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Sample records for avian influenza infection

  1. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Españ ...

  2. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral infection of birds that varies in severity from asymptomatic infections to mild respiratory and reproductive diseases to an acute, highly fatal systemic disease of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and other avian species. Avian influenza viruses are divided into two ...

  3. Avian Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious viral disease of birds. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as ... often causing no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause ...

  4. Pathogenesis and pathobiology of avian influenza virus infection in birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological features in chickens, AI viruses are categorized as, low (LP) and high pathogenicity (HP). Typically, LPAI (low pathogenicity avian influenza) viruses ...

  5. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  6. Evidence of previous avian influenza infection among US turkey workers.

    PubMed

    Kayali, G; Ortiz, E J; Chorazy, M L; Gray, G C

    2010-06-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic is looming, with new cases of sporadic avian influenza infections in man frequently reported. Exposure to diseased poultry is a leading risk factor for these infections. In this study, we used logistic regression to investigate serological evidence of previous infection with avian influenza subtypes H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, and H11 among 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys in the US Midwest and 82 unexposed controls. Our results indicate that farmers practising backyard, organic or free-ranging turkey production methods are at an increased risk of infection with avian influenza. Among these farmers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for elevated microneutralization assay titres against avian H4, H5, H6, H9, and H10 influenza strains ranged between 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-12.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 2.0-115.2) when compared to non-exposed controls. The measured ORs were adjusted for antibody titres against human influenza viruses and other exposure variables. These data suggest that sometime in their lives, the workers had been exposed to low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. These findings support calls for inclusion of agricultural workers in priority groups in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts. These data further support increasing surveillance and other preparedness efforts to include not only confinement poultry facilities, but more importantly, also small scale farms. PMID:19486492

  7. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; i....

  8. AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  9. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host for avian influenza virus (AIV) is in wild birds, including ducks, gulls, and shorebirds, where the virus causes primarily an enteric infection with little disease. However, AIV can infect a wide variety of host species, and with a certain level of adaptation for the aberrant host ...

  10. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  11. Avian influenza

    MedlinePlus

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  12. Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur. PMID:15847721

  13. Avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary A; Maslow, Melanie J

    2006-03-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004 alone, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate over 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantines, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent increased human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short, interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems offer promise, should a pandemic occur. PMID:16566867

  14. Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infections in wild birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological features in chickens, AI viruses (AIV) are categorized as low pathogenicity (LPAI) or high pathogenicity (HPAI) viruses, and can be of any of...

  15. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. PMID:27486732

  16. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an on going threat to the U.S. poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection. Because the early events of AIV infection can occur on tracheal ep...

  17. [SARS, avian influenza, and human metapneumovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Casas, Inmaculada; Pozo, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s respiratory viruses have been gradually discovered by isolation in cell cultures The last were the coronaviruses in the 1960s. No new respiratory viruses were discovered until 2001 when human metapneumovirus was found in respiratory specimens from children with bronchiolitis. A year later, in November 2002, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) suddenly appeared as atypical pneumonia. A novel virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family was found to be a cause of this infection. In 2004, a second coronavirus was discovered (CoV-NL63) and in 2005 a third new coronavirus was described (CoV-HKU1). In addition, several subtypes of the influenza A virus, previously known to infect only poultry and wild birds, were recently found to have been directly transmitted to humans. Respiratory infection has been a considerable problem for humans for centuries. Now, in the 21st century, with new associated viruses continuously emerging, it remains an important field for work. PMID:16159544

  18. Measurement of avian cytokines with real time RT-PCR following infection with avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both functional and molecular techniques have been employed to measure the production of cytokines following influenza infection. Historically, the use of functional or antibody based techniques were employed in mammalian immunology. In avian immunology, only a few commercial antibodies are availa...

  19. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity. PMID:18680652

  20. Avian influenza virus infection dynamics in shorebird hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using serial cross-sectional data from 2000-2008 and generalized linear models, we examined temporal trends of springtime avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and antibody prevalence in four Charadriiformes species at the Delaware Bay migratory stopover site. Prevalence of AIV in Ruddy Turnstones ...

  1. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  2. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  3. Pathobiology of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks and other wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza type A viruses which normally are nonpathogenic in these birds. However, the Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses have evolved from producing no disease or mild respiratory infections in ducks, to some strains producing se...

  4. Low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses infect chicken layers by different routes of inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop better control measures against avian influenza (AI) it’s necessary to understand how the virus transmits in poultry. In a previous study in which the infectivity and transmissibility of the pandemic H1N1influenza virus was examined in different poultry species, we found that no ...

  5. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic A(H7N7) Avian Influenza Virus, Italy, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, Giada; Facchini, Marzia; Vaccari, Gabriele; Di Trani, Livia; Di Martino, Angela; Gaibani, Paolo; Vocale, Caterina; Cattoli, Giovanni; Bennett, Michael; McCauley, John W.; Rezza, Giovanni; Moro, Maria Luisa; Rangoni, Roberto; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Landini, Maria Paola; Castrucci, Maria Rita; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    During an influenza A(H7N7) virus outbreak among poultry in Italy during August–September 2013, infection with a highly pathogenic A(H7N7) avian influenza virus was diagnosed for 3 poultry workers with conjunctivitis. Genetic analyses revealed that the viruses from the humans were closely related to those from chickens on affected farms. PMID:25271444

  6. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  7. High doses of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chicken meat are required to infect ferrets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused natural and experimental infections in various animals through consumption of infected bird carcasses and meat. However, little is known about the quantity of virus required and if all HPAIV subtypes can cause infections following c...

  8. Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

  9. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Mallards with Homo- and Heterosubtypic Immunity Induced by Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Starick, Elke; Beer, Martin; Wilking, Hendrik; Kalthoff, Donata; Grund, Christian; Häuslaigner, Rafaela; Breithaupt, Angele; Lange, Elke; Harder, Timm C.

    2009-01-01

    The potential role of wild birds as carriers of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 is still a matter of debate. Consecutive or simultaneous infections with different subtypes of influenza viruses of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) are very common in wild duck populations. To better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HPAIV H5N1 infections in natural ecosystems, we investigated the influence of prior infection of mallards with homo- (H5N2) and heterosubtypic (H4N6) LPAIV on exposure to HPAIV H5N1. In mallards with homosubtypic immunity induced by LPAIV infection, clinical disease was absent and shedding of HPAIV from respiratory and intestinal tracts was grossly reduced compared to the heterosubtypic and control groups (mean GEC/100 µl at 3 dpi: 3.0×102 vs. 2.3×104 vs. 8.7×104; p<0.05). Heterosubtypic immunity induced by an H4N6 infection mediated a similar but less pronounced effect. We conclude that the epidemiology of HPAIV H5N1 in mallards and probably other aquatic wild bird species is massively influenced by interfering immunity induced by prior homo- and heterosubtypic LPAIV infections. PMID:19693268

  10. Investigating Avian Influenza Infection Hotspots in Old-World Shorebirds

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Ould El Mamy, Ahmed B.; Cappelle, Julien; Caron, Alexandre; Cumming, Graeme S.; Grosbois, Vladimir; Gil, Patricia; Hammoumi, Saliha; de Almeida, Renata Servan; Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Abolnik, Celia; Mundava, Josphine; Fofana, Bouba; Ndlovu, Mduduzi; Diawara, Yelli; Hurtado, Renata; Newman, Scott H.; Dodman, Tim; Balança, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) associated with a single species at a specific location and time (ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres at Delaware Bay, USA, in May). This unique case, though a valuable reference, limits our capacity to explore and understand the general properties of AIV hotspots in shorebirds. Unfortunately, relatively few shorebirds have been sampled outside Delaware Bay and they belong to only a few shorebird families; there also has been a lack of consistent oropharyngeal sampling as a complement to cloacal sampling. In this study we looked for AIV hotspots associated with other shorebird species and/or with some of the larger congregation sites of shorebirds in the old world. We assembled and analysed a regionally extensive dataset of AIV prevalence from 69 shorebird species sampled in 25 countries across Africa and Western Eurasia. Despite this diverse and extensive coverage we did not detect any new shorebird AIV hotspots. Neither large shorebird congregation sites nor the ruddy turnstone were consistently associated with AIV hotspots. We did, however, find a low but widespread circulation of AIV in shorebirds that contrast with the absence of AIV previously reported in shorebirds in Europe. A very high AIV antibody prevalence coupled to a low infection rate was found in both first-year and adult birds of two migratory sandpiper species, suggesting the potential existence of an AIV hotspot along their migratory flyway that is yet to be discovered. PMID:23029383

  11. Little Evidence of Subclinical Avian Influenza Virus Infections among Rural Villagers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gregory C.; Krueger, Whitney S.; Chum, Channimol; Putnam, Shannon D.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Heil, Gary L.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R.; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Blair, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1%) were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0%) had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6), 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9), and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5). With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these

  12. In ovo and in vitro susceptibility of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to avian influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Temple, Bradley L; Finger, John W; Jones, Cheryl A; Gabbard, Jon D; Jelesijevic, Tomislav; Uhl, Elizabeth W; Hogan, Robert J; Glenn, Travis C; Tompkins, S Mark

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the most ubiquitous viruses within our biosphere. Wild aquatic birds are believed to be the primary reservoir of all influenza viruses; however, the spillover of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and the recent swine-origin pandemic H1N1 viruses have sparked increased interest in identifying and understanding which and how many species can be infected. Moreover, novel influenza virus sequences were recently isolated from New World bats. Crocodilians have a slow rate of molecular evolution and are the sister group to birds; thus they are a logical reptilian group to explore susceptibility to influenza virus infection and they provide a link between birds and mammals. A primary American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) cell line, and embryos, were infected with four, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains to assess susceptibility to infection. Embryonated alligator eggs supported virus replication, as evidenced by the influenza virus M gene and infectious virus detected in allantoic fluid and by virus antigen staining in embryo tissues. Primary alligator cells were also inoculated with the LPAI viruses and showed susceptibility based upon antigen staining; however, the requirement for trypsin to support replication in cell culture limited replication. To assess influenza virus replication in culture, primary alligator cells were inoculated with H1N1 human influenza or H5N1 HPAI viruses that replicate independent of trypsin. Both viruses replicated efficiently in culture, even at the 30 C temperature preferred by the alligator cells. This research demonstrates the ability of wild-type influenza viruses to infect and replicate within two crocodilian substrates and suggests the need for further research to assess crocodilians as a species potentially susceptible to influenza virus infection. PMID:25380354

  13. Avian influenza: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J

    2004-08-01

    This paper reviews the worldwide situation regarding avian influenza infections in poultry from 1997 to March 2004. The increase in the number of primary introductions and the scientific data available on the molecular basis of pathogenicity have generated concerns particularly for legislative purposes and for international trade. This has led to a new proposed definition of 'avian influenza' to extend all infections caused by H5 and H7 viruses regardless of their virulence as notifiable diseases, although this has encountered some difficulties in being approved. The paper also reviews the major outbreaks caused by viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype and the control measures applied. The zoonotic aspects of avian influenza, which until 1997 were considered to be of limited relevance in human medicine, are also discussed. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a reassortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic. PMID:15370036

  14. Serum and egg yolk antibody detection in chickens infected with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections has primarily relied on labor intensive collection and serological testing of serum, but for many poultry diseases, easier to collect yolk samples have replaced serum for surveillance testing. A time course LPAIV infection s...

  15. Intranasal application of alpha interferon reduces morbidity associated with low pathogenic avian influenza infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type I interferons, including interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), are expressed rapidly after viral infection, and represent a first line of defense initiated by the innate immune response. Following infection of chickens with avian influenza virus (AIV), transcription of IFN-alpha is quickly up regulate...

  16. Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

  17. Evaluation of cytokine gene expression after avian influenza virus infection in avian cell lines and primary cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The innate immune responses elicited by avian influenza virus (AIV) infection has been studied by measuring cytokine gene expression by relative real time PCR (rRT-PCR) in vitro, using both cell lines and primary cell cultures. Continuous cell lines offer advantages over the use of primary cell cult...

  18. Genome Wide Host Gene Expression Analysis in Chicken Lungs Infected with Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gandhale, Pradeep N.; Kumar, Himanshu; Kulkarni, Diwakar D.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza infection varies greatly with individual bird species and virus strain. The molecular pathogenesis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) or the low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection in avian species remains poorly understood. Thus, global immune response of chickens infected with HPAI H5N1 (A/duck/India/02CA10/2011) and LPAI H9N2 (A/duck/India/249800/2010) viruses was studied using microarray to identify crucial host genetic components responsive to these infection. HPAI H5N1 virus induced excessive expression of type I IFNs (IFNA and IFNG), cytokines (IL1B, IL18, IL22, IL13, and IL12B), chemokines (CCL4, CCL19, CCL10, and CX3CL1) and IFN stimulated genes (OASL, MX1, RSAD2, IFITM5, IFIT5, GBP 1, and EIF2AK) in lung tissues. This dysregulation of host innate immune genes may be the critical determinant of the severity and the outcome of the influenza infection in chickens. In contrast, the expression levels of most of these genes was not induced in the lungs of LPAI H9N2 virus infected chickens. This study indicated the relationship between host immune genes and their roles in pathogenesis of HPAIV infection in chickens. PMID:27071061

  19. Serological Evidence of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A H7virus in Egyptian Poultry Growers

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R.; Kandeil, Ahmed; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Elabd, Mona A.; Zaki, Shaimaa A.; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S.; Mousa, Adel A.; Farag, Mohamed M.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses circulate widely in birds, with occasional human infections. Poultry-exposed individuals are considered to be at high risk of infection with avian influenza viruses due to frequent exposure to poultry. Some avian H7 viruses have occasionally been found to infect humans. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against influenza A/H7N7 virus among poultry-exposed and unexposed individuals in Egypt were assessed during a three-years prospective cohort study. The seroprevalence of antibodies (titer, ≥80) among exposed individuals was 0%, 1.9%, and 2.1% annually while the seroprevalence among the control group remained 0% as measured by virus microneutralization assay. We then confirmed our results using western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Although human infection with H7 in Egypt has not been reported yet, our results suggested that Egyptian poultry growers are exposed to avian H7 viruses. These findings highlight the need for surveillance in the people exposed to poultry to monitor the risk of zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses. PMID:27258357

  20. Identification of avian RIG-I responsive genes during influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Megan RW; Aldridge, Jerry R; Fleming-Canepa, Ximena; Wang, Yong-Dong; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

    2013-01-01

    Ducks can survive infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses that are lethal to chickens. We showed that the influenza detector, RIG-I, can initiate antiviral responses in ducks, but this gene is absent in chickens. We can reconstitute this pathway by transfecting chicken DF-1 embryonic fibroblast cells with duck RIG-I, which augments their antiviral response to influenza and decreases viral titre. However, the genes downstream of duck RIG-I that mediate this antiviral response to influenza are not known. Using microarrays, we compared the transcriptional profile of chicken embryonic fibroblasts transfected with duck RIG-I or empty vector, and infected with low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Transfected duck RIG-I expressed in chicken cells was associated with the marked induction of many antiviral innate immune genes upon infection with both viruses. We used real-time PCR to confirm upregulation of a subset of these antiviral genes including MX1, PKR, IFIT5, OASL, IFNB, and downregulation of the influenza matrix gene. These results provide some insight into the genes induced by duck RIG-I upon influenza infection, and provide evidence that duck RIG-I can function to elicit an interferon-driven, antiviral response against influenza in chicken embryonic fibroblasts. PMID:23220072

  1. Early Indicators of Disease in Ferrets Infected with a High Dose of Avian Influenza H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Long, James P.; Vela, Eric M.; Stark, Gregory V.; Jones, Kelly J.; Miller, Stephen T.; Bigger, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are widespread in birds, contagious in humans, and are categorized as low pathogenicity avian influenza or highly pathogenic avian influenza. Ferrets are susceptible to infection with avian and human influenza A and B viruses and have been widely used as a model to study pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy. In this report, the natural history of the H5N1 influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/04 influenza infection in ferrets was examined to determine clinical and laboratory parameters that may indicate (1) the onset of disease and (2) survival. In all, twenty of 24 animals infected with 7 × 105 TCID50 of A/Vietnam/1203/04 succumbed. A statistical analysis identified a combination of parameters including weight loss, nasal wash TCID50, eosinophils, and liver enzymes such as alanine amino transferase that might possibly serve as indicators of both disease onset and challenge survival. PMID:23240077

  2. Generation of Influenza Virus from Avian Cells Infected by Salmonella Carrying the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Xin, Wei; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Domestic poultry serve as intermediates for transmission of influenza A virus from the wild aquatic bird reservoir to humans, resulting in influenza outbreaks in poultry and potential epidemics/pandemics among human beings. To combat emerging avian influenza virus, an inexpensive, heat-stable, and orally administered influenza vaccine would be useful to vaccinate large commercial poultry flocks and even migratory birds. Our hypothesized vaccine is a recombinant attenuated bacterial strain able to mediate production of attenuated influenza virus in vivo to induce protective immunity against influenza. Here we report the feasibility and technical limitations toward such an ideal vaccine based on our exploratory study. Five 8-unit plasmids carrying a chloramphenicol resistance gene or free of an antibiotic resistance marker were constructed. Influenza virus was successfully generated in avian cells transfected by each of the plasmids. The Salmonella carrier was engineered to allow stable maintenance and conditional release of the 8-unit plasmid into the avian cells for recovery of influenza virus. Influenza A virus up to 107 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50)/ml were recovered from 11 out of 26 co-cultures of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells upon infection by the recombinant Salmonella carrying the 8-unit plasmid. Our data prove that a bacterial carrier can mediate generation of influenza virus by delivering its DNA cargoes into permissive host cells. Although we have made progress in developing this Salmonella influenza virus vaccine delivery system, further improvements are necessary to achieve efficient virus production, especially in vivo. PMID:25742162

  3. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect fecal-oral route involving fecal-contaminated water. In this study, the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water was examined. A single cla...

  4. Experimental co-infection of chickens and turkeys with avian influenza and newcastle disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are the two most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. The goal of this study was to examine the i...

  5. Avian Influenza (H7N9) Virus Infection in Chinese Tourist in Malaysia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    William, Timothy; Thevarajah, Bharathan; Lee, Shiu Fee; Suleiman, Maria; Jeffree, Mohamad Saffree; Menon, Jayaram; Saat, Zainah; Thayan, Ravindran; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2015-01-01

    Of the ≈400 cases of avian influenza (H7N9) diagnosed in China since 2003, the only travel-related cases have been in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Detection of a case in a Chinese tourist in Sabah, Malaysia, highlights the ease with which emerging viral respiratory infections can travel globally. PMID:25531078

  6. Experimental infection studies of avian influenza in wild birds as a complement to surveillance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last ten years, an unprecedented amount of experimental and field research has expanded our understanding of AI virus infection in wild birds. The majority of this work, however, has specifically focused on H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, which is a biologically uni...

  7. Effect of homosubtypic and heterosubtypic low pathogenic avian influenza exposure on H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in wood ducks (Aix sponsa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus...

  8. Cross reactive antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes from avian influenza H9N2 infected chickens against homologous and heterologous avian influenza isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunity against avian influenza (AI) is largely based on the induction of neutralizing antibodies produced against the hemagglutinin, although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL’s) have been reported as critical for clearance of virus from infected cells. Antibody production against a particular virus ...

  9. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  10. Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in a patient in China, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Smith, G.J.D.; Zhou, B.; Qiu, C.; Wu, W.L.; Li, Y.; Lu, P.; Duan, L.; Liu, S.; Yuan, J.; Yang, G.; Wang, H.; Cheng, J.; Jiang, H.; Peiris, J.S.M.; Chen, H.; Yuen, K.Y.; Zhong, N.; Guan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background  Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has caused increasing human infection in Eurasia since 2004. So far, H5N1 human infection has been associated with over 50% mortality that is partly because of delay of diagnosis and treatment. Objectives and methods  Here, we report that an H5N1 influenza virus infected a 31‐year‐old patient in Shenzhen in June 2006. To identify the possible source of the infection, the human isolate and other H5N1 influenza viruses obtained from poultry and wild birds in southern China during the same period of time were characterized. Results  Genetic and antigenic analyses revealed that the human H5N1 influenza virus, Shenzhen/406H/06, is of purely avian origin and is most closely related to viruses detected in poultry and wild birds in Hong Kong in early 2006. Conclusions  The findings of the present study suggest that the continued endemicity of H5N1 influenza virus in the poultry in southern China increases the chance for introduction of the virus to humans. This highlights the importance of continued surveillance of poultry and wild birds for determining the source for human H5N1 infection. PMID:19453428

  11. Serological evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among Romanian agriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Chereches, Razvan M; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections in Romanian poultry. In 2005 HPAI infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. We sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among Romanian agriculture workers. Between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) swine workers in Tulcea and small, traditional backyard farmers in Cluj-Napoca were enrolled, as well as a non-animal exposed control group from Cluj-Napoca. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of previous infection with 9 avian and 3 human influenza virus strains. Serologic assays showed no evidence of previous infection with 7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses or with HPAI H5N1. However, 33 participants (9.1%) had elevated microneutralization antibody titers against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 5 with titers ≥ 1:80 whom all reported exposure to poultry. Moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated titers after controlling for the subjects' age (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12.1). There was no evidence that previous infection with human H3N2 or H2N2 viruses were confounding the H9N2 seroreactivity. These data suggest that H9N2 virus may have circulated in Romanian poultry and occasionally infected man. PMID:23999337

  12. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination for both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used for countries that have been endemic for avian influenza influenza virus, but stamping out policies are common for countries that are normally free of the disease. Stamping out policies of euthanizing infecte...

  13. An avian-only Filippov model incorporating culling of both susceptible and infected birds in combating avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Chong, Nyuk Sian; Dionne, Benoit; Smith, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Depopulation of birds has always been an effective method not only to control the transmission of avian influenza in bird populations but also to eliminate influenza viruses. We introduce a Filippov avian-only model with culling of susceptible and/or infected birds. For each susceptible threshold level [Formula: see text], we derive the phase portrait for the dynamical system as we vary the infected threshold level [Formula: see text], focusing on the existence of endemic states; the endemic states are represented by real equilibria, pseudoequilibria and pseudo-attractors. We show generically that all solutions of this model will approach one of the endemic states. Our results suggest that the spread of avian influenza in bird populations is tolerable if the trajectories converge to the equilibrium point that lies in the region below the threshold level [Formula: see text] or if they converge to one of the pseudoequilibria or a pseudo-attractor on the surface of discontinuity. However, we have to cull birds whenever the solution of this model converges to an equilibrium point that lies in the region above the threshold level [Formula: see text] in order to control the outbreak. Hence a good threshold policy is required to combat bird flu successfully and to prevent overkilling birds. PMID:26865385

  14. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry. PMID:19618630

  15. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Onuma, Manabu; Goka, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  16. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MORIGUCHI, Sachiko; ONUMA, Manabu; GOKA, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  17. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  18. Biology and transmission of avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal-oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

  19. Avian influenza biology and disease transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

  20. Homo- and Heterosubtypic Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure on H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Taiana P.; Brown, Justin D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Swayne, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus has been shown to modulate the outcome of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in multiple domestic avian species, but few studies have addressed this effect in wild birds. In this study, the effect of pre-exposure to homosubtypic (homologous hemagglutinin) and heterosubtypic (heterologous hemagglutinin) low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses on the outcome of a H5N1 HPAI virus infection in wood ducks (Aix sponsa) was evaluated. Pre-exposure of wood ducks to different LPAI viruses did not prevent infection with H5N1 HPAI virus, but did increase survival associated with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. The magnitude of this effect on the outcome of the H5N1 HPAI virus infection varied between different LPAI viruses, and was associated both with efficiency of LPAI viral replication in wood ducks and the development of a detectable humoral immune response. These observations suggest that in naturally occurring outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI, birds with pre-existing immunity to homologous hemagglutinin or neuraminidase subtypes of AI virus may either survive H5N1 HPAI virus infection or live longer than naïve birds and, consequently, could pose a greater risk for contributing to viral transmission and dissemination. The mechanisms responsible for this protection and/or the duration of this immunity remain unknown. The results of this study are important for surveillance efforts and help clarify epidemiological data from outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI virus in wild bird populations. PMID:21253608

  1. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  2. Avian influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections have occurred in both backyard and commercial poultry flocks. These recent HPAI H5 viruses have not ... flu virus is higher if: You work with poultry (such as farmers) You travel to countries where ...

  3. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  4. Avian influenza diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) varies by virus strain and host species. The clinical disease and lesions the virus produces in poultry are not pathognomonic for avian influenza; therefore, diagnosis of AI virus (AIV) infection requires a laboratory test. Detection of AIV infecti...

  5. Avian Influenza: Our current understanding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) has become one of the most important diseases of the poultry industry around the world. The virus has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infection. T...

  6. Co-infection of mallards with low virulence Newcastle disease virus and low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl are considered the natural reservoirs of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) and low virulence Newcastle disease viruses (loNDV). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of co-infections with loNDV and LPAIV on the infectivity and excretion of these viruses in ...

  7. Age at infection affects the pathogenicity of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses have changed from producing no disease or mild respiratory infections in ducks to some strains causing systemic disease and death. Differences in pathogenicity between four of these viruses as well as the effect of host age on the outcome of infection were...

  8. Experimental co-infection studies with avian influenza viruses and Newcastle Disease viruses in chickens, turkeys and domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-infections of poultry with Newcastle Disease viruses (NDVs) and Avian Influenza viruses (AIVs) present a problem both from the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. Little has been done to understand the interactions between these two viruses when infecting poultry. Exposur...

  9. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of avian influenza (AI) vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test that clearly discriminates naturally infected from vaccinated only animals (DIVA) was available. Because the non-structural protein (NS1) is expressed in infected cells, and is not pac...

  10. Sustained live poultry market surveillance contributes to early warnings for human infection with avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shisong; Bai, Tian; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Zhu, Wenfei; Wang, Dayan; Cheng, Jinquan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N6) virus have been reported in different provinces in China since April 2014. From June 2015 to January 2016, routine live poultry market (LPM) surveillance was conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. H5N6 viruses were not detected until November 2015. The H5N6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in December 2015, and viruses were detected in LPMs in all districts of the city. Coincidently, two human cases with histories of poultry exposure developed symptoms and were diagnosed as H5N6-positive in Shenzhen during late December 2015 and early January 2016. Similar viruses were identified in environmental samples collected in the LPMs and the patients. In contrast to previously reported H5N6 viruses, viruses with six internal genes derived from the H9N2 or H7N9 viruses were detected in the present study. The increased H5N6 virus-positive rate in the LPMs and the subsequent human infections demonstrated that sustained LPM surveillance for avian influenza viruses provides an early warning for human infections. Interventions, such as LPM closures, should be immediately implemented to reduce the risk of human infection with the H5N6 virus when the virus is widely detected during LPM surveillance. PMID:27485495

  11. Susceptibility of selected wild avian species to experimental infection with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused mortality in wide diversity of wild avian species but, to date, the role that different species play in the transmission and maintenance of H5N1 HPAI viruses is poorly understood. To begin to address these uncertainties a...

  12. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in 2 Travelers Returning from China to Canada, January 20151

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Catharine; Gustafson, Reka; Purych, Dale B.; Tang, Patrick; Bastien, Nathalie; Krajden, Mel; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In January 2015, British Columbia, Canada, reported avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in 2 travelers returning from China who sought outpatient care for typical influenza-like illness. There was no further spread, but serosurvey findings showed broad population susceptibility to H7N9 virus. Travel history and timely notification are critical to emerging pathogen detection and response. PMID:26689320

  13. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approved. Under these circumstances the fear is that a pandemic of avian influenza could result in the kind of mortality that was seen with the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918–1919, where the number of deaths was estimated to be as high as 40 million people. Retrospective data gathered by the American Osteopathic Association shortly after the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic have suggested that osteopathic physicians (DOs), using their distinctive osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) methods, observed significantly lower morbidity and mortality among their patients as compared to those treated by allopathic physicians (MDs) with standard medical care available at the time. In light of the limited prevention and treatment options available, it seems logical that a preparedness plan for the treatment of avian influenza should include these OMT procedures, provided by DOs and other healthcare workers capable of being trained to perform these therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the characteristics of avian influenza, describe the success of DOs during the 1918–1919 Spanish influenza pandemic, describe the evidence base for the inclusion of OMT as part of the preparedness plan for the treatment of avian influenza, and describe some of the specific OMT procedures that could be utilized as part of the treatment protocol for avian influenza patients. PMID:17620133

  14. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  15. THERMAL INACTIVATION OF H5N1 HIGH PATHOGENICITY AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NATURALLY INFECTED CHICKEN MEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal inactivation of the H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus strain A/chicken/Korea/ES/2003 (Korea/03) was quantitatively measured in thigh and breast meat harvested from infected chickens. The average Korea/03 titers in uncooked meat samples were 8.0 log 10 EID50/g (thigh) and 7...

  16. Characterization of cytokine expression induced by avian influenza virus infection with real-time RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of how birds react to infection from avian influenza virus is critical to understanding disease pathogenesis and host response. The use of real-time (R), reverse-transcriptase (RT), PCR to measure innate immunity, including cytokine and interferon gene expression, has become a standard tec...

  17. Successful treatment of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) infection using convalescent plasma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Peng, Xiu-Ming; Ou, Hui-Lin; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-12-01

    In January 2015, there was an outbreak of avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus in Zhejiang Province, China. A 45-year-old man was admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University with a high fever that had lasted 7 days, chills, and a cough with yellow sputum. Laboratory testing confirmed infection with the H7N9 virus, likely obtained from contact with poultry at a local live poultry market. A large dense shadow was apparent in the patient's left lung at the time of admission. Treatment with oseltamivir (75mg twice daily) did not improve the patient's condition. The decision was made to try using convalescent plasma to treat the infection. Convalescent plasma was administered 3 days after the patient was admitted to the hospital and led to a marked improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of convalescent plasma to treat a case of H7N9 infection in China. These results suggest that the combination of convalescent plasma and antiviral drugs may be effective for the treatment of avian-origin H7N9 infection. PMID:26482389

  18. Severe Infection With Avian Influenza A Virus is Associated With Delayed Immune Recovery in Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianing; Cui, Guangying; Lu, Chong; Ding, Yulong; Gao, Hainv; Zhu, Yixin; Wei, Yingfeng; Wang, Lin; Uede, Toshimitsu; Li, Lanjuan; Diao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human infection with avian influenza A virus (H7N9) is a concern because of the mortality rate. Previously, we characterized immunological responses during active infection with it and reported evidence of impaired antigen-presenting capability, particularly in severely affected individuals. Here we describe an investigation of immunological responses during a 1-year follow-up of survivors of H7N9 infection. Survivors of H7N9 infection were classified as having had mild (n = 42) or severe infection (n = 26). Their immune status, including human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on monocytes, and their ability to mount cytokine responses were assessed at 1, 3, and 12 months postinfection. The total lymphocyte count and the percentages of different types of lymphocytes had normalized by 1 month postinfection. However, there was evidence of ongoing impairment of immune responses in those who had had severe infection. This included reduced human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on CD14+ monocytes, reduced interferon-γ production by T cells, and higher plasma levels of the matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 9. By 3 months postinfection, these had all normalized. After severe H7N9 infection, recovery of the antigen-presenting capability of monocytes and T-cell responses are delayed. This may lead to an increased vulnerability to secondary bacterial infections. PMID:26844470

  19. Putative Human and Avian Risk Factors for Avian Influenza Virus Infections in Backyard Poultry in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Sheta, Basma M.; Fuller, Trevon L.; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Aziz, Soad Abdel; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A.; Elbokl, Mohamed M.; Habbak, Lotfy Z.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1,084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010–2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242)and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n = 51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F = 15.7, p< 0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F= 29.5, p< 0.0001). PMID:24315038

  20. Putative human and avian risk factors for avian influenza virus infections in backyard poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sheta, Basma M; Fuller, Trevon L; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Abdel Aziz, Soad; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A; Elbokl, Mohamed M; Habbak, Lotfy Z; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-01-10

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010-2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242) and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n=51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F=15.7, p<0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F=29.5, p<0.0001). PMID:24315038

  1. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population. PMID:26104333

  2. Laboratory diagnosis of avian influenza virus H7N9 infection in a renal transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Cui, Dawei; Chen, Jian; Dai, Yuzhu; Sun, Changgui

    2014-01-01

    A renal transplant recipient who had atypical clinical manifestations, unclear epidemiological exposure history and negative results from influenza virus antigen and nucleic acid amplification in throat swab specimens was admitted into our hospital on April 17, 2013. He was finally diagnosed as avian influenzavirus H7N9 infection. Here, we reviewed the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of this patient. We speculated that the specimens should be collected repeatedly at different sites for suspected cases or special cases needing differential diagnosis; different methods or kits should be used for laboratory testing; atypical clinical manifestations caused by the special nature of patients such as long-term use of immunosuppressive agents and autoimmune diseases should also be taken into account. PMID:24600505

  3. H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus experimental infection trials in wild birds: what have we learned and what questions remain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to 2002, there were very few reports of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infections in wild birds. Since 2002; however, a variety of wild avian species have died from infection with Asian lineage H5N1 HPAI viruses and a growing body of evidence suggests migratory waterfowl may h...

  4. Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Christina; Stallknecht, David; Swayne, David; Brown, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are believed to be transmitted within wild aquatic bird populations through an indirect faecal–oral route involving contaminated water. This study examined the influence of filter-feeding bivalves, Corbicula fluminea, on the infectivity of AI virus in water. Clams were placed into individual flasks with distilled water inoculated 1:100 with a low pathogenic (LP) AI virus (A/Mallard/MN/190/99 (H3N8)). Viral titres in water with clams were significantly lower at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation compared to LPAI-infected water without clams. To determine whether clams affected the infectivity of AI viruses, 18 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were divided into test groups and inoculated with a variety of treatments of clam supernatants, whole clams and water exposed to a high pathogenic (HP) AI (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 (H5N1)). None of the wood ducks inoculated with HPAI-infected water that was filtered by clams or that was inoculated with or fed tissue from these clams exhibited morbidity or mortality. All wood ducks exposed to either HPAI-infected water without clams or the original viral inoculum died. These results indicate that filter-feeding bivalves can remove and reduce the infectivity of AI viruses in water and demonstrate the need to examine biotic environmental factors that can influence AI virus transmission. PMID:19656788

  5. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs. PMID:26034886

  6. Avian Influenza in Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... and even kill certain domesticated bird species including chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Infected birds can shed avian ... virus’ ability to cause disease and mortality in chickens in a laboratory setting [2.5 MB, 64 ...

  7. Characteristics of human infection with avian influenza viruses and development of new antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Dong-ying; Yang, Zhan-qiu

    2013-01-01

    Since 1997, several epizootic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been transmitted to humans, causing diseases and even deaths. The recent emergence of severe human infections with AIV (H7N9) in China has raised concerns about efficient interpersonal viral transmission, polygenic traits in viral pathogenicity and the management of newly emerging strains. The symptoms associated with viral infection are different in various AI strains: H5N1 and newly emerged H7N9 induce severe pneumonia and related complications in patients, while some H7 and H9 subtypes cause only conjunctivitis or mild respiratory symptoms. The virulence and tissue tropism of viruses as well as the host responses contribute to the pathogenesis of human AIV infection. Several preventive and therapeutic approaches have been proposed to combat AIV infection, including antiviral drugs such as M2 inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, attachment inhibitors and signal-transduction inhibitors etc. In this article, we summarize the recent progress in researches on the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenicity determinants, and available or potential antivirals of AIV. PMID:24096642

  8. A human-infecting H10N8 influenza virus retains a strong preference for avian-type receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; de Vries, Robert P; Tzarum, Netanel; Zhu, Xueyong; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; Wilson, Ian A

    2015-03-11

    Recent avian-origin H10N8 influenza A viruses that have infected humans pose a potential pandemic threat. Alterations in the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), typically are required for influenza A viruses to cross the species barrier for adaptation to a new host, but whether H10N8 contains adaptations supporting human infection remains incompletely understood. We investigated whether H10N8 HA can bind human receptors. Sialoside glycan microarray analysis showed that the H10 HA retains a strong preference for avian receptor analogs and negligible binding to human receptor analogs. Crystal structures of H10 HA with avian and human receptor analogs revealed the basis for preferential recognition of avian-like receptors. Furthermore, introduction of mutations into the H10 receptor-binding site (RBS) known to convert other HA subtypes from avian to human receptor specificity failed to switch preference to human receptors. Collectively, these findings suggest that the current H10N8 human isolates are poorly adapted for efficient human-to-human transmission. PMID:25766296

  9. A human-infecting H10N8 influenza virus retains a strong preference for avian-type receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xueyong; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent avian-origin H10N8 influenza A viruses that have infected humans pose a potential pandemic threat. Alterations in the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), typically allow influenza A viruses to cross the species barrier for adaptation to a new host, but whether H10N8 contains adaptations supporting human infection remains incompletely understood. We investigated whether the H10N8 HA can bind human receptors. Sialoside glycan microarray analysis showed that the H10 HA retains a strong preference for avian receptor analogs and negligible binding to human receptor analogs. Crystal structures of H10 HA with avian and human receptor analogs revealed the basis for preferential recognition of avian-like receptors. Furthermore, introduction of mutations into the H10 receptor-binding site (RBS) known to convert other HA subtypes from avian to human receptor specificity failed to switch the preference to human receptors. Collectively, these findings suggest the current H10N8 human isolates are poorly adapted for efficient human-to-human transmission. PMID:25766296

  10. Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lina; Guan, Dawei; Kang, Min; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Rutherford, Shannon; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification, the epizootic avian influenza A H7N9 virus has continued to cause infections in China. Two waves were observed during this outbreak. No cases were reported from Guangdong Province during the first wave, but this province became one of the prime outbreak sites during the second wave. In order to identify the transmission potential of this continuously evolving infectious virus, our research group monitored all clusters of H7N9 infections during the second wave of the epidemic in Guangdong Province. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data on these patients were collected and analyzed. Three family clusters including six cases of H7N9 infection were recorded. The virus caused severe disease in two adult patients but only mild symptoms for all four pediatric patients. All patients reported direct poultry or poultry market exposure history. Relevant environment samples collected according to their reported exposures tested H7N9 positive. Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving, the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong Province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission. PMID:25339399

  11. Avian influenza prevention and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry around the world. Avian Influenza virus (AIV) has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infectio...

  12. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  13. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus, a powerful tool for control of the disease, may result in issues related to surveillance programs and international trade of poultry and poultry products. The use of AI vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test...

  14. Evidence of infection by H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in healthy wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaidet, N.; Cattoli, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Newman, S.H.; Hagemeijer, W.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Cappelle, J.; Dodman, T.; Joannis, T.; Gil, P.; Monne, I.; Fusaro, A.; Capua, I.; Manu, S.; Micheloni, P.; Ottosson, U.; Mshelbwala, J.H.; Lubroth, J.; Domenech, J.; Monicat, F.

