; Nolan, Lisa K.; Lamont, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) leads to economic losses in poultry production and is also a threat to human health. The goal of this study was to characterize the chicken spleen transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to APEC infection using Solexa sequencing. We obtained 14422935, 14104324, and 14954692 Solexa read pairs for non-challenged (NC), challenged-mild pathology (MD), and challenged-severe pathology (SV), respectively. A total of 148197 contigs and 98461 unigenes were assembled, of which 134949 contigs and 91890 unigenes match the chicken genome. In total, 12272 annotated unigenes take part in biological processes (11664), cellular components (11927), and molecular functions (11963). Summing three specific contrasts, 13650 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were found in NC Vs. MD (6844), NC Vs. SV (7764), and MD Vs. SV (2320). Some unigenes (e.g. CD148, CD45 and LCK) were involved in crucial pathways, such as the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway and microbial metabolism in diverse environments. This study facilitates understanding of the genetic architecture of the chicken spleen transcriptome, and has identified candidate genes for host response to APEC infection. PMID:22860004

  17. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, N.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Balança, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Cattoli, G.; Abolnik, C.; Servan de Almeida, R.; Gil, P.; Fereidouni, S. R.; Grosbois, V.; Tran, A.; Mundava, J.; Fofana, B.; Ould El Mamy, A. B.; Ndlovu, M.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Triplet, P.; Hagemeijer, W.; Karesh, W. B.; Newman, S. H.; Dodman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on patterns of AIV prevalence in wildfowl. Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. The predominant influence of wildfowl density with no influence of climatic conditions suggests, in contrast to temperate regions, a predominant role for inter-individual transmission rather than transmission via long-lived virus persisting in the environment. Higher prevalences were found in Anas species than in non-Anas species even when we account for differences in their foraging behaviour (primarily dabbling or not) or their geographical origin (Eurasian or Afro-tropical), suggesting the existence of intrinsic differences between wildfowl taxonomic groups in receptivity to infection. Birds were found infected as often in oropharyngeal as in cloacal samples, but rarely for both types of sample concurrently, indicating that both respiratory and digestive tracts may be important for AIV replication. PMID:21920984

  18. Comprehensive analysis of antibody recognition in convalescent humans from highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Teng; Sun, Jianfeng; Wang, Guiqin; Jiang, Liwei; Zuo, Yanan; Li, Danyang; Shi, Xuanling; Liu, Xi; Fan, Shilong; Ren, Huanhuan; Hu, Hongxing; Sun, Lina; Zhou, Boping; Liang, Mifang; Zhou, Paul; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of protective antibody recognition against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 in humans is critical for the development of effective therapies and vaccines. Here we report the crystal structure of three H5-specific human monoclonal antibodies bound to the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA) with distinct epitope specificities, neutralization potencies and breadth. A structural and functional analysis of these epitopes combined with those reported elsewhere identifies four major vulnerable sites on the globular head of H5N1 HA. Chimeric and vulnerable site-specific mutant pseudoviruses are generated to delineate broad neutralization specificities of convalescent sera from two individuals who recovered from the infection with H5N1 virus. Our results show that the four vulnerable sites on the globular head rather than the stem region are the major neutralizing targets, suggesting that during natural H5N1 infection neutralizing antibodies against the globular head work in concert to provide protective antibody-mediated immunity. PMID:26635249

  19. DC-SIGN mediates avian H5N1 influenza virus infection in cis and in trans

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.-F.; Huang, Jason C.; Lee, Y.-M.; Liu, S.-J.; Chan, Yu-Jiun; Chau, Y.-P.; Chong, P.; Chen, Y.-M.A.

