Science.gov

Sample records for avian infectious bronchitis

  1. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Khataby, Khadija; Fellahi, Siham; Loutfi, Chafiqa; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and extremely difficult to control because it has extensive genetic diversity, a short generation time, and a high mutation rate. IBV is a Gammacoronavirus, single-stranded, and positive-sense RNA virus. Avian infectious bronchitis is well studied in European countries with identification of a large number of IBV variants, whereas in African countries epidemiological and scientific data are poor and not updated. However, previous studies reported that an IBV variant continues to appear regularly in Africa, as currently described in Morocco. No cross-protection between IBV strains was reported, some being unique to a particular country, others having a more general distribution. This review aims to provide a general overview on IB disease distribution in African countries and an update on the available studies of IBV variants in each country. PMID:27150555

  2. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Shen, Wei; Liao, Ming; Bartlam, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV M{sup pro} was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6{sub 1}22. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function.

  3. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Sharmi W.; Hilt, Deborah A.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Jackwood, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus. PMID:21994806

  4. Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Approaches of Avian Infectious Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Abubakar, Muhammad Salisu; Abba, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems. Thus, disease outcome may be influenced by the organ or tissue involved as well as pathotypes or strain of the infecting virus. Knowledge on the epidemiology of the prevalent IBV strains in a particular region is therefore important to guide control and preventions. Meanwhile previous diagnostic methods such as serology and virus isolations are less sensitive and time consuming, respectively; current methods, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing, offer highly sensitive, rapid, and accurate diagnostic results, thus enabling the genotyping of new viral strains within the shortest possible time. This review discusses aspects on pathogenesis and diagnostic methods for IBV infection. PMID:26955391

  5. Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Approaches of Avian Infectious Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Abubakar, Muhammad Salisu; Abba, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems. Thus, disease outcome may be influenced by the organ or tissue involved as well as pathotypes or strain of the infecting virus. Knowledge on the epidemiology of the prevalent IBV strains in a particular region is therefore important to guide control and preventions. Meanwhile previous diagnostic methods such as serology and virus isolations are less sensitive and time consuming, respectively; current methods, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing, offer highly sensitive, rapid, and accurate diagnostic results, thus enabling the genotyping of new viral strains within the shortest possible time. This review discusses aspects on pathogenesis and diagnostic methods for IBV infection. PMID:26955391

  6. Assessing the economic burden of avian infectious bronchitis on poultry farms in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colvero, L P; Villarreal, L Y B; Torres, C A; Brañdo, P E

    2015-12-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), is a worldwide endemic disease of chickens that affects all branches of the poultry industry. Multiple geno/serotypes occur, and lowvaccine cross-protection results from the highly divergent IBV types. In view of the lack of consistent data on the economic losses caused by IB and the poor protection resulting from the use of the Massachusetts type as a live vaccine in Brazil, this survey aimed to estimate the losses per 1000 birds in broiler and breeder flocks positive for IBV. Thirty-two different IBV genetic types were found. In breeders, the total loss per 1,000 birds was US $3567.4 and US $4210.8 at 25-26 and 42 weeks old, respectively, whereas in broilers (48 days old), the estimated loss was US $266.3 per 1,000 birds. Taken together, the results show a significant and measurable economic impact on the broiler and breeder industries, with an age-dependent increasing trend and an association with multiple genetic types of the virus. PMID:27044167

  7. Interactive mechanism between avian infectious bronchitis S1 protein T cell peptide and avian MHC I molecule.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Zhu; Lu, Mei; Huang, Qing-Hua; Huang, Yan-Yan; Yang, Shao-Hua; Cui, Yan-Shun; Liu, Chang; Tan, Liugang; Kong, Zhengjie; Xu, Chuan-Tian

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to construct a 3D structure of the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-β2M complex through homology modelling technology, perform molecular docking of the predicted infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 protein potential epitope peptide Sp6 (NQFYIKLT) and the avian MHC-β2M complex, and demonstrate the interactive mechanism between Sp6 and MHC using molecular dynamical simulations. The peptide Sp6 and the non-related peptide NP89-97 (PKKTGGPIY) were used to stimulate in vitro recombinant plasmid (pCAGGS-S1) avian splenic lymphocytes. Flow cytometric results show that CD8(+) T lymphocytes reproduce stimulated by the Sp6 and the nonrelated peptide proliferate by 34.8% and 2.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, fluorescent quantitative PCR results show that the secretion of IFN-γ in avian splenic lymphocytes increases after Sp6 stimulation. These data suggest that Sp6 can induce the activated avian lymphocytes in vitro to produce CTL, which is the CTL epitope in IBV S1. PMID:26876645

  8. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus from domestic peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and teal (Anas).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengwang; Chen, Jianfei; Chen, Jinding; Kong, Xiangang; Shao, Yuhao; Han, Zongxi; Feng, Li; Cai, Xuehui; Gu, Shoulin; Liu, Ming

    2005-03-01

    Coronavirus-like viruses, designated peafowl/China/LKQ3/2003 (pf/CH/LKQ3/03) and teal/China/LDT3/2003 (tl/CH/LDT3/03), were isolated from a peafowl and a teal during virological surveillance in Guangdong province, China. Partial genomic sequence analysis showed that these isolates had the S-3-M-5-N gene order that is typical of avian coronaviruses. The spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of pf/CH/LKQ3/03 had >99 % identity to those of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus H120 vaccine strain (Massachusetts serotype) and other Massachusetts serotype isolates. Furthermore, when pf/CH/LKQ3/03 was inoculated experimentally into chickens (specific-pathogen-free), no disease signs were apparent. tl/CH/LDT3/03 had a spike protein gene with 95 % identity to that of a Chinese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolate, although more extensive sequencing revealed the possibility that this strain may have undergone recombination. When inoculated into chickens, tl/CH/LDT3/03 resulted in the death of birds from nephritis. Taken together, this information suggests that pf/CH/LKQ3/03 might be a revertant, attenuated vaccine IBV strain, whereas tl/CH/LDT3/03 is a nephropathogenic field IBV strain, generated through recombination. The replication and non-pathogenic nature of IBV in domestic peafowl and teal under field conditions raises questions as to the role of these hosts as carriers of IBV and the potential that they may have to transmit virus to susceptible chicken populations. PMID:15722532

  9. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens. PMID:26893807

  10. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens. PMID:26893807

  11. Structural View and Substrate Specificity of Papain-like Protease from Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingying; Shaw, Neil; Yan, Lingming; Lou, Zhiyong; Rao, Zihe

    2015-01-01

    Papain-like protease (PLpro) of coronaviruses (CoVs) carries out proteolytic maturation of non-structural proteins that play a role in replication of the virus and performs deubiquitination of host cell factors to scuttle antiviral responses. Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the causative agent of bronchitis in chicken that results in huge economic losses every year in the poultry industry globally, encodes a PLpro. The substrate specificities of this PLpro are not clearly understood. Here, we show that IBV PLpro can degrade Lys48- and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains to monoubiquitin but not linear polyubiquitin. To explain the substrate specificities, we have solved the crystal structure of PLpro from IBV at 2.15-Å resolution. The overall structure is reminiscent of the structure of severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV PLpro. However, unlike the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV PLpro that lacks blocking loop (BL) 1 of deubiquitinating enzymes, the IBV PLpro has a short BL1-like loop. Access to a conserved catalytic triad consisting of Cys101, His264, and Asp275 is regulated by the flexible BL2. A model of ubiquitin-bound IBV CoV PLpro brings out key differences in substrate binding sites of PLpros. In particular, P3 and P4 subsites as well as residues interacting with the β-barrel of ubiquitin are different, suggesting different catalytic efficiencies and substrate specificities. We show that IBV PLpro cleaves peptide substrates KKAG-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin and LRGG-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin with different catalytic efficiencies. These results demonstrate that substrate specificities of IBV PLpro are different from other PLpros and that IBV PLpro might target different ubiquitinated host factors to aid the propagation of the virus. PMID:25609249

  12. Progress and Challenges toward the Development of Vaccines against Avian Infectious Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Hair Bejo, Mohd; Moeini, Hassan; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a widely distributed poultry disease that has huge economic impact on poultry industry. The continuous emergence of new IBV genotypes and lack of cross protection among different IBV genotypes have been an important challenge. Although live attenuated IB vaccines remarkably induce potent immune response, the potential risk of reversion to virulence, neutralization by the maternal antibodies, and recombination and mutation events are important concern on their usage. On the other hand, inactivated vaccines induce a weaker immune response and may require multiple dosing and/or the use of adjuvants that probably have potential safety risks and increased economic burdens. Consequently, alternative IB vaccines are widely sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have resulted in experimental IB vaccines that show promise in antibody and T-cells responses, comparable to live attenuated vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines have also been enhanced to target multiple serotypes and their efficacy has been improved using delivery vectors, nanoadjuvants, and in ovo vaccination approaches. Although most recombinant IB DNA vaccines are yet to be licensed, it is expected that these types of vaccines may hold sway as future vaccines for inducing a cross protection against multiple IBV serotypes. PMID:25954763

  13. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumoviruses in Oman backyard poultry.

    PubMed

    Al-Shekaili, Thunai; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are economically important viral pathogens infecting chickens globally. Identification of endemic IBV and aMPV strains promotes better control of both diseases and prevents production losses. Orophrayngeal swab samples were taken from 2317 birds within 243 different backyard flocks in Oman. Swabs from each flock were examined by RT-PCR using part-S1 and G gene primers for IBV and aMPV respectively. Thirty-nine chicken flocks were positive for IBV. Thirty two of these were genotyped and they were closely related to 793/B, M41, D274, IS/1494/06 and IS/885/00. 793/B-like IBV was also found in one turkey and one duck flock. Five flocks were positive for aMPV subtype B. Though no disease was witnessed at the time of sampling, identified viruses including variant IBV strains, may still pose a threat for both backyard and commercial poultry in Oman. PMID:25613085

  14. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection. PMID:21385394

  15. Multiplex nested RT-PCR for detecting avian influenza virus, infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Hong, Seung-Min; Seong, Won-Jin; Jang, Jin-Wook; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2013-03-01

    In this study, multiplex nested RT-PCR (mnRT-PCR) was applied to simultaneous detect multiplex PCR with the higher sensitivity of nested PCR that is required for avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease virus using two steps of amplification. For the first PCR, primers that were specific for each virus were newly designed from the nucleoprotein gene of AIV, the nucleocapsid protein gene of IBV and the fusion protein gene of NDV to amplify products of 665, 386 and 236 nucleotides, respectively. The multiplex PCR step provides mass amplification using common primers, which increased markedly the sensitivity of the test. Non-specific reactions were not observed when other viruses and bacteria were used for evaluating the mnRT-PCR. As a field application, 172 samples were tested by RT-PCR and mnRT-PCR. Among these samples, the concordance rates for mnRT-PCR and the single conventional RT-PCR showed 98.9% (kappa=0.98) and 98.8% (kappa=0.96) similarity for IBV and AIV, respectively. As a result, it is recommended the multiplex nested PCR as an effective tool for detecting and studying the molecular epidemiology of various mixed infections of one or more of these viruses in poultry. PMID:23261801

  16. Genome of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Lomniczi, B; Kennedy, I

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are described for the growth and rapid purification of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Purified IBV has a sedimentation coefficient of 320S and a buoyant density of 1.22 g/ml in sucrose-deuterium oxide equilibrium gradients. IBV RNA extracted by proteinase K in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and further purified by phenol extraction and gradient centrifugation is single stranded and has a sedimentation coefficient of 64S, as determined by isokinetic gradient centrifugation. Analysis on sucrose gradients under both aqueous and denaturing conditions together with agarose gel electrophoresis in the presence of the chaotropic agent methylmercuric hydroxide gave a value of 8 X 10(6) for the moleclar weight of IBV RNA. This value was confirmed by RNase T1 fingerprinting, which also indicated that IBV RNA is haploid. No evidence was found of subunit structure in IBV RNA. From these results together with the recently reported observation that IBV RNA is infectious and contains a tract of polyadenylic acid (Lomniczi, J. Gen. Virol., in press), we conclude that the genome of the coronaviruses is a single continuous chain of about 23,000 mononucleotides that is of messenger polarity. Images PMID:198590

  17. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in avian influenza negative birds from live bird markets and backyard and commercial farms in Ivory-Coast.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, A V; Kouakou, V; Kouakou, C; Godji, P; Kouassi, A L; Krou, H A; Langeois, Q; Webby, R J; Ducatez, M F; Couacy-Hymann, E

    2015-10-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two major viral diseases affecting the respiratory tracts of birds and whose impact on African poultry is still poorly known. In the present study we aimed at assessing NDV and IBV prevalences in Ivory-Coast by molecular screening of >22,000 avian swabs by nested PCR and by serology testing of close to 2000 avian sera from 2010 through 2012. The NDV and IBV seroprevalences over the study period reached 22% and 72%, respectively. We found 14.7% pooled swabs positive by PCR for NDV and 14.6% for IBV. Both pathogens are therefore endemic in Ivory-Coast. Economic losses associated with NDV and IBV infections still need to be evaluated. PMID:26412525

  18. Experimental co-infection of SPF chickens with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes H9N2, H5N2 and H7N9, and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are two of the most important respiratory viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the effect of co-infection of these two viruses in poultry. Low pathogenicity (LP) AIV can produce from mild to moderate upper r...

  19. Development of RT-qPCR assays for the specific identification of two major genotypes of avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Marandino, Ana; Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Panzera, Yanina; Craig, María Isabel; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Vera, Federico; Techera, Claudia; Grecco, Sofía; Banda, Alejandro; Hernández, Diego; Pérez, Ruben

    2016-09-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (Gammacoronavirus, Coronaviridae) is a genetically variable RNA virus (27.6kb) that causes one of the most persistent respiratory disease in poultry. The virus is classified in genotypes with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. The present study reports the development and validation of specific RT-qPCR assays for the detection of two major IBV genotypes: South America I (SAI) and Asia/South America II (A/SAII). The SAI genotype is an exclusive and widespread South American lineage while the A/SAII genotype is distributed in Asia, Europe and South America. Both identification assays employ TaqMan probes that hybridize with unique sequences in the spike glycoprotein gene. The assays successfully detected all the assessed strains belonging to both genotypes, showing high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity. Using serial dilutions of in vitro-transcribed RNA we obtained acceptable determination coefficients, PCR efficiencies and relatively small intra- and inter-assay variability. The assays demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 10(1)-10(7) and 10(2)-10(7) RNA copies/reaction for SAI and A/SAII strains, respectively. The possibility to characterize a large number of samples in a rapid, sensitive and reproducible way makes these techniques suitable tools for routine testing, IBV control, and epidemiological research in poultry. PMID:27181213

  20. Fine level epitope mapping and conservation analysis of two novel linear B-cell epitopes of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Han, Zongxi; Zhao, Fei; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Xiaoli; Kong, Xiangang; Song, Yang; Liu, Shengwang

    2013-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) may play an essential role in the replication and translation of viral RNA. The N protein can also induce high titers of cross-reactive antibodies and cell-mediated immunity, which protects chickens from acute infection. In this study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), designated as 6D10 and 4F10, which were directed against the N protein of IBV using the whole viral particles as immunogens. Both of the mAbs do not cross react with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and subtype H9 avian influenza virus (AIV). After screening a phage display peptide library and peptide scanning, we identified two linear B-cell epitopes that were recognized by the mAbs 6D10 and 4F10, which corresponded to the amino acid sequences (242)FGPRTK(247) and (195)DLIARAAKI(203), respectively, in the IBV N protein. Alignments of amino acid sequences from a large number of IBV isolates indicated that the two epitopes, especially (242)FGPRTK(247), were well conserved among IBV strains. This conclusion was further confirmed by the relationships of 18 heterologous sequences to the 2 mAbs. The novel mAbs and the epitopes identified will be useful for developing diagnostic assays for IBV infections. PMID:23123213

  1. Heterotypic protection to infectious bronchitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing a distinct spike (S) protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). This recombinant vaccine technology confers cross-protection among different IBV strains. We also experimentally demonstrated that the recombinant construct main...

  2. Comparison between dot-immunoblotting assay and clinical sign determination method for quantifying avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine by titration in embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Seong-su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-tack; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Youn, Ha-Na; Heo, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive and specific method for measuring the vaccine titer of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is important to commercial manufacturers for improving vaccine quality. Typically, IBV is titrated in embryonated chicken eggs, and the infectivity of the virus dilutions is determined by assessing clinical signs in the embryos as evidence of viral propagation. In this study, we used a dot-immunoblotting assay (DIA) to measure the titers of IBV vaccines that originated from different pathogenic strains or attenuation methods in embryonated eggs, and we compared this assay to the currently used method, clinical sign evaluation. To compare the two methods, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR, which had the lowest limit of detection for propagated IBV. As a clinical sign of infection, dwarfism of the embryo was quantified using the embryo: egg (EE) index. The DIA showed 9.41% higher sensitivity and 15.5% higher specificity than the clinical sign determination method. The DIA was particularly useful for measuring the titer of IBV vaccine that did not cause apparent stunting but propagated in embryonated chicken eggs such as a heat-adapted vaccine strain. The results of this study indicate that the DIA is a rapid, sensitive, reliable method for determining IBV vaccine titer in embryonated eggs at a relatively low cost. PMID:26802454

  3. A clinical survey of common avian infectious diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Dong; Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple common avian infectious diseases (CAIDs), namely, avian infectious diseases excluding highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease, such as avian salmonellosis and coccidiosis, cause huge economic loss in poultry production and are of great significance in public health. However, they are usually not covered in the systems for reporting of animal diseases. Consequently, the distribution of CAIDs is not clear in many countries. Here, we report a clinical survey of CAIDs in China based on clinical diagnosis of eight veterinary clinics in 2011 and 2012. This survey provided the distribution data of viral, bacterial, and parasitic CAIDs in different types of avian flocks, seasons, and regions, data that are of great value in the research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases. This survey suggested that avian colibacillosis, infectious serositis in ducks caused by Riemerella anatipestifer, avian salmonellosis, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, avian aspergillosis, coccidiosis, low pathogenic avian influenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, and infectious laryngotracheitis are likely to be prevalent in the poultry in China. PMID:25055636

  4. Hatchery Spray Cabinet Administration Does Not Damage Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine Based on Analysis by Electron Microscopy and Virus Titration.

    PubMed

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Jordan, Brian J; Hilt, Deborah A; Ard, Mary B; Jackwood, Mark W

    2015-03-01

    studies in our laboratory showed that the Arkansas-Delmarva Poultry Industry (Ark-DPI) vaccine given to 1-day-old chickens by hatchery spray cabinet replicated poorly and failed to adequately protect broilers against homologous virus challenge, whereas the same vaccine given by eye-drop did replicate and the birds were protected following homologous virus challenge. To determine if mechanical damage following spray application plays a role in failure of the Ark-DPI vaccine, we examined the morphology of three Ark-DPI vaccines from different manufacturers using an electron microscope and included a Massachusetts (Mass) vaccine as control. One of the Ark-DPI vaccines (vaccine A) and the Mass vaccine had significantly (P < 0.005) fewer spikes than the other two Ark-DPI vaccines. We also found that the Ark-DPI and Mass vaccines had significantly (P < 0.005) fewer spike proteins per virus particle when compared to their respective challenge viruses. This observation is interesting and may provide some insight into the mechanism behind infectious bronchitis virus attenuation. No obvious differences were observed in virus morphology and no consistent trend in the number of spikes per virion was found in before- and after-spray samples. We also determined the vaccine titer before and after spray in embryonated eggs and found that both Ark-DPI and Mass vaccines had a similar drop in titer, 0.40 logi and 0.310 logi, respec10ively. Based on these data, it appears that mechanical damage to the Ark-DPI vaccine is not occurring when delivered by a hatchery spray cabinet, suggesting that some other factor is contributing to the failure of that vaccine when given by that method. PMID:26292549

  5. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    PubMed

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  6. Pathogenicity of virulent infectious bronchitis virus isolate YN on hen ovary and oviduct.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qi; Hu, Yan-Xin; Jin, Ji-Hui; Zhao, Ye; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guo-Zhong

    2016-09-25

    Avian infectious bronchitis is an economically important poultry disease caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). IBV isolate YN is a virulent strain, which is genetically similar to most of the prevalent strains in China. In this study, 21-day-old commercial laying hens were infected with IBV strain YN. The damaging effects of the virus on the reproductive organs were evaluated with clinical observations, gross autopsy and histopathological examinations during the 100-day monitoring period post infection. IBV strain YN infection caused a death rate of 40.5%. Microscopic lesions were observed on the ovary post-infection, but were restricted to the acute infection period. The pathological damage to the cystic oviducts were observed throughout the surveillance period. This study provides detailed information on the pathological changes in the hen ovary and oviduct after challenge with IBV strain YN, which could provide a better understanding about the pathogenicity of IBV. PMID:27599936

  7. In vitro and in vivo effects of Houttuynia cordata on infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiechao; Li, Guangxing; Li, Jing; Yang, Qing; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2011-10-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, causes infectious bronchitis leading to enormous economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) (HC) is a traditional Chinese medicine used in China. In the present study, the effect of HC on cell infection by IBV was determined using plaque assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The inhibitory effect of HC on IBV infection in ovo and in vivo was analysed using specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos and chickens. Moreover, the effect of HC on cell apoptosis induced by IBV was investigated. Results showed that HC had more than 90% inhibition rate against IBV infection in Vero cells and chicken embryo kidney cells, and decreased more than 90% apoptotic cells caused by IBV. HC fully protected the SPF embryos, and had more than 50% protection rate in SPF chickens, against IBV challenge. PMID:21848486

  8. Synthesis of coronavirus mRNAs: kinetics of inactivation of infectious bronchitis virus RNA synthesis by UV light. [Chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.F.; Sefton, B.M.