    2008-01-01

    The potential existence of a wild bird reservoir for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recently questioned by the spread and the persisting circulation of H5N1 HPAI viruses, responsible for concurrent outbreaks in migratory and domestic birds over Asia, Europe, and Africa. During a large-scale surveillance programme over Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, we detected avian influenza viruses of H5N2 subtype with a highly pathogenic (HP) viral genotype in healthy birds of two wild waterfowl species sampled in Nigeria. We monitored the survival and regional movements of one of the infected birds through satellite telemetry, providing a rare evidence of a non-lethal natural infection by an HP viral genotype in wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5N2 viruses revealed close genetic relationships with H5 viruses of low pathogenicity circulating in Eurasian wild and domestic ducks. In addition, genetic analysis did not reveal known gallinaceous poultry adaptive mutations, suggesting that the emergence of HP strains could have taken place in either wild or domestic ducks or in non-gallinaceous species. The presence of coexisting but genetically distinguishable avian influenza viruses with an HP viral genotype in two cohabiting species of wild waterfowl, with evidence of non-lethal infection at least in one species and without evidence of prior extensive circulation of the virus in domestic poultry, suggest that some strains with a potential high pathogenicity for poultry could be maintained in a community of wild waterfowl.

  15. Evidence of Infection by H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Healthy Wild Waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Hammoumi, Saliha; Newman, Scott H.; Hagemeijer, Ward; Takekawa, John Y.; Cappelle, Julien; Dodman, Tim; Joannis, Tony; Gil, Patricia; Monne, Isabella; Fusaro, Alice; Capua, Ilaria; Manu, Shiiwuua; Micheloni, Pierfrancesco; Ottosson, Ulf; Mshelbwala, John H.; Lubroth, Juan; Domenech, Joseph; Monicat, François

    2008-01-01

    The potential existence of a wild bird reservoir for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recently questioned by the spread and the persisting circulation of H5N1 HPAI viruses, responsible for concurrent outbreaks in migratory and domestic birds over Asia, Europe, and Africa. During a large-scale surveillance programme over Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, we detected avian influenza viruses of H5N2 subtype with a highly pathogenic (HP) viral genotype in healthy birds of two wild waterfowl species sampled in Nigeria. We monitored the survival and regional movements of one of the infected birds through satellite telemetry, providing a rare evidence of a non-lethal natural infection by an HP viral genotype in wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5N2 viruses revealed close genetic relationships with H5 viruses of low pathogenicity circulating in Eurasian wild and domestic ducks. In addition, genetic analysis did not reveal known gallinaceous poultry adaptive mutations, suggesting that the emergence of HP strains could have taken place in either wild or domestic ducks or in non-gallinaceous species. The presence of coexisting but genetically distinguishable avian influenza viruses with an HP viral genotype in two cohabiting species of wild waterfowl, with evidence of non-lethal infection at least in one species and without evidence of prior extensive circulation of the virus in domestic poultry, suggest that some strains with a potential high pathogenicity for poultry could be maintained in a community of wild waterfowl. PMID:18704172

  16. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of newcastle disease virus prevents infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses, but little is known on the interactions b...

  17. Immunological Competence of Different Domestic Chicken Breeds Against Avian Influenza Infection.

    PubMed

    Blohm, Ulrike; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Donata

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for high laying performance on the capacity to respond to an infection with avian influenza virus (AIV), four different chicken lines were tested: A white layer and a brown layer breed originating from a commercial breeding program, and a white layer and a brown layer line maintained as a conservation flock for decades without any selection. The different chicken breeds were infected with AIV of different pathotypes (low pathogenic to high pathogenic) to evaluate and compare their immunological competence. Morbidity and mortality rates, as well as viral shedding, were investigated as parameters of virus infection. Immune cells in blood samples collected after different time points following inoculation were identified. In general, the chickens of the two phylogenetically related brown layer lines (irrespective of the performance type) were more resistant to infection with the selected AIVs, reflected by a lower mortality rate (low virulent AIV) or a prolonged length of survival before succumbing to the disease (highly virulent AIV). Corresponding to these results, CD8-positive cell counts were reduced in both white layer lines. This observation was also confirmed in an in vivo allogenic transfer experiment, in which brown layers eliminated the transferred cells in a shorter time period. In conclusion, our results do not support the theory of reduced immunological competence of high-performance layer breeds, at least against AIV infection. Instead, brown layer strains had a faster CD8-positive immune cell response after viral or allogenic stimulus than the phylogenetically distant white layers, resulting in better resistance against AIV infection. PMID:27309066

  18. Neuropathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1) in experimentally infected chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of neuroinvasion of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) into the central nervous system (CNS) of chickens, specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with a H7N1 HPAIV. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nasal cavity and brain tissue samples were obtained from 1 to 4 days post-inoculation (dpi) of infected and control chickens. Viral antigen topographical distribution, presence of influenza A virus receptors in the brain, as well as, the role of the olfactory route in virus CNS invasion were studied using different immunohistochemistry techniques. Besides, viral RNA load in CSF and blood was quantified by means of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Viral antigen was observed widely distributed in the CNS, showing bilateral and symmetrical distribution in the nuclei of the diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. Viral RNA was detected in blood and CSF at one dpi, indicating that the virus crosses the blood-CSF-barrier early during infection. This early dissemination is possibly favoured by the presence of Siaα2,3 Gal and Siaα2,6 Gal receptors in brain vascular endothelial cells, and Siaα2,3 Gal receptors in ependymal and choroid plexus cells. No viral antigen was observed in olfactory sensory neurons, while the olfactory bulb showed only weak staining, suggesting that the virus did not use this pathway to enter into the brain. The sequence of virus appearance and the topographical distribution of this H7N1 HPAIV indicate that the viral entry occurs via the haematogenous route, with early and generalized spreading through the CSF. PMID:21982125

  19. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Essam A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI) in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1) and the other fifteen (Group 2) were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1). The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis). Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1) became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs. PMID:27047014

  20. The dynamics of avian influenza in Lesser Snow Geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Hall, Jeffrey S; Brown, Justin D; Goldberg, Diana R; Ip, Hon; Baranyuk, Vasily V

    2015-10-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging and, despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway Lesser Snow Geese, Chen caerulescens, to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3000 sera samples from Snow Geese at two breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from >4000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between Snow Goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering, and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations. PMID:26591451

  1. Predicting Avian Influenza Co-Infection with H5N1 and H9N2 in Northern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean G; Carrel, Margaret; Malanson, George P; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Human outbreaks with avian influenza have been, so far, constrained by poor viral adaptation to non-avian hosts. This could be overcome via co-infection, whereby two strains share genetic material, allowing new hybrid strains to emerge. Identifying areas where co-infection is most likely can help target spaces for increased surveillance. Ecological niche modeling using remotely-sensed data can be used for this purpose. H5N1 and H9N2 influenza subtypes are endemic in Egyptian poultry. From 2006 to 2015, over 20,000 poultry and wild birds were tested at farms and live bird markets. Using ecological niche modeling we identified environmental, behavioral, and population characteristics of H5N1 and H9N2 niches within Egypt. Niches differed markedly by subtype. The subtype niches were combined to model co-infection potential with known occurrences used for validation. The distance to live bird markets was a strong predictor of co-infection. Using only single-subtype influenza outbreaks and publicly available ecological data, we identified areas of co-infection potential with high accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) 0.991). PMID:27608035

  2. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  3. Evaluating the cell mediated immune response of avian species to avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measurement of avian cellular immunity is critical to understanding the role and regulation of avian lymphocytes following avian influenza virus infection. Although the ability to measure avian T cell responses has steadily increased over the last few years, few studies have examined the role o...

  4. Dynamic changes in host gene expression associated with H5N8 avian influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Jin; Kumar, Mukesh; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Seong, Rak-Kyun; Han, Kyudong; Song, Jae-min; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young-Ki; Shin, Ok Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Emerging outbreaks of newly found, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses have been reported globally. Previous studies have indicated that H5N8 pathogenicity in mice is relatively moderate compared with H5N1 pathogenicity. However, detailed mechanisms underlying avian influenza pathogenicity are still undetermined. We used a high-throughput RNA-seq method to analyse host and pathogen transcriptomes in the lungs of mice infected with A/MD/Korea/W452/2014 (H5N8) and A/EM/Korea/W149/2006 (H5N1) viruses. Sequenced numbers of viral transcripts and expression levels of host immune-related genes at 1 day post infection (dpi) were higher in H5N8-infected than H5N1-infected mice. Dual sequencing of viral transcripts revealed that in contrast to the observations at 1 dpi, higher number of H5N1 genes than H5N8 genes was sequenced at 3 and 7 dpi, which is consistent with higher viral titres and virulence observed in infected lungs in vivo. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a more significant upregulation of death receptor signalling, driven by H5N1 than with H5N8 infection at 3 and 7 dpi. Early induction of immune response-related genes may elicit protection in H5N8-infected mice, which correlates with moderate pathogenicity in vivo. Collectively, our data provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms of the differential pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses. PMID:26576844

  5. Dynamic changes in host gene expression associated with H5N8 avian influenza virus infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Jin; Kumar, Mukesh; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Seong, Rak-Kyun; Han, Kyudong; Song, Jae-min; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young-Ki; Shin, Ok Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Emerging outbreaks of newly found, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses have been reported globally. Previous studies have indicated that H5N8 pathogenicity in mice is relatively moderate compared with H5N1 pathogenicity. However, detailed mechanisms underlying avian influenza pathogenicity are still undetermined. We used a high-throughput RNA-seq method to analyse host and pathogen transcriptomes in the lungs of mice infected with A/MD/Korea/W452/2014 (H5N8) and A/EM/Korea/W149/2006 (H5N1) viruses. Sequenced numbers of viral transcripts and expression levels of host immune-related genes at 1 day post infection (dpi) were higher in H5N8-infected than H5N1-infected mice. Dual sequencing of viral transcripts revealed that in contrast to the observations at 1 dpi, higher number of H5N1 genes than H5N8 genes was sequenced at 3 and 7 dpi, which is consistent with higher viral titres and virulence observed in infected lungs in vivo. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a more significant upregulation of death receptor signalling, driven by H5N1 than with H5N8 infection at 3 and 7 dpi. Early induction of immune response-related genes may elicit protection in H5N8-infected mice, which correlates with moderate pathogenicity in vivo. Collectively, our data provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms of the differential pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses. PMID:26576844

  6. Effects of closing and reopening live poultry markets on the epidemic of human infection with avian influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Liu, Wendong; Xia, Rui; Dai, Qigang; Bao, Changjun; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, yefei; Wang, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Live poultry markets (LPMs) are crucial places for human infection of influenza A (H7N9 virus). In Yangtze River Delta, LPMs were closed after the outbreak of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, and then reopened when no case was found. Our purpose was to quantify the effect of LPMs’ operations in this region on the transmission of influenza A (H7N9) virus. We obtained information about dates of symptom onset and locations for all human influenza A (H7N9) cases reported from Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces by May 31, 2014, and acquired dates of closures and reopening of LPMs from official media. A two-phase Bayesian model was fitted by Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to process the spatial and temporal influence of human cases. A total of 235 cases of influenza A (H7N9) were confirmed in Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang by May 31, 2014. Using these data, our analysis showed that, after LPM closures, the influenza A (H7N9) outbreak disappeared within two weeks in Shanghai, one week in Jiangsu, and one week in Zhejiang, respectively. Local authorities reopened LPMs when there was no outbreak of influenza A (H7N9), which did not lead to reemergence of human influenza A (H7N9). LPM closures were effective in controlling the H7N9 outbreak. Reopening of LPM in summer did not increase the risk of human infection with H7N9. Our findings showed that LPMs should be closed immediately in areas where the H7N9 virus is confirmed in LPM. When there is no outbreak of H7N9 virus, LPMs can be reopened to satisfy the Chinese traditional culture of buying live poultry. In the long term, local authorities should take a cautious attitude in permanent LPM closure.

  7. Variability in pathobiology of South Korean H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection for 5 species of migratory waterfowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological outcome of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in wild waterfowl is poorly understood. This study examined infectivity and pathobiology of A/chicken/Korea/IS/06 (H5N1) HPAI virus infection in Mute swans (Cygnus olor), Greylag geese (Anser anser), Ruddy Sheld...

  8. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy. PMID:18618061

  9. Serologic surveillance of swine H1 and H3 and avian H5 and H9 influenza A virus infections in swine population in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Song, Dae-Sub; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Oh, Jin-Sik; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2007-05-16

    Influenza A is a respiratory disease common in the swine industry. Three subtypes, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, are currently co-circulating in swine populations in Korea. An outbreak of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus occurred in domestic bird farms in Korea during the winter season of 2003. Pigs can serve as hosts for avian influenza viruses, enabling passage of the virus to other mammals and recombination of mammalian and avian influenza viruses, which are more readily transmissible to humans. This study reports the current seroprevalence of swine H1 and H3 influenza in swine populations in Korea by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. We also investigated whether avian H5 and H9 influenza transmission occurred in pigs from Korea using both the HI and neutralization (NT) tests. 51.2% (380/742) of serum samples tested were positive against the swine H1 virus and 43.7% (324/742) were positive against the swine H3 virus by HI assay. The incidence of seropositivity against both the swine H1 virus and the swine H3 virus was 25.3% (188/742). On the other hand, none of the samples tested showed seropositivity against either the avian H5 virus or the avian H9 virus by the HI and NT tests. Therefore, we report the high current seroprevalence and co-infectivity of swine H1 and H3 influenza viruses in swine populations and the lack of seroepidemiological evidence of avian H5 and H9 influenza transmission to Korean pigs. PMID:17223213

  10. Environmental connections of novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus infection and virus adaptation to the human.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yu, Xinfen; Pu, Xiaoying; Xie, Li; Sun, Yongxiang; Xiao, Haixia; Wang, Fenjuan; Din, Hua; Wu, Ying; Liu, Di; Zhao, Guoqiu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Jingcao

    2013-06-01

    A novel H7N9 influenza A virus has been discovered as the causative identity of the emerging acute respiratory infection cases in Shanghai, China. This virus has also been identified in cases of infection in the neighboring area Hangzhou City in Zhejiang Province. In this study, epidemiologic, clinical, and virological data from three patients in Hangzhou who were confirmed to be infected by the novel H7N9 influenza A virus were collected and analyzed. Human respiratory specimens and chicken feces from a contacted free market were tested for influenza virus by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and sequencing. The clinical features of the three cases were similar featured with high fever and severe respiratory symptoms; however, only one of the patients died. A certain degree of diversity was observed among the three Hangzhou viruses sequenced from human samples compared with other reported H7N9 influenza A viruses. The sequences of the novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses from Hangzhou City contained important amino acid substitutions related to human adaptation. One of the Hangzhou viruses had gained a novel amino acid substitution (Q226I) in the receptor binding region of hemagglutinin. More importantly, the virus sequenced from the chicken feces had a 627E substitution in the PB2 protein instead of the mammalian-adapted 627K substitution that was found in the PB2 proteins from the Hangzhou viruses from the three patients. Therefore, the newly-emerging H7N9 virus might be under adaptation pressure that will help it "jump" from avian to human hosts. The significance of these substitutions needs further exploration, with both laboratory experiments and extensive field surveillance. PMID:23657795

  11. Microarray analysis following infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in naive and vaccinated SPF chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains a constant threat to commercial poultry throughout the world. Within the last few years, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have originated in Southeast Asia and spread to several European, Middle Eastern, and A...

  12. Experimental infection of mallard ducks with different subtype H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV’s) remain a threat to poultry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses, including HPAIV, are usually non-pathogenic for ducks and other wild aquatic birds, with the exception of some Asian lineage H5N1 HPAIVs which can cause severe disease in ducks. With ...

  13. Influenza infection in wild raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

  14. Avian influenza vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian AI outbreaks when used as part of a compr...

  15. Using mean infectious dose of wild duck-and poultry-origin high and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses as one measure of infectivity and adaptation to poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mean infectious doses of selected avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates, determined in domestic poultry under experimental conditions, were shown to be both host and virus dependent and could be considered one measure of the infectivity and adaptation to a specific host. As such, the mean infect...

  16. Differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) using recombinant fowlpox-H5 Avian-Influenza vaccine and standard serological tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines protect chickens from morbidity and mortality and reduce, but do not completely prevent, respiratory and intestinal replication of an AI challenge virus. Therefore, surveillance programs must be developed to differentiate infected from non-infected flocks of vaccinated ...

  17. Use of genomic interspecies microarray hybridization to detect differentially expressed genes associated with H5N1 avian influenza virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have changed from producing mild respiratory infections in ducks, to some strains producing severe disease and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in host response to infection with H5N1 HPAI viruses w...

  18. Poultry farms as a source of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus reassortment and human infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Donglin; Zou, Shumei; Bai, Tian; Li, Jing; Zhao, Xiang; Yang, Lei; Liu, Hongmin; Li, Xiaodan; Yang, Xianda; Xin, Li; Xu, Shuang; Zou, Xiaohui; Li, Xiyan; Wang, Ao; Guo, Junfeng; Sun, Bingxin; Huang, Weijuan; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiang; Gao, Rongbao; Shen, Bo; Chen, Tao; Dong, Jie; Wei, Hejiang; Wang, Shiwen; Li, Qun; Li, Dexin; Wu, Guizhen; Feng, Zijian; Gao, George F.; Wang, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Fan, Ming; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-01-01

    Live poultry markets are a source of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. On February 21, 2014, a poultry farmer infected with H7N9 virus was identified in Jilin, China, and H7N9 and H9N2 viruses were isolated from the patient's farm. Reassortment between these subtype viruses generated five genotypes, one of which caused the human infection. The date of H7N9 virus introduction to the farm is estimated to be between August 21, 2013 (95% confidence interval [CI] June 6, 2013-October 6, 2013) and September 25, 2013 (95% CI May 28, 2013-January 4, 2014), suggesting that the most likely source of virus introduction was the first batch of poultry purchased in August 2013. The reassortment event that led to the human virus may have occurred between January 2, 2014 (95% CI November 8, 2013-February 12, 2014) and February 12, 2014 (95% CI January 19, 2014-February 18, 2014). Our findings demonstrate that poultry farms could be a source of reassortment between H7N9 virus and H9N2 virus as well as human infection, which emphasizes the importance to public health of active avian influenza surveillance at poultry farms. PMID:25591105

  19. Ecologic risk factor investigation of clusters of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tiensin, Thanawat; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Songserm, Thaweesak; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Wongkasemjit, Surapong; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Chanachai, Karoon; Thanapongtham, Weerapong; Chotinan, Suwit; Stegeman, Arjan; Nielen, Mirjam

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate space and time clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection and to determine risk factors at the subdistrict level in Thailand. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) was diagnosed in 1890 poultry flocks located in 953 subdistricts during 2004-2007. The ecologic risk for H5N1 virus infection was assessed on the basis of a spatial-based case-control study involving 824 case subdistricts and 3296 control subdistricts from 6 study periods. Risk factors investigated in clustered areas of H5N1 included human and animal demographic characteristics, poultry production systems, and wild birds and their habitats. Six variables remained statistically significant in the final model: flock density of backyard chickens (odds ratio [OR], 0.98), flock density of fighting cocks (OR, 1.02), low and high human density (OR, 0.60), presence of quail flocks (OR, 1.21), free-grazing duck flocks (OR, 2.17), and a poultry slaughterhouse (OR, 1.33). We observed a strong association between subdistricts with H5N1 virus-infected poultry flocks and evidence of prior and concomitant H5N1 infection in wild birds in the same subdistrict. PMID:19416075

  20. Host genetics determine susceptibility to avian influenza infection and transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Mwangi, William; Peroval, Marylene; Sadeyen, Jean-Remy; Ascough, Stephanie; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Boyd, Amy; McCauley, John; Smith, Adrian; Butter, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Host-genetic control of influenza virus infection has been the object of little attention. In this study we determined that two inbred lines of chicken differing in their genetic background , Lines 0 and C-B12, were respectively relatively resistant and susceptible to infection with the low pathogenicity influenza virus A/Turkey/England/647/77 as defined by substantial differences in viral shedding trajectories. Resistant birds, although infected, were unable to transmit virus to contact birds, as ultimately only the presence of a sustained cloacal shedding (and not oropharyngeal shedding) was critical for transmission. Restriction of within-bird transmission of virus occurred in the resistant line, with intra-nares or cloacal infection resulting in only local shedding and failing to transmit fully through the gastro-intestinal-pulmonary tract. Resistance to infection was independent of adaptive immune responses, including the expansion of specific IFNγ secreting cells or production of influenza-specific antibody. Genetic resistance to a novel H9N2 virus was less robust, though significant differences between host genotypes were still clearly evident. The existence of host-genetic determination of the outcome of influenza infection offers tools for the further dissection of this regulation and also for understanding the mechanisms of influenza transmission within and between birds. PMID:27279280

  1. Host genetics determine susceptibility to avian influenza infection and transmission dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Mwangi, William; Peroval, Marylene; Sadeyen, Jean-Remy; Ascough, Stephanie; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Boyd, Amy; McCauley, John; Smith, Adrian; Butter, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Host-genetic control of influenza virus infection has been the object of little attention. In this study we determined that two inbred lines of chicken differing in their genetic background , Lines 0 and C-B12, were respectively relatively resistant and susceptible to infection with the low pathogenicity influenza virus A/Turkey/England/647/77 as defined by substantial differences in viral shedding trajectories. Resistant birds, although infected, were unable to transmit virus to contact birds, as ultimately only the presence of a sustained cloacal shedding (and not oropharyngeal shedding) was critical for transmission. Restriction of within-bird transmission of virus occurred in the resistant line, with intra-nares or cloacal infection resulting in only local shedding and failing to transmit fully through the gastro-intestinal-pulmonary tract. Resistance to infection was independent of adaptive immune responses, including the expansion of specific IFNγ secreting cells or production of influenza-specific antibody. Genetic resistance to a novel H9N2 virus was less robust, though significant differences between host genotypes were still clearly evident. The existence of host-genetic determination of the outcome of influenza infection offers tools for the further dissection of this regulation and also for understanding the mechanisms of influenza transmission within and between birds. PMID:27279280

  2. Profiles of acute cytokine and antibody responses in patients infected with avian influenza A H7N9.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Qin; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Hao, Yingying; Zhang, Kui; Liu, Yong; Dong, Danjiang; Wang, Shixia; Huang, Zuhu; Lu, Shan; Wu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The influenza A H7N9 virus outbreak in Eastern China in the spring of 2013 represented a novel, emerging avian influenza transmission to humans. While clinical and microbiological features of H7N9 infection have been reported in the literature, the current study investigated acute cytokine and antibody responses in acute H7N9 infection. Between March 27, 2013 and April 23, 2013, six patients with confirmed H7N9 influenza infection were admitted to Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China. Acute phase serum cytokine profiles were determined using a high-throughput multiplex assay. Daily H7 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA responses were monitored by ELISA. Neutralizing antibodies specific for H7N9 viruses were determined against a pseudotyped virus expressing the novel H7 subtype HA antigen. Five cytokines (IL-6, IP-10, IL-10, IFNγ, and TNFα) were significantly elevated in H7N9-infected patients when compared to healthy volunteers. Serum H7 HA-specific IgG, as well as IgM and IgA responses, were detected within 8 days of disease onset and increased in a similar pattern during acute infection. Neutralizing antibodies developed shortly after the appearance of binding antibody responses and showed similar kinetics as a fraction of the total H7 HA-specific IgG responses. H7N9 infection resulted in hallmark serum cytokine increases, which correlated with fever and disease persistence. The novel finding of simultaneous development of IgG, IgM, and IgA responses in acute H7N9 infection points to the potential for live influenza viruses to elicit fast and potent protective antibodies to limit the infection. PMID:25003343

  3. Human infection with an avian influenza A (H9N2) virus in the middle region of China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiwei; Li, Xiaodan; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Bozhong; Jiang, Yonglin; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wenfei; Hu, Shixiong; Zhou, Siyu; Tang, Yunli; Xiang, Xingyu; Li, Fangcai; Li, Wenchao; Gao, Lidong

    2015-10-01

    During the epidemic period of the novel H7N9 viruses, an influenza A (H9N2) virus was isolated from a 7-year-old boy with influenza-like illness in Yongzhou city of Hunan province in November 2013. To identify the possible source of infection, environmental specimens collected from local live poultry markets epidemiologically linked to the human case in Yongzhou city were tested for influenza type A and its subtypes H5, H7, and H9 using real-time RT-PCR methods as well as virus isolation, and four other H9N2 viruses were isolated. The real-time RT-PCR results showed that the environment was highly contaminated with avian influenza H9 subtype viruses (18.0%). Sequencing analyses revealed that the virus isolated from the patient, which was highly similar (98.5-99.8%) to one of isolates from environment in complete genome sequences, was of avian origin. Based on phylogenetic and antigenic analyses, it belonged to genotype S and Y280 lineage. In addition, the virus exhibited high homology (95.7-99.5%) of all six internal gene lineages with the novel H7N9 and H10N8 viruses which caused epidemic and endemic in China. Meanwhile, it carried several mammalian adapted molecular residues including Q226L in HA protein, L13P in PB1 protein, K356R, S409N in PA protein, V15I in M1 protein, I28V, L55F in M2 protein, and E227K in NS protein. These findings reinforce the significance of continuous surveillance of H9N2 influenza viruses. PMID:25965534

  4. Post-mortem findings in a patient with avian influenza A (H5N6) virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, R; Pan, M; Li, X; Zou, X; Zhao, X; Li, T; Yang, H; Zou, S; Bo, H; Xu, J; Li, S; Zhang, M; Li, Z; Wang, D; Zaki, S R; Shu, Y

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza A (H5N6) has been found to infect humans, and has resulted in ten cases with six deaths in China since 2014. Here, we describe the systematic post-mortem pathology of a patient fatally infected with H5N6 virus and evaluate the associated pathogenesis compared with H1N1 pdm09 fatal cases. The most prominent histopathological features were diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary vasculitis in the lungs of the patient. The virus disseminated to extrapulmonary organs, including the brain. Compared with H1N1 pdm09 fatal infection, H5N6 infection induced a more exacerbated immune response involving overt pulmonary inflammation, which led to alveolar damage and respiratory failure. PMID:27040806

  5. Avian influenza: Public health and food safety concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) is an asymptomatic infection or disease caused by Influenza virus A. AI viruses are species specific and rarely crosses the species barrier. However subtypes H5, H7 and H9 have caused sporadic infections in humans mostly as a result of direct contact with infected birds. H5N1 hi...

  6. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype...

  7. First reported detection of a low pathogenicity avian influenza virus subtype H9 infection in domestic fowl in England.

    PubMed

    Parker, C D; Reid, S M; Ball, A; Cox, W J; Essen, S C; Hanna, A; Mahmood, S; Slomka, M J; Irvine, R M; Brown, I H

    2012-10-13

    In December 2010, infection with a H9N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus was detected in a broiler breeder flock in East Anglia. Disease suspicion was based on acute drops in egg production in two of four sheds on the premises, poor egg shell quality and evidence of diarrhoea. H9N1 LPAI virus infection was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Sequencing revealed high nucleotide identity of 93.6 per cent and 97.9 per cent with contemporary North American H9 and Eurasian N1 genes, respectively. Attempted virus isolation in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) fowls' eggs was unsuccessful. Epidemiological investigations were conducted to identify the source of infection and any onward spread. These concluded that infection was restricted to the affected premises, and no contacts or movements of poultry, people or fomites could be attributed as the source of infection. However, the infection followed a period of extremely cold weather and snow which impacted on the biosecurity protocols on site, and also led to increased wild bird activity locally, including waterfowl and game birds around the farm buildings. Analysis of the N1 gene sequence suggested direct introduction from wild birds. Although H9 infection in poultry is not notifiable, H9N2 LPAI viruses have been associated with production and mortality episodes in poultry in many parts of Asia and the Middle East. In the present H9N1 outbreak, clinical signs were relatively mild in the poultry with no mortality, transient impact on egg production and no indication of zoonotic spread. However, this first reported detection of H9 LPAI virus in chickens in England was also the first H9 UK poultry case for 40 years, and vindicates the need for continued vigilance and surveillance of avian influenza viruses in poultry populations. PMID:22949546

  8. Host Regulatory Network Response to Infection with Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengjun; Bankhead, Armand; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Hatta, Yasuko; Jeng, Sophia; Chang, Jean H.; Aicher, Lauri D.; Proll, Sean; Ellis, Amy L.; Law, G. Lynn; Waters, Katrina M.; Neumann, Gabriele; Katze, Michael G.; McWeeney, Shannon; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, more than half of humans infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have died, yet virus-induced host signaling has yet to be clearly elucidated. Airway epithelia are known to produce inflammatory mediators that contribute to HPAI H5N1-mediated pathogenicity, but a comprehensive analysis of the host response in this cell type is lacking. Here, we leveraged a system approach to identify and statistically validate signaling subnetworks that define the dynamic transcriptional response of human bronchial epithelial cells after infection with influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1, VN1203). Importantly, we validated a subset of transcripts from one subnetwork in both Calu-3 cells and mice. A more detailed examination of two subnetworks involved in the immune response and keratinization processes revealed potential novel mediators of HPAI H5N1 pathogenesis and host response signaling. Finally, we show how these results compare to those for a less virulent strain of influenza virus. Using emergent network properties, we provide fresh insight into the host response to HPAI H5N1 virus infection and identify novel avenues for perturbation studies and potential therapeutic interventions for fatal HPAI H5N1 disease. PMID:21865398

  9. Transmission of an H5N8-Subtype Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus from Infected Hens to Laid Eggs.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yuko; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Tanikawa, Taichiro; Kanehira, Katsushi; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    We showed here that an H5N8-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was transmitted to both the internal contents and shells of eggs laid by white leghorn hens experimentally infected with the virus. Seven of eight HPAIV-infected hens laid eggs until 4 days postinoculation (dpi). The mean number of eggs laid per head daily decreased significantly from 0.58 before inoculation to 0.18 after viral inoculation. The virus was detected in the eggs laid by three of the seven hens. Viral transmission was detectable beginning on 3 dpi, and virus titers in tracheal and cloacal swabs from the hens that laid the contaminated eggs exceeded 2.9 log10 EID50. The level of viral replication and its timing when virus replicates enough to be detected in oviduct after virus inoculation appear to be key factors in the transmission of H5N8 HPAIV from infected hens to laid eggs. PMID:27309286

  10. The comparison of pathology in ferrets infected by H9N2 avian influenza viruses with different genomic features.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rongbao; Bai, Tian; Li, Xiaodan; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Yiwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Ye; Bo, Hong; Zou, Shumei; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-15

    H9N2 avian influenza virus circulates widely in poultry and has been responsible for sporadic human infections in several regions. Few studies have been conducted on the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV isolates that have different genomic features. We compared the pathology induced by a novel reassortant H9N2 virus and two currently circulating H9N2 viruses that have different genomic features in ferrets. The results showed that the three viruses can induce infections with various amounts of viral shedding in ferrets. The novel H9N2 induced respiratory infection, but no pathological lesions were observed in lung tissues. The other two viruses induced mild to intermediate pathological lesions in lung tissues, although the clinical signs presented mildly in ferrets. The pathological lesions presented a diversity consistent with viral replication in ferrets. PMID:26638019

  11. Comparative pathology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in avian species in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen species of ducks, geese, swans and gulls present in the North American wild bird populations were inoculated intranasally with A/Whooper Swan/Mongolia/244/05 (H5N1) avian influenza virus to evaluate the range of viral shedding and pathology within these two avian orders. Based on mortality...

  12. Experimental co-infection of chickens with lentogenic, mesogenic and velogenic strains of Newcastle disease viruses and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from the clinical point of view and diagnosis of these viruses, but little is known on t...

  13. Host antiviral defenses induced by a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus prevents infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. To evaluate the dynamics of AIV-NDV co-i...

  14. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens decrease egg production and eggs that are laid contain HPAIV. Vaccination once or twice was examined as a way to protect chickens from Vietnamese H5N1 HPAIV. Eighty-three percent of hens without vaccination died within 3 days ...

  15. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens produce a negative impact on egg production, and virus is deposited on surface and internal contents of eggs. Previously, vaccination maintained egg production and reduced egg contamination when challenged with a North American H...

  16. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Exposure to lentogenic NDV, either from live vaccines or field strains, is nearly unavoidable for poultry, and co-infections with low pathogenic (LP) AIV are expected to ...

  17. Experimental infection with low and high pathogenicity H7N3 Chilean avian influenza viruses in Chiloe Wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been associated with natural, lethal infections in wild aquatic birds which have been reproduced experimentally. Some aquatic bird species have been suggested as potential transporters of H5N1 HPAI virus via migration. However, ...

  18. Variation in infectivity and adaptation of wild duck- and poultry-origin high pathogenicity and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses vary in their adaptation which impacts transmission between and infection of different bird species. We determine the intranasal mean bird infectious doses (BID50) for 11 high pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses for layer type chickens (LC), and three low pathogenicity (LP) A...

  19. Little Evidence of Avian or Equine Influenza Virus Infection among a Cohort of Mongolian Adults with Animal Exposures, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia’s migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were <1∶80 and none were statistically associated with avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective

  20. Human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Li, Hong; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus has caused four human infections in China. This study reports the preliminary findings of the first known human case of H5N6 in Yunnan province. The patient initially developed symptoms of sore throat and coughing on 27 January 2015. The disease rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunctions and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the patient died on 6 February. Virological analysis determined that the virus belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 and it has obtained partial ability for mammalian adaptation and amantadine resistance. Environmental investigation found H5 in 63% of the samples including poultry faeces, tissues, cage surface swabs and sewage from local live poultry markets by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that the expanding and enhancing of surveillance in both avian and humans are necessary to monitor the evolution of H5 influenza virus and to facilitate early detection of suspected cases. PMID:27030920

  1. ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS, WEST NILE VIRUS, AND AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS INFECTION AND ANTIBODY STATUS IN BLUE-WINGED TEAL (ANAS DISCORS) IN THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES.

    PubMed

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Leighton, Frederick A; Epp, Tasha; Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Lindsay, Robbin; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Canadian prairies are one of the most important breeding and staging areas for migratory waterfowl in North America. Hundreds of thousands of waterfowl of numerous species from multiple flyways converge in and disperse from this region annually; therefore this region may be a key area for potential intra- and interspecific spread of infectious pathogens among migratory waterfowl in the Americas. Using Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors, BWTE), which have the most extensive migratory range among waterfowl species, we investigated ecologic risk factors for infection and antibody status to avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), and avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) in the three prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) prior to fall migration. We used generalized linear models to examine infection or evidence of exposure in relation to host (age, sex, body condition, exposure to other infections), spatiotemporal (year, province), population-level (local population densities of BWTE, total waterfowl densities), and environmental (local pond densities) factors. The probability of AIV infection in BWTE was associated with host factors (e.g., age and antibody status), population-level factors (e.g., local BWTE population density), and year. An interaction between age and AIV antibody status showed that hatch year birds with antibodies to AIV were more likely to be infected, suggesting an antibody response to an active infection. Infection with AIV was positively associated with local BWTE density, supporting the hypothesis of density-dependent transmission. The presence of antibodies to WNV and APMV-1 was positively associated with age and varied among years. Furthermore, the probability of being WNV antibody positive was positively associated with pond density rather than host population density, likely because ponds provide suitable breeding habitat for mosquitoes, the primary vectors for transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of

  2. Highly (H5N1) and low (H7N2) pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in falcons via nasochoanal route and ingestion of experimentally infected prey.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Busquets, Núria; Abad, Francesc Xavier; García de la Fuente, Jorge; Solanes, David; Cordón, Iván; Costa, Taiana; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2012-01-01

    An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006) or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009), both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5-7 days post-infection (dpi) after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR), which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds of prey and

  3. Avian Influenza Virus and DIVA Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Peaston, Anne; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is becoming a more acceptable option in the effort to eradicate avian influenza viruses (AIV) from commercial poultry, especially in countries where AIV is endemic. The main concern surrounding this option has been the inability of the conventional serological tests to differentiate antibodies produced due to vaccination from antibodies produced in response to virus infection. In attempts to address this issue, at least six strategies have been formulated, aiming to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), namely (i) sentinel birds, (ii) subunit vaccine, (iii) heterologous neuraminidase (NA), (iv) nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein, (v) matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e) protein, and (vi) haemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2) glycoprotein. This short review briefly discusses the strengths and limitations of these DIVA strategies, together with the feasibility and practicality of the options as a part of the surveillance program directed toward the eventual eradication of AIV from poultry in countries where highly pathogenic avian influenza is endemic. PMID:26900835

  4. Avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in vaccinated commercial and backyard poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hafez, M H; Arafa, A; Abdelwhab, E M; Selim, A; Khoulosy, S G; Hassan, M K; Aly, M M

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we describe results from a high-pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance program in previously H5-vaccinated commercial and family-backyard poultry flocks that was conducted from 2007 to 2008 by the Egyptian National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production. The real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to detect the influenza A virus matrix gene and detection of the H5 and N1 subtypes was accomplished using a commercially available kit real-time reverse transcription PCR assay. The virus was detected in 35/3,610 (0.97%) and 27/8,682 (0.31%) of examined commercial poultry farms and 246/816 (30%) and 89/1,723 (5.2%) of backyard flocks in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Positive flocks were identified throughout the year, with the highest frequencies occurring during the winter months. Anti-H5 serum antibody titers in selected commercial poultry ranged from <2 (negative) to 9.6 log(2) when determined in the hemagglutination inhibition test using a H5 AIV antigen. In conclusion, despite the nationwide vaccination strategy of poultry in Egypt to combat H5N1 AIV, continuous circulation of the virus in vaccinated commercial and backyard poultry was reported and the efficacy of the vaccination using a challenge model with the current circulating field virus should be revised. PMID:20634514

  5. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  6. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  7. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  8. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a type A influenza virus isolated from and adapted to an avian host. This chapter covers the basic physicochemical aspects of AIV including; virus family and properties, subtype classification; basic molecular biology and genetics. The avian host range and ecology...

  9. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    PubMed Central

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that γ-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. Methodology/Principal Finding Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified γ-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (γ-Flu) effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of γ-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. Conclusions/Significance Intranasal γ-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections. PMID:19401775

  10. Pandemic Threat Posed by Avian Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. PMID:11148006

  11. Annual survival of ruddy turnstones is not affected by natural infection with low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Angela M; Porter, Ronald R; Luttrell, M Page; Goekjian, Virginia H; Dey, Amanda D; Kalasz, Kevin S; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

    2012-09-01

    The population of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres morinella) that migrates through Delaware Bay has undergone severe declines in recent years, attributable to reduced availability of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs at this critical spring migration stopover site. Concurrently, this population has experienced annual low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemics at this same site. Using a prospective cohort study design with birds individually flagged during May-June 2006-2008, we evaluated resighting rates (a proxy for annual survival) between AIV-infected and uninfected birds at 1 yr after capture, testing, and measurement. Overall resighting rate was 46%, which varied by year and increased with relative mass of the bird when captured. Resighting rates were not different between AIV-infected and uninfected birds in any period. In multivariate analyses, infection status was also unrelated to resighting rate after controlling for year, day, state, sex, body size, mass index, or whether the bird was blood-sampled. Thus, apparent annual survival in ruddy turnstones was not reduced by AIV infection at this migratory stopover. However, it is unknown whether intestinal AIV infection might cause subtle reductions in weight gain which could negatively influence reproduction. PMID:23050475

  12. Avian influenza: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Berhane, Y; Hooper-McGrevy, K

    2009-04-01

    Reports of sporadic avian influenza outbreaks involving domestic poultry date back to the 1960s. With the exception of A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9), which was isolated from a turkey breeding establishment, all viruses characterised prior to 2004 fit the criteria of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). Only in retrospect was A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 shown to meet the criteria of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In 2004, Canada reported its first case of HPAI to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The outbreak, which began in a broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, involved an H7N3 LPAI virus which underwent a sudden virulence shift to HPAI. More than 17 million birds were culled and CAN$380 million in gross economic costs incurred before the outbreak was eventually brought under control. In its aftermath a number of changes were implemented to mitigate the impact of any future HPAI outbreaks. These changes involved various aspects of avian influenza detection and control, including self-quarantine, biosecurity, surveillance, and laboratory testing. In 2005, a national surveillance programme for influenza A viruses in wild birds was initiated. Results of this survey provided evidence for wild birds as the likely source of an H5N2 LPAI outbreak that occurred in domestic ducks in the Fraser Valley in the autumn of 2005. Wild birds were once again implicated in an H7N3 HPAI outbreak involving a broiler breeder operation in Saskatchewan in 2007. Fortunately, both of these outbreaks were limited in extent, a consequence of some of the changes implemented in response to the 2004 British Columbia outbreak. PMID:19618638

  13. Other avian paramyxovirus infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newca...

  14. A Novel Vaccine Using Nanoparticle Platform to Present Immunogenic M2e against Avian Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Babapoor, Sankhiros; Neef, Tobias; Mittelholzer, Christian; Girshick, Theodore; Garmendia, Antonio; Shang, Hongwei; Khan, Mazhar I.; Burkhard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Using peptide nanoparticle technology, we have designed two novel vaccine constructs representing M2e in monomeric (Mono-M2e) and tetrameric (Tetra-M2e) forms. Groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were immunized intramuscularly with Mono-M2e or Tetra-M2e with and without an adjuvant. Two weeks after the second boost, chickens were challenged with 107.2 EID50 of H5N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus. M2e-specific antibody responses to each of the vaccine constructs were tested by ELISA. Vaccinated chickens exhibited increased M2e-specific IgG responses for each of the constructs as compared to a non-vaccinated group. However, the vaccine construct Tetra-M2e elicited a significantly higher antibody response when it was used with an adjuvant. On the other hand, virus neutralization assays indicated that immune protection is not by way of neutralizing antibodies. The level of protection was evaluated using quantitative real time PCR at 4, 6, and 8 days post-challenge with H5N2 LPAI by measuring virus shedding from trachea and cloaca. The Tetra-M2e with adjuvant offered statistically significant (P < 0.05) protection against subtype H5N2 LPAI by reduction of the AI virus shedding. The results suggest that the self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticle shows promise as a potential platform for a development of a vaccine against AI. PMID:23074652

  15. Infection Risk for Persons Exposed to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Virus–Infected Birds, United States, December 2014–March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Deborah I.; Deliberto, Thomas J.; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Levine, Min Z.; Trock, Susan C.; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A H5 viruses have caused outbreaks among birds in the United States. These viruses differ genetically from HPAI H5 viruses that previously caused human illness, most notably in Asia and Africa. To assess the risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission in the United States, we determined the number of persons with self-reported exposure to infected birds, the number with an acute respiratory infection (ARI) during a 10-day postexposure period, and the number with ARI who tested positive for influenza by real-time reverse transcription PCR or serologic testing for each outbreak during December 15, 2014–March 31, 2015. During 60 outbreaks in 13 states, a total of 164 persons were exposed to infected birds. ARI developed in 5 of these persons within 10 days of exposure. H5 influenza virus infection was not identified in any persons with ARI, suggesting a low risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission. PMID:26583382

  16. Infection Risk for Persons Exposed to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Virus-Infected Birds, United States, December 2014-March 2015.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Carmen S; Nelson, Deborah I; Deliberto, Thomas J; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Levine, Min Z; Trock, Susan C; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A H5 viruses have caused outbreaks among birds in the United States. These viruses differ genetically from HPAI H5 viruses that previously caused human illness, most notably in Asia and Africa. To assess the risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission in the United States, we determined the number of persons with self-reported exposure to infected birds, the number with an acute respiratory infection (ARI) during a 10-day postexposure period, and the number with ARI who tested positive for influenza by real-time reverse transcription PCR or serologic testing for each outbreak during December 15, 2014-March 31, 2015. During 60 outbreaks in 13 states, a total of 164 persons were exposed to infected birds. ARI developed in 5 of these persons within 10 days of exposure. H5 influenza virus infection was not identified in any persons with ARI, suggesting a low risk for animal-to-human HPAI H5 virus transmission. PMID:26583382

  17. Personal protective equipment and risk for avian influenza (H7N3).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Oliver; Kuhne, Mirjam; Nair, Pat; Verlander, Neville Q; Preece, Richard; McDougal, Marianne; Zambon, Maria; Reacher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of avian influenza (H7N3) among poultry resulted in laboratory-confirmed disease in 1 of 103 exposed persons. Incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was associated with conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms. Rigorous use of PPE by persons managing avian influenza outbreaks may reduce exposure to potentially hazardous infected poultry materials. PMID:19116052

  18. Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhne, Mirjam; Nair, Pat; Verlander, Neville Q.; Preece, Richard; McDougal, Marianne; Zambon, Maria; Reacher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of avian influenza (H7N3) among poultry resulted in laboratory-confirmed disease in 1 of 103 exposed persons. Incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was associated with conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms. Rigorous use of PPE by persons managing avian influenza outbreaks may reduce exposure to potentially hazardous infected poultry materials. PMID:19116052

  19. Ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) Infected with H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in South Korea in 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Baek, Kang-Hyun; Bae, You-Chan

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N8 subtype was isolated from a young ostrich in South Korea in March 2014. Clinical signs characterized by anorexia, depression, and signs of nervousness were observed. The isolated A/ostrich/Korea/H829/2014 (H5N8) virus had a cleavage site motif containing multiple basic amino acids, typical of HPAI virus. The phylogenetic tree of the hemagglutinin gene of the H5 HPAI virus showed that this ostrich H5N8 virus belongs to clade 2.3.4.4 viruses together with H5N8 strains isolated from ducks and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. Pathologically, redness of pancreas, enlargement and hemorrhage of spleen, friability of brain, and hydropericardium were prominently found. Histologic legions were observed in pancreas, spleen, liver, lung, heart, and brain, and influenza A nucleoproteins were detected in the same organs by immunohistochemistry. Other ostriches farmed together in open camps were not infected with HPAI virus based on the serologic and virologic tests. The findings indicate that ostriches are susceptible to H5N8 HPAI virus, but this virus does not spread efficiently among ratites. PMID:27309301

  20. Evaluation of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect avian influenza virus antibodies in multiple experimentally infected avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, AI surveillance in wild birds has relied on virus detection strategies including virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction. To evaluate the efficacy of a commerc...

  1. Transcription factor regulation and cytokine expression following in vitro infection of primary chicken cell culture with low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) induced proinflammatory cytokine expression is believed to contribute to the disease pathogenesis following infection of poultry. However, there is limited information on the avian immune response to infection with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). Methods To gain a better understanding of the early viral-host interactions of LPAIV in chickens, primary chicken embryo hepatocytes (CEH) were infected with four different LPAIVs of U.S. origin. Kinetics of virus replication, transcription factor (c-Jun, p50 and IRF-3) activation and immune response gene (IL-6, IL-1beta, IFN-alpha and Mx) expression were studied at four different time points (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) post infection and compared to non-infected controls. Results CEH can support growth of the tested LPAIVs when with trypsin supplementation. All four immune response genes tested were upregulated following infection as were transcription factors c-Jun, p50 and IRF-3. Amplification of these genes was dependant on virus replication (e.g. inclusion of trypsin), such that immune response genes and transcription factors were upregulated as viral titers increased. Conclusion The results of these studies demonstrate the requirement of virus replication for innate immune regulation and broaden our understanding of transcription factor responses related to LPAIV infection in chickens. PMID:24252391

  2. Global and quantitative proteomic analysis of dogs infected by avian-like H3N2 canine influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Tian, Jin; Hong, Malin; Zhou, Pei; Lu, Gang; Zhu, Huachen; Zhang, Guihong; Lai, Alexander; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Canine influenza virus A (H3N2) is a newly emerged etiological agent for respiratory infections in dogs. The mechanism of interspecies transmission from avian to canine species and the development of diseases in this new host remain to be explored. To investigate this, we conducted a differential proteomics study in 2-month-old beagles inoculated intranasally with 106 TCID50 of A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2) virus. Lung sections excised at 12 h post-inoculation (hpi), 4 days, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) were processed for global and quantitative analysis of differentially expressed proteins. A total of 17,796 proteins were identified at different time points. About 1.6% was differentially expressed between normal and infected samples. Of these, 23, 27, and 136 polypeptides were up-regulated, and 14, 18, and 123 polypeptides were down-regulated, at 12 hpi, 4 dpi, and 7 dpi, respectively. Vann diagram analysis indicated that 17 proteins were up-regulated and one was down-regulated at all three time points. Selected proteins were validated by real-time PCR and by Western blot. Our results show that apoptosis and cytoskeleton-associated proteins expression was suppressed, whereas interferon-induced proteins plus other innate immunity proteins were induced after the infection. Understanding of the interactions between virus and the host will provide insights into the basis of interspecies transmission, adaptation, and virus pathogenicity. PMID:25883591

  3. A confirmed severe case of human infection with avian-origin influenza H7N9: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CAO, HUI-FANG; LIANG, ZHONG-HUI; FENG, YING; ZHANG, ZI-NAN; XU, JING; HE, HE

    2015-01-01

    A male patient, aged 77 years, was admitted to hospital with the chief complaint of persistent hyperpyrexia that had presented for four days. The patient also suffered from hypoxemia, and a large white shadow in the left lung was observed on a chest radiograph, indicating inflammation. No therapeutic effect was observed with anti-infection treatment. The patient admitted a history of direct contact with live chickens two weeks prior to hospital admission. The day after admission to the Jingnan District Centre Hospital of Shanghai (Shanghai, China), the patient was diagnosed with severe H7N9 avian influenza infection by nasopharyngeal swab and blood sampling detection. Although the patient received anti-infective drugs, intubated assisted ventilation and circulation support, the condition of the patient continued to rapidly deteriorate. Oxygen saturation decreased and gastrointestinal bleeding occurred, with the body temperature fluctuating between 39 and 40°C. By day 6 after admission, the patient presented with circulatory failure, with liver and renal failure. On day 7, the blood pressure of the patient was unable to be measured, and the patient was diagnosed with multiple organ dysfunction. Subsequently, clinical death was declared with the patient exhibiting asystole and no spontaneous breathing. PMID:25667615

  4. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G R William; Robinson, Timothy P; Tatem, Andrew J; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease. PMID:24937647

  5. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G. R. William; Robinson, Timothy P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P.; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Hay, Simon I.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease. PMID:24937647

  6. Risk Distribution of Human Infections with Avian Influenza H7N9 and H5N1 virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Lou; Yang, Yang; Sun, Ye; Chen, Wan-Jun; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Liu, Kun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Liang, Song; Yao, Hong-Wu; Gray, Gregory C.; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    It has been documented that the epidemiological characteristics of human infections with H7N9 differ significantly between H5N1. However, potential factors that may explain the different spatial distributions remain unexplored. We use boosted regression tree (BRT) models to explore the association of agro-ecological, environmental and meteorological variables with the occurrence of human cases of H7N9 and H5N1, and map the probabilities of occurrence of human cases. Live poultry markets, density of human, coverage of built-up land, relative humidity and precipitation were significant predictors for both. In addition, density of poultry, coverage of shrub and temperature played important roles for human H7N9 infection, whereas human H5N1 infection was associated with coverage of forest and water body. Based on the risks and distribution of ecological characteristics which may facilitate the circulation of the two viruses, we found Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, along with a few spots on the southeast coastline, to be the high risk areas for H7N9 and H5N1. Additional, H5N1 risk spots were identified in eastern Sichuan and southern Yunnan Provinces. Surveillance of the two viruses needs to be enhanced in these high risk areas to reduce the risk of future epidemics of avian influenza in China. PMID:26691585

  7. Risk Distribution of Human Infections with Avian Influenza H7N9 and H5N1 virus in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Lou; Yang, Yang; Sun, Ye; Chen, Wan-Jun; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Liu, Kun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Liang, Song; Yao, Hong-Wu; Gray, Gregory C; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    It has been documented that the epidemiological characteristics of human infections with H7N9 differ significantly between H5N1. However, potential factors that may explain the different spatial distributions remain unexplored. We use boosted regression tree (BRT) models to explore the association of agro-ecological, environmental and meteorological variables with the occurrence of human cases of H7N9 and H5N1, and map the probabilities of occurrence of human cases. Live poultry markets, density of human, coverage of built-up land, relative humidity and precipitation were significant predictors for both. In addition, density of poultry, coverage of shrub and temperature played important roles for human H7N9 infection, whereas human H5N1 infection was associated with coverage of forest and water body. Based on the risks and distribution of ecological characteristics which may facilitate the circulation of the two viruses, we found Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, along with a few spots on the southeast coastline, to be the high risk areas for H7N9 and H5N1. Additional, H5N1 risk spots were identified in eastern Sichuan and southern Yunnan Provinces. Surveillance of the two viruses needs to be enhanced in these high risk areas to reduce the risk of future epidemics of avian influenza in China. PMID:26691585

  8. Evaluation of two different swab transport systems in the detection of avian influenza virus excretion from infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Roelandt, Sophie; Outtrim, Linzy; Browning, Clare; Alexander, Dennis J; Brown, Ian H; Irvine, Richard M

    2012-09-01

    The role of wild birds in the epidemiology and ecology of influenza A viruses has long been recognised (Alexander, 2007a). As a result of the emergence of a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and the apparent role of wild birds in its spread across Asia, Europe and Africa, avian influenza (AI) wild bird surveillance has been implemented in many countries including, since February 2006, a mandatory programme in the European Union (CEC, 2006a). In the present study the detection of virus excreted from Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally with A/mallard/England/2126/07 (H3N6) was investigated over a fourteen day period post-infection using cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs, with (wet) and without (dry) viral transport medium which were collected from each duck in alternating order. For influenza A virus matrix gene RNA detection, wet oropharyngeal swabs were significantly more sensitive than dry oropharyngeal on days 4-5 after infection. For cloacal samples, dry swabs were equivalent or superior to wet swabs throughout the study. Although differences in detection between dry and wet swabs were observed, the qualitative bird-level results were unaffected, meaning that the infection status of individual birds was correctly determined. PMID:22609802

  9. Impact of host genes on resistance to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused massive outbreaks of infection and disease in poultry, significant numbers of infections in wild aquatic birds and some infections in mammals and humans in Asia, Europe and Africa. The primary intervention strategy in poultry within de...

  10. Conducting influenza virus pathogenesis studies in avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian infection studies with influenza A are an important means of assessing host susceptibility, viral pathogenesis, host responses to infection, mechanisms of transmission and viral pathotype. Complex systems and natural settings may also be explored with carefully designed infection studies. In ...

  11. Deterioration of eggshell quality in laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xuefeng; Tan, Dan; Wu, Chengqi; Tang, Chao; Li, Tao; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Liu, Caihong; Li, Ruiqiao; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) affects eggshell quality. Thirty-week-old specific pathogen free egg-laying hens were inoculated with the chicken-origin H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) or with inoculating media without virus by combined intraocular and intranasal routes. The time course for the appearance of viral antigen and tissue lesions in the oviduct was coincident with the adverse changes in egg production in the infected hens. The viral loads of AIV have a close correlation with the changes in the uterus CaBP-D28k mRNA expression as well as the Ca concentrations in the eggshells in the infected hens from 1 to 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Ultrastructural examination of eggshells showed significantly decreased shell thickness in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi (P < 0.05). Furthermore, obvious changes in the structure of the external shell surface and shell membrane were detected in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi as compared with the control hens. In conclusion, this study confirmed that H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) infection is associated with severe lesions of the uterus and abnormal expression of CaBP-D28k mRNA in the uteri of the infected hens. The change of CaBP-D28k mRNA expression may contribute to the deterioration of the eggshell quality of the laying hens infected with AIV. It is noteworthy that the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV strains may vary depending on the virus strain and host preference. PMID:26915662

  12. Why are avian influenza viruses emerging and what tools are needed to prevent and control the infection and disease?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in the world since 1959. The largest of these outbreaks has been the H5N1 HPAI which has caused problems in poultry and other birds in 55 countries of Asia, Europe, and Africa since 1996. These viruses have also caus...

  13. Innate immune responses to infection with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in different duck species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks have been implicated in the dissemination and evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. Differences in pathogenicity and response to vaccination have been observed between different duck species. The innate immune system is responsible for controlling viruses during t...

  14. Early responses of chicken lungs and spleens to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus using microarray analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the last few years, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have originated in Asia and spread through several Middle Eastern, African and European countries, resulting in one of the most serious animal disease incident in recent history. These outbreaks were characterized by t...

  15. Detection of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in meat and tracheal samples from experimentally infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus causes a systemic disease with high mortality of poultry and is potentially zoonotic. In both chickens and ducks, the virus has been demonstrated to replicate in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. Experimentally, H5N1 HPAI virus ha...

  16. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Infection Among Egyptians: A Prospective, Controlled Seroepidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R.; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Elabd, Mona A.; Zeid, Dina Abu; Zaki, Shaimaa A.; El Rifay, Amira S.; Sherif, Lobna S.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Kayali, Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    Background. A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) avian influenza viruses are enzootic in Egyptian poultry, and most A(H5N1) human cases since 2009 have occurred in Egypt. Our understanding of the epidemiology of avian viruses in humans remains limited. Questions about the frequency of infection, the proportion of infections that are mild or subclinical, and the case-fatality rate remain largely unanswered. Methods. We conducted a 3-year, prospective, controlled, seroepidemiological study that enrolled 750 poultry-exposed and 250 unexposed individuals in Egypt. Results. At baseline, the seroprevalence of anti-A(H5N1) antibodies (titer, ≥80) among exposed individuals was 2% significantly higher than that among the controls (0%). Having chronic lung disease was a significant risk factor for infection. Antibodies against A(H9N2) were not detected at baseline when A(H9N2) was not circulating in poultry. At follow-up, A(H9N2) was detected in poultry, and consequently, the seroprevalence among exposed humans was between 5.6% and 7.5%. Vaccination of poultry, older age, and exposure to ducks were risk factors for A(H9N2) infection. Conclusions. Results of this study indicate that the number of humans infected with avian influenza viruses is much larger than the number of reported confirmed cases. In an area where these viruses are enzootic in the poultry, human exposure to and infection with avian influenza becomes more common. PMID:25355942

  17. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...We are amending the regulations concerning the importation of animals and animal products to prohibit or restrict the importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. We are also adding restrictions concerning importation of live poultry and birds that have been vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza,......

  18. Avian influenza: preparedness and response strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is naturally found in wild birds, primarily waterfowl, but the virus may also be found in poultry. In the United States we have a strong passive and active surveillance program for avian influenza in poultry. This includes serologic testing on most flocks that go through the ...

  19. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  20. Association of Mx1 Asn631 variant alleles with reductions in morbidity, early mortality, viral shedding, and cytokine responses in chickens infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) proteins are produced by host cells and have been shown to limit replication of influenza and other viruses. Selective breeding for the Mx polymorphism is an attractive approach to improve genetic resistance of chickens to avian influenza (AI) viruses. Following infection w...

  1. Recombinant virus-like particles elicit protective immunity against avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye V; Massare, Michael J; Pearce, Melissa B; Sun, Xiangjie; Belser, Jessica A; Maines, Taronna R; Creager, Hannah M; Glenn, Gregory M; Pushko, Peter; Smith, Gale E; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2015-04-27

    In March 2013, diagnosis of the first reported case of human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) virus occurred in eastern China. Most human cases have resulted in severe respiratory illness and, in some instances, death. Currently there are no licensed vaccines against H7N9 virus, which continues to cause sporadic human infections. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) have been previously shown to be safe and effective vaccines for influenza. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a H7N9 VLP vaccine in the ferret challenge model. Purified recombinant H7N9 VLPs morphologically resembled influenza virions and elicited high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibodies specific for A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) virus. H7N9 VLP-immunized ferrets subsequently challenged with homologous virus displayed reductions in fever, weight loss, and virus shedding compared to these parameters in unimmunized control ferrets. H7N9 VLP was also effective in protecting against lung and tracheal infection. The addition of either ISCOMATRIX or Matrix-M1 adjuvant improved immunogenicity and protection of the VLP vaccine against H7N9 virus. These results provide support for the development of a safe and effective human VLP vaccine with potent adjuvants against avian influenza H7N9 virus with pandemic potential. PMID:25772674

  2. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, N.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Balança, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Cattoli, G.; Abolnik, C.; Servan de Almeida, R.; Gil, P.; Fereidouni, S. R.; Grosbois, V.; Tran, A.; Mundava, J.; Fofana, B.; Ould El Mamy, A. B.; Ndlovu, M.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Triplet, P.; Hagemeijer, W.; Karesh, W. B.; Newman, S. H.; Dodman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on patterns of AIV prevalence in wildfowl. Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. The predominant influence of wildfowl density with no influence of climatic conditions suggests, in contrast to temperate regions, a predominant role for inter-individual transmission rather than transmission via long-lived virus persisting in the environment. Higher prevalences were found in Anas species than in non-Anas species even when we account for differences in their foraging behaviour (primarily dabbling or not) or their geographical origin (Eurasian or Afro-tropical), suggesting the existence of intrinsic differences between wildfowl taxonomic groups in receptivity to infection. Birds were found infected as often in oropharyngeal as in cloacal samples, but rarely for both types of sample concurrently, indicating that both respiratory and digestive tracts may be important for AIV replication. PMID:21920984

  3. Comprehensive analysis of antibody recognition in convalescent humans from highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Teng; Sun, Jianfeng; Wang, Guiqin; Jiang, Liwei; Zuo, Yanan; Li, Danyang; Shi, Xuanling; Liu, Xi; Fan, Shilong; Ren, Huanhuan; Hu, Hongxing; Sun, Lina; Zhou, Boping; Liang, Mifang; Zhou, Paul; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of protective antibody recognition against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 in humans is critical for the development of effective therapies and vaccines. Here we report the crystal structure of three H5-specific human monoclonal antibodies bound to the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA) with distinct epitope specificities, neutralization potencies and breadth. A structural and functional analysis of these epitopes combined with those reported elsewhere identifies four major vulnerable sites on the globular head of H5N1 HA. Chimeric and vulnerable site-specific mutant pseudoviruses are generated to delineate broad neutralization specificities of convalescent sera from two individuals who recovered from the infection with H5N1 virus. Our results show that the four vulnerable sites on the globular head rather than the stem region are the major neutralizing targets, suggesting that during natural H5N1 infection neutralizing antibodies against the globular head work in concert to provide protective antibody-mediated immunity. PMID:26635249

  4. Comprehensive analysis of antibody recognition in convalescent humans from highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Teng; Sun, Jianfeng; Wang, Guiqin; Jiang, Liwei; Zuo, Yanan; Li, Danyang; Shi, Xuanling; Liu, Xi; Fan, Shilong; Ren, Huanhuan; Hu, Hongxing; Sun, Lina; Zhou, Boping; Liang, Mifang; Zhou, Paul; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of protective antibody recognition against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 in humans is critical for the development of effective therapies and vaccines. Here we report the crystal structure of three H5-specific human monoclonal antibodies bound to the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA) with distinct epitope specificities, neutralization potencies and breadth. A structural and functional analysis of these epitopes combined with those reported elsewhere identifies four major vulnerable sites on the globular head of H5N1 HA. Chimeric and vulnerable site-specific mutant pseudoviruses are generated to delineate broad neutralization specificities of convalescent sera from two individuals who recovered from the infection with H5N1 virus. Our results show that the four vulnerable sites on the globular head rather than the stem region are the major neutralizing targets, suggesting that during natural H5N1 infection neutralizing antibodies against the globular head work in concert to provide protective antibody-mediated immunity. PMID:26635249

  5. The dynamics of avian influenza in western Arctic snow geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Brown, Justin D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Ip, Hon S.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.

    2015-01-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging, and despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3,000 sera samples from snow geese at 2 breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from > 4,000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between snow goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly-pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations.

  6. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  7. Chlamydia psittaci infection increases mortality of avian influenza virus H9N2 by suppressing host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Tianyuan; Han, Er; Zhao, Peng; Khan, Ahrar; He, Cheng; Wu, Yongzheng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2) and Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) are frequently isolated in chickens with respiratory disease. However, their roles in co-infection remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that C. psittaci enhances H9N2 infection through suppression of host immunity. Thus, 10-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated intra-tracheally with a high or low virulence C. psittaci strain, and were simultaneously vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Significant decreases in body weight, NDV antibodies and immune organ indices occurred in birds with the virulent C. psittaci infection, while the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells increased significantly compared to that of the lower virulence strain. A second group of birds were inoculated with C. psittaci and H9N2 simultaneously (C. psittaci+H9N2), C. psittaci 3 days prior to H9N2 (C. psittaci/H9N2), or 3 days after H9N2 (H9N2/C. psittaci), C. psittaci or H9N2 alone. Survival rates were 65%, 80% and 90% in the C. psittaci/H9N2, C. psittaci+H9N2 and H9N2/C. psittaci groups, respectively and respiratory clinical signs, lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and higher pathogen loads were found in both C. psittaci/H9N2 and C. psittaci+H9N2 groups. Hence, virulent C. psittaci infection suppresses immune response by inhibiting humoral responses and altering Th1/Th2 balance, increasing mortality in H9N2 infected birds. PMID:27405059

  8. Chlamydia psittaci infection increases mortality of avian influenza virus H9N2 by suppressing host immune response.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Tianyuan; Han, Er; Zhao, Peng; Khan, Ahrar; He, Cheng; Wu, Yongzheng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2) and Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) are frequently isolated in chickens with respiratory disease. However, their roles in co-infection remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that C. psittaci enhances H9N2 infection through suppression of host immunity. Thus, 10-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated intra-tracheally with a high or low virulence C. psittaci strain, and were simultaneously vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Significant decreases in body weight, NDV antibodies and immune organ indices occurred in birds with the virulent C. psittaci infection, while the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells increased significantly compared to that of the lower virulence strain. A second group of birds were inoculated with C. psittaci and H9N2 simultaneously (C. psittaci+H9N2), C. psittaci 3 days prior to H9N2 (C. psittaci/H9N2), or 3 days after H9N2 (H9N2/C. psittaci), C. psittaci or H9N2 alone. Survival rates were 65%, 80% and 90% in the C. psittaci/H9N2, C. psittaci+H9N2 and H9N2/C. psittaci groups, respectively and respiratory clinical signs, lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and higher pathogen loads were found in both C. psittaci/H9N2 and C. psittaci+H9N2 groups. Hence, virulent C. psittaci infection suppresses immune response by inhibiting humoral responses and altering Th1/Th2 balance, increasing mortality in H9N2 infected birds. PMID:27405059

  9. Adenovirus as a carrier for the development of influenza virus-free avian influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tang, De-chu C; Zhang, Jianfeng; Toro, Haroldo; Shi, Zhongkai; Van Kampen, Kent R

    2009-01-01

    A long-sought goal during the battle against avian influenza is to develop a new generation of vaccines capable of mass immunizing humans as well as poultry (the major source of avian influenza for human infections) in a timely manner. Although administration of the currently licensed influenza vaccine is effective in eliciting protective immunity against seasonal influenza, this approach is associated with a number of insurmountable problems for preventing an avian influenza pandemic. Many of the hurdles may be eliminated by developing new avian influenza vaccines that do not require the propagation of an influenza virus during vaccine production. Replication-competent adenovirus-free adenovirus vectors hold promise as a carrier for influenza virus-free avian influenza vaccines owing to their safety profile and rapid manufacture using cultured suspension cells in a serum-free medium. Simple and efficient mass-immunization protocols, including nasal spray for people and automated in ovo vaccination for poultry, convey another advantage for this class of vaccines. In contrast to parenteral injection of adenovirus vector, the potency of adenovirus-vectored nasal vaccine is not appreciably interfered by pre-existing immunity to adenovirus. PMID:19348562

  10. Susceptibility of wood ducks to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused mortality in numerous species of wild birds; this is atypical for avian influenza virus (AIV) infections in wild birds, especially for species in the Order Anseriformes. Although these infections document the susceptibili...

  11. The ESEV PDZ-Binding Motif of the Avian Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein Protects Infected Cells from Apoptosis by Directly Targeting Scribble▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbing; Golebiewski, Lisa; Dow, Eugene C.; Krug, Robert M.; Javier, Ronald T.; Rice, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    The NS1 protein from influenza A viruses contains a four-amino-acid sequence at its carboxyl terminus that is termed the PDZ-binding motif (PBM). The NS1 PBM is predicted to bind to cellular PDZ proteins and functions as a virulence determinant in infected mice. ESEV is the consensus PBM sequence of avian influenza viruses, while RSKV is the consensus sequence of human viruses. Currently circulating highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses encode an NS1 protein with the ESEV PBM. We identified cellular targets of the avian ESEV PBM and identified molecular mechanisms involved in its function. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays, we found that the ESEV PBM enables NS1 to associate with the PDZ proteins Scribble, Dlg1, MAGI-1, MAGI-2, and MAGI-3. Because Scribble possesses a proapoptotic activity, we investigated the interaction between NS1 and Scribble. The association between NS1 and Scribble is direct and requires the ESEV PBM and two Scribble PDZ domains. We constructed recombinant H3N2 viruses that encode an H6N6 avian virus NS1 protein with either an ESEV or mutant ESEA PBM, allowing an analysis of the ESEV PBM in infections in mammalian cells. The ESEV PBM enhanced viral replication up to 4-fold. In infected cells, NS1 with the ESEV PBM relocalized Scribble into cytoplasmic puncta concentrated in perinuclear regions and also protected cells from apoptosis. In addition, the latter effect was eliminated by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated Scribble depletion. This study shows that one function of the avian ESEV PBM is to reduce apoptosis during infection through disruption of Scribble's proapoptotic function. PMID:20702615

  12. Protocatechuic Acid, a Novel Active Substance against Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Changbo; Shi, Ningning; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Zongxue; Wang, Baozhong; Compans, Richard W.; He, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus H9N2 subtype has triggered co-infection with other infectious agents, resulting in huge economical losses in the poultry industry. Our current study aims to evaluate the antiviral activity of protocatechuic acid (PCA) against a virulent H9N2 strain in a mouse model. 120 BALB/c mice were divided into one control group, one untreated group, one 50 mg/kg amantadine hydrochloride-treated group and three PCA groups treated 12 hours post-inoculation with 40, 20 or 10 mg/kg PCA for 7 days. All the infected animals were inoculated intranasally with 0.2 ml of a A/Chicken/Hebei/4/2008(H9N2) inoculum. A significant body weight loss was found in the 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg PCA-treated and amantadine groups as compared to the control group. The 14 day survivals were 94.4%, 100% and 95% in the PCA-treated groups and 94.4% in the amantadine hydrochloride group, compared to less than 60% in the untreated group. Virus loads were less in the PCA-treated groups compared to the amantadine-treated or the untreated groups. Neutrophil cells in BALF were significantly decreased while IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly at days 7 in the PCA-treated groups compared to the untreated group. Furthermore, a significantly decreased CD4+/CD8+ ratio and an increased proportion of CD19 cells were observed in the PCA-treated groups and amantadine-treated group compared to the untreated group. Mice administered with PCA exhibited a higher survival rate and greater viral clearance associated with an inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and activation of CD8+ T cell subsets. PCA is a promising novel agent against bird flu infection in the poultry industry. PMID:25337912

  13. Analysis of the crow lung transcriptome in response to infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Periyasamy; Mishra, Anamika; Ranaware, Pradip B; Kolte, Atul P; Kulkarni, Diwakar D; Burt, David W; Raut, Ashwin Ashok

    2015-03-15

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, currently circulating in Asia, causes severe disease in domestic poultry as well as wild birds like crow. However, the molecular pathogenesis of HPAIV infection in crows and other wild birds is not well known. Thus, as a step to explore it, a comprehensive global gene expression analysis was performed on crow lungs, infected with HPAI H5N1 crow isolate (A/Crow/India/11TI11/2011) using high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) (GS FLX Titanium XLR70). The reference genome of crow is not available, so RNA seq analysis was performed on the basis of a de novo assembled transcriptome. The RNA seq result shows, 4052 genes were expressed uniquely in noninfected, 6277 genes were expressed uniquely in HPAIV infected sample and of the 6814 genes expressed in both samples, 2279 genes were significantly differentially expressed. Our transcriptome profile data allows for the ability to understand the molecular mechanism behind the recent lethal HPAIV outbreak in crows which was, until recently, thought to cause lethal infections only in gallinaceous birds such as chickens, but not in wild birds. The pattern of differentially expressed genes suggest that this isolate of H5N1 virus evades the host innate immune response by attenuating interferon (IFN)-inducible signalling possibly by down regulating the signalling from type I IFN (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) and type II IFN receptors, upregulation of the signalling inhibitors suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3 and altering the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs). This may be the reason for disease and mortality in crows. PMID:25592823

  14. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses. PMID:27080193

  15. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Philippe F; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A A

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain's generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses. PMID:27080193

  16. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses.

  17. Experimental infection of SPF and Korean native chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8).

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Woo, Sang-Hee; Heo, Gyeong-Beom; Jung, Suk Chan; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In 2014, an H5N8 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in South Korea. The H5N8 strain produced mild to moderate clinical signs and mortality rates in commercial chicken farms, especially Korean native chicken farms. To understand the differences between their pathogenicity in SPF chicken and Korean native chicken., we evaluated the mean bird lethal doses (BLD50) of the Korean representative H5N8 virus (A/broiler duck/Korea/Buan2/2014) The BLD50values of the H5N8 virus were 10(5.3)EID50and 10(6.7)EID50in SPF and Korean native chickens, respectively. In addition, the mean death time was much longer, and the viral titers in tissues of H5N8-infected chickens were significantly lower, in the Korean group than in the SPF group. These features of the H5N8 virus likely account for its mild-to-moderate pathogenicity in commercial chicken farms, especially Korean native chicken flocks, despite the fact that it is a highly pathogenic virus according to the OIE criteria. To improve current understanding and management of HPAI, pathogenic characterization of novel emerging viruses should be performed by natural route in major poultry species in each country. PMID:26933235

  18. Ecology of avian influenza virus in birds.

    PubMed

    Causey, Douglas; Edwards, Scott V

    2008-02-15

    Avian influenza A virus (an orthomyxovirus) is a zoonotic pathogen with a natural reservoir entirely in birds. The influenza virus genome is an 8-segment single-stranded RNA with high potential for in situ recombination. Two segments code for the hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) antigens used for host-cell entry. At present, 16 H and 9 N subtypes are known, for a total of 144 possible different influenza subtypes, each with potentially different host susceptibility. With >10,000 species of birds found in nearly every terrestrial and aquatic habitat, there are few places on earth where birds cannot be found. The avian immune system differs from that of humans in several important features, including asynchronous B and T lymphocyte systems and a polymorphic multigene immune complex, but little is known about the immunogenetics of pathogenic response. Postbreeding dispersal and migration and a naturally high degree of environmental vagility mean that wild birds have the potential to be vectors that transmit highly pathogenic variants great distances from the original sources of infection. PMID:18269325

  19. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sanhong; Pang, Liuyong; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza. PMID:25861378

  20. Shedding Light on Avian Influenza H4N6 Infection in Mallards: Modes of Transmission and Implications for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    VanDalen, Kaci K.; Franklin, Alan B.; Mooers, Nicole L.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Shriner, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Wild mallards (Anas platyrhychos) are considered one of the primary reservoir species for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Because AIV circulating in wild birds pose an indirect threat to agriculture and human health, understanding the ecology of AIV and developing risk assessments and surveillance systems for prevention of disease is critical. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, mallards were experimentally infected with an H4N6 subtype of AIV by oral inoculation or contact with an H4N6 contaminated water source. Cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, fecal samples, and water samples were collected daily and tested by real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) for estimation of viral shedding. Fecal samples had significantly higher virus concentrations than oropharyngeal or cloacal swabs and 6 month old ducks shed significantly more viral RNA than 3 month old ducks regardless of sample type. Use of a water source contaminated by AIV infected mallards, was sufficient to transmit virus to naïve mallards, which shed AIV at higher or similar levels as orally-inoculated ducks. Conclusions Bodies of water could serve as a transmission pathway for AIV in waterfowl. For AIV surveillance purposes, water samples and fecal samples appear to be excellent alternatives or additions to cloacal and oropharyngeal swabbing. Furthermore, duck age (even within hatch-year birds) may be important when interpreting viral shedding results from experimental infections or surveillance. Differential shedding among hatch-year mallards could affect prevalence estimates, modeling of AIV spread, and subsequent risk assessments. PMID:20877466

  1. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic. PMID:18269323

  2. An update on avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Chávez, C; Rivera-Cruz, E

    2003-01-01

    The avian influenza high-pathogenicity virus was eradicated in poultry of Mexico in a relatively short period by the use of inactivated emulsified vaccine, enforcing biosecurity, and controlling movement of poultry and poultry products. Mexico maintains a permanent and reliable monitoring program for AI. H5N2 is the only avian influenza subtype identified. It is possible to control and eradicate the avian influenza low-pathogenicity virus mainly by controlled depopulation of positive poultry, reinforcing biosecurity, and the use of vaccines. PMID:14575101

  3. Modelling the species jump: towards assessing the risk of human infection from novel avian influenzas

    PubMed Central

    Hill, A. A.; Dewé, T.; Kosmider, R.; Von Dobschuetz, S.; Munoz, O.; Hanna, A.; Fusaro, A.; De Nardi, M.; Howard, W.; Stevens, K.; Kelly, L.; Havelaar, A.; Stärk, K.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific understanding of the driving factors behind zoonotic and pandemic influenzas is hampered by complex interactions between viruses, animal hosts and humans. This complexity makes identifying influenza viruses of high zoonotic or pandemic risk, before they emerge from animal populations, extremely difficult and uncertain. As a first step towards assessing zoonotic risk of influenza, we demonstrate a risk assessment framework to assess the relative likelihood of influenza A viruses, circulating in animal populations, making the species jump into humans. The intention is that such a risk assessment framework could assist decision-makers to compare multiple influenza viruses for zoonotic potential and hence to develop appropriate strain-specific control measures. It also provides a first step towards showing proof of principle for an eventual pandemic risk model. We show that the spatial and temporal epidemiology is as important in assessing the risk of an influenza A species jump as understanding the innate molecular capability of the virus. We also demonstrate data deficiencies that need to be addressed in order to consistently combine both epidemiological and molecular virology data into a risk assessment framework. PMID:26473042

  4. Modelling the species jump: towards assessing the risk of human infection from novel avian influenzas.

    PubMed

    Hill, A A; Dewé, T; Kosmider, R; Von Dobschuetz, S; Munoz, O; Hanna, A; Fusaro, A; De Nardi, M; Howard, W; Stevens, K; Kelly, L; Havelaar, A; Stärk, K

    2015-09-01

    The scientific understanding of the driving factors behind zoonotic and pandemic influenzas is hampered by complex interactions between viruses, animal hosts and humans. This complexity makes identifying influenza viruses of high zoonotic or pandemic risk, before they emerge from animal populations, extremely difficult and uncertain. As a first step towards assessing zoonotic risk of influenza, we demonstrate a risk assessment framework to assess the relative likelihood of influenza A viruses, circulating in animal populations, making the species jump into humans. The intention is that such a risk assessment framework could assist decision-makers to compare multiple influenza viruses for zoonotic potential and hence to develop appropriate strain-specific control measures. It also provides a first step towards showing proof of principle for an eventual pandemic risk model. We show that the spatial and temporal epidemiology is as important in assessing the risk of an influenza A species jump as understanding the innate molecular capability of the virus. We also demonstrate data deficiencies that need to be addressed in order to consistently combine both epidemiological and molecular virology data into a risk assessment framework. PMID:26473042

  5. Minor differences in body condition and immune status between avian influenza virus-infected and noninfected mallards: a sign of coevolution?