    2008-09-05

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), has been identified as a receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, Ebola virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus, and the SARS coronavirus. We used H5N1 pseudotyped and reverse-genetics (RG) virus particles to study their ability to bind with DC-SIGN. Electronic microscopy and functional assay results indicate that pseudotyped viruses containing both HA and NA proteins express hemagglutination and are capable of infecting cells expressing {alpha}-2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Results from a capture assay show that DC-SIGN-expressing cells (including B-THP-1/DC-SIGN and T-THP-1/DC-SIGN) and peripheral blood dendritic cells are capable of transferring H5N1 pseudotyped and RG virus particles to target cells; this action can be blocked by anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies. In summary, (a) DC-SIGN acts as a capture or attachment molecule for avian H5N1 virus, and (b) DC-SIGN mediates infections in cis and in trans.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of antibody recognition in convalescent humans from highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Teng; Sun, Jianfeng; Wang, Guiqin; Jiang, Liwei; Zuo, Yanan; Li, Danyang; Shi, Xuanling; Liu, Xi; Fan, Shilong; Ren, Huanhuan; Hu, Hongxing; Sun, Lina; Zhou, Boping; Liang, Mifang; Zhou, Paul; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of protective antibody recognition against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 in humans is critical for the development of effective therapies and vaccines. Here we report the crystal structure of three H5-specific human monoclonal antibodies bound to the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA) with distinct epitope specificities, neutralization potencies and breadth. A structural and functional analysis of these epitopes combined with those reported elsewhere identifies four major vulnerable sites on the globular head of H5N1 HA. Chimeric and vulnerable site-specific mutant pseudoviruses are generated to delineate broad neutralization specificities of convalescent sera from two individuals who recovered from the infection with H5N1 virus. Our results show that the four vulnerable sites on the globular head rather than the stem region are the major neutralizing targets, suggesting that during natural H5N1 infection neutralizing antibodies against the globular head work in concert to provide protective antibody-mediated immunity. PMID:26635249

  1. The dynamics of avian influenza in western Arctic snow geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Brown, Justin D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Ip, Hon S.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.

    2015-01-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging, and despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3,000 sera samples from snow geese at 2 breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from > 4,000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between snow goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly-pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations.

  2. Minor differences in body condition and immune status between avian influenza virus-infected and noninfected mallards: a sign of coevolution?

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel; Matson, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife pathogens can alter host fitness. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection is thought to have negligible impacts on wild birds; however, effects of infection in free-living birds are largely unstudied. We investigated the extent to which LPAIV infection and shedding were associated with body condition and immune status in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), a partially migratory key LPAIV host species. We sampled mallards throughout the species' annual autumn LPAIV infection peak, and we classified individuals according to age, sex, and migratory strategy (based on stable hydrogen isotope analysis) when analyzing data on body mass and five indices of immune status. Body mass was similar for LPAIV-infected and noninfected birds. The degree of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx was not associated with body mass. LPAIV infection and shedding were not associated with natural antibody (NAbs) and complement titers (first lines of defense against infections), concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp), ratios of heterophils to lymphocytes (H:L ratio), and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibody concentrations. NAbs titers were higher in LPAIV-infected males and local (i.e., short distance) migrants than in infected females and distant (i.e., long distance) migrants. Hp concentrations were higher in LPAIV-infected juveniles and females compared to infected adults and males. NAbs, complement, and Hp levels were lower in LPAIV-infected mallards in early autumn. Our study demonstrates weak associations between infection with and shedding of LPAIV and the body condition and immune status of free-living mallards. These results may support the role of mallards as asymptomatic carriers of LPAIV and raise questions about possible coevolution between virus and host. PMID:25691969

  3. Intracerebral Borna Disease Virus Infection of Bank Voles Leading to Peripheral Spread and Reverse Transcription of Viral RNA

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Paula Maria; Inkeroinen, Hanna; Ilander, Mette; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Heikkilä, Henna Pauliina; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Palva, Airi; Vaheri, Antti; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviruses have an RNA genome, bornavirus sequences integrated into the genomes of several vertebrates millions of years ago. Our hypothesis is that the bank vole, a common wild rodent species in traditional BDV-endemic areas, can serve as a viral host; we therefore explored whether this species can be infected with BDV, and if so, how the virus spreads and whether viral RNA is transcribed into DNA in vivo. We infected neonate bank voles intracerebrally with BDV and euthanized them 2 to 8 weeks post-infection. Specific Ig antibodies were detectable in 41%. Histological evaluation revealed no significant pathological alterations, but BDV RNA and antigen were detectable in all infected brains. Immunohistology demonstrated centrifugal spread throughout the nervous tissue, because viral antigen was widespread in peripheral nerves and ganglia, including the mediastinum, esophagus, and urinary bladder. This was associated with viral shedding in feces, of which 54% were BDV RNA-positive, and urine at 17%. BDV nucleocapsid gene DNA occurred in 66% of the infected voles, and, surprisingly, occasionally also phosphoprotein DNA. Thus, intracerebral BDV infection of bank vole led to systemic infection of the nervous tissue and viral excretion, as well as frequent reverse transcription of the BDV genome, enabling genomic integration. This first experimental bornavirus infection in wild mammals confirms the recent findings regarding bornavirus DNA, and suggests that bank voles are capable of

  4. Intracerebral Borna disease virus infection of bank voles leading to peripheral spread and reverse transcription of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Paula Maria; Inkeroinen, Hanna; Ilander, Mette; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Heikkilä, Henna Pauliina; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Palva, Airi; Vaheri, Antti; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviruses have an RNA genome, bornavirus sequences integrated into the genomes of several vertebrates millions of years ago. Our hypothesis is that the bank vole, a common wild rodent species in traditional BDV-endemic areas, can serve as a viral host; we therefore explored whether this species can be infected with BDV, and if so, how the virus spreads and whether viral RNA is transcribed into DNA in vivo.We infected neonate bank voles intracerebrally with BDV and euthanized them 2 to 8 weeks post-infection. Specific Ig antibodies were detectable in 41%. Histological evaluation revealed no significant pathological alterations, but BDV RNA and antigen were detectable in all infected brains. Immunohistology demonstrated centrifugal spread throughout the nervous tissue, because viral antigen was widespread in peripheral nerves and ganglia, including the mediastinum, esophagus, and urinary bladder. This was associated with viral shedding in feces, of which 54% were BDV RNA-positive, and urine at 17%. BDV nucleocapsid gene DNA occurred in 66% of the infected voles, and, surprisingly, occasionally also phosphoprotein DNA. Thus, intracerebral BDV infection of bank vole led to systemic infection of the nervous tissue and viral excretion, as well as frequent reverse transcription of the BDV genome, enabling genomic integration. This first experimental bornavirus infection in wild mammals confirms the recent findings regarding bornavirus DNA, and suggests that bank voles are capable of

  5. Model of the TVA Receptor Determinants Required for Efficient Infection by Subgroup A Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Melder, Deborah C.; Pike, Gennett M.; VanBrocklin, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study of the interactions of subgroup A avian sarcoma and leucosis viruses [ASLV(A)] with the TVA receptor required to infect cells offers a powerful experimental model of retroviral entry. Several regions and specific residues in the TVA receptor have previously been identified to be critical determinants of the binding affinity with ASLV(A) envelope glycoproteins and to mediate efficient infection. Two homologs of the TVA receptor have been cloned: the original quail TVA receptor, which has been the basis for most of the initial characterization of the ASLV(A) TVA, and the chicken TVA receptor, which is 65% identical to the quail receptor overall but identical in the region thought to be critical for infection. Our previous work characterized three mutant ASLV(A) isolates that could efficiently bind and infect cells using the chicken TVA receptor homolog but not using the quail TVA receptor homolog, with the infectivity of one mutant virus being >500-fold less with the quail TVA receptor. The mutant viruses contained mutations in the hr1 region of the surface glycoprotein. Using chimeras of the quail and chicken TVA receptors, we have identified new residues of TVA critical for the binding affinity and entry of ASLV(A) using the mutant glycoproteins and viruses to probe the function of those residues. The quail TVA receptor required changes at residues 10, 14, and 31 of the corresponding chicken TVA residues to bind wild-type and mutant ASLV(A) glycoproteins with a high affinity and recover the ability to mediate efficient infection of cells. A model of the TVA determinants critical for interacting with ASLV(A) glycoproteins is proposed. IMPORTANCE A detailed understanding of how retroviruses enter cells, evolve to use new receptors, and maintain efficient entry is crucial for identifying new targets for combating retrovirus infection and pathogenesis, as well as for developing new approaches for targeted gene delivery. Since all retroviruses share

  6. Compendium of measures to control Chlamydia psittaci infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds (avian chlamydiosis), 2000. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    2000-07-14

    Psittacosis--also known as parrot fever and ornithosis--is spread by a bacterial infection of birds that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems among humans. From 1988 through 1998, 813 cases of psittacosis (infection with Chlamydia psittaci) were reported to CDC, and most resulted from exposure to infected pet birds, usually cockatiels, parakeets, parrots, and macaws. In birds, C. psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis (AC). Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and AC to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned about controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures for controlling AC in birds, a vital step to protecting human health. PMID:10914931

  7. The ESEV PDZ-Binding Motif of the Avian Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein Protects Infected Cells from Apoptosis by Directly Targeting Scribble▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbing; Golebiewski, Lisa; Dow, Eugene C.; Krug, Robert M.; Javier, Ronald T.; Rice, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    The NS1 protein from influenza A viruses contains a four-amino-acid sequence at its carboxyl terminus that is termed the PDZ-binding motif (PBM). The NS1 PBM is predicted to bind to cellular PDZ proteins and functions as a virulence determinant in infected mice. ESEV is the consensus PBM sequence of avian influenza viruses, while RSKV is the consensus sequence of human viruses. Currently circulating highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses encode an NS1 protein with the ESEV PBM. We identified cellular targets of the avian ESEV PBM and identified molecular mechanisms involved in its function. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays, we found that the ESEV PBM enables NS1 to associate with the PDZ proteins Scribble, Dlg1, MAGI-1, MAGI-2, and MAGI-3. Because Scribble possesses a proapoptotic activity, we investigated the interaction between NS1 and Scribble. The association between NS1 and Scribble is direct and requires the ESEV PBM and two Scribble PDZ domains. We constructed recombinant H3N2 viruses that encode an H6N6 avian virus NS1 protein with either an ESEV or mutant ESEA PBM, allowing an analysis of the ESEV PBM in infections in mammalian cells. The ESEV PBM enhanced viral replication up to 4-fold. In infected cells, NS1 with the ESEV PBM relocalized Scribble into cytoplasmic puncta concentrated in perinuclear regions and also protected cells from apoptosis. In addition, the latter effect was eliminated by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated Scribble depletion. This study shows that one function of the avian ESEV PBM is to reduce apoptosis during infection through disruption of Scribble's proapoptotic function. PMID:20702615

  8. Early-season avian deaths from West Nile virus as warnings of human infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.; Julian, K.G.; Campbell, G.L.; Price, S.D.; Marfin, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of 2001 and 2002 West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data shows that counties that report WNV-infected dead birds early in the transmission season are more likely to report subsequent WNV disease cases in humans than are counties that do not report early WNV-infected dead birds.

  9. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  10. Shedding Light on Avian Influenza H4N6 Infection in Mallards: Modes of Transmission and Implications for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    VanDalen, Kaci K.; Franklin, Alan B.; Mooers, Nicole L.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Shriner, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Wild mallards (Anas platyrhychos) are considered one of the primary reservoir species for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Because AIV circulating in wild birds pose an indirect threat to agriculture and human health, understanding the ecology of AIV and developing risk assessments and surveillance systems for prevention of disease is critical. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, mallards were experimentally infected with an H4N6 subtype of AIV by oral inoculation or contact with an H4N6 contaminated water source. Cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, fecal samples, and water samples were collected daily and tested by real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) for estimation of viral shedding. Fecal samples had significantly higher virus concentrations than oropharyngeal or cloacal swabs and 6 month old ducks shed significantly more viral RNA than 3 month old ducks regardless of sample type. Use of a water source contaminated by AIV infected mallards, was sufficient to transmit virus to naïve mallards, which shed AIV at higher or similar levels as orally-inoculated ducks. Conclusions Bodies of water could serve as a transmission pathway for AIV in waterfowl. For AIV surveillance purposes, water samples and fecal samples appear to be excellent alternatives or additions to cloacal and oropharyngeal swabbing. Furthermore, duck age (even within hatch-year birds) may be important when interpreting viral shedding results from experimental infections or surveillance. Differential shedding among hatch-year mallards could affect prevalence estimates, modeling of AIV spread, and subsequent risk assessments. PMID:20877466