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Sample records for avian influenza outbreak

  1. Avian influenza

    MedlinePlus

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  2. Recent worldwide outbreaks of avian influenza and methods for control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in the world since 1959. The largest of these outbreaks has been the H5N1 HPAI which has caused problems in poultry and other birds in 55 countries of Asia, Europe and Africa since 1996. These viruses have also cause...

  3. Beliefs underlying blood donors' intentions to donate during two phases of an avian influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra; McKimmie, Blake M

    2012-02-01

    Using a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) framework the current study explored the beliefs of current blood donors (N=172) about donating during a low and high-risk phase of a potential avian influenza outbreak. While the majority of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs identified in preliminary research differed as a function of donors' intentions to donate during both phases of an avian influenza outbreak, regression analyses suggested that the targeting of different specific beliefs during each phase of an outbreak would yield most benefit in bolstering donors' intentions to remain donating. The findings provide insight in how to best motivate donors in different phases of an avian influenza outbreak. PMID:22142514

  4. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  5. Overview of H5N8 avian influenza virus outbreaks – SEPRL research activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in poultry farms have been reported in Korea, Japan, China, Germany, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. The first outbreak report of this virus was in domestic ducks in the Republic of Korea in January 2014. In Europe, the first...

  6. Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur. PMID:15847721

  7. Avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary A; Maslow, Melanie J

    2006-03-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004 alone, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate over 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantines, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent increased human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short, interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems offer promise, should a pandemic occur. PMID:16566867

  8. Characteristics of diagnostic tests used in the 2002 low pathogenicity avian influenza H7N2 outbreak in Virginia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H7N2 occurred in 2002 in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, a high density poultry production region. A combination of clinical signs, and laboratory diagnostic tests designed to detect avian influenza (AI) antibodies, virus, or H7 specific RNA ...

  9. Temperature drops and the onset of severe avian influenza A H5N1 virus outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Ming; Lin, Shu-Hua; Chen, Ying-Chen; Lin, Katherine Chun-Min; Wu, Tsung-Shu Joseph; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2007-01-01

    Global influenza surveillance is one of the most effective strategies for containing outbreaks and preparing for a possible pandemic influenza. Since the end of 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) H5N1 have caused many outbreaks in poultries and wild birds from East Asia and have spread to at least 48 countries. For such a fast and wide-spreading virulent pathogen, prediction based on changes of micro- and macro-environment has rarely been evaluated. In this study, we are developing a new climatic approach by investigating the conditions that occurred before the H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks for early predicting future HPAI outbreaks and preventing pandemic disasters. The results show a temperature drop shortly before these outbreaks in birds in each of the Eurasian regions stricken in 2005 and 2006. Dust storms, like those that struck near China's Lake Qinghai around May 4, 2005, exacerbated the spread of this HPAI H5N1 virus, causing the deaths of a record number of wild birds and triggering the subsequent spread of H5N1. Weather monitoring could play an important role in the early warning of outbreaks of this potentially dangerous virus. PMID:17297505

  10. Scale-Free Distribution of Avian Influenza Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Michael; Walker, David M.; Tse, Chi Kong

    2007-11-01

    Using global case data for the period from 25 November 2003 to 10 March 2007, we construct a network of plausible transmission pathways for the spread of avian influenza among domestic and wild birds. The network structure we obtain is complex and exhibits scale-free (although not necessarily small-world) properties. Communities within this network are connected with a distribution of links with infinite variance. Hence, the disease transmission model does not exhibit a threshold and so the infection will continue to propagate even with very low transmissibility. Consequentially, eradication with methods applicable to locally homogeneous populations is not possible. Any control measure needs to focus explicitly on the hubs within this network structure.

  11. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral infection of birds that varies in severity from asymptomatic infections to mild respiratory and reproductive diseases to an acute, highly fatal systemic disease of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and other avian species. Avian influenza viruses are divided into two ...

  12. Verification of poultry carcass composting research through application during actual avian influenza outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Flory, Gary A; Peer, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    An avian influenza outbreak in 2002 affected 197 poultry farms in Virginia and cost an estimated $130 million in losses and cleanup. In 2004-2005, researchers initiated a project to investigate the feasibility and practicality of in-house composting of turkey mortalities (heavy hens and toms) as a method of disposal and disease containment. Occurrences of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in West Virginia and Virginia in 2007 provided an opportunity for first responders to verify composting as an effective carcass disposal method. Many lessons learned from these experiences have led to improvements in the application of this technology. Market-weight turkeys, once thought too large for effective composting, were composted sufficiently for land application within 4 to 6 weeks. Additionally, fire-fighting foam, a new method of mass depopulation, proved to be compatible with composting. Knowledge gained from these incidents will be valuable not only for future responses to LPAI but also for outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza such as the H5N1 virus, which currently causes disease in both animals and humans in many parts of the world. Since three-quarters of all recent emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have arisen from animals, control of disease in animals is the principal way to reduce human exposure and prevent EIDs. Many of the general approaches and specific techniques used to eradicate the avian influenza virus can also be used to control other EIDs such as H1N1, Nipah virus, Rift Valley Fever, and plague. PMID:20375437

  13. Outbreak patterns of the novel avian influenza (H7N9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ya-Nan; Lou, Jing-Jing; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2014-05-01

    The attack of novel avian influenza (H7N9) in East China caused a serious health crisis and public panic. In this paper, we empirically analyze the onset patterns of human cases of the novel avian influenza and observe several spatial and temporal properties that are similar to other infectious diseases. More specifically, using the empirical analysis and modeling studies, we find that the spatio-temporal network that connects the cities with human cases along the order of outbreak timing emerges two-regime-power-law edge-length distribution, indicating the picture that several islands with higher and heterogeneous risk straggle in East China. The proposed method is applicable to the analysis of the spreading situation in the early stage of disease outbreak using quite limited dataset.

  14. Prevention and management of avian influenza outbreaks: experiences from the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, D A

    2009-04-01

    The epidemiology and control of avian influenza (AI) are complex. The virus is transported in nature by the activities of wild birds and in commercial poultry by the activities of people. In general, all the outbreaks of AI in the United States of America (U.S.A.) have involved AI virus spread by the movement of poultry and manure and objects contaminated by poultry and manure, butthe specific cause of spread has been different for most outbreaks. The 1924 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) outbreak was spread halfway across the U.S.A. by contaminated rail cars and poultry crates; the 1983 HPAI outbreak was spread by the movement of people between farms and transport of live and dead poultry, including depopulation efforts; whereas low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) outbreaks in different states were spread by people and equipment, partial flock removal, transport of spent hens and/or manure, and transport of dead birds for rendering. There is a dichotomy surrounding AI control methods in the USA. Large LPAI outbreaks have mainly affected turkeys in the western part of the country and have been controlled by vaccination and controlled marketing-strategies developed prior to the 1983 HPAI outbreak. By contrast, in the eastern part of the country, the AI control strategy has been modelled on the successful stamping-out programme that was used during the HPAI outbreak in 1983. The author presents a summary of the costs and control strategies in table form. PMID:19618639

  15. Avian Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious viral disease of birds. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as ... often causing no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause ...

  16. Poultry raising systems and highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Thailand: the situation, associations, and impacts.

    PubMed

    Chantong, Wasan; Kaneene, John B

    2011-05-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), caused by the virus strain H5N1, currently occurs worldwide with the greatest burden in Southeast Asia where the disease was first reported. In Thailand where the disease was first confirmed in January 2004, the virus had been persistent as a major threat to the poultry industry and human health over the past several years. It was generally hypothesized that the main reason for the disease to circulate in Thailand was the existence of traditional backyard chickens and free-range ducks raising systems. Consequently, this study reviewed the structure of poultry raising systems, the recent outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, the disease association to the backyard and free-grazing poultry production, and consequences of the outbreaks in Thailand. Although the major outbreaks in the country had declined, the sustaining disease surveillance and prevention are still strongly recommended. PMID:21706938

  17. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 in Germany: Outbreak Investigations.

    PubMed

    Conraths, F J; Sauter-Louis, C; Globig, A; Dietze, K; Pannwitz, G; Albrecht, K; Höreth-Böntgen, D; Beer, M; Staubach, C; Homeier-Bachmann, T

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological outbreak investigations were conducted in highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the subtype H5N8 (HPAIV H5N8)-affected poultry holdings and a zoo to identify potential routes of entry of the pathogen via water, feedstuffs, animals, people, bedding material, other fomites (equipment, vehicles etc.) and the presence of wild birds near affected holdings. Indirect introduction of HPAIV H5N8 via material contaminated by infected wild bird seems the most reasonable explanation for the observed outbreak series in three commercial holdings in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Lower Saxony, while direct contact to infected wild birds may have led to outbreaks in a zoo in Rostock and in two small free-range holdings in Anklam, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. PMID:26519355

  18. Risk factors and clusters of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Leo; Gilbert, Marius; Osmani, Mozaffar G.; Kalam, Abul M.; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Between March 2007 and July 2009, 325 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI, subtype H5N1) outbreaks in poultry were reported in 154 out of a total of 486 sub-districts in Bangladesh. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial patterns of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and quantified the relationship between several spatial risk factors and HPAI outbreaks in sub-districts in Bangladesh. We assessed spatial autocorrelation and spatial dependence, and identified clustering sub-districts with disease statistically similar to or dissimilar from their neighbors. Three significant risk factors associated to HPAI H5N1 virus outbreaks were identified; the quadratic log-transformation of human population density [humans per square kilometer, P = 0.01, OR 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03–1.28)], the log-transformation of the total commercial poultry population [number of commercial poultry per sub-district, P < 0.002, OR 1.40 (95% CI: 1.12–1.74)], and the number of roads per sub-district [P = 0.02, OR 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01–1.14)]. The distinct clusters of HPAI outbreaks and risk factors identified could assist the Government of Bangladesh to target surveillance and to concentrate response efforts in areas where disease is likely to occur. Concentrating response efforts may help to combat HPAI more effectively, reducing the environmental viral load and so reducing the number of disease incidents. PMID:20554337

  19. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul C.; Grear, Daniel; Ip, Hon S.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl.

  20. Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds during Outbreaks in Domestic Poultry, Minnesota, 2015.

    PubMed

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul; Grear, Daniel A; Ip, Hon S; Vandalen, Kaci K; Minicucci, Larissa A

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To understand the potential role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9-June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper's hawk but not from waterfowl fecal samples. PMID:27064759

  1. Low-pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza outbreak in Virgnia during 2002.

    PubMed

    Akey, B L

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of low-pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia during the spring and summer of 2002 affected 197 farms and resulted in the destruction of over 4.7 million birds. The outbreak affected primarily turkey farms (28 breeders, 125 grow out) with some spillover into chicken farms (29 breeders, 13 grow out, 2 table-egg layers). Although no direct link was established, the strain of H7N2 AIV in this outbreak had a molecular fingerprint that was essentially identical to the H7N2 AIV strain that has circulated in the live bird markets of the northeastern United States for the last 8 yr. After an initial delay caused by lack of viable disposal options, depopulation and disposal, primarily in sanitary landfills, was carried out within 24 hr of detection of a positive flock. Increased surveillance efforts included once-a-week testing of the daily mortality of all poultry farms in the region, testing of all breeder farms every 2 wk, and testing of all flocks prior to movement for any reason. A statistical sampling of backyard flocks and wild birds found no evidence of the virus. The successful eradication of this outbreak was the result of the efforts of a highly effective task force of industry, state, and federal personnel. PMID:14575120

  2. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host for avian influenza virus (AIV) is in wild birds, including ducks, gulls, and shorebirds, where the virus causes primarily an enteric infection with little disease. However, AIV can infect a wide variety of host species, and with a certain level of adaptation for the aberrant host ...

  3. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; i....

  4. AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  5. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Gray, Gregory C.; Gao, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Novel reassortants of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. Combined with the sometimes enzootic H5N1 and H9N2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse AIVs pose significant risks to public health. Here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of AIVs in China, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel AIVs, and identify warning signs which may point to the emergence of a potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIV to humans. This review will be useful to authorities who consider options for the detection and control of AIV transmission in animals and humans, with the goal of preventing future epidemics and pandemics. PMID:26063419

  6. Description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (Struthio camelus) in South Africa in 2011.

    PubMed

    van Helden, L S; Sinclair, M; Koen, P; Grewar, J D

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of South Africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N2. Surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. The outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. Various factors in the ostrich production system were observed that could have contributed to the spread of the virus between farms, including the large number of legal movements of ostriches between farms, access of wild birds to ostrich camps and delays in depopulation of infected farms. Negative effects on the ostrich industry and the local economy of the ostrich-producing area were observed as a result of the outbreak and the disease control measures applied. Prevention and control measures applied as a result of avian influenza in South Africa were informed by this large outbreak and the insights into epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches that it provided, resulting in stricter biosecurity measures required on every registered ostrich farm in the country. PMID:27237385

  7. Chinese social media reaction to the MERS-CoV and avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As internet and social media use have skyrocketed, epidemiologists have begun to use online data such as Google query data and Twitter trends to track the activity levels of influenza and other infectious diseases. In China, Weibo is an extremely popular microblogging site that is equivalent to Twitter. Capitalizing on the wealth of public opinion data contained in posts on Weibo, this study used Weibo as a measure of the Chinese people’s reactions to two different outbreaks: the 2012 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak, and the 2013 outbreak of human infection of avian influenza A(H7N9) in China. Methods Keyword searches were performed in Weibo data collected by The University of Hong Kong’s Weiboscope project. Baseline values were determined for each keyword and reaction values per million posts in the days after outbreak information was released to the public. Results The results show that the Chinese people reacted significantly to both outbreaks online, where their social media reaction was two orders of magnitude stronger to the H7N9 influenza outbreak that happened in China than the MERS-CoV outbreak that was far away from China. Conclusions These results demonstrate that social media could be a useful measure of public awareness and reaction to disease outbreak information released by health authorities. PMID:24359669

  8. Controlling highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks: An epidemiological and economic model analysis.

    PubMed

    Backer, J A; van Roermund, H J W; Fischer, E A J; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bergevoet, R H M

    2015-09-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) can cause large losses for the poultry sector and for animal disease controlling authorities, as well as risks for animal and human welfare. In the current simulation approach epidemiological and economic models are combined to compare different strategies to control highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry flocks. Evaluated control strategies are the minimum EU strategy (i.e., culling of infected flocks, transport regulations, tracing and screening of contact flocks, establishment of protection and surveillance zones), and additional control strategies comprising pre-emptive culling of all susceptible poultry flocks in an area around infected flocks (1 km, 3 km and 10 km) and emergency vaccination of all flocks except broilers around infected flocks (3 km). Simulation results indicate that the EU strategy is not sufficient to eradicate an epidemic in high density poultry areas. From an epidemiological point of view, this strategy is the least effective, while pre-emptive culling in 10 km radius is the most effective of the studied strategies. But these two strategies incur the highest costs due to long duration (EU strategy) and large-scale culling (pre-emptive culling in 10 km radius). Other analysed pre-emptive culling strategies (i.e., in 1 km and 3 km radius) are more effective than the analysed emergency vaccination strategy (in 3 km radius) in terms of duration and size of the epidemics, despite the assumed optimistic vaccination capacity of 20 farms per day. However, the total costs of these strategies differ only marginally. Extending the capacity for culling substantially reduces the duration, size and costs of the epidemic. This study demonstrates the strength of combining epidemiological and economic model analysis to gain insight in a range of consequences and thus to serve as a decision support tool in the control of HPAI epidemics. PMID:26087887

  9. Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds during Outbreaks in Domestic Poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul; Grear, Daniel A.; Ip, Hon S.; Vandalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To understand the potential role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl fecal samples. PMID:27064759

  10. Ecological Determinants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed S. U.; Ersbøll, Annette K.; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Christensen, Jens P.; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Background The agro-ecology and poultry husbandry of the south Asian and south-east Asian countries share common features, however, with noticeable differences. Hence, the ecological determinants associated with risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1) outbreaks are expected to differ between Bangladesh and e.g., Thailand and Vietnam. The primary aim of the current study was to establish ecological determinants associated with the risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level in Bangladesh. The secondary aim was to explore the performance of two different statistical modeling approaches for unmeasured spatially correlated variation. Methodology/Principal Findings An ecological study at subdistrict level in Bangladesh was performed with 138 subdistricts with HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks during 2007–2008, and 326 subdistricts with no outbreaks. The association between ecological determinants and HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks was examined using a generalized linear mixed model. Spatial clustering of the ecological data was modeled using 1) an intrinsic conditional autoregressive (ICAR) model at subdistrict level considering their first order neighbors, and 2) a multilevel (ML) model with subdistricts nested within districts. Ecological determinants significantly associated with risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level were migratory birds' staging areas, river network, household density, literacy rate, poultry density, live bird markets, and highway network. Predictive risk maps were derived based on the resulting models. The resulting models indicate that the ML model absorbed some of the covariate effect of the ICAR model because of the neighbor structure implied in the two different models. Conclusions/Significance The study identified a new set of ecological determinants related to river networks, migratory birds' staging areas and literacy rate in addition to already known risk factors, and clarified that the generalized concept of free grazing duck and

  11. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Killian, Mary Lea; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  12. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Mary Lea; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  13. Avian influenza vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian AI outbreaks when used as part of a compr...