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel; Matson, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife pathogens can alter host fitness. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection is thought to have negligible impacts on wild birds; however, effects of infection in free-living birds are largely unstudied. We investigated the extent to which LPAIV infection and shedding were associated with body condition and immune status in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), a partially migratory key LPAIV host species. We sampled mallards throughout the species' annual autumn LPAIV infection peak, and we classified individuals according to age, sex, and migratory strategy (based on stable hydrogen isotope analysis) when analyzing data on body mass and five indices of immune status. Body mass was similar for LPAIV-infected and noninfected birds. The degree of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx was not associated with body mass. LPAIV infection and shedding were not associated with natural antibody (NAbs) and complement titers (first lines of defense against infections), concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp), ratios of heterophils to lymphocytes (H:L ratio), and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibody concentrations. NAbs titers were higher in LPAIV-infected males and local (i.e., short distance) migrants than in infected females and distant (i.e., long distance) migrants. Hp concentrations were higher in LPAIV-infected juveniles and females compared to infected adults and males. NAbs, complement, and Hp levels were lower in LPAIV-infected mallards in early autumn. Our study demonstrates weak associations between infection with and shedding of LPAIV and the body condition and immune status of free-living mallards. These results may support the role of mallards as asymptomatic carriers of LPAIV and raise questions about possible coevolution between virus and host. PMID:25691969

  6. Pathogenesis and transmissibility of highly (H7N1) and low (H7N9) pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) was carried out in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in order to study clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, and viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. Birds were infected with a HPAIV subtype H7N1 (A/Chicken/Italy/5093/1999) and a LPAIV subtype H7N9 (A/Anas crecca/Spain/1460/2008). Uninoculated birds were included as contacts in both groups. In HPAIV infected birds, the first clinical signs were observed at 3 dpi, and mortality started at 4 dpi, reaching 100% at 8 dpi. The presence of viral antigen in tissues and viral shedding were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRRT-PCR), respectively, in all birds infected with HPAIV. However, neither clinical signs nor histopathological findings were observed in LPAIV infected partridges. In addition, only short-term viral shedding together with seroconversion was detected in some LPAIV inoculated animals. The present study demonstrates that the red-legged partridge is highly susceptible to the H7N1 HPAIV strain, causing severe disease, mortality and abundant viral shedding and thus contributing to the spread of a potential local outbreak of this virus. In contrast, our results concerning H7N9 LPAIV suggest that the red-legged partridge is not a reservoir species for this virus. PMID:21314907

  7. The infection of turkeys and chickens by reassortants derived from pandemic H1N1 2009 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Honglei; Kong, Weili; Liu, Litao; Qu, Yi; Li, Chong; Shen, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Yu; Wu, Sizhe; Pu, Juan; Liu, Jinhua; Sun, Yipeng

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) in turkeys have been reported in several countries. Co-infection of pH1N1 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses in turkeys provide the opportunity for their reassortment, and novel reassortant viruses might further be transmitted to other avian species. However, virulence and transmission of those reassortant viruses in poultry remain unclear. In the present study, we generated 16 single-gene reassortant influenza viruses including eight reassortants on the pH1N1 background by individual replacement with a corresponding gene segment from H9N2 and eight reassortants on the H9N2 background replaced individually with corresponding gene from pH1N1, and characterized reassortants viruses in turkeys and chickens. We found that the pH1N1 virus dramatically increased its infectivity and transmissibility in turkeys and chickens after introducing any gene (except for PB2) from H9N2 virus, and H9N2 virus acquired single gene (except for HA) of pH1N1 almost did not influence its replication and transmission in turkeys and chickens. Additionally, 13 reassortant viruses transmitted from turkeys to chickens. Our results indicate that turkeys and chickens are susceptible to pH1N1-H9N2 reassortant viruses, and mixing breeding of different avian species would facilitate the transmission of these reassortant viruses. PMID:26030097

  8. Domestic pigs have low susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Genetic reassortment of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) with currently circulating human influenza A strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Domestic pigs which are susceptible to infection with both human and avian ...

  9. Susceptibility of swine to H5 and H7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of pigs to become infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses from an avian reservoir, and then generate mammalian adaptable influenza A viruses (IAVs) is difficult to determine. Yet, it is an important link to understanding any relationship between LPAI virus ecology and...

  10. Short-Term Heat Shock Affects Host–Virus Interaction in Mice Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jia; Fan, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Shouping; Xiao, Jin; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is a highly contagious virus that can cause acute respiratory infections and high human fatality ratio due to excessive inflammatory response. Short-term heat shock, as a stressful condition, could induce the expression of heat shock proteins that function as molecular chaperones to protect cells against multiple stresses. However, the protective effect of short-term heat shock in influenza infection is far from being understood. In this study, mice were treated at 39°C for 4 h before being infected with HPAIV H5N1. Interestingly, short-term heat shock significantly increased the levels of HSP70 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of mice. Following HPAIV H5N1 infection, short-term heat shock alleviated immunopathology and viral replication in lung tissue and repressed the weight loss and increased the survival rate of H5N1-infected mice. Our data reported that short-term heat shock provided beneficial anti-HPAIV H5N1 properties in mice model, which offers an alternative strategy for non-drug prevention for influenza infection. PMID:27379054

  11. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  12. Polymorphism in chicken Mx gene influences susceptibility to avian influenza virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mx protein is produced by host cells in response to IFN-alpha, and has been shown to confer protection against influenza in mammalian studies. Chickens have a single Mx gene with multiple alleles. In previous experiments, transfecting cDNAs of various alleles into mouse 3T3 cells, a single nuc...

  13. Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 in Naturally Infected Poultry in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hagag, Ibrahim Thabet; Mansour, Shimaa M. G.; Zhang, Zerui; Ali, Ahmed A. H.; Ismaiel, El-Bakry M.; Salama, Ali A.; Cardona, Carol J.; Collins, James; Xing, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been endemic in Egypt since 2006, and there is increasing concern for its potential to become highly transmissible among humans. Infection by HPAIV H5N1 has been described in experimentally challenged birds. However, the pathogenicity of the H5N1 isolated in Egypt has never been reported in naturally infected chickens and ducks. Here we report a 2013 outbreak of HPAIV H5N1 in commercial poultry farms and backyards in Sharkia Province, Egypt. The main symptoms were ecchymosis on the shanks and feet, cyanosis of the comb and wattles, subcutaneous edema of the head and neck for chickens, and nervous signs (torticollis) for ducks. Within 48-72 hrs of the onset of illness, the average mortality rates were 22.8-30% and 28.5-40% in vaccinated chickens and non-vaccinated ducks, respectively. Tissue samples of chickens and ducks were collected for analyses with cross-section immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR for specific viral RNA transcripts. While viral RNA was detected in nearly all tissues and sera collected, viral nucleoprotein was detected almost ubiquitously in all tissues, including testis. Interestingly, viral antigen was also observed in endothelial cells of most organs in chickens, and clearly detected in the trachea and brain in particular. Viral nucleoprotein was also detected in mononuclear cells of various organs, especially pulmonary tissue. We performed phylogenetic analyses and compared the genomic sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and nonstructural proteins (NS) among the isolated viruses, the HPAIV circulated in Egypt in the past and currently, and some available vaccine strains. Further analysis of deduced amino acids of both HA and NS1 revealed that our isolates carried molecular determinants of HPAIV, including the multibasic amino acids (PQGERRRK/KR*GLF) in the cleavage site in HA and glutamate at position 92 (D92E) in NS1. This is the first report of the pathogenicity of the HPAIVH5N

  14. Digital diffraction detection of protein markers for avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyungsoon; Park, Yong Il; Pathania, Divya; Castro, Cesar M; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2016-04-12

    Rapid pathogen testing is expected to play a critical role in infection control and in limiting epidemics. Smartphones equipped with state-of-the-art computing and imaging technologies have emerged as new point-of-use (POU) sensing platforms. We herein report a new assay format for fast, sensitive and portable detection of avian influenza-associated antibodies. PMID:26980325

  15. Avian influenza: worldwide situation and effectiveness of current vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries during the past 18 years. The majority of the recent outbreaks of H5N2 HPAI have occurred in Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, in decreasi...

  16. Prevention and control of avian influenza in Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. For 2011-2012, 19 countries reported outbreaks of H5N1 in domestic poultry, wild birds or both. The majority of the outbr...

  17. Immunohistochemical staining of avian influenza viruses in tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunohistochemical methods are commonly used for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza virus by allowing the identification of sites of replication of the virus in infected tissues and the correlation with the histopathological changes observed. In this chapter, the materials and methods fo...

  18. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: Intersecting Humans, Animals, and the Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eurasian-African H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused an unprecedented epizootic affecting mainly poultry, but has crossed multiple species barriers to infect captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. There is still great concern over the continued infecti...

  19. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies. PMID:23171740

  20. Immunohistochemical staining of avian influenza virus in tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunohistochemical methods are commonly used for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza (AI) virus by allowing the identification of sites of replication of the virus in infected tissues and the correlation with the histopathological changes observed. In this chapter, the materials and metho...

  1. Avian influenza worldwide: current status and successful control tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. For 2010-2011, 20 countries reported outbreaks of H5N1 in domestic poultry (n = 11), wild birds (n = 4) or both (n=5). Th...

  2. Long-Term Effect of Serial Infections with H13 and H16 Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Black-Headed Gulls

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Josanne H.; van Amerongen, Geert; van de Bildt, Marco; Majoor, Frank; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infections of domestic and wild birds with low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have been associated with protective immunity to subsequent infection. However, the degree and duration of immunity in wild birds from previous LPAIV infection, by the same or a different subtype, are poorly understood. Therefore, we inoculated H13N2 (A/black-headed gull/Netherlands/7/2009) and H16N3 (A/black-headed gull/Netherlands/26/2009) LPAIVs into black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), their natural host species, and measured the long-term immune response and protection against one or two reinfections over a period of >1 year. This is the typical interval between LPAIV epizootics in wild birds. Reinfection with the same virus resulted in progressively less virus excretion, with complete abrogation of virus excretion after two infections for H13 but not H16. However, reinfection with the other virus affected neither the level nor duration of virus excretion. Virus excretion by immunologically naive birds did not differ in total levels of excreted H13 or H16 virus between first- and second-year birds, but the duration of H13 excretion was shorter for second-year birds. Furthermore, serum antibody levels did not correlate with protection against LPAIV infection. LPAIV-infected gulls showed no clinical signs of disease. These results imply that the epidemiological cycles of H13 and H16 in black-headed gulls are relatively independent from each other and depend mainly on infection of first-year birds. IMPORTANCE Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) circulate mainly in wild water birds but are occasionally transmitted to other species, including humans, where they cause subclinical to fatal disease. To date, the effect of LPAIV-specific immunity on the epidemiology of LPAIV in wild birds is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of H13 and H16 LPAIV infection in black-headed gulls on susceptibility and virus excretion of

  3. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    PubMed Central

    Koh, GCH; Wong, TY; Cheong, SK; Koh, DSQ

    2008-01-01

    There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical. PMID:19014538

  4. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society. PMID:25242001

  5. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society. PMID:25242001

  6. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Button Past Newsletters Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People Language: English Español ...

  7. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Method Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Results Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65%) showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI) infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Conclusion Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen avian influenza surveillance

  8. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  9. Control of avian influenza: philosophy and perspectives on behalf of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    1992-01-01

    Aquatic birds are considered the primary reservoir for influenza A viruses (Nettles et al., 1987).  However, there is little concern about avian influenza among conservation agencies responsible for the welfare of those species.  IN contrast, the poultry industry has great concern about avian influenza and view aquatic birds as a source for infection of poultry flocks.  In some instances, differences in these perspectives created conflict between conservation agencies and the poultry industry.  I speak on behalf of migratory birds, but philosophy and perspectives offered are intended to be helpful to the poultry industry in their efforts to combat avian influenza.

  10. Demographic and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Avian Influenza Infection at the Continental Scale, and in Relation to Annual Life Cycle of a Migratory Host.

    PubMed

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Epp, Tasha; Leighton, Frederick A; Swafford, Seth R; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Dusek, Robert J; Ip, Hon S; Hall, Jeffrey; Berhane, Yohannes; Gibbs, Samantha E J; Soos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in the eastern hemisphere, numerous surveillance programs and studies have been undertaken to detect the occurrence, distribution, or spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild bird populations worldwide. To identify demographic determinants and spatiotemporal patterns of AIV infection in long distance migratory waterfowl in North America, we fitted generalized linear models with binominal distribution to analyze results from 13,574 blue-winged teal (Anas discors, BWTE) sampled in 2007 to 2010 year round during AIV surveillance programs in Canada and the United States. Our analyses revealed that during late summer staging (July-August) and fall migration (September-October), hatch year (HY) birds were more likely to be infected than after hatch year (AHY) birds, however there was no difference between age categories for the remainder of the year (winter, spring migration, and breeding period), likely due to maturing immune systems and newly acquired immunity of HY birds. Probability of infection increased non-linearly with latitude, and was highest in late summer prior to fall migration when densities of birds and the proportion of susceptible HY birds in the population are highest. Birds in the Central and Mississippi flyways were more likely to be infected compared to those in the Atlantic flyway. Seasonal cycles and spatial variation of AIV infection were largely driven by the dynamics of AIV infection in HY birds, which had more prominent cycles and spatial variation in infection compared to AHY birds. Our results demonstrate demographic as well as seasonal, latitudinal and flyway trends across Canada and the US, while illustrating the importance of migratory host life cycle and age in driving cyclical patterns of prevalence. PMID:26110538

  11. Demographic and spatiotemporal patterns of avian influenza infection at the continental scale, and in relation to annual life cycle of a migratory host

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Epp, Tasha; Leighton, Frederick A.; Swafford, Seth R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Berhane, Yohannes; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Soos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in the eastern hemisphere, numerous surveillance programs and studies have been undertaken to detect the occurrence, distribution, or spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild bird populations worldwide. To identify demographic determinants and spatiotemporal patterns of AIV infection in long distance migratory waterfowl in North America, we fitted generalized linear models with binominal distribution to analyze results from 13,574 blue-winged teal (Anas discors, BWTE) sampled in 2007 to 2010 year round during AIV surveillance programs in Canada and the United States. Our analyses revealed that during late summer staging (July-August) and fall migration (September-October), hatch year (HY) birds were more likely to be infected than after hatch year (AHY) birds, however there was no difference between age categories for the remainder of the year (winter, spring migration, and breeding period), likely due to maturing immune systems and newly acquired immunity of HY birds. Probability of infection increased non-linearly with latitude, and was highest in late summer prior to fall migration when densities of birds and the proportion of susceptible HY birds in the population are highest. Birds in the Central and Mississippi flyways were more likely to be infected compared to those in the Atlantic flyway. Seasonal cycles and spatial variation of AIV infection were largely driven by the dynamics of AIV infection in HY birds, which had more prominent cycles and spatial variation in infection compared to AHY birds. Our results demonstrate demographic as well as seasonal, latitudinal and flyway trends across Canada and the US, while illustrating the importance of migratory host life cycle and age in driving cyclical patterns of prevalence.

  12. Demographic and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Avian Influenza Infection at the Continental Scale, and in Relation to Annual Life Cycle of a Migratory Host

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Tasha; Leighton, Frederick A.; Swafford, Seth R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey; Berhane, Yohannes; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Soos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in the eastern hemisphere, numerous surveillance programs and studies have been undertaken to detect the occurrence, distribution, or spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild bird populations worldwide. To identify demographic determinants and spatiotemporal patterns of AIV infection in long distance migratory waterfowl in North America, we fitted generalized linear models with binominal distribution to analyze results from 13,574 blue-winged teal (Anas discors, BWTE) sampled in 2007 to 2010 year round during AIV surveillance programs in Canada and the United States. Our analyses revealed that during late summer staging (July-August) and fall migration (September-October), hatch year (HY) birds were more likely to be infected than after hatch year (AHY) birds, however there was no difference between age categories for the remainder of the year (winter, spring migration, and breeding period), likely due to maturing immune systems and newly acquired immunity of HY birds. Probability of infection increased non-linearly with latitude, and was highest in late summer prior to fall migration when densities of birds and the proportion of susceptible HY birds in the population are highest. Birds in the Central and Mississippi flyways were more likely to be infected compared to those in the Atlantic flyway. Seasonal cycles and spatial variation of AIV infection were largely driven by the dynamics of AIV infection in HY birds, which had more prominent cycles and spatial variation in infection compared to AHY birds. Our results demonstrate demographic as well as seasonal, latitudinal and flyway trends across Canada and the US, while illustrating the importance of migratory host life cycle and age in driving cyclical patterns of prevalence. PMID:26110538

  13. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  14. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  15. Determination of Original Infection Source of H7N9 Avian Influenza by Dynamical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juan; Jin, Zhen; Sun, Gui-Quan; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Wang, You-Ming; Huang, Baoxu

    2014-05-01

    H7N9, a newly emerging virus in China, travels among poultry and human. Although H7N9 has not aroused massive outbreaks, recurrence in the second half of 2013 makes it essential to control the spread. It is believed that the most effective control measure is to locate the original infection source and cut off the source of infection from human. However, the original infection source and the internal transmission mechanism of the new virus are not totally clear. In order to determine the original infection source of H7N9, we establish a dynamical model with migratory bird, resident bird, domestic poultry and human population, and view migratory bird, resident bird, domestic poultry as original infection source respectively to fit the true dynamics during the 2013 pandemic. By comparing the date fitting results and corresponding Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values, we conclude that migrant birds are most likely the original infection source. In addition, we obtain the basic reproduction number in poultry and carry out sensitivity analysis of some parameters.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of 26 Human Cases of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Nijuan; Zhou, Lei; Huai, Yang; Feng, Luzhao; Peng, Zhibin; Li, Zhongjie; Xu, Cuiling; Li, Junhua; Hu, Chengping; Li, Qun; Xu, Xiaoling; Liu, Xuecheng; Liu, Zigui; Xu, Longshan; Chen, Yusheng; Luo, Huiming; Wei, Liping; Zhang, Xianfeng; Xin, Jianbao; Guo, Junqiao; Wang, Qiuyue; Yuan, Zhengan; Zhou, Longnv; Zhang, Kunzhao; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jinye; Zhong, Xiaoning; Xia, Shichang; Li, Lanjuan; Cheng, Jinquan; Ma, Erdang; He, Pingping; Lee, Shui Shan; Wang, Yu; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Yang, Weizhong

    2008-01-01

    Background While human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection continue to increase globally, available clinical data on H5N1 cases are limited. We conducted a retrospective study of 26 confirmed human H5N1 cases identified through surveillance in China from October 2005 through April 2008. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected from hospital medical records of H5N1 cases and analyzed. The median age was 29 years (range 6–62) and 58% were female. Many H5N1 cases reported fever (92%) and cough (58%) at illness onset, and had lower respiratory findings of tachypnea and dyspnea at admission. All cases progressed rapidly to bilateral pneumonia. Clinical complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 81%), cardiac failure (50%), elevated aminotransaminases (43%), and renal dysfunction (17%). Fatal cases had a lower median nadir platelet count (64.5×109 cells/L vs 93.0×109 cells/L, p = 0.02), higher median peak lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level (1982.5 U/L vs 1230.0 U/L, p = 0.001), higher percentage of ARDS (94% [n = 16] vs 56% [n = 5], p = 0.034) and more frequent cardiac failure (71% [n = 12] vs 11% [n = 1], p = 0.011) than nonfatal cases. A higher proportion of patients who received antiviral drugs survived compared to untreated (67% [8/12] vs 7% [1/14], p = 0.003). Conclusions/Significance The clinical course of Chinese H5N1 cases is characterized by fever and cough initially, with rapid progression to lower respiratory disease. Decreased platelet count, elevated LDH level, ARDS and cardiac failure were associated with fatal outcomes. Clinical management of H5N1 cases should be standardized in China to include early antiviral treatment for suspected H5N1 cases. PMID:18716658

  17. Reduced experimental infectivity and transmissibility of intercontinental H5 (H5N8 and H5N2) compared to Eurasian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for chickens, turkeys, and Japanese quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus (HPAIV) emerged in 1996 in Guangdong China and has since spread to infect and cause deaths in wild birds, poultry and humans in over 63 countries in Asia, Europe and Africa; and more recently a reassortant H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI virus has spread ...

  18. Experimental co-infection of SPF chickens with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes H9N2, H5N2 and H7N9, and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are two of the most important respiratory viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the effect of co-infection of these two viruses in poultry. Low pathogenicity (LP) AIV can produce from mild to moderate upper r...

  19. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). Infection with HPAIV usually results in the rapid death of poultry. The aim of this study was to identify host immune genes which a...

  20. Transmission of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus to Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) through intranasal inoculation of virus and ingestion of virus-infected chicken meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the susceptibility of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus under natural routes of infection, we exposed gulls to two Asian lineage H5N1 HPAI viruses (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 and A/duck meat/Anyang/AVL-1/01) via intranasa...

  1. Experimental infection of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea) with a clade 2.3.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2005, clade 2.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused infections and disease involving numerous species of wild waterfowl in Eurasia and Africa. However, outbreaks associated with clade 2.3.2 viruses have increased since 2009, and viruses within this clade have beco...

  2. Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Chen, J; Yang, G; Zheng, Y X; Mao, S H; Zhu, W P; Yu, X L; Gao, Y; Pan, Q C; Yuan, Z A

    2015-07-01

    The first human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Shanghai, China in March 2013. An additional 32 cases of human H7N9 infection were identified in the following months from March to April 2013 in Shanghai. Here we conducted a case-control study of the patients with H7N9 infection (n = 25) using controls matched by age, sex, and residence to determine risk factors for H7N9 infection. Our findings suggest that chronic disease and frequency of visiting a live poultry market (>10 times, or 1-9 times during the 2 weeks before illness onset) were likely to be significantly associated with H7N9 infection, with the odds ratios being 4.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-12.56], 10.61 (95% CI 1.85-60.74), and 3.76 (95% CI 1.31-10.79), respectively. Effective strategies for live poultry market control should be reinforced and ongoing education of the public is warranted to promote behavioural changes that can help to eliminate direct or indirect contact with influenza A(H7N9) virus. PMID:25471822

  3. The prevention and control of avian influenza: The avian influenza coordinated agriculture project1

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, C.; Slemons, R.; Perez, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Avian Influenza Coordinated Agriculture Project (AICAP) entitled “Prevention and Control of Avian Influenza in the US” strives to be a significant point of reference for the poultry industry and the general public in matters related to the biology, risks associated with, and the methods used to prevent and control avian influenza. To this end, AICAP has been remarkably successful in generating research data, publications through an extensive network of university- and agency-based researchers, and extending findings to stakeholders. An overview of the highlights of AICAP research is presented. PMID:19276431

  4. Early apoptosis of porcine alveolar macrophages limits avian influenza virus replication and pro-inflammatory dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pengxiang; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.; Mellits, Kenneth H.; Sebastian, Sujith; James, Joe; Liu, Jinhua; Shelton, Holly; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are evidently more resistant to avian than swine influenza A viruses, mediated in part through frontline epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AM). Although porcine AM (PAM) are crucial in influenza virus control, their mode of control is unclear. To gain insight into the possible role of PAM in the mediation of avian influenza virus resistance, we compared the host effects and replication of two avian (H2N3 and H6N1) and three mammalian (swine H1N1, human H1N1 and pandemic H1N1) influenza viruses in PAM. We found that PAM were readily susceptible to initial infection with all five avian and mammalian influenza viruses but only avian viruses caused early and extensive apoptosis (by 6 h of infection) resulting in reduced virus progeny and moderated pro-inflammation. Full length viral PB1-F2 present only in avian influenza viruses is a virulence factor that targets AM for mitochondrial-associated apoptotic cell death. With the use of reverse genetics on an avian H5N1 virus, we found that full length PB1-F2 contributed to increased apoptosis and pro-inflammation but not to reduced virus replication. Taken together, we propose that early apoptosis of PAM limits the spread of avian influenza viruses and that PB1-F2 could play a contributory role in the process. PMID:26642934

  5. Early apoptosis of porcine alveolar macrophages limits avian influenza virus replication and pro-inflammatory dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pengxiang; Kuchipudi, Suresh V; Mellits, Kenneth H; Sebastian, Sujith; James, Joe; Liu, Jinhua; Shelton, Holly; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are evidently more resistant to avian than swine influenza A viruses, mediated in part through frontline epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AM). Although porcine AM (PAM) are crucial in influenza virus control, their mode of control is unclear. To gain insight into the possible role of PAM in the mediation of avian influenza virus resistance, we compared the host effects and replication of two avian (H2N3 and H6N1) and three mammalian (swine H1N1, human H1N1 and pandemic H1N1) influenza viruses in PAM. We found that PAM were readily susceptible to initial infection with all five avian and mammalian influenza viruses but only avian viruses caused early and extensive apoptosis (by 6 h of infection) resulting in reduced virus progeny and moderated pro-inflammation. Full length viral PB1-F2 present only in avian influenza viruses is a virulence factor that targets AM for mitochondrial-associated apoptotic cell death. With the use of reverse genetics on an avian H5N1 virus, we found that full length PB1-F2 contributed to increased apoptosis and pro-inflammation but not to reduced virus replication. Taken together, we propose that early apoptosis of PAM limits the spread of avian influenza viruses and that PB1-F2 could play a contributory role in the process. PMID:26642934

  6. Comparison of pathogenicities of H7 avian influenza viruses via intranasal and conjunctival inoculation in cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Shichinohe, Shintaro; Itoh, Yasushi; Nakayama, Misako; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Soda, Kosuke; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2016-06-01

    The outbreak of H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in China has attracted attention to H7 influenza virus infection in humans. Since we have shown that the pathogenicity of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses in macaques was almost the same as that in humans, we compared the pathogenicities of H7 avian influenza viruses in cynomolgus macaques via intranasal and conjunctival inoculation, which mimics natural infection in humans. H7N9 virus, as well as H7N7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, showed more efficient replication and higher pathogenicity in macaques than did H7N1 and H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. These results are different from pathogenicity in chickens as reported previously. Therefore, our results obtained in macaques help to estimate the pathogenicity of H7 avian influenza viruses in humans. PMID:26994587

  7. The pathogenicity of H7 subtype avian influenza viruses in chickens, turkeys and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect numerous avian species, and low pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses of the H7 subtype are typically reported to produce mild or subclinical infections in both wild aquatic birds and domestic poultry. However relatively little work has been done to compare LPAI viruses ...

  8. Persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Natural Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Feare, Chris J.; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of ecologic factors favoring emergence and maintenance of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is limited. Although low pathogenic avian influenza viruses persist and evolve in wild populations, HPAI viruses evolve in domestic birds and cause economically serious epizootics that only occasionally infect wild populations. We propose that evolutionary ecology considerations can explain this apparent paradox. Host structure and transmission possibilities differ considerably between wild and domestic birds and are likely to be major determinants of virulence. Because viral fitness is highly dependent on host survival and dispersal in nature, virulent forms are unlikely to persist in wild populations if they kill hosts quickly or affect predation risk or migratory performance. Interhost transmission in water has evolved in low pathogenic influenza viruses in wild waterfowl populations. However, oropharyngeal shedding and transmission by aerosols appear more efficient for HPAI viruses among domestic birds. PMID:20587174

  9. Avian influenza virus H9N2 seroprevalence and risk factors for infection in occupational poultry-exposed workers in Tai'an of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Song, Wengang; Pang, Quanhai; Miao, Zengmin

    2016-08-01

    To determine risk factor for H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, a serological surveillance among both occupational poultry-exposed (OPE) workers and general humans was carried out using both haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays in Tai'an, China, between 2011 and 2013. At baseline, the positive rate of anti-H9 antibody (HI and MN titers ≥40) among OPE workers (51/600, 8.5%) was significantly higher than that among the general population (11/600, 1.8%). The result indicated that occupational exposure to chicken flocks was an important risk factor for H9N2 AIV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1453-1456, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26816053

  10. Emerging Infections of CNS: Avian Influenza A, Rift Valley Fever and Human Parecho Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Clayton A.; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Ross, Ted M.; Bissel, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    History is replete with emergent pandemic infections that have decimated the human population. Given the shear mass of humans that now crowd the earth, there is every reason to suspect history will repeat itself. We describe three RNA viruses that have recently emerged in the human population to mediate severe neurological disease. These new diseases are results of new mutations in the infectious agents or new exposure pathways to the agents or both. To appreciate their pathogenesis, we summarize the essential virology and immune response to each agent. Infection is described in the context of known host defenses. Once the viruses evade immune defenses and enter CNS cells, they rapidly co-opt host RNA processing to a cataclysmic extent. It is not clear why the brain is particularly susceptible to RNA viruses; but perhaps because of its tremendous dependence on RNA processing for physiological functioning, classical mechanisms of host defense (e.g. interferon disruption of viral replication) are diminished or not available. Effectiveness of immunity, immunization and pharmacological therapies is reviewed to contextualize the scope of the public health challenge. Unfortunately, vaccines that confer protection from systemic disease do not necessarily confer protection for the brain after exposure through unconventional routes. PMID:26276027

  11. Preliminary Proteomic Analysis of A549 Cells Infected with Avian Influenza Virus H7N9 and Influenza A Virus H1N1

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoman; Lu, Jiahai; Yu, Ruoxi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Ting; Dong, Fangyuan; Peng, Bo; Wu, Weihua; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Cheng, Jinquan; Yu, Muhua; Fang, Shisong

    2016-01-01

    A newly emerged H7N9 influenza virus poses high risk to human beings. However, the pathogenic mechanism of the virus remains unclear. The temporal response of primary human alveolar adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) infected with H7N9 influenza virus and H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1, pdm09) were evaluated using the proteomics approaches (2D-DIGE combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) at 24, 48 and 72 hours post of the infection (hpi). There were 11, 12 and 33 proteins with significant different expressions (P<0.05) at 24, 48 and 72hpi, especially F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1 (CAPZA1), Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), Poly(rC)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1), Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A) and Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolaseⅠb subunit beta (PAFAH1B2) were validated by western-blot analysis. The functional analysis revealed that the differential proteins in A549 cells involved in regulating cytopathic effect. Among them, the down-regulation of CAPZA1, OAT, PCBP1, EIF5A are related to the death of cells infected by H7N9 influenza virus. This is the first time show that the down-regulation of PAFAH1B2 is related to the later clinical symptoms of patients infected by H7N9 influenza virus. These findings may improve our understanding of pathogenic mechanism of H7N9 influenza virus in proteomics. PMID:27223893

  12. Differences in the epidemiology and virology of mild, severe and fatal human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jianping; Chen, Xiaowen; Ren, Yajin; Chen, Haijun; Wu, Zuqun; Ying, Dong; Zhang, Zhiruo; Liu, Shelan

    2016-05-01

    A novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus caused 5-10 % mild and 30.5 % fatal human infections as of December 10, 2015. In order to investigate the reason for the higher rate of fatal outcome of this infection, this study compared the molecular epidemiology and virology of avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses from mild (N = 14), severe (N = 50) and fatal (N = 35) cases, as well as from non-human hosts (N = 73). The epidemiological results showed that the average age of the people in the mild, severe and fatal groups was 27.6, 52 and 62 years old, respectively (p < 0.001). Males accounted for 42.9 % (6/14), 58.0 % (29/50), and 74.3 % (26/35) of cases in the mild, severe and fatal group respectively (p = 0.094). Median days from onset to start of antiviral treatment were 2, 5 and 7 days in the mild, severe and fatal group, respectively (p = 0.002). The median time from onset to discharge/death was 12, 40 and 19 days in the mild, severe and fatal group, respectively (p < 0.001). Analysis of whole genome sequences showed that PB2 (E627K), NA (R294K) and PA (V100A) mutations were markedly associated with an increased fatality rate, while HA (N276D) and PB2 (N559T) mutations were clearly related to mild cases. There were no differences in the genotypes, adaptation to mammalian hosts, and genetic identity between the three types of infection. In conclusion, advanced age and delayed confirmation of diagnosis and antiviral intervention were risk factors for death. Furthermore, PB2 (E627K), NA (R294K) and PA (V100A) mutations might contribute to a fatal outcome in human H7N9 infection. PMID:26887968

  13. Analysis of H5N1 avian influenza infections from wild bird surveillance in Hong Kong from January 2006 to October 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Trevor M.; Dyrting, Kitman C.; Wong, Chun W.; Chadwick, Brad; Chan, Cassius; Chiang, Micah; Li, Clara; Li, Pamela; Smith, Gavin J.D.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, J.S. Malik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intensive surveillance of dead wild birds for H5N1 avian influenza infection is conducted in Hong Kong. Between January 2006 and October 2007 pooled cloacal and tracheal (C&T) swabs from 17,592 dead wild birds (from 16 different orders including 82 genera) were tested and 33 H5N1 HPAI viruses were isolated. No H5N1 infection has occurred in poultry farms or live poultry markets in Hong Kong since January 2003. The gross and histopathology in the various H5N1 infected avian species is described, along with the performance of the virology, PCR and antigen detection tests used. This evaluation also included determination of virus titres and detection limits for the H5 haemagglutinin gene (H5)and matrix gene (M) real-time reverse transcription PCR tests (RRT-PCR) in C&T swabs from 12 wild birds. The viruses isolated belonged to Clades 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 and within Clade 2.3.4 some clustering was evident based on H5 HA sequencing. However there were no differences in the pathology findings between these sub-groupings and the various diagnostic tests gave similar results for these viruses, except for a loss in sensitivity of the H5 RRT-PCR for several viruses in one cluster from birds submitted in February 2007. PMID:19322709

  14. Current developments in avian influenza vaccines, including safety of vaccinated birds as food.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, most vaccines against avian influenza were based on oil-emulsified inactivated low- or high-pathogenicity viruses. Now, recombinant fowl pox and avian paramyxovirus type 1 vaccines with avian influenza H5 gene inserts (+ or - N1 gene insert) are available and licensed. New technologies might overcome existing limitations to make available vaccines that can be grown in tissue culture systems for more rapid production; provide optimized protection, as a result of closer genetic relations to field viruses; allow mass administration by aerosol, in drinking-water or in ovo; and allow easier strategies for identifying infected birds within vaccinated populations (DIVA). The technologies include avian influenza viruses with partial gene deletions, avian influenza-Newcastle disease virus chimeras, vectored vaccines such as adenoviruses and Marek's disease virus, and subunit vaccines. These new methods should be licensed only after their purity, safety, efficacy and potency against avian influenza viruses have been demonstrated, and, for live vectored vaccines, restriction of viral transmission to unvaccinated birds. Use of vaccines in countries affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza will not only protect poultry but will provide additional safety for consumers. Experimental studies have shown that birds vaccinated against avian influenza have no virus in meat and minimal amounts in eggs after HPAI virus challenge, and that replication and shedding from their respiratory and alimentary tracts is greatly reduced. PMID:18411943

  15. Post-exposure treatment with whole inactivated H5N1 avian influenza virus protects against lethal homologous virus infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Mable; Ranadheera, Charlene; Audet, Jonathan; Morin, Jocelyn; Leung, Anders; Kobasa, Darwyn

    2016-01-01

    Concerns with H5N1 influenza viruses include their prevalence in wild and domestic poultry, high mortality rate (~60%) in humans with some strains, lack of pre-existing immunity in humans, and the possibility that these viruses acquire mutations that enable efficient transmission between humans. H5 subtype viruses of Eurasian origin have recently appeared in wild and domestic bird populations in North America, and have led to the generation of new virus strains that are highly pathogenic in poultry. These new H5 HA containing viruses with their ability to evolve rapidly represent an unknown threat to humans in contact with infected poultry, and vaccination with an off-the-shelf vaccine may be impractical to provide protection to at-risk individuals. Instead, we have evaluated the efficacy of a formalin-inactivated vaccine, which could be derived directly from a circulating virus, to provide post-exposure protection. This strategy was evaluated using a prototypic highly pathogenic avian H5N1 strain, A/Vietnam/1203/2004, and demonstrated rapid induction of adaptive immune responses providing protection in a mammalian model of lethal infection. Additionally, this post-exposure vaccine was highly efficacious when administered 24 hours after exposure. This study offers a platform for developing effective post-exposure vaccines for treatment of highly virulent influenza infections. PMID:27405487

  16. Post-exposure treatment with whole inactivated H5N1 avian influenza virus protects against lethal homologous virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Mable; Ranadheera, Charlene; Audet, Jonathan; Morin, Jocelyn; Leung, Anders; Kobasa, Darwyn

    2016-01-01

    Concerns with H5N1 influenza viruses include their prevalence in wild and domestic poultry, high mortality rate (~60%) in humans with some strains, lack of pre-existing immunity in humans, and the possibility that these viruses acquire mutations that enable efficient transmission between humans. H5 subtype viruses of Eurasian origin have recently appeared in wild and domestic bird populations in North America, and have led to the generation of new virus strains that are highly pathogenic in poultry. These new H5 HA containing viruses with their ability to evolve rapidly represent an unknown threat to humans in contact with infected poultry, and vaccination with an off-the-shelf vaccine may be impractical to provide protection to at-risk individuals. Instead, we have evaluated the efficacy of a formalin-inactivated vaccine, which could be derived directly from a circulating virus, to provide post-exposure protection. This strategy was evaluated using a prototypic highly pathogenic avian H5N1 strain, A/Vietnam/1203/2004, and demonstrated rapid induction of adaptive immune responses providing protection in a mammalian model of lethal infection. Additionally, this post-exposure vaccine was highly efficacious when administered 24 hours after exposure. This study offers a platform for developing effective post-exposure vaccines for treatment of highly virulent influenza infections. PMID:27405487

  17. Avian influenza: Myth or mass murder?

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI) is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic. PMID:18159544

  18. BirdFlu2009: Avian Influenza and Human Health. 9-10 September 2009, Oxford, UK.

    PubMed

    Temperton, Nigel

    2009-11-01

    The BirdFlu2009 meeting entitled Avian Influenza and Human Health, held in Oxford, included topics covering new developments in the control of seasonal, avian and swine influenza virus infection, with a focus on the human-animal interface. This conference report highlights selected presentations on sialidase therapy for influenza infection, the use of IVIgs to study antibody diversity and reactivity, detecting oseltamivir carboxylate in waste water, H5N1 infection in Egyptian children, preparedness for an influenza pandemic and an indirect sandwich ELISA to detect H5 avian influenza virus. Investigational drugs discussed include NEX-DAS-181 (NexBio Inc) and MVA-NP-M1 (The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research). PMID:19844852

  19. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  20. Viral vectors for avian influenza vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to 2003, vaccines against avian influenza (AI) had limited, individual country or regional use in poultry. In late 2003, H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AI spread from China to multiple Southeast Asian countries, and to Europe during 2005 and Africa during 2006, challenging governments and all p...

  1. Rapid molecular diagnostic tools for avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An accurate and early diagnosis of a foreign animal disease is crucial for rapid control and eradication of an outbreak in a country previously free of the disease. Historically many animal diseases have been controlled based solely on clinical signs of disease. However with avian influenza virus ...

  2. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  3. Avian influenza vaccines and therapies for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines have been used in avian influenza (AI) control programs to prevent, manage or eradicate AI from poultry and other birds. The best protection is produced from the humoral response against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. A variety of vaccines have been developed and tested under experimenta...

  4. Swine as a model for influenza A virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) infect a variety of hosts, including humans, swine, and various avian species. The annual influenza disease burden in the human population remains significant even with current vaccine usage and much about the pathogenesis and transmission of influenza viruses in human rema...

  5. Comparative pathology of select agent influenza A virus infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A virus infections may spread rapidly in human populations and cause acute respiratory disease with variable mortality. Two of these influenza viruses have been designated as select agents because of the high case fatality rate: 1918 H1N1 virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) ...

  6. Effect of Infection with a Mesogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus on Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Shepherd, Eric; DeJesus, Eric; Smith, Diane; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2016-05-01

    Little is known on the interactions between avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) when coinfecting the same poultry host. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of NDV (mNDV) can reduce highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) replication, clinical disease, and mortality. This interaction depended on the titer of the viruses used and the timing of the infections. To further explore the effect of mNDV infectious dose in protecting chickens against HPAIV infection, 2-wk-old birds were inoculated with different doses of mNDV (10(4), 10(6), or 10(7) 50% embryo infective dose [EID50]) 3 days before inoculation with a HPAIV (10(5) or 10(6) EID50). Although birds coinfected with the higher mNDV doses (10(6) or 10(7)) survived for longer than birds inoculated only with HPAIV (10(5)), we did not observe the same protection with the lower dose of mNDV (10(4)) or when given the higher dose of HPAIV (10(6)), indicating that the relation between the titer of the two coinfecting viruses is determinant in the outcome. In a similar experiment, a higher number of 4-wk-old birds survived, and for longer, even when given higher HPAIV doses (10(6.3) and 10(7.3) EID50). In addition, we also examined the duration of protection provided by mNDV (10(7) EID50) on a HPAIV infection. Five-week-old chickens were inoculated with mNDV followed by inoculation with 10(6) EID50 of an HPAIV given at 2, 4, 6, or 9 days after the mNDV. HPAIV replication was affected and an increase in survival was found in all coinfected groups when compared to the HPAIV single-inoculated group, but the mortality in coinfected groups was high. In conclusion, previous inoculation with mNDV can affect HPAIV replication in chickens for at least 9 days, but this viral interference is titer dependent. PMID:27309067

  7. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; Zheng, Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Li, Wenhua; Hu, Mailing; Zhong, Jinhui; Chen, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area. PMID:25356738

  8. THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SHORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen of poultry as it can cause severe economic losses through disease, including respiratory signs and mortality, and effects on trade. Avian influenza virus is classified as type A influenza, which is a member of the orthomyxoviridae family. Charact...

  9. IDENTIFYING AREAS WITH A HIGH RISK OF HUMAN INFECTION WITH THE AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H7N9) VIRUS IN EAST ASIA

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Trevon; Havers, Fiona; Xu, Cuiling; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun; Shu, Yuelong; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Smith, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The rapid emergence, spread, and disease severity of avian influenza A(H7N9) in China has prompted concerns about a possible pandemic and regional spread in the coming months. The objective of this study was to predict the risk of future human infections with H7N9 in China and neighboring countries by assessing the association between H7N9 cases at sentinel hospitals and putative agricultural, climatic, and demographic risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional study used the locations of H7N9 cases and negative cases from China’s influenza-like illness surveillance network. After identifying H7N9 risk factors with logistic regression, we used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to construct predictive maps of H7N9 risk across Asia. Results Live bird market density was associated with human H7N9 infections reported in China from March-May 2013. Based on these cases, our model accurately predicted the virus’ spread into Guangxi autonomous region in February 2014. Outside China, we find there is a high risk that the virus will spread to northern Vietnam, due to the import of poultry from China. Conclusions Our risk map can focus efforts to improve surveillance in poultry and humans, which may facilitate early identification and treatment of human cases. PMID:24642206

  10. Outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus infection in two commercial layer facilities: lesions and viral antigen distribution.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Paulo H E; Stevenson, Gregory W; Killian, Mary L; Burrough, Eric R; Gauger, Phillip C; Harmon, Karen M; Magstadt, Drew R; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zhang, Jianqiang; Madson, Darin M; Piñeyro, Pablo; Derscheid, Rachel J; Schwartz, Kent J; Cooper, Vickie L; Halbur, Patrick G; Main, Rodger G; Sato, Yuko; Arruda, Bailey L

    2016-09-01

    The largest outbreak of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus (HPAIV) infection in U.S. history began in December 2014 resulting in the euthanasia of millions of birds and collateral economic consequences to the U.S. poultry industry. We describe 2 cases of H5N2 HPAIV infection in laying hens in Iowa. Following a sharp increase in mortality with minimal clinical signs, 15 dead birds, from 2 unrelated farms, were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Common lesions included diffuse edema and multifocal hemorrhage of the comb, catarrhal exudate in the oropharynx, and multifocal tracheal hemorrhage. Less common lesions included epicardial petechiae, splenic hemorrhage, and pancreatic necrosis. Influenza A virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple cell types including ependymal cells, the choroid plexus, neurons, respiratory epithelium and macrophages in the lung, cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, necrotic foci in the spleen, Kupffer cells in the liver, and necrotic acinar cells in the pancreas. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing confirmed H5N2 HPAIV with molecular characteristics similar to other contemporary U.S. H5N2 HPAIVs in both cases. PMID:27423731

  11. Large-Scale Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds throughout the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Pedersen, Kerri; Lutman, Mark W.; Baroch, John A.; Schmit, Brandon S.; Kohler, Dennis; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nolte, Dale L.; Swafford, Seth R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza is a viral disease that primarily infects wild and domestic birds, but it also can be transmitted to a variety of mammals. In 2006, the United States of America Departments of Agriculture and Interior designed a large-scale, interagency surveillance effort that sought to determine if highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were present in wild bird populations within the United States of America. This program, combined with the Canadian and Mexican surveillance programs, represented the largest, coordinated wildlife disease surveillance program ever implemented. Here we analyze data from 197,885 samples that were collected from over 200 wild bird species. While the initial motivation for surveillance focused on highly pathogenic avian influenza, the scale of the data provided unprecedented information on the ecology of avian influenza viruses in the United States, avian influenza virus host associations, and avian influenza prevalence in wild birds over time. Ultimately, significant advances in our knowledge of avian influenza will depend on both large-scale surveillance efforts and on focused research studies. PMID:25116079

  12. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David

    2015-01-01

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it’s not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (P <0.01) at 4 days post inoculation (dpi). Co-infection didn’t affect the number of birds shedding LPAIV, but more LPAIV was shed at 2 dpi (P <0.0001) from ducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (P <0.05) compared to the ducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses. PMID:25759292

  13. Experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Kohei; Endo, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Motohashi, Yurie; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Ichikawa, Takaya; Nishi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuri; Matsuno, Keita; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanigawa, Tsutomu; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-15

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. Determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. It has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of HPAIVs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming settings. Therefore, we conducted experimental infections of HPAIVs and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) to chickens, domestic ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats to evaluate their roles in virus transmission. The results showed that chickens, ducks, sparrows, and crows were highly susceptible to HPAIV infection. Significant titers of virus were recovered from the sparrows and crows infected with HPAIVs, which suggests that they potentially play roles of transmission of HPAIVs to poultry. In contrast, the growth of LPAIVs was limited in each of the animals tested compared with that of HPAIVs. The present results indicate that these common synanthropes play some roles in influenza virus transmission from wild birds to poultry. PMID:26711036

  14. Single vaccination provides limited protection to ducks and geese against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, high pathogenicity avian influenza has spread from Asia to Europe and into Africa causing the largest epizootic of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) of the last 50 years including infecting domestic and wild waterfowl. Our study was conducted to investigate whether single vaccina...

  15. Comparative susceptibility of waterfowl and gulls to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild avian species in the Orders Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, shorebirds) have traditionally been considered the natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses (AIV) and morbidity or mortality is rarely associated with AIV infection in these hosts. However, ...

  16. Detection of Evolutionarily Distinct Avian Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M. Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. PMID:24803521

  17. No evidence of infection or exposure to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenzas in peridomestic wildlife on an affected poultry facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, Daniel; Dusek, Robert J.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the potential transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wildlife species in three settings in association with an outbreak at a poultry facility: 1) small birds and small mammals on a poultry facility that was affected with highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) in April 2015; 2) small birds and small mammals on a nearby poultry facility that was unaffected by HPAIV; and 3) small birds, small mammals, and waterfowl in a nearby natural area. We live-captured small birds and small mammals and collected samples from hunter-harvested waterfowl to test for active viral shedding and evidence of exposure (serum antibody) to AIV and the H5N2 HPAIV that affected the poultry facility. We detected no evidence of shedding or specific antibody to AIV in small mammals and small birds 5 mo after depopulation of the poultry. We detected viral shedding and exposure to AIV in waterfowl and estimated approximately 15% viral shedding and 60% antibody prevalence. In waterfowl, we did not detect shedding or exposure to the HPAIV that affected the poultry facility. We also conducted camera trapping around poultry carcass depopulation composting barns and found regular visitation by four species of medium-sized mammals. We provide preliminary data suggesting that peridomestic wildlife were not an important factor in the transmission of AIV during the poultry outbreak, nor did small birds and mammals in natural wetland settings show wide evidence of AIV shedding or exposure, despite the opportunity for exposure.

  18. Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Immortalized Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells Depends upon a Delicate Balance between Hemagglutinin Acid Stability and Endosomal pH.

    PubMed

    Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Yasugi, Mayo; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Arai, Fumihito; Ohba, Tomoyuki; Honda, Ayae; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2015-04-24

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus, H5N1, is a serious threat to public health worldwide. Both the currently circulating H5N1 and previously circulating AI viruses recognize avian-type receptors; however, only the H5N1 is highly infectious and virulent in humans. The mechanism(s) underlying this difference in infectivity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the difference in infectivity between the current and previously circulating strains. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen to establish a series of clones (SAEC-Ts). These clones were then used to test the infectivity of AI strains. Human SAEC-Ts could be broadly categorized into two different types based on their susceptibility (high or low) to the viruses. SAEC-T clones were poorly susceptible to previously circulating AI but were completely susceptible to the currently circulating H5N1. The hemagglutinin (HA) of the current H5N1 virus showed greater membrane fusion activity at higher pH levels than that of previous AI viruses, resulting in broader cell tropism. Moreover, the endosomal pH was lower in high susceptibility SAEC-T clones than that in low susceptibility SAEC-T clones. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the infectivity of AI viruses, including H5N1, depends upon a delicate balance between the acid sensitivity of the viral HA and the pH within the endosomes of the target cell. Thus, one of the mechanisms underlying H5N1 pathogenesis in humans relies on its ability to fuse efficiently with the endosomes in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:25673693

  19. Avian influenza: Current world situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus had its origin with animal influenza viruses, likely through a reassortment event between a North American swine influenza virus and another unidentified virus. The first turkey flock to be diagnosed with pH1N1 occurred in Chile, in August 2009. The flock suff...

  20. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens.

    PubMed

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Shepherd, Eric; Cha, Ra Mi; Smith, Diane; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide and produce co-infections especially in areas of the world where both viruses are endemic; but little is known about the interactions between these two viruses. The objective of this study was to determine if co-infection with NDV affects HPAIV replication in chickens. Only infections with virulent NDV strains (mesogenic Pigeon/1984 or velogenic CA/2002), and not a lentogenic NDV strain (LaSota), interfered with the replication of HPAIV A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) when the H5N2 was given at a high dose (10(6.9) EID50) two days after the NDV inoculation, but despite this interference, mortality was still observed. However, chickens infected with the less virulent mesogenic NDV Pigeon/1984 strain three days prior to being infected with a lower dose (10(5.3-5.5) EID50) of the same or a different HPAIV, A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA-12283-12/2012 (H7N3), had reduced HPAIV replication and increased survival rates. In conclusion, previous infection of chickens with virulent NDV strains can reduce HPAIV replication, and consequently disease and mortality. This interference depends on the titer of the viruses used, the virulence of the NDV, and the timing of the infections. The information obtained from these studies helps to understand the possible interactions and outcomes of infection (disease and virus shedding) when HPAIV and NDV co-infect chickens in the field. PMID:26394750

  1. Experimental infection with low and high pathogenicity H7N3 Chilean avian influenza viruses in Chiloe wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera).

    PubMed

    Sá e Silva, Mariana; Mathieu-Benson, Christian; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E

    2011-09-01

    Two different wild duck species common in Chile and neighboring countries, Chiloe wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera), were intranasally inoculated with 10(6) mean embryo infective dose (EID50) of the H7N3 low pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV) (A/chicken/Chile/176822/02) or high pathogenicity (HP) AIV (A/chicken/Chile/ 184240-1/02), in order to study the infectivity and pathobiology of these viruses. None of the virus-inoculated ducks had clinical signs or died, but most seroconverted by 14 days postinoculation (DPI), indicating a productive virus infection. Both LPAIV and HPAIV were isolated from oral swabs from two of six Chiloe wigeons and from oral and/or cloacal swabs from all five of the cinnamon teal at 2 DPI. Both LPAIV and HPAIV were efficiently transmitted to cinnamon teal contacts but not to Chiloe wigeon contacts. This study demonstrates that the cinnamon teal and Chiloe wigeons were susceptible to infection with both Chilean H7N3 LPAIV and HPAIV, but only the cinnamon teal showed contact transmission of the virus between birds, suggesting that the cinnamon teal has the potential to be a reservoir for these viruses, especially the LPAIV, as was demonstrated in 2001 with isolation of a genetically related H7N3 LPAIV strain in a cinnamon teal in Bolivia. However, the definitive source of the H7N3 Chilean LPAIV still remains unknown. PMID:22017047

  2. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Ip, H.S.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.; Nashold, S.; Teslaa, J.L.; French, J.; Redig, P.; Brand, C.

    2009-01-01

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1). All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1) is introduced into North America.

  3. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  4. Vaccine induced protection from egg production losses in commercial turkey breeder hens following experimental challenge with a triple reassortant H3N2 avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) infection in turkey breeder hens can cause decreases in both egg production and quality which results in significant production losses. Recently, an H3N2 subtype of avian influenza triple reassortant containing human, swine, and avian gene segments was isolated from turkey bree...

  5. Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C; Suarez, David L; Sylte, Matt J; Pfeiffer, Jennifer; Van Kampen, Kent R

    2007-04-12

    Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. This vaccine can be mass-administered using available robotic in ovo injectors which provide a major advantage over current vaccination regimens. In addition, this class of adenovirus-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly with improved safety since they do not contain any replication-competent adenoviruses. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural avian influenza virus infections. PMID:17055126

  6. Quantitative Estimation of the Number of Contaminated Hatching Eggs Released from an Infected, Undetected Turkey Breeder Hen Flock During a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Malladi, Sasidhar; Weaver, J Todd; Alexander, Catherine Y; Middleton, Jamie L; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Snider, Timothy; Tilley, Becky J; Gonder, Eric; Hermes, David R; Halvorson, David A

    2015-09-01

    The regulatory response to an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the United States may involve quarantine and stop movement orders that have the potential to disrupt continuity of operations in the U.S. turkey industry--particularly in the event that an uninfected breeder flock is located within an HPAI Control Area. A group of government-academic-industry leaders developed an approach to minimize the unintended consequences associated with outbreak response, which incorporates HPAI control measures to be implemented prior to moving hatching eggs off of the farm. Quantitative simulation models were used to evaluate the movement of potentially contaminated hatching eggs from a breeder henhouse located in an HPAI Control Area, given that active surveillance testing, elevated biosecurity, and a 2-day on-farm holding period were employed. The risk analysis included scenarios of HPAI viruses differing in characteristics as well as scenarios in which infection resulted from artificial insemination. The mean model-predicted number of internally contaminated hatching eggs released per movement from an HPAI-infected turkey breeder henhouse ranged from 0 to 0.008 under the four scenarios evaluated. The results indicate a 95% chance of no internally contaminated eggs being present per movement from an infected house before detection. Sensitivity analysis indicates that these results are robust to variation in key transmission model parameters within the range of their estimates from available literature. Infectious birds at the time of egg collection are a potential pathway of external contamination for eggs stored and then moved off of the farm; the predicted number of such infectious birds was estimated to be low. To date, there has been no evidence of vertical transmission of HPAI virus or low pathogenic avian influenza virus to day-old poults from hatching eggs originating from infected breeders. The application of risk analysis methods was beneficial

  7. Histopathologic Characterization and Shedding Dynamics of Guineafowl (Numida meleagris) Intravenously Infected with a H6N2 Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Zarkov, Ivan S; Dinev, Ivan; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V; Miller, Patti J; Suarez, David L

    2016-05-01

    Guineafowl of different ages were inoculated intravenously with a H6N2 wild waterfowl-origin low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV). No clinical disease was observed. The infected birds had atrophy of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa when compared with the noninfected control groups. The central and peripheral lymphoid tissues presented either lymphoproliferative or degenerative lesions that increased in intensity from 14 to 21 days postinoculation (DPI). Lymphoid depletion was present in the bursa, thymic lobes, and spleen T-dependent zone. In contrast, lymphoid proliferation was observed in liver, pancreas, and spleen B-dependent zone. Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue hyperplasia was observed in the lungs of the birds at 14 and 21 DPI. The virus was detected by virus isolation and reverse transcription PCR from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs with higher isolation rates from the latter. Most birds from the LPAIV inoculated groups shed virus up to 7 DPI. The virus was infrequently isolated from lung, kidney, liver, bursa, or spleen of infected birds until 14 DPI and from two samples (kidney and spleen, 1-yr-old birds) at 21 DPI. These data indicate that the wild bird-origin LPAIV used in this study caused pantropic infection in guineafowl when inoculated intravenously. PMID:27309068

  8. Dynamic quantification of avian influenza H7N9(A) virus in a human infection during clinical treatment using droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong; Jia, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Heng-Hui; Fu, Xiao-Fei; Ji, Ji-Mei; He, Pei-Yan; Chen, Li-Xia; Luo, Jian-Yong; Chen, Zhong-Wen

    2016-08-01

    This study involved a human infection with avian influenza H7N9(A) virus in Zhejiang province, the first one after implementing the closure measures of living poultry markets in China. The clinical symptoms, epidemiological and virological characteristics of the case were described briefly, and as the emphasis, H7N9 virus was detected quantitatively and continuously from the collected samples in 10 different periods of the patient's treatment in order to reveal changes of viral load in patient's body during the treatment. This study first used reverse-transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) assays to monitor viral load dynamically for human H7N9 infection, synchronously performing real-time RT-PCR as a reference technology to obtain more comprehensive data for comparison. Our results indicated that RT-ddPCR compared to real-time RT-PCR is more sensitive and accurate for quantifying H7N9 viral load without the use of standard curves. Furthermore it can provide reference data for clinical policies including infectivity judgement, ward transferring and therapy adjustment for the patient during treatment. PMID:27058642

  9. Origin of the European avian-like swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Andi; Lange, Jeannette; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Groth, Marco; Platzer, Matthias; Kanrai, Pumaree; Pleschka, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph; Büttner, Mathias; Dürrwald, Ralf; Zell, Roland

    2014-11-01

    The avian-like swine influenza viruses emerged in 1979 in Belgium and Germany. Thereafter, they spread through many European swine-producing countries, replaced the circulating classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses, and became endemic. Serological and subsequent molecular data indicated an avian source, but details remained obscure due to a lack of relevant avian influenza virus sequence data. Here, the origin of the European avian-like swine influenza viruses was analysed using a collection of 16 European swine H1N1 influenza viruses sampled in 1979-1981 in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and France, as well as several contemporaneous avian influenza viruses of various serotypes. The phylogenetic trees suggested a triple reassortant with a unique genotype constellation. Time-resolved maximum clade credibility trees indicated times to the most recent common ancestors of 34-46 years (before 2008) depending on the RNA segment and the method of tree inference. PMID:25073465

  10. Immune-related gene expression in response to H11N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chicken and Pekin duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean C; Xing, Zheng; Li, Jinling; Cardona, Carol J

    2009-05-01

    The duck and chicken are important hosts of avian influenza virus (AIV) with distinctive responses to infection. Frequently, AIV infections in ducks are asymptomatic and long-lasting in contrast to the clinically apparent and transient infections observed in chickens. These differences may be due in part to the host response to AIV infection. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined the expression of immune-related genes in response to low pathogenic AIV H11N9 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from the blood of chickens and Pekin ducks. While chicken PBMC expressed IL-1beta and IL-6 at high levels similar to mammalian species, duck PBMC expression levels were minimal or unchanged. Similarly, duck IFN-beta expression was nearly unaffected, whereas chicken expression was highly upregulated. Chicken IFN-gamma was expressed to higher levels than duck IFN-gamma, while IFN-alpha was expressed similarly by both species. IL-2 was elevated early in infection in duck PBMC, but returned to baseline levels by the end of the experiment; in contrast, IL-2 was weakly induced in chicken PBMC at late time points. TLR-7 and MHC class I molecule expressions were conserved between species, whereas duck MHC class II expression was downregulated and chicken expression was unchanged. These results show distinct PBMC expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IFNs between species. The differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine and IFN expression reflect the asymptomatic and lasting infection observed in ducks and the tendency towards clinical signs and rapid clearance seen in chickens. These results highlight important differences in the host response to AIV of two species thought to be critical in the genesis and maintenance of epidemic strains of AIV. PMID:19250679

  11. A computationally optimized broadly reactive H5 hemagglutinin vaccine provides protection against homologous and heterologous H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its emergence in 1996 in China, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has continuously evolved into different genetic clades that have created challenges to maintaining antigenically relevant H5N1 vaccine seeds. Therefore, a universal (multi-hemagglutinin [HA] subtype) or more c...

  12. Differences in innate immune responses to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection between Pekin, Muscovy and Mallard ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks have been implicated in the dissemination and evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. However, differences in pathogenicity and response to vaccination have been observed between different duck species. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viru...

  13. A heterologous neuraminidase subtype strategy for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) for avian influenza virus using an alternative neuraminidase inhibition test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The option of vaccinating poultry against avian influenza (AI) as a control tool is gaining greater acceptance by governments and the poultry industry world wide. One reservation about vaccination with killed whole virus vaccines is the loss of the ability to use commonly used serologic surveillanc...

  14. Risk reduction modeling of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus titers in non-pasteurized liquid egg obtained from infected but undetected chicken flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has traditionally involved the establishment of disease containment zones, where poultry products are only permitted to move from within a containment area under permit. Non-pasteurized liquid egg (NPLE) is one such commodity for which movements ma...

  15. Effect of age on pathogenesis and innate immune responses in Pekin ducks infected with different H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks varies between different viruses and is affected by the age of the ducks, with younger ducks presenting more severe disease. In order to better understand the pathobiology of H5N1 HPAI in ducks, including t...

  16. A heterologous neuraminidase subtype strategy for the differentiation of vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) strategy for avian influenza virus using a more flexible neuraminidase inhibition test in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The option of vaccinating poultry against avian influenza (AI) as a control tool is gaining greater acceptance by the government and poultry industry world-wide. One reservation about vaccination with killed whole virus vaccines is the loss of the ability to use serologic surveillance to identify i...

  17. Cross reactive immunity derived from chickens infected with H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza against homologous and heterosubtypic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because vaccines for use in commercial poultry against avian influenza (AI) are mainly inactivated and delivered parenterally, our knowledge of protective immunity of poultry against AI is largely based on the induction of serum-neutralizing antibodies produced against a specific hemagglutinin (HA) ...

  18. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H.S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  19. The Role of Environmental Transmission in Recurrent Avian Influenza Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Breban, Romulus; Drake, John M.; Stallknecht, David E.; Rohani, Pejman

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) persists in North American wild waterfowl, exhibiting major outbreaks every 2–4 years. Attempts to explain the patterns of periodicity and persistence using simple direct transmission models are unsuccessful. Motivated by empirical evidence, we examine the contribution of an overlooked AIV transmission mode: environmental transmission. It is known that infectious birds shed large concentrations of virions in the environment, where virions may persist for a long time. We thus propose that, in addition to direct fecal/oral transmission, birds may become infected by ingesting virions that have long persisted in the environment. We design a new host–pathogen model that combines within-season transmission dynamics, between-season migration and reproduction, and environmental variation. Analysis of the model yields three major results. First, environmental transmission provides a persistence mechanism within small communities where epidemics cannot be sustained by direct transmission only (i.e., communities smaller than the critical community size). Second, environmental transmission offers a parsimonious explanation of the 2–4 year periodicity of avian influenza epidemics. Third, very low levels of environmental transmission (i.e., few cases per year) are sufficient for avian influenza to persist in populations where it would otherwise vanish. PMID:19360126

  20. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8(+) T Cell Immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and 35%, respectively. Ongoing circulation of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in wild birds and poultry, and their ability to infect humans emphasizes their epidemic and pandemic potential and poses a public health threat. It is, thus, imperative to understand the host immune responses to the AIVs so we can control severe influenza disease caused by H5N1 or H7N9 and rationally design new immunotherapies and vaccines. This review summarizes our current knowledge on AIV epidemiology, disease symptoms, inflammatory processes underlying the AIV infection in humans, and recent studies on universal pre-existing CD8(+) T cell immunity to AIVs. Immune responses driving the host recovery from AIV infection in patients hospitalized with severe influenza disease are also discussed. PMID:26973644

  1. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8+ T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and 35%, respectively. Ongoing circulation of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in wild birds and poultry, and their ability to infect humans emphasizes their epidemic and pandemic potential and poses a public health threat. It is, thus, imperative to understand the host immune responses to the AIVs so we can control severe influenza disease caused by H5N1 or H7N9 and rationally design new immunotherapies and vaccines. This review summarizes our current knowledge on AIV epidemiology, disease symptoms, inflammatory processes underlying the AIV infection in humans, and recent studies on universal pre-existing CD8+ T cell immunity to AIVs. Immune responses driving the host recovery from AIV infection in patients hospitalized with severe influenza disease are also discussed. PMID:26973644

  2. Systemic virus distribution and host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with low pathogenic or high pathogenic avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) is classified into two pathotypes, low pathogenic (LP) and high pathogenic (HP), based on virulence in chickens. Differences in pathogenicity between HPAIV and LPAIV might eventually be related to specific characteristics of strains, tissue tropism and host responses. Methods To study differences in disease development between HPAIV and LPAIV, we examined the first appearance and eventual load of viral RNA in multiple organs as well as host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with two closely related H7N1 HPAIV or LPAIV strains. Results Both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV spread systemically in chickens after a combined intranasal/intratracheal inoculation. In brain, large differences in viral RNA load and host gene expression were found between H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Chicken embryo brain cell culture studies revealed that both HPAIV and LPAIV could infect cultivated embryonic brain cells, but in accordance with the absence of the necessary proteases, replication of LPAIV was limited. Furthermore, TUNEL assay indicated apoptosis in brain of HPAIV infected chickens only. In intestine, where endoproteases that cleave HA of LPAIV are available, we found minimal differences in the amount of viral RNA and a large overlap in the transcriptional responses between HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Interestingly, brain and ileum differed clearly in the cellular pathways that were regulated upon an AI infection. Conclusions Although both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV RNA was detected in a broad range of tissues beyond the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, our observations indicate that differences in pathogenicity and mortality between HPAIV and LPAIV could originate from differences in virus replication and the resulting host responses in vital organs like the brain. PMID:22390870

  3. Neurotropism in blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) and red-billed queleas (Quelea quelea) after highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, A; Kalthoff, D; Dale, J; Bairlein, F; Beer, M; Teifke, J P

    2011-09-01

    The epidemiologic role of passerine birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) remains controversial. However, confirmed natural infections with HPAIV in Passeriformes, their close contact to poultry and humans, and their role as a human food source indicate a need for increased research on passerines. To date, there are only a few studies on viral shedding and pathomorphologic changes in songbirds infected with HPAIV. To investigate susceptibility, clinical outcome, virus spread, and pathomorphology, the authors inoculated oculo-oronasally 22 red-billed queleas (Quelea quelea) and 11 blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 (H5N1) using 2 different doses of either 10(4) EID50 (50% egg infective dose) or 10(6) EID50 per animal. They monitored all birds for clinical signs and oropharyngeal and cloacal virus shedding. They also performed immunohistochemistry and obtained molecular virologic data by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in tissue samples. In contrast to blackcaps, where 100% of the infected individuals died, queleas were much less susceptible, with a mortality of 82% and 18%, depending on the doses applied. In both species, the virus was shed within 3 to 6 days postinfection, mainly via the respiratory tract. Viral antigen was detected in 100% of the succumbed birds, particularly in the central nervous system. In blackcaps, the heart, lungs, and pancreas were mainly infected. In contrast, the pancreas was predominantly affected in queleas, whereas the heart and the lower respiratory tract were of minor relevance. The authors hypothesize that neurotropism should be considered a main factor for the fatal course of disease in Passeriformes after infection with HPAIV. PMID:20974871

  4. A Duck Enteritis Virus-Vectored Bivalent Live Vaccine Provides Fast and Complete Protection against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Ducks ▿ † §

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-01-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 106 PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks. PMID:21865383

  5. DC-SIGN mediates avian H5N1 influenza virus infection in cis and in trans

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.-F.; Huang, Jason C.; Lee, Y.-M.; Liu, S.-J.; Chan, Yu-Jiun; Chau, Y.-P.; Chong, P.; Chen, Y.-M.A.

    2008-09-05

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), has been identified as a receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, Ebola virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus, and the SARS coronavirus. We used H5N1 pseudotyped and reverse-genetics (RG) virus particles to study their ability to bind with DC-SIGN. Electronic microscopy and functional assay results indicate that pseudotyped viruses containing both HA and NA proteins express hemagglutination and are capable of infecting cells expressing {alpha}-2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Results from a capture assay show that DC-SIGN-expressing cells (including B-THP-1/DC-SIGN and T-THP-1/DC-SIGN) and peripheral blood dendritic cells are capable of transferring H5N1 pseudotyped and RG virus particles to target cells; this action can be blocked by anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies. In summary, (a) DC-SIGN acts as a capture or attachment molecule for avian H5N1 virus, and (b) DC-SIGN mediates infections in cis and in trans.

  6. Factors Associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N2 Infection on Table-Egg Layer Farms in the Midwestern United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Garber, Lindsey; Bjork, Kathe; Patyk, Kelly; Rawdon, Thomas; Antognoli, Maria; Delgado, Amy; Ahola, Sara; McCluskey, Brian

    2016-06-01

    A case-control study was conducted among commercial table-egg layer and pullet operations in Iowa and Nebraska, United States, to investigate potential risk factors for infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2. A questionnaire was developed and administered to 28 case farms and 31 control farms. Data were collected at the farm and barn levels, enabling two separate analyses to be performed-the first a farm-level comparison of case farms vs. control farms, and the second a barn-level comparison between case barns on case farms and control barns on control farms. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit using a forward-selection procedure. Key risk factors identified were farm location in an existing control zone, rendering and garbage trucks coming near barns, dead-bird disposal located near barns, and visits by a company service person. Variables associated with a decreased risk of infection included visitors changing clothing, cleaning and disinfecting a hard-surface barn entryway, and ceiling/eaves ventilation in barns. PMID:27309288

  7. Sequencing of avian influenza virus genomes following random amplification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) is a significant disease of birds and a threat to humans. Recently, as a result of the emergence of Asian H5N1 viruses capable of zoonotic spread, wild and domestic bird surveillance for Avian Influenza viruses (AIV) has increased worldwide, requiring the development of fast a...

  8. Avian influenza in Indonesia: Observations of disease detection in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, also known as highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (HPNAI), has spread throughout Indonesia since 2003. As of June 2007 there have been a total of 100 documented human cases in Indonesia, 80 of which have been fatal. Although efforts have be...

  9. Experimental vaccinations for avian influenza virus including DIVA approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  10. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  11. An infected chicken kidney cell co-culture ELISpot for enhanced detection of T cell responses to avian influenza and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene; Boyd, Amy; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Smith, Adrian; Butter, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the immune responses of chickens to the influenza virus is essential for the development of new strategies of vaccination and control. We have developed a method incorporating infected chicken kidney cells (CKC) in culture with splenocytes in an IFNγ ELISpot assay to enumerate ex vivo responses against influenza virus antigens. Splenocytes from birds challenged with influenza showed specific responses to the influenza virus, with responding cells being mainly CD8 positive. The utility of the assay was also demonstrated in the detection of an antigen specific enhancement of IFNγ producing cells from birds vaccinated with recombinant Fowlpox vectored influenza nucleoprotein and matrix protein. PMID:25450002

  12. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Daesub; Kang, Bokyu; Lee, Chulseung; Jung, Kwonil; Ha, Gunwoo; Kang, Dongseok; Park, Seongjun; Park, Bongkyun

    2008-01-01

    In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) isolate. The beagles shed virus through nasal excretion, seroconverted, and became ill with severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis with accompanying clinical signs (e.g., high fever). Consistent with histologic observation of lung lesions, large amounts of avian influenza virus binding receptor (SAα 2,3-gal) were identified in canine tracheal, bronchial, and bronchiolar epithelial cells, which suggests potential for direct transmission of avian influenza virus (H3N2) from poultry to dogs. Our data provide evidence that dogs may play a role in interspecies transmission and spread of influenza virus. PMID:18439355

  13. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection. PMID:27486731

  14. USGS role and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  15. New USDA licensed avian influenza vaccine (rHVT-AI) for protection against H5 avian influenza and usage discussion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a new avian influenza vaccine was licensed by USDA for use in the United States for protection of commercial poultry. The vaccine is a recombinant herpes virus of turkeys expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5 subtype avian influenza virus belonging to the 2.2 clade of the H5N1 highly ...

  16. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    PubMed

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI. PMID:17494584

  17. The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally

    PubMed Central

    Löndt, Brandon Z.; Núñez, Alejandro.; Banks, Jill; Alexander, Dennis J.; Russell, Christine; Richard‐ Löndt, Angela C.; Brown, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl. Objectives  To study the effect of host age on the shedding and tissue dissemination of a HPAI H5N1 virus in infected Pekin ducks. Methods  Pekin ducks in two age‐matched groups (n = 18), 8 and 12 weeks old (wo) were each infected with 106 EID50/0·1 ml of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2·2). Each day for 5 days, birds were monitored clinically, and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs collected, before three birds from each group were selected randomly for post‐mortem examination. Tissue samples were collected for examination by real‐time RT‐PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results  Severe clinical signs, including incoordination and torticollis were observed in the 8 wo group resulting in 100% mortality by 4 dpi. Mild clinical signs were observed in the 12 wo group with no mortality. Real‐time RT‐PCR and IHC results demonstrated the systemic spread of H5N1 virus in birds of both age groups. Higher levels of virus shedding were detected in oropharyngeal swabs than in cloacal swabs, with similar levels of shedding detected in both age groups. Variations in level and temporal dissemination of virus within tissues of older ducks, and the presence of the virus in brain and heart were observed, which coincided with the appearance of clinical signs preceding death in younger birds. Conclusions  These results are consistent with reports of natural infections of wild waterfowl and poultry possibly indicating an age‐related association with dissemination and clinical outcome in ducks following infection with H5N1 HPAI virus. PMID:20021503

  18. Depressed Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Ventilatory Responses at Early Stage of Lethal Avian Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Zemmie; Harrod, Kevin S.; Xu, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 virus infection results in ~60% mortality in patients primarily due to respiratory failure, but the underlying causes of mortality are unclear. The goal of this study is to reveal respiratory disorders occurring at the early stage of infection that may be responsible for subsequent respiratory failure and death. BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with one of two H5N1 virus strains: HK483 (lethal) or HK486 (non-lethal) virus. Pulmonary ventilation and the responses to hypoxia (HVR; 7% O2 for 3 min) and hypercapnia (HCVR; 7% CO2 for 5 min) were measured daily at 2 days prior and 1, 2, and 3 days postinfection (dpi) and compared to mortality typically by 8 dpi. At 1, 2, and 3 dpi, immunoreactivities (IR) of substance P (SP-IR) in the nodose ganglion or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IR) in the carotid body coupled with the nucleoprotein of influenza A (NP-IR) was examined in some mice, while arterial blood was collected in others. Our results showed that at 2 and 3 dpi: 1) both viral infections failed to alter body temperature and weight, V˙CO2, or induce viremia while producing similarly high lung viral titers; 2) HK483, but not HK486, virus induced tachypnea and depressed HVR and HCVR without changes in arterial blood pH and gases; and 3) only HK483 virus led to NP-IR in vagal SP-IR neurons, but not in the carotid body, and increased density of vagal SP-IR neurons. In addition, all HK483, rather than HK486, mice died at 6 to 8 dpi and the earlier death was correlated with more severe depression of HVR and HCVR. Our data suggest that tachypnea and depressed HVR/HCVR occur at the early stage of lethal H5N1 viral infection associated with viral replication and increased SP-IR density in vagal neurons, which may contribute to the respiratory failure and death. PMID:26808681

  19. Depressed Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Ventilatory Responses at Early Stage of Lethal Avian Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jianguo; Gao, Peng; Pollock, Zemmie; Harrod, Kevin S; Xu, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 virus infection results in ~60% mortality in patients primarily due to respiratory failure, but the underlying causes of mortality are unclear. The goal of this study is to reveal respiratory disorders occurring at the early stage of infection that may be responsible for subsequent respiratory failure and death. BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with one of two H5N1 virus strains: HK483 (lethal) or HK486 (non-lethal) virus. Pulmonary ventilation and the responses to hypoxia (HVR; 7% O2 for 3 min) and hypercapnia (HCVR; 7% CO2 for 5 min) were measured daily at 2 days prior and 1, 2, and 3 days postinfection (dpi) and compared to mortality typically by 8 dpi. At 1, 2, and 3 dpi, immunoreactivities (IR) of substance P (SP-IR) in the nodose ganglion or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IR) in the carotid body coupled with the nucleoprotein of influenza A (NP-IR) was examined in some mice, while arterial blood was collected in others. Our results showed that at 2 and 3 dpi: 1) both viral infections failed to alter body temperature and weight, [Formula: see text], or induce viremia while producing similarly high lung viral titers; 2) HK483, but not HK486, virus induced tachypnea and depressed HVR and HCVR without changes in arterial blood pH and gases; and 3) only HK483 virus led to NP-IR in vagal SP-IR neurons, but not in the carotid body, and increased density of vagal SP-IR neurons. In addition, all HK483, rather than HK486, mice died at 6 to 8 dpi and the earlier death was correlated with more severe depression of HVR and HCVR. Our data suggest that tachypnea and depressed HVR/HCVR occur at the early stage of lethal H5N1 viral infection associated with viral replication and increased SP-IR density in vagal neurons, which may contribute to the respiratory failure and death. PMID:26808681

  20. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    PubMed Central

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  1. The Detection of a Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9 Infection in a Turkey Breeder Flock in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Reid, Scott M; Banks, Jill; Ceeraz, Vanessa; Seekings, Amanda; Howard, Wendy A; Puranik, Anita; Collins, Susan; Manvell, Ruth; Irvine, Richard M; Brown, Ian H

    2016-05-01

    In April 2013, an H9N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus was isolated in a turkey breeder farm in Eastern England comprising 4966 birds. Point-of-lay turkey breeding birds had been moved from a rearing site and within 5 days had shown rapid onset of clinical signs of dullness, coughing, and anorexia. Three houses were involved, two contained a total of 4727 turkey hens, and the third housed 239 male turkeys. Around 50% of the hens were affected, whereas the male turkeys demonstrated milder clinical signs. Bird morbidity rose from 10% to 90%, with an increase in mortality in both houses of turkey hens to 17 dead birds in one house and 27 birds in the second house by day 6. The birds were treated with an antibiotic but were not responsive. Postmortem investigation revealed air sacculitis but no infraorbital sinus swellings or sinusitis. Standard samples were collected, and influenza A was detected. H9 virus infection was confirmed in all three houses by detection and subtyping of hemagglutinating agents in embryonated specific-pathogen-free fowls' eggs, which were shown to be viruses of H9N2 subtype using neuraminidase inhibition tests and a suite of real-time reverse transcription PCR assays. LPAI virus pathotype was suggested by cleavage site sequencing, and an intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.00 confirmed that the virus was of low pathogenicity. Therefore, no official disease control measures were required, and despite the high morbidity, birds recovered and were kept in production. Neuraminidase sequence analysis revealed a deletion of 78 nucleotides in the stalk region, suggesting an adaptation of the virus to poultry. Hemagglutinin gene sequences of two of the isolates clustered with a group of H9 viruses containing other contemporary European H9 strains in the Y439/Korean-like group. The closest matches to the two isolates were A/turkey/Netherlands/11015452/11 (H9N2; 97.9-98% nucleotide identity) and A/mallard/Finland/Li13384/10 (H9N2; 97

  2. Reduction of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in eggs from chickens once or twice vaccinated with an oil-emulsified inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated once or twice adult Wh...

  3. Transmission and reassortment of avian influenza viruses at the Asian-North American interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Pearce, John M.; Ely, Craig R.; Guy, Lisa M. Sheffield; Irons, David B.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Ip, Hon S.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty avian influenza viruses were isolated from seven wild migratory bird species sampled at St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. We tested predictions based on previous phylogenetic analyses of avian influenza viruses that support spatially dependent trans-hemispheric gene flow and frequent interspecies transmission at a location situated at the Asian–North American interface. Through the application of phylogenetic and genotypic approaches, our data support functional dilution by distance of trans-hemispheric reassortants and interspecific virus transmission. Our study confirms infection of divergent avian taxa with nearly identical avian influenza strains in the wild. Findings also suggest that H16N3 viruses may contain gene segments with unique phylogenetic positions and that further investigation of how host specificity may impact transmission of H13 and H16 viruses is warranted.

  4. Sialic acid receptor specificity on erythrocytes affects detection of antibody to avian influenza haemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, I; Wood, J M; Nicholson, K G; Zambon, M C

    2003-07-01

    Haemagglutination-inhibition tests (HI) are used to detect increases in influenza antibody in serum. However, they are relatively insensitive for the detection of human antibody responses to avian haemagglutinin, even in the presence of high titres of neutralising antibody after confirmed infection or vaccination. Human influenza viruses bind preferentially sialic acid containing N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha2,6-galactose (SAalpha2,6Gal) linkages while avian and equine viruses bind preferentially those containing N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha2,3-galactose (SAalpha2,3Gal) linkages. Increasing the proportion of SAalpha2,3Gal linkages on the erythrocytes used, by enzymatic modification or change of species, improves the ability of erythrocytes to bind to avian influenza strains and thereby improves the sensitivity of detection of antibody to avian and equine HA in a range of mammalian and human sera using HI tests. PMID:12767002

  5. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A/H5N1 Infection in Vaccinated Meat Duck Flocks in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Cuong, N V; Truc, V N T; Nhung, N T; Thanh, T T; Chieu, T T B; Hieu, T Q; Men, N T; Mai, H H; Chi, H T; Boni, M F; van Doorn, H R; Thwaites, G E; Carrique-Mas, J J; Hoa, N T

    2016-04-01

    We investigated episodes of suspected highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)-like illness among 12 meat duck flocks in two districts in Tien Giang province (Mekong Delta, Vietnam) in November 2013. In total, duck samples from 8 of 12 farms tested positive for HPAI virus subtype A/haemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1 (H5N1) by real-time RT-PCR. Sequencing results confirmed clade of 2.3.2.1.c as the cause of the outbreaks. Most (7/8) laboratory-confirmed positive flocks had been vaccinated with inactivated HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.4 vaccines <6 days prior to onset of clinical signs. A review of vaccination data in relation to estimated production in the area suggested that vaccination efforts were biased towards larger flocks and that vaccination coverage was low [21.2% ducks vaccinated with two shots (range by district 7.4-34.9%)]. The low-coverage data, the experimental evidence of lack of cross-protection conferred by the currently used vaccines based on clade 2.3.4 together with the short lifespan of meat duck flocks (60-70 days), suggest that vaccination is not likely to be effective as a tool for control of H5N1 infection in meat duck flocks in the area. PMID:26748550

  6. Global epidemiology of avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in humans, 1997-2015: a systematic review of individual case data.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shengjie; Qin, Ying; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ren, Xiang; Wardrop, Nicola A; Gilbert, Marius; Tsang, Tim K; Wu, Peng; Feng, Luzhao; Jiang, Hui; Peng, Zhibin; Zheng, Jiandong; Liao, Qiaohong; Li, Sa; Horby, Peter W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Gao, George F; Tatem, Andrew J; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-07-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses have caused many, typically severe, human infections since the first human case was reported in 1997. However, no comprehensive epidemiological analysis of global human cases of H5N1 from 1997 to 2015 exists. Moreover, few studies have examined in detail the changing epidemiology of human H5N1 cases in Egypt, especially given the outbreaks since November, 2014, which have the highest number of cases ever reported worldwide in a similar period. Data on individual patients were collated from different sources using a systematic approach to describe the global epidemiology of 907 human H5N1 cases between May, 1997, and April, 2015. The number of affected countries rose between 2003 and 2008, with expansion from east and southeast Asia, then to west Asia and Africa. Most cases (67·2%) occurred from December to March, and the overall case-fatality risk was 483 (53·5%) of 903 cases which varied across geographical regions. Although the incidence in Egypt has increased dramatically since November, 2014, compared with the cases beforehand, there were no significant differences in the fatality risk, history of exposure to poultry, history of patient contact, and time from onset to hospital admission in the recent cases. PMID:27211899

  7. Airborne transmission of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during simulated home slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most H5N1 human infections have occurred following exposure to H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus-infected poultry, especially when poultry are home slaughtered or slaughtered in live poultry markets. Previous studies have demonstrated that slaughter of clade 1 isolate A/Vietnam/1...

  8. Cross-clade immunity in cats vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored avian influenza vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several felid species have been shown to be susceptible to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype. Infection of felids by H5N1 HPAI virus is often fatal, and cat-to-cat transmission has been documented. Domestic cats may then be involved in the transmis...

  9. Susceptibility of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused mortality in numerous species of wild birds. Although these infections document the susceptibility of wild birds to H5N1 HPAI viruses and the spillover of these viruses from infected domestic birds to wild birds, it is un...

  10. High pathogenicity avian influenza virus in the reproductive tract of chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has been associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations in poultry including severe depression in egg production and isolation of HPAIV from eggs laid by infected hens. To evaluate the pathobiology in the reproductive tract of...

  11. [Influenza infection and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Anselem, Olivia; Floret, Daniel; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2013-11-01

    Pregnant woman have an increased risk of respiratory complications and hospitalization related to influenza. The flu, like any systemic infection, may also be responsible for uterine contractions constituting a threat of miscarriage or premature labor according to gestational age at which it occurs. There is no specific recommendation regarding the management of influenza-like illness in pregnant women, but a nasopharyngeal sample can be performed in the presence of respiratory or general symptoms occurring during an epidemic to search influenza and establish if a specific treatment with oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)). Surveillance in hospital or intensive care unit may be necessary. Vaccination against influenza provides a satisfactory immunity in pregnant women and reduces the risk of respiratory complications. Transplacental passage of maternal antibody protects newborns who are more likely to have severe influenza infection and because the vaccine cannot be administered before the age of 6 months. The available data show good tolerance influenza vaccination performed during pregnancy. Since 2012, vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for pregnant women, whatever the stage of pregnancy at the time of the vaccination campaign. PMID:23683385

  12. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian invluenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an ongoing threat to the world poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection at mucosal respiratory sites. Chicken and duck tracheal epithelial ...

  13. Disease Severity Is Associated with Differential Gene Expression at the Early and Late Phases of Infection in Nonhuman Primates Infected with Different H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Yukiko; Shoemaker, Jason E.; Le, Mai Quynh; Itoh, Yasushi; Tamura, Daisuke; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Imai, Hirotaka; Uraki, Ryuta; Takano, Ryo; Kawakami, Eiryo; Ito, Mutsumi; Okamoto, Kiyoko; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Noda, Takeshi; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Occasional transmission of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses to humans causes severe pneumonia with high mortality. To better understand the mechanisms via which H5N1 viruses induce severe disease in humans, we infected cynomolgus macaques with six different H5N1 strains isolated from human patients and compared their pathogenicity and the global host responses to the virus infection. Although all H5N1 viruses replicated in the respiratory tract, there was substantial heterogeneity in their replicative ability and in the disease severity induced, which ranged from asymptomatic to fatal. A comparison of global gene expression between severe and mild disease cases indicated that interferon-induced upregulation of genes related to innate immunity, apoptosis, and antigen processing/presentation in the early phase of infection was limited in severe disease cases, although interferon expression was upregulated in both severe and mild cases. Furthermore, coexpression analysis of microarray data, which reveals the dynamics of host responses during the infection, demonstrated that the limited expression of these genes early in infection led to a failure to suppress virus replication and to the hyperinduction of genes related to immunity, inflammation, coagulation, and homeostasis in the late phase of infection, resulting in a more severe disease. Our data suggest that the attenuated interferon-induced activation of innate immunity, apoptosis, and antigen presentation in the early phase of H5N1 virus infection leads to subsequent severe disease outcome. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses sometimes transmit to humans and cause severe pneumonia with ca. 60% lethality. The continued circulation of these viruses poses a pandemic threat; however, their pathogenesis in mammals is not fully understood. We, therefore, investigated the pathogenicity of six H5N1 viruses and compared the host responses of cynomolgus macaques to the virus

  14. Frequently Asked Questions on Human Infection Caused by the Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eat meat/animal products, for example, poultry, eggs, and pork? Because influenza viruses are inactivated by ... not be eaten. 10. How can meat and eggs be safely prepared? Always keep raw meat and ...

  15. Differences in pathogenicity, response to vaccination, and innate immune responses in different types of ducks infected with a virulent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild ducks are reservoirs of avian influenza viruses in nature, and usually don’t show signs of disease. However, some Asian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses can cause disease and death in both wild and domestic ducks. The objective of this study was to compare the cli...

  16. Avian influenza infection dynamics under variable climatic conditions, viral prevalence is rainfall driven in waterfowl from temperate, south-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferenczi, Marta; Beckmann, Christa; Warner, Simone; Loyn, Richard; O'Riley, Kim; Wang, Xinlong; Klaassen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) infection dynamics in wildlife is crucial because of possible virus spill over to livestock and humans. Studies from the northern hemisphere have suggested several ecological and environmental drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds. To determine if the same drivers apply in the southern hemisphere, where more irregular environmental conditions prevail, we investigated AIV prevalence in ducks in relation to biotic and abiotic factors in south-eastern Australia. We sampled duck faeces for AIV and tested for an effect of bird numbers, rainfall anomaly, temperature anomaly and long-term ENSO (El-Niño Southern Oscillation) patterns on AIV prevalence. We demonstrate a positive long term effect of ENSO-related rainfall on AIV prevalence. We also found a more immediate response to rainfall where AIV prevalence was positively related to rainfall in the preceding 3-7 months. Additionally, for one duck species we found a positive relationship between their numbers and AIV prevalence, while prevalence was negatively or not affected by duck numbers in the remaining four species studied. In Australia largely non-seasonal rainfall patterns determine breeding opportunities and thereby influence bird numbers. Based on our findings we suggest that rainfall influences age structures within populations, producing an influx of immunologically naïve juveniles within the population, which may subsequently affect AIV infection dynamics. Our study suggests that drivers of AIV dynamics in the northern hemisphere do not have the same influence at our south-east Australian field site in the southern hemisphere due to more erratic climatological conditions. PMID:26852115

  17. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    PubMed

    Reperant, Leslie A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Amerongen, Geert; Buehler, Debbie M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Piersma, Theunis; Kuiken, Thijs

    2011-01-01

    Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6), fueling (N = 5), migration (N = 9) and post-migration periods (N = 6). Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate) may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers--before the onset of clinical disease--than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off). Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the likelihood of

  18. Inactivation of various influenza strains to model avian influenza (Bird Flu) with various disinfectant chemistries.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2005-12-01

    Due to the grave public health implications and economic impact possible with the emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A isolate, H5N1, currently circulating in Asia we have evaluated the efficacy of various disinfectant chemistries against surrogate influenza A strains. Chemistries included in the tests were household bleach, ethanol, Virkon S{reg_sign}, and a modified version of the Sandia National Laboratories developed DF-200 (DF-200d, a diluted version of the standard DF-200 formulation). Validation efforts followed EPA guidelines for evaluating chemical disinfectants against viruses. The efficacy of the various chemistries was determined by infectivity, quantitative RNA, and qualitative protein assays. Additionally, organic challenges using combined poultry feces and litter material were included in the experiments to simulate environments in which decontamination and remediation will likely occur. In all assays, 10% bleach and Sandia DF-200d were the most efficacious treatments against two influenza A isolates (mammalian and avian) as they provided the most rapid and complete inactivation of influenza A viruses.

  19. Variation and infectivity neutralization in influenza

    PubMed Central

    Knossow, Marcel; Skehel, John J

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide epidemics of influenza are caused by viruses that normally infect other species, particularly waterfowl, and that contain haemagglutinin membrane glycoproteins (HAs) to which the human population has no immunity. Anti-HA immunoglobulins neutralize influenza virus infectivity. In this review we outline structural differences that distinguish the HAs of the 16 antigenic subtypes (H1–16) found in viruses from avian species. We also describe structural changes in HA required for the effective transfer to humans of viruses containing three of them, H1, H2 and H3, in the 1918 (Spanish), the 1957 (Asian) and the 1968 (Hong Kong) pandemics, respectively. In addition, we consider changes that may be required before the current avian H5 viruses could pass from human to human. PMID:16925526

  20. Serologic cross reactivity of serum samples from avian influenza vaccinated commercial U.S. turkeys to the emergent H1N1 influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the 2009 human H1N1 influenza virus was identified in turkey breeders in Chile and Canada resulting in infection and egg production losses. In the U.S., vaccination of turkeys against avian influenza may include H1 and H3 viruses also isolated from swine. We tested whether sera from turk...

  1. Serologic cross reactivity of avian influenza H1 vaccinated commercial U.S. turkeys to the emergent H1N1 influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the 2009 human H1N1 influenza virus was identified in turkey breeders in Chile, Canada and the U.S. resulting in infection and production losses. In these studies sera from turkeys vaccinated against avian influenza H1 were tested against the recent human pandemic H1N1 virus. Genetic ana...

  2. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus in a fat-free egg product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) and Avian Paramyxovirus Type-1 (AMPV-1) viruses can survive on the carcasses, in organ tissue of infected birds, on fomites, and have the potential for egg transmission and egg product contamination. With the increase in global trade, there are concerns that egg products could ...

  3. Pathogenicity of an H5N1 avian influenza virus isolated in Vietnam in 2012 and reliability of conjunctival samples for diagnosis of infection

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Vuong N.; Dao, Tung D.; Nguyen, Tham T. H.; Nguyen, Lien T.; Bui, Anh N.; Trinh, Dai Q.; Pham, Nga T.; Inui, Kenjiro; Runstadler, Jonathan; Ogawa, Haruko; Nguyen, Khong V.; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 among poultry in Vietnam poses a potential threat to animals and public health. To evaluate the pathogenicity of a 2012 H5N1 HPAIV isolate and to assess the utility of conjunctival swabs for viral detection and isolation in surveillance, an experimental infection with HPAIV subtype H5N1 was carried out in domestic ducks. Ducks were infected with 107.2 TCID50 of A/duck/Vietnam/QB1207/2012 (H5N1), which was isolated from a moribund domestic duck. In the infected ducks, clinical signs of disease, including neurological disorder, were observed. Ducks started to die at 3 days-post-infection (dpi), and the study mortality reached 67%. Viruses were recovered from oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs until 7 dpi and from cloacal swabs until 4 dpi. In the ducks that died or were sacrificed on 3, 5, or 6 dpi, viruses were recovered from lung, brain, heart, pancreas and intestine, among which the highest virus titers were in the lung, brain or heart. Results of virus titration were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2.1 similarly to the H5N1 viruses isolated in Vietnam in 2012. The present study demonstrated that this recent HPAI H5N1 virus of clade 2.3.2.1 could replicate efficiently in the systemic organs, including the brain, and cause severe disease with neurological symptoms in domestic ducks. Therefore, this HPAI H5N1 virus seems to retain the neurotrophic feature and has further developed properties of shedding virus from the oropharynx and conjunctiva in addition to the cloaca, potentially posing a higher risk of virus spread through cross-contact and/or environmental transmission. Continued surveillance and diagnostic programs using conjuntcival swabs in the field would further verify the apparent reliability of conjunctival samples for the detection of AIV. PMID:24211664

  4. Risk Reduction Modeling of High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus Titers in Nonpasteurized Liquid Egg Obtained from Infected but Undetected Chicken Flocks.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J Todd; Malladi, Sasidhar; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E

    2015-11-01

    Control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry has traditionally involved the establishment of disease containment zones, where poultry products are only permitted to move from within a zone under permit. Nonpasteurized liquid egg (NPLE) is one such commodity for which movements may be permitted, considering inactivation of HPAI virus via pasteurization. Active surveillance testing at the flock level, using targeted matrix gene real-time reversed transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing (RRT-PCR) has been incorporated into HPAI emergency response plans as the primary on-farm diagnostic test procedure to detect HPAI in poultry and is considered to be a key risk mitigation measure. To inform decisions regarding the potential movement of NPLE to a pasteurization facility, average HPAI virus concentrations in NPLE produced from a HPAI virus infected, but undetected, commercial table-egg-layer flock were estimated for three HPAI virus strains using quantitative simulation models. Pasteurization under newly proposed international design standards (5 log10 reduction) is predicted to inactivate HPAI virus in NPLE to a very low concentration of less than 1 embryo infectious dose (EID)50 /mL, considering the predicted virus titers in NPLE from a table-egg flock under active surveillance. Dilution of HPAI virus from contaminated eggs in eggs from the same flock, and in a 40,000 lb tanker-truck load of NPLE containing eggs from disease-free flocks was also considered. Risk assessment can be useful in the evaluation of commodity-specific risk mitigation measures to facilitate safe trade in animal products from countries experiencing outbreaks of highly transmissible animal diseases. PMID:25867713

  5. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia in guinea pigs following inoculation with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused widespread disease of poultry in Asia, Africa and the Middle East, and sporadic human infections. The guinea pig model has been used to study human H3N2 and H1N1 influenza viruses, but knowledge is lacking on H5N1 HPAI virus inf...

  6. Pathogenicity of recombinant H5N1 avian influenza viruses with truncated NS1 gene in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NS1 protein of influenza A virus plays an important role in blocking the induction of type I interferon and other regulatory functions in infected cells. However, differences in length of the NS1 protein has been observed in highly pathogenic H5N1, H5N2, and H7N1 subtype avian influenza viruses...

  7. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  8. Poultry vaccination directed evolution of H9N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant economic losses in the poultry industries have resulted from H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus infections across North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The present study investigated the evolutionary dynamics of H9N2 viruses circulating in Korea from 1996 to 2012. Our analysis o...

  9. An evaluation of poultry avian influenza diagnostic methods with domestic duck specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring of poultry, including domestic ducks, for avian influenza virus (AI) virus has increased considerably in recent years. However, the current methods validated for the diagnosis and detection of AI virus infection in chickens and turkeys have not been evaluated for performance with samples...

  10. Strategies and challenges for eliciting immunity against avian influenza virus in birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged during the past two decades as essential tools in avian influenza (AI) control for poultry because they: increase resistance to infection, prevent illness and death, reduce virus replication and shed from respiratory and alimentary tracts, and reduce virus trans...

  11. Global expansion of high pathogenicity avian influenza: implications on prevention and control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries during the past 18 years. The majority of the recent outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI have occurred in Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, in decreas...

  12. Global expansion of high pathogenicity avian influenza: implications on prevention and control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries during the past 18 years. The majority of the recent outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI have occurred in Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, in decreasi...

  13. Thermal inactivation of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in chicken meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses cause severe disease with high mortality in chickens and related gallinaceous poultry. Some HPAI viruses cause systemic infections and replicate to high titers in skeletal muscle fibers. To prevent transmission of these viruses through contaminate...

  14. H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza in Pakistan (2012-2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant economic losses from deaths and decreased egg production have resulted from H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections in poultry across North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The H9N2 LPAIVs have been endemic in Pakistani poultry since 1996, but no new viruses have be...

  15. Evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt indicating progressive adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first diagnosed in poultry in Egypt in 2006, and since then the disease became enzootic in poultry throughout the country affecting the poultry industry and village poultry as well as infecting humans. Vaccination has been used ...

  16. Global assessment of avian influenza control strategies with emphasis on vaccines and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) has infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. Field outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated flocks as the result of vaccine failure or improperly administration to the target species. Antigenic drift in field viruses h...

  17. Adenovirus-based vaccines against avian-origin H5N1 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    He, Biao; Zheng, Bo-jian; Wang, Qian; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2015-02-01

    Since 1997, human infection with avian H5N1, having about 60% mortality, has posed a threat to public health. In this review, we describe the epidemiology of H5N1 transmission, advantages and disadvantages of different influenza vaccine types, and characteristics of adenovirus, finally summarizing advances in adenovirus-based H5N1 systemic and mucosal vaccines. PMID:25479556

  18. Avian influenza virus-induced regulation of duck fibroblast gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have been non-pathogenic in ducks causing no disease or mild respiratory infections. However, in 2002, new viruses emerged causing systemic disease and death. To better understand the differences in pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in ducks, we in...

  19. The global avian influenza situation and assessment of effective control methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. For 2011-2012, 19 countries reported outbreaks of H5N1 in domestic poultry, wild birds or both. The majority of the outbr...

  20. Update on H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June of 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was identified as the cause of a severe disease outbreak in commercial laying chicken farms in Jalisco, Mexico. This region is responsible for approximately 55% of the eggs produced in Mexico, and infection with this virus seve...

  1. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Hon S.; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues. PMID:25898265

  2. Cross reactive cellular immune responses in chickens previously exposed to low pathogenic avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) infection in poultry can result in high morbidity and mortality, and negatively affect international trade. Because most AI vaccines used for poultry are inactivated, our knowledge of immunity against AI is based largely on humoral immune responses. In fact, little is known abo...

  3. Rapid diagnostics for avian influenza -- Advances in testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of tools are available for the diagnosis of avian influenza virus. They can be generally divided into the serologic diagnostic tests and direct virus detection tests. The serologic tests are important primarily for active surveillance to assure our poultry flocks are free of avian influe...

  4. Effect of statin treatments on highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, seasonal and H1N1pdm09 virus infections in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Morrey, John D; Barnard, Dale L

    2013-01-01

    Statins are used to control elevated cholesterol or hypercholesterolemia, but have previously been reported to have antiviral properties. Aims To show efficacy of statins in various influenza virus mouse models. Materials & methods BALB/c mice were treated intraperitoneally or orally with several types of statins (simvastatin, lovastatin, mevastatin, pitavastatin, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin) at various concentrations before or after infection with either influenza A/Duck/ MN/1525/81 H5N1 virus, influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1 virus, influenza A/ Victoria/3/75 H3N2 virus, influenza A/NWS/33 H1N1 virus or influenza A/CA/04/09 H1N1pdm09 virus. Results The statins administered intraperitoneally or orally at any dose did not significantly enhance the total survivors relative to untreated controls. In addition, infected mice receiving any concentration of statin were not protected against weight loss due to the infection. None of the statins significantly increased the mean day of death relative to mice in the placebo treatment group. Furthermore, the statins had relatively few ameliorative effects on lung pathology or lung weights at day 3 and 6 after virus exposure, although mice treated with simvastatin did have improved lung function as measured by arterial saturated oxygen levels in one experiment. Conclusion Statins showed relatively little efficacy in any mouse model used by any parameter tested. PMID:23420457

  5. Ambient Influenza and Avian Influenza Virus during Dust Storm Days and Background Days

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Shih; Tsai, Feng Ta; Lin, Chien Kun; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Young, Chea-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Background The spread of influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) presents a significant threat to human health. Avian influenza outbreaks in downwind areas of Asian dust storms (ADS) suggest that viruses might be transported by dust storms. Objectives We developed a technique to measure ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses. We then used this technique to measure concentrations of these viruses on ADS days and background days, and to assess the relationships between ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses, and air pollutants. Methods A high-volume air sampler was used in parallel with a filter cassette to evaluate spiked samples and unspiked samples. Then, air samples were monitored during ADS seasons using a filter cassette coupled with a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Air samples were monitored during ADS season (1 January to 31 May 2006). Results We successfully quantified ambient influenza virus using the filtration/real-time qPCR method during ADS days and background days. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the concentration of influenza virus in ambient air. In both the spiked and unspiked samples, the concentration of influenza virus sampled using the filter cassette was higher than that using the high-volume sampler. The concentration of ambient influenza A virus was significantly higher during the ADS days than during the background days. Conclusions Our data imply the possibility of long-range transport of influenza virus. PMID:20435545

  6. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  7. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

    MedlinePlus

    ... many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, and seals. However, certain subtypes of influenza A ... pigs, and H7N7 and H3N8 virus infections of horses. Influenza A viruses that typically infect and transmit ...

  8. Experience in control of avian influenza in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2007-01-01

    The outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Canada in 1966, the USA in 1984 and Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improved intensive poultry production systems. In the past 12 years (1994-2006), there have been four outbreaks of HPAI on the American continent: in Mexico in 1994 (H5N2), in Chile in 2002 (H7N3), in the USA in 2004 (H5N2) and in Canada in 2004 (H7N3). In all cases, the control and eradication measures were based on prompt detection, depopulation of infected farms and epidemiological contacts, increased biosecurity measures and control of the movement of live poultry and their products, by-products and infected material. In Mexico, in addition to the aforementioned measures, the use of massive vaccination allowed eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas of high-density commercial poultry. PMID:18416017

  9. Environmental and Demographic Determinants of Avian Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl across the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Miller, Ryan S.; Pedersen, Kerri; Lutman, Mark W.; Swafford, Seth R.; Riggs, Philip D.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of avian influenza in North American poultry have been linked to wild waterfowl. A first step towards understanding where and when avian influenza viruses might emerge from North American waterfowl is to identify environmental and demographic determinants of infection in their populations. Laboratory studies indicate water temperature as one determinant of environmental viral persistence and we explored this hypothesis at the landscape scale. We also hypothesized that the interval apparent prevalence in ducks within a local watershed during the overwintering season would influence infection probabilities during the following breeding season within the same local watershed. Using avian influenza virus surveillance data collected from 19,965 wild waterfowl across the contiguous United States between October 2006 and September 2009 We fit Logistic regression models relating the infection status of individual birds sampled on their breeding grounds to demographic characteristics, temperature, and interval apparent prevalence during the preceding overwintering season at the local watershed scale. We found strong support for sex, age, and species differences in the probability an individual duck tested positive for avian influenza virus. In addition, we found that for every seven days the local minimum temperature fell below zero, the chance an individual would test positive for avian influenza virus increased by 5.9 percent. We also found a twelve percent increase in the chance an individual would test positive during the breeding season for every ten percent increase in the interval apparent prevalence during the prior overwintering season. These results suggest that viral deposition in water and sub-freezing temperatures during the overwintering season may act as determinants of individual level infection risk during the subsequent breeding season. Our findings have implications for future surveillance activities in waterfowl and domestic poultry populations

  10. Within-host variation of avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Munir; Xiao, Hiaxia; Baillie, Greg; Warry, Andrew; Essen, Steve C.; Londt, Brandon; Brookes, Sharon M.; Brown, Ian H.; McCauley, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence and spread of H5N1 avian influenza viruses from Asia through to Europe and Africa pose a significant animal disease problem and have raised concerns that the virus may pose a pandemic threat to humans. The epizootological factors that have influenced the wide distribution of the virus are complex, and the variety of viruses currently circulating reflects these factors. Sequence analysis of the virus genes sheds light on the H5N1 virus evolution during its emergence and spread, but the degree of virus variation at the level of an individual infected bird has been described in only a few studies. Here, we describe some results of a study in which turkeys, ducks and chickens were infected with either one of two H5N1 or one of three H7N1 viruses, and the degree of sequence variation within an individual infected avian host was examined. We developed ‘deep amplicon’ sequence analysis for this work, and the methods and results provide a background framework for application to disease outbreaks in the field. PMID:19687042

  11. Newcastle disease virus detection and differentiation from avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Torchetti, Mia Kim

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Infections of poultry with virulent strains of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Vaccination of poultry species is a key measure in the control of ND. Other APMV-1 viruses of low virulence, which are not used as vaccines, are also often isolated from wild bird species. The APMV-1 virus, like avian influenza virus (AIV), is a hemagglutinating virus (HA) and able to agglutinate chicken red blood cells (RBC). Because the clinical presentation of ND can be difficult to distinguish from disease caused by AIV, techniques for differential diagnosis are essential, as well as the ability to detect mixed infections. When an HA positive virus is detected from virus isolation, additional assays can be performed to determine which virus is present. Both antigenic and molecular methods are necessary as some virulent ND viruses from cormorants in the USA after 2002 have lost their ability to hemagglutinate chicken RBC and molecular methods are needed for identification. PMID:24899433

  12. A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Chung-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful for virological and ecological advancements in global avian influenza research. PMID:25057497

  13. The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893-2014.

    PubMed

    Davis, A Sally; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Bray, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza was established in the early 1930s, studies in NHPs have been supplemented by a much larger number of experiments in mice, ferrets and human volunteers. However, the emergence of a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in 1976 and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in 1997 stimulated an increase in NHP research, because these agents are difficult to study in naturally infected patients and cannot be administered to human volunteers. In this paper, we review the published literature on the use of NHPs in influenza research from 1893 through the end of 2014. The first section summarizes observational studies of naturally occurring influenza-like syndromes in wild and captive primates, including serologic investigations. The second provides a chronological account of experimental infections of NHPs, beginning with Pfeiffer's study and covering all published research on seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, including vaccine and antiviral drug testing. The third section reviews experimental infections of NHPs with avian influenza viruses that have caused disease in humans since 1997. The paper concludes with suggestions for further studies to more clearly define and optimize the role of NHPs as experimental animals for influenza research. PMID:25746173

  14. The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893–2014

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A. Sally; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Bray, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza was established in the early 1930s, studies in NHPs have been supplemented by a much larger number of experiments in mice, ferrets and human volunteers. However, the emergence of a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in 1976 and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in 1997 stimulated an increase in NHP research, because these agents are difficult to study in naturally infected patients and cannot be administered to human volunteers. In this paper, we review the published literature on the use of NHPs in influenza research from 1893 through the end of 2014. The first section summarizes observational studies of naturally occurring influenza-like syndromes in wild and captive primates, including serologic investigations. The second provides a chronological account of experimental infections of NHPs, beginning with Pfeiffer’s study and covering all published research on seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, including vaccine and antiviral drug testing. The third section reviews experimental infections of NHPs with avian influenza viruses that have caused disease in humans since 1997. The paper concludes with suggestions for further studies to more clearly define and optimize the role of NHPs as experimental animals for influenza research. PMID:25746173

  15. Avian influenza viruses and avian paramyxoviruses in wintering and breeding waterfowl populations in North Carolina, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although wild ducks are recognized reservoirs for avian influenza (AIV) and avian paramyxoviruses (APMV), information related to the prevalence of these viruses in breeding and migratory duck populations on North American wintering grounds is limited. Wintering (n=2,889) and resident breeding (n=524...

  16. What are the possible transmission methods for H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses to people

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused an unprecedented epizootic affecting poultry in Asia, Africa and parts of Europe, but has crossed multiple species barriers to infect captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. Human infections (391 infections with 247...

  17. Susceptibility of avian species to north american H13 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemag...

  18. Comparative susceptibility of avian species to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H13 subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemag...

  19. Intense circulation of A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses in Cambodian live-bird markets with serological evidence of sub-clinical human infections.

    PubMed

    Horm, Srey Viseth; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rith, Sareth; Ly, Sowath; Gambaretti, Juliette; Duong, Veasna; Y, Phalla; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Allal, Lotfi; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in poultry and environmental samples was conducted in four live-bird markets in Cambodia from January through November 2013. Through real-time RT-PCR testing, AIVs were detected in 45% of 1048 samples collected throughout the year. Detection rates ranged from 32% and 18% in duck and chicken swabs, respectively, to 75% in carcass wash water samples. Influenza A/H5N1 virus was detected in 79% of samples positive for influenza A virus and 35% of all samples collected. Sequence analysis of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/H5N1 viruses, and full-genome analysis of six representative isolates, revealed that the clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus associated with Cambodian human cases during 2013 was the only A/H5N1 virus detected during the year. However, multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of HA and NA genes revealed co-circulation of at least nine low pathogenic AIVs from HA1, HA2, HA3, HA4, HA6, HA7, HA9, HA10 and HA11 subtypes. Four repeated serological surveys were conducted throughout the year in a cohort of 125 poultry workers. Serological testing found an overall prevalence of 4.5% and 1.8% for antibodies to A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Seroconversion rates of 3.7 and 0.9 cases per 1000 person-months participation were detected for A/H5N1 and A/H9N2, respectively. Peak AIV circulation was associated with the Lunar New Year festival. Knowledge of periods of increased circulation of avian influenza in markets should inform intervention measures such as market cleaning and closures to reduce risk of human infections and emergence of novel AIVs. PMID:27436362

  20. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004

    PubMed Central

    Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Songserm, Thaweesak; Chaisingh, Arunee; Hoonsuwan, Wirongrong; Buranathai, Chantanee; Parakamawongsa, Tippawon; Premashthira, Sith; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Gilbert, Marius; Nielen, Mirjam; Stegeman, Arjan

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first confirmed in poultry and humans in Thailand. Control measures, e.g., culling poultry flocks, restricting poultry movement, and improving hygiene, were implemented. Poultry populations in 1,417 villages in 60 of 76 provinces were affected in 2004. A total of 83% of infected flocks confirmed by laboratories were backyard chickens (56%) or ducks (27%). Outbreaks were concentrated in the Central, the southern part of the Northern, and Eastern Regions of Thailand, which are wetlands, water reservoirs, and dense poultry areas. More than 62 million birds were either killed by HPAI viruses or culled. H5N1 virus from poultry caused 17 human cases and 12 deaths in Thailand; a number of domestic cats, captive tigers, and leopards also died of the H5N1 virus. In 2005, the epidemic is ongoing in Thailand. PMID:16318716

  1. Scale-Free Distribution of Avian Influenza Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Michael; Walker, David M.; Tse, Chi Kong

    2007-11-01

    Using global case data for the period from 25 November 2003 to 10 March 2007, we construct a network of plausible transmission pathways for the spread of avian influenza among domestic and wild birds. The network structure we obtain is complex and exhibits scale-free (although not necessarily small-world) properties. Communities within this network are connected with a distribution of links with infinite variance. Hence, the disease transmission model does not exhibit a threshold and so the infection will continue to propagate even with very low transmissibility. Consequentially, eradication with methods applicable to locally homogeneous populations is not possible. Any control measure needs to focus explicitly on the hubs within this network structure.

  2. Increased immunogenicity of avian influenza DNA vaccine delivered to the skin using a microneedle patch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Song, Jae-Min; Lipatov, Aleksandr S.; Choi, Seong-O; Lee, Jeong Woo; Donis, Ruben O.; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Effective public health responses to an influenza pandemic require an effective vaccine that can be manufactured and administered to large populations in the shortest possible time. In this study, we evaluated a method for vaccination against avian influenza virus that uses a DNA vaccine for rapid manufacturing and delivered by a microneedle skin patch for simplified administration and increased immunogenicity. We prepared patches containing 700 µm-long microneedles coated with an avian H5 influenza hemagglutinin DNA vaccine from A/Viet Nam/1203/04 influenza virus. The coating DNA dose increased with DNA concentration in the coating solution and the number of dip coating cycles. Coated DNA was released into the skin tissue by dissolution within minutes. Vaccination of mice using microneedles induced higher levels of antibody responses and hemagglutination inhibition titers, and improved protection against lethal infection with avian influenza as compared to conventional intramuscular delivery of the same dose of the DNA vaccine. Additional analysis showed that the microneedle coating solution containing carboxymethylcellulose and a surfactant may have negatively affected the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine. Overall, this study shows that DNA vaccine delivery by microneedles can be a promising approach for improved vaccination to mitigate an influenza pandemic. PMID:22504442

  3. The Irrationality of GOF Avian Influenza Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The last two and a half years have witnessed a curious debate in virology characterized by a remarkable lack of discussion. It goes by the misleading epithet “gain of function” (GOF) influenza virus research, or simply GOF. As will be seen, there is nothing good to be gained. The controversial experiments confer aerosol transmission on avian influenza virus strains that can infect humans, but which are not naturally transmitted between humans. Some of the newer strains are clearly highly pathogenic for man. It will be shown here that the benefits of the work are erroneous and overstated while the risk of an accident is finite, if small. The consequence of any accident would be anywhere from a handful of infections to a catastrophic pandemic. There has been a single open international meeting in this period, which is surprising given that openness and discussion are essential to good science. Despite US and EU government funding, no risk–benefit analysis has been published, which again is surprising. This research can be duplicated readily in many labs and requires little high tech. It falls under the definition of DURC without the slightest shadow of a doubt and constitutes the most important challenge facing contemporary biology. PMID:25077136

  4. Synergistic Effect of S224P and N383D Substitutions in the PA of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Contributes to Mammalian Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiasheng; Xu, Jing; Shi, Jianzhong; Li, Yanbing; Chen, Hualan

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of H5N1 avian influenza viruses to human poses a great threat to public health. Previous studies indicate the adaptive mutations in viral polymerase of avian influenza viruses are major contributors in overcoming the host species barrier, with the majority of mammalian adaptive mutations occurring in the PB2 protein. However, the adaptive mutations in the PA protein of the H5N1 avian influenza virus are less defined and poorly understood. In this study, we identified the synergistic effect of the PA/224P + 383D of H5N1 avian influenza viruses and its ability to enhance the pathogenicity and viral replication in a mammalian mouse model. Interestingly, the signature of PA/224P + 383D mainly exists in mammalian isolates of the H5N1 influenza virus and pdmH1N1 influenza virus, providing a potential pathway for the natural adaptation to mammals which imply the effects of natural adaptation to mammals. Notably, the mutation of PA/383D, which is highly conserved in avian influenza viruses, increases the polymerase activity in both avian and human cells, and may have roles in maintaining the avian influenza virus in their avian reservoirs, and jumping species to infect humans. PMID:26000865

  5. Different routes of inoculation impact infectivity and pathogenesis of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection in chickens and domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 type A influenza viruses classified as Qinghai-like virus (clade 2.2) are a unique lineage of type A influenza viruses with the capacity to produce significant disease and mortality in gallinaceous birds and water fowl including ducks. The objective of this study was to determine the suscep...

  6. Chicken interferon alpha pretreatment reduces virus replication of pandemic H1N1 and H5N9 avian influenza viruses in lung cell cultures from different avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type I interferons, including interferon (IFN)-alpha, represent one of the first lines of innate immune defense against influenza virus infection. Following natural infection of chickens with avian influenza virus (AIV), transcription of IFN-alpha is quickly up regulated along with multiple other im...

  7. Cluster of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Cases: A Temporal and Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Shen, Zhixiong; Ma, Chunna; Jiang, Chengsheng; Feng, Cindy; Shankar, Nivedita; Yang, Peng; Sun, Wenjie; Wang, Quanyi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of human infections with H7N9 virus in China using data from February 2013 to March 2014 from the websites of every province’s Population and Family Planning Commission. Methods: A human infection with H7N9 virus dataset was summarized by county to analyze its spatial clustering, and by date of illness onset to analyze its space-time clustering using the ESRI® Geographic Information System (GIS) software ArcMap™ 10.1 and SatScan. Results: Based on active surveillance data, the distribution map of H7N9 cases shows that compared to the rest of China, the areas from near the Yangtze River delta (YRD) to farther south around the Pearl River delta (PRD) had the highest densities of H7N9 cases. The case data shows a strong space-time clustering in the areas on and near the YRD from 26 March to 18 April 2013 and a weak space-time clustering only in the areas on and near the PRD between 3 and 4 February 2014. However, for the rest of the study period, H7N9 cases were spatial-temporally randomly distributed. Conclusions: Our results suggested that the spatial-temporal clustering of H7N9 in China between 2013 and 2014 is fundamentally different. PMID:25599373

  8. Selective Bottlenecks Shape Evolutionary Pathways Taken during Mammalian Adaptation of a 1918-like Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Moncla, Louise H; Zhong, Gongxun; Nelson, Chase W; Dinis, Jorge M; Mutschler, James; Hughes, Austin L; Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Friedrich, Thomas C

    2016-02-10

    Avian influenza virus reassortants resembling the 1918 human pandemic virus can become transmissible among mammals by acquiring mutations in hemagglutinin (HA) and polymerase. Using the ferret model, we trace the evolutionary pathway by which an avian-like virus evolves the capacity for mammalian replication and airborne transmission. During initial infection, within-host HA diversity increased drastically. Then, airborne transmission fixed two polymerase mutations that do not confer a detectable replication advantage. In later transmissions, selection fixed advantageous HA1 variants. Transmission initially involved a "loose" bottleneck, which became strongly selective after additional HA mutations emerged. The stringency and evolutionary forces governing between-host bottlenecks may therefore change throughout host adaptation. Mutations occurred in multiple combinations in transmitted viruses, suggesting that mammalian transmissibility can evolve through multiple genetic pathways despite phenotypic constraints. Our data provide a glimpse into avian influenza virus adaptation in mammals, with broad implications for surveillance on potentially zoonotic viruses. PMID:26867176

  9. Looking for avian influenza in remote areas. A case study in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trevennec, K; Chevalier, V; Grosbois, V; Garcia, J M; Thu, H Ho; Berthouly-Salazar, C; Peiris, J S M; Roger, F

    2011-12-01

    Epidemiological surveys of avian influenza infections rarely focus on backyard poultry systems in remote locations because areas with low levels of poultry production are considered to have little influence on the emergence, re-emergence, persistence or spread of avian influenza viruses. In addition, routine disease investigations in remote areas often are neglected due to the lower availability and relatively high cost of veterinary services there. A bank of avian sera collected in 2005 from ethnic minority households in Ha Giang province (Northern Vietnam), located on the Chinese border, was analysed to estimate the seroprevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) during a H5N1 epidemic and to identify potential risk factors for infection. The results suggest that the chicken population had been exposed to AIV with a seroprevalence rate of 7.2% [1.45; 10.5]. The H5 and H9 subtypes were identified with a seroprevalence of 3.25% [2.39; 4.11] and 1.12% [0.61; 1.63], respectively. The number of inhabitants in a village and the distance to the main national road were the most influential risk factors of AIV infection, and high-risk clusters were located along the road leading to China. These two results suggest a virus spread through commercial poultry exchanges and a possible introduction of AIV from southern China. Remote areas and small-scale farms may play an under-estimated role in the spread and persistence of AIV. PMID:21840292

  10. Correlation between reported human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus and cyber user awareness: what can we learn from digital epidemiology?

    PubMed

    Xie, Tiansheng; Yang, Zongxing; Yang, Shigui; Wu, Nanping; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-05-01

    Data on the topic of novel avian influenza A (H7N9) were collected based on the web analysis tool 'Baidu Index', a major Chinese search engine. We found a positive correlation between the volume of H7N9-related 'cyber user awareness' and the epidemic situation during the H7N9 outbreak in China (r=0.98, p<0.01, cumulative; r=0.43, p=0.018, daily) except in the early stage; the ranks of H7N9-related topics changed at different epidemic stages. This study may improve our understanding of the role of web-based media in infectious disease surveillance in China. PMID:24576842

  11. Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2015-12-31

    Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses. PMID:26476563

  12. The avian and mammalian host range of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Webby, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species. Despite intensive control measures the number of human and animal cases continues to increase. A more complete understanding of susceptible species and of contributing environmental and molecular factors is crucial if we are to slow the rate of new cases. H5N1 is currently endemic in domestic poultry in only a handful of countries with sporadic and unpredictable spread to other countries. Close contact of terrestrial bird or mammalian species with infected poultry/waterfowl or their biological products is the major route for interspecies transmission. Intra-species transmission of H5N1 in mammals, including humans, has taken place on a limited scale though it remains to be seen if this will change; recent laboratory studies suggest that it is indeed possible. Here we review the avian and mammalian species that are naturally susceptible to H5N1 infection and the molecular factors associated with its expanded host range. PMID:24025480

  13. China's heath care system and avian influenza preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan A

    2008-02-15

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome crisis exposed serious deficiencies in China's public health system and willingness to report outbreaks of threats to public health. Consequently, China may be one of the weak links in global preparedness for avian influenza. China's rural health care system has been weakened by 20 years of privatization and fiscal decentralization. China plays a huge role in the global poultry industry, with a poultry population of 14 billion birds, 70%-80% of which are reared in backyard conditions. Although surveillance has been strengthened, obstacles to the timely reporting of disease outbreaks still exist. The weakened health care system prevents many sick people from seeking care at a health care facility, where reporting would originate. Inadequate compensation to farmers for culled birds leads to nonreporting, and local officials may be complicit if they suspect that reporting might lead to economic losses for their communities. At the local level, China's crisis-management ability and multisectoral coordination are weak. The poor quality of infection control in many rural facilities is a serious and well-documented problem. However, traditions of community political mobilization suggest that the potential for providing rural citizens with public health information is possible when mandated from the central government. Addressing these issues now and working on capacity issues, authority structures, accountability, and local reporting and control structures will benefit the control of a potential avian influenza outbreak, as well as inevitable outbreaks of other emerging infectious diseases in China's Pearl River Delta or in other densely populated locations of animal husbandry in China. PMID:18269328

  14. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  15. Cross reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from MHC-defined birds against homologous and heterologous avian influenza subtypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous reports have implicated a role of the major-histocompatibility complex (MHC) in genetic resistance of chickens to bacterial infection and viral diseases. However, little is known about the role of MHC in generating protective immunity following avian influenza (AI) infection. Because vacc...

  16. Biologic characterization of chicken-derived H6N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we biologically characterized H6N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses by infecting chickens and ducks in order to compare adaptation of these viruses in these species. We examined the clinical signs, virus shedding, and immune response to infection in 4-week old white le...

  17. Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1): a Threat to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, J. S. Malik; de Jong, Menno D.; Guan, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza virus has its origins in avian influenza viruses. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is already panzootic in poultry, with attendant economic consequences. It continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes. Therefore, H5N1 virus has rightly received attention as a potential pandemic threat. However, it is noted that the pandemics of 1957 and 1968 did not arise from highly pathogenic influenza viruses, and the next pandemic may well arise from a low-pathogenicity virus. The rationale for particular concern about an H5N1 pandemic is not its inevitability but its potential severity. An H5N1 pandemic is an event of low probability but one of high human health impact and poses a predicament for public health. Here, we review the ecology and evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, assess the pandemic risk, and address aspects of human H5N1 disease in relation to its epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. PMID:17428885

  18. Identification of climate factors related to human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Rao, Yuhan; Sun, Qinglan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Jin, Jiao; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Jin; Lei, Fumin; Liu, Qiyong; Duan, Ziyuan; Ma, Juncai; Gao, George F.; Liu, Di; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Human influenza infections display a strongly seasonal pattern. However, whether H7N9 and H5N1 infections correlate with climate factors has not been examined. Here, we analyzed 350 cases of H7N9 infection and 47 cases of H5N1 infection. The spatial characteristics of these cases revealed that H5N1 infections mainly occurred in the South, Middle, and Northwest of China, while the occurrence of H7N9 was concentrated in coastal areas of East and South of China. Aside from spatial-temporal characteristics, the most adaptive meteorological conditions for the occurrence of human infections by these two viral subtypes were different. We found that H7N9 infections correlate with climate factors, especially temperature (TEM) and relative humidity (RHU), while H5N1 infections correlate with TEM and atmospheric pressure (PRS). Hence, we propose a risky window (TEM 4–14 °C and RHU 65–95%) for H7N9 infection and (TEM 2–22 °C and PRS 980-1025 kPa) for H5N1 infection. Our results represent the first step in determining the effects of climate factors on two different virus infections in China and provide warning guidelines for the future when provinces fall into the risky windows. These findings revealed integrated predictive meteorological factors rooted in statistic data that enable the establishment of preventive actions and precautionary measures against future outbreaks. PMID:26656876

  19. Identification of climate factors related to human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Rao, Yuhan; Sun, Qinglan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Jin, Jiao; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Jin; Lei, Fumin; Liu, Qiyong; Duan, Ziyuan; Ma, Juncai; Gao, George F; Liu, Di; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Human influenza infections display a strongly seasonal pattern. However, whether H7N9 and H5N1 infections correlate with climate factors has not been examined. Here, we analyzed 350 cases of H7N9 infection and 47 cases of H5N1 infection. The spatial characteristics of these cases revealed that H5N1 infections mainly occurred in the South, Middle, and Northwest of China, while the occurrence of H7N9 was concentrated in coastal areas of East and South of China. Aside from spatial-temporal characteristics, the most adaptive meteorological conditions for the occurrence of human infections by these two viral subtypes were different. We found that H7N9 infections correlate with climate factors, especially temperature (TEM) and relative humidity (RHU), while H5N1 infections correlate with TEM and atmospheric pressure (PRS). Hence, we propose a risky window (TEM 4-14 °C and RHU 65-95%) for H7N9 infection and (TEM 2-22 °C and PRS 980-1025 kPa) for H5N1 infection. Our results represent the first step in determining the effects of climate factors on two different virus infections in China and provide warning guidelines for the future when provinces fall into the risky windows. These findings revealed integrated predictive meteorological factors rooted in statistic data that enable the establishment of preventive actions and precautionary measures against future outbreaks. PMID:26656876

  20. Living with avian FLU--Persistence of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Njabo, Kevin Yana; Zanontian, Linda; Sheta, Basma N; Samy, Ahmed; Galal, Shereen; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-05-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cross J-function to investigate the degree and spatial temporal nature of the clustering between sightings of infected birds of different types, and the risk of infection associated with direct contact with infected birds. While we found no infection in wild birds, outbreaks occurred year round between 2009 and 2012, with a positive interaction between chickens and ducks. The disease was more present in the years 2010 and 2011 coinciding with the political unrest in the country. Egypt thus continues to experience endemic outbreaks of avian influenza HPAIV in poultry and an increased potential risk of infection to other species including humans. With the current trends, the elimination of the HPAIV infection is highly unlikely without a complete revamp of current policies. The application of spatial statistics techniques to these types of data may help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and may subsequently allow practitioners to explore possible preventive solutions. PMID:27066713

  1. Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. Objectives We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. Methods We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Results Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. Conclusions We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. PMID:24828535

  2. Evaluation of Nobuto filter paper strips for the detection of avian influenza virus antibody in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    The utility of using Nobuto paper strips for the detection of avian influenza antibodies was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) experimentally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Blood was collected 2 wk after infection and was preserved either as serum or whole blood absorbed onto Nobuto strips. Analysis of samples using a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed comparable results (≥96% sensitivity for all methods) between sera stored at -30 C and the Nobuto strip preservation method even when the Nobuto strips were stored up to 3 mo at room temperature (RT). Significant differences were detected in the ratio of sample absorbance to negative control absorbance for Nobuto strips stored at RT compared with sera stored at -30 C, although these differences did not affect the ability of the test to reliably detect positive and negative samples. Nobuto strips are a convenient and sensitive alternative to the collection of serum samples when maintaining appropriate storage temperatures is difficult.

  3. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    PubMed

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated. PMID:24511825

  4. Protection of chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection by live vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing H5 hemagglutinin and N1 neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sophia P; Veits, Jutta; Keil, Günther M; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2009-01-29

    Attenuated vaccine strains of the alphaherpesvirus causing infectious laryngotracheitis of chickens (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1) can be used for mass application. Previously, we showed that live virus vaccination with recombinant ILTV expressing hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) protected chickens against ILT and fowl plague caused by HPAIV carrying the corresponding hemagglutinin subtypes [Lüschow D, Werner O, Mettenleiter TC, Fuchs W. Protection of chickens from lethal avian influenza A virus infection by live-virus vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (H5) gene. Vaccine 2001;19(30):4249-59; Veits J, Lüschow D, Kindermann K, Werner O, Teifke JP, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Deletion of the non-essential UL0 gene of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus leads to attenuation in chickens, and UL0 mutants expressing influenza virus haemagglutinin (H7) protect against ILT and fowl plague. J Gen Virol 2003;84(12):3343-52]. However, protection against H5N1 HPAIV was not satisfactory. Therefore, a newly designed dUTPase-negative ILTV vector was used for rapid insertion of the H5-hemagglutinin, or N1-neuraminidase genes of a recent H5N1 HPAIV isolate. Compared to our previous constructs, protein expression was considerably enhanced by insertion of synthetic introns downstream of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter within the 5'-nontranslated region of the transgenes. Deletion of the viral dUTPase gene did not affect in vitro replication of the ILTV recombinants, but led to sufficient attenuation in vivo. After a single ocular immunization, all chickens developed H5- or N1-specific serum antibodies. Nevertheless, animals immunized with N1-ILTV died after subsequent H5N1 HPAIV challenge, although survival times were prolonged compared to non-vaccinated controls. In contrast, all chickens vaccinated with either H5-ILTV alone, or H5- and N1-ILTV simultaneously, survived

  5. Rumor Surveillance and Avian Influenza H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mahomed; Olowokure, Babatunde; Roces, Maria C.; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    We describe the enhanced rumor surveillance during the avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in 2004. The World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Regional Office identified 40 rumors; 9 were verified to be true. Rumor surveillance informed immediate public health action and prevented unnecessary and costly responses. PMID:15757567

  6. The changing ecology, epidemiology and pathobiology of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in the world since 1959. The largest of these outbreaks has been the H5N1 HPAI which has caused problems in poultry and some wild birds in over 60 countries of Asia, Europe and Africa since beginning in 1996. The H5N1 ...

  7. DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS USING AN INTERFEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An optical interferometric waveguide immunoassay for direct and label-less detection of avian influenza virus is described. The assay response is based on index of refraction changes that occur upon binding of virus particles to antigen (hemagglutinin) specific antibodies on the waveguide surface. ...

  8. Practical aspects of surveillance for avian influenza in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall approach to surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry will vary depending on the situation, resources, and goals of a given surveillance program. However, the optimal methods for sample collection, transport, and handling are universal. Many practical questions have been ...

  9. Review of rapid molecular diagnostic tools for avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular diagnostics tests are commonly used to diagnose avian influenza virus (AIV) because they are sensitive, can be performed rapidly, with high throughput, and at a moderate cost. Molecular diagnostic tests have recently proven themselves to be invaluable in controlling disease outbreaks arou...

  10. Recent worldwide outbreaks of avian influenza and methods for control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in the world since 1959. The largest of these outbreaks has been the H5N1 HPAI which has caused problems in poultry and other birds in 55 countries of Asia, Europe and Africa since 1996. These viruses have also cause...

  11. Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions. PMID:26079209

  12. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  13. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus in liquid egg products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty eight percent of the 200 million cases of shelled eggs produced per year in the U.S. are processed as liquid egg product. The U.S. also exports internationally a large amount of egg products. Although the U.S. is normally free of avian influenza, concern about contamination of egg product wit...

  14. Avian Influenza Vaccine Technologies and Laboratory Methods for Assessing Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines can be used in avian influenza (AI) control programs to prevent, manage or eradicate AI from poultry and other birds. The best protection is produced from the humoral response against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein and such protection is HA subtype specific. A variety of vaccines have been ...

  15. Movements of birds and avian influenza from Asia into Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) virus is spread in part by migratory birds. We describe the extensive overlap of Asian and American bird vectors in Alaska as the ‘Beringian Crucible’. Seven years of AI surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998-2004; 8,255 samples) show remar...

  16. Avian Influenza vaccine technologies and laboratory methods for assessing protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines can be used in avian influenza (AI) control programs to prevent, manage or eradicate AI from poultry and other birds. The best protection is produced from the humoral response against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein and such protection is HA subtype specific. A variety of vaccines have been ...

  17. Canada geese and the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are numerous, highly visible, and widely distributed in both migratory and resident populations in North America; as a member of the Order Anseriformes, they are often suggested as a potential reservoir and source for avian influenza (AI) viruses. To further examine...

  18. The changing role of avian influenza on global health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are a diverse group divided into 144 different subtypes based on different combinations of the 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes, and two different pathotypes (low [LP] and high pathogenicity [HP]). LPAI viruses are maintained in wild birds, and must be adapt...

  19. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  20. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 into Europe and North America poses significant risks to poultry industries and wildlife populations and warrants continued and heightened vigilance. First discovered in South Korean poultry and wild birds in early 2014...

  1. Innate resistance to avian influenza: Of MHC's and Mx proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is an economically important virus of poultry that has significant impact on global trade. Recently, increased attention to animal genomics has been applied to enhance innate resistance to infectious diseases in poultry. Two known contributors to innate resistance are the host m...

  2. A Review of the Antiviral Susceptibility of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses over the Last Decade

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ding Yuan; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2014-01-01

    Antivirals play an important role in the prevention and treatment of influenza infections, particularly in high-risk or severely ill patients. Two classes of influenza antivirals have been available in many countries over the last decade (2004–2013), the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). During this period, widespread adamantane resistance has developed in circulating influenza viruses rendering these drugs useless, resulting in the reliance on the most widely available NAI, oseltamivir. However, the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1) viruses in 2008 demonstrated that NAI-resistant viruses could also emerge and spread globally in a similar manner to that seen for adamantane-resistant viruses. Previously, it was believed that NAI-resistant viruses had compromised replication and/or transmission. Fortunately, in 2013, the majority of circulating human influenza viruses remain sensitive to all of the NAIs, but significant work by our laboratory and others is now underway to understand what enables NAI-resistant viruses to retain the capacity to replicate and transmit. In this review, we describe how the susceptibility of circulating human and avian influenza viruses has changed over the last ten years and describe some research studies that aim to understand how NAI-resistant human and avian influenza viruses may emerge in the future. PMID:24800107

  3. Scientific basis for use of vaccination as a strategy to control avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines have been used to control a variety of piscian, avian, and mammalian diseases. Commercial usage of vaccines against avian influenza (AI) began in 1979, in Minnesota to control H4 and H6 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) which was causing economically significant disease in turkey br...

  4. International standards for the control of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2003-01-01

    The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has developed international standards to reduce the risk of the spread of high-pathogenicity avian influenza though international trade. These standards include providing a definition of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), procedures for prompt reporting of HPAI outbreaks, requirements that must be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of HPAI, requirements that should be met to import live birds and avian products into a HPAI-free country or zone, and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of HPAI through trade. The goal of these standards is to facilitate trade while minimizing the risk of the introduction of HPAI. PMID:14575096

  5. Adaptation of avian influenza A (H6N1) virus from avian to human receptor-binding preference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Qi, Jianxun; Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Min; Zhang, Baorong; Wang, Ming; Liu, Jinhua; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2015-06-12

    The receptor-binding specificity of influenza A viruses is a major determinant for the host tropism of the virus, which enables interspecies transmission. In 2013, the first human case of infection with avian influenza A (H6N1) virus was reported in Taiwan. To gather evidence concerning the epidemic potential of H6 subtype viruses, we performed comprehensive analysis of receptor-binding properties of Taiwan-isolated H6 HAs from 1972 to 2013. We propose that the receptor-binding properties of Taiwan-isolated H6 HAs have undergone three major stages: initially avian receptor-binding preference, secondarily obtaining human receptor-binding capacity, and recently human receptor-binding preference, which has been confirmed by receptor-binding assessment of three representative virus isolates. Mutagenesis work revealed that E190V and G228S substitutions are important to acquire the human receptor-binding capacity, and the P186L substitution could reduce the binding to avian receptor. Further structural analysis revealed how the P186L substitution in the receptor-binding site of HA determines the receptor-binding preference change. We conclude that the human-infecting H6N1 evolved into a human receptor preference. PMID:25940072

  6. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Killian, Mary Lea; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  7. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Mary Lea; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  8. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  9. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun Woo; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance. PMID:25183346

  10. Identification of morphological differences between avian influenza A viruses grown in chicken and duck cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Mubarak, Firas; Daly, Janet; Christie, Denise; Fountain, Donna; Dunham, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Although wild ducks are considered to be the major reservoirs for most influenza A virus subtypes, they are typically resistant to the effects of the infection. In contrast, certain influenza viruses may be highly pathogenic in other avian hosts such as chickens and turkeys, causing severe illness and death. Following in vitro infection of chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts (CEF and DEF) with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses, duck cells die more rapidly and produce fewer infectious virions than chicken cells. In the current study, the morphology of viruses produced from CEF and DEF cells infected with low pathogenic avian H2N3 was examined. Transmission electron microscopy showed that viruses budding from duck cells were elongated, while chicken cells produced mostly spherical virions; similar differences were observed in viral supernatants. Sequencing of the influenza genome of chicken- and duck-derived H2N3 LPAI revealed no differences, implicating host cell determinants as responsible for differences in virus morphology. Both DEF and CEF cells produced filamentous virions of equine H3N8 (where virus morphology is determined by the matrix gene). DEF cells produced filamentous or short filament virions of equine H3N8 and avian H2N3, respectively, even after actin disruption with cytochalasin D. These findings suggest that cellular factors other than actin are responsible for the formation of filamentous virions in DEF cells. The formation of elongated virions in duck cells may account for the reduced number of infectious virions produced and could have implications for virus transmission or maintenance in the reservoir host. PMID:25613009

  11. Avian influenza in North and South America, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Senne, Dennis A

    2007-03-01

    Between 2002 and 2005, three outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in the Americas: one outbreak in Chile (H7N3) in 2002, one outbreak in the United States (H5N2) in 2004, and one outbreak in Canada (H7N3) in 2004. The outbreak in Chile was limited to a large broiler breeder operation and a nearby turkey flock and represented the first outbreak of HPAI in that country. The outbreak of HPAI in the United States occurred in Texas and was limited to one premise where chickens were raised for sale in nearby live-bird markets. The outbreak in Canada was the largest of the three HPAI outbreaks, involving 42 premises and approximately 17 million birds in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. In each of the HPAI outbreaks, the disease was successfully eradicated by depopulation of infected farms. All other reports of infections in poultry and isolations from wild bird species pertained to low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Animal Health Officials in Canada reported subtypes H3, H5, and H6 in domestic poultry, and H3, H5, H11, and H13 from imported and/or wild bird species. An LPAI H5N2 virus continues to circulate in Mexico and the Central American countries of Guatemala and El Salvador. Each country reported isolations of H5N2 virus from poultry and the large-scale use of inactivated and recombinant H5 vaccines in their AI control programs. In Colombia, AI was reported for the first time when antibodies to H9N2 were detected in chickens by routine surveillance. Intensive surveillance activities in the United States detected AI virus or specific antibodies to 13 of the 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H13) and all nine neuraminidase subtypes in live-bird markets, small holder farms, and in commercial poultry from 29 states. The largest outbreak of LPAI in the United States occurred in 2002, when 197 farms were depopulated (4.7 million birds) to control an outbreak in Virginia and surrounding states. The outbreak was caused by an LPAI H7N2 virus

  12. Primary survey of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus infection in wild birds in some areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yu-Ping; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Si-Yuan; Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Sun, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Two hundred thirty specimens of wild birds were collected from some areas in Heilongjiang Province during the period of 2003-2004, including two batches of specimens collected randomly from a same flock of mallards in Zhalong Natural Reserve in August and December, 2004, respectively. Primary virus isolation and identification for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were performed. The results showed that only two specimens of young mallards collected from Zhalong Natural Reserve in August, 2004 were positive to AIV (isolation rate 0.9%), and one strain (D57) of these two virus isolates was identified to be H9 subtype by hemagglutination inhibition test. Meanwhile, the two batches of blood serum samples of mallards from Zhalong were also examined for antibodies against AIV and NDV. Among 38 blood serum samples collected in August, antibodies against the hemagglutinin of H1, H3, H5, H6 and H9 subtypes of AIV were found in 1, 0, 2, 0 and 8 samples, respectively; and 11 samples were found with antibody against NDV. Whereas the NDV isolation in both two batches of specimens of mallard was negative, all of the 32 blood serum samples collected in December were negative for antibodies against AIV and NDV. PMID:16293995

  13. Flying over an infected landscape: distribution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in South Asia and satellite tracking of wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Loth, Leo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Prosser, Diann J.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Rao, Mandava Venkata Subba; Mundkur, Taej; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Tseveenmayadag, Natsagdorj; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus persists in Asia, posing a threat to poultry, wild birds, and humans. Previous work in Southeast Asia demonstrated that HPAI H5N1 risk is related to domestic ducks and people. Other studies discussed the role of migratory birds in the long distance spread of HPAI H5N1. However, the interplay between local persistence and long-distance dispersal has never been studied. We expand previous geospatial risk analysis to include South and Southeast Asia, and integrate the analysis with migration data of satellite-tracked wild waterfowl along the Central Asia flyway. We find that the population of domestic duck is the main factor delineating areas at risk of HPAI H5N1 spread in domestic poultry in South Asia, and that other risk factors, such as human population and chicken density, are associated with HPAI H5N1 risk within those areas. We also find that satellite tracked birds (Ruddy Shelduck and two Bar-headed Geese) reveal a direct spatio-temporal link between the HPAI H5N1 hot-spots identified in India and Bangladesh through our risk model, and the wild bird outbreaks in May,June,July 2009 in China(Qinghai Lake), Mongolia, and Russia. This suggests that the continental-scale dynamics of HPAI H5N1 are structured as a number of persistence areas delineated by domestic ducks, connected by rare transmission through migratory waterfowl.

  14. Flying over an infected landscape: distribution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in South Asia and satellite tracking of wild waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H; Takekawa, John Y; Loth, Leo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Prosser, Diann J; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Subba Rao, Mandava Venkata; Mundkur, Taej; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2010-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus persists in Asia, posing a threat to poultry, wild birds, and humans. Previous work in Southeast Asia demonstrated that HPAI H5N1 risk is related to domestic ducks and people. Other studies discussed the role of migratory birds in the long distance spread of HPAI H5N1. However, the interplay between local persistence and long-distance dispersal has never been studied. We expand previous geospatial risk analysis to include South and Southeast Asia, and integrate the analysis with migration data of satellite-tracked wild waterfowl along the Central Asia flyway. We find that the population of domestic duck is the main factor delineating areas at risk of HPAI H5N1 spread in domestic poultry in South Asia, and that other risk factors, such as human population and chicken density, are associated with HPAI H5N1 risk within those areas. We also find that satellite tracked birds (Ruddy Shelduck and two Bar-headed Geese) reveal a direct spatio-temporal link between the HPAI H5N1 hot-spots identified in India and Bangladesh through our risk model, and the wild bird outbreaks in May-June-July 2009 in China (Qinghai Lake), Mongolia, and Russia. This suggests that the continental-scale dynamics of HPAI H5N1 are structured as a number of persistence areas delineated by domestic ducks, connected by rare transmission through migratory waterfowl. PMID:21267626

  15. Flying over an infected landscape: Distribution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in South Asia and satellite tracking of wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, M.; Newman, S.H.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Loth, L.; Biradar, C.; Prosser, D.J.; Balachandran, S.; Subba, Rao M.V.; Mundkur, T.; Yan, B.; Xing, Z.; Hou, Y.; Batbayar, N.; Natsagdorj, T.; Hogerwerf, L.; Slingenbergh, J.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus persists in Asia, posing a threat to poultry, wild birds, and humans. Previous work in Southeast Asia demonstrated that HPAI H5N1 risk is related to domestic ducks and people. Other studies discussed the role of migratory birds in the long distance spread of HPAI H5N1. However, the interplay between local persistence and long-distance dispersal has never been studied. We expand previous geospatial risk analysis to include South and Southeast Asia, and integrate the analysis with migration data of satellite-tracked wild waterfowl along the Central Asia flyway. We find that the population of domestic duck is the main factor delineating areas at risk of HPAI H5N1 spread in domestic poultry in South Asia, and that other risk factors, such as human population and chicken density, are associated with HPAI H5N1 risk within those areas. We also find that satellite tracked birds (Ruddy Shelduck and two Bar-headed Geese) reveal a direct spatio-temporal link between the HPAI H5N1 hot-spots identified in India and Bangladesh through our risk model, and the wild bird outbreaks in May-June-July 2009 in China (Qinghai Lake), Mongolia, and Russia. This suggests that the continental-scale dynamics of HPAI H5N1 are structured as a number of persistence areas delineated by domestic ducks, connected by rare transmission through migratory waterfowl. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

  16. Novel Polymerase Gene Mutations for Human Adaptation in Clinical Isolates of Avian H5N1 Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yasuha; Kawashita, Norihito; Daidoji, Tomo; Ibrahim, Madiha S.; El-Gendy, Emad M.; Takagi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Yasuo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nakaya, Takaaki; Shioda, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    A major determinant in the change of the avian influenza virus host range to humans is the E627K substitution in the PB2 polymerase protein. However, the polymerase activity of avian influenza viruses with a single PB2-E627K mutation is still lower than that of seasonal human influenza viruses, implying that avian viruses require polymerase mutations in addition to PB2-627K for human adaptation. Here, we used a database search of H5N1 clade 2.2.1 virus sequences with the PB2-627K mutation to identify other polymerase adaptation mutations that have been selected in infected patients. Several of the mutations identified acted cooperatively with PB2-627K to increase viral growth in human airway epithelial cells and mouse lungs. These mutations were in multiple domains of the polymerase complex other than the PB2-627 domain, highlighting a complicated avian-to-human adaptation pathway of avian influenza viruses. Thus, H5N1 viruses could rapidly acquire multiple polymerase mutations that function cooperatively with PB2-627K in infected patients for optimal human adaptation. PMID:27097026

  17. Vaccination and acute phase mediator production in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus; novel markers for vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to determine vaccine efficacy of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are limited in poultry because experimental infections with LPAI virus in specific pathogen free chickens rarely causes clinical disease. The most commonly used method to compare LPAI vaccine efficacy is to quant...

  18. Mechanisms of transmission and spread of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in birds and mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eurasian-African H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus has crossed multiple species barriers to infect poultry, captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. The specific transmission mechanisms are unclear in most cases, but experimental studies and field data sug...

  19. Success factors for avian influenza vaccine use in poultry and potential impact at the wild bird-agricultural interface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-two epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have been reported in poultry and other birds since 1959. The ongoing H5N1 HPAI epizootic that began in 1996 has also spilled over to infect wild birds. Traditional stamping-out programs in poultry have resulted in eradication of mos...

  20. Understanding the 2013 H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in poultry: field epidemiology and experimental pathogenesis studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influenza A (H7N9) virus is of avian origin and is responsible for infections in human in large urban areas of China in spring 2013. The original source of the virus from poultry farms is unknown but the live poultry market (LPM) system has served as an amplifier of the virus, especially in whol...

  1. Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds during Outbreaks in Domestic Poultry, Minnesota, 2015.

    PubMed

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul; Grear, Daniel A; Ip, Hon S; Vandalen, Kaci K; Minicucci, Larissa A

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To understand the potential role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9-June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper's hawk but not from waterfowl fecal samples. PMID:27064759

  2. Improved avian influenza virus isolation rates from wild waterfowl cloacal swabs using yolk sac inoculation of embryonating chicken egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) remains of interest to researchers as a pathogen that infects many economically important bird species. Asymptomatic wild birds, such as waterfowl species, can shed virus and spread it to domestic poultry, where it can cause severe damage. Effective laboratory methods t...

  3. Pathobiological characterization of low-pathogenicity H5 avian influenza viruses of diverse origins in chickens, ducks and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We undertook one of the most comprehensive studies on the replication and intraspecies transmission characteristics of 20 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses of different origins, which included 8 isolates from wild aquatic birds. We studied virus replication in infected and contact control bi...

  4. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul C.; Grear, Daniel; Ip, Hon S.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl.

  5. Development of a new candidate H5N1 avian influenza virus for pre-pandemic vaccination production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND. Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses currently circulating in birds have caused hundreds of human infections, and pose a significant pandemic threat. Vaccines are a major component of the public health sector preparedness for this likely event. The rapid evolution of H5N1 vi...

  6. Avian influenza vaccination in North America: strategies and difficulties.

    PubMed

    Suarez, D L; Lee, C W; Swayne, D E

    2006-01-01

    Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks when used as part of a comprehensive control programme that includes quarantines, animal movement controls, increased biosecurity, enhanced surveillance, and education. In North America both whole virus killed adjuvanted vaccines and fowlpox recombinant vaccines have been used to aid in the control of AI. The fowlpox recombinant vaccine is licensed in several countries including the United States (U.S.), but it has only been used in the field in Mexico and some Central American countries. The U.S., however, has considerable experience with the use of killed vaccines, primarily in turkeys. In the state of Minnesota in the 1980s and early 1990s, outbreaks of AI in range-reared turkeys were common, and vaccines were used successfully as part of a controlled marketing programme. More recently, several large layer flocks in Connecticut were vaccinated as an alternative to immediate depopulation after an H7N2 low pathogenic AI outbreak. The vaccinated flocks were intensively monitored for virus shed using sentinel birds, dead bird testing, and eventually some serological surveillance using a neuraminidase DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animal) approach. With these successes, vaccination is being considered as a valuable tool in comprehensive AI control strategies. Consideration for matching the vaccine to the field strain should also be considered to provide optimal protection including reduced shedding of virus. Antigenic drift of AI viruses after extended vaccination programmes has been observed in chickens, similar to what has been observed with human influenza viruses. Therefore, periodical evaluation of the vaccine to the field strain is necessary to maintain good protection from clinical disease and virus shedding. PMID:16447502

  7. Detection method for avian influenza viruses in water.

    PubMed

    Rönnqvist, Maria; Ziegler, Thedi; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Recent events have shown that humans may become infected with some pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV). Since soil and water, including lakes, rivers, and seashores, may be contaminated by AIV excreted by birds, effective methods are needed for monitoring water for emerging viruses. Combining water filtration with molecular methods such as PCR is a fast and effective way for detecting viruses. The objective of this study was to apply a convenient method for the detection of AIV in natural water samples. Distilled water and lake, river, and seawater were artificially contaminated with AIV (H5N3) and passed through a filter system. AIV was detected from filter membrane by real-time RT-PCR. The performance of Zetapor, SMWP, and Sartobind D5F membranes in recovering influenza viruses was first evaluated using contaminated distilled water. SWMP, which gave the highest virus recoveries, was then compared with a pre-filter combined GF/F filter membrane in a trial using natural water samples. In this study, the cellulose membrane SMWP was found to be practical for recovery of AIVs in water. Viral yields varied between 62.1 and 65.9% in distilled water and between 1 and 16.7% in natural water samples. The borosilicate glass membrane GF/F combined with pre-filter was also feasible in filtering natural water samples with viral yields from 1.98 to 7.33%. The methods described can be used for monitoring fresh and seawater samples for the presence of AIV and to determine the source of AIV transmission in an outbreak situation. PMID:23412765

  8. Evaluation of two commercial lateral flow devices (LFDs) used for flockside testing of H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza infections in backyard gallinaceous poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Mohammed; Selim, Abdullah; Coward, Vivien J; Hassan, Mohammed K; Aly, Mona M; Banks, Jill; Slomka, Marek J

    2010-01-01

    Quickvue and Anigen lateral flow devices (LFDs) were evaluated for detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infections in Egyptian poultry. Sixty five chickens and two turkeys were sampled in eight flocks where H5N1 HPAI infection was suspected. Swabs (tracheal and cloacal) and feathers were collected from each bird for flockside testing by the two LFDs. The same clinical specimens were transported for laboratory testing by M gene RRT PCR where a positive result by this "gold standard" test for one or both swabs from a given bird indicated infection at the bird level, showing 57 birds (including 15 carcassess) to be truly AI infected. Among these 57, similar bird-level LFD testing of swabs showed 43 and 44 to be AI infected by Quickvue and Anigen LFDs, respectively. Nine birds were AI negative by M gene RRT PCR and both LFDs, and one was M gene RRT PCR negative but positive by both LFDs, suggesting one false positive LFD result. Sensitivities of the LFDs relative to M gene RRT PCR were 77.2% for Anigen and 75.4% for Quickvue tests, with 90.0% specificity for both. By including feathers with swabs for LFD testing, the number of LFD positives among 57 infected birds increased by four to 48 by Anigen and 47 by Quickvue, increasing the sensitivity of the LFDs to 84.2% and 82.5% for Anigen and Quickvue, respectively. Although LFD sensitivity cannot compare to the high sensitivity displayed by validated AI RRT PCRs, they may be utilised for flockside testing of birds infected with HPAI at the peak of viral shedding, when birds are displaying advanced clinical signs or sampled as fresh carcasses. Swabs are classic field specimens collected from outbreaks, but inclusion of feathers from birds infected with H5N1 HPAI increased LFD sensitivity. However, the LFD false positive observation emphasises the importance of returning samples for confirmatory laboratory testing. PMID:21139668

  9. Innate immune responses to avian influenza differ between chickens and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Avian influenza (AI) remains a constant economic threat to commercial poultry production throughout the world. Influenza viruses can occur naturally among wild bird species, including aquatic waterfowl, without causing significant morbidity or mortality. Conversely, commercial poultr...

  10. Influenza A virus infections in land birds, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, A.T.; Bush, S.E.; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, D.E.; Ip, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    Water birds are considered the reservoir for avian influenza viruses. We examined this assumption by sampling and real-time reverse transcription-PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among migratory species. Surveillance programs for monitoring spread of these viruses need to be redesigned.

  11. Influenza A virus infections in land birds, People's Republic of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present assumption is that waterbirds are the primary reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. We reexamined this assumption by sampling and real-time RT-PCR testing of 610 Asian birds of 135 species. We showed that influenza A infections are common among non-waterbird species, emphasizing ...

  12. Monitoring Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus through National Influenza-like Illness Surveillance, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cuiling; Havers, Fiona; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Tao; Shi, Jinghong; Wang, Dayan; Yang, Jing; Yang, Lei; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2013-01-01

    In China during March 4–April 28, 2013, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus testing was performed on 20,739 specimens from patients with influenza-like illness in 10 provinces with confirmed human cases: 6 (0.03%) were positive, and increased numbers of unsubtypeable influenza-positive specimens were not seen. Careful monitoring and rapid characterization of influenza A(H7N9) and other influenza viruses remain critical. PMID:23879887

  13. Experience in control of avian influenza in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sims, L D

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have been circulating in Asia for over ten years, providing considerable experience on which to base appropriate long-term strategies for their control. Experience in Hong Kong SAR demonstrates that existing production and marketing practices should be changed and a range of parallel measures used. It also shows the extent of surveillance required to ensure continuing freedom from infection. Certain high-risk practices should be changed or otherwise overcome in order to control and prevent disease, including intensive rearing of large numbers of poultry in premises without biosecurity commensurate with the level of risk for exposure; complex market chains involving many smallholders selling poultry through large numbers of transporters and middlemen in poorly regulated live poultry markets; and rearing of large numbers of ducks outdoors. These high-risk practices are compounded by weak veterinary services and poor reporting systems. In many parts of Asia, these methods of rearing and marketing are an integral way of life, support the poorest members of the community or cannot be changed quickly without severe socioeconomic consequences. The gains made so far will be ephemeral unless there is a shift from an emergency focus to one of consolidation in which these high-risk practices are identified and sustainable measures implemented to minimize the risks they pose, taking account of the socioeconomic effects of interventions. Vaccination will play a key role, as it currently does in China and Viet Nam. PMID:18411934

  14. Electronic microarray assays for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lung, Oliver; Beeston, Anne; Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Pasick, John; Hodko, Dalibor; Hughes, Kimberley Burton; Furukawa-Stoffer, Tara; Fisher, Mathew; Deregt, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    Microarrays are suitable for multiplexed detection and typing of pathogens. Avian influenza virus (AIV) is currently classified into 16 H (hemagglutinin) and 9 N (neuraminidase) subtypes, whereas Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains differ in virulence and are broadly classified into high and low pathogenicity types. In this study, three assays for detection and typing of poultry viruses were developed on an automated microarray platform: a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of AIV and detection and pathotyping of NDV, and two separate assays for differentiating all AIV H and N subtypes. The AIV-NDV multiplex assay detected all strains in a 63 virus panel, and accurately typed all high pathogenicity NDV strains tested. A limit of detection of 10(1)-10(3) TCID(50)/mL and 200-400 EID(50)/mL was obtained for NDV and AIV, respectively. The AIV typing assays accurately typed all 41 AIV strains and a limit of detection of 4-200 EID(50)/mL was obtained. Assay validation showed that the microarray assays were generally comparable to real-time RT-PCR. However, the AIV typing microarray assays detected more positive clinical samples than the AIV matrix real-time RT-PCR, and also provided information regarding the subtype. The AIV-NDV multiplex and AIV H typing microarray assays detected mixed infections and could be useful for detection and typing of AIV and NDV. PMID:22796283

  15. Canada geese and the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mark T; Brown, Justin D; Goekjian, Virginia H; Luttrell, M Page; Poulson, Rebecca L; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

    2010-07-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are numerous, highly visible, and widely distributed in both migratory and resident populations in North America; as a member of the order Anseriformes, they are often suggested as a potential reservoir and source for avian influenza (AI) viruses. To further examine the role of Canada Geese in the ecology of AI, we re-evaluated existing literature related to AI virus in this species and tested breeding populations of Canada Geese from three states (Georgia, West Virginia, and Minnesota, USA) by virus isolation and serology. The ability of AI virus to persist in goose feces under experimental conditions also was evaluated as an additional measure of the potential for this species to serve as an AI virus reservoir. Virus was not isolated from 1,668 cloacal swabs and type-specific antibody prevalence was low (4/335, 1.2%). Finally, under experimental conditions, AI virus persistence in goose feces and in water contaminated with goose feces was limited as compared to published estimates from duck feces and water. Our results are consistent with historic reports of a low prevalence of AI virus infection in this species, and we suggest that Canada Geese play a minor, if any, role as a reservoir for low pathogenic AI viruses that naturally circulate in wild bird populations. PMID:20688710

  16. Sialic acid content in human saliva and anti-influenza activity against human and avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Limsuwat, Nattavatchara; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Auewarakul, Prasert

    2016-03-01

    It was shown previously that human saliva has higher antiviral activity against human influenza viruses than against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and that the major anti-influenza activity was associated with sialic-acid-containing molecules. To further characterize the differential susceptibility to saliva among influenza viruses, seasonal influenza A and B virus, pandemic H1N1 virus, and 15 subtypes of avian influenza virus were tested for their susceptibility to human and chicken saliva. Human saliva showed higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers against seasonal influenza A virus and the pandemic H1N1 viruses than against influenza B virus and most avian influenza viruses, except for H9N2 and H12N9 avian influenza viruses, which showed high HI and NT titers. To understand the nature of sialic-acid-containing anti-influenza factors in human saliva, α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid was measured in human saliva samples using a lectin binding and dot blot assay. α2,6-linked sialic acid was found to be more abundant than α2,3-linked sialic acid, and a seasonal H1N1 influenza virus bound more efficiently to human saliva than an H5N1 virus in a dot blot analysis. These data indicated that human saliva contains the sialic acid type corresponding to the binding preference of seasonal influenza viruses. PMID:26671828

  17. Phylogenetic and pathogenic analysis of a novel H6N2 avian influenza virus isolated from a green peafowl in a wildlife park.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaobin; Ci, Yanpeng; Ma, Yixin; Liu, Liling; Ma, Jianzhang; Li, D Yanbing; Chen, Hualan

    2014-12-01

    H6 subtype avian influenza virus, which has been circulating among different species, causes considerable concern for both veterinary medicine and public health. We isolated a strain of H6N2 avian influenza virus from healthy green peafowl (Pavo muticus) in Qinghuangdao Wildlife Park in Hebei Province, China, in 2012. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolated H6N2 strain had the same gene constellation as southern China strains, which were predominantly isolated from waterfowl distributed in Shantou, Guangxi, and Hunan in 2001-2010. The isolate showed no and low pathogenicity in chickens and ducks, respectively. However, it replicated efficiently in the lungs and turbinate of infected mice, resulting in thickened alveolar septa and moderate interstitial pneumonia. This finding raises concerns that the H6N2 subtype maybe evolve into a novel endemic avian influenza virus. Therefore, periodical surveillance of avian influenza viruses must be undertaken to monitor the advent of novel viruses. PMID:25619010

  18. Efficient strategy for constructing duck enteritis virus-based live attenuated vaccine against homologous and heterologous H5N1 avian influenza virus and duck enteritis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong; Hu, Yong; Liu, Zhigang; Zhong, Wei; Cao, Hangzhou; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Duck is susceptible to many pathogens, such as duck hepatitis virus, duck enteritis virus (DEV), duck tembusu virus, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in particular. With the significant role of duck in the evolution of H5N1 HPAIV, control and eradication of H5N1 HPAIV in duck through vaccine immunization is considered an effective method in minimizing the threat of a pandemic outbreak. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against these pathogens should be determined. In this study, the DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1, and its potential as a polyvalent vaccine was evaluated. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the gB and UL26 gene junction of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The HA gene of A/duck/Hubei/xn/2007 (H5N1) was inserted into the C-KCE genome via the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) to generate the recombinant vector pBAC-C-KCE-HA. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-HA was developed by eliminating the BAC backbone. Ducks immunized with C-KCE-HA induced both the cross-reactive antibodies and T cell response against H5. Moreover, C-KCE-HA-immunized ducks provided rapid and long-lasting protection against homologous and heterologous HPAIV H5N1 and DEV clinical signs, death, and primary viral replication. In conclusion, our BAC-C-KCE is a promising platform for developing a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine. PMID:25889564

  19. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity and distribution of viral antigen in chickens after infection with a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (H4N6) isolated from wild ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four-week-old commercial chickens were intranasally inoculated with an H4N6 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) isolated from a duck in Ukraine. Cecum, spleen, lung, and trachea samples were collected from birds from 1 to 21 days post inoculation (dpi) and examined by immunohistochemica...

  20. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in immunogenomic and proteomic tools are facilitating the characterization of complex host-pathogen immunobiology. In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). ...

  1. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI. PMID:24491922

  2. Testing of human specimens for the presence of highly pathogenic zoonotic avian influenza virus A(H5N1) in Poland in 2006-2008 - justified or unnecessary steps?

    PubMed

    Romanowska, Magdalena; Nowak, Iwona; Brydak, Lidia; Wojtyla, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Since 1997, human infections with highly pathogenic zoonotic avian influenza viruses have shown that the risk of influenza pandemic is significant. In Europe, infections caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N7) virus were confirmed in the human population in 2003 in the Netherlands. Moreover, outbreaks of A(H5N1) infections were observed in wild and farm birds in different European regions, including Poland in 2006-2008. This study presents 16 patients in Poland from whom clinical specimens were collected and tested for A(H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza. This article shows the results of laboratory tests and discusses the legitimacy of the collection and testing of the specimens. All patients were negative for A(H5N1) infection. Nevertheless, only two patients met clinical and epidemiological criteria from the avian influenza case definition. The conclusion is that there is still a strong necessity for increasing the awareness of medical and laboratory staff, as well as the awareness of some occupational groups about human infections with avian influenza viruses, including the importance of seasonal influenza vaccination. It should also be emphasized that in the case of patients suspected of being infected with avian influenza, the information about clinical symptoms is insufficient and must be accompanied by a wide epidemiological investigation. PMID:20047257

  3. Antigenic characterization of H3 subtypes of avian influenza A viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Pong; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Baroch, John A; Nolting, Jaqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L; Pharr, G Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts, including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammal species. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here, we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about four units, and each unit corresponds to a 2 log 2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable.

  4. Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S; Baroch, John A; Nolting, Jacqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L; Pharr, G Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts, including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammal species. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here, we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about four units, and each unit corresponds to a 2 log 2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable. PMID:27309078

  5. Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Baroch, John A.; Nolting, Jacqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L.; Pharr, G. Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammals. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other, and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about 4 units, and each unit corresponds to a 2log2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable. PMID:27309078

  6. Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important public health issue because pandemic influenza viruses in people have contained genes from viruses that infect birds. The H5 and H7 AIV subtypes have periodically mutated from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity form. Analysis of the geographic distribution of AIV can identify areas where reassortment events might occur and how high pathogenicity influenza might travel if it enters wild bird populations in the US. Modelling the number of AIV cases is important because the rate of co-infection with multiple AIV subtypes increases with the number of cases and co-infection is the source of reassortment events that give rise to new strains of influenza, which occurred before the 1968 pandemic. Aquatic birds in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes have been recognized as reservoirs of AIV since the 1970s. However, little is known about influenza prevalence in terrestrial birds in the order Passeriformes. Since passerines share the same habitat as poultry, they may be more effective transmitters of the disease to humans than aquatic birds. We analyze 152 passerine species including the American Robin (Turdus migratorius) and Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus). Methods We formulate a regression model to predict AIV cases throughout the US at the county scale as a function of 12 environmental variables, sampling effort, and proximity to other counties with influenza outbreaks. Our analysis did not distinguish between types of influenza, including low or highly pathogenic forms. Results Analysis of 13,046 cloacal samples collected from 225 bird species in 41 US states between 2005 and 2008 indicates that the average prevalence of influenza in passerines is greater than the prevalence in eight other avian orders. Our regression model identifies the Great Plains and the Pacific Northwest as high-risk areas for AIV. Highly significant predictors of AIV include the amount of harvested cropland and the first

  7. Surveillance of avian influenza viruses in Papua New Guinean poultry, June 2011 to April 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jonduo, Marinjho; Wong, Sook-San; Kapo, Nime; Ominipi, Paskalis; Abdad, Mohammad; Siba, Peter; McKenzie, Pamela; Webby, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the circulation of avian influenza viruses in poultry populations throughout Papua New Guinea to assess the risk to the poultry industry and human health. Oropharyngeal swabs, cloacal swabs and serum were collected from 537 poultry from 14 provinces of Papua New Guinea over an 11–month period (June 2011 through April 2012). Virological and serological investigations were undertaken to determine the prevalence of avian influenza viruses. Neither influenza A viruses nor antibodies were detected in any of the samples. This study demonstrated that avian influenza viruses were not circulating at detectable levels in poultry populations in Papua New Guinea during the sampling period. However, avian influenza remains a significant risk to Papua New Guinea due to the close proximity of countries having previously reported highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the low biosecurity precautions associated with the rearing of most poultry populations in the country. PMID:24478918

  8. Avian influenza: mini-review, European control measures and current situation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Van Borm, S; Van den Berg, T P

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease for birds, which can easily take epidemic proportions when appropriate and efficacious measures are not taken immediately. Influenza viruses can vary in pathogenicity from low to medium or highly pathogenic. A low pathogenic strain can become highly pathogenic by introduction of new mutations (insertions, deletions or substitutions) in the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin during circulation in chickens. Up till now only H5 and H7 strains gave rise to highly pathogenic strains in this manner. At present the avian H5N1 influenza virus is endemic in Southeast Asia (47) and is expanding westward. In addition, its virulence is extremely higher than other HPAI, like H7N7. Moreover, the avian host range is expanding, as species previously considered resistant, now get infected and can contribute to the dissemination of the virus. In the context of H5N1, all movements (trade, high international mobility, migration and smuggling) can become high risk factors of spreading the disease. In most European countries eradication measures are applied when an outbreak occurs. But such measures have great economical and social implications, and are no longer generally accepted. The combination of prophylactic measures (vaccination and medicines), hygienic measures and surveillance could offer an acceptable alternative. PMID:16800241

  9. Intensive care management of life-threatening avian influenza A (H5N1).

    PubMed

    Sessler, Curtis N; Gray, Nicole D

    2008-03-01

    A large proportion of patients with avian influenza A (H5N1) develop life-threatening manifestations, often including ARDS, acute renal failure and multiple organ failure that requires aggressive intensive care management. The pace of development of respiratory failure is often rapid and can occur in previously healthy hosts, mandating close observation and timely intervention of infected individuals. Use of standard, contact, droplet and airborne isolation precautions is recommended to protect healthcare workers. Key components of ARDS management encompass appropriate mechanical ventilation including limiting tidal volume to avian influenza, beneficial effects on outcomes have not been demonstrated for corticosteroids. Prone positioning can improve oxygenation temporarily and might be useful as rescue therapy for severe hypoxemia. Administration of inhaled nitric oxide and high frequency oscillatory ventilation can improve oxygenation but have not been demonstrated to improve survival in ARDS-their role in avian influenza is uncertain and availability limited. Management of multiple organ failure may include vasopressor support for septic shock and renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure. PMID:18366526

  10. Identification of Epitopes for Neutralizing Antibodies Against H10N8 Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin-Fang; Sun, Chun-Yun; Rao, Mu-Ding; Xie, Liang-Zhi

    2016-08-01

    Objective To develop neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against H10N8 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin and to identify the binding sites. Methods MAbs against hemagglutinin of H10N8 avian influenza virus were developed by genetic engineering. Neutralizing MAbs were screened by microneutralization assay,and then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot to identity the binding sites.The homology modeling process was performed using Discovery Studio 3.5 software,while the binding epitopes were analyzed by BioEdit software. Results One MAb that could neutralize the H10N8 pseudovirus was obtained and characterized. Analysis about epitopes suggested that the antibody could bind to the HA1 region of hemagglutinin,while the epitopes on antigen were conserved in H10 subtypes.Conclusions One neutralizing antibody was obtained by this research.The MAb may potentially be further developed as a pre-clinical candidate to treat avian influenza H10N8 virus infection. PMID:27594152

  11. Research update on avian influenza viruses and H1N1 influenza virus in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory conducts research on many areas related to AI including pathogenesis and transmission studies, use of vaccination, virus ...

  12. Two novel reassortants of avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yuhai; Mei, Kun; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Di; Yu, Xiaolan; Gao, Zhimin; Zhao, Lihua; Gao, George F; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Quanjiao

    2015-05-01

    Eight avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses were isolated from live poultry markets (LPMs) in Sichuan and Jiangxi Provinces in China in 2014, including those close to the county where the human H5N6 infection occurred. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these H5N6 viruses were novel reassortants between H5N1 clade 2.3.4 and H6N6 viruses, and had evolved into two distinct lineages (Sichuan and Jiangxi). Moreover, the human H5N6 virus was closely related to the avian-source viruses of Sichuan lineage. Notably, H5N6 viruses contained a T160A substitution in the haemagglutinin protein and an 11 aa deletion in the neuraminidase stalk, which may aid in enhancing viral affinity for human-like receptors and virulence in mammals. As the H5N1 virus infects humans through direct contact, infection with the novel H5N6 virus raised significant concerns that the H5 subtype was a likely candidate for a pandemic. Therefore, extensive and long-term surveillance of avian influenza viruses in LPMs is essential. PMID:25604926

  13. Increased sensitivity for detecting avian influenza-specific antibodies by a modified hemagglutination inhibition assay using horse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Na; Wang, Shi-Xia; Liu, Yun-Xi; Zhang, Pan-He; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Lin-Zhan; Dang, Rong-Li; Ma, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Shan; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2008-10-01

    The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is a widely used serological method to measure the levels of protective antibody responses against influenza viruses. However, the traditional HI assay which uses chicken erythrocytes is not sufficiently sensitive for detecting HI antibodies specific to avian influenza viruses. Previously, it was demonstrated that employing an assay using horse erythrocytes was able to increase the sensitivity of HI assay. The current report describes further optimization of this modified HI assay. It was shown that this method was able to increase detection of HI activities in rabbit sera immunized with H5 HA antigens, and proved that this increased sensitivity is useful in dissecting the strain specificity of HI antibody responses. In addition, the modified HI assay using horse erythrocytes increased the sensitivity of detecting HI antibodies specific for three major serotypes of avian influenza viruses, H5, H7 and H9, in people who may have asymptomatic infection with avian influenza viruses. Based on these results, the optimized use of horse erythrocytes should be standard practice for detecting HI activities against avian influenza viruses. PMID:18634828

  14. Amantadine resistance among highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) isolated from India.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Aron; Sood, Richa; Chanu, Kh Victoria; Bhatia, Sandeep; Khandia, Rekha; Pateriya, A K; Nagarajan, S; Dimri, U; Kulkarni, D D

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is the major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Matrix 2 (M2) inhibitors (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) are the two classes of antiviral agents that are specifically active against influenza viruses and are used for both treatment and prophylaxis of influenza infections. Amantadine targets the M2 ion channel of influenza A virus and interrupts virus life cycle through blockade of hydrogen ion influx. This prevents uncoating of the virus in infected host cells which impedes the release of ribonucleoprotein required for transcription and replication of virion in the nucleus. The present study was carried out to review the status of amantadine resistance in H5N1 viruses isolated from India and to study their replicative capability. Results of the study revealed resistance to amantadine in antiviral assay among four H5N1 viruses out of which two viruses had Serine 31 Asparagine (AGT-AAT i.e., S31N) mutation and two had Valine 27 Alanine (GTT-GCT i.e., V27A) mutation. The four resistant viruses not only exhibited significant difference in effective concentration 50% (EC50) values of amantadine hydrochloride from that of susceptible viruses (P < 0.0001) but also showed significant difference between two different types (S31N and V27A) of mutant viruses (P < 0.05). Resistance to amantadine could also be demonstrated in a simple HA test after replication of the viruses in MDCK cells in presence of amantadine. The study identifies the correlation between in vitro antiviral assay and presence of established molecular markers of resistance, the retention of replicative capacity in the presence of amantadine hydrochloride by the resistant viruses and the emergence of resistant mutations against amantadine among avian influenza viruses (H5N1) without selective drug pressure. PMID:26639679

  15. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated. PMID:19618621

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of avian influenza control in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Karki, N P S; Rushton, J; Ivanek, R

    2015-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A strain H5N1 have occurred in Nepal since 2009 despite implementation of a national programme to control the disease through surveillance and culling of infected poultry flocks. The objective of the study was to use cost-benefit analysis to compare the current control programme (CCP) with the possible alternatives of: i) no intervention (i.e., absence of control measures [ACM]) and ii) vaccinating 60% of the national poultry flock twice a year. In terms of the benefit-cost ratio, findings indicate a return of US $1.94 for every dollar spent in the CCP compared with ACM. The net present value of the CCP versus ACM, i.e., the amount of money saved by implementing the CCP rather than ACM, is US $861,507 (the benefits of CCP [prevented losses which would have occurred under ACM] minus the cost of CCP). The vaccination programme yields a return of US $2.32 for every dollar spent when compared with the CCR The net present value of vaccination versus the CCP is approximately US $12 million. Sensitivity analysis indicated thatthe findings were robust to different rates of discounting, whereas results were sensitive to the assumed market loss and the number of birds affected in the outbreaks under the ACM and vaccination options. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that the CCP is economically superior to ACM, but that vaccination could give greater economic returns and may be a better control strategy. Future research should be directed towards evaluating the financial feasibility and social acceptability of the CCP and of vaccination, with an emphasis on evaluating market reaction to the presence of H5N1 infection in the country. PMID:27044153

  17. ["Constanze": a trinational project on avian influenza in wild birds at Lake Constance].

    PubMed

    Brunhart, I; Baumer, A; Reist, M; Stärk, K; Griot, C

    2010-11-01

    When highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) arrived at Lake Constance in February 2006, little was known about its ecology and epidemiology in wild birds. In order to prevent virus transmission from wild birds to poultry, the adjacent countries initiated the tri-national, interdisciplinary research program «Constanze» to investigate avian influenza infections in water birds at Lake Constance. In collaboration with government agencies scientists examined the prevalence of AI virus in the region of Lake Constance for a period of 33 months, compared the effectiveness of different surveillance methods and analysed the migration behaviour of water birds. Although virus introduction from regions as far as the Ural Mountains seemed possible based on the migration behaviour of certain species, no influenza A viruses of the highly pathogenic subtype H5N1 (HPAIV) was found. However, influenza A viruses of different low pathogenic subtypes were isolated in 2.2 % of the sampled birds (swabs). Of the different surveillance methods utilised in the program the sampling of so called sentinel birds was particularly efficient. PMID:21043024

  18. Comparative epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) viruses in China

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Benjamin J.; Jin, Lianmei; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Liao, Qiaohong; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Tsang, Tim K.; Zheng, Jiandong; Fang, Vicky J.; Chang, Zhaorui; Ni, Michael Y.; Zhang, Qian; Ip, Dennis K. M.; Yu, Jianxing; Li, Yu; Wang, Liping; Tu, Wenxiao; Meng, Ling; Wu, Joseph T.; Luo, Huiming; Li, Qun; Shu, Yuelong; Li, Zhongjie; Feng, Zijian; Yang, Weizhong; Wang, Yu; Leung, Gabriel M.; Yu, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Background The novel influenza A(H7N9) virus recently emerged, while influenza A(H5N1) virus has infected humans since 2003 in mainland China. Both infections are thought to be predominantly zoonotic. We compared the epidemiologic characteristics of the complete series of laboratory-confirmed cases of both viruses in mainland China to date. Methods An integrated database was constructed with information on demographic, epidemiological, and clinical variables of laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) cases that were reported to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention up to May 24, 2013. We described disease occurrence by age, sex and geography and estimated key epidemiologic parameters. Findings Among 130 and 43 patients with confirmed A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) respectively, the median ages were 62y and 26y. In urban areas, 74% of cases of both viruses were male whereas in rural areas the proportions were 62% for A(H7N9) and 33% for A(H5N1). Among cases of A(H7N9) and A(H5N1), 75% and 71% reported recent exposure to poultry. The mean incubation periods of A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) were 3.1 and 3.3 days, respectively. On average, 21 and 18 contacts were traced for each A(H7N9) case in urban and rural areas respectively; compared to 90 and 63 for A(H5N1). The hospitalization fatality risk was 35% (95% CI: 25%, 44%) for A(H7N9) and 70% (95% CI: 56%, 83%) for A(H5N1). Interpretation The sex ratios in urban compared to rural cases are consistent with poultry exposure driving the risk of infection. However the difference in susceptibility to serious illness with the two different viruses remains unexplained, given that most A(H7N9) cases were in older adults while most A(H5N1) cases were in younger individuals. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, China; Research Fund for the Control of Infectious Disease and University Grants Committee, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; and the US National Institutes of Health. PMID:23803488

  19. Interpreting the transmissibility of the avian influenza A(H7N9) infection from 2013 to 2015 in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chong, K C; Wang, X; Liu, S; Cai, J; Su, X; Zee, B C; Tam, G; Wang, M H; Chen, E

    2016-06-01

    Three epidemic waves of human influenza A(H7N9) were documented in several different provinces in China between 2013 and 2015. With limited understanding of the potential for human-to-human transmission, it was difficult to implement control measures efficiently or to inform the public adequately about the application of interventions. In this study, the human-to-human transmission rate for the epidemics that occurred between 2013 and 2015 in Zhejiang Province, China, was analysed. The reproduction number (R), a key indicator of transmission intensity, was estimated by fitting the number of infections from poultry to humans and from humans to humans into a mathematical model. The posterior mean R for human-to-human transmission was estimated to be 0·27, with a 95% credible interval of 0·14-0·44 for the first wave, whereas the posterior mean Rs decreased to 0·15 in the second and third waves. Overall, these estimates indicate that a human H7N9 pandemic is unlikely to occur in Zhejiang. The reductions in the viral transmissibility and the number of poultry-transmitted infections after the first epidemic may be attributable to the various intervention measures taken, including changes in the extent of closures of live poultry markets. PMID:26645357

  20. Prevention, control and eradication of avian influenza including the use of vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. The AI virus can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. AI viruses that cause mild disease with low mortality are termed low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Viruses that replicat...

  1. Phylogenetics and pathogenesis of early avian influenza viruses (H5N2), Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the first officially recognized outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry in Nigeria, in February 2006, an effort based at the poultry diagnostic clinic of the University of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital, was underway to isolate avian influenza viruses from sick...

  2. Current status and future needs in diagnostics and vaccines for high pathogenicity avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1959, 31 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in birds. Rapid detection and accurate identification of HPAI has been critical to controlling such epizootics in poultry. Specific paradigms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry...

  3. Impact of vaccines and vaccination on global control of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) in poultry are notifiable to World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) by its member countries. A comprehensive review of AI control methods has been completed. There may be variation between countr...

  4. Antigenic cartographic analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses with chicken serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antigenic cartography is a relatively new method that can be used to evaluate the antigenic relatedness among avian influenza virus isolates. Evaluation of antigenic relationships among avian influenza viruses can be applied to vaccine design and to understanding the evolution of the virus. Initia...

  5. Impact of poultry vaccines on control of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have been sporadic in poultry until 2002 when the H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) spread from China to Hong Kong, and then multiple southeast Asian countries in 2003-2004, and to Europe in 2005, and Africa in 2006. Over the past 40 years, ...

  6. Strategies and challenges to the development and application of avian influenza vaccines in birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had limited use in poultry until 2002, when the H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) spread from China to Hong Kong, and then multiple southeast Asian countries in 2003-2004, and to Europe in 2005, and Africa in 2006. Over the past 40 years, AI ...

  7. Current situation of avian influenza with emphasis on pathobiology, epidemiology and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry around the world. Avian Influenza virus (AIV) has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infectio...

  8. Helping poultry and people through research on high pathogenicity avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are a diverse group divided into 144 different subtypes based on different combinations of the 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes, and two different pathotypes (low [LP] and high pathogenicity [HP]). Low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are maintai...

  9. Antiviral Responses by Swine Primary Bronchoepithelial Cells Are Limited Compared to Human Bronchoepithelial Cells Following Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Mary J.; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Culhane, Marie R.; Wentworth, David E.; Tompkins, S. Mark; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Swine generate reassortant influenza viruses because they can be simultaneously infected with avian and human influenza; however, the features that restrict influenza reassortment in swine and human hosts are not fully understood. Type I and III interferons (IFNs) act as the first line of defense against influenza virus infection of respiratory epithelium. To determine if human and swine have different capacities to mount an antiviral response the expression of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and normal swine bronchial epithelial (NSBE) cells was evaluated following infection with human (H3N2), swine (H1N1), and avian (H5N3, H5N2, H5N1) influenza A viruses. Expression of IFNλ and ISGs were substantially higher in NHBE cells compared to NSBE cells following H5 avian influenza virus infection compared to human or swine influenza virus infection. This effect was associated with reduced H5 avian influenza virus replication in human cells at late times post infection. Further, RIG-I expression was lower in NSBE cells compared to NHBE cells suggesting reduced virus sensing. Together, these studies identify key differences in the antiviral response between human and swine respiratory epithelium alluding to differences that may govern influenza reassortment. PMID:23875024

  10. Dynamics of low and high pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic bird populations.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, Necibe; Torres, Juan; Martcheva, Maia; Barfield, Michael; Holt, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a time-since-recovery structured, multi-strain, multi-population model of avian influenza. Influenza A viruses infect many species of wild and domestic birds and are classified into two groups based on their ability to cause disease: low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Prior infection with LPAI provides partial immunity towards HPAI. The model introduced in this paper structures LPAI-recovered birds (wild and domestic) with time-since-recovery and includes cross-immunity towards HPAI that can fade with time. The model has a unique disease-free equilibrium (DFE), unique LPAI-only and HPAI-only equilibria and at least one coexistence equilibrium. We compute the reproduction numbers of LPAI ([Formula: see text]) and HPAI ([Formula: see text]) and show that the DFE is locally asymptotically stable when [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. A unique LPAI-only (HPAI-only) equilibrium exists when [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and it is locally asymptotically stable if HPAI (LPAI) cannot invade the equilibrium, that is, if the invasion number [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). We show using numerical simulations that the ODE version of the model, which is obtained by discarding the time-since-recovery structures (making cross-immunity constant), can exhibit oscillations, and also that the pathogens LPAI and HPAI can coexist with sustained oscillations in both populations. Through simulations, we show that even if both populations (wild and domestic) are sinks when alone, LPAI and HPAI can persist in both populations combined. Thus, reducing the reproduction numbers of LPAI and HPAI in each population to below unity is not enough to eradicate the disease. The pathogens can continue to coexist in both populations unless transmission between the populations is reduced. PMID:26667351

  11. Zoonotic transmission of avian influenza virus (H5N1), Egypt, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Amr; Manoncourt, Serge; Abd el Kareem, Eman; Mohamed Ahmed, Abdel Nasser; El-Refaie, Samir; Essmat, Hala; Tjaden, Jeffrey; de Mattos, Cecilia C; Earhart, Kenneth C; Marfin, Anthony A; El-Sayed, Nasr

    2010-07-01

    During March 2006-March 2009, a total of 6,355 suspected cases of avian influenza (H5N1) were reported to the Ministry of Health in Egypt. Sixty-three (1%) patients had confirmed infections; 24 (38%) died. Risk factors for death included female sex, age > or = 15 years, and receiving the first dose of oseltamivir >2 days after illness onset. All but 2 case-patients reported exposure to domestic poultry probably infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1). No cases of human-to-human transmission were found. Greatest risks for infection and death were reported among women > or = 15 years of age, who accounted for 38% of infections and 83% of deaths. The lower case-fatality rate in Egypt could be caused by a less virulent virus clade. However, the lower mortality rate seems to be caused by the large number of infected children who were identified early, received prompt treatment, and had less severe clinical disease. PMID:20587181

  12. Evaluation of Nobuto filter paper strips for the detection of avian influenza virus antibody in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Hall, J.S.; Nashold, S.W.; Teslaa, J.L.; Ip, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    The utility of using Nobuto paper strips for the detection of avian influenza antibodies was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) experimentally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Blood was collected 2 wk after infection and was preserved either as serum or whole blood absorbed onto Nobuto strips. Analysis of samples using a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed comparable results (???96% sensitivity for all methods) between sera stored at -30 C and the Nobuto strip preservation method even when the Nobuto strips were stored up to 3 mo at room temperature (RT). Significant differences were detected in the ratio of sample absorbance to negative control absorbance for Nobuto strips stored at RT compared with sera stored at -30 C, although these differences did not affect the ability of the test to reliably detect positive and negative samples. Nobuto strips are a convenient and sensitive alternative to the collection of serum samples when maintaining appropriate storage temperatures is difficult. ?? 2011 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  13. Newcastle disease virus detection and differentiation from avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Infections of poultry with virulent strains of APMV-1 (New...

  14. A primary chicken tracheal cell culture system for the study of infection with avian respiratory viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major route of infection of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens is through cells of the airway epithelium. Here we describe the development and optimization of conditions for culture of tracheal epithelial cells from chicken embryos as well as their use in st...

  15. Antiviral activity of crude extracts of Eugenia jambolana Lam. against highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Sood, Richa; Swarup, D; Bhatia, S; Kulkarni, D D; Dey, S; Saini, M; Dubey, S C

    2012-03-01

    Crude extracts of leaves and bark of E. jambolana were tested for antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by CPE reduction assay in three different layouts to elucidate virucidal, post-exposure and preexposure antiviral activity of the extracts. The cold and hot aqueous extracts of bark and hot aqueous extract of leaves of E. jambolana showed significant virucidal activity (100% inhibition) which was further confirmed in virus yield reduction assay (-98 to 99% reduction) and by egg based in ovo assay. The selective index (CC50/EC50) of hot aqueous extract (248) and cold aqueous extract (43.5) of bark of E. jambolana showed their antiviral potential against H5N1 virus. The significant virucidal activity of leaves and bark of E. jambolana merits further investigation as it may provide alternative antiviral agent for managing avian influenza infections in poultry farms and potential avian-human transmission. PMID:22439432

  16. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 Clade 2.3.4.4 Virus: Equivocal Pathogenicity and Implications for Surveillance Following Natural Infection in Breeder Ducks in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Núñez, A; Brookes, S M; Reid, S M; Garcia-Rueda, C; Hicks, D J; Seekings, J M; Spencer, Y I; Brown, I H

    2016-02-01

    Since early 2014, several outbreaks involving novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses have been detected in poultry and wild bird species in Asia, Europe and North America. These viruses have been detected in apparently healthy and dead wild migratory birds, as well as in domestic chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks. In this study, we describe the pathology of an outbreak of H5N8 HPAIV in breeder ducks in the UK. A holding with approximately 6000 breeder ducks, aged approximately 60 weeks, showed a gradual reduction in egg production and increased mortality over a 7-day period. Post-mortem examination revealed frequent fibrinous peritonitis, with severely haemorrhagic ovarian follicles and occasional splenic and pancreatic necrosis and high incidence of mycotic granulomas in the air sacs and lung. Low-to-moderate levels of HPAI H5N8 virus were detected mainly in respiratory and digestive tract, with minor involvement of other organs. Although histopathological examination confirmed the gross pathology findings, intralesional viral antigen detection by immunohistochemistry was not observed. Immunolabelled cells were rarely only present in inflamed air sacs and serosa, usually superficial to granulomatous inflammation. Abundant bacterial microcolonies were observed in haemorrhagic ovaries and oviduct. The limited viral tissue distribution and presence of inter-current fungal and bacterial infections suggest a minor role for HPAIV H5N8 in clinical disease in layer ducks. PMID:26519234

  17. Intranasal Immunization with Pressure Inactivated Avian Influenza Elicits Cellular and Humoral Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Shana P. C.; Nico, Dirlei; Nascimento, Danielle; Santos, Ana Clara V.; Couceiro, José Nelson S. S.; Bozza, Fernando A.; Ferreira, Ana M. A.; Ferreira, Davis F.; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.; Souza, Thiago Moreno L.; Gomes, Andre M. O.; Silva, Jerson L.; Oliveira, Andréa C.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling). Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus. PMID:26056825

  18. Migratory Birds Reinforce Local Circulation of Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Oanh; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds, has largely remained unstudied. During an autumn H3 LPAIV epizootic in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) — a partially migratory species — we identified resident and migratory host populations using stable hydrogen isotope analysis of flight feathers. We investigated the role of migratory and resident hosts separately in the introduction and maintenance of H3 LPAIV during the epizootic. To test this we analysed (i) H3 virus kinship, (ii) temporal patterns in H3 virus prevalence and shedding and (iii) H3-specific antibody prevalence in relation to host migratory strategy. We demonstrate that the H3 LPAIV strain causing the epizootic most likely originated from a single introduction, followed by local clonal expansion. The H3 LPAIV strain was genetically unrelated to H3 LPAIV detected both before and after the epizootic at the study site. During the LPAIV epizootic, migratory mallards were more often infected with H3 LPAIV than residents. Low titres of H3-specific antibodies were detected in only a few residents and migrants. Our results suggest that in this LPAIV epizootic, a single H3 virus was present in resident mallards prior to arrival of migratory mallards followed by a period of virus amplification, importantly associated with the influx of migratory mallards. Thus migrants are suggested to act as local amplifiers rather than the often suggested role as vectors importing novel strains from afar. Our study exemplifies that a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach offers promising opportunities to elucidate the role of migratory and resident hosts in infectious disease dynamics in wildlife. PMID:25391154

  19. Towards multiscale modeling of influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Lisa N.; Murillo, Michael S.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Aided by recent advances in computational power, algorithms, and higher fidelity data, increasingly detailed theoretical models of infection with influenza A virus are being developed. We review single scale models as they describe influenza infection from intracellular to global scales, and, in particular, we consider those models that capture details specific to influenza and can be used to link different scales. We discuss the few multiscale models of influenza infection that have been developed in this emerging field. In addition to discussing modeling approaches, we also survey biological data on influenza infection and transmission that is relevant for constructing influenza infection models. We envision that, in the future, multiscale models that capitalize on technical advances in experimental biology and high performance computing could be used to describe the large spatial scale epidemiology of influenza infection, evolution of the virus, and transmission between hosts more accurately. PMID:23608630

  20. A PREGNANT WOMAN WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H7N9) VIRUS PNEUMONIA AND ARDS MANAGED WITH EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guyi; Zhou, Yanyan; Gong, Subo; Dong, Haiyun; Wu, Guobao; Xiang, Xudong; Tang, Jianjun

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of H7N9 avian influenza pneumonia in a pregnant woman who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 29-year-old, 27 week pregnant woman developed rapidly progressive pneumonia with bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray and was confirmed to have influenza A (H7N9) infection. Her condition deteriorated and she developed ARDS which was managed with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) and treated with antimicrobials. Her clinical symptoms and oxygenation gradually improved and the ECMO was discontinued on the 19t day. Unfortunately, she suddenly died a few days later, due to a presumed pulmonary embolism. Based on our experience, ECMO may be useful to manage pneumonia due to H7N9 avian influenza and ARDS in pregnant women. PMID:26521517