    1982-05-01

    Infection of cells with the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus results in the synthesis of five major subgenomic RNAs. These RNAs and the viral genome form a 3' coterminal nested set. We found that the rates of inactivation of synthesis of the RNAs by UV light were different and increased with the length of the transcript. These results show that each RNA is transcribed from a unique promoter and that extensive processing of the primary transcripts probably does not occur.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A REAL-TIME TAQMAN RT-PCR ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS FROM INFECTED CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to rapidly differentiate infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from disease agents like highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and exotic Newcastle disease virus, because those diseases can be extremely similar in the early stages of their pathogenicity. In this study, we report the dev...

  10. Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Bronchitis? Español Bronchitis (bron-KI-tis) is a condition ... discomfort, a low fever, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis Figure A shows the location of the lungs ...

  11. Evolution of infectious bronchitis virus in China over the past two decades.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Jing; Zhong, Qi; Jin, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious disease caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) that affects poultry production worldwide. The absence of vaccine cross-protection and the frequent emergence of new variant strains complicate control of IBV. Here we designed a study to measure the evolution dynamics of IBV strains in China. One hundered and seven complete sequences and 1022 S1-region sequences of Chinese IBVs isolated between 1994 and 2014 were analysed by using MEGA 5.0 software and the Bayesian analysis sampling trees (BEAST) method, and selection pressure on different proteins was assessed. The phylogenetic dissimilarity of different gene trees in the data set indicated possible recombination. Fourteen isolates were identified as recombinants, possibly generated from vaccines of the Massachusetts serotype in recombination with circulating viruses. The earliest IBV in China was found to have existed in the early 1900s, and continues to evolve at a rate of approximately 10-5 substitutions per site per year. We found that purifying selection was the main evolutionary pressure in the protein-coding regions, while the S1 gene bears the greatest positive selection pressure. The proportion of QX-like genotype strains increased over time. These results indicate that the genotypes of Chinese IBVs have undergone a remarkable transition during the past 20 years. PMID:27008625

  12. Recombinant duck enteritis viruses expressing major structural proteins of the infectious bronchitis virus provide protection against infectious bronchitis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Huixin; Wang, Yulong; Han, Zongxi; Wang, Yu; Liang, Shulin; Jiang, Lu; Hu, Yonghao; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2016-06-01

    To design an alternative vaccine for control of infectious bronchitis in chickens, three recombinant duck enteritis viruses (rDEVs) expressing the N, S, or S1 protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were constructed using conventional homologous recombination methods, and were designated as rDEV-N, rDEV-S, and rDEV-S1, respectively. Chickens were divided into five vaccinated groups, which were each immunized with one of the rDEVs, covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S, or covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S1, and a control group. An antibody response against IBV was detectable and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-lymphocytes decreased at 7 days post-vaccination in each vaccinated group, suggesting that humoral and cellular responses were elicited in each group as early as 7 days post-immunization. After challenge with a homologous virulent IBV strain at 21 days post-immunization, vaccinated groups showed significant differences in the percentage of birds with clinical signs, as compared to the control group (p < 0.01), as the two covalent-vaccination groups and the rDEV-S group provided better protection than the rDEV-N- or rDEV-S1-vaccinated group. There was less viral shedding in the rDEV-N & rDEV-S- (2/10) and rDEV-N & rDEV-S1- (2/10) vaccinated groups than the other three vaccinated groups. Based on the clinical signs, viral shedding, and mortality rates, rDEV-N & rDEV-S1 covalent vaccination conferred better protection than use of any of the single rDEVs. PMID:26946113

  13. Variability Assessment of California Infectious Bronchitis Virus Variants.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, R A; Aleuy, O A; Pitesky, M; Sentíes-Cué, G; Abdelnabi, A; Woolcock, P R; Hauck, R; Toro, H

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the data from the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, 1444 infectious bronchitis (IB) cases were diagnosed between 1997 and 2012. Epidemiologic analyses demonstrated two major IB virus (IBV) outbreak peaks, affecting mainly 35-to-49-day-old broiler chickens. California variant 1737 (CA1737) and California variant 1999 (Cal 99) IBV types were the most prevalent genotypes during the analyzed period. To further understand the increased prevalence of these genotypes, we assessed and compared the variability of the S1 gene hypervariable region of CA1737 and Cal 99 with the variability of IBV strains belonging to the Massachusetts 41 (M41) and Arkansas (Ark) types during serial passages in embryonated chicken eggs. On the basis of the S1 nonsynonymous changes, seven different subpopulations were detected in M41. However, the predominant population of the field strain M41 before passages continued to be predominant throughout the experiment. In contrast, Ark passaging resulted in the detection of 13 different subpopulations, and the field sequence became extinct after the first passage. In IBV Cal 99, eight different subpopulations were detected; one of these became predominant after the second passage. In CA1737, 10 different subpopulations were detected. The field strain major sequence was not detected after the first passage but reappeared after the second passage and remained at low levels throughout the experiment. Compared with M41 and Ark, Cal 99 and CA1737 showed intermediate variability. PMID:27309282

  14. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid detection of infectious bronchitis virus in infected chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-tai; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yan-ping; Ma, Li-Na; Ding, Yao-zhong; Liu, Xiang-tao; Cai, Xue-peng; Ma, Li-qing; Zhang, Yong-guang; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2010-04-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was developed. The detection limits for the IBV RT-LAMP assay were 10(1) 50% egg infection dose (EID(50)) per 50 microl of titrated viruses and no cross-reaction of IBV RT-LAMP was found when tested with other viruses including Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), and infectious laryngotrachietis virus (ILTV) due to their mismatch with IBV RT-LAMP primers. A total of 187 clinical tissues samples (88 blood, 62 kidney and 37 lung) were evaluated and compared to conventional RT-PCR. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP and RT-PCR assays for detecting IBV RNA in clinical specimens was 99.5% and 98.4%, respectively. These findings showed that the RT-LAMP assay has potential usefulness for rapid and sensitive diagnosis in outbreak of IBV. PMID:19835950

  15. [The Isolation and Identification of Infectious Bronchitis Virus PTFY Strain in Muscovy Ducks].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoping; Pan, Shulei; Zhou, Wuduo; Wu, Yijiang; Huang, Yifan; Wu, Baocheng

    2016-03-01

    In July 2009, some farms of breeding Muscovy ducks on the peak of egg laying suffered the decrease of hatching rate and the quality of the eggs showing low mortality and no evident respiratory symptoms. The swelling and congestive ovary was visible after autopsy. This study was brought out for the diagnosis of these cases. The virus was isolated and identified by the methods of virus culture in chicken embryo, physical and chemical properties test, hemagglutinin test, NDV (Newcastle diseases Virus) interference test, electron microscope observation, pathogenicity test and the gene sequence analysis. The results indicated the virus showed the characters of inducing dwarf embryo after inocubation, the sensibility to lipid solvent and the hemagglutination capacity after pancreatic enzyme treatment, the typical morphology of coronavirus, the interference to NDV replication and the homology among 84.7% - 99% of the particial N gene sequences to the reference IBV (Avian infectious bronchitis virus) strains. The strain was identified as IBV isolate and this study confirmed the pathogenicity of IBV to Muscovy ducks. PMID:27396165

  16. Neutralization Analysis of a Chicken Single-Chain Variable Fragment Derived from an Immune Antibody Library Against Infectious Bronchitis Virus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Li, Benqiang; Ye, Jiaxin; Wang, Man; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which is prevalent in many countries causing severe economic loss to the poultry industry, causes infectious bronchitis (IB) in birds. Recombinant single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) have been proven to effectively inhibit many viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, and they could be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic reagent to control IB. In this study, six anti-IBV chicken scFvs, ZL.10, ZL.64, ZL.78, ZL.80, ZL.138, and ZL.256, were obtained by screening random clones from an immune antibody library. An analysis of nucleotide sequences revealed that they represented distinctive genetic sequences and greatly varied in complementarity-determining region three of the heavy chain. Neutralization tests showed that ZL.10, which bound the S1 protein in western blots, inhibited the formation of syncytia in Vero cells 48 h post IBV infection and decreased the transcriptional level of nucleoprotein mRNA to 17.2%, while the other five scFvs, including ZL.78 and ZL.256, that bound the N protein did not. In conclusion, the results suggested that specific and neutralizing chicken scFvs against IBV, which can be safe and economical antibody reagents, can be produced in vitro through prokaryotic expression. PMID:26090700

  17. Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... don't smoke, try to avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. previous continue Smoking and Bronchitis Tobacco smoke is the cause of ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Smoking Stop Smoking: Your Personal Plan Secondhand Smoke Coping With Colds Hand Washing Asthma How ...

  18. [Complete genomic analysis of a novel infectious bronchitis virus isolate].

    PubMed

    Hu, Bei-Xia; Yang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Wei; Cao, San-Jie; Xu, Chuan-Tian; Huang, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yan-Yan; Wen, Xin-Tian

    2014-07-01

    The genome of CK/CH/SD09/005, an isolate of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), was characterized to enable the further understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of IBV in China. Twenty-five pairs of primers were designed to amplify the full-length genome of CK/CH/SD09/005. The nucleotide sequence of CK/CH/SD09/005 was compared with reference IBV strains retrieved from GenBank. The phylogenic relationship between CK/CH/SD09/005 and the reference strains was analyzed based on S1 gene sequences. The complete genome of CK/CH/SD09/005 consisted of 27691 nucleotides (nt), excluding the 5' cap and 3' poly A tail. The whole-genome of CK/CH/SD09/005 shared 97 - 99% nucleotide sequence homology with the GX-NN09032 strain, which was the only complete genome that was closely related to CK/CH/SD09/005. When compared with all reference strains except GX-NN09032, CK/CH/SD09/005 showed the highest similarity to ck/CH/LDL/091022 and SDIB821/2012 (QX-like) in the replicase gene (Gene 1) and 3'UTR, with a sequence identity rate of 97% and 98%, respectively. However, CK/CH/SD09/005 exhibited lower levels of similarity with ck/CH/LDL/091022 and SDIB821/2012 in S-3a-3b-3c/ E-M-5a-5b-N with a sequence identity of 72% - 90%. CK/CH/SD09/005 showed the highest level of nucleotide identity with Korean strain 1011, and Chinese strains CK/CH/LXJ/02I, DK/CH/HN/ZZ2004 and YX10, in ORF 3c/E (97%), 5a (96%), 5b (99%) and N (96%), respectively. ORFs 3a, 3b and M of CK/CH/SD09/005 exhibited no more than 90% homology with the reference strains, excluding GX-NN09032. The phylogenic analysis based on the S1 gene revealed that CK/CH/SD09/005 and 39 published strains were classified into seven clades (genotypes). CK/CH/SD09/005 was distributed in clade IV with several isolates collected between 2007 and 2012. CK/CH/SD09/005 showed 66% - 69% and 72% - 81% nucleotide identities with the IBV strains of other six clades in the S1 and S2 subunits, respectively. More over, multiple substitutions were

  19. S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against infectious bronchitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously demonstrated that overexposing the IBV (infectious bronchitis virus) S2 to the chicken immune system by means of a vectored vaccine, followed by boost with whole virus, protects chickens against IBV showing dissimilar S1. We developed recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (...

  20. Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus Inhibits STAT1 Signaling and Requires Accessory Proteins for Resistance to Type I Interferon Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kint, Joeri; Dickhout, Annemiek; Kutter, Jasmin; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; Koumans, Joseph; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fros, Jelke J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The innate immune response is the first line of defense against viruses, and type I interferon (IFN) is a critical component of this response. Similar to other viruses, the gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has evolved under evolutionary pressure to evade and counteract the IFN response to enable its survival. Previously, we reported that IBV induces a delayed activation of the IFN response. In the present work, we describe the resistance of IBV to IFN and the potential role of accessory proteins herein. We show that IBV is fairly resistant to the antiviral state induced by IFN and identify that viral accessory protein 3a is involved in resistance to IFN, as its absence renders IBV less resistant to IFN treatment. In addition to this, we found that independently of its accessory proteins, IBV inhibits IFN-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of STAT1. In summary, we show that IBV uses multiple strategies to counteract the IFN response. IMPORTANCE In the present study, we show that infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is resistant to IFN treatment and identify a role for accessory protein 3a in the resistance against the type I IFN response. We also demonstrate that, in a time-dependent manner, IBV effectively interferes with IFN signaling and that its accessory proteins are dispensable for this activity. This study demonstrates that the gammacoronavirus IBV, similar to its mammalian counterparts, has evolved multiple strategies to efficiently counteract the IFN response of its avian host, and it identifies accessory protein 3a as multifaceted antagonist of the avian IFN system. PMID:26401035

  1. Detection and identification of infectious bronchitis virus by RT-PCR in Iran.

    PubMed

    Homayounimehr, Alireza; Pakbin, Ahmad; Momayyez, Reza; Fatemi, Seyyedeh Mahsa Rastegar

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe diseases in poultry with significant economic consequences to the poultry industry in Iran. The aim of this study was the detection and identification of IBV by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR in Iran. Ten IB virus strains were detected by testing trachea, cecal tonsil, and kidney tissues collected from broiler and layer farms in Iran. In order to detect infectious bronchitis virus, an optimized RT-PCR was used. Primers targeting the conserved region of known IBV serotypes were used in the RT-PCR assay. Primers selectively detecting Massachusetts and 793/B type IB viruses were designed to amplify the S1 gene of the virus and used in the nested PCR test. Our findings indicate the circulation of at least three genotypes of IB viruses (Massachusetts, 793/B, and variant 2) among poultry flocks. PMID:27010714

  2. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus strains similar to Japan in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    TSAI, Cheng-Ta; TSAI, Hsin-Fu; WANG, Ching-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1,320 tracheal samples from 66 broiler flocks sent to slaughterhouses and 42 tracheal samples from 42 flocks of local chickens in the field were collected for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) gene detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using nucleocapsid-specific primers and spike-specific primers. Prevalence in broiler flocks was 39.4% (26/66) and in local chicken flocks was 11.9% (5/42). Several IBVs similar to Japan were detected in Taiwan. One-direction neutralization revealed that the reference antisera did not offer protection against the IBVs similar to those from Japan. PMID:26822119

  3. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus strains similar to Japan in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Hsin-Fu; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2016-06-01

    A total of 1,320 tracheal samples from 66 broiler flocks sent to slaughterhouses and 42 tracheal samples from 42 flocks of local chickens in the field were collected for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) gene detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using nucleocapsid-specific primers and spike-specific primers. Prevalence in broiler flocks was 39.4% (26/66) and in local chicken flocks was 11.9% (5/42). Several IBVs similar to Japan were detected in Taiwan. One-direction neutralization revealed that the reference antisera did not offer protection against the IBVs similar to those from Japan. PMID:26822119

  4. The proteome of the infectious bronchitis virus Beau-R virion.

    PubMed

    Dent, Stuart D; Xia, Dong; Wastling, Jonathan M; Neuman, Benjamin W; Britton, Paul; Maier, Helena J

    2015-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious respiratory disease of poultry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). It was thought that coronavirus virions were composed of three major viral structural proteins until investigations of other coronaviruses showed that the virions also include viral non-structural and genus-specific accessory proteins as well as host-cell proteins. To study the proteome of IBV virions, virus was grown in embryonated chicken eggs, purified by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation and analysed by mass spectrometry. Analysis of three preparations of purified IBV yielded the three expected structural proteins plus 35 additional virion-associated host proteins. The virion-associated host proteins had a diverse range of functional attributions, being involved in cytoskeleton formation, RNA binding and protein folding pathways. Some of these proteins were unique to this study, while others were found to be orthologous to proteins identified in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virions and also virions from a number of other RNA and DNA viruses. PMID:27257648

  5. Immune Responses to Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Rajesh; Chantrey, Julian; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious chicken viral disease, causing severe economic losses to poultry producers worldwide. In the last few decades, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has been extensively studied, but knowledge of immune responses to virulent or vaccine strains of IBVs remains limited. This review focuses on fundamental aspects of immune responses against IBV, including the role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in identification of conserved viral structures and the role of different components of innate immunity (e.g., heterophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, acute phase protein, and cytokines). Studies on adaptive immune activation and the role of humoral and cellular immunity in IBV clearance are also reviewed. Multiple interlinking immune responses are essential for protection against virulent IBVs, including passive, innate, adaptive, and effector T cells active at mucosal surfaces. Although the development of approaches for chicken transcriptome and proteome analyses have greatly helped the understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms for immunity, there are still major knowledge gaps, such as the role of mucosal and cellular responses to IBVs. In view of recent reports of emergent IBV variants in many countries, there is renewed interest in a more complete understanding of poultry immune responses to both virulent and vaccine strains of IBVs. This will be critical for developing new vaccine or vaccination strategies and other intervention programs. PMID:26301315

  6. Evolutionary and bioinformatic analysis of the spike glycoprotein gene of H120 vaccine strain protectotype of infectious bronchitis virus from India.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Pillai, Aravind S; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Khulape, Sagar Aashok; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2016-01-01

    The infectious bronchitis virus is a causative agent of avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), and is is an important disease that produces severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Recent AIB outbreaks in India have been associated with poor growth in broilers, drop in egg production, and thin egg shells in layers. The complete spike gene of Indian AIB vaccine strain was amplified and sequenced using a conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and is submitted to the GenBank (accession no KF188436). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the vaccine strain currently used belongs to H120 genotype, an attenuated strain of Massachusetts (Mass) serotype. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons have shown that the reported spike gene from Indian isolates have 71.8%-99% and 71.4%-96.9% genetic similarity with the sequenced H120 strain. The study identifies live attenuated IBV vaccine strain, which is routinely used for vaccination, for the first time. Based on nucleotide and amino acid relatedness studies of the vaccine strain with reported IBV sequences from India, it is shown that the current vaccine strain is efficient in controlling the IBV infection. Continuous monitoring of IBV outbreaks by sequencing for genotyping and in vivo cross protection studies for serotyping is not only important for epidemiological investigation but also for evaluation of efficacy of the current vaccine. PMID:25311758

  7. Detection of variant infectious bronchitis viruses in Sri Lanka (2012-2015).

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher; Forrester, Anne; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Poultry production is an important sector of agriculture in Sri Lanka; however, there is a lack of information regarding circulation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). RNA was extracted from chicken tissues, subjected to IBV S1 RT-PCR, and sequenced. Overall, 19 out of 34 (55.88 %) samples were IBV positive and contained the genotype 793B (n = 13; 68.42 %), D274 (n = 4; 21.05 %) or Massachusetts (n = 2; 10.53 %). All three genotypes contained at least one strain with less than 99 % nucleotide sequence identity to the corresponding vaccine strains. This report identified co-circulation of IBV strains 793B, Massachusetts and D274, in Sri Lanka that are divergent from the respective vaccine strains. PMID:27020570

  8. Mucosal, Cellular, and Humoral Immune Responses Induced by Different Live Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccination Regimes and Protection Conferred against Infectious Bronchitis Virus Q1 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Rajesh; Forrester, Anne; Lemiere, Stephane; Awad, Faez; Chantrey, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the mucosal, cellular, and humoral immune responses induced by two different infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccination regimes and their efficacy against challenge by a variant IBV Q1. One-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated with live H120 alone (group I) or in combination with CR88 (group II). The two groups were again vaccinated with CR88 at 14 days of age (doa). One group was kept as the control (group III). A significant increase in lachrymal IgA levels was observed at 4 doa and then peaked at 14 doa in the vaccinated groups. The IgA levels in group II were significantly higher than those in group I from 14 doa. Using immunohistochemistry to examine changes in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the trachea, it was found that overall patterns of CD8+ cells were dominant compared to those of CD4+ cells in the two vaccinated groups. CD8+ cells were significantly higher in group II than those in group I at 21 and 28 doa. All groups were challenged oculonasally with a virulent Q1 strain at 28 doa, and their protection was assessed. The two vaccinated groups gave excellent ciliary protection against Q1, although group II's histopathology lesion scores and viral RNA loads in the trachea and kidney showed greater levels of protection than those in group I. These results suggest that greater protection is achieved from the combined vaccination of H120 and CR88 of 1-day-old chicks, followed by CR88 at 14 doa. PMID:26202435

  9. Heterologous live infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in day-old commercial broiler chicks: clinical signs, ciliary health, immune responses and protection against variant infectious bronchitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-04-01

    Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via the oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines: Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274 or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their tracheas collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post-vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce high levels of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells in the trachea. Significantly higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ expression were observed in the Mass2 + 793B2-vaccinated group compared to the other groups (subscripts indicate different manufacturers). Protection studies showed that the group of chicks vaccinated with Mass2 + 793B2 produced 92% ciliary protection against QX challenge; compared to 53%, 68% and 73% ciliary protection against the same challenge virus by Mass1 + D274, Mass1 + 793B1 and Mass3 + Ark, respectively. All vaccination programmes produced more than 85% ciliary protection against M41 and 793B challenges. It appears that the variable levels of protection provided by different heterologous live IBV vaccinations are dependent on the levels of local tracheal immunity induced by the respective vaccine combination. The Mass2 + 793B2 group showed the worst clinical signs, higher mortality and severe lesions following vaccination, but had the highest tracheal immune responses and demonstrated the best protection against all three challenge viruses. PMID:26743315

  10. Phylogeny and S1 Gene Variation of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Detected in Broilers and Layers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Huseyin; Altan, Eda; Cizmecigil, Utku Y; Gurel, Aydin; Ozturk, Gulay Yuzbasioglu; Bamac, Ozge Erdogan; Aydin, Ozge; Britton, Paul; Monne, Isabella; Cetinkaya, Burhan; Morgan, Kenton L; Faburay, Bonto; Richt, Juergen A; Turan, Nuri

    2016-09-01

    The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (AvCoV-IBV) is recognized as an important global pathogen because new variants are a continuous threat to the poultry industry worldwide. This study investigates the genetic origin and diversity of AvCoV-IBV by analysis of the S1 sequence derived from 49 broiler flocks and 14 layer flocks in different regions of Turkey. AvCoV-IBV RNA was detected in 41 (83.6%) broiler flocks and nine (64.2%) of the layer flocks by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. In addition, AvCoV-IBV RNA was detected in the tracheas 27/30 (90%), lungs 31/49 (62.2%), caecal tonsils 7/22 (31.8%), and kidneys 4/49 (8.1%) of broiler flocks examined. Pathologic lesions, hemorrhages, and mononuclear infiltrations were predominantly observed in tracheas and to a lesser extent in the lungs and a few in kidneys. A phylogenetic tree based on partial S1 sequences of the detected AvCoV-IBVs (including isolates) revealed that 1) viruses detected in five broiler flocks were similar to the IBV vaccines Ma5, H120, M41; 2) viruses detected in 24 broiler flocks were similar to those previously reported from Turkey and to Israel variant-2 strains; 3) viruses detected in seven layer flocks were different from those found in any of the broiler flocks but similar to viruses previously reported from Iran, India, and China (similar to Israel variant-1 and 4/91 serotypes); and 4) that the AVCoV-IBV, Israeli variant-2 strain, found to be circulating in Turkey appears to be undergoing molecular evolution. In conclusion, genetically different AvCoV-IBV strains, including vaccine-like strains, based on their partial S1 sequence, are circulating in broiler and layer chicken flocks in Turkey and the Israeli variant-2 strain is undergoing evolution. PMID:27610718

  11. Bioinformatics and evolutionary insight on the spike glycoprotein gene of QX-like and Massachusetts strains of infectious bronchitis virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a Gammacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae and is a causative agent of an economically important disease in poultry. The spike glycoprotein of IBV is essential for host cell attachment, neutralization, and is involved in the induction of protective immunity. Previously obtained sequence data of the spike gene of IBV QX-like and Massachusetts strains were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Findings On analysis of potential phosphorylation sites, the Ser542 and Ser563 sites were not present in Massachusetts strains, while QX-like isolates did not have the Ser534 site. Massachusetts and QX-like strains showed different cleavage site motifs. The N-glycosylation sites ASN-XAA-SER/THR-55, 147, 200 and 545 were additionally present in QX-like strains. The leucine-rich repeat regions in Massachusetts strains consisted of stretches of 63 to 69 amino acids, while in the QX-like strains they contained 59 amino acids in length. An additional palmitoylation site was observed in CK/SWE/082066/2010 a QX-like strain. Primary structure data showed difference in the physical properties and hydrophobic nature of both genotypes. The comparison of secondary structures revealed no new structural domains in the genotypic variants. The phylogenetic analyses based on avian and mammalian coronaviruses showed the analysed IBV as closely related to turkey coronaviruses and distantly related to thrush and munia coronaviruses. Conclusion The study demonstrated that spike glycoprotein of the Massachusetts and the QX-like variants of IBV are molecularly distinct and that this may reflect in differences in the behavior of these viruses in vivo. PMID:22992336

  12. Establishment of reverse genetics system for infectious bronchitis virus attenuated vaccine strain H120.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying Shun; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Hong Ning; Fan, Wen Qiao; Yang, Xin; Zhang, An Yun; Zeng, Fan Ya; Zhang, Zhi Kun; Cao, Hai Peng; Zeng, Cheng

    2013-02-22

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain H120 was successfully rescued as infectious clone by reverse genetics. Thirteen 1.5-2.8 kb fragments contiguously spanning the virus genome were amplified and cloned into pMD19-T. Transcription grade complete length cDNA was acquired by a modified "No See'm" ligation strategy, which employed restriction enzyme Bsa I and BsmB I and ligated more than two fragments in one T4 ligase reaction. The full-length genomic cDNA was transcribed and its transcript was transfected by electroporation into BHK-21 together with the transcript of nucleocapsid gene. At 48 h post transfection, the medium to culture the transfected BHK-21 cells was harvested and inoculated into 10-days old SPF embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) to replicate the rescued virus. After passage of the virus in ECE five times, the rescued H120 virus (R-H120) was successfully recovered. R-H120 was subsequently identified to possess the introduced silent mutation site in its genome. Some biological characteristics of R-H120 such as growth curve, EID50 and HA titers, were tested and all of them were very similar to its parent strain H120. In addition, both R-H120 and H120 induced a comparable titer of HA inhibition (HI) antibody in immunized chickens and also provided up to 85% of immune protection to the chickens that were challenged with Mass41 IBV strain. The present study demonstrated that construction of infectious clone from IBV vaccine strain H120 is possible and IBV-H120 can be use as a vaccine vector for the development of novel vaccines through molecular recombination and the modified reverse genetics approach. PMID:22999521

  13. [Rescue of the recombinant infectious bronchitis virus with the ectodomain region of H120 spike glycoprotein].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan-quan; Guo, Hui-chen; Wang, Hai-ming; Sun, De-hui; Han, Shi-chong; Sun, Shi-qi

    2014-11-01

    To explore the expression potential of heterogeneous genes using the backbone of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Beaudette strain, the ectodomain region of the Spike gene (1,302 bp) of IBV H120 strain was amplified by RT-PCR and replaced into the corresponding location of the IBV Beaudette strain full-length cDNA. This recombinant was designated as BeauR-H120(S1). BeauR-H120(S1) was directly used as the DNA template for the transcription of viral genomic RNA in vitro. Then, the transcription product was transfected into Vero cells by electroporation. At 48 h post-transfection, the transfected Vero cells were harvested, and passaging continued. A syncytium was not observed until the recombinant virus had passed through four passages. The presence of rBeau-H120(S1) was verified by the detection of the replaced ectodomain region of the H120 Spike gene using RT-PCR. Western blot analysis of rBeau-H120 (S1)-infected Vero cell lysates demonstrated that the nucleocapsid (N) protein was expressed, which implied that rBeau-H120(S1) could propagate in Vero cells. The TCIDs0 and EIDs0 data demonstrated that the titer levels of rBeau-H120(S1) reached 10(590+/-0.22)TCID50/mL and 10(6.13+/-0.23)EID50/mL in Vero cells and 9-day-old SPF chicken embryos, respectively. Protection studies showed that the percentage of antibody-positive chickens, which were vaccinated with rBeau-H120(S1) at 7 days after hatching, rose to 90% at 21 days post-inoculation. Inoculation provided an 85% rate of immune protection against a challenge of the virulent IBV M41 strain (103EID50/chicken). This recombinant virus constructed using reverse genetic techniques could be further developed as a novel genetic engineering vaccine against infectious bronchitis. PMID:25868282

  14. Emergence of novel nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis viruses currently circulating in Chinese chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianqian; Han, Zongxi; Wang, Qiuling; Zhang, Tingting; Gao, Mengying; Zhao, Yan; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of novel infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) has been reported worldwide. Between 2011 and 2014, eight IBV isolates were identified from disease outbreaks in northeast China. In the current study we analysed the S1 gene of these eight IBV isolates in addition to the complete genome of five of them. We confirmed that these isolates emerged through the recombination of LX4 and Taiwan group 1 (TW1) viruses at two switch sites, one was in the Nsp 16 region and the other in the spike protein gene. The S1 gene in these viruses exhibited high nucleotide similarity with TW1-like viruses; the TW1 genotype was found to be present in southern China from 2009. Pathogenicity experiments in chickens using three of the eight virus isolates revealed that they were nephropathogenic and had similar pathogenicity to the parental viruses. The results of our study demonstrate that recombination, coupled with mutations, is responsible for the emergence of novel IBVs. PMID:26551660

  15. Isolation, pathogenicity, and H120 protection efficacy of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C H; Hsieh, M C; Chang, P C

    1996-01-01

    Seven isolates of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) were isolated from two breeder farms and five broiler farms in Taiwan in 1992. The cardinal signs of disease in breeders were egg production drops and watery albumen, and those in broilers were respiratory distress and renal urate deposition or death. All diseased chickens had been vaccinated with IB vaccines (mostly H120). The viruses were isolated and identified by chicken embryo inoculation and electron microscopy. The genomes of the isolates were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction; the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis suggested that the genotypes of the present IBV isolates were different from the eight reference strains. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks were inoculated with the field isolates in order to test the virulence of those isolates. Respiratory distress and depression commenced at 24 hours after inoculation. Two of the seven isolates were found to be highly virulent, causing 50% or more mortality in inoculated chicks. Vaccine protection tests showed that H120 could protect chickens against challenges with four of six field isolates. PMID:8883793

  16. S1 gene-based phylogeny of infectious bronchitis virus: An attempt to harmonize virus classification.

    PubMed

    Valastro, Viviana; Holmes, Edward C; Britton, Paul; Fusaro, Alice; Jackwood, Mark W; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease that results in severe economic losses to the global poultry industry. The virus exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct viral types, and both phylogenetic analysis and measures of pairwise similarity among nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been used to classify IBV strains. However, there is currently no consensus on the method by which IBV sequences should be compared, and heterogeneous genetic group designations that are inconsistent with phylogenetic history have been adopted, leading to the confusing coexistence of multiple genotyping schemes. Herein, we propose a simple and repeatable phylogeny-based classification system combined with an unambiguous and rationale lineage nomenclature for the assignment of IBV strains. By using complete nucleotide sequences of the S1 gene we determined the phylogenetic structure of IBV, which in turn allowed us to define 6 genotypes that together comprise 32 distinct viral lineages and a number of inter-lineage recombinants. Because of extensive rate variation among IBVs, we suggest that the inference of phylogenetic relationships alone represents a more appropriate criterion for sequence classification than pairwise sequence comparisons. The adoption of an internationally accepted viral nomenclature is crucial for future studies of IBV epidemiology and evolution, and the classification scheme presented here can be updated and revised novel S1 sequences should become available. PMID:26883378

  17. Cross-protective immune responses elicited by a Korean variant of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jang, Jun-Hyuk; Lim, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Soo-Won; Youn, Ha-Na; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2013-09-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections cause great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. IBVs continuously evolve by developing mutations in antigenic sites; therefore, an IBV vaccine that provides broad cross-protection can be a highly relevant and practical method in IBV control strategies. Although some IBV vaccine strains are known to provide protection against multiple IBV serotypes, in general commercially available IBV vaccine strains provide protection against antigenically related viruses but not distinct heterologous viruses. In the present study we characterized the Korean variant IBV K40/09 strain with regard to its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against seven currently circulating IBV serotypes. Three-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were intraocularly immunized with the IBV K40/09 strain at 10(3.5) 50% egg infective dose (EID50). Three weeks after immunization all the birds were challenged with seven different strains at 10(4.5) EID50. Chickens immunized with the IBV K40/09 strain showed significantly high levels of protection against all challenge viruses at the trachea and kidney levels. Our results suggest that IBV K40/09 could be useful to ensure IBV vaccine effectiveness owing to its cross-protective ability. Therefore, the IBV K40/09 strain merits consideration as a vaccine candidate to prevent infection as well as the spread of new IBV strains and many IBV variants that have been reported worldwide. PMID:24283135

  18. Serotype, antigenicity, and pathogenicity of a naturally recombinant TW I genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengying; Wang, Qiuling; Zhao, Wenjun; Chen, Yuqiu; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Xu, Qianqian; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2016-08-15

    Since 2009, strains of the naturally recombinant TW I genotype of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have caused considerable damage to the Chinese poultry industry. To better understand the antigenicity and pathogenesis of this genotype, the characteristics of the ck/CH/LDL/140520 strain were compared to those of four commercial IB vaccine strains that are used commonly in China, as well as four attenuated viruses that represent two types of IBV strains, which are believed to have originated in China and are the predominant IBV types circulating in chicken flocks in China and many other parts of the world. The results showed that all eight strains were genetically and serotypically different from the strain ck/CH/LDL/140520. Furthermore, neither the vaccine strains nor the attenuated viruses could provide complete respiratory protection of chickens against a challenge with the ck/CH/LDL/140520 strain, indicating that it is necessary to develop new live vaccines or to evaluate the use of established vaccines in combination to control naturally recombinant TW I-type IBV strains in the future. Our results showed that strain ck/CH/LDL/140520 is very pathogenic, and that it is able to cause cystic oviducts in a high percentage of birds, as well as mortality due to nephritis and respiratory distress with complete tracheal ciliostasis, especially in chickens infected at 1day of age. PMID:27374900

  19. Analysis of synonymous codon usage in spike protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Aditi; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is responsible for causing respiratory, renal, and urogenital diseases in poultry. IBV infection in poultry leads to high mortality rates in affected flocks and to severe economic losses due to a drop in egg production and a reduced gain in live weight of the broiler birds. IBV-encoded spike protein (S) is the major protective immunogen for the host. Although the functions of the S protein have been well studied, the factors shaping synonymous codon usage bias and nucleotide composition in the S gene have not been reported yet. In the present study, we analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage and effective number of codons (Nc) using the 53 IBV S genes. The major trend in codon usage variation was studied using correspondence analysis. The plot of Nc values against GC3 as well as the correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggest that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage bias in the S gene. Interestingly, no association of aromaticity, degree of hydrophobicity, and aliphatic index was observed with the codon usage variation in IBV S genes. The study represents a comprehensive analysis of IBV S gene codon usage patterns and provides a basic understanding of the codon usage bias. PMID:26452019

  20. Morphologic observations on respiratory tracts of chickens after hatchery infectious bronchitis vaccination and formaldehyde fumigation.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, A M; Soñez, M C; Plano, C M; von Lawzewitsch, I

    2000-01-01

    The histologic changes in the respiratory tracts of chickens were evaluated after hatchery fumigation with 40% formaldehyde vapors and vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus with live attenuated vaccine (Massachusetts serotype). One-day-old chickens were housed in four isolation units in controlled environmental conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, and separated into four groups: 1) fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group); 2) nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV group); 3) fumigated and nonvaccinated birds (FNV group); and 4) control group (C group). All birds were tested to be free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. After necropsy on the first, eighth, and twenty-sixth days after birth, samples from tracheal upper portion and lungs were conventionally processed for light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue response was monitored by microscopic examination of trachea and lung. On the first day of observation, fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group) showed extensively damaged tracheal epithelium with exfoliated areas and some active glands with electrodense granules, and in the lung, the primary bronchi epithelium had disorganized cilia and abundant lymphocytes, with emphysematous areas in tertiary bronchus. On day 8 after vaccination, cubical and cylindrical tracheal cell proliferation was observed, and on day 26, ciliated columnar epithelium was almost regenerated with heterophil corion infiltration, and hyaline cartilage nodules appeared in parabronchi. The nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV) revealed less injury on the epithelial surface and a more rapid response to epithelial regeneration than the in only fumigated animals (FNV). The control group did not show remarkable morphologic changes. Postvaccinal and fumigation effects on the upper respiratory tract were temporary, whereas in lungs, increased emphysema, cartilage nodules in the interchange zone, and general lymphocyte infiltration had caused

  1. Isolation of a novel serotype strain of infectious bronchitis virus ZZ2004 from ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sixin; Ou, Changbo; Liu, Xingyou; Wang, Xianwen; Yao, Zonghui; Liu, Jinjing

    2016-10-01

    In chickens, the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) often causes respiratory distress, a decrease in egg production, poor egg quality, and occasional nephritis. However, ZZ2004, a Chinese isolate of IBV, was obtained from ducks with clinical growth suppression and mild respiratory symptoms that had been reared with chickens in the central region of China. Virus isolation, virus neutralization testing, and RT-PCR were employed to identify the causative pathogen, while sequence alignment was used to analyze gene variations of the S1 subunit and M genes. The results showed that the ducks were infected with IBV due to the emergence of a dwarfing phenotype and the death of embryos between 48 and 144 h post-inoculation. RT-PCR also confirmed the presence of the expected fragment sizes of the S1 subunit and M genes by RT-PCR. Meanwhile, the results of the virus neutralization test indicated that the strains of JX/99/01, GD, SAIBK, LDT3 showed cross-reactivity with the ZZ2004 isolate, and hardly any cross-neutralization of IBV ZZ2004 was observed with the strains of M41, H120, Gray, Holte, or Aust-T. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that there were large differences between ZZ2004 and other IBV reference strains on the S1 subunit. Meanwhile, homologies in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the M gene of IBV ZZ2004 were 86.9-92.0 % and 91.1-93.9 %, respectively, compared with 35 other IBV reference strains derived from different regions. This result revealed that there were conspicuous variations among the selected strains. Furthermore, the results showed that the prevalent strains of IBV in ducks had no antigen homology with the vaccine strains widely used in China except the LDT3-strain, making it urgent to explore and develop new IBV vaccines. PMID:27164844

  2. Genotyping of infectious bronchitis viruses from broiler farms in Iraq during 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Seger, Waleed; GhalyanchiLangeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid; Madadgar, Omid; Marandi, Mehdi Vasfi; Hashemzadeh, Masoud

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the most critical pathogens in the poultry industry, causing serious economic losses in all countries including Iraq. IBV has many genotypes that do not confer any cross-protection. This virus has been genotyped by sequence analysis of the S1 glycoprotein gene. A total of 100 tracheal and kidney tissue specimens from different commercial broiler flocks in the middle and south of Iraq were collected from September 2013 to September 2014. Thirty-two IBV-positive samples were selected from among the total and were further characterized by nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates belong to four groups (group I, variant 2 [IS/1494-like]; group II, 793/B-like; group III, QX-like; group IV, DY12-2-like). Sequence analysis revealed nucleotide sequence identities within groups I, II, and III of 99.68 %-100 %, 99.36 %-100 %, and 96.42 %-100 %, respectively. Group I (variant 2) was the dominant IBV genotype. One Chinese-like recombinant virus (DY12-2-like) that had not been reported in the Middle East was detected. In addition, the presence of QX on broiler chicken farms in the area studied was confirmed. This is the first comprehensive study on the genotyping of IBV in Iraq with useful information regarding the molecular epidemiology of IBV. The phylogenetic relationship of the strains with respect to different time sequences and geographical regions displayed complexity and diversity. Further studies are needed and should include the isolation and full-length molecular characterization of IBV in this region. PMID:26887967

  3. Evaluation of infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas-type vaccine failure in commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Hilt, Deborah A; Williams, Susan M; Jackwooda, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens and is highly contagious. Many different types of the virus exist, but only a few types are used as attenuated live vaccines in the commercial poultry industry. Of the vaccine types used, the Arkansas (Ark)-type virus is most frequently reisolated from vaccinated broilers. Previous research has suggested that incomplete clearance of Ark-type vaccine virus plays a role in the inadequate protection observed when vaccinated broilers are challenged with pathogenic Ark virus. In this study, we examine routes of vaccine administration using multiple IBV types including Ark in an effort to understand why Ark vaccines do not provide good protection and persist in commercial broilers. We found that interference between different types of IBV vaccines was not occurring when combined and administered using a commercial hatchery spray cabinet. Also, Ark vaccine virus was not efficacious in 1-day-old broilers when sprayed using a hatchery spray cabinet, but it gave good protection when administrated by eyedrop inoculation. We also found that the amount of Ark vaccine virus was low or undetectable in choanal swabs out to 35 days postvaccination when vaccine was administered by eyedrop or drinking water. Alternatively, a subpopulation of the Ark vaccine isolated from a vaccinated bird, Ark-RI-EP1, showed a peak titer at 7-10 days of age when given by the same routes, suggesting that the Ark-RI-EP1 was more fit with regard to infection, replication in the birds, or both. Moreover, we found that detection of IBV vaccine virus early after administration, regardless of strain or route, correlated with protection against homologous challenge and may thus be a good indicator of vaccine efficacy in the field because humoral antibody titers are typically low or undetectable after vaccination. These experiments provided key findings that can be used to direct efforts for improving the efficacy of IBV

  4. Genetic Characterization of the Belgian Nephropathogenic Infectious Bronchitis Virus (NIBV) Reference Strain B1648.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Zeller, Mark; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-08-01

    The virulent nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (NIBV) strain B1648 was first isolated in 1984, in Flanders, Belgium. Despite intensive vaccination, B1648 and its variants are still circulating in Europe and North Africa. Here, the full-length genome of this Belgian NIBV reference strain was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS) to understand its evolutionary relationship with other IBV strains, and to identify possible genetic factors that may be associated with the nephropathogenicity. Thirteen open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted in the B1648 strain (51UTR-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-31UTR). ORFs 4b, 4c and 6b, which have been rarely reported in literature, were present in B1648 and most of the other IBV complete genomes. According to phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome, replicase transcriptase complex, spike protein, partial S1 gene and M protein, B1648 strain clustered with the non-Massachusetts type strains NGA/A116E7/2006, UKr 27-11, QX-like ITA/90254/2005, QX-like CK/SWE/0658946/10, TN20/00, RF-27/99, RF/06/2007 and SLO/266/05. Based on the partial S1 fragment, B1648 clustered with the strains TN20/00, RF-27/99, RF/06/2007 and SLO/266/05 and, further designated as B1648 genotype. The full-length genome of B1648 shared the highest sequence homology with UKr 27-11, Gray, JMK, and NGA/A116E7/2006 (91.2% to 91.6%) and was least related with the reference Beaudette and Massachusetts strains (89.7%). Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses indicated that B1648 strain may have played an important role in the evolution of IBV in Europe and North Africa. Further, the nephropathogenicity determinants might be located on the 1a, spike, M and accessory proteins (3a, 3b, 4b, 4c, 5a, 5b and 6b). Overall, strain B1648 is distinct from all the strains reported so far in Europe and other parts of the world. PMID:26262637

  5. Genetic Characterization of the Belgian Nephropathogenic Infectious Bronchitis Virus (NIBV) Reference Strain B1648

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vishwanatha R.A.P.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Roukaerts, Inge D.M.; Zeller, Mark; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    The virulent nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (NIBV) strain B1648 was first isolated in 1984, in Flanders, Belgium. Despite intensive vaccination, B1648 and its variants are still circulating in Europe and North Africa. Here, the full-length genome of this Belgian NIBV reference strain was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS) to understand its evolutionary relationship with other IBV strains, and to identify possible genetic factors that may be associated with the nephropathogenicity. Thirteen open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted in the B1648 strain (5′UTR-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3′UTR). ORFs 4b, 4c and 6b, which have been rarely reported in literature, were present in B1648 and most of the other IBV complete genomes. According to phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome, replicase transcriptase complex, spike protein, partial S1 gene and M protein, B1648 strain clustered with the non-Massachusetts type strains NGA/A116E7/2006, UKr 27-11, QX-like ITA/90254/2005, QX-like CK/SWE/0658946/10, TN20/00, RF-27/99, RF/06/2007 and SLO/266/05. Based on the partial S1 fragment, B1648 clustered with the strains TN20/00, RF-27/99, RF/06/2007 and SLO/266/05 and, further designated as B1648 genotype. The full-length genome of B1648 shared the highest sequence homology with UKr 27-11, Gray, JMK, and NGA/A116E7/2006 (91.2% to 91.6%) and was least related with the reference Beaudette and Massachusetts strains (89.7%). Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses indicated that B1648 strain may have played an important role in the evolution of IBV in Europe and North Africa. Further, the nephropathogenicity determinants might be located on the 1a, spike, M and accessory proteins (3a, 3b, 4b, 4c, 5a, 5b and 6b). Overall, strain B1648 is distinct from all the strains reported so far in Europe and other parts of the world. PMID:26262637

  6. Genotyping and pathotyping of diversified strains of infectious bronchitis viruses circulating in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Zanaty, Ali; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Hagag, Naglaa; El-Kady, Magdy

    2016-01-01

    AIM To characterize the circulating infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains in Egypt depending on the sequence of the spike-1 (S1) gene [hypervariable region-3 (HVR-3)] and to study the pathotypic features of these strains. METHODS In this work, twenty flocks were sampled for IBV detection using RRT-PCR and isolation of IBV in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks during the period from 2010 to 2015. Partial sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 400 bp representing the HVR-3 of the S1 gene was conducted. Pathotypic characterization of one selected virus from each group (Egy/Var-I, Egy/Var-II and classic) was evaluated in one day old SPF chicks. The chicks were divided into 4 groups 10 birds each including the negative control group. Birds were inoculated at one day by intranasal instillation of 105EID50/100 μL of IBV viruses [IBV-EG/1212B-2012 (Egy/Var-II), IBV/EG/IBV1-2011 (Egy/Var-I) and IBV-EG/11539F-2011 (classic)], while the remaining negative control group was kept uninfected. The birds were observed for clinical signs, gross lesions and virus pathogenicity. The real-time rRT-PCR test was performed for virus detection in the tissues. Histopathological examinations were evaluated in both trachea and kidneys. RESULTS The results revealed that these viruses were separated into two distinct groups; variant (GI-23) and classic (GI-1), where 16 viruses belonged to a variant group, including 2 subdivisions [Egy/Var-I (6 isolates) and Egy/Var-II (10 isolates)] and 4 viruses clustered to the classic group (Mass-like). IBV isolates in the variant group were grouped with other IBV strains from the Middle East. The variant subgroup (Egy/Var-I) was likely resembling the original Egyptian variant strain (Egypt/Beni-Suif/01) and the Israeli strain (IS/1494/2006). The second subgroup (Egy/Var-II) included the viruses circulating in the Middle East (Ck/EG/BSU-2 and Ck/EG/BSU-3/2011) and the Israeli strain (IS/885/00). The two variant subgroups (Egy/Var-I and Egy

  7. The effect of Allium sativum (Garlic) extract on infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free embryonic egg

    PubMed Central

    Mohajer Shojai, Tabassom; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid; Barin, Abbas; Sadri, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Garlic is a plant has been used as a flavor, and anti-microbial and anti-diarrheal agent. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus. The available vaccines against IBV cannot cover new variants. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of garlic extract on IBV. Materials and Methods: The constituents of garlic extract were detected by gas chromatography. This study was done in four groups of embryonic SPF eggs; first group was used for virus titration; second group received the mixture of different virus titration and constant amount of garlic extract; third group received 10-3 titration of virus and after 8 hr received garlic extract and the last group received different dilutions of garlic extract. Results: Based on our results, in the second group, IBV vaccine strain (4/91) at all titration and M41 in 10-2 and 10-3 titration and in the third group both variants of virus the embryonic Index (EI) was significantly increased. Conclusion: The garlic extract had inhibitory effects on IBV in the chickens embryo. PMID:27516987

  8. The virion N protein of infectious bronchitis virus is more phosphorylated than the N protein from infected cell lysates

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaram, Jyothi; Youn, Soonjeon; Collisson, Ellen W. . E-mail: ecollisson@cvm.tamu.edu

    2005-08-15

    Because phosphorylation of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) nucleocapsid protein (N) may regulate its multiple roles in viral replication, the dynamics of N phosphorylation were examined. {sup 32}P-orthophosphate labeling and Western blot analyses confirmed that N was the only viral protein that was phosphorylated. Pulse labeling with {sup 32}P-orthophosphate indicated that the IBV N protein was phosphorylated in the virion, as well as at all times during infection in either chicken embryo kidney cells or Vero cells. Pulse-chase analyses followed by immunoprecipitation of IBV N proteins using rabbit anti-IBV N polyclonal antibody demonstrated that the phosphate on the N protein was stable for at least 1 h. Simultaneous labeling with {sup 32}P-orthophosphate and {sup 3}H-leucine identified a 3.5-fold increase in the {sup 32}P:{sup 3}H counts per minute (cpm) ratio of N in the virion as compared to the {sup 32}P:{sup 3}H cpm ratio of N in the cell lysates from chicken embryo kidney cells, whereas in Vero cells the {sup 32}P:{sup 3}H cpm ratio of N from the virion was 10.5-fold greater than the {sup 32}P:{sup 3}H cpm ratio of N from the cell lysates. These studies are consistent with the phosphorylation of the IBV N playing a role in assembly or maturation of the viral particle.

  9. Elevated level of renal xanthine oxidase mRNA transcription after nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus infection in growing layers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huayuan; Huang, Qiqi; Liu, Weilian; Zou, Yuelong; Zhu, Shuliang; Deng, Guangfu; Kuang, Jun; Zhang, Caiying; Cao, Huabin; Hu, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    To assess relationships between xanthine oxidase (XOD) and nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (NIBV) infection, 240 growing layers (35 days old) were randomly divided into two groups (infected and control) of 120 chickens each. Each chicken in the control and infected group was intranasally inoculated with 0.2 mL sterile physiological saline and virus, respectively, after which serum antioxidant parameters and renal XOD mRNA expression in growing layers were evaluated at 8, 15 and 22 days post-inoculation (dpi). The results showed that serum glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in the infected group were significantly lower than in the control group at 8 and 15 dpi (p < 0.01), while serum malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.01). The serum uric acid was significantly higher than that of the control group at 15 dpi (p < 0.01). In addition, the kidney mRNA transcript level and serum activity of XOD in the infected group was significantly higher than that of the control group at 8, 15 and 22 dpi (p < 0.05). The results indicated that NIBV infection could cause the increases of renal XOD gene transcription and serum XOD activity, leading to hyperuricemia and reduction of antioxidants in the body. PMID:26119168

  10. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  11. Effects of chicken anaemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus-induced immunodeficiency on infectious bronchitis virus replication and genotypic drift.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Rodrigo A; van Santen, Vicky L; Toro, Haroldo

    2012-10-01

    We followed changes in a portion of the S1 gene sequence of the dominant populations of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark) vaccine strain during serial passage in chickens infected with the immunosuppressive chicken anaemia virus (CAV) and/or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) as well as in immunocompetent chickens. The IBV-Ark vaccine was applied ocularly and tears were collected from infected chickens for subsequent ocular inoculation in later passages. The experiment was performed twice. In both experiments the dominant S1 genotype of the vaccine strain was rapidly and negatively selected in all chicken groups (CAV, IBDV, CAV+IBDV and immunocompetent). Based on the S1 genotype, the same IBV subpopulations previously reported in immunocompetent chickens and named component (C) 1 to C5 emerged both in immunocompetent and immunodeficient chickens. During the first passage different subpopulations emerged, followed by the establishment of one or two predominant populations after further passages. Only when the subpopulation designated C2 became established in either CAV-infected or IBDV-infected chickens was IBV maintained for more than four passages. These results indicate that selection does not cease in immunodeficient chickens and that phenotype C2 may show a distinct adaptation to this environment. Subpopulations C1 or C4 initially became established in immunocompetent birds but became extinct after only a few succeeding passages. A similar result was observed in chickens co-infected with CAV+IBDV. These results suggest that the generation of genetic diversity in IBV is constrained. This finding constitutes further evidence for phenotypic drift occurring mainly as a result of selection. PMID:22897690

  12. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  13. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  14. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  15. Attenuation mechanism of virulent infectious bronchitis virus strain with QX genotype by continuous passage in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ya-fei; Huang, Qing-hua; Lu, Mei; Wu, Jia-qiang; Lin, Shu-qian; Zhu, Fengzhu; Zhang, Xiu-mei; Huang, Yan-yan; Yang, Shao-hua; Xu, Chuan-tian

    2016-01-01

    The virulent isolate SDZB0808 of QX-type infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was continuously passaged in chicken embryos for 110 generations. The safety and immune efficacy of the 110th generation of IBVs (P110) were evaluated. Damage was not found in the appearance of the 3-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks immunized with 10(4.5) EID50 (median embryo infective dose) of P110 by intranasal and ocular administration. At 14 d after the vaccination with 10(4.5) EID50 of P110, all the 3-day-old SPF chicks were immune from the attack of the homologous virulent strain SDZB0808 and the heterologous virulent strain SDIB821/2012. The whole genome sequencing of SDZB0808 of different generations (P1-P110) indicated that the replicase 1a sequences of P60-P110 all lost a length of 30bp in the same region. Specific primers were designed according to the differences in the genomes of P1-P110. SYBR Green I real-time quantitative PCR was adopted to analyze the proportion of the viruses with 30bp deletion in P60, P100, and P110. Results showed that with the passage in chicken embryos, the proportion of the viruses with 30bp deletion gradually increased. Almost 100% of the viruses in the P110 had 30bp deletion in the replicase 1a sequence. Therefore, the attenuation of IBV's virulence may be the outcome of directional screening in the chicken embryos. This work confirmed the high safety and immune efficacy of P110 in SPF chickens. Thus, P110 can serve as an attenuated IBV vaccine candidate. PMID:26611202

  16. Protection induced by infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines alone and combined with Newcastle disease virus and/or infectious bronchitis virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; García, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Zavala, Guillermo

    2010-12-01

    Two types of live attenuated vaccines have been used worldwide for the control of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV): 1) chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines; and 2) tissue culture origin vaccines (TCO). However, the disease persists in spite of extensive use of vaccination, particularly in areas of intense broiler production. Among the factors that may influence the efficiency of ILTV live attenuated vaccines is a possible interference of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines with the protection induced by ILTV vaccines. The protection induced by CEO and TCO vaccines was evaluated when administered at 14 days of age alone or in combination with the B1 type strain of NDV (B1) and/or the Arkansas (ARK) and Massachusetts (MASS) serotypes of IBV vaccines. Two weeks after vaccination (28 days of age), the chickens were challenged with a virulent ILTV field strain (63140 isolate, group V genotype). Protection was evaluated at 5 and 7 days postchallenge by scoring clinical signs and quantifying the challenge virus load in the trachea using real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, the viral load of the vaccine viruses (ILTV, NDV, and IBV) was quantified 3 and 5 days postvaccination also using qPCR. The results of this study indicate that the NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK) vaccines and a multivalent vaccine constituted by NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK and MASS) did not interfere with the protection induced by the CEO ILTV vaccine. However, the NDV (BI) and the multivalent (B1/MASS/ARK) vaccines interfered with the protection induced by the TCO vaccine (P < 0.05). Either in combination or by themselves, the NDV and IBV vaccines decreased the tracheal replication of the TCO vaccine and the protection induced by this vaccine, since the ILTV-vaccinated and -challenged chickens displayed significantly more severe clinical signs and ILTV load (P < 0.05) than chickens vaccinated with the TCO vaccine alone. Although NDV and IBV challenges were not performed

  17. Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yingshun; Li, Jianan; Fu, Li; Ji, Gaosheng; Zeng, Fanya; Zhou, Long; Gao, Wenqian; Wang, Hongning

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are common viral diseases of chickens, which are caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Vaccination with live attenuated strains of IBV-H120 and NDV-LaSota are important for the control of IB and ND. However, conventional live attenuated vaccines are expensive and result in the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated chickens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new efficacious vaccines. In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases, and the generation of IBV R-H120-HN/5a provides a solid foundation for the development of an effective bivalent vaccine against IBV and NDV. PMID:26873815

  18. Protection conferred by live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses against variant Middle East IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like isolates in commercial broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the infectious bronchitis H120 (a Massachusetts strain) and CR88 (a 793B strain) live attenuated vaccine viruses to protect from two Middle East infectious bronchitis virus isolates, IS/885/00-like (IS/885) and IS/1494/06-like (IS/1494) in broiler chicks was investigated. Day-old chicks were separated into three groups, (I) vaccinated with H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, (II) vaccinated with H120 and CR88 simultaneously at day-old and again with CR88 at 14 days-old, (III) control unvaccinated. At 30 days-old, each of the groups was challenged with virulent IS/885 or IS/1494. Protection was evaluated based on the clinical signs, tracheal and kidney gross lesions and tracheal ciliostasis. Results showed that administering combined live H120 and CR88 vaccines simultaneously at day-old followed by CR88 vaccine at 14 days-old gave more than 80 per cent tracheal ciliary protection from both of the Middle East isolates. In addition, this programme conferred 100 per cent protection from clinical signs and tracheal or kidney lesions. The other vaccination programme, H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, the tracheal ciliary protection conferred were 60 per cent and 80 per cent from IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like, respectively. PMID:26392909

  19. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  20. Industrial bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000072.htm Industrial bronchitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Industrial bronchitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large airways ...

  1. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  2. Securitization of infectious diseases in Vietnam: the cases of HIV and avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Herington, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    The frequent and swift emergence of new and devastating infectious diseases has brought renewed attention to health as an issue of international importance. Some states and regional organizations, including in Asia, have begun to regard infectious disease as a national and international security issue. This article seeks to examine the Vietnamese government's response to the epidemics of avian influenza and Human immunodeficiency virus. Both diseases have been recognized at different times as threats to international security and both are serious infectious disease problems in Vietnam. Yet, the character of the central government's response to these two epidemics has been starkly different. How and why this disparity in policy approaches occurs depends largely on the epidemiological, economic and political context in which they occur. Although epidemiological factors are frequently explored when discussing disease as a security issue, seldom are the political, social and economic characteristics of the state invoked. These dimensions, and their interaction with the epidemiology of the disease, are central to understanding which diseases are ultimately treated by states as security issues. In particular, the role of economic security as a powerful motivator for resistance to control measures and the role that local implementation of policies can have in disrupting the effect of central government policy are explored. In exploring both the outcomes of securitization, and its facilitating conditions, I suggest some preliminary observations on the potential costs and benefits of securitizing infectious disease and its utility as a mechanism for protecting health in Asia. PMID:20961947

  3. Psittacid Herpesvirus 1 and Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus: Comparative Genome Sequence Analysis of Two Avian Alphaherpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Thureen, Dean R.; Keeler, Calvin L.

    2006-01-01

    Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1) is the causative agent of Pacheco's disease, an acute, highly contagious, and potentially lethal respiratory herpesvirus infection in psittacine birds, while infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is a highly contagious and economically significant avian herpesvirus which is responsible for an acute respiratory disease limited to galliform birds. The complete genome sequence of PsHV-1 has been determined and compared to the ILTV sequence, assembled from published data. The PsHV-1 and ILTV genomes exhibit similar structural characteristics and are 163,025 bp and 148,665 bp in length, respectively. The PsHV-1 genome contains 73 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), while the ILTV genome contains 77 predicted ORFs. Both genomes contain an inversion in the unique long region similar to that observed in pseudorabies virus. PsHV-1 is closely related to ILTV, and it is proposed that it be assigned to the Iltovirus genus. These two avian herpesviruses represent a phylogenetically unique clade of alphaherpesviruses that are distinct from the Marek's disease-like viruses (Mardivirus). The determination of the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of PsHV-1 and ILTV provides a tool for further comparative and functional analysis of this unique class of avian alphaherpesviruses. PMID:16873243

  4. Current developments in avian influenza vaccines including food safety aspects in vaccinated birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines for other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis. These AI vaccines have been primarily based on low or high pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses that were grown in emb...

  5. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... carry air to your lungs. It causes a cough that often brings up mucus. It can also cause shortness of breath, wheezing, a low fever, and chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type of COPD (chronic ...

  6. Expression of infectious woodchuck hepatitis virus in murine and avian fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, C; Baldwin, B; Tennant, B C

    1989-01-01

    The liver is the primary site for replication of the hepadnavirus genome. We asked whether the posttranscriptional phase of the viral replication cycle would depend on hepatocyte-specific functions. For this purpose, we assayed a previously constructed chimera between sequences of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-enhancer region and woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) (C. Seeger and J. Maragos, J. Virol. 63:1907-1915, 1989) for its ability to direct the synthesis of infectious WHV in hepatoma cells and in murine and avian fibroblast cells. Viruslike particles containing WHV DNA were produced transiently in transfected hepatoma cells and in fibroblasts. Inoculation of woodchucks with culture medium from hepatoma cells or fibroblasts transfected with viral DNA led to productive WHV infection, as observed following infection of woodchucks with serum from WHV-infected animals. These results demonstrate that posttranscriptional events of the hepadnavirus replication cycle are not dependent on hepatocyte-specific functions. Images PMID:2795716

  7. Development, standardization and assessment of PCR systems for purity testing of avian viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ottiger, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) requires avian viral vaccines to be free of adventitious agents. Purity testing is an essential quality requirement of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs) and testing for extraneous agents includes monitoring for many different viruses. Conventional virus detection methods include serology or virus culture, however, molecular tests have become a valid alternative testing method. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is fast, highly sensitive and has a higher degree of discrimination than conventional approaches. These advantages have led to the development and standardization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of avian leucosis virus, avian orthoreovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, influenza A virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, egg drop syndrome virus, chicken anaemia virus, avian adenovirus and avian encephalomyelitis virus. This paper reviews the development, standardization and assessment of PCR for extraneous agent testing in IVMPs with examples from an Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). PMID:20338785

  8. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant fusion proteins containing spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus and hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijuan; Zeng, Yuyao; Wang, Wei; Wei, Ying; Xue, Chunyi; Cao, Yongchang

    2016-09-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious viral respiratory disease of chickens and vaccination is the main method for disease control. The S1 protein, which contains several virus neutralization epitopes, is considered to be a target site of vaccine development. However, although protective immune responses could be induced by recombinant S1 protein, the protection rate in chickens was still low (<50%). Here, we generated fused S1 proteins with HA2 protein (rS1-HA2) or transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail (rS1-H3(TM)) from hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza virus. After immunization, animals vaccinated with fusion proteins rS1-HA2 and rS1-H3(TM) demonstrated stronger robust humoral and cellular immune responses than that of rS1 and inactivated M41 vaccine. The protection rates of groups immunized with rS1-HA2 (87%) were significantly higher than the groups inoculated with rS1 (47%) and inactivated M41 vaccine (53%). And chickens injected with rS1-H3(TM) had similar level of protection (73%) comparing to chickens vaccinated with rS1 (47%) (P=0.07). Our data suggest that S1 protein fused to the HA2 or TM proteins from hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza virus may provide a new strategy for high efficacy recombinant vaccine development against IBV. PMID:27497621

  9. Comparative Genomics of Korean Infectious Bronchitis Viruses (IBVs) and an Animal Model to Evaluate Pathogenicity of IBVs to the Reproductive Organs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Mo, Mei-Lan; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The K-I and nephropathogenic K-II genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have been isolated since 1995 and 1990, respectively, in Korea and commercial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines containing KM91 (K-II type) and Massachusetts 41 strains have been used in the field. To date, genomic analyses of Korean IBV strains and animal models to test the pathogenicity of Korean IBVs to the reproductive organs have been rare. In the present study, comparative genomics of SNU8067 (K-I type) and KM91 IBVs was performed, and an animal model to test the pathogenicity of SNU8067 was established and applied to vaccine efficacy test. The genome sizes of SNU8067 (27,708 nt) and KM91 (27,626 nt) were slightly different and the nucleotide and amino acid identities of the S1 (79%, 77%), 3a (65%, 52%), and 3b (81%, 72%) genes were lower than those of other genes (94%–97%, 92%–98%). A recombination analysis revealed that SNU8067 was a recombinant virus with a KM91-like backbone except S1, 3a, and 3b genes which might be from an unknown virus. An SNU8067 infection inhibited formation of hierarchal ovarian follicles (80%) and oviduct maturation (50%) in the control group, whereas 70% of vaccinated chickens were protected from lesions. PMID:23202499

  10. Industrial bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs in some people who work around certain dusts, fumes, smoke, or other substances. ... Exposure to dusts, fumes, strong acids, and other chemicals in the air causes this type of bronchitis . Smoking may also contribute. ...

  11. [Sequencing and Serologic Identification of S1 Genes of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses Isolated during 2012-2013 in Guangxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihua; Wu, Cuilan; Zhang, Zhipeng; He, Yining; Li, Heming; Qin, Lili; Wei, Tianchao; Mo, Meilan; Wei, Ping

    2016-01-01

    We wished to ascertain the prevalence as well as the genetic and antigenic variation of infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) circulating in the Guangxi Province of China in recent years. The S1 gene of 15 IBV field isolates during 2012-2013 underwent analyses in terms of the similarity of amino-acid sequences, creation of phylogenetic trees, recombination, and serologic identification. Similarities in amino-acid sequences among the 15 isolates of the S1 gene were 54.3%-99.6%, and 43.3%-99.3% among 15 isolates and reference strains. Compared with the vaccine strain H120, except for GX-YL130025, the other 14 isolates showed a lower similarity of amino-acid sequences of the S1 gene (65.1-81.4%). Phylogenetic analyses of the S1 gene suggested that 15 IBV isolates were classified into eight genotypes, with the predominant genotype being new-type II. Recombination analyses demonstrated that the S1 gene of the GX-NN130048 isolate originated from recombination events between vaccine strain 4/91 and a LX4-like isolate. Serotyping results suggested that seven serotypes prevailed during 2012-2013 in Guangxi Province, and that only one isolate was consistent with the vaccine strain H120 in serotype (which has been used widely in recent years). The serotype of recombinant isolate GX-NN130048 was different from those of its parent strains. These results suggested that not only the genotype, but also the serotype of IBV field isolates in Guangxi Province had distinct variations, and that increasing numbers of genotypes and serotypes are in circulation. We showed that recombination events can lead to the emergence of new serotypes. Our study provides new evidence for understanding of the molecular mechanisms of IBV variations, and the development of new vaccines against IBVs. PMID:27295885

  12. Plastic Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. PMID:27514587

  13. Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with

  14. Development of FPV140 antigen-specific ELISA differentiating fowlpox virus isolates from all other viral pathogens of avian origin.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Hong, Q; Ren, Y; Lillehoj, H S; He, C; Ren, X

    2012-10-01

    The FPV140 gene encodes an envelope protein of fowlpox virus (FPV). In this study, the FPV140 gene of FPV Chinese isolate HH2008 was cloned and the comparison of its sequence with other FPV isolates showed it to be highly conserved across all FPV isolates. A recombinant plasmid pET-FPV140 carrying FPV140 gene was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli. The optimal expression condition for the FPV140 gene was developed and purified FPV140 recombinant protein was used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibody. An indirect ELISA using this anti-FPV140 polyclonal antibody was capable of distinguishing avian FPV isolates from other common avian pathogens such as mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus. This ELISA will serve as a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of FPV in clinical samples. PMID:22991535

  15. Serosurvey for selected infectious agents in two sympatric species of cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps and Phalacrocorax magellanicus) from coastal Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luciana; Quintana, Flavio; Uhart, Marcela

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a serologic survey for selected infectious agents on two sympatric cormorants, the Imperial Cormorant (Phalacrocorax atriceps) and the Rock Shag (Phalacrocorax magellanicus). Blood was collected from 267 Imperial Cormorants and 106 Rock Shags at 17 colonies along the Patagonia Atlantic shore during nine breeding seasons (1994, 1999-2001-2005-2008-2010). Antibodies to four pathogens were common to both species and frequently observed: avian paramyxovirus type 1 (56% of Imperial Cormorants and 56% of Rock Shags); avian adenovirus (67% of Imperial Cormorants and 40% of Rock Shags); infectious bronchitis virus serotypes IBV-41, IBV-46, IBV-99, and IBV-JMK (53% of Imperial Cormorants and 64% of Rock Shags); and Salmonella pullorum (18% of Imperial Cormorants and 7% of Rock Shags). Antibody prevalence for these pathogens varied significantly between species, except for avian paramyxovirus type 1. Exposure to avian paramyxovirus type 1 and all serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus varied significantly among seasons in both species. In contrast, the sporadic occurrence of positive titers suggest that cormorants had occasional exposure to Aspergillus spp. (3% of Rock Shags, only in 2000), avian paramyxovirus type 3 (5% of Rock Shags, only in 2008), Chlamydophila spp. (1% of Imperial Cormorants, only in 2010), and avian reovirus (1% of Rock Shags, only in 1999; 29% of Imperial Cormorants, in 2008 and 2010). Both species were antibody negative for avian encephalomyelitis virus, avian influenza virus, avian laryngotracheitis virus, avian paramyxovirus type 2, and infectious bursal disease virus. We provide the first information on pathogen exposure, indicated by detection of antibody in blood samples, for two sympatric species of South Atlantic cormorants. To determine major causes of morbidity and mortality in these birds future efforts should focus on necropsy surveys in cormorant colonies. PMID:23778597

  16. Using mean infectious dose of wild duck-and poultry-origin high and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses as one measure of infectivity and adaptation to poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mean infectious doses of selected avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates, determined in domestic poultry under experimental conditions, were shown to be both host and virus dependent and could be considered one measure of the infectivity and adaptation to a specific host. As such, the mean infect...

  17. A practical validation approach for virus titer testing of avian infectious bursal disease live vaccine according to current regulatory guidelines.

    PubMed

    Weber Sušanj, Mirta; Košiček, Miljenko; Krnić, Ela Kosor; Ballarin-Perharić, Alenka; Terzić, Svjetlana

    2012-01-01

    The method for virus titer determination of avian infectious bursal disease (IBD) live vaccine, developed long before regulatory validation guidelines is a cell culture based biological assay intended for use in vaccine release testing. The aim of our study was to perform a validation, based on fit-for-purpose principle, of an old 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50)) method according to Guidelines of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). This paper addresses challenges and discusses some key aspects that should be considered when validating biological methods. A different statistical approach and non-parametric statistics was introduced in validation protocol in order to derive useful information from experimental data. This approach is applicable for a wide range of methods. In conclusion, the previous virus titration method had showed to be precise, accurate, linear, robust and in accordance with current regulatory standards, which indicates that there is no need for additional re-development or upgrades of the method for its suitability for intended use. PMID:21996052

  18. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of avian leukosis virus p27 antigen.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bingling; Li, Delong; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Wen; Qin, Liting; Liu, Zaisi; Wu, Guan; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2013-02-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against p27 was developed for the detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV). The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A), avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Fowlpox virus (FPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and Escherichia coli. The only specimens that yielded a strong signal were ALV-J, ALV-A and ALV-B, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of ALV. The limit of detection of this assay was 1.25 ng/ml of rp27 protein and 10(1.79)TCID(50) units of HLJ09MDJ-1 (ALV-J). Moreover, this AC-ELISA can detect ALV in cloacal swabs of chickens experimentally infected as early as 12 days post-infection. The AC-ELISA detected the virus in the albumin and cloacal swabs of naturally infected chickens, and the results were confirmed by PCR, indicating that the AC-ELISA was a suitable method for the detection of ALV. This test is rapid and sensitive and could be convenient for epidemiological studies and eradication programs. PMID:23201286

  19. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California.

    PubMed

    Straub, Mary H; Kelly, Terra R; Rideout, Bruce A; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  20. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  1. Avian Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious viral disease of birds. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as ... often causing no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause ...

  2. The effect of infectious bursal disease virus induced immunosuppression on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the field, poultry are exposed to a variety of infectious agents, many of which are immunosuppressive. Co-infections between these agents are common, and these co-infections have effects on disease, immune response, and vaccine efficacy. The effect of co-infections in poultry between immunosupp...

  3. Lack of evidence that avian oncogenic viruses are infectious for humans: a review.

    PubMed

    Schat, Karel A; Erb, Hollis N

    2014-09-01

    Chickens may be infected with three different oncogenic viruses: avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and Marek's disease herpesvirus (MDV). Several epidemiological studies have suggested a link between these viruses and different types of cancer in people working in poultry processing plants and with multiple sclerosis. In this article, we analyze the epidemiological evidence that these viruses are causative agents for human cancer, followed by description of the relevant key characteristics of ALV, REV, and MDV. Finally, we discuss the biological evidence or lack thereof that avian tumor viruses are involved in the etiology of human cancer and multiple sclerosis (MS). The recent primary epidemiologic articles that we reviewed as examples were only hypothesis-generating studies examining massive numbers of risk factors for associations with various imprecise, non-viral-specific outcomes. The studies lacked precise evidence of exposure to the relevant viruses and the statistical methods failed to adjust for the large risks of false-positive claims. ALV subgroups A-D and J have been eradicated in the United States from the pure lines down to the parent stocks by the breeder companies, which have greatly reduced the incidence of infection in layer flocks and broilers. As a consequence, potential exposure of humans to these viruses has greatly diminished. Infection of humans working in processing plants with ALV-A and ALV-B is unlikely, because broilers are generally resistant to infection with these two subgroups. Moreover, these viruses enter cells by specific receptors present on chicken, but not on mammalian, cells. Infection of mammalian cell cultures or animals with ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-J has not been reported. Moreover, humans vaccinated with exogenous or endogenous ALV-contaminated vaccines against yellow fever, measles, and mumps did not become antibody- or virus-positive for ALV. The risks for human infection with REV are similarly

  4. Avian Nephritis Virus (ANV) as a New Member of the Family Astroviridae and Construction of Infectious ANV cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Tadao; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Mase, Masaji; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Kubo, Masanori; Morooka, Akira

    2000-01-01

    The complete RNA genome of the avian nephritis virus (ANV) associated with acute nephritis in chickens has been molecularly cloned and sequenced. Excluding the poly(A) tail, the genome comprises 6,927 nucleotides and contains three sequential open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF (ORF 1a) contains a sequence encoding a serine protease motif, and the second ORF (ORF 1b) has a sequence encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ORF 1a may be linked to the second ORF by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism. The third ORF (ORF 2) may encode the virion structural proteins as a polyprotein precursor. Two RNAs, probably genonic and subgenonic RNA (7.5 and 3.0 kb), were detected in the cytoplasm of ANV-infected cells. ANV and human astroviruses have the same genonic organization, and both are characterized by the presence of two RNA bands. The amino acid homologies of the products of ORF 1a, 1b, and 2 were 20.3, 41.9, and 25.8% to products of the corresponding ORFs of human astrovirus serotype 1 (A/88 Newcastle strain). We have constructed a genonic-length cDNA clone of ANV to test whether the in vitro transcript is infectious. When a chicken kidney cell culture was transfected with RNA transcribed in vitro and the cDNA clone, infectious virus was produced with cytopathic effects in the absence of trypsin. These observations suggested that the ANV (G-4260 strain) is a new genus of the family Astroviridae. PMID:10954549

  5. In ovo delivery of CpG DNA reduces avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus induced mortality and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Simrika; Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul; Murugananthan, Kalamathy; Nagy, Eva; Sharif, Shayan; Czub, Markus; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2015-04-01

    Endosomal toll-like receptor-21 and -9 sense CpG DNA activating production of pro-inflammatory mediators with antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the induction of antiviral response of in ovo delivered CpG DNA against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces ILTV infection pre-hatch correlating with the expression of IL-1β and increase of macrophages in lungs. As assessed in vitro, CpG DNA stimulated avian macrophages could be a potential source of IL-1β and other pro-inflammatory mediators. Since we also found that in ovo CpG DNA delivery maintains increased macrophages in the lungs post-hatch, we infected the chickens on the day of hatch with ILTV. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces mortality and morbidity resulting from ILTV infection encountered post-hatch. Thus, CpG DNA can be a candidate innate immune stimulant worthy of further investigation for the control of ILTV infection in chickens. PMID:25856635

  6. In Ovo Delivery of CpG DNA Reduces Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Induced Mortality and Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Simrika; Abdul Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Murugananthan, Kalamathy; Nagy, Eva; Sharif, Shayan; Czub, Markus; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal toll-like receptor-21 and -9 sense CpG DNA activating production of pro-inflammatory mediators with antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the induction of antiviral response of in ovo delivered CpG DNA against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces ILTV infection pre-hatch correlating with the expression of IL-1β and increase of macrophages in lungs. As assessed in vitro, CpG DNA stimulated avian macrophages could be a potential source of IL-1β and other pro-inflammatory mediators. Since we also found that in ovo CpG DNA delivery maintains increased macrophages in the lungs post-hatch, we infected the chickens on the day of hatch with ILTV. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces mortality and morbidity resulting from ILTV infection encountered post-hatch. Thus, CpG DNA can be a candidate innate immune stimulant worthy of further investigation for the control of ILTV infection in chickens. PMID:25856635

  7. Procedures for Identifying Infectious Prions After Passage Through the Digestive System of an Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Justin W; Nichols, Tracy A; Phillips, Gregory E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    Infectious prion (PrPRes) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases1. Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal2,3 as well as from environmental sources4-6. Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrPRes material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrPRes material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger7. We describe procedures used to document passage of PrPRes material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice. PMID:24300668

  8. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: Testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recent ideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found that non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  9. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found t h at non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk.

  10. Identification and functional analysis of the small membrane-associated protein pUL11 of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Walter; Granzow, Harald; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2012-02-01

    pUL11 is a highly conserved, small, acylated, membrane-associated tegument protein of herpesviruses. It is involved in final envelopment of nascent virions in the cytoplasm, although the precise mechanism is still unknown. By screening of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) raised against purified particles of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) of chickens (Veits et al., 2003a), we identified two mAb recognizing the 15 kDa UL11 protein (pUL11) of this avian alphaherpesvirus. These mAb permitted detection and precise localization of pUL11 in mature ILT virions, as well as in the cytoplasm of infected chicken cells by Western blot analyses, indirect immunofluorescence tests, and immunoelectron microscopy. For investigation of gene function UL11-deleted ILTV recombinants were generated. Like its homologues in several other alphaherpesviruses, ILTV-pUL11 was shown to be nonessential for productive virus replication. However, compared to wild-type and UL11 rescued ILTV the deletion mutants exhibited significantly reduced virus yields and moderately impaired spread in cell culture. In the absence of pUL11, electron microscopy of infected cells revealed accumulations of tegument proteins with nucleocapsids, and marked distortions of Golgi membranes in the cytoplasm, which obviously inhibited the formation of mature, enveloped virus particles. Taken together, our results demonstrate that pUL11 is relevant for secondary envelopment of ILTV, and confirm functional conservation of this protein in herpesviruses. The now available unique pUL11-specific mAb will help to further analyze this function, which is presumably mediated by physical interactions with other viral gene products, in cultured cells and in the natural animal host of ILTV. PMID:22226986

  11. Simultaneous typing of nine avian respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyzer-based multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhixun; Luo, Sisi; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Khan, Mazhar I

    2014-10-01

    A new, rapid, and high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyzer-based multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. The respiratory pathogens included in this study were avian influenza subtypes H5, H7, and H9, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG). Ten pairs of primers were designed using conserved and specific sequence genes of AIV subtypes and respiratory pathogens from GenBank. Single and mixed pathogen cDNA/DNA templates were used to evaluate the specificity of the GeXP-multiplex assay. The corresponding specific DNA products were amplified for each pathogen. The specific DNA product amplification peaks of nine respiratory pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyzer. Non-respiratory avian pathogens, including chicken infectious anemia virus, fowl adenovirus, avian reovirus and infectious bursal disease virus, did not produce DNA products. The detection limit for the GeXP-multiplex assay was determined to be 100 copies/μl using various pre-mixed plasmids/ssRNAs containing known target genes of the respiratory pathogens. Further, GeXP-multiplex PCR assay was 100% specific when 24 clinical samples with respiratory infections were tested in comparison with conventional PCR method. The GeXP-multiplex PCR assay provides a novel tool for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. PMID:25025815

  12. Productive replication of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus in peripheral blood monocytic cells, a strategy for viral dissemination and kidney infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Trus, Ivan; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Li, Yewei; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the replication kinetics of nephropathogenic (B1648) and respiratory (Massachusetts-M41) IBV strains were compared in vitro in respiratory mucosa explants and blood monocytes (KUL01(+) cells), and in vivo in chickens to understand why some IBV strains have a kidney tropism. B1648 was replicating somewhat better than M41 in the epithelium of the respiratory mucosa explants and used more KUL01(+) cells to penetrate the deeper layers of the respiratory tract. B1648 was productively replicating in KUL01(+) monocytic cells in contrast with M41. In B1648 inoculated animals, 10(2.7-6.8) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 days post inoculation (dpi), 10(2.4-4.5) viral RNA copies/mL in plasma at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 dpi and 10(1.8-4.4) viral RNA copies/10(6) mononuclear cells in blood at 2, 4, 6 and 8 dpi. In M41 inoculated animals, 10(2.6-7.0) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dpi, but viral RNA was not demonstrated in plasma and mononuclear cells (except in one chicken at 6 dpi). Infectious virus was detected only in plasma and mononuclear cells of the B1648 group. At euthanasia (12 dpi), viral RNA and antigen positive cells were detected in lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys of only the B1648 group and in tracheas of both the B1648 and M41 group. In conclusion, only B1648 can easily disseminate to internal organs via a cell-free and -associated viremia with KUL01(+) cells as important carrier cells. PMID:27412035

  13. Novel Receptor Specificity of Avian Gammacoronaviruses That Cause Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I. N.; de Vries, R. P.; Weerts, E. A. W. S.; van Beurden, S. J.; Peng, W.; McBride, R.; Ducatez, M.; Guy, J.; Brown, P.; Eterradossi, N.; Gröne, A.; Paulson, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses exploit molecules on the target membrane as receptors for attachment and entry into host cells. Thus, receptor expression patterns can define viral tissue tropism and might to some extent predict the susceptibility of a host to a particular virus. Previously, others and we have shown that respiratory pathogens of the genus Gammacoronavirus, including chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), require specific α2,3-linked sialylated glycans for attachment and entry. Here, we studied determinants of binding of enterotropic avian gammacoronaviruses, including turkey coronavirus (TCoV), guineafowl coronavirus (GfCoV), and quail coronavirus (QCoV), which are evolutionarily distant from respiratory avian coronaviruses based on the viral attachment protein spike (S1). We profiled the binding of recombinantly expressed S1 proteins of TCoV, GfCoV, and QCoV to tissues of their respective hosts. Protein histochemistry showed that the tissue binding specificity of S1 proteins of turkey, quail, and guineafowl CoVs was limited to intestinal tissues of each particular host, in accordance with the reported pathogenicity of these viruses in vivo. Glycan array analyses revealed that, in contrast to the S1 protein of IBV, S1 proteins of enteric gammacoronaviruses recognize a unique set of nonsialylated type 2 poly-N-acetyl-lactosamines. Lectin histochemistry as well as tissue binding patterns of TCoV S1 further indicated that these complex N-glycans are prominently expressed on the intestinal tract of various avian species. In conclusion, our data demonstrate not only that enteric gammacoronaviruses recognize a novel glycan receptor but also that enterotropism may be correlated with the high specificity of spike proteins for such glycans expressed in the intestines of the avian host. IMPORTANCE Avian coronaviruses are economically important viruses for the poultry industry. While infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a respiratory pathogen of chickens, is rather well

  14. Canine chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis is a syndrome defined by cough on most days for at least 2 months where no specific cause can be identified. Older small breed dogs are most commonly affected, but bronchitis is also documented in midsized and larger breed dogs. Diagnostic testing includes physical examination, laboratory testing, radiography, and airway evaluation via bronchoscopy, cytology, and culture. Treatment is directed at reducing exposure to irritants, reducing airway inflammation, and controlling cough. PMID:24268336

  15. Induction of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in avian macrophages inhibits infectious laryngotracheitis virus replication in a nitric oxide dependent way.

    PubMed

    Haddadi, Siamak; Kim, Dae-Sun; Jasmine, Hui; van der Meer, Frank; Czub, Markus; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2013-10-01

    LPS is one of the pathogen associated molecular patterns that activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway eliciting antiviral host responses in mammals although information on such responses in avian species is scarce. Our objectives were to characterize the LPS induced innate responses particularly the expression of LPS receptors (TLR4, CD14) in avian macrophages and observe whether TLR4 mediated induction of NO can elicit antiviral response against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) replication. We found that LPS was capable of inducing the expression of TLR4, CD14 and NO production but not the type 1 interferons in an avian macrophage cell line, MQ-NCSU. We also showed that TLR4 mediated NO production can lead to antiviral response against ILTV replication when MQ-NCSU cells were treated with LPS and the resultant supernatant was then transferred to ILTV replicating cells to assess antiviral activity. Antiviral activity of NO was blocked by a selective inhibitor, S-methylisothiourea sulfate that inhibits inducible NO synthase. This observation confirms that the antiviral activity is positively correlated with NO production. The data show that LPS can be a potential innate immune stimulant that can be used against ILTV infection in chickens that require further evaluation in vivo. PMID:24034933

  16. Pre-validation study for testing of avian viral vaccines for extraneous agents by PCR.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, L; Ottiger, H P

    2007-12-01

    The biological nature of vaccines imposes a permanent risk for contamination with extraneous agents. Therefore, testing of vaccines for freedom from extraneous agents is essential in the manufacturing process and quality control. Relevant methods for testing for extraneous agents of avian viral vaccines are specified in the monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). Currently, most of these methods involve the use of embryonated eggs or chickens. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a widely used and suitable tool for the amplification and detection of extraneous nucleic acids. Different PCR assays have been developed for the application in routine testing of veterinary vaccines. However, before introduction of new methods in monographs of the Ph. Eur., they must undergo validation. Here we report about a pre-validation study performed in Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs). Diluted samples of avian infectious laryngotracheitis, avian infectious bronchitis and avian infectious bursal disease viruses have been analysed using standardised procedures and reagents. The study demonstrated that PCR methods can be transferred to other laboratories. The results also show that further work is warranted for full validation of the method. PMID:18413134

  17. Bronchitis and Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... child care settings are often sick with upper respiratory infections. The rates of these infections are higher in the winter months, although they can occur any time of the year. Some side effects of upper respiratory infections, such as colds or flu, are bronchitis ...

  18. Analysis of human infectious avian influenza virus: hemagglutinin genetic characteristics in Asia and Africa from 2004 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jirong; Lei, Fumin

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, we used nucleotide and protein sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1, which were obtained in Asia and Africa, analyzed HA proteins using ClustalX1.83 and MEGA4.0, and built a genetic evolutionary tree of HA nucleotides. The analysis revealed that the receptor specificity amino acid of A/HK/213/2003, A/Turkey/65596/2006 and etc mutated into QNG, which could bind with á-2, 3 galactose and á-2, 6 galactose. A mutation might thus take place and lead to an outbreak of human infections of avian influenza virus. The mutations of HA protein amino acids from 2004 to 2009 coincided with human infections provided by the World Health Organization, indicating a "low-high-highest-high-low" pattern. We also found out that virus strains in Asia are from different origins: strains from Southeast Asia and East Asia are of the same origin, whereas those from West Asia, South Asia and Africa descend from one ancestor. The composition of the phylogenetic tree and mutations of key site amino acids in HA proteins reflected the fact that the majority of strains are regional and long term, and virus diffusions exist between China, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iraq. We would advise that pertinent vaccines be developed and due attention be paid to the spread of viruses between neighboring countries and the dangers of virus mutation and evolution. PMID:21392344

  19. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis? Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis ... breath, especially with physical activity. Chronic Bronchitis The signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis include coughing, wheezing, ...

  20. Detection and Quantification of Infectious Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Environmental Water by Using Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dovas, C. I.; Papanastassopoulou, M.; Georgiadis, M. P.; Chatzinasiou, E.; Maliogka, V. I.; Georgiades, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    Routes of avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal among aquatic birds involve direct (bird-to-bird) and indirect (waterborne) transmission. The environmental persistence of H5N1 virus in natural water reservoirs can be assessed by isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs. Here we describe development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for detection of H5N1 AIV in environmental water. This method is based on adsorption of virus particles to formalin-fixed erythrocytes, followed by qRT-PCR detection. The numbers of hemagglutinin RNA copies from H5N1 highly pathogenic AIV particles adsorbed to erythrocytes detected correlated highly with the infectious doses of the virus that were determined for three different types of artificially inoculated environmental water over a 17-day incubation period. The advantages of this method include detection and quantification of infectious H5N1 AIVs with a high level of sensitivity, a wide dynamic range, and reproducibility, as well as increased biosecurity. The lowest concentration of H5N1 virus that could be reproducibly detected was 0.91 50% egg infective dose per ml. In addition, a virus with high virion stability (Tobacco mosaic virus) was used as an internal control to accurately monitor the efficiency of RNA purification, cDNA synthesis, and PCR amplification for each individual sample. This detection system could be useful for rapid high-throughput monitoring for the presence of H5N1 AIVs in environmental water and in studies designed to explore the viability and epidemiology of these viruses in different waterfowl ecosystems. The proposed method may also be adapted for detection of other AIVs and for assessment of their prevalence and distribution in environmental reservoirs. PMID:20118369

  1. Eliciting specific humoral immunity from a plasmid DNA encoding infectious bursal disease virus polyprotein gene fused with avian influenza virus hemagglutinin gene.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccine coding for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) polyprotein gene and that for avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene have been shown to induce immunity and provide protection against the respective disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether an IBDV polyprotein gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene could trigger immune response to both IBDV and AIV. After transfection, VP2 and HA were detected in the cytoplasm and at cell membrane, respectively, by immunofluorescent antibody double staining method, suggesting the fusion strategy did not affect the location of protein expression. VP4 cleavage between VP2 and HA was confirmed by Western blot, indicating the fusion strategy did not affect VP4 function in transfected cells. After vaccination in chickens, the DNA construct VP24-HA/pcDNA induced ELISA and virus neutralizing antibodies against VP2 and hemagglutination inhibition antibody against the HA subtype. The results indicated that a single plasmid construct carrying IBDV VP243 gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene can elicit specific antibody responses to both IBDV and AIV by DNA vaccination. PMID:25445883

  2. Detection of wild- and vaccine-type avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in clinical samples and feather shafts of commercial chickens.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Nagar, Sagit; Ribshtein, Israel; Shkoda, Irena; Perk, Shimon; Garcia, Maricarmen

    2009-12-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus (ILTV). To evaluate differential detection of ILTVs belonging to the two types, wild-type or vaccine-type, both causing clinical signs, five PCRs were evaluated to detect wild-type and vaccine-type ILTV in clinical samples. By directly sampling the organs, we aimed to avoid changes in the virus genome and to facilitate a fast diagnosis. The samples were tracheal and spleen homogenates and feather shafts. The latter are easy to collect, nonlethal for the bird, and advantageous for monitoring purposes. We investigated the time interval for vaccine virus detection following commercial vaccination by the vent application, which is successfully practiced in Israel. The study indicated that ILTV amplification from feather shafts was possible in clinical cases for about a one-month period after vaccination. Vaccine strains were identified by nested PCR for the ILTV-gE gene and differed from wild-type ILTV strains by two criteria: (1) While avirulent vaccines could be detected for about a month after the vent application, wild-type virus could be detected, in conjunction with clinical signs, for an unlimited time period; and (2) The ILTV vaccine was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. We assessed the virus type that appeared in conjunction with the clinical signs and determined that the clinical signs appeared in conjunction with both molecular forms of ILTV. The vaccine virus-type and the wild-type ILTV differed by their distinct restriction pattern when using the HaeIII restriction enzyme digestion of the nested amplification product. PMID:20095166

  3. Live vaccination with an H5-hemagglutinin-expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinant protects chickens against different highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5 subtype.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sophia P; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2009-08-13

    Recently, we described an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1) recombinant, which had been attenuated by deletion of the viral dUTPase gene UL50, and abundantly expressed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a H5N1 type highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of Vietnamese origin. In the present study, efficacy of this vectored vaccine (ILTV-DeltaUL50IH5V) against different H5 HPAIV was evaluated in 6-week-old chickens. After a single ocular immunization all animals developed HA-specific antibodies, and were protected against lethal infection not only with the homologous HPAIV isolate A/duck/Vietnam/TG24-01/2005 (H5N1, clade 1, hemagglutinin amino acid sequence identity 100%), but also with heterologous HPAIV A/swan/Germany/R65/2006 (H5N1, clade 2.2, identity 96.1%) or HPAIV A/chicken/Italy/8/98 (H5N2, identity 93.8%). No symptoms of disease were observed after challenge with the H5N1 viruses, and only 20% of H5N2 challenged animals developed minimal clinical signs. Real-time RT-PCR analyses of oropharyngeal swabs revealed limited challenge virus replication, but the almost complete absence of HPAIV RNA from cloacal swabs indicated that no generalized infections occurred. Thus, unlike several previous vectors, ILTV-DeltaUL50IH5V was able to protect chickens against different HPAIV isolates of the H5 subtype. Vaccination with HA-expressing ILTV also allowed differentiation of immunized from AIV-infected animals by serological tests for antibodies against influenza virus nucleoprotein. PMID:19573638

  4. The UL47 gene of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus is not essential for in vitro replication but is relevant for virulence in chickens.

    PubMed

    Helferich, Dorothee; Veits, Jutta; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2007-03-01

    The genome of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) exhibits several differences from those of other avian and mammalian alphaherpesviruses. One of them is the translocation of the conserved UL47 gene from the unique long (UL) to the unique short (US) genome region, where UL47 is inserted upstream of the US4 gene homologue. As in other alphaherpesviruses, UL47 encodes a major tegument protein of ILTV particles, whereas the US4 gene product is a non-structural glycoprotein, gG, which is secreted from infected cells. For functional characterization, an ILTV recombinant was isolated in which US4 together with the 3'-terminal part of UL47 was replaced by a reporter gene cassette encoding green fluorescent protein. From this virus, UL47 and US4 single-gene deletion mutants without foreign sequences were derived and virus revertants were also generated. In vitro studies revealed that both genes were non-essential for ILTV replication in cultured cells. Whereas US4-negative ILTV exhibited no detectable growth defects, maximum virus titres of the double deletion mutant and of UL47-negative ILTV were reduced about 10-fold compared with those of wild-type virus and rescued virus. Experimental infection of chickens demonstrated that UL47-negative ILTV was significantly attenuated in vivo and was shed in reduced amounts, whereas wild-type and rescued viruses caused severe disease and high mortality rates. As all immunized animals were protected against subsequent challenge infection with virulent ILTV, the UL47 deletion mutant might be suitable as a live-virus vaccine. PMID:17325345

  5. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bronchial tubes, the part of the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after a respiratory infection, such as a cold, and can be ...

  6. [Incidence of chronic bronchitis in coal miners].

    PubMed

    Valutsina, V M; Kiva, A I

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of 2000 Donbass coal miners revealed data on the initial dust bronchitis prevalence and its progress. It was established that the coal miners who work in mines with steep coal strata exhibit higher bronchitis morbidity in comparison with the miners engaged in sloping strata mines. A correlation was established between dust bronchitis prevalence and length of professional service and coal miners' labour specificity. Tobacco smokers displayed a markedly higher percentage of chronic dust bronchitis cases. PMID:2379850

  7. Infectious and lethal doses of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus for house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columbia livia)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terrestrial wild birds commonly associated with poultry farms have the potential to contribute to the spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus within or between poultry facilities or between domesticated and wild bird populations. This potential, however, varies between species and is...

  8. Protection of chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection by live vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing H5 hemagglutinin and N1 neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sophia P; Veits, Jutta; Keil, Günther M; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2009-01-29

    Attenuated vaccine strains of the alphaherpesvirus causing infectious laryngotracheitis of chickens (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1) can be used for mass application. Previously, we showed that live virus vaccination with recombinant ILTV expressing hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) protected chickens against ILT and fowl plague caused by HPAIV carrying the corresponding hemagglutinin subtypes [Lüschow D, Werner O, Mettenleiter TC, Fuchs W. Protection of chickens from lethal avian influenza A virus infection by live-virus vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (H5) gene. Vaccine 2001;19(30):4249-59; Veits J, Lüschow D, Kindermann K, Werner O, Teifke JP, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Deletion of the non-essential UL0 gene of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus leads to attenuation in chickens, and UL0 mutants expressing influenza virus haemagglutinin (H7) protect against ILT and fowl plague. J Gen Virol 2003;84(12):3343-52]. However, protection against H5N1 HPAIV was not satisfactory. Therefore, a newly designed dUTPase-negative ILTV vector was used for rapid insertion of the H5-hemagglutinin, or N1-neuraminidase genes of a recent H5N1 HPAIV isolate. Compared to our previous constructs, protein expression was considerably enhanced by insertion of synthetic introns downstream of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter within the 5'-nontranslated region of the transgenes. Deletion of the viral dUTPase gene did not affect in vitro replication of the ILTV recombinants, but led to sufficient attenuation in vivo. After a single ocular immunization, all chickens developed H5- or N1-specific serum antibodies. Nevertheless, animals immunized with N1-ILTV died after subsequent H5N1 HPAIV challenge, although survival times were prolonged compared to non-vaccinated controls. In contrast, all chickens vaccinated with either H5-ILTV alone, or H5- and N1-ILTV simultaneously, survived

  9. Dynamics of avian coronavirus circulation in commercial and non-commercial birds in Asia--a review.

    PubMed

    Promkuntod, Naruepol

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to understand the latest situation regarding avian coronaviruses (ACoVs), commonly referred to as the well-known avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), given that new and diverse types of IBV are continually being identified worldwide, particularly ones that are isolated from commercial poultry and associated with a wide range of disease conditions. The existing IBVs continue to evolve in various geographic areas in Asia, which results in the recombination and co-circulation between IBV types. This makes it increasingly difficult to prevent and control IBV infections, despite routine vaccination. Some ACoVs have also been identified in other avian species and they may pose a threat of cross-transmission to commercial sectors. The present review provides an overview of IBV circulation and the dynamic emergence of new variants found throughout Asia via the recombination of IBV strains. In addition to commercial poultry, backyard poultry and free-ranging birds may serve as a 'hub' for ACoV transmission within a particular area. These birds may be capable of spreading viruses, either to areas of close proximity, or to remote places via migration and trade. PMID:26629927

  10. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  11. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  12. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  13. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  14. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  15. Avian influenza diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) varies by virus strain and host species. The clinical disease and lesions the virus produces in poultry are not pathognomonic for avian influenza; therefore, diagnosis of AI virus (AIV) infection requires a laboratory test. Detection of AIV infecti...

  16. Avian influenza

    MedlinePlus

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  17. Avian Astrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian astroviruses comprise a diverse group of viruses affecting many avian species and causing enteritis, hepatitis and nephritis. To date, six different astroviruses have been identified in avian species based on the species of origin and viral genome characteristics: two turkey-origin astroviru...

  18. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral infection of birds that varies in severity from asymptomatic infections to mild respiratory and reproductive diseases to an acute, highly fatal systemic disease of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and other avian species. Avian influenza viruses are divided into two ...

  19. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  20. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Acute Bronchitis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/acutebronchitis.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  1. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Acute Bronchitis URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/acutebronchitis.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  2. Characterization of western European field isolates and vaccine strains of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Neff, C; Sudler, C; Hoop, R K

    2008-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis is a dramatic disease of the upper respiratory tract in poultry caused by a herpesvirus. In this study we investigated the characteristics of western European field isolates of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) to gain more information on their diversity. The examined 104 isolates, collected from acute outbreaks during the last 35 years, originated from eight different countries: Switzerland (48), Germany (21), Sweden (14), the United Kingdom (9), Italy (5), Belgium (4), Austria (2), and Norway (1). Two vaccines, a chicken embryo origin product and a tissue culture origin product, were included in the survey. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a 2.1-kb DNA fragment of ILTV using primers generated for the thymidine kinase (TK) gene. After digestion of the resulting PCR products by restriction endonuclease HaeIII, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was carried out. PCR amplicons of three field isolates and both vaccine strains were selected for sequencing. Here 98 field isolates showed the same cleavage pattern and were identical to both vaccine strains (clone 1). They differed from five Swiss isolates with identical cleavage pattern (clone 2) and one Swedish isolate (clone 3). The present study demonstrated that at least three clones of ILTV have been circulating in western Europe during the last 35 years. The 104 isolates analyzed showed a high genetic similarity regarding the TK gene, and a large majority of the field isolates (98/104) were genetically related to the vaccine strains. PMID:18646457

  3. Identification and Survey of a Novel Avian Coronavirus in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Qian; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Shuo; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The rapid discovery of novel viruses using next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies including DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq, has greatly expanded our understanding of viral diversity in recent years. The timely identification of novel viruses using NGS technologies is also important for us to control emerging infectious diseases caused by novel viruses. In this study, we identified a novel duck coronavirus (CoV), distinct with chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), using RNA-Seq. The novel duck-specific CoV was a potential novel species within the genus Gammacoronavirus, as indicated by sequences of three regions in the viral 1b gene. We also performed a survey of CoVs in domestic fowls in China using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), targeting the viral nucleocapsid (N) gene. A total of 102 CoV positives were identified through the survey. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral N sequences suggested that CoVs in domestic fowls have diverged into several region-specific or host-specific clades or subclades in the world, and IBVs can infect ducks, geese and pigeons, although they mainly circulate in chickens. Moreover, this study provided novel data supporting the notion that some host-specific CoVs other than IBVs circulate in ducks, geese and pigeons, and indicated that the novel duck-specific CoV identified through RNA-Seq in this study is genetically closer to some CoVs circulating in wild water fowls. Taken together, this study shed new insight into the diversity, distribution, evolution and control of avian CoVs. PMID:24023656

  4. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  5. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  6. Occupation and chronic bronchitis among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Krstev, Srmena; Ji, Bu-Tian; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Vermeulen, Roel; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between occupation and chronic bronchitis among a cross-section of Chinese women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS). Methods Cases were 4,873 women who self-reported a physician-diagnosed bronchitis during adulthood. Controls were 9,746 women randomly selected from SWHS participants and matched to the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association between chronic bronchitis and occupation, adjusting for smoking, education, family income, and concurrent asthma. Results We observed excess prevalence of bronchitis for textile occupation (OR=1.09; 1.01–1.18) and industry (OR=1.11; 1.04–1.25), welders (OR=1.40; 1.01–1.92), packing and baling workers (OR=1.39; 1.15–1.68), and warehousing industry (OR=1.58; 1.08–2.30). We also identified several new associations that may warrant further exploration and confirmation, including employment in some metal fabrication industries, postal and telecommunication industry, and a few white collar occupations and industries. Conclusions Our study indicates that the risk of chronic bronchitis among women may be increased in some occupations and industries. PMID:18188083

  7. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  8. Chronic Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Bronquitis crónica Ukrainian (Українська) Bronchitis Бронхіт - Українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual ...

  9. Measurement of airborne influenza virus during hen slaughtering in an ABSL-3E bioBUBBLE®

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several avian viral diseases, including avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis or laryngotracheitis, are transmitted via respiratory droplets or by contact with contaminated fomites. Using high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus as a model, the objective of the present st...

  10. Emerging infectious diseases: Focus on infection control issues for novel coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa and Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9).

    PubMed

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Fischer, William A; Kanamori, Hajime; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E

    2016-05-01

    Over the past several decades, we have witnessed the emergence of many new infectious agents, some of which are major public threats. New and emerging infectious diseases which are both transmissible from patient-to-patient and virulent with a high mortality include novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa, Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9). All healthcare facilities need to have policies and plans in place for early identification of patients with a highly communicable diseases which are highly virulent, ability to immediately isolate such patients, and provide proper management (e.g., training and availability of personal protective equipment) to prevent transmission to healthcare personnel, other patients and visitors to the healthcare facility. PMID:27131142

  11. [Notable imported infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Japanese doctors are somewhat unfamiliar with imported infectious diseases, however, the following imported infectious diseases are notable: cholera, which is currently endemic in Haiti and which there is a possibility of it being imported to Japan from endemic areas; typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, whose causative organisms showing low sensitivity to fluoroquinolones have become predominant; rabies, which exhibits a high mortality; avian influenza H5N1, which has the possibility of changing into a new type of human influenza; chikungunya fever, in which the number of Japanese patients is increasing; and cyclosporiasis, which led to a number of food poisonings in the USA and Canada, and as a growing number of Japanese travel abroad, the number of infected Japanese patients returning from endemic areas will increase. It is thus important to identify the presence of these diseases on diagnosis. PMID:21560415

  12. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  13. Chimaeric VP2 proteins from infectious bursal disease virus containing the N-terminal M2e of H9 subtype avian influenza virus induce neutralizing antibody responses to both viruses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yinghua; Gong, Yuzhen; Wang, Yongwei; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Yamei; Lu, Jihu; Gao, Feng; Chen, Tao; Hou, Fengxiang; Hou, Jibo

    2013-01-01

    Subunit vaccines capable of inducing antibody against both infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and H9 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) were developed. The VP2 protein of IBDV was used as a cargo protein to display a 12-amino-acid immunodominant epitope derived from the N-terminal M2 extracellular domain (nM2e) of the H9 subtype AIV. Two chimaeric proteins were constructed by insertion of one copy of the nM2e into the PBC region (VP2BCnM2e(H9)) or by fusing four copies of nM2e to the carboxyl terminal (VP2-4nM2e(H9)) of VP2. Genes that encoded the VP2 chimaeras were subsequently cloned into a baculovirus vector and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. The recombinant proteins were used to vaccinate chickens at day 0 and again after 4 weeks. Blood was collected at 2-week intervals after primary and secondary vaccination to detect the antibody titre against VP2 or the nM2e via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Virus neutralization tests were also performed to measure anti-IBDV or anti-H9 AIV neutralizing antibodies in chick embryo fibroblasts. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected 3, 5 and 7 days post H9 subtype AIV infection for virus isolation. Vaccination with VP2-4nM2e(H9) induced higher levels of antibody responses against IBDV or H9 subtype AIV, and provided better protection against an IBDV virulent challenge compared with vaccination with VP2BCnM2e(H9) vaccine, the wild-type VP2 subunit vaccine or the IBDV subunit commercial vaccines. Both chimaeric VP2 vaccines showed poor efficacy in inhibiting H9 virus replication post challenge. In summary, chimaeric proteins that contain the nM2e epitope were able to induce both IBDV and H9 subtype AIV-neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:23607544

  14. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  15. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  16. Avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Locke, Louis N.; Kennelly, James J.

    1985-01-01

    What is avian botulism? Avian botulism, or Western duck sickness, is one of the three most important disease problems of wild migratory birds. Each year, many birds are paralyzed or die after exposure to a toxin produced by the botulinum bacterium. Two of the seven toxin types that have been identifies cause mortality in wild birds; one of these types, type C, is most often associated with dieoffs of ducks, while type E primarily affects gulls and loons.

  17. Emergence of Enteric Viruses in Production Chickens Is a Concern for Avian Health

    PubMed Central

    Mettifogo, Elena; Nuñez, Luis F. N.; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S.; Jerez, José A.; Jones, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Several viruses have been identified in recent years in the intestinal contents of chickens and turkeys with enteric problems, which have been observed in commercial farms worldwide, including Brazil. Molecular detection of these viruses in Brazil can transform to a big threat for poultry production due to risk for intestinal integrity. This disease is characterized by severely delayed growth, low uniformity, lethargy, watery diarrhea, delayed feed consumption, and a decreased conversion rate. Chicken astrovirus (CAstV), rotavirus, reovirus, chicken parvovirus (ChPV), fowl adenovirus of subgroup I (FAdV-1), and avian nephritis virus (ANV) were investigated using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which may play a role in enteric disease, was included. The viruses most frequently detected, either alone or in concomitance with other viruses, were IBV, ANV, rotavirus, and CAstV followed by parvovirus, reovirus, and adenovirus. This study demonstrates the diversity of viruses in Brazilian chicken flocks presenting enteric problems characterized by diarrhea, growth retard, loss weight, and mortality, which reflects the multicausal etiology of this disease. PMID:24578633

  18. [Other obstructive diseases: byssinosis, chronic bronchitis and occupational COPD and eosinophilic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    De la Rosa, F J Michel; Fernández Infante, B

    2005-01-01

    Besides occupational asthma and diseases derived from acute inhalation, other obstructive diseases also have an occupational origin. Although at present byssinosis is a rare disease in Spain, we describe its characteristics because of its historical interest amongst occupational respiratory diseases and because it is still relevant in developing countries. Chronic bronchitis can also be related to exposure at work to dust and smoke, and is often referred to as "industrial bronchitis". Historically, the relation of CPOD to occupation has been subject to controversy, but nowadays this relationship is accepted; we describe the present evidence supporting this relationship. Finally, we describe eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma, an entity that was described for the first time in 1989 and that can sometimes have an occupational origin, sharing aetiological agents with occupational asthma. PMID:15915174

  19. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host for avian influenza virus (AIV) is in wild birds, including ducks, gulls, and shorebirds, where the virus causes primarily an enteric infection with little disease. However, AIV can infect a wide variety of host species, and with a certain level of adaptation for the aberrant host ...

  20. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; i....

  1. AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  2. AVIAN IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for studying the avian immune system have matured during the past two decades, with laboratory studies predominating in earlier years and field studies being conducted only in the past decade. One application has been to determine the potential for environmental contamina...

  3. The Relationships Between Weather and Climate and Attacks of Bronchitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaia, M. A. R.; Saraiva, M. A. C.; Vieira da Cruz, A. A.

    The area of Aveiro, more concretely Aveiro lagoon, a natural laboratory has been con- sidered, for promoting the development and the application of several investigations worked. The importance of the influences of weather and climate on human health has been well known since ancient teams and many decisions concerning human be- haviour it are clearly weather related. However, decisions related to weather criteria can be important and economically significant, but the real economic effect of the weather is difficult to assess. Talaia et al. (2000) and Talaia and Vieira da Cruz (2001) have shown the possible harmful effect of certain meteorological factors on respiratory conditions. Bronchitis is a disease caused by inflammation of the bronchi as a result of infectious agents or air pollutants. In this study our attention is to relate, the be- ginning of bronchitis attacks in the services of urgency of the Hospital of Aveiro with meteorological factors, and the risk group are studied. We used the medical records and the database of meteorological factors. The obtained analysis allows to conclude that some meteorological factors have correlation with the occurrences of the disease and to allow improving the work in the urgency services in the requested periods. The knowledge that will be extracted of this study can be used later in studies that inte- grate other important components for the characterisation of the environmental impact in the area. References: Talaia, M.A.R., Vieira da Cruz, A.A., Saraiva, M.A.C., Amaro, G.S., Oliveira, C.J. and Carvalho, C.F., 2000, The Influence of Meteorological Fac- tors on Pneumonia Emergencies in Aveiro, International Symposium on Human- Biometeorology, St. Petersburg (Pushkin), Russia, pp. 67-68. Talaia, M.A.R. and Vieira of Cruz, A.A., (2001), Meteorological Effects on the Resistance of the Body to Influenza - One Study in Aveiro Region, Proceedings 2nd Symposium of Meteorol- ogy and Geophysics of APMG and 3rd Meeting

  4. [Infectious-allergic bronchopulmonary paecilomycosis].

    PubMed

    Akhunova, A M

    1991-01-01

    Primary or secondary infection of the lungs with fungi of the Paecilomyces family (P. variotii and P. viridis) gives rise to the development of infectious allergic bronchopulmonary paecilomycosis characterized by the presence of chronic allergic interstitial pneumonia and obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma, total and pulmonary eosinophilia, the presence of the tissue parasitic form of the fungus in sputum, blood, pulmonary tissue, the presence of allergen-specific IgE and/or IgG antibodies in patients' sera, immediate or double (20 min and 6 h) reaction of the skin to administration of allergen of Paecilomyces, by not infrequent combination of lung damage and impairment of other organs as well as by chronic relapses. PMID:1805416

  5. Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur. PMID:15847721

  6. Avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary A; Maslow, Melanie J

    2006-03-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004 alone, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate over 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantines, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent increased human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short, interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems offer promise, should a pandemic occur. PMID:16566867

  7. Infectious Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  8. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection and differentiation of avian influenza viruses and other poultry respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rashid, S; Naeem, K; Ahmed, Z; Saddique, N; Abbas, M A; Malik, S A

    2009-12-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the detection of type A influenza viruses, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7, H9, and H5 hemagglutinin gene with simultaneous detection of 3 other poultry respiratory pathogens, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Seven sets of specific oligonucleotide primers were used in this study for the M gene of AIV and hemagglutinin gene of subtypes H7, H9, and H5 of AIV. Three sets of other specific oligonucleotide primers were used for the detection of avian respiratory pathogens other than AIV. The mRT-PCR DNA products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and consisted of DNA fragments of 1,023 bp for M gene of AIV, 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, and 647 bp for ILTV. The second set of primers used for m-RT-PCR of H7N3, H9N2, and H5N1 provided DNA products of 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The mRT-PCR products for the third format consisted of DNA fragments of 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, 647 bp for ILTV, 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The sensitivity and specificity of mRT-PCR was determined and the test was found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of AIV and other poultry respiratory pathogens. In this present study, multiplex PCR technique has been developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate the 3 most important subtypes of AIV along with the 3 most common avian respiratory pathogens prevalent in poultry in Pakistan. Therefore, a mRT-PCR that can rapidly differentiate between these pathogens will be very important for the control of disease transmission in poultry and in humans, along with the identification of 3 of the most common respiratory pathogens often seen as mixed infections in poultry, and hence economic losses will be reduced in poultry. PMID:19903950

  9. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1.5 MB] More Data Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin (chronic lower respiratory disease includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and other ...

  11. Hydrator Therapies for Chronic Bronchitis. Lessons from Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, William D; Henderson, Ashley G; Donaldson, Scott H

    2016-04-01

    Patients with the chronic bronchitis form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis share similar clinical features, including mucus obstruction of airways and the development of chronic/recurrent airways infections that often manifest as disease exacerbations. There is growing evidence that these diseases may have parallels in disease pathogenesis as well, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator dysfunction, mucus dehydration, and defective mucociliary clearance. As progress is made in the development of therapies that target the basic defects that lead to cystic fibrosis lung disease, it is possible that similar approaches could also benefit patients with chronic bronchitis. A deeper understanding of how tobacco smoke and other triggers of chronic bronchitis actually lead to disease, and exploration of the concept that therapies that restore cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function, mucus hydration, and/or mucociliary clearance may benefit patients with chronic bronchitis, hold the prospect of significant progress in treating this prevalent disease. PMID:27115955

  12. Infectious Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Another form of reactive arthritis starts with eating food or handling something that has bacteria on it. To diagnose infectious arthritis, your health care provider may do tests of your blood, urine, and joint fluid. Treatment includes medicines and sometimes surgery.

  13. Bronchitis in men employed in the coke industry

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. D.; Archibald, R. M.; Attfield, M. D.

    1971-01-01

    Walker, D. D., Archibald, R. M., and Attfield, M. D. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 358-363. Bronchitis in men employed in the coke industry. An epidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of bronchitis in men employed at two of the National Coal Board's coking plants is described. Eight hundred and eighty-one men (91%) of the total working population were examined. A strong association was found between bronchitis prevalence and cigarette smoking (P < 0·001). In addition, men who smoked and who were exposed to high temperatures, dust, and fumes in the environment of the coke-ovens had more bronchitis than men who worked elsewhere in the cokeworks (P < 0·02). Both the presence of bronchitis and employment in the environment of the coke-ovens had significant and independent effects on ventilatory capacity. The combination of cigarette smoking and previous employment in a dusty industry also had a significant effect on ventilatory capacity. The investigation suggests that cigarette smoking, and the combination of smoking and pollution from the coke-ovens and previous occupation, appear to be important factors in the aetiology of bronchitis and reduced ventilatory capacity in men employed in the coke manufacturing industry. PMID:5124835

  14. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  15. Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infectious uveitis is one of the most common and visually devastating causes of uveitis in the US and worldwide. This review provides a summary of the identification, treatment, and complications associated with certain forms of viral, bacterial, fungal, helminthic, and parasitic uveitis. In particular, this article reviews the literature on identification and treatment of acute retinal necrosis due to herpes simplex virus, varicella virus, and cytomegalovirus. While no agreed-upon treatment has been identified, the characteristics of Ebola virus panuveitis is also reviewed. In addition, forms of parasitic infection such as Toxoplasmosis and Toxocariasis are summarized, as well as spirochetal uveitis. Syphilitic retinitis is reviewed given its increase in prevalence over the last decade. The importance of early identification and treatment of infectious uveitis is emphasized. Early identification can be achieved with a combination of maintaining a high suspicion, recognizing certain clinical features, utilizing multi-modal imaging, and obtaining specimens for molecular diagnostic testing. PMID:26618074

  16. Chronic Bronchitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis (CB) is a common but variable phenomenon in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It has numerous clinical consequences, including an accelerated decline in lung function, greater risk of the development of airflow obstruction in smokers, a predisposition to lower respiratory tract infection, higher exacerbation frequency, and worse overall mortality. CB is caused by overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus by goblet cells, which leads to worsening airflow obstruction by luminal obstruction of small airways, epithelial remodeling, and alteration of airway surface tension predisposing to collapse. Despite its clinical sequelae, little is known about the pathophysiology of CB and goblet cell hyperplasia in COPD, and treatment options are limited. In addition, it is becoming increasingly apparent that in the classic COPD spectrum, with emphysema on one end and CB on the other, most patients lie somewhere in the middle. It is known now that many patients with severe emphysema can develop CB, and small airway pathology has been linked to worse clinical outcomes, such as increased mortality and lesser improvement in lung function after lung volume reduction surgery. However, in recent years, a greater understanding of the importance of CB as a phenotype to identify patients with a beneficial response to therapy has been described. Herein we review the epidemiology of CB, the evidence behind its clinical consequences, the current understanding of the pathophysiology of goblet cell hyperplasia in COPD, and current therapies for CB. PMID:23204254

  17. Prevalence of avian respiratory viruses in broiler flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem E; Shany, Salama A S; Ali, A; Dahshan, Al-Hussien M; El-Sawah, Azza A; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-06-01

    In this study, respiratory viral pathogens were screened using real-time RT-PCR in 86 broiler chicken flocks suffering from respiratory diseases problems in 4 Egyptian governorates between January 2012 and February 2014. The mortality rates in the investigated flocks ranged from 1 to 47%. Results showed that mixed infection represented 66.3% of the examined flocks. Mixed infectious bronchitis (IBV) and avian influenza (AI)-H9N2 viruses were the most common infection (41.7%). Lack of AI-H9N2 vaccination and high rates of mixed infections in which AI-H9N2 is involved indicate an early AI-H9N2 infection with a potential immunosuppressive effect that predisposes for other viral infections. High pathogenic AI-H5N1 and virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) infections were also detected (26.7% and 8.1%, respectively). Interestingly, co-infection of AI-H9N2 with either AIV-H5N1 or vNDV rarely resulted in high mortality. Partial cell-mediated immunity against similar internal AI genes, as well as virus interference between AI and vNDV, could be an explanation for this. Highly prevalent IBV and AI-H9N2 were isolated and were molecularly characterized based on S1 gene hypervariable region 3 ( HVR3: ) and hemagglutinin gene (HA) sequences, respectively. IBV strains were related to the variant group of IBV with multiple mutations in HVR3. Though AI-H9N2 viruses showed low rate of evolution in comparison to recent strains, few amino acid substitutions indicative of antibody selection pressure were observed in the HA gene. In conclusion, mixed viral infections, especially with IBV and AI-H9N2 viruses, are the predominant etiology of respiratory disease problems in broiler chickens in Egypt. Further investigations of the role of AI, IBV, and ND viruses' co-infections and interference in terms of altering the severity of clinical signs and lesions and/or generating novel reassortants within each virus are needed. PMID:26976895

  18. Other avian paramyxovirus infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newca...

  19. Other avian paramyxoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newcas...

  20. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  1. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  2. Anti-inflammatory drugs and experimental bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, P K

    1986-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis (chronic hypersecretion) and chronic bronchiolitis (small airways disease) are two conditions associated with cigarette smoking: both contribute to airflow obstruction in man, the latter associated with progressive deterioration in lung function. Mucous metaplasia and hyperplasia are characteristic histological changes. Experimentally, cigarette smoke given daily for two weeks, induces similar histological changes in the airways of specific pathogen-free rats, providing a suitable animal model for study: an early proliferation of basal cells, accompanied by mucous metaplasia of surface epithelial serous cells is followed by proliferation of newly formed mucous cells. There is also a significant increase in epithelial thickness due to cell hypertrophy without stratification or prior ulceration. Experimentally, secretory cell hyperplasia is inhibited completely or to varying degrees by prophylactic administration (intraperitoneal injection) of either indomethacin, flurbiprofen, dexamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone (each at 2 or 4 mg/kg body weight) or a mucolytic drug, N-acetylcysteine(Nac), given orally as a 1% solution of the drinking water. Nac also inhibits the associated mucus-hypersecretion. It takes between 21 and 84 days, depending on airway level, for the increase in secretory cell number to return to control values (ie recover). Indomethacin and flurbiprofen (4 mg/kg, by ip injection) shorten recovery to between 4 and 9 days in intrapulmonary airways but have no effect on recovery time in the rat trachea. Nac is effective in 6 of 7 airway levels which showed cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, in the rat, the response to cigarette smoke is one of mucous cell metaplasia and both basal and mucous cell proliferation. Cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia can be inhibited when selected drugs are given concurrently with the cigarette smoke: indomethacin, fluriprofen and Nac are also therapeutic

  3. Infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Carrie A; Donohue, Brian; Kluetz, Joshua

    2011-07-01

    Athletes are susceptible to the same infections as the general population. However, special considerations often need to be taken into account when dealing with an athlete who has contracted an infectious disease. Health care providers need to consider how even common illnesses can affect an athlete's performance, the communicability of the illness to team members, and precautions/contraindications related to athletic participation. Recent advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and/or management of frequently encountered illnesses, as well as certain conditions that warrant special attention in the athletic setting, are discussed in detail. PMID:21658549

  4. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.

    2015-01-01

    The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584

  5. Oral immunization with bacterial extracts for protection against acute bronchitis in elderly institutionalized patients with chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Orcel, B; Delclaux, B; Baud, M; Derenne, J P

    1994-03-01

    Acute bronchitis is a major source of morbidity in elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the preventive effects of oral immunisation with a bacterial extract. Three hundred and fifty four patients with chronic bronchitis, living in institutions for the elderly (aged > 65 yrs), were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The purpose of the study was to assess preventive effects of OM-85 BV (an immunostimulating agent consisting of lyophilized fractions of eight of the most common pathogens isolated in respiratory tract infections) against acute lower respiratory tract infections. Two hundred and ninety patients completed the study (143 taking placebo and 147 taking OM-85 BV). There was a 28% reduction in the number of lower respiratory tract infections in the patients treated with OM-85 BV; this was entirely due to 40% reduction in the number of episodes of acute bronchitis (p < 0.01), with no difference in the number of episodes of pneumonia and bronchopneumonia. A larger number of patients in the OM-85 BV group were free of acute bronchitis throughout the 6 month study period (96 vs 69) and there was a 28% reduction in the number of antibiotic prescriptions in the OM-85 BV treated group. These results suggest that OM-85 BV has a protective effect against acute bronchitis in elderly patients living in institutions. PMID:8013600

  6. Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Balfour, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by sore throat, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever most often seen in adolescents and young adults and lasting several weeks. It can be caused by a number of pathogens, but this chapter only discusses infectious mononucleosis due to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV is a γ-herpesvirus that infects at least 90% of the population worldwide. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among teenagers and young adults. How preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. A typical clinical picture with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, there can also be long-term consequences as the result of acquisition of the virus. Several EBV related illnesses occur including certain cancers and autoimmune diseases, as well as complications of primary immunodeficiency in persons with the certain genetic mutations. A major obstacle to understanding these sequelae has been the lack of an efficient animal model for EBV infection, although progress in primate and mouse models has recently been made. Key future challenges are to develop protective vaccines and effective treatment regimens. PMID:26424648

  7. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: Intersecting Humans, Animals, and the Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eurasian-African H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused an unprecedented epizootic affecting mainly poultry, but has crossed multiple species barriers to infect captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. There is still great concern over the continued infecti...

  8. Innate resistance to avian influenza: Of MHC's and Mx proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is an economically important virus of poultry that has significant impact on global trade. Recently, increased attention to animal genomics has been applied to enhance innate resistance to infectious diseases in poultry. Two known contributors to innate resistance are the host m...

  9. Plastic bronchitis caused by neoplastic infiltrates in a child.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Tamar; Wexler, Isaiah D; Shoseyov, David; Weintraub, Michael; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Kerem, Eitan

    2006-09-01

    We report on a case of a 7-year-old girl admitted for pneumonia not responding to oral antibiotics. During hospitalization, her pulmonary status deteriorated as a result of significant atelectasis. An extensive workup revealed an anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with neoplastic cells, found in both a biopsied lymph node and pleural fluid aspirate. Bronchoscopic examination showed nearly complete obstruction of the left side by bronchial casts composed of tumor cells, fibrin, and necrotic material, consistent with plastic bronchitis. Neoplastic infiltration of the bronchi should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disease entities causing plastic bronchitis in children. PMID:16779857

  10. Effect of salbutamol in infants with wheezy bronchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Radford, M

    1975-01-01

    Using the technique of whole body plethysmography, lung mechanics were measured in a group of infants with wheezy bronchitis. Compared with a group of normal infants previously studied, airway resistance and thoracic gas volume were found to be raised. Nebulized salbutamol was then administered and measurements were repeated when it was found that there was no objective improvement. It is concluded that salbutamol may not be an effective form of treatment of wheezy bronchitis in young infants and the reasons for this are discussed. PMID:1167065

  11. Genome Sequence of a Distinct Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Diego; Techera, Claudia; Grecco, Sofía; Panzera, Yanina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is a relevant avian pathogen that affects poultry production. Here, we report the full-length coding sequence of the Uruguayan strain dIBDV/UY/2014/2202, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. The strain belongs to the distinct IBDV lineage that is widely distributed in South America. PMID:26430025

  12. Anti-inflammatory effect of a novel food Cordyceps guangdongensis on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenjuan; Li, Taihui; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2014-10-01

    Cordyceps guangdongensis T. H. Li, Q. Y. Lin & B. Song (Cordycipitaceae) is a novel food approved by the Ministry of Public Health of China in 2013. Preliminary studies revealed that this novel food has multiple pharmacological activities such as anti-fatigue effect, antioxidant ability, prolonging life, anti-avian influenza virus activity, and therapeutic effect on chronic renal failure. However, the anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis and the effective constituent are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate both the anti-inflammatory effect of the edible fungus on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking, and the pilot effective constituent. Test rats were intragastrically administered with 3 doses of hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis (0.325, 0.65 and 1.30 g kg(-1) bw daily for low, middle and high dose, respectively) for 26 days. Biochemical indices and histological examinations in rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking were determined. The content and molecular weights of the polysaccharide from the hot-water extract were detected by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and gel permeation chromatography, respectively. Biochemical indices in the low, middle and high-dose groups with the hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis were only 53.4%, 46.0% and 40.4% of those in the model control group (total leukocytes), respectively; 70.7%, 60.3% and 58.1% (macrophages); 33.0%, 26.8% and 16.1% (neutrophils); and 22.2%, 23.5% and 13.6% (lymphocytes) of those in the model control group. The bronchial lesions and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly alleviated in all groups with hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis. This study indicates that the hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis. The content of the polysaccharide was 6.92%; the molecular weights of the 3 polysaccharide components were respectively 1.28 × 10

  13. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-09-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. PMID:27297208

  14. PULMONARY FUNCTION ADAPTATION TO OZONE IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty smokers with chronic bronchitis were exposed to 0.41 ppm ozone for 3 hr-day for 5 consecutive days and reexposed 4 days later to determine (1) if they are sensitive to ozone, (2) if they adapt, and (3) if the adaptation lasts longer than 4 days. There were significant decr...

  15. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-01-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. PMID:27297208

  16. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature. PMID:22740548

  17. Infectious bronchitis virus S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing the IBV S2 gene (rLS/IBV.S2). The recombinant virus showed reduced pathogenicity compared to the parental LaSota strain but effectively elicited hemagglutination inhibition antibodies and protected chickens against lethal...

  18. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis). PMID:26350325

  19. Neuraminic acid content of sputum in chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Keal, E. E.; Reid, Lynne

    1972-01-01

    The neuraminic acid content of sputum from 48 men with early chronic bronchitis has been estimated in samples collected over a period of three years. The results are compared with those from 29 advanced bronchitic patients and are related to the clinical features of both groups and to the physical and biological properties of the sputum. A seasonal variation in neuraminic acid content has been noted for the first time with higher levels during the winter months. Clinical assessment of sputum pourability correlated well with measured viscosity. The viscosity of mucoid sputum was related to its neuraminic acid content but also to the yield of dry macromolecular material. In the early bronchitic group whose sputum was assessed for purulence at monthly intervals pus was more often present in those men whose mucoid sputum contained higher levels of neuraminic acid. These findings are discussed in relation to the cause of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. PMID:4647626

  20. Pulmonary function adaptation to ozone in subjects with chronic bronchitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Milman, J.H.; Sauder, L.R.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty smokers with chronic bronchitis were exposed to 0.41 ppm ozone for 3 hr-day for 5 consecutive days and reexposed 4 days later to determine (1) if they are sensitive to ozone, (2) if they adapt, and (3) if the adaptation lasts longer than 4 days. There were significant decrements in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 3 sec (FEV3) on the first day of the 5-day repeated exposures and also on reexposure 4 days following cessation of the sequential exposures. Symptoms experienced were mild and did not predominate on any exposure days. These results suggest that individuals with chronic bronchitis adapt rapidly to ozone and lose the adaptive phenomenon within 4 days. The small decreases seen in FVC and FEV3 appear to impose no more than minimal limitations on their daily activities.

  1. Pulmonary function adaptation to ozone in subjects with chronic bronchitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Milman, J.H.; Sauder, L.R.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller W.R.

    1984-06-01

    Twenty smokers with chronic bronchitis were exposed to 0.41 ppm ozone for 3 hr-day for 5 consecutive days and reexposed 4 days later to determine (1) if they are sensitive to ozone, (2) if they adapt, and (3) if the adaptation lasts longer than 4 days. There were significant decrements in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 3 sec (FEV/sub 3/) on the first day of the 5-day repeated exposures and also on reexposure 4 days following cessation of the sequential exposures. Symptoms experienced were mild and did not predominate on any exposure days. These results suggest that individuals with chronic bronchitis adapt rapidly to ozone and lose this adaptive phenomenon within 4 days. The small decreases seen in FVC and FEV/sub 3/ ( less than or equal to 3%) appear to impose no more than minimal limitations on their daily activities.

  2. Transcript Signatures of Lymphocytic Bronchitis in Lung Allograft Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Dolganov, Gregory; Jones, Kirk D.; Donnelly, Samantha; Weaver, Timothy; Caughey, George H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis are barriers to sustained graft function in recipients of transplanted lungs. Early detection is hindered by inadequate tests and an incomplete understanding of the molecular events preceding or accompanying graft deterioration. Methods Hypothesizing that genes involved in immune responses and tissue remodeling produce biomarkers of rejection, we measured the expression of 192 selected genes in 72 sets of biopsy specimens from human lung allografts. Gene transcripts were quantified using a 2-step, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction approach in endobronchial and transbronchial biopsy specimens from transplant recipients without acute infections undergoing routine surveillance bronchoscopy. Results Comparisons of histopathology in parallel biopsy specimens identified 6 genes correlating with rejection as manifested by lymphocytic bronchitis, a suspected harbinger of obliterative bronchiolitis. For example, β2-defensin and collagenase transcripts in inflamed bronchi increased 37-fold and 163-fold, respectively. By contrast, these transcripts did not correlate with acute rejection in transbronchial specimens. Further, no correspondence was noted between histopathologic bronchitis and parenchymal rejection when endobronchial and transbronchial samples were obtained from the same patient. Conclusions Our highly sensitive method permits quantitation of many gene transcripts simultaneously in small, bronchoscopically acquired biopsy specimens of allografts. Transcript signatures obtained by this approach suggest that airway and alveolar responses to rejection differ and that endobronchial biopsy specimens assess lymphocytic bronchitis and chronic rejection but are not proxies for transbronchial biopsy specimens. Further, they reveal changes in airway expression of the specific genes involved in host defense and remodeling and suggest that the measurement of transcripts correlating with lymphocytic bronchitis

  3. The Chronic Bronchitis Phenotype in COPD: Features and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Victor; Criner, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major public health problem that is projected to rank fifth worldwide in terms of disease burden and third in terms of mortality. Chronic bronchitis (CB) is associated with multiple clinical consequences, including hastening lung function decline, increasing risk of exacerbations, reducing health related quality of life, and possibly raising all-cause mortality. Recent data suggests greater elucidation on the risk factors, radiologic characteristics, and treatment regimens. Our goal was to review the literature on chronic bronchitis that has been published in the last few years. Recent Findings A growing body of literature that more carefully describes environmental risk factors, epidemiology, and genetics associated with CB. In addition, as computed tomography technology continues to improve, the radiologic phenotype associated with CB is better understood. Summary With these new data, the clinician can recognize the newly described risk factors and the associated phenotype for chronic bronchitis and entertain new treatment options for this high risk population. PMID:25575367

  4. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Greene, S A; Wolff, R K; Hahn, F F; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Lundgren, D L

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) for 2 h/d, 5 d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance; and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO2-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO2 for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO2 exposure. PMID:6492210

  6. [Chronic bronchitis and its sequelae. Therapy--prognosis--insurance medicine aspects].

    PubMed

    Gillissen, A; Schmidt, E W

    1996-12-01

    Chronic bronchitis is of enormous epidemiological, socio-medical and economical importance. The main cause of chronic bronchitis is active but also passive cigarette smoking. Other etiologic factors are: viral or bacterial infections, chronic dust exposure in occupational settings and air pollution. Cease of cigarette smoking is considered the most valuable action in the treatment of the chronic bronchitis. In addition to drug therapy, physical therapy and other measures of rehabilitation may be a supportive benefit. ABout 10-20% of all patients with chronic bronchitis develop airway obstruction and/or lung emphysema. Obstructive bronchitis with or without lung emphysema should be treated with corticosteroids, beta 2-agonists and/or theophylline. Evidence for the socio-economical burden of chronic bronchitis and its complications are the enormous costs for the social economy (direct costs: in- and outpatient treatment; indirect costs: premature pensions, sick leave). PMID:9082644

  7. Immune responses to infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2013-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. Despite the extensive use of attenuated, and more recently recombinant, vaccines for the control of this disease, ILT continues to affect the intensive poultry industries worldwide. Innate and cell-mediated, rather than humoral immune responses, have been identified as responsible for protection against disease. This review examines the current understandings in innate and adaptive immune responses towards ILTV, as well as the role of ILTV glycoprotein G in modulating the host immune response towards infection. Protective immunity induced by ILT vaccines is also examined. The increasing availability of tools and reagents for the characterisation of avian innate and cell-mediated immune responses are expected to further our understanding of immunity against ILTV and drive the development of new generation vaccines towards enhanced control of this disease. PMID:23567343

  8. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  9. Avian Influenza in Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... and even kill certain domesticated bird species including chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Infected birds can shed avian ... virus’ ability to cause disease and mortality in chickens in a laboratory setting [2.5 MB, 64 ...

  10. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy. PMID:18618061

  11. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike. PMID:27217172

  12. Up-Regulation of Mcl-1 and Bak by Coronavirus Infection of Human, Avian and Animal Cells Modulates Apoptosis and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yanxin; Liao, Ying; Fang, Shouguo; Tam, James P.; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Virus-induced apoptosis and viral mechanisms that regulate this cell death program are key issues in understanding virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis. Like many other human and animal viruses, coronavirus infection of mammalian cells induces apoptosis. In this study, the global gene expression profiles are first determined in IBV-infected Vero cells at 24 hours post-infection by Affymetrix array, using avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) as a model system. It reveals an up-regulation at the transcriptional level of both pro-apoptotic Bak and pro-survival myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). These results were further confirmed both in vivo and in vitro, in IBV-infected embryonated chicken eggs, chicken fibroblast cells and mammalian cells at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. Interestingly, the onset of apoptosis occurred earlier in IBV-infected mammalian cells silenced with short interfering RNA targeting Mcl-1 (siMcl-1), and was delayed in cells silenced with siBak. IBV progeny production and release were increased in infected Mcl-1 knockdown cells compared to similarly infected control cells, while the contrary was observed in infected Bak knockdown cells. Furthermore, IBV infection-induced up-regulation of GADD153 regulated the expression of Mcl-1. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways by chemical inhibitors and knockdown of GADD153 by siRNA demonstrated the involvement of ER-stress response in regulation of IBV-induced Mcl-1 expression. These results illustrate the sophisticated regulatory strategies evolved by a coronavirus to modulate both virus-induced apoptosis and viral replication during its replication cycle. PMID:22253918

  13. Wetland environmental conditions associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks and the abundance of Pasteurella multocida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, Michael D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, Daniel J.; Creekmore, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera is a significant infectious disease affecting waterfowl across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known about the factors that cause avian cholera outbreaks and what management strategies might be used to reduce disease mortality. Previous studies indicated that wetland water conditions may affect survival and transmission of Pasteurella multocida, the agent that causes avian cholera. These studies hypothesized that water conditions affect the likelihood that avian cholera outbreaks will occur in specific wetlands. To test these predictions, we collected data from avian cholera outbreak and non-outbreak (control) wetlands throughout North America (wintera??spring 1995a??1996 to 1998a??1999) to evaluate whether water conditions were associated with outbreaks. Conditional logistic regression analysis on paired outbreak and non-outbreak wetlands indicated no significant association between water conditions and the risk of avian cholera outbreaks. For wetlands where avian cholera outbreaks occurred, linear regression showed that increased eutrophic nutrient concentrations (Potassium [K], nitrate [NO3], phosphorus [P], and phosphate [PO3]) were positively related to the abundance of P. multocida recovered from water and sediment samples. Wetland protein concentration and an El Ni??o event were also associated with P. multocida abundance. Our results indicate that wetland water conditions are not strongly associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks; however, some variables may play a role in the abundance of P. multocida bacteria and might be important in reducing the severity of avian cholera outbreaks.

  14. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    PubMed

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses. PMID:25790045

  15. Chronic bronchitis in West Sweden – a matter of smoking and social class

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Ekerljung, Linda; Eriksson, Jonas; Hagstad, Stig; Rönmark, Eva; Lötvall, Jan; Lundbäck, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Although chronic bronchitis is associated with impaired quality of life, hospitalisations and increased mortality, it has been less in focus after the introduction of the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are no recent published data on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis from the Scandinavian countries. Aim The main aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in West Sweden by using data from a large-scale epidemiological study of the general population. A further aim was to identify current risk factors for chronic bronchitis in a population with a major decrease in the proportion of smokers. Methods From the 18,087 questionnaire responders out of 30,000 invited to participate at the West Sweden Asthma Study, 2,000 subjects were randomly selected and invited to detailed clinical examinations performed during 2009–2013. A total of 1,172 subjects aged 17–79 participated in the examinations which included, among others, spirometry and structured interviews. Chronic bronchitis was defined according to reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 7.2% (men 7.6%; women 6.8% ns), and it was 8.7% in subjects older than age 60. Chronic bronchitis was strongly associated with smoking, defined both as current smoking status and pack-years. Other risk factors were increasing age, low socio-economic class and urban living. Of those with chronic bronchitis, 22% fulfilled the GOLD criteria of COPD. Conclusion The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was somewhat lower than found by studies in Sweden in the 1980s and the prevalence was now similar in men and women. Although smoking was still the dominating risk factor for chronic bronchitis, the relative importance of smoking had decreased parallel with a decreasing smoking prevalence, while the relative importance of other factors than smoking had increased compared to previous studies. PMID:27421832

  16. IL-17A regulates Eimeria tenella schizont maturation and migration in avian coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although IL17A is associated with the immunological control of various infectious diseases, its role in host response to Eimeria infections is not well understood. In an effort to better dissect the role of IL17A in host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis, a neutralizing antibody (Ab) to chi...

  17. [Chronic occupational bronchitis and programs of medical surveillance].

    PubMed

    Ernst, P; Becklake, M R

    1992-01-01

    Industrial bronchitis is of clinical significance when accompanied by irreversible obstruction of the airways. The controversy surrounding the role of dusty exposures in the workplace in the genesis of chronic obstructive lung disease derives from the numerous biases inherent in prevalence studies of working populations often used to study this relationship. Better study designs afforded by community based and longitudinal studies have clearly demonstrated the causal role of dusty exposures in chronic airflow obstruction. This abnormality is detected by spirometry, a technique commonly applied in surveillance programs of industrial workers. The large differences seen in these measures even among normal subjects as well as their variability from time to time do not allow the identification of affected individuals before the onset of significant irreversible disease. For this reason these tests are useful mainly for case detection while prevention must rely on better industrial hygiene. PMID:1539397

  18. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  19. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  20. Combat with emerging infectious diseases: clinicians should do better.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongzhou

    2013-10-01

    In the spring of 2013, an emerging infectious disease emerged in China, 132 cases of human were infected with the H7N9 avian influenza virus, 39 cases were resulted in death within 3 month, which sparked a global concern about public health. Many reports have been published about this disease, including clinical characteristics and genomic information. However, more emerging infectious disease may infect human in the future. Confronted with the escalating scale of compounding probabilities, physicians or clinicians as the first line that meet patients who suffering from emerging infectious disease, we should do better by using our intellect and strong will to carry out public health measures, biomedical research, and technological advances. PMID:24241178

  1. The avian heterophil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterophils play an indispensable role in the immune defense of the avian host. To accomplish this defense, heterophils use sophisticated mechanisms to both detect and destroy pathogenic microbes. Detection of pathogens through toll-like receptors (TLR), FC and complement receptors, and other path...

  2. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  3. Avian influenza: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J

    2004-08-01

    This paper reviews the worldwide situation regarding avian influenza infections in poultry from 1997 to March 2004. The increase in the number of primary introductions and the scientific data available on the molecular basis of pathogenicity have generated concerns particularly for legislative purposes and for international trade. This has led to a new proposed definition of 'avian influenza' to extend all infections caused by H5 and H7 viruses regardless of their virulence as notifiable diseases, although this has encountered some difficulties in being approved. The paper also reviews the major outbreaks caused by viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype and the control measures applied. The zoonotic aspects of avian influenza, which until 1997 were considered to be of limited relevance in human medicine, are also discussed. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a reassortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic. PMID:15370036

  4. Avian dark cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  5. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence of six infectious diseases among adults in ...

  6. Clinical efficacy of Vyaghriharitaki Avaleha in the management of chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Jaiprakash; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vyaghriharitaki Avaleha (VHA), a polyherbal classical Ayurvedic formulation has been used in Kasa (cough), Swasa (asthma), Rajayakshma (tuberculosis) etc., conditions. Aim: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of VHA in the management of chronic bronchitis. Materials and Methods: Patients of chronic bronchitis were given 10 g of VHA twice a day with lukewarm water before meals for 12 weeks. Improvement in clinical symptoms of chronic bronchitis as the primary outcome measures and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores as secondary outcome measure was studied. Results: Out of 66 enrolled patients, 61 completed the treatment schedule. The results show that VHA provides statistically significant improvement with P < 0.001 in both primary and secondary outcome measures. Conclusion: VHA can be considered as a safe and effective formulation in the management of chronic bronchitis. PMID:26730139

  7. Mucoid impaction of the bronchi in relation to asthma and plastic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, A. D.; Bogomoletz, W.

    1968-01-01

    Mucoid impaction of the bronchi is a condition which deserves wider recognition in this country. It should be considered in any asthmatic subject who may be suspected on clinical or radiological grounds to be suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis or neoplasm. Although 120 cases have been reported since 1951, there are no reports from this country in the British literature. As we have seen three cases in one hospital, we believe that mucoid impaction is being diagnosed under other headings, for example plastic bronchitis. Most of the changes in lungs removed for mucoid impaction are those of asthma, although other factors may play a part. We have compared the pathologies of mucoid impaction, asthma, and plastic bronchitis, and conclude that, while they overlap considerably, they are not identical. Mucoid impaction is an uncommon complication of asthma and certain forms of bronchitis; plastic bronchitis has a much wider aetiological background and is not a pathological entity. Images PMID:5736360

  8. Second-hand smoke and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women: a health-care based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking cannot fully explain the epidemiologic characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, particularly for those who rarely smoke, but COPD risk is not less than men. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women. Methods We used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Bureau claims data in 1999, and cross-checked using criteria set by the American Thoracic Society; there were 33 women with chronic bronchitis, 182 with probable chronic bronchitis, and 205 with no chronic bronchitis during our interview time between 2000 and 2005. We measured second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure by self-reported measures (household users and duration of exposure), and validated this by measuring urinary cotinine levels of a subset subjects. Classification of chronic bronchitis was also based on spirometry defined according to the GOLD guidelines to get the severity of COPD. Results Women who smoked and women who had been exposed to a lifetime of SHS were 24.81-fold (95% CI: 5.78-106.38) and 3.65-fold (95% CI: 1.19-11.26) more likely to have chronic bronchitis, respectively, than those who had not been exposed to SHS. In addition, there was a significant increasing trend between the severity of COPD and exposure years of SHS (p < 0.01). The population attributable risk percentages of chronic bronchitis for smokers and those exposed to SHS were 23.2 and 47.3% respectively. Conclusions These findings indicate that, besides cigarette smoking, exposure to SHS is a major risk factor for chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women. PMID:20109222

  9. Effects of N2-laser radiation on the immune system cells of patients with chronic bronchitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provorov, Alexander S.; Kozhevnikova, T. A.; Salmin, Vladimir V.

    2001-05-01

    In spite of various investigations devoted to a problem of chronic bronchitis, many problems concerning both the reasons of the origin of this disease, and the essence of the processes, explicating in the bronchial tubes, especially on early stages of the disease, remain insufficiently studied. It makes it difficult to use an integrated approach to chronic bronchitis, that would reflect the peculiarities of its etiology, pathogenesis, its clinical course and efficiency of the therapy. During the last years the data of the clinical laboratory analysis of chronic bronchitis in connection with its immune therapy have been accumulated. In the literature there is a lot of information about the violation of immune reactions in the organism of patients, methods of the immune therapy, the data of the successful application of the intravenous laser therapy in the treatment of obstructive chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. However, there is no research explaining the mechanisms of the laser radiation impact on the immune status of patients suffering from chronic bronchitis. According to this it has become extremely urgent to research the mechanisms of the laser radiation impact on immune competent cells of patients suffering from chronic bronchitis.

  10. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Non-Infectious Meningitis ... confusion) Top of Page Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis File Formats Help: ...

  11. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDAS models require a breadth of knowledge, the network draws together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in epidemiology, infectious diseases, computational biology, statistics, social sciences, physics, computer sciences and informatics. In 2006, MIDAS modelers simulated ...

  12. [Clinical and therapeutic management of respiratory tract infections. Consensus document of the Andalusian Infectious Diseases Society and the Andalusian Family and Community Medicine Society].

    PubMed

    Cordero Matía, Elisa; de Dios Alcántara Bellón, Juan; Caballero Granado, Javier; de la Torre Lima, Javier; Girón González, José Antonio; Lama Herrera, Carmen; Morán Rodríguez, Ana; Zapata López, Angel

    2007-04-01

    Respiratory tract infections are frequent and they are one of the commonest causes of antibiotic prescription. However, there are few clinical guidelines that consider this group of infections. This document has been written by the Andalusian Infectious Diseases Society and the Andalusian Family and Community Medicine Society. The primary objective has been to define the recommendations for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections apart from pneumonia. The clinical syndromes evaluated have been: a) pharyngitis; b) sinusitis; c) acute otitis media and otitis externa; d) acute bronchitis, laryngitis, epiglottitis; e) acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis; and f) respiratory infectious in patients with bronchiectasis. This document has focused on immunocompetent patients. PMID:17386221

  13. Avian flu: pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    Jan, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is unpredictable, and the risk of an avian flu outbreak is unclear. It is critical that home health providers, who may become overburdened quickly in the event of a pandemic outbreak, be prepared to ensure a sustainable healthcare response. This article offers information on strategies that may be used by home health providers to prepare for, prevent, and manage pandemic influenza. PMID:17984642

  14. Infectious optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Golnik, Karl C

    2002-03-01

    A wide variety of infectious agents are known to cause optic neuropathy. This article will consider the bacteria, spirochetes, fungi, and viruses that most commonly affect the optic nerve. Clinical presentation is variable, but some pathogens often produce a characteristic funduscopic pattern. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical suspicion and serologic testing. Polymerase chain reaction is also increasingly utilized. Most infectious agents can be effectively treated but visual recovery is highly variable. PMID:15513450

  15. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  16. Fight against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chicken Embryo Fibroblast-Adapted Attenuated Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolate from India

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharsini, C. V.; Raja, P.; Kumanan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is an avian pathogen that causes huge morbidity and mortality in the poultry sector all over the world. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence of an Indian strain, MB11/ABT/MVC/2016, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. This is a first report of a complete genome sequence of infectious bursal disease virus from India. PMID:27174268

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chicken Embryo Fibroblast-Adapted Attenuated Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolate from India.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, T M A; Priyadharsini, C V; Raja, P; Kumanan, K

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is an avian pathogen that causes huge morbidity and mortality in the poultry sector all over the world. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence of an Indian strain, MB11/ABT/MVC/2016, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. This is a first report of a complete genome sequence of infectious bursal disease virus from India. PMID:27174268

  19. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients. PMID:15719666

  20. Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

  1. Avian influenza prevention and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry around the world. Avian Influenza virus (AIV) has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infectio...

  2. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  3. Avian influenza vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian AI outbreaks when used as part of a compr...

  4. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

  5. Emergent Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

    2009-01-01

    Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

  6. Infectious Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sumit; Grammer, Leslie C; Peters, Anju T

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a persistent inflammatory disease that affects a multitude of people worldwide. The pathogenesis of CRS involves many factors including genetics, status of the sinonasal microbiome, infections, and environmental influences. Comorbidities associated with CRS include asthma, allergic rhinitis, bronchiectasis, and certain kinds of immunodeficiency. CRS can be divided into different subtypes based on endotypes and phenotypes. Infectious CRS is one such category. The etiology of infectious CRS is usually secondary to chronic bacterial infection that commonly begins with a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Humoral antibody deficiencies can underlie difficult-to-treat or recurrent CRS. Infectious CRS can be treated with antimicrobials, topical or oral corticosteroids, and nasal saline irrigations. Patients with CRS and humoral immunodeficiency may require an aggressive treatment approach including immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Despite advancements in the field of CRS, targeted therapies and reliable biomarkers are still lacking. PMID:27393772

  7. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  8. Characterization of avian poxvirus in Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna) in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Loreto A; Dalbeck, Lisa S; Tell, Lisa A; Woods, Leslie W; Colwell, Rita R; Robinson, Barbara; Wethington, Susan M; Moresco, Anneke; Woolcock, Peter R; Ernest, Holly B

    2013-10-01

    Avian poxvirus (genus Avipoxvirus, family Poxviridae) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that may be transmitted to birds by arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles. We characterized the infection in Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna; n = 5 birds, n = 9 lesions) by conducting diagnostic tests on skin lesions that were visually similar to avian poxvirus lesions in other bird species. Skin lesions were single or multiple, dry and firm, pink to yellow, with scabs on the surface, and located at the base of the bill, wings, or legs. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and necrosis with ballooning degeneration, and intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes. The 4b core gene sequence of avian poxvirus was detected by PCR in samples prepared from lesions. Nucleotide sequences were 75-94% similar to the sequences of other published avian poxvirus sequences. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Anna's Hummingbird poxvirus sequence was distinguished as a unique subclade showing similarities with sequences isolated from Ostrich (Struthio camelus), Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), falcons (Falco spp.), Black-browed Albatross (Diomedea melanophris), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). To our knowledge this is the first published report of definitive laboratory diagnosis of avian poxvirus in a hummingbird. Our results advance the science of disease ecology in hummingbirds, providing management information for banders, wildlife rehabilitators, and avian biologists. PMID:24502725

  9. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry. PMID:19618630

  10. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed. PMID:26611927