  14. Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1) outbreak.

    PubMed

    Setiawaty, Vivi; Pangesti, Krisna Na; Sampurno, Ondri D

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC) at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of performing polymerase chain reaction testing for influenza A. Diagnostic equipment and standard procedures of biosafety and biosecurity of handling specimens have been adopted largely from World Health Organization recommendations. PMID:22936856

  15. Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1) outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Setiawaty, Vivi; Pangesti, Krisna NA; Sampurno, Ondri D

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC) at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of performing polymerase chain reaction testing for influenza A. Diagnostic equipment and standard procedures of biosafety and biosecurity of handling specimens have been adopted largely from World Health Organization recommendations. PMID:22936856

  16. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  17. Avian influenza: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J

    2004-08-01

    This paper reviews the worldwide situation regarding avian influenza infections in poultry from 1997 to March 2004. The increase in the number of primary introductions and the scientific data available on the molecular basis of pathogenicity have generated concerns particularly for legislative purposes and for international trade. This has led to a new proposed definition of 'avian influenza' to extend all infections caused by H5 and H7 viruses regardless of their virulence as notifiable diseases, although this has encountered some difficulties in being approved. The paper also reviews the major outbreaks caused by viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype and the control measures applied. The zoonotic aspects of avian influenza, which until 1997 were considered to be of limited relevance in human medicine, are also discussed. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a reassortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic. PMID:15370036

  18. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms.

    PubMed

    Jonges, Marcel; van Leuken, Jeroen; Wouters, Inge; Koch, Guus; Meijer, Adam; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, upwind and downwind of buildings holding poultry infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, and tested them for the presence of endotoxins and influenza virus to characterize the potential impact of airborne influenza virus transmission during outbreaks at commercial poultry farms. Influenza viruses were detected by RT-PCR in filter-rinse fluids collected up to 60 meters downwind from the barns, but virus isolation did not yield any isolates. Viral loads in the air samples were low and beyond the limit of RT-PCR quantification except for one in-barn measurement showing a virus concentration of 8.48 x 10(4) genome copies/m(3). Air samples taken outside poultry barns had endotoxin concentrations of ~50 EU/m(3) that declined with increasing distance from the barn. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of particulate matter, using location-specific meteorological data for the sampling days, demonstrated a positive correlation between endotoxin measurements and modeled particulate matter concentrations, with an R(2) varying from 0.59 to 0.88. Our data suggest that areas at high risk for human or animal exposure to airborne influenza viruses can be modeled during an outbreak to allow directed interventions following targeted surveillance. PMID:25946115

  19. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Jonges, Marcel; van Leuken, Jeroen; Wouters, Inge; Koch, Guus; Meijer, Adam; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, upwind and downwind of buildings holding poultry infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, and tested them for the presence of endotoxins and influenza virus to characterize the potential impact of airborne influenza virus transmission during outbreaks at commercial poultry farms. Influenza viruses were detected by RT-PCR in filter-rinse fluids collected up to 60 meters downwind from the barns, but virus isolation did not yield any isolates. Viral loads in the air samples were low and beyond the limit of RT-PCR quantification except for one in-barn measurement showing a virus concentration of 8.48x104 genome copies/m3. Air samples taken outside poultry barns had endotoxin concentrations of ~50 EU/m3 that declined with increasing distance from the barn. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of particulate matter, using location-specific meteorological data for the sampling days, demonstrated a positive correlation between endotoxin measurements and modeled particulate matter concentrations, with an R2 varying from 0.59 to 0.88. Our data suggest that areas at high risk for human or animal exposure to airborne influenza viruses can be modeled during an outbreak to allow directed interventions following targeted surveillance. PMID:25946115

  20. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  1. An outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza in a mixed-species aviculture unit in Dubai in 2005.

    PubMed

    Kent, Jo; Bailey, Tom; Silvanose, Christu-Das; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Joerg; Manvell, Ruth

    2006-09-01

    This case describes an outbreak of low pathogenic hemagglutinin 9 neuraminidase 2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in two white-bellied bustards (Eupodotis senegalensis), one stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemius), and a blacksmith plover (Antibyx armatus) in a private zoologic collection in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The four birds showed signs of respiratory disease, and all died as a result of disease or euthanasia. Attention has been paid to the diagnostic process and common differential diagnosis for upper respiratory tract disease in bustards, curlews, and plovers. To the knowledge of the authors, AIV has not been previously described in these species. PMID:16931369

  2. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry. PMID:19618630

  3. Avian influenza: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Berhane, Y; Hooper-McGrevy, K

    2009-04-01

    Reports of sporadic avian influenza outbreaks involving domestic poultry date back to the 1960s. With the exception of A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9), which was isolated from a turkey breeding establishment, all viruses characterised prior to 2004 fit the criteria of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). Only in retrospect was A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 shown to meet the criteria of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In 2004, Canada reported its first case of HPAI to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The outbreak, which began in a broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, involved an H7N3 LPAI virus which underwent a sudden virulence shift to HPAI. More than 17 million birds were culled and CAN$380 million in gross economic costs incurred before the outbreak was eventually brought under control. In its aftermath a number of changes were implemented to mitigate the impact of any future HPAI outbreaks. These changes involved various aspects of avian influenza detection and control, including self-quarantine, biosecurity, surveillance, and laboratory testing. In 2005, a national surveillance programme for influenza A viruses in wild birds was initiated. Results of this survey provided evidence for wild birds as the likely source of an H5N2 LPAI outbreak that occurred in domestic ducks in the Fraser Valley in the autumn of 2005. Wild birds were once again implicated in an H7N3 HPAI outbreak involving a broiler breeder operation in Saskatchewan in 2007. Fortunately, both of these outbreaks were limited in extent, a consequence of some of the changes implemented in response to the 2004 British Columbia outbreak. PMID:19618638

  4. The space-time clustering of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S S U; Ersbøll, A K; Biswas, P K; Christensen, J P

    2010-06-01

    Bangladesh faced two epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in two consecutive years. The peaks of the waves were observed in February-July 2007 and January-April 2008, respectively. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the 293 outbreaks in 143 subdistricts in 2007 and 2008. Global clustering assessed by K-function was seen at distances 150-300 km between subdistricts. Significant local clusters were detected by space-time scan statistics. In both waves, significant primary clusters of HPAI outbreaks were identified in the central part of the country dominated by commercial production systems and in the northwestern part primarily in backyard production systems. Secondary clusters varied from the northwestern part in 2007 and the southern part in 2008. The findings are highly relevant for the successful planning and implementation of control, prevention and surveillance strategies by highlighting areas where detailed investigations should be initiated. PMID:20109257

  5. Investigation of H7N2 avian influenza outbreaks in two broiler breeder flocks in Pennsylvania, 2001-02.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaguang; Dunn, Patricia A; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva A; Henzler, David J; Kradel, David C; Liu, Jiabo; Shaw, Daniel P; Miller, Paul

    2004-01-01

    An avian influenza (AI) outbreak occurred in meat-type chickens in central Pennsylvania from December 2001 to January 2002. Two broiler breeder flocks were initially infected almost simultaneously in early December. Avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N2 subtype, was isolated from the two premises in our laboratory. The H7N2 isolates were characterized as a low pathogenic strain at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories based on molecular sequencing of the virus hemagglutinin cleavage site and virus challenge studies in specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens. However, clinical observations and pathologic findings indicated that this H7N2 virus appeared to be significantly pathogenic in meat-type chickens under field conditions. Follow-up investigation indicated that this H7N2 virus spread rapidly within each flock. Within 7 days of the recognized start of the outbreak, over 90% seroconversion was observed in the birds by the hemagglutination inhibition test. A diagnosis of AI was made within 24 hr of bird submission during this outbreak using a combination of virus detection by a same-day dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Follow-up investigation revealed that heavy virus shedding (90%-100% of birds shedding AIV) occurred between 4 and 7 days after disease onset, and a few birds (15%) continued to shed virus at 13 days post-disease onset, as detected by virus isolation on tracheal and cloacal swabs. AIV was not detected in or on eggs laid by the breeders during the testing phase of the outbreak. The two flocks were depopulated at 14 days after disease onset, and AIV was not detected on the two premises 23 days after depopulation. PMID:15077795

  6. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  7. REMOTE SENSING, ECOLOGICAL VARIABLES, AND WILD BIRD MIGRATION RELATED TO OUTBREAKS OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA1

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius; Slingenbergh, Jan; Lei, Fumin; Boles, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype have occurred in many countries across Asia, Europe, and Africa since 2003. Better understanding of the ecology and risk factors of HPAI is critical for surveillance, risk assessment, and public health policy. We introduce satellite remote sensing as one important tool, and highlight the potential of using satellite images to monitor dynamics of climate and landscapes that are related to wild bird migration and agriculture in the context of avian influenza transmission. PMID:17347392

  8. Environmental Correlates of H5N2 Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Outbreak Heterogeneity in Domestic Poultry in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Bonfanti, Lebana; Mulatti, Paolo; Monne, Isabella; Guberti, Vittorio; Cordioli, Paolo; Marangon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Italy has experienced recurrent incursions of H5N2 avian influenza (AI) viruses in different geographical areas and varying sectors of the domestic poultry industry. Considering outbreak heterogeneity rather than treating all outbreaks of low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) viruses equally is important given their interactions with the environment and potential to spread, evolve and increase pathogenicity. This study aims at identifying potential environmental drivers of H5N2 LPAI outbreak occurrence in time, space and poultry populations. Thirty-four environmental variables were tested for association with the characteristics of 27 H5N2 LPAI outbreaks (i.e. time, place, flock type, number and species of birds affected) occurred among domestic poultry flocks in Italy in 2010–2012. This was done by applying a recently proposed analytical approach based on a combined non-metric multidimensional scaling, clustering and regression analysis. Results indicated that the pattern of (dis)similarities among the outbreaks entailed an underlying structure that may be the outcome of large-scale, environmental interactions in ecological dimension. Increased densities of poultry breeders, and increased land coverage by industrial, commercial and transport units were associated with increased heterogeneity in outbreak characteristics. In areas with high breeder densities and with many infrastructures, outbreaks affected mainly industrial turkey/layer flocks. Outbreaks affecting ornamental, commercial and rural multi-species flocks occurred mainly in lowly infrastructured areas of northern Italy. Outbreaks affecting rural layer flocks occurred mainly in areas with low breeder densities in south-central Italy. In savannah-like environments, outbreaks affected mainly commercial flocks of galliformes. Suggestive evidence that ecological ordination makes sense genetically was also provided, as virus strains showing high genetic similarity clustered into ecologically similar outbreaks

  9. Environmental correlates of H5N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza outbreak heterogeneity in domestic poultry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Bonfanti, Lebana; Mulatti, Paolo; Monne, Isabella; Guberti, Vittorio; Cordioli, Paolo; Marangon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Italy has experienced recurrent incursions of H5N2 avian influenza (AI) viruses in different geographical areas and varying sectors of the domestic poultry industry. Considering outbreak heterogeneity rather than treating all outbreaks of low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) viruses equally is important given their interactions with the environment and potential to spread, evolve and increase pathogenicity. This study aims at identifying potential environmental drivers of H5N2 LPAI outbreak occurrence in time, space and poultry populations. Thirty-four environmental variables were tested for association with the characteristics of 27 H5N2 LPAI outbreaks (i.e. time, place, flock type, number and species of birds affected) occurred among domestic poultry flocks in Italy in 2010-2012. This was done by applying a recently proposed analytical approach based on a combined non-metric multidimensional scaling, clustering and regression analysis. Results indicated that the pattern of (dis)similarities among the outbreaks entailed an underlying structure that may be the outcome of large-scale, environmental interactions in ecological dimension. Increased densities of poultry breeders, and increased land coverage by industrial, commercial and transport units were associated with increased heterogeneity in outbreak characteristics. In areas with high breeder densities and with many infrastructures, outbreaks affected mainly industrial turkey/layer flocks. Outbreaks affecting ornamental, commercial and rural multi-species flocks occurred mainly in lowly infrastructured areas of northern Italy. Outbreaks affecting rural layer flocks occurred mainly in areas with low breeder densities in south-central Italy. In savannah-like environments, outbreaks affected mainly commercial flocks of galliformes. Suggestive evidence that ecological ordination makes sense genetically was also provided, as virus strains showing high genetic similarity clustered into ecologically similar outbreaks. Findings

  10. Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia and interim recommendations for evaluation and reporting of suspected cases--United States, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-02-13

    During December 2003-February 2004, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry were reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. As of February 9, 2004, a total of 23 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza A (H5N1) virus infections in humans, resulting in 18 deaths, had been reported in Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, approximately 100 suspected cases in humans are under investigation by national health authorities in Thailand and Vietnam. CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and national health authorities in Asian countries are working to assess and monitor the situation, provide epidemiologic and laboratory support, and assist with control efforts. This report summarizes information about the human infections and avian outbreaks in Asia and provides recommendations to guide influenza A (H5N1) surveillance, diagnosis, and testing in the United States. PMID:14961001

  11. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  12. Spatio-Temporal Data Comparisons for Global Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongmei; Chen, Yue; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Fei; Yao, Baodong

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 is a zoonotic disease and control of the disease is one of the highest priority in global health. Disease surveillance systems are valuable data sources for various researches and management projects, but the data quality has not been paid much attention in previous studies. Based on data from two commonly used databases (Office International des Epizooties (OIE) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)) of global HPAI H5N1 outbreaks during the period of 2003–2009, we examined and compared their patterns of temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal distributions for the first time. OIE and FAO data showed similar trends in temporal and spatial distributions if they were considered separately. However, more advanced approaches detected a significant difference in joint spatio-temporal distribution. Because of incompleteness for both OIE and FAO data, an integrated dataset would provide a more complete picture of global HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. We also displayed a mismatching profile of global HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and found that the degree of mismatching was related to the epidemic severity. The ideas and approaches used here to assess spatio-temporal data on the same disease from different sources are useful for other similar studies. PMID:21187964

  13. Migration of whooper swans and outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in eastern asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, S.H.; Iverson, S.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Gilbert, M.; Prosser, D.J.; Batbayar, N.; Natsagdorj, T.; Douglas, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating the potential involvement of wild avifauna in the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (hereafter H5N1) requires detailed analyses of temporal and spatial relationships between wild bird movements and disease emergence. The death of wild swans (Cygnus spp.) has been the first indicator of the presence of H5N1 in various Asian and European countries; however their role in the geographic spread of the disease remains poorly understood. We marked 10 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) with GPS transmitters in northeastern Mongolia during autumn 2006 and tracked their migratory movements in relation to H5N1 outbreaks. The prevalence of H5N1 outbreaks among poultry in eastern Asia during 2003-2007 peaked during winter, concurrent with whooper swan movements into regions of high poultry density. However outbreaks involving poultry were detected year round, indicating disease perpetuation independent of migratory waterbird presence. In contrast, H5N1 outbreaks involving whooper swans, as well as other migratory waterbirds that succumbed to the disease in eastern Asia, tended to occur during seasons (late spring and summer) and in habitats (areas of natural vegetation) where their potential for contact with poultry is very low to nonexistent. Given what is known about the susceptibility of swans to H5N1, and on the basis of the chronology and rates of whooper swan migration movements, we conclude that although there is broad spatial overlap between whooper swan distributions and H5N1 outbreak locations in eastern Asia, the likelihood of direct transmission between these groups is extremely low. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that swans are best viewed as sentinel species, and moreover, that in eastern Asia, it is most likely that their infections occurred through contact with asymptomatic migratory hosts (e.g., wild ducks) at or near their breeding grounds.

  14. Migration of whooper swans and outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Eastern Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, Scott H.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gilbert, Martin; Prosser, Diann J.; Batbayar, Nyambyar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Douglas, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating the potential involvement of wild avifauna in the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (hereafter H5N1) requires detailed analyses of temporal and spatial relationships between wild bird movements and disease emergence. The death of wild swans (Cygnus spp.) has been the first indicator of the presence of H5N1 in various Asian and European countries; however their role in the geographic spread of the disease remains poorly understood. We marked 10 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) with GPS transmitters in northeastern Mongolia during autumn 2006 and tracked their migratory movements in relation to H5N1 outbreaks. The prevalence of H5N1 outbreaks among poultry in eastern Asia during 2003-2007 peaked during winter, concurrent with whooper swan movements into regions of high poultry density. However outbreaks involving poultry were detected year round, indicating disease perpetuation independent of migratory waterbird presence. In contrast, H5N1 outbreaks involving whooper swans, as well as other migratory waterbirds that succumbed to the disease in eastern Asia, tended to occur during seasons (late spring and summer) and in habitats (areas of natural vegetation) where their potential for contact with poultry is very low to nonexistent. Given what is known about the susceptibility of swans to H5N1, and on the basis of the chronology and rates of whooper swan migration movements, we conclude that although there is broad spatial overlap between whooper swan distributions and H5N1 outbreak locations in eastern Asia, the likelihood of direct transmission between these groups is extremely low. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that swans are best viewed as sentinel species, and moreover, that in eastern Asia, it is most likely that their infections occurred through contact with asymptomatic migratory hosts (e.g., wild ducks) at or near their breeding grounds.

  15. Risk factors and characteristics of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) post-vaccination outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Vu, Le Tri

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 is now endemic in South-East Asia but HPAI control methods differ between countries. A widespread HPAI vaccination campaign that started at the end of 2005 in Viet Nam resulted in the cessation of poultry and human cases, but in 2006/2007 severe HPAI outbreaks re-emerged. In this study we investigated the pattern of this first post-vaccination epidemic in southern Viet Nam identifying a spatio-temporal cluster of outbreak occurrence and estimating spatially smoothed incidence rates of HPAI. Spatial risk factors associated with HPAI occurrence were identified. Medium-level poultry density resulted in an increased outbreak risk (Odds ratio (OR) = 5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–18.9) but also climate-vegetation factors played an important role: medium-level normalised difference vegetation indices during the rainy season from May to October were associated with higher risk of HPAI outbreaks (OR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.7–8.1), probably because temporal flooding might have provided suitable conditions for the re-emergence of HPAI by expanding the virus distribution in the environment and by enlarging areas of possible contacts between domestic waterfowl and wild birds. On the other hand, several agricultural production factors, such as sweet potatoes yield, increased buffalo density, as well as increased electricity supply were associated with decreased risk of HPAI outbreaks. This illustrates that preventive control measures for HPAI should include a promotion of low-risk agricultural management practices as well as improvement of the infrastructure in village households. Improved HPAI vaccination efforts and coverage should focus on medium poultry density areas and on the pre-monsoon time period. PMID:19081006

  16. Movements of wild ruddy shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and their spatial relationship to outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Collins, Bridget M.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Baoping, Yan; Luo, Ze; Hou, Yuansheng; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian; Li, Yongdong; Newman, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results. However, timing of outbreaks suggested that outbreaks in the flyway began during the winter in poultry with spillover to wild birds during the spring migration. Thus, studies of the movement ecology of wild birds in areas with persistent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks may contribute to understanding their role in transmission of this disease.

  17. Movements of wild ruddy shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and their spatial relationship to outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, John Y; Prosser, Diann J; Collins, Bridget M; Douglas, David C; Perry, William M; Yan, Baoping; Ze, Luo; Hou, Yuansheng; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian; Li, Yongdong; Newman, Scott H

    2013-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results. However, timing of outbreaks suggested that outbreaks in the flyway began during the winter in poultry with spillover to wild birds during the spring migration. Thus, studies of the movement ecology of wild birds in areas with persistent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks may contribute to understanding their role in transmission of this disease. PMID:24022072

  18. Movements of Wild Ruddy Shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and Their Spatial Relationship to Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Collins, Bridget M.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Yan, Baoping; Ze, Luo; Hou, Yuansheng; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian; Li, Yongdong; Newman, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results. However, timing of outbreaks suggested that outbreaks in the flyway began during the winter in poultry with spillover to wild birds during the spring migration. Thus, studies of the movement ecology of wild birds in areas with persistent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks may contribute to understanding their role in transmission of this disease. PMID:24022072

  19. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  20. Identifying spatio-temporal patterns of transboundary disease spread: examples using avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Ward, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing spatio-temporal patterns among epidemics in which the mechanism of spread is uncertain is important for generating disease spread hypotheses, which may in turn inform disease control and prevention strategies. Using a dataset representing three phases of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in village poultry in Romania, 2005–2006, spatio-temporal patterns were characterized. We first fit a set of hierarchical Bayesian models that quantified changes in the spatio-temporal relative risk for each of the 23 affected counties. We then modeled spatial synchrony in each of the three epidemic phases using non-parametric covariance functions and Thin Plate Spline regression models. We found clear differences in the spatio-temporal patterns among the epidemic phases (local versus regional correlated processes), which may indicate differing spread mechanisms (for example wild bird versus human-mediated). Elucidating these patterns allowed us to postulate that a shift in the primary mechanism of disease spread may have taken place between the second and third phases of this epidemic. Information generated by such analyses could assist affected countries in determining the most appropriate control programs to implement, and to allocate appropriate resources to preventing contact between domestic poultry and wild birds versus enforcing bans on poultry movements and quarantine. The methods used in this study could be applied in many different situations to analyze transboundary disease data in which only location and time of occurrence data are reported. PMID:19210952

  1. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic Eurasian H5N8 avian influenza in two commercial poultry flocks in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In January 2015, a highly pathogenic Eurasian lineage H5N8 avian influenza (AI) virus was detected in a commercial meat turkey flock in Stanislaus County, California. Approximately 3 weeks later, a similar case was diagnosed in commercial chickens from a different company located in Kings County, C...

  2. Understanding the 2013 H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in poultry: field epidemiology and experimental pathogenesis studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influenza A (H7N9) virus is of avian origin and is responsible for infections in human in large urban areas of China in spring 2013. The original source of the virus from poultry farms is unknown but the live poultry market (LPM) system has served as an amplifier of the virus, especially in whol...

  3. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  4. Rapid molecular diagnostic tools for avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An accurate and early diagnosis of a foreign animal disease is crucial for rapid control and eradication of an outbreak in a country previously free of the disease. Historically many animal diseases have been controlled based solely on clinical signs of disease. However with avian influenza virus ...

  5. Personal protective equipment and risk for avian influenza (H7N3).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Oliver; Kuhne, Mirjam; Nair, Pat; Verlander, Neville Q; Preece, Richard; McDougal, Marianne; Zambon, Maria; Reacher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of avian influenza (H7N3) among poultry resulted in laboratory-confirmed disease in 1 of 103 exposed persons. Incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was associated with conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms. Rigorous use of PPE by persons managing avian influenza outbreaks may reduce exposure to potentially hazardous infected poultry materials. PMID:19116052

  6. Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhne, Mirjam; Nair, Pat; Verlander, Neville Q.; Preece, Richard; McDougal, Marianne; Zambon, Maria; Reacher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of avian influenza (H7N3) among poultry resulted in laboratory-confirmed disease in 1 of 103 exposed persons. Incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was associated with conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms. Rigorous use of PPE by persons managing avian influenza outbreaks may reduce exposure to potentially hazardous infected poultry materials. PMID:19116052

  7. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  8. Pandemic Threat Posed by Avian Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. PMID:11148006

  9. Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

  10. Avian influenza prevention and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry around the world. Avian Influenza virus (AIV) has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infectio...

  11. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  12. Sequence Analysis of Recent H7 Avian Influenza Viruses Associated with Three Different Outbreaks in Commercial Poultry in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, Erica; Senne, Dennis A.; Davison, Sherrill; Suarez, David L.

    2003-01-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H7 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated between 1994 and 2002 from live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeastern United States and from three outbreaks in commercial poultry have been characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes demonstrates that the isolates from commercial poultry were closely related to the viruses circulating in the LBMs. Also, since 1994, two distinguishing genetic features have appeared in this AIV lineage: a deletion of 17 amino acids in the NA protein stalk region and a deletion of 8 amino acids in the HA1 protein which is putatively in part of the receptor binding site. Furthermore, analysis of the HA cleavage site amino acid sequence, a marker for pathogenicity in chickens and turkeys, shows a progression toward a cleavage site sequence that fulfills the molecular criteria for highly pathogenic AIV. PMID:14645595

  13. Sequence analysis of recent H7 avian influenza viruses associated with three different outbreaks in commercial poultry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Senne, Dennis A; Davison, Sherrill; Suarez, David L

    2003-12-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H7 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated between 1994 and 2002 from live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeastern United States and from three outbreaks in commercial poultry have been characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes demonstrates that the isolates from commercial poultry were closely related to the viruses circulating in the LBMs. Also, since 1994, two distinguishing genetic features have appeared in this AIV lineage: a deletion of 17 amino acids in the NA protein stalk region and a deletion of 8 amino acids in the HA1 protein which is putatively in part of the receptor binding site. Furthermore, analysis of the HA cleavage site amino acid sequence, a marker for pathogenicity in chickens and turkeys, shows a progression toward a cleavage site sequence that fulfills the molecular criteria for highly pathogenic AIV. PMID:14645595

  14. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Emma Xuxiao; Yang, Yinping; Di Shang, Richard; Simons, Joseph John Pyne; Quek, Boon Kiat; Yin, Xiao Feng; See, Wanhan; Oh, Olivia Seen Huey; Nandar, Khine Sein Tun; Ling, Vivienne Ruo Yun; Chan, Pei Pei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; James, Lyn; Tey, Jeannie Su Hui

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication. PMID:26306219

  15. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Emma Xuxiao; Yang, Yinping; Di Shang, Richard; Simons, Joseph John Pyne; Quek, Boon Kiat; Yin, Xiao Feng; See, Wanhan; Oh, Olivia Seen Huey; Nandar, Khine Sein Tun; Ling, Vivienne Ruo Yun; Chan, Pei Pei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; James, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication. PMID:26306219

  16. Epidemic outbreaks, diagnostics, and control measures of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2007-08.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaguang; Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; Khan, Owais Ahmed; Al Hammad, Yousef; Abdel Rhman, Salah Shaban; Al-Blowi, Mohamed Hamad

    2010-03-01

    The first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) occurred in two "backyard" flocks of Houbara bustards and falcons in February 2007. Subsequent outbreaks were seen through the end of 2007 in "backyard" birds including native chickens, ostriches, turkeys, ducks, and peacocks. From November 2007 through January 2008, H5N1 HPAI outbreaks occurred in 19 commercial poultry premises, including two broiler breeder farms, one layer breeder farm, one ostrich farm, and 15 commercial layer farms, with approximately 4.75 million birds affected. Laboratory diagnosis of all H5N1-positive cases was conducted at the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (CVDL) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A combination of diagnostic tests was used to confirm the laboratory diagnosis. A rapid antigen-capture test and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assay on clinical and field specimens were conducted initially. Meanwhile, virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs was performed and was followed by hemagglutinin (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition tests, then rapid antigen-capture and rtRT-PCR tests on HA-positive allantoic fluid samples. In most HPAI cases, a complete laboratory diagnosis was made within 24-48 hr at the CVDL. Saudi Arabian government officials made immediate decisions to depopulate all H5N1-affected and nonaffected flocks within a 5-km radius area and applied quarantine zones to prevent the virus from spreading to other areas. Other control measures, such as closure of live bird markets and intensive surveillance tests on all poultry species within quarantine zones, were in place during the outbreaks. As a result, the HPAI outbreaks were quickly controlled, and no positive cases were detected after January 29, 2008. The KSA was declared free of HPAI on April 30, 2008, by the World Animal Health Organization. PMID:20521658

  17. New outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic poultry and wild birds in Cambodia in 2011.

    PubMed

    Theary, Ren; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Allal, Lotfi; Lu, Huaguang

    2012-12-01

    Five outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have been diagnosed in domestic poultry and wild birds in Cambodia from January to November of 2011. Of the five outbreaks, one occurred in a village backyard flock in Kandal province in January; two occurred in native Cambodian chickens and ducks in Banteay Meanchey province in July and August, respectively; one was seen in wild birds in Phnom Tamao Zoo in Kandal Province in July; and one outbreak occurred in commercial broilers at Opong Moan in Battambang province in northwestern Cambodia in early November. Clinically, HPAI-infected broilers and native chickens showed sudden death, severe depression, ruffled feathers, edema of heads and necks, swollen and cyanotic combs and wattles, and swollen and congested conjunctiva, with occasional hemorrhage, paralysis, and other neurologic signs. In ducks, significantly swollen sinuses and eyes, cloudy corneas, difficulty standing, or paralysis were commonly seen. Some affected ducks showed sudden death without obvious clinical symptoms. Necropsy lesions showed congestion and necrotic debris within sinuses and severe hemorrhages in gizzards, livers, and lungs in both affected native chickens and ducks during the new outbreaks in 2011. All five outbreaks were diagnosed as H5N1 HPAI by virus isolation and real-time reverse transcription-PCR tests. Once a backyard flock in a village or a poultry farm was diagnosed as positive for H5N1 HPAI; the whole village backyard poultry and all farm flocks were culled immediately by Cambodian provincial and central authorities as per the strategies adopted for the control of HPAI. PMID:23402105

  18. Performance of clinical signs in poultry for the detection of outbreaks during the avian influenza A (H7N7) epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003.

    PubMed

    Elbers, Armin R W; Koch, Guus; Bouma, Annemarie

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the clinical signs of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), to facilitate the development of an operational syndrome-reporting system (SRS) in The Netherlands as an early warning system for HPAI outbreaks. A total of 537 poultry flocks (240 infected and 297 non-infected) with a clinical suspicion of an infection with HPAI virus were investigated with respect to the clinical signs observed. Standardized reports were analysed with respect to observed clinical signs in the flocks. Various poultry types were distinguished. In infected commercial flocks with egg-producing chickens, the presence of increased mortality, apathy, coughing, reduction in normal vocalization, or pale eggs appeared to be overall the most sensitive indicators to detect a HPAI outbreak, matching a sensitivity of 99% with a specificity of 23%. In infected turkey flocks, the presence of apathy, decreased growth performance, reduction of normal vocalization, swollen sinuses, yawning, huddling, mucosal production from the beak, or lying down with an extended neck appeared to be overall the most sensitive indicators to detect a HPAI outbreak, matching a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity of 79%. In infected backyard/hobby flocks, increased mortality or swollen head appeared to be overall the most sensitive indicators of a HPAI outbreak, matching a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity of 26%. These results indicate that there is a solid basis for the choice of using increased mortality in the operational SRS in The Netherlands as an early warning system for HPAI outbreaks. The presence of apathy, specifically for turkeys, should be added to the SRS as an indicator. PMID:16191700

  19. Epidemiology, production losses, and control measures associated with an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H7N2 in Pennsylvania (1996-98).

    PubMed

    Henzler, D J; Kradel, D C; Davison, S; Ziegler, A F; Singletary, D; DeBok, P; Castro, A E; Lu, H; Eckroade, R; Swayne, D; Lagoda, W; Schmucker, B; Nesselrodt, A

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of H7N2 low-pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza (AI) occurred in a two-county area in Pennsylvania from December of 1996 through April of 1998. The outbreak resulted in infection of 2,623,116 commercial birds on 25 premises encompassing 47 flocks. Twenty-one (one premise with infection twice) of the twenty-five infected premises housed egg-laying chickens and one premise each had turkeys, layer pullets, quail, and a mixed backyard dealer flock. Despite dose proximity of infected flocks to commercial broiler flocks, no infected broilers were identified. Experimentally, when market age broilers were placed on an influenza-infected premise they seroconverted and developed oviduct lesions. The outbreak was believed to have originated from two separate introductions into commercial layer flocks from premises and by individuals dealing in sales of live fowl in the metropolitan New York and New Jersey live-bird markets. Source flocks for these markets are primarily in the northeast and mid-Atlantic areas, including Pennsylvania. Mixed fowl sold include ducks, geese, guinea hens, quail, chukar partridges, and a variety of chickens grown on perhaps hundreds of small farms. Infections with the H7N2 AI virus were associated with variable morbidity and temporary decreases in egg production ranging from 1.6% to 29.1% in commercial egg-laying chickens. Egg production losses averaged 4.0 weeks duration. Mortality ranged from 1.5 to 18.3 times normal (mean of 4.3 times normal). Duration of mortality ranged from 2 to 13 weeks (average of 3.9 weeks) in flocks not depopulated. Lesions observed were primarily oviducts filled with a mucous and white gelatinous exudates and atypical egg yolk peritonitis. Quarantine of premises and complete depopulation were the early measures employed in control of this outbreak. Epidemiological studies suggested that depopulation furthered the spread of influenza to nearby flocks. Thereafter, later control measures included quarantine

  20. Outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus infection in two commercial layer facilities: lesions and viral antigen distribution.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Paulo H E; Stevenson, Gregory W; Killian, Mary L; Burrough, Eric R; Gauger, Phillip C; Harmon, Karen M; Magstadt, Drew R; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zhang, Jianqiang; Madson, Darin M; Piñeyro, Pablo; Derscheid, Rachel J; Schwartz, Kent J; Cooper, Vickie L; Halbur, Patrick G; Main, Rodger G; Sato, Yuko; Arruda, Bailey L

    2016-09-01

    The largest outbreak of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus (HPAIV) infection in U.S. history began in December 2014 resulting in the euthanasia of millions of birds and collateral economic consequences to the U.S. poultry industry. We describe 2 cases of H5N2 HPAIV infection in laying hens in Iowa. Following a sharp increase in mortality with minimal clinical signs, 15 dead birds, from 2 unrelated farms, were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Common lesions included diffuse edema and multifocal hemorrhage of the comb, catarrhal exudate in the oropharynx, and multifocal tracheal hemorrhage. Less common lesions included epicardial petechiae, splenic hemorrhage, and pancreatic necrosis. Influenza A virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple cell types including ependymal cells, the choroid plexus, neurons, respiratory epithelium and macrophages in the lung, cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, necrotic foci in the spleen, Kupffer cells in the liver, and necrotic acinar cells in the pancreas. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing confirmed H5N2 HPAIV with molecular characteristics similar to other contemporary U.S. H5N2 HPAIVs in both cases. PMID:27423731

  1. Quantitative Estimation of the Number of Contaminated Hatching Eggs Released from an Infected, Undetected Turkey Breeder Hen Flock During a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Malladi, Sasidhar; Weaver, J Todd; Alexander, Catherine Y; Middleton, Jamie L; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Snider, Timothy; Tilley, Becky J; Gonder, Eric; Hermes, David R; Halvorson, David A

    2015-09-01

    The regulatory response to an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the United States may involve quarantine and stop movement orders that have the potential to disrupt continuity of operations in the U.S. turkey industry--particularly in the event that an uninfected breeder flock is located within an HPAI Control Area. A group of government-academic-industry leaders developed an approach to minimize the unintended consequences associated with outbreak response, which incorporates HPAI control measures to be implemented prior to moving hatching eggs off of the farm. Quantitative simulation models were used to evaluate the movement of potentially contaminated hatching eggs from a breeder henhouse located in an HPAI Control Area, given that active surveillance testing, elevated biosecurity, and a 2-day on-farm holding period were employed. The risk analysis included scenarios of HPAI viruses differing in characteristics as well as scenarios in which infection resulted from artificial insemination. The mean model-predicted number of internally contaminated hatching eggs released per movement from an HPAI-infected turkey breeder henhouse ranged from 0 to 0.008 under the four scenarios evaluated. The results indicate a 95% chance of no internally contaminated eggs being present per movement from an infected house before detection. Sensitivity analysis indicates that these results are robust to variation in key transmission model parameters within the range of their estimates from available literature. Infectious birds at the time of egg collection are a potential pathway of external contamination for eggs stored and then moved off of the farm; the predicted number of such infectious birds was estimated to be low. To date, there has been no evidence of vertical transmission of HPAI virus or low pathogenic avian influenza virus to day-old poults from hatching eggs originating from infected breeders. The application of risk analysis methods was beneficial

  2. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Outbreak Investigation: Application of the FAO-OIE-WHO Four-way Linking Framework in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Setiawaty, V; Dharmayanti, N L P I; Misriyah; Pawestri, H A; Azhar, M; Tallis, G; Schoonman, L; Samaan, G

    2015-08-01

    WHO, FAO and OIE developed a 'four-way linking' framework to enhance the cross-sectoral sharing of epidemiological and virological information in responding to zoonotic disease outbreaks. In Indonesia, outbreak response challenges include completeness of data shared between human and animal health authorities. The four-way linking framework (human health laboratory/epidemiology and animal health laboratory/epidemiology) was applied in the investigation of the 193 rd human case of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection. As recommended by the framework, outbreak investigation and risk assessment findings were shared. On 18 June 2013, a hospital in West Java Province reported a suspect H5N1 case in a 2-year-old male. The case was laboratory-confirmed that evening, and the information was immediately shared with the Ministry of Agriculture. The human health epidemiology/laboratory team investigated the outbreak and conducted an initial risk assessment on 19 June. The likelihood of secondary cases was deemed low as none of the case contacts were sick. By 3 July, no secondary cases associated with the outbreak were identified. The animal health epidemiology/laboratory investigation was conducted on 19-25 June and found that a live bird market visited by the case was positive for H5N1 virus. Once both human and market virus isolates were sequenced, a second risk assessment was conducted jointly by the human health and animal health epidemiology/laboratory teams. This assessment concluded that the likelihood of additional human cases associated with this outbreak was low but that future sporadic human infections could not be ruled out because of challenges in controlling H5N1 virus contamination in markets. Findings from the outbreak investigation and risk assessments were shared with stakeholders at both Ministries. The four-way linking framework clarified the type of data to be shared. Both human health and animal health teams made ample data available, and there was

  3. Epidemiological and Evolutionary Inference of the Transmission Network of the 2014 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N2 Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanhong; Berhane, Yohannes; Dubé, Caroline; Liang, Binhua; Pasick, John; VanDomselaar, Gary; Alexandersen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    The first North American outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) involving a virus of Eurasian A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1) lineage began in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada in late November 2014. A total of 11 commercial and 1 non-commercial (backyard) operations were infected before the outbreak was terminated. Control measures included movement restrictions that were placed on a total of 404 individual premises, 150 of which were located within a 3 km radius of an infected premise(s) (IP). A complete epidemiological investigation revealed that the source of this HPAI H5N2 virus for 4 of the commercial IPs and the single non-commercial IP likely involved indirect contact with wild birds. Three IPs were associated with the movement of birds or service providers and localized/environmental spread was suspected as the source of infection for the remaining 4 IPs. Viral phylogenies, as determined by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods, were used to validate the epidemiologically inferred transmission network. The phylogenetic clustering of concatenated viral genomes and the median-joining phylogenetic network of the viruses supported, for the most part, the transmission network that was inferred by the epidemiologic analysis. PMID:27489095

  4. Phylodynamics of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Europe, 2005–2010: Potential for Molecular Surveillance of New Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Alkhamis, Mohammad A.; Moore, Brian R.; Perez, Andres M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous Bayesian phylogeographic studies of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) explored the origin and spread of the epidemic from China into Russia, indicating that HPAIV circulated in Russia prior to its detection there in 2005. In this study, we extend this research to explore the evolution and spread of HPAIV within Europe during the 2005–2010 epidemic, using all available sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene regions that were collected in Europe and Russia during the outbreak. We use discrete-trait phylodynamic models within a Bayesian statistical framework to explore the evolution of HPAIV. Our results indicate that the genetic diversity and effective population size of HPAIV peaked between mid-2005 and early 2006, followed by drastic decline in 2007, which coincides with the end of the epidemic in Europe. Our results also suggest that domestic birds were the most likely source of the spread of the virus from Russia into Europe. Additionally, estimates of viral dispersal routes indicate that Russia, Romania, and Germany were key epicenters of these outbreaks. Our study quantifies the dynamics of a major European HPAIV pandemic and substantiates the ability of phylodynamic models to improve molecular surveillance of novel AIVs. PMID:26110587

  5. Epidemiological and Evolutionary Inference of the Transmission Network of the 2014 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N2 Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanhong; Berhane, Yohannes; Dubé, Caroline; Liang, Binhua; Pasick, John; VanDomselaar, Gary; Alexandersen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    The first North American outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) involving a virus of Eurasian A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1) lineage began in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada in late November 2014. A total of 11 commercial and 1 non-commercial (backyard) operations were infected before the outbreak was terminated. Control measures included movement restrictions that were placed on a total of 404 individual premises, 150 of which were located within a 3 km radius of an infected premise(s) (IP). A complete epidemiological investigation revealed that the source of this HPAI H5N2 virus for 4 of the commercial IPs and the single non-commercial IP likely involved indirect contact with wild birds. Three IPs were associated with the movement of birds or service providers and localized/environmental spread was suspected as the source of infection for the remaining 4 IPs. Viral phylogenies, as determined by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods, were used to validate the epidemiologically inferred transmission network. The phylogenetic clustering of concatenated viral genomes and the median-joining phylogenetic network of the viruses supported, for the most part, the transmission network that was inferred by the epidemiologic analysis. PMID:27489095

  6. Phylodynamics of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Europe, 2005-2010: Potential for Molecular Surveillance of New Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Alkhamis, Mohammad A; Moore, Brian R; Perez, Andres M

    2015-06-01

    Previous Bayesian phylogeographic studies of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) explored the origin and spread of the epidemic from China into Russia, indicating that HPAIV circulated in Russia prior to its detection there in 2005. In this study, we extend this research to explore the evolution and spread of HPAIV within Europe during the 2005-2010 epidemic, using all available sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene regions that were collected in Europe and Russia during the outbreak. We use discrete-trait phylodynamic models within a Bayesian statistical framework to explore the evolution of HPAIV. Our results indicate that the genetic diversity and effective population size of HPAIV peaked between mid-2005 and early 2006, followed by drastic decline in 2007, which coincides with the end of the epidemic in Europe. Our results also suggest that domestic birds were the most likely source of the spread of the virus from Russia into Europe. Additionally, estimates of viral dispersal routes indicate that Russia, Romania, and Germany were key epicenters of these outbreaks. Our study quantifies the dynamics of a major European HPAIV pandemic and substantiates the ability of phylodynamic models to improve molecular surveillance of novel AIVs. PMID:26110587

  7. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Españ ...

  8. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype...

  9. [Detection of local influenza outbreaks and role of virological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Schweiger, B; Buda, S

    2013-01-01

    For many years, the Working Group on Influenza (AGI) has been the most important influenza surveillance system in Germany. An average sample of the population is covered by both syndromic and virological surveillance, which provides timely data regarding the onset and course of the influenza wave as well as its burden of disease. However, smaller influenza outbreaks cannot be detected by the AGI sentinel system. This is achieved by the information reported by the mandatory notification system (Protection Against Infection Act, IfSG), which serves as the second pillar of the national influenza surveillance. Approaches to recognize such outbreaks are based either on reported influenza virus detection and subsequent investigations by local health authorities or by notification of an accumulation of respiratory diseases or nosocomial infections and subsequent laboratory investigations. In this context, virological diagnostics plays an essential role. This has been true particularly for the early phase of the 2009 pandemic, but generally timely diagnostics is essential for the identification of outbreaks. Regarding potential future outbreaks, it is also important to keep an eye on animal influenza viruses that have repeatedly infected humans. This mainly concerns avian influenza viruses of the subtypes H5, H7, and H9 as well as porcine influenza viruses for which a specific PCR has been established at the National Influenza Reference Centre. An increased incidence of respiratory infections, both during and outside the season, should always encourage virological laboratory diagnostics to be performed as a prerequisite of further extensive investigations and an optimal outbreak management. PMID:23275953

  10. Highly Pathogenic Eurasian H5N8 Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Two Commercial Poultry Flocks in California.

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone; Chin, Richard; Crossley, Beate; Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, C; Bickford, Arthur; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Breitmeyer, Richard; Jones, Annette; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-09-01

    In January 2015, a highly pathogenic Eurasian lineage H5N8 avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) was detected in a commercial meat turkey flock in Stanislaus County, CA. Approximately 3 wk later, a similar case was diagnosed in commercial brown layers from a different company located in Kings County, CA. Five 14-wk-old turkey hens were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (CAHFS), Turlock, and eleven 12-wk-old chickens were submitted to CAHFS, Tulare laboratory due to an acute increase in flock mortality. Gross lesions included enlarged and mottled pale spleens and pancreas in turkeys and chickens. Histologically, the major lesions observed in turkeys and chickens were splenitis, pancreatitis, encephalitis, and pneumonia. In both cases, diagnosis was based on real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR), sequencing, and virus isolation from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Confirmatory diagnosis and AIV characterization was done at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Ames, IA. The sequence of the AIV from both cases was 99% identical to an H5N8 AI virus (A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014) isolated from a captive gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) from Washington State in December 2014. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various tissues from both cases indicated a widespread AIV tissue distribution. Except for minor variations, the tissue distribution of the AI antigen was similar in the chickens and turkeys. There was positive IHC staining in the brain, spleen, pancreas, larynx, trachea, and lungs in both chickens and turkeys. Hearts, ovaries, and air sacs from the turkeys were also positive for the AI antigen. The liver sections from the chickens had occasional AI-positive staining in mononuclear cells, but the IHC on liver sections from the turkeys were negative. The bursa of Fabricius, small intestine, kidney, and skeletal muscle sections were negative for the AI antigen in both chickens and turkeys. PMID:27610732

  11. Investigation into the Airborne Dissemination of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus During the 2015 Spring Outbreaks in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Torremorell, Montserrat; Alonso, Carmen; Davies, Peter R; Raynor, Peter C; Patnayak, Devi; Torchetti, Mia; McCluskey, Brian

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the plausibility of aerosol transmission of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus during the 2015 spring outbreaks that occurred in the U.S. midwest. Air samples were collected inside and outside of infected turkey and layer facilities. Samples were tested to assess HPAI virus concentration (RNA copies/m(3) of air), virus viability, and virus distribution by particle size. HPAI virus RNA was detected inside and up to 1000 m from infected facilities. HPAI virus was isolated from air samples collected inside, immediately outside, up to 70 m from infected facilities, and in aerosol particles larger than 2.1 μm. Direct exposure to exhausted aerosols proved to be a significant source of environmental contamination. These findings demonstrate HPAI virus aerosolization from infected flocks, and that both the transport of infectious aerosolized particles and the deposition of particles on surfaces around infected premises represent a potential risk for the spread of HPAI. PMID:27610723

  12. Lack of chicken adaptation of newly emergent Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in the U.S. is consistent with restricted poultry outbreaks in the Pacific flyway during 2014-2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, initially affecting mainly wild birds and few backyard and commercial poultry premises. To better model the outbreak, the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics o...

  13. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sanhong; Pang, Liuyong; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza. PMID:25861378

  14. Host-specific exposure and fatal neurologic disease in wild raptors from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 during the 2006 outbreak in Germany.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Judith Ma; Krone, Oliver; Wolf, Peter U; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Amerongen, Geert; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    Raptors may contract highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 by hunting or scavenging infected prey. However, natural H5N1 infection in raptors is rarely reported. Therefore, we tested raptors found dead during an H5N1 outbreak in wild waterbirds in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, in 2006 for H5N1-associated disease. We tested 624 raptors of nine species-common buzzard (385), Eurasian sparrowhawk (111), common kestrel (38), undetermined species of buzzard (36), white-tailed sea eagle (19), undetermined species of raptor (12), northern goshawk (10), peregrine falcon (6), red kite (3), rough-legged buzzard (3), and western marsh-harrier (1)-for H5N1 infection in tracheal or combined tracheal/cloacal swabs of all birds, and on major tissues of all white-tailed sea eagles. H5N1 infection was detected in two species: common buzzard (12 positive, 3.1%) and peregrine falcon (2 positive, 33.3%). In all necropsied birds (both peregrine falcons and the six freshest common buzzards), H5N1 was found most consistently and at the highest concentration in the brain, and the main H5N1-associated lesion was marked non-suppurative encephalitis. Other H5N1-associated lesions occurred in air sac, lung, oviduct, heart, pancreas, coelomic ganglion, and adrenal gland. Our results show that the main cause of death in H5N1-positive raptors was encephalitis. Our results imply that H5N1 outbreaks in wild waterbirds are more likely to lead to exposure to and mortality from H5N1 in raptors that hunt or scavenge medium-sized birds, such as common buzzards and peregrine falcons, than in raptors that hunt small birds and do not scavenge, such as Eurasian sparrowhawks and common kestrels. PMID:25879698

  15. Ambient Influenza and Avian Influenza Virus during Dust Storm Days and Background Days

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Shih; Tsai, Feng Ta; Lin, Chien Kun; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Young, Chea-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Background The spread of influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) presents a significant threat to human health. Avian influenza outbreaks in downwind areas of Asian dust storms (ADS) suggest that viruses might be transported by dust storms. Objectives We developed a technique to measure ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses. We then used this technique to measure concentrations of these viruses on ADS days and background days, and to assess the relationships between ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses, and air pollutants. Methods A high-volume air sampler was used in parallel with a filter cassette to evaluate spiked samples and unspiked samples. Then, air samples were monitored during ADS seasons using a filter cassette coupled with a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Air samples were monitored during ADS season (1 January to 31 May 2006). Results We successfully quantified ambient influenza virus using the filtration/real-time qPCR method during ADS days and background days. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the concentration of influenza virus in ambient air. In both the spiked and unspiked samples, the concentration of influenza virus sampled using the filter cassette was higher than that using the high-volume sampler. The concentration of ambient influenza A virus was significantly higher during the ADS days than during the background days. Conclusions Our data imply the possibility of long-range transport of influenza virus. PMID:20435545

  16. Importance of Internet Surveillance in Public Health Emergency Control and Prevention: Evidence From a Digital Epidemiologic Study During Avian Influenza A H7N9 Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Honghong; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Xinyi; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Zhenggang; Zheng, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of human infection with a new avian influenza A H7N9 virus occurred in China in the spring of 2013. Control and prevention of a new human infectious disease outbreak can be strongly affected by public reaction and social impact through the Internet and social media. Objective This study aimed to investigate the potential roles of Internet surveillance in control and prevention of the human H7N9 outbreaks. Methods Official data for the human H7N9 outbreaks were collected via the China National Health and Family Planning Committee website from March 31 to April 24, 2013. We obtained daily posted and forwarded number of blogs for the keyword “H7N9” from Sina microblog website and a daily Baidu Attention Index (BAI) from Baidu website, which reflected public attention to the outbreak. Rumors identified and confirmed by the authorities were collected from Baidu search engine. Results Both daily posted and forwarded number and BAI for keyword H7N9 increased quickly during the first 3 days of the outbreaks and remained at a high level for 5 days. The total daily posted and forwarded number for H7N9 on Sina microblog peaked at 850,000 on April 3, from zero blogs before March 31, increasing to 97,726 on April 1 and to 370,607 on April 2, and remaining above 500,000 from April 5-8 before declining to 208,524 on April 12. The total daily BAI showed a similar pattern of change to the total daily posted and forwarded number over time from March 31 to April 12. When the outbreak locations spread, especially into other areas of the same province/city and the capital, Beijing, daily posted and forwarded number and BAI increased again to a peak at 368,500 and 116,911, respectively. The median daily BAI during the studied 25 days was significantly higher among the 7 provinces/cities with reported human H7N9 cases than the 2 provinces without any cases (P<.001). So were the median daily posted and forwarded number and daily BAI in each province/city except

  17. Phylogenetics and pathogenesis of early avian influenza viruses (H5N2), Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the first officially recognized outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry in Nigeria, in February 2006, an effort based at the poultry diagnostic clinic of the University of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital, was underway to isolate avian influenza viruses from sick...

  18. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses isolated during 2006–2008 outbreaks in Pakistan reveals genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the first outbreak recorded in northern areas of Pakistan in early 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses were isolated from commercial poultry and wild/domestic birds from different areas of Pakistan up to July 2008. Different isolates of H5N1 were sequenced to explore the genetic diversity of these viruses. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed close clustering and highest sequence identity in all 8 genes to HPAI H5N1 isolates belonging to unified H5 clade 2.2, sub-lineage EMA-3 recovered from Afghanistan during the same time period. Two subgroups within Pakistani H5N1 viruses, from domestic and wild birds, were observed on the basis of their sequence homology and mutations. HPAI motif, preferred receptor specificity for α-(2, 3) linkages, potential N-linked glycosylation sites and an additional glycosylation site at the globular head of HA protein of four Pakistani H5N1 isolates. While, the amino acids associated with sensitivities to various antiviral drugs (Oseltamivir, Zanamivir, Amantadine) were found conserved for the Pakistani H5N1 isolates. Conspicuously, some important mutations observed at critical positions of antigenic sites (S141P, D155S, R162I & P181S) and at receptor binding pocket (A185T, R189K & S217P) of HA-1. A high sequence similarity between Pakistani HP H5N1 and LP H9N2 viruses was also observed. Avian like host specific markers with the exception of E627K in PB2, K356R in PA, V33I in NP, I28V in M2 and L107F in NS2 proteins were also observed. Conclusions Various point mutations in different genes of H5 viruses from Pakistan were observed during its circulation in the field. The outbreaks started in Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (North West) province in 2006 and spread to the Southern regions over a period of time. Though migratory birds may have a role for this continued endemicity of clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses during 2006–2008 in Pakistan, the possibility of their transmission through legal or illegal poultry trade

  19. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Outbreak in Captive Wild Birds and Cats, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Nick; Ong, Sivuth; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hunt, Matt; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Sorn, San; Peiris, Malik; Van der Werf, Sylvie; Reynes, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    From December 2003 through January 2004, the Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia, was affected by the highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N1). Birds from 26 species died. Influenza virus subtype H5N1 was detected in 6 of 7 species tested. Cats from 5 of 7 species were probably infected; none died. PMID:19239769

  20. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  1. Avian Influenza: Our current understanding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) has become one of the most important diseases of the poultry industry around the world. The virus has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infection. T...

  2. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a type A influenza virus isolated from and adapted to an avian host. This chapter covers the basic physicochemical aspects of AIV including; virus family and properties, subtype classification; basic molecular biology and genetics. The avian host range and ecology...

  3. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  4. Review of rapid molecular diagnostic tools for avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular diagnostics tests are commonly used to diagnose avian influenza virus (AIV) because they are sensitive, can be performed rapidly, with high throughput, and at a moderate cost. Molecular diagnostic tests have recently proven themselves to be invaluable in controlling disease outbreaks arou...

  5. Impact of host genes on resistance to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused massive outbreaks of infection and disease in poultry, significant numbers of infections in wild aquatic birds and some infections in mammals and humans in Asia, Europe and Africa. The primary intervention strategy in poultry within de...

  6. Rumor Surveillance and Avian Influenza H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mahomed; Olowokure, Babatunde; Roces, Maria C.; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    We describe the enhanced rumor surveillance during the avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in 2004. The World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Regional Office identified 40 rumors; 9 were verified to be true. Rumor surveillance informed immediate public health action and prevented unnecessary and costly responses. PMID:15757567

  7. The changing ecology, epidemiology and pathobiology of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in the world since 1959. The largest of these outbreaks has been the H5N1 HPAI which has caused problems in poultry and some wild birds in over 60 countries of Asia, Europe and Africa since beginning in 1996. The H5N1 ...

  8. Avian influenza: worldwide situation and effectiveness of current vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries during the past 18 years. The majority of the recent outbreaks of H5N2 HPAI have occurred in Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, in decreasi...

  9. Prevention and control of avian influenza in Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. For 2011-2012, 19 countries reported outbreaks of H5N1 in domestic poultry, wild birds or both. The majority of the outbr...

  10. Avian influenza worldwide: current status and successful control tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. For 2010-2011, 20 countries reported outbreaks of H5N1 in domestic poultry (n = 11), wild birds (n = 4) or both (n=5). Th...

  11. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies. PMID:23171740

  12. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  13. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination for both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used for countries that have been endemic for avian influenza influenza virus, but stamping out policies are common for countries that are normally free of the disease. Stamping out policies of euthanizing infecte...

  14. Wild bird surveillance around outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus in the Netherlands, 2014, within the context of global flyways.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, J H; van der Jeugd, H P; Nolet, B A; Slaterus, R; Kharitonov, S P; de Vries, P P; Vuong, O; Majoor, F; Kuiken, T; Fouchier, R A

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses that emerged in poultry in east Asia since 2010 spread to Europe and North America by late 2014. Despite detections in migrating birds, the role of free-living wild birds in the global dispersal of H5N8 virus is unclear. Here, wild bird sampling activities in response to the H5N8 virus outbreaks in poultry in the Netherlands are summarised along with a review on ring recoveries. HPAI H5N8 virus was detected exclusively in two samples from ducks of the Eurasian wigeon species, among 4,018 birds sampled within a three months period from mid-November 2014. The H5N8 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Netherlands were genetically closely related to and had the same gene constellation as H5N8 viruses detected elsewhere in Europe, in Asia and in North America, suggesting a common origin. Ring recoveries of migratory duck species from which H5N8 viruses have been isolated overall provide evidence for indirect migratory connections between East Asia and Western Europe and between East Asia and North America. This study is useful for better understanding the role of wild birds in the global epidemiology of H5N8 viruses. The need for sampling large numbers of wild birds for the detection of H5N8 virus and H5N8-virus-specific antibodies in a variety of species globally is highlighted, with specific emphasis in north-eastern Europe, Russia and northern China. PMID:25846491

  15. An Internet-Based Epidemiological Investigation of the Outbreak of H7N9 Avian Influenza A in China Since Early 2013

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao-Hong; Di, Meng-Yang; Yu, Yuan-Yuan; Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Yang, Zu-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Background In early 2013, a new type of avian influenza, H7N9, emerged in China. It quickly became an issue of great public concern and a widely discussed topic on the Internet. A considerable volume of relevant information was made publicly available on the Internet through various sources. Objective This study aimed to describe the outbreak of H7N9 in China based on data openly available on the Internet and to validate our investigation by comparing our findings with a well-conducted conventional field epidemiologic study. Methods We searched publicly accessible Internet data on the H7N9 outbreak primarily from government and major mass media websites in China up to February 10, 2014. Two researchers independently extracted, compared, and confirmed the information of each confirmed H7N9 case using a self-designed data extraction form. We summarized the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of confirmed H7N9 cases and compared them with those from the field study. Results According to our data updated until February 10, 2014, 334 confirmed H7N9 cases were identified. The median age was 58 years and 67.0% (219/327) were males. Cases were reported in 15 regions in China. Five family clusters were found. Of the 16.8% (56/334) of the cases with relevant data, 69.6% (39/56) reported a history of exposure to animals. Of the 1751 persons with a close contact with a confirmed case, 0.6% (11/1751) of them developed respiratory symptoms during the 7-day surveillance period. In the 97.9% (327/334) of the cases with relevant data, 21.7% (71/327) died, 20.8% (68/327) were discharged from a hospital, and 57.5% (188/327) were of uncertain status. We compared our findings before February 10, 2014 and those before December 1, 2013 with those from the conventional field study, which had the latter cutoff date of ours in data collection. Our study showed most epidemiological and clinical characteristics were similar to those in the field study, except for case fatality (71

  16. The influence of economic indicators, poultry density and the performance of Veterinary Services on the control of high-pathogenicity avian influenza in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) in poultry are notifiable to World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) by its member countries. There may be variation between countries’ responses to avian influenza (AI) outbreak situations based o...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N2) Associated with an Outbreak in Commercial Chickens, Iowa, USA, 2015.

    PubMed

    Clement, Travis; Kutish, Gerald F; Nezworski, Jill; Scaria, Joy; Nelson, Eric; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Diel, Diego G

    2015-01-01

    A novel reassortant influenza A virus (H5N2) was first detected in British Columbia, Canada, in December 2014. The virus rapidly spread along the waterfowl migration flyways in the United States, causing multiple HPAI outbreaks in poultry. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of HPAIV-H5N2 from a commercial chicken flock in Iowa. PMID:26067961

  18. Avian Influenza in Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... and even kill certain domesticated bird species including chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Infected birds can shed avian ... virus’ ability to cause disease and mortality in chickens in a laboratory setting [2.5 MB, 64 ...

  19. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  20. Biology and transmission of avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal-oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

  1. Avian influenza diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) varies by virus strain and host species. The clinical disease and lesions the virus produces in poultry are not pathognomonic for avian influenza; therefore, diagnosis of AI virus (AIV) infection requires a laboratory test. Detection of AIV infecti...

  2. Avian influenza biology and disease transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

  3. Avian influenza: preparedness and response strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is naturally found in wild birds, primarily waterfowl, but the virus may also be found in poultry. In the United States we have a strong passive and active surveillance program for avian influenza in poultry. This includes serologic testing on most flocks that go through the ...

  4. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...We are amending the regulations concerning the importation of animals and animal products to prohibit or restrict the importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. We are also adding restrictions concerning importation of live poultry and birds that have been vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza,......

  5. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  6. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  7. Protection of poultry against the 2012 Mexican H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus with inactivated H7 avian influenza vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June of 2012, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 was reported poultry in Jalisco, Mexico. Since that time the virus has spread to the surrounding States of Guanajuato and Aguascalientes and new outbreaks continue to be reported. To date more than 25 million birds have di...

  8. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1c in hunting falcons and kept wild birds in Dubai implicate intercontinental virus spread.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Kinne, Jörg; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Joseph, Sunitha; Wong, Po-Chun; Woo, Patrick C Y; Wernery, Renate; Beer, Martin; Wernery, Ulrich; Harder, Timm C

    2015-11-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of subtype H5N1 have continued to perpetuate with divergent genetic variants in poultry within Asia since 2003. Further dissemination of Asian-derived H5 HPAIVs to Europe, Africa and, most recently, to the North American continent has occurred. We report an outbreak of HPAIV H5N1 among falcons kept for hunting and other wild bird species bred as falcon prey in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, during the autumn of 2014. The causative agent was identified as avian influenza virus subtype H5N1, clade 2.3.2.1c, by genetic and phylogenetic analyses. High mortality in infected birds was in accordance with systemic pathomorphological and histological alterations in affected falcons. Genetic analysis showed the HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.3.2.1c is a reassortant in which the PB2 segment was derived from an Asian-origin H9N2 virus lineage. The Dubai H5N1 viruses were closely related to contemporary H5N1 HPAIVs from Nigeria, Burkina-Faso, Romania and Bulgaria. Median-joining network analysis of 2.3.2.1c viruses revealed that the Dubai outbreak was an episode of a westward spread of these viruses on a larger scale from unidentified Asian sources. The incursion into Dubai, possibly via infected captive hunting falcons returning from hunting trips to central Asian countries, preceded outbreaks in Nigeria and other West African countries. The alarmingly enhanced geographical mobility of clade 2.3.2.1.c and clade 2.3.4.4 viruses may represent another wave of transcontinental dissemination of Asian-origin HPAIV H5 viruses, such as the outbreak at Qinghai Lake caused by clade 2.2 (‘Qinghai’ lineage) in 2005. PMID:26350163

  9. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approved. Under these circumstances the fear is that a pandemic of avian influenza could result in the kind of mortality that was seen with the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918–1919, where the number of deaths was estimated to be as high as 40 million people. Retrospective data gathered by the American Osteopathic Association shortly after the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic have suggested that osteopathic physicians (DOs), using their distinctive osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) methods, observed significantly lower morbidity and mortality among their patients as compared to those treated by allopathic physicians (MDs) with standard medical care available at the time. In light of the limited prevention and treatment options available, it seems logical that a preparedness plan for the treatment of avian influenza should include these OMT procedures, provided by DOs and other healthcare workers capable of being trained to perform these therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the characteristics of avian influenza, describe the success of DOs during the 1918–1919 Spanish influenza pandemic, describe the evidence base for the inclusion of OMT as part of the preparedness plan for the treatment of avian influenza, and describe some of the specific OMT procedures that could be utilized as part of the treatment protocol for avian influenza patients. PMID:17620133

  10. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    PubMed Central

    Koh, GCH; Wong, TY; Cheong, SK; Koh, DSQ

    2008-01-01

    There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical. PMID:19014538

  11. Microarray analysis following infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in naive and vaccinated SPF chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains a constant threat to commercial poultry throughout the world. Within the last few years, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have originated in Southeast Asia and spread to several European, Middle Eastern, and A...

  12. International standards for the control of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2003-01-01

    The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has developed international standards to reduce the risk of the spread of high-pathogenicity avian influenza though international trade. These standards include providing a definition of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), procedures for prompt reporting of HPAI outbreaks, requirements that must be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of HPAI, requirements that should be met to import live birds and avian products into a HPAI-free country or zone, and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of HPAI through trade. The goal of these standards is to facilitate trade while minimizing the risk of the introduction of HPAI. PMID:14575096

  13. An update on avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Chávez, C; Rivera-Cruz, E

    2003-01-01

    The avian influenza high-pathogenicity virus was eradicated in poultry of Mexico in a relatively short period by the use of inactivated emulsified vaccine, enforcing biosecurity, and controlling movement of poultry and poultry products. Mexico maintains a permanent and reliable monitoring program for AI. H5N2 is the only avian influenza subtype identified. It is possible to control and eradicate the avian influenza low-pathogenicity virus mainly by controlled depopulation of positive poultry, reinforcing biosecurity, and the use of vaccines. PMID:14575101

  14. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic A(H7N7) Avian Influenza Virus, Italy, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, Giada; Facchini, Marzia; Vaccari, Gabriele; Di Trani, Livia; Di Martino, Angela; Gaibani, Paolo; Vocale, Caterina; Cattoli, Giovanni; Bennett, Michael; McCauley, John W.; Rezza, Giovanni; Moro, Maria Luisa; Rangoni, Roberto; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Landini, Maria Paola; Castrucci, Maria Rita; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    During an influenza A(H7N7) virus outbreak among poultry in Italy during August–September 2013, infection with a highly pathogenic A(H7N7) avian influenza virus was diagnosed for 3 poultry workers with conjunctivitis. Genetic analyses revealed that the viruses from the humans were closely related to those from chickens on affected farms. PMID:25271444

  15. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of Premovement Active Surveillance Protocol Options for the Managed Movement of Turkeys to Slaughter During an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the United States.

    PubMed

    Todd Weaver, J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Bonney, Peter J; Patyk, Kelly A; Bergeron, Justin G; Middleton, Jamie L; Alexander, Catherine Y; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Halvorson, David A

    2016-05-01

    Risk management decisions associated with live poultry movement during a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak should be carefully considered. Live turkey movements may pose a risk for disease spread. On the other hand, interruptions in scheduled movements can disrupt business continuity. The Secure Turkey Supply (STS) Plan was developed through an industry-government-academic collaboration to address business continuity concerns that might arise during a HPAI outbreak. STS stakeholders proposed outbreak response measure options that were evaluated through risk assessment. The developed approach relies on 1) diagnostic testing of two pooled samples of swabs taken from dead turkeys immediately before movement via the influenza A matrix gene real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test; 2) enhanced biosecurity measures in combination with a premovement isolation period (PMIP), restricting movement onto the premises for a few days before movement to slaughter; and 3) incorporation of a distance factor from known infected flocks such that exposure via local area spread is unlikely. Daily exposure likelihood estimates from spatial kernels from past HPAI outbreaks were coupled with simulation models of disease spread and active surveillance to evaluate active surveillance protocol options that differ with respect to the number of swabs per pooled sample and the timing of the tests in relation to movement. Simulation model results indicate that active surveillance testing, in combination with strict biosecurity, substantially increased HPAI virus detection probability. When distance from a known infected flock was considered, the overall combined likelihood of moving an infected, undetected turkey flock to slaughter was predicted to be lower at 3 and 5 km. The analysis of different active surveillance protocol options is designed to incorporate flexibility into HPAI emergency response plans. PMID:27309049

  16. Comparison of pathogenicities of H7 avian influenza viruses via intranasal and conjunctival inoculation in cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Shichinohe, Shintaro; Itoh, Yasushi; Nakayama, Misako; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Soda, Kosuke; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2016-06-01

    The outbreak of H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in China has attracted attention to H7 influenza virus infection in humans. Since we have shown that the pathogenicity of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses in macaques was almost the same as that in humans, we compared the pathogenicities of H7 avian influenza viruses in cynomolgus macaques via intranasal and conjunctival inoculation, which mimics natural infection in humans. H7N9 virus, as well as H7N7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, showed more efficient replication and higher pathogenicity in macaques than did H7N1 and H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. These results are different from pathogenicity in chickens as reported previously. Therefore, our results obtained in macaques help to estimate the pathogenicity of H7 avian influenza viruses in humans. PMID:26994587

  17. Detection of avian H7N9 influenza A viruses at the Yangtze Delta Region of China during early H7N9 outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yin; Huang, Xin-mei; Zhao, Dong-min; Liu, Yu-zhuo; He, Kong-wang; Liu, Yao-xing; Chen, Chang-hai; Long, Li-Ping; Xu, Yifei; Xie, Xing-xing; Han, Kai-kai; Liu, Xiao-yan; Yang, Jing; Zhang, You-Fa; Fan, Feng; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Since the first H7N9 human case in Shanghai, February 19, 2013, the emerging avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus has become an epizootic virus in China, posing a potential pandemic threat to public health. From April 2 to April 28, 2013, 422 oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from birds and environmental surfaces at five live poultry markets (LPMs) and 13 backyard poultry farms (BPFs) across three cities, Wuxi, Suzhou, and Nanjing, in the Yangtze Delta Region. A total of 22 isolates were recovered, and 6 were subtyped as H7N9, 9 as H9N2, 4 as H7N9/H9N2, and 3 un-subtyped influenza A viruses. Genomic sequences showed that the HA and NA genes of the H7N9 viruses were similar to those of the H7N9 human isolates as well as other avian origin H7N9 isolates in the region but the PB1, PA, NP, and MP genes of the sequenced viruses were, however, more diverse. Among the four H7N9/H9N2 mixed infections, three were from LPM whereas the other one from the ducks at one BPF, which were H7N9 negative in serological analyses. A survey of the bird trading records of the LPMs and BPFs indicates that trading was a likely route for virus transmission across these regions. Our results suggested that a better biosecurity and more effective vaccination should be implemented in backyard farms besides biosecurity management in LPMs. PMID:27309047

  18. Detection of Avian H7N9 Influenza A Viruses in the Yangtze Delta Region of China During Early H7N9 Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Huang, Xin-Mei; Zhao, Dong-Min; Liu, Yu-Zhuo; He, Kong-Wang; Liu, Yao-Xing; Chen, Chang-Hai; Long, Li-Ping; Xu, Yifei; Xie, Xing-Xing; Han, Kai-Kai; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Jing; Zhang, You-Fa; Fan, Feng; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Since the first H7N9 human case in Shanghai, February 19, 2013, the emerging avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus has become an epizootic virus in China, posing a potential pandemic threat to public health. From April 2 to April 28, 2013, some 422 oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from birds and environmental surfaces at five live poultry markets (LPMs) and 13 backyard poultry farms (BPFs) across three cities, Wuxi, Suzhou, and Nanjing, in the Yangtze Delta region. In total 22 isolates were recovered, and six were subtyped as H7N9, nine as H9N2, four as H7N9/H9N2, and three unsubtyped influenza A viruses. Genomic sequences showed that the HA and NA genes of the H7N9 viruses were similar to those of the H7N9 human isolates, as well as other avian-origin H7N9 isolates in the region, but the PB1, PA, NP, and MP genes of the sequenced viruses were more diverse. Among the four H7N9/H9N2 mixed infections, three were from LPM, whereas the other one was from the ducks at one BPF, which were H7N9 negative in serologic analyses. A survey of the bird trading records of the LPMs and BPFs indicates that trading was a likely route for virus transmission across these regions. Our results suggested that better biosecurity and more effective vaccination should be implemented in backyard farms, in addition to biosecurity management in LPMs. PMID:27309047

  19. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Button Past Newsletters Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People Language: English Español ...

  20. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  1. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    PubMed

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI. PMID:17494584

  2. Potency, efficacy, and antigenic mapping of H7 avian influenza virus vaccines against the 2012 H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the spring of 2012 an outbreak of H7N3 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in poultry in Mexico. Vaccination was implemented as a control measure along with increased biosecurity and surveillance. At that time there was no commercially available H7 AIV vaccine in North Ame...

  3. Vaccine protection of turkeys against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus with a recombinant HVT expressing the hemagglutinin gene of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in commercial poultry are a constant threat to animal health and food supplies. While vaccination can enhance protection and reduce the spread of disease, there is considerable evidence that the level of immunity required for protection varies...

  4. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy. PMID:18618061

  5. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus among Wild Birds in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Martin; Jambal, Losolmaa; Karesh, William B.; Fine, Amanda; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Dulam, Purevtseren; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Bolortuya, Purevsuren; Cardona, Carol J.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005–2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 2.3.2.1); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 2.3.2.1 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study. PMID:22984464

  6. Avian influenza in North and South America, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Senne, Dennis A

    2007-03-01

    Between 2002 and 2005, three outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in the Americas: one outbreak in Chile (H7N3) in 2002, one outbreak in the United States (H5N2) in 2004, and one outbreak in Canada (H7N3) in 2004. The outbreak in Chile was limited to a large broiler breeder operation and a nearby turkey flock and represented the first outbreak of HPAI in that country. The outbreak of HPAI in the United States occurred in Texas and was limited to one premise where chickens were raised for sale in nearby live-bird markets. The outbreak in Canada was the largest of the three HPAI outbreaks, involving 42 premises and approximately 17 million birds in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. In each of the HPAI outbreaks, the disease was successfully eradicated by depopulation of infected farms. All other reports of infections in poultry and isolations from wild bird species pertained to low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Animal Health Officials in Canada reported subtypes H3, H5, and H6 in domestic poultry, and H3, H5, H11, and H13 from imported and/or wild bird species. An LPAI H5N2 virus continues to circulate in Mexico and the Central American countries of Guatemala and El Salvador. Each country reported isolations of H5N2 virus from poultry and the large-scale use of inactivated and recombinant H5 vaccines in their AI control programs. In Colombia, AI was reported for the first time when antibodies to H9N2 were detected in chickens by routine surveillance. Intensive surveillance activities in the United States detected AI virus or specific antibodies to 13 of the 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H13) and all nine neuraminidase subtypes in live-bird markets, small holder farms, and in commercial poultry from 29 states. The largest outbreak of LPAI in the United States occurred in 2002, when 197 farms were depopulated (4.7 million birds) to control an outbreak in Virginia and surrounding states. The outbreak was caused by an LPAI H7N2 virus

  7. The prevention and control of avian influenza: The avian influenza coordinated agriculture project1

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, C.; Slemons, R.; Perez, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Avian Influenza Coordinated Agriculture Project (AICAP) entitled “Prevention and Control of Avian Influenza in the US” strives to be a significant point of reference for the poultry industry and the general public in matters related to the biology, risks associated with, and the methods used to prevent and control avian influenza. To this end, AICAP has been remarkably successful in generating research data, publications through an extensive network of university- and agency-based researchers, and extending findings to stakeholders. An overview of the highlights of AICAP research is presented. PMID:19276431

  8. Efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines for protection of poultry against the H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in China during 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent outbreak in China of avian influenza (AI) H7N9 in birds and humans underscores the interspecies movement of these viruses. Interestingly, the genetic composition of these H7N9 viruses appears to be solely of avian origin and of low pathogenicity in birds. Although few isolations of these ...

  9. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  10. Ten years on: generating innovative responses to avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Forster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, the number of recorded H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks has declined globally, but at mid-2012 the disease was enzootic in six countries in Asia and Africa, and sporadic outbreaks continue over a wide area. It is now accepted that it will take decades to eliminate the H5N1 virus in poultry and 'unconventional' response approaches have been called for. Drawing on increased understandings of the epizoosis over the last 10 years, this paper investigates what conditions are required if such innovative approaches are to be generated. It argues that addressing the spread and persistence of avian influenza is primarily a political matter, and if approaches appropriate for enzooticity are to be devised, the social, political, and economic dynamics of the disease and responses to it need to be identified and prioritised. A dominant response strategy focused on outbreak events, containment and eradication has obscured these important dynamics. If innovative 'unconventional' responses are to be generated, a wider range of perspectives and expertise needs to be engaged. This will result in political processes of negotiation, which the technically led, development-orientated institutions directing and funding the global response are ill-equipped to facilitate. PMID:24337506

  11. The Role of Environmental Transmission in Recurrent Avian Influenza Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Breban, Romulus; Drake, John M.; Stallknecht, David E.; Rohani, Pejman

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) persists in North American wild waterfowl, exhibiting major outbreaks every 2–4 years. Attempts to explain the patterns of periodicity and persistence using simple direct transmission models are unsuccessful. Motivated by empirical evidence, we examine the contribution of an overlooked AIV transmission mode: environmental transmission. It is known that infectious birds shed large concentrations of virions in the environment, where virions may persist for a long time. We thus propose that, in addition to direct fecal/oral transmission, birds may become infected by ingesting virions that have long persisted in the environment. We design a new host–pathogen model that combines within-season transmission dynamics, between-season migration and reproduction, and environmental variation. Analysis of the model yields three major results. First, environmental transmission provides a persistence mechanism within small communities where epidemics cannot be sustained by direct transmission only (i.e., communities smaller than the critical community size). Second, environmental transmission offers a parsimonious explanation of the 2–4 year periodicity of avian influenza epidemics. Third, very low levels of environmental transmission (i.e., few cases per year) are sufficient for avian influenza to persist in populations where it would otherwise vanish. PMID:19360126

  12. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H.S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  13. Case Series of Turkey Farms from the H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak in the United States During 2015.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David; Beam, Andrea; Wainwright, Sherri; McCluskey, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Between December 2014 and June 2015, an outbreak of H5N2 HPAI caused the largest and most expensive agriculture emergency in U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service history. The outbreak affected 21 states; 232 poultry farms (211 commercial and 21 backyard) were affected, and approximately 49.6 million birds were depopulated on poultry farms. The majority of affected farms were commercial turkey operations (n = 160). This report is a case series describing 104 H5N2 HPAI-affected turkey farms in Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin that had H5N2 HPAI virus detected between March 5 and June 1, 2015. The farm manager or farm personnel voluntarily completed an epidemiologic questionnaire administered by state and federal animal health officials. Equipment and vehicle sharing with other farms was common, particularly for feed trucks (77% of farms shared feed trucks with other farms), live haul loaders (90.4%), poult trailers (72.0%), and preloaders (80.7%). Many farms had water bodies in proximity to the farm, such as a pond (42.6%) or stream (21.8%). About one-third of farms (33.7%) reported seeing wild birds inside the turkey barns. Only 44.2% of farms reported that third-party biosecurity audits or assessments had been conducted. Because the newly introduced Asian H5N8 HPAI and two new HPAI viruses, H5N2 and H5N1, are now circulating in U.S. wild birds, primarily migratory waterfowl, a greater potential for reoccurrence exists with the spring and fall migratory seasons, representing higher risk periods for outbreaks of HPAI in commercial poultry farms in the future. Eliminating exposure to wild birds, especially waterfowl or environments contaminated by wild waterfowl, will reduce risk of reintroduction of H5N2 HPAI virus, and ensuring good on-farm biosecurity will help the poultry industry avoid introduction of influenza and lateral spread between farms. PMID:27309289

  14. Role of poultry in the H7N9 influenza outbreaks in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outbreaks of avian influenza A (H7N9) occurring in China in 2013 and 2014 have resulted in more than 370 human cases with a 30% fatality rate. Most of these infections are believed to result from exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments as the viruses have been detected in avia...

  15. Environmental role in influenza virus outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Sooryanarain, Harini; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2015-01-01

    The environmental drivers of influenza outbreaks are largely unknown. Despite more than 50 years of research, there are conflicting lines of evidence on the role of the environment in influenza A virus (IAV) survival, stability, and transmissibility. With the increasing and looming threat of pandemic influenza, it is important to understand these factors for early intervention and long-term control strategies. The factors that dictate the severity and spread of influenza would include the virus, natural and acquired hosts, virus-host interactions, environmental persistence, virus stability and transmissibility, and anthropogenic interventions. Virus persistence in different environments is subject to minor variations in temperature, humidity, pH, salinity, air pollution, and solar radiations. Seasonality of influenza is largely dictated by temperature and humidity, with cool-dry conditions enhancing IAV survival and transmissibility in temperate climates in high latitudes, whereas humid-rainy conditions favor outbreaks in low latitudes, as seen in tropical and subtropical zones. In mid-latitudes, semiannual outbreaks result from alternating cool-dry and humid-rainy conditions. The mechanism of virus survival in the cool-dry or humid-rainy conditions is largely determined by the presence of salts and proteins in the respiratory droplets. Social determinants of heath, including health equity, vaccine acceptance, and age-related illness, may play a role in influenza occurrence and spread. PMID:25422855

  16. Viral vectors for avian influenza vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to 2003, vaccines against avian influenza (AI) had limited, individual country or regional use in poultry. In late 2003, H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AI spread from China to multiple Southeast Asian countries, and to Europe during 2005 and Africa during 2006, challenging governments and all p...

  17. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  18. Avian influenza vaccines and therapies for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines have been used in avian influenza (AI) control programs to prevent, manage or eradicate AI from poultry and other birds. The best protection is produced from the humoral response against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. A variety of vaccines have been developed and tested under experimenta...

  19. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  20. Update on H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June of 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was identified as the cause of a severe disease outbreak in commercial laying chicken farms in Jalisco, Mexico. This region is responsible for approximately 55% of the eggs produced in Mexico, and infection with this virus seve...

  1. Inactivation of avian influenza virus in chicken litter as a potential method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full cleaning and disinfection of a poultry house after an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is expensive and labor intensive. An alternative to full house cleaning and disinfection is to inactivate the virus with high temperatures within the house. Litter in the house normally has a high virus...

  2. Global assessment of avian influenza control strategies with emphasis on vaccines and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) has infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. Field outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated flocks as the result of vaccine failure or improperly administration to the target species. Antigenic drift in field viruses h...

  3. Current status of avian influenza with emphasis on pathobiology, ecology, disease diagnosis and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-six epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in the world since 1959. The largest of these outbreaks has been the H5N1 HPAI which has caused problems in poultry and some wild birds in over 60 countries of Asia, Europe and Africa since beginning in 1996. The H5N1 H...

  4. Increased virulence in ducks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks has increased over time. These changes in virulence have been reported with viruses from countries with high population of domestic ducks. Since 2006, H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in Egypt have been occurring in po...

  5. Avian Influenza Biosecurity: Filling the Gaps with Non-Traditional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have become endemic, crippling trade and livelihood for many, and in rare cases, resulting in human fatalities. It is imperative that up-to-date education and training in accessible and interactive formats be available to key target audiences like poultry producers, backyard flock owners, and…

  6. The global avian influenza situation and assessment of effective control methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. For 2011-2012, 19 countries reported outbreaks of H5N1 in domestic poultry, wild birds or both. The majority of the outbr...

  7. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  8. H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...

  9. Global expansion of high pathogenicity avian influenza: implications on prevention and control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries during the past 18 years. The majority of the recent outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI have occurred in Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, in decreas...

  10. Global expansion of high pathogenicity avian influenza: implications on prevention and control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries during the past 18 years. The majority of the recent outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI have occurred in Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, in decreasi...

  11. THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SHORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen of poultry as it can cause severe economic losses through disease, including respiratory signs and mortality, and effects on trade. Avian influenza virus is classified as type A influenza, which is a member of the orthomyxoviridae family. Charact...

  12. Early responses of chicken lungs and spleens to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus using microarray analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the last few years, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have originated in Asia and spread through several Middle Eastern, African and European countries, resulting in one of the most serious animal disease incident in recent history. These outbreaks were characterized by t...

  13. Global avian influenza surveillance in wild birds: a strategy to capture viral diversity.

    PubMed

    Machalaba, Catherine C; Elwood, Sarah E; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B; Swayne, David E; Webby, Richard J; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter; Karesh, William B

    2015-04-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health-administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008-2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  14. Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Machalaba, Catherine C.; Elwood, Sarah E.; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M.; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B.; Swayne, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  15. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  16. Experience in control of avian influenza in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2007-01-01

    The outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Canada in 1966, the USA in 1984 and Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improved intensive poultry production systems. In the past 12 years (1994-2006), there have been four outbreaks of HPAI on the American continent: in Mexico in 1994 (H5N2), in Chile in 2002 (H7N3), in the USA in 2004 (H5N2) and in Canada in 2004 (H7N3). In all cases, the control and eradication measures were based on prompt detection, depopulation of infected farms and epidemiological contacts, increased biosecurity measures and control of the movement of live poultry and their products, by-products and infected material. In Mexico, in addition to the aforementioned measures, the use of massive vaccination allowed eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas of high-density commercial poultry. PMID:18416017

  17. Avian influenza: Current world situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus had its origin with animal influenza viruses, likely through a reassortment event between a North American swine influenza virus and another unidentified virus. The first turkey flock to be diagnosed with pH1N1 occurred in Chile, in August 2009. The flock suff...

  18. China's heath care system and avian influenza preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan A

    2008-02-15

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome crisis exposed serious deficiencies in China's public health system and willingness to report outbreaks of threats to public health. Consequently, China may be one of the weak links in global preparedness for avian influenza. China's rural health care system has been weakened by 20 years of privatization and fiscal decentralization. China plays a huge role in the global poultry industry, with a poultry population of 14 billion birds, 70%-80% of which are reared in backyard conditions. Although surveillance has been strengthened, obstacles to the timely reporting of disease outbreaks still exist. The weakened health care system prevents many sick people from seeking care at a health care facility, where reporting would originate. Inadequate compensation to farmers for culled birds leads to nonreporting, and local officials may be complicit if they suspect that reporting might lead to economic losses for their communities. At the local level, China's crisis-management ability and multisectoral coordination are weak. The poor quality of infection control in many rural facilities is a serious and well-documented problem. However, traditions of community political mobilization suggest that the potential for providing rural citizens with public health information is possible when mandated from the central government. Addressing these issues now and working on capacity issues, authority structures, accountability, and local reporting and control structures will benefit the control of a potential avian influenza outbreak, as well as inevitable outbreaks of other emerging infectious diseases in China's Pearl River Delta or in other densely populated locations of animal husbandry in China. PMID:18269328

  19. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  20. Avian Influenza Virus and DIVA Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Peaston, Anne; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is becoming a more acceptable option in the effort to eradicate avian influenza viruses (AIV) from commercial poultry, especially in countries where AIV is endemic. The main concern surrounding this option has been the inability of the conventional serological tests to differentiate antibodies produced due to vaccination from antibodies produced in response to virus infection. In attempts to address this issue, at least six strategies have been formulated, aiming to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), namely (i) sentinel birds, (ii) subunit vaccine, (iii) heterologous neuraminidase (NA), (iv) nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein, (v) matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e) protein, and (vi) haemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2) glycoprotein. This short review briefly discusses the strengths and limitations of these DIVA strategies, together with the feasibility and practicality of the options as a part of the surveillance program directed toward the eventual eradication of AIV from poultry in countries where highly pathogenic avian influenza is endemic. PMID:26900835

  1. Origin of the European avian-like swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Andi; Lange, Jeannette; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Groth, Marco; Platzer, Matthias; Kanrai, Pumaree; Pleschka, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph; Büttner, Mathias; Dürrwald, Ralf; Zell, Roland

    2014-11-01

    The avian-like swine influenza viruses emerged in 1979 in Belgium and Germany. Thereafter, they spread through many European swine-producing countries, replaced the circulating classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses, and became endemic. Serological and subsequent molecular data indicated an avian source, but details remained obscure due to a lack of relevant avian influenza virus sequence data. Here, the origin of the European avian-like swine influenza viruses was analysed using a collection of 16 European swine H1N1 influenza viruses sampled in 1979-1981 in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and France, as well as several contemporaneous avian influenza viruses of various serotypes. The phylogenetic trees suggested a triple reassortant with a unique genotype constellation. Time-resolved maximum clade credibility trees indicated times to the most recent common ancestors of 34-46 years (before 2008) depending on the RNA segment and the method of tree inference. PMID:25073465

  2. Evaluating the cell mediated immune response of avian species to avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measurement of avian cellular immunity is critical to understanding the role and regulation of avian lymphocytes following avian influenza virus infection. Although the ability to measure avian T cell responses has steadily increased over the last few years, few studies have examined the role o...

  3. The live bird market system and low-pathogenic avian influenza prevention in southern California.

    PubMed

    Yee, Karen S; Carpenter, Tim E; Mize, Sarah; Cardona, Carol J

    2008-06-01

    Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been associated with outbreaks of avian influenza (AI), there are some LBM systems where AI outbreaks are extremely rare events. The California LBMs have not had any detected avian influenza viruses (AIVs) since December 2005. Responses to a detailed questionnaire on the practices and characteristics of the participants in the California low-pathogenic (LP) AI control program have been described to characterize possible reasons for the lack of AI outbreaks in LBMs. Compliance with an LPAI control program that contains active surveillance, prevention, and rapid response measures by those involved in the LBM system, rendering services to dispose of carcasses, no wholesalers, and few third-party bird deliveries was associated with the lack of LPAIV circulating in the Southern California LBM system. PMID:18646469

  4. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses. PMID:26910902

  5. USGS role and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  6. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  7. Sequencing of avian influenza virus genomes following random amplification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) is a significant disease of birds and a threat to humans. Recently, as a result of the emergence of Asian H5N1 viruses capable of zoonotic spread, wild and domestic bird surveillance for Avian Influenza viruses (AIV) has increased worldwide, requiring the development of fast a...

  8. Pathogenesis and pathobiology of avian influenza virus infection in birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological features in chickens, AI viruses are categorized as, low (LP) and high pathogenicity (HP). Typically, LPAI (low pathogenicity avian influenza) viruses ...

  9. Avian influenza in Indonesia: Observations of disease detection in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, also known as highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (HPNAI), has spread throughout Indonesia since 2003. As of June 2007 there have been a total of 100 documented human cases in Indonesia, 80 of which have been fatal. Although efforts have be...

  10. Experimental vaccinations for avian influenza virus including DIVA approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  11. Healthcare Information Systems to Assess Influenza Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Figar, S.; Aliperti, V.; Salazar, E.; Otero, C.; Schpilberg, M.; Taliercio, V.; Otero, P.; de Quirós, F. González Bernaldo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a private HIS could have detected the influenza epidemic outbreaks earlier through changes in morbidity and mortality patterns. Methods Data Source included a health information system (HIS) from an academic tertiary health care center integrating administrative and clinical applications. It used a local interface terminology server which provides support through data autocoding of clinical documentation. Specific data subsets were created to compare the burden of influenza during the epidemiological week (EW) 21 to 26 for years 2007 to 2009 among 150,000 Health Maintenance Organization members in Argentina. The threshold for identifying an epidemic was considered met when the weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rate exceeded 200 per 100,000 visits. Case fatality rates and mortality rates of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) from 2007 to 2009 were retrospectively compared. Case fatality rates and mortality rates for A/H1N1 influenza 2009 also were estimated. Results The HIS detected the outbreak in EW 23 while the government Ministry of Health (MoH) gave a national epidemic alert during EW 25. The number of visits for ILI increased more than fourfold when comparing 2009 to the period 2007-2008. The SARI mortality rate in 2009 was higher than in 2008 (RR 2.8; 95%CI 1.18-6.63) and similar to that of 2007 (RR 1.05; 95%CI 0.56-1.49). 2009 was the first year with mortalities younger than 65 years attributable to SARI. The estimated A/H1N1 case fatality rate for SARI was 6.2% (95%CI 2.5 to 15.5) and A/H1N1 mortality rate was 6 per 100,000 (95%CI 0 to 11.6). Conclusion Our HIS detected the outbreak two weeks before than the MoH gave a national alert. The information system was useful in assessing morbidity and mortality during the 2009 influenza epidemic H1N1 outbreak suggesting that with a private-public integration a more real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system could be implemented. PMID:23616861

  12. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    PubMed Central

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  13. New USDA licensed avian influenza vaccine (rHVT-AI) for protection against H5 avian influenza and usage discussion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a new avian influenza vaccine was licensed by USDA for use in the United States for protection of commercial poultry. The vaccine is a recombinant herpes virus of turkeys expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5 subtype avian influenza virus belonging to the 2.2 clade of the H5N1 highly ...

  14. Ecology of avian influenza virus in birds.

    PubMed

    Causey, Douglas; Edwards, Scott V

    2008-02-15

    Avian influenza A virus (an orthomyxovirus) is a zoonotic pathogen with a natural reservoir entirely in birds. The influenza virus genome is an 8-segment single-stranded RNA with high potential for in situ recombination. Two segments code for the hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) antigens used for host-cell entry. At present, 16 H and 9 N subtypes are known, for a total of 144 possible different influenza subtypes, each with potentially different host susceptibility. With >10,000 species of birds found in nearly every terrestrial and aquatic habitat, there are few places on earth where birds cannot be found. The avian immune system differs from that of humans in several important features, including asynchronous B and T lymphocyte systems and a polymorphic multigene immune complex, but little is known about the immunogenetics of pathogenic response. Postbreeding dispersal and migration and a naturally high degree of environmental vagility mean that wild birds have the potential to be vectors that transmit highly pathogenic variants great distances from the original sources of infection. PMID:18269325

  15. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004

    PubMed Central

    Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Songserm, Thaweesak; Chaisingh, Arunee; Hoonsuwan, Wirongrong; Buranathai, Chantanee; Parakamawongsa, Tippawon; Premashthira, Sith; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Gilbert, Marius; Nielen, Mirjam; Stegeman, Arjan

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first confirmed in poultry and humans in Thailand. Control measures, e.g., culling poultry flocks, restricting poultry movement, and improving hygiene, were implemented. Poultry populations in 1,417 villages in 60 of 76 provinces were affected in 2004. A total of 83% of infected flocks confirmed by laboratories were backyard chickens (56%) or ducks (27%). Outbreaks were concentrated in the Central, the southern part of the Northern, and Eastern Regions of Thailand, which are wetlands, water reservoirs, and dense poultry areas. More than 62 million birds were either killed by HPAI viruses or culled. H5N1 virus from poultry caused 17 human cases and 12 deaths in Thailand; a number of domestic cats, captive tigers, and leopards also died of the H5N1 virus. In 2005, the epidemic is ongoing in Thailand. PMID:16318716

  16. Free-grazing Ducks and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Parakamawongsa, Tippawon; Premashthira, Sith; Tiensin, Thanawat; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Wagner, Hans; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outbreaks in relation to poultry, land use, and other anthropogenic variables from the start of the second epidemic wave (July 2004–May 2005). Results demonstrate a strong association between H5N1 virus in Thailand and abundance of free-grazing ducks and, to a lesser extent, native chickens, cocks, wetlands, and humans. Wetlands used for double-crop rice production, where free-grazing duck feed year round in rice paddies, appear to be a critical factor in HPAI persistence and spread. This finding could be important for other duck-producing regions in eastern and southeastern Asian countries affected by HPAI. PMID:16494747

  17. Generation of Influenza Virus from Avian Cells Infected by Salmonella Carrying the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Xin, Wei; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Domestic poultry serve as intermediates for transmission of influenza A virus from the wild aquatic bird reservoir to humans, resulting in influenza outbreaks in poultry and potential epidemics/pandemics among human beings. To combat emerging avian influenza virus, an inexpensive, heat-stable, and orally administered influenza vaccine would be useful to vaccinate large commercial poultry flocks and even migratory birds. Our hypothesized vaccine is a recombinant attenuated bacterial strain able to mediate production of attenuated influenza virus in vivo to induce protective immunity against influenza. Here we report the feasibility and technical limitations toward such an ideal vaccine based on our exploratory study. Five 8-unit plasmids carrying a chloramphenicol resistance gene or free of an antibiotic resistance marker were constructed. Influenza virus was successfully generated in avian cells transfected by each of the plasmids. The Salmonella carrier was engineered to allow stable maintenance and conditional release of the 8-unit plasmid into the avian cells for recovery of influenza virus. Influenza A virus up to 107 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50)/ml were recovered from 11 out of 26 co-cultures of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells upon infection by the recombinant Salmonella carrying the 8-unit plasmid. Our data prove that a bacterial carrier can mediate generation of influenza virus by delivering its DNA cargoes into permissive host cells. Although we have made progress in developing this Salmonella influenza virus vaccine delivery system, further improvements are necessary to achieve efficient virus production, especially in vivo. PMID:25742162

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Influenza Virus H9N2 Associated with a Fatal Outbreak among Chickens in Dubai.

    PubMed

    Lau, Siu-Ying; Joseph, Sunitha; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chen, Honglin; Patteril, Nissy Annie Gerogy; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Muhammed, Rubeena; Baskar, Vijay; Lau, Susanna K P; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of influenza virus H9N2 associated with a fatal outbreak among chickens in Dubai. All segments are clustered with avian H9N2 viruses circulating in the Middle East but distinct from those in southeast Asia. It is not a reassortant virus or transmitted from other regions. PMID:27540055

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Influenza Virus H9N2 Associated with a Fatal Outbreak among Chickens in Dubai

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Siu-Ying; Joseph, Sunitha; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chen, Honglin; Patteril, Nissy Annie Gerogy; Elizabeth, Shyna K.; Muhammed, Rubeena; Baskar, Vijay; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Kinne, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of influenza virus H9N2 associated with a fatal outbreak among chickens in Dubai. All segments are clustered with avian H9N2 viruses circulating in the Middle East but distinct from those in southeast Asia. It is not a reassortant virus or transmitted from other regions. PMID:27540055

  20. Avian influenza vaccination in North America: strategies and difficulties.

    PubMed

    Suarez, D L; Lee, C W; Swayne, D E

    2006-01-01

    Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks when used as part of a comprehensive control programme that includes quarantines, animal movement controls, increased biosecurity, enhanced surveillance, and education. In North America both whole virus killed adjuvanted vaccines and fowlpox recombinant vaccines have been used to aid in the control of AI. The fowlpox recombinant vaccine is licensed in several countries including the United States (U.S.), but it has only been used in the field in Mexico and some Central American countries. The U.S., however, has considerable experience with the use of killed vaccines, primarily in turkeys. In the state of Minnesota in the 1980s and early 1990s, outbreaks of AI in range-reared turkeys were common, and vaccines were used successfully as part of a controlled marketing programme. More recently, several large layer flocks in Connecticut were vaccinated as an alternative to immediate depopulation after an H7N2 low pathogenic AI outbreak. The vaccinated flocks were intensively monitored for virus shed using sentinel birds, dead bird testing, and eventually some serological surveillance using a neuraminidase DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animal) approach. With these successes, vaccination is being considered as a valuable tool in comprehensive AI control strategies. Consideration for matching the vaccine to the field strain should also be considered to provide optimal protection including reduced shedding of virus. Antigenic drift of AI viruses after extended vaccination programmes has been observed in chickens, similar to what has been observed with human influenza viruses. Therefore, periodical evaluation of the vaccine to the field strain is necessary to maintain good protection from clinical disease and virus shedding. PMID:16447502

  1. The Transmissibility of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Poultry in Industrialised Countries

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Clarke, Paul; Ghani, Azra C.

    2007-01-01

    Background With the increased occurrence of outbreaks of H5N1 worldwide there is concern that the virus could enter commercial poultry farms with severe economic consequences. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyse data from four recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in commercial poultry to estimate the farm-to-farm reproductive number for HPAI. The reproductive number is a key measure of the transmissibility of HPAI at the farm level because it can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures. In these outbreaks the mean farm-to-farm reproductive number prior to controls ranged from 1.1 to 2.4, with the maximum farm-based reproductive number in the range 2.2 to 3.2. Enhanced bio-security, movement restrictions and prompt isolation of the infected farms in all four outbreaks substantially reduced the reproductive number, but it remained close to the threshold value 1 necessary to ensure the disease will be eradicated. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that depending on the particular situation in which an outbreak of avian influenza occurs, current controls might not be enough to eradicate the disease, and therefore a close monitoring of the outbreak is required. The method we used for estimating the reproductive number is straightforward to implement and can be used in real-time. It therefore can be a useful tool to inform policy decisions. PMID:17406673

  2. Evaluation of primer and probe mismatches in sensitivity of select RRT-PCR tests for avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent outbreak of pH1N1 in animals highlighted an imperfection of the matrix real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) that has become the primary screening test for avian and swine influenza viruses. Four mismatches in one primer resulted in an important loss of sens...

  3. Changing face of avian influenza ecology and its control: From wild birds to poultry and back again

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in the world since 1959. The largest of these outbreaks has been the H5N1 HPAI which has caused problems in poultry and some wild birds in over 57 countries of Asia, Europe and Africa since beginning in 1996. The H5N...

  4. Efficacy of commercial vaccines in chickens and ducks against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and have spread to other regions of the world. Though attempts at eradication of the viruses during various outbreaks have been successful for short periods of time, new strains of H5N1 viruses continue to emerge...

  5. Why are avian influenza viruses emerging and what tools are needed to prevent and control the infection and disease?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred in the world since 1959. The largest of these outbreaks has been the H5N1 HPAI which has caused problems in poultry and other birds in 55 countries of Asia, Europe, and Africa since 1996. These viruses have also caus...

  6. Influenza outbreaks during World Youth Day 2008 mass gathering.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Christopher C; Foo, Hong; van Hal, Sebastiaan J; Hurt, Aeron C; Barr, Ian G; McPhie, Kenneth; Armstrong, Paul K; Rawlinson, William D; Sheppeard, Vicky; Conaty, Stephen; Staff, Michael; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2010-05-01

    Influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings have been rarely described, and detailed virologic assessment is lacking. An influenza outbreak occurred during World Youth Day in Sydney, Australia, July 2008 (WYD2008). We assessed epidemiologic data and respiratory samples collected from attendees who sought treatment for influenza-like illness at emergency clinics in Sydney during this outbreak. Isolated influenza viruses were compared with seasonal influenza viruses from the 2008 influenza season. From 100 infected attendees, numerous strains were identified: oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) viruses, oseltamivir-sensitive influenza A (H1N1) viruses, influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and strains from both influenza B lineages (B/Florida/4/2006-like and B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like). Novel viruses were introduced, and pre-WYD2008 seasonal viruses were amplified. Viruses isolated at mass gatherings can have substantial, complex, and unpredictable effects on community influenza activity. Greater flexibility by public health authorities and hospitals is required to appropriately manage and contain these outbreaks. PMID:20409371

  7. H5N1 Outbreaks and Enzootic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Malik; Chen, Honglin; Guan, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Ongoing outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in migratory waterfowl, domestic poultry, and humans in Asia during the summer of 2005 present a continuing, protean pandemic threat. We review the zoonotic source of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses and their genesis from their natural reservoirs. The acquisition of novel traits, including lethality to waterfowl, ferrets, felids, and humans, indicates an expanding host range. The natural selection of nonpathogenic viruses from heterogeneous subpopulations cocirculating in ducks contributes to the spread of H5N1 in Asia. Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic poultry back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. The spread of H5N1 and its likely reintroduction to domestic poultry increase the need for good agricultural vaccines. In fact, the root cause of the continuing H5N1 pandemic threat may be the way the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses is masked by cocirculating influenza viruses or bad agricultural vaccines. PMID:16494709

  8. Evidence of previous avian influenza infection among US turkey workers.

    PubMed

    Kayali, G; Ortiz, E J; Chorazy, M L; Gray, G C

    2010-06-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic is looming, with new cases of sporadic avian influenza infections in man frequently reported. Exposure to diseased poultry is a leading risk factor for these infections. In this study, we used logistic regression to investigate serological evidence of previous infection with avian influenza subtypes H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, and H11 among 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys in the US Midwest and 82 unexposed controls. Our results indicate that farmers practising backyard, organic or free-ranging turkey production methods are at an increased risk of infection with avian influenza. Among these farmers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for elevated microneutralization assay titres against avian H4, H5, H6, H9, and H10 influenza strains ranged between 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-12.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 2.0-115.2) when compared to non-exposed controls. The measured ORs were adjusted for antibody titres against human influenza viruses and other exposure variables. These data suggest that sometime in their lives, the workers had been exposed to low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. These findings support calls for inclusion of agricultural workers in priority groups in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts. These data further support increasing surveillance and other preparedness efforts to include not only confinement poultry facilities, but more importantly, also small scale farms. PMID:19486492

  9. Survey for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza from Poultry in Two Northeastern States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Ibrahim Waziri; Abdu, Paul Ayuba; Sackey, Anthony Kojo Bedu; Oladele, Sunday Blessing

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major global zoonosis. It has a complex ecological distribution with almost unpredictable epidemiological features thus placing it topmost in the World Organization for Animal Health list A poultry diseases. Structured questionnaire survey of poultry farmer's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in two Nigerian states revealed the presence of risk farming practices that may enable avian influenza high chance of introduction/reintroduction. There existed significant statistical association between farmer's educational levels and AI awareness and zoonotic awareness (P < 0.005). Poultry rearing of multiage and species (81%), multiple sources of stock (62%), inadequate dead-bird disposal (71%), and access to live bird markets (LBMs) (62%) constituted major biosecurity threats in these poultry farming communities. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test detected antibodies against H5 avian influenza (AI) in 8 of the 400 sera samples; rapid antigen detection test kit (RADTK) was negative for all the 400 cloaca and trachea swabs. These results and other poultry diseases similar to AI observed in this study could invariably affect avian influenza early detection, reporting, and control. We recommend strong policy initiatives towards poultry farmers' attitudinal change and increasing efforts on awareness of the implications of future HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria. PMID:23936731

  10. Within-host variation of avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Munir; Xiao, Hiaxia; Baillie, Greg; Warry, Andrew; Essen, Steve C.; Londt, Brandon; Brookes, Sharon M.; Brown, Ian H.; McCauley, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence and spread of H5N1 avian influenza viruses from Asia through to Europe and Africa pose a significant animal disease problem and have raised concerns that the virus may pose a pandemic threat to humans. The epizootological factors that have influenced the wide distribution of the virus are complex, and the variety of viruses currently circulating reflects these factors. Sequence analysis of the virus genes sheds light on the H5N1 virus evolution during its emergence and spread, but the degree of virus variation at the level of an individual infected bird has been described in only a few studies. Here, we describe some results of a study in which turkeys, ducks and chickens were infected with either one of two H5N1 or one of three H7N1 viruses, and the degree of sequence variation within an individual infected avian host was examined. We developed ‘deep amplicon’ sequence analysis for this work, and the methods and results provide a background framework for application to disease outbreaks in the field. PMID:19687042

  11. Application of Species Distribution Modeling for Avian Influenza surveillance in the United States considering the North America Migratory Flyways.

    PubMed

    Belkhiria, Jaber; Alkhamis, Moh A; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has recently (2014-2015) re-emerged in the United States (US) causing the largest outbreak in US history with 232 outbreaks and an estimated economic impact of $950 million. This study proposes to use suitability maps for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) to identify areas at high risk for HPAI outbreaks. LPAI suitability maps were based on wild bird demographics, LPAI surveillance, and poultry density in combination with environmental, climatic, and socio-economic risk factors. Species distribution modeling was used to produce high-resolution (cell size: 500m x 500m) maps for Avian Influenza (AI) suitability in each of the four North American migratory flyways (NAMF). Results reveal that AI suitability is heterogeneously distributed throughout the US with higher suitability in specific zones of the Midwest and coastal areas. The resultant suitability maps adequately predicted most of the HPAI outbreak areas during the 2014-2015 epidemic in the US (i.e. 89% of HPAI outbreaks were located in areas identified as highly suitable for LPAI). Results are potentially useful for poultry producers and stakeholders in designing risk-based surveillance, outreach and intervention strategies to better prevent and control future HPAI outbreaks in the US. PMID:27624404

  12. Control strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Lubroth, J

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive programmes for the prevention, detection and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) require a national dimension and relevant national legislation in which veterinary services can conduct surveillance, competent diagnosis and rapid response. Avian influenza was controlled and prevented by vaccination long before the current H5N1 crisis. The use of vaccine cannot be separated from other essential elements of a vaccination campaign, which include education in poultry production practices, such as hygiene, all in-all out production concepts, separation of species, biosecurity (bio-exclusion to keep the disease out and biocontainment to keep the disease from spreading once suspected or detected), competence in giving the vaccine and the role of vaccination teams, post-vaccination monitoring to ensure efficacy and to detect the circulation of wild-type virus, surveillance and buffer zones in outbreak areas, and performance indicators to determine when vaccination can cease. Reporting of disease can be improved through well-structured, adequately financed veterinary services and also by fair compensation for producers who suffer financial loss. A rapid response to suspected cases of HPAI should be ensured in simulation exercises involving various sectors of the food production and marketing chain, policy-makers, official veterinary structures and other government personnel. As for other transboundary animal diseases, national approaches must be part of a regional strategy and regional networks for cooperation and information sharing, which in turn reflect global policies and international standards, such as the quality of vaccines, reporting obligations, humane interventions, cleaning and disinfection methods, restocking times, monitoring and safe trade. PMID:18411931

  13. Rapid diagnostics for avian influenza -- Advances in testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of tools are available for the diagnosis of avian influenza virus. They can be generally divided into the serologic diagnostic tests and direct virus detection tests. The serologic tests are important primarily for active surveillance to assure our poultry flocks are free of avian influe...

  14. Distribution and dynamics of risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Guo, Z. W.; Bridge, E. S.; Li, Y. M.; Xiao, X. M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Within China’s Poyang Lake region, close interactions between wild migratory birds and domestic poultry are common and provide an opportunity for the transmission and subsequent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. We overlaid a series of ecological factors associated with HPAI to map the risk of HPAI in relation to natural and anthropogenic variables, and we identified two hotspots for potential HPAI outbreaks in the Poyang Lake region as well as three corridors connecting the two hotspot areas. In hotspot I, there is potential for migratory birds to bring new avian influenza (AI) strains that can reassort with existing strains to form new AI viruses. Hotspot II features high-density poultry production where outbreaks of endemic AI viruses are likely. The three communication corridors that link the two hotspots further promote HPAI H5N1 transmission and outbreaks and lead to the persistence of AI viruses in the Poyang Lake region. We speculate that the region’s unevenly distributed poultry supply-and-demand system might be a key factor inducing HPAI H5N1 transmission and outbreaks in the Poyang Lake region. PMID:23398949

  15. Distribution and dynamics of risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Guo, Z W; Bridge, E S; Li, Y M; Xiao, X M

    2013-11-01

    Within China's Poyang Lake region, close interactions between wild migratory birds and domestic poultry are common and provide an opportunity for the transmission and subsequent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. We overlaid a series of ecological factors associated with HPAI to map the risk of HPAI in relation to natural and anthropogenic variables, and we identified two hotspots for potential HPAI outbreaks in the Poyang Lake region as well as three corridors connecting the two hotspot areas. In hotspot I, there is potential for migratory birds to bring new avian influenza (AI) strains that can reassort with existing strains to form new AI viruses. Hotspot II features high-density poultry production where outbreaks of endemic AI viruses are likely. The three communication corridors that link the two hotspots further promote HPAI H5N1 transmission and outbreaks and lead to the persistence of AI viruses in the Poyang Lake region. We speculate that the region's unevenly distributed poultry supply-and-demand system might be a key factor inducing HPAI H5N1 transmission and outbreaks in the Poyang Lake region. PMID:23398949

  16. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  17. An avian-only Filippov model incorporating culling of both susceptible and infected birds in combating avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Chong, Nyuk Sian; Dionne, Benoit; Smith, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Depopulation of birds has always been an effective method not only to control the transmission of avian influenza in bird populations but also to eliminate influenza viruses. We introduce a Filippov avian-only model with culling of susceptible and/or infected birds. For each susceptible threshold level [Formula: see text], we derive the phase portrait for the dynamical system as we vary the infected threshold level [Formula: see text], focusing on the existence of endemic states; the endemic states are represented by real equilibria, pseudoequilibria and pseudo-attractors. We show generically that all solutions of this model will approach one of the endemic states. Our results suggest that the spread of avian influenza in bird populations is tolerable if the trajectories converge to the equilibrium point that lies in the region below the threshold level [Formula: see text] or if they converge to one of the pseudoequilibria or a pseudo-attractor on the surface of discontinuity. However, we have to cull birds whenever the solution of this model converges to an equilibrium point that lies in the region above the threshold level [Formula: see text] in order to control the outbreak. Hence a good threshold policy is required to combat bird flu successfully and to prevent overkilling birds. PMID:26865385

  18. Characterization of a novel highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus isolated from a duck in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiaorong; Xu, Lihua; Jin, Changzhong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2014-12-01

    During surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live-poultry markets (LPMs) in eastern China in 2013, one H5N2 AIV was isolated from a duck. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the hemagglutinin of this strain belongs to clade 2.3.4 and received its genes from H5, H3 and H6 AIVs of poultry in China. The virulence of this strain was examined in chickens and mice, and it was found to be highly pathogenic in chickens but demonstrated moderate pathogenicity in mice. These results suggest that active surveillance of AIVs in LPMs should be used in an early warning system for avian influenza outbreaks. PMID:25091744

  19. Avian influenza: Public health and food safety concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) is an asymptomatic infection or disease caused by Influenza virus A. AI viruses are species specific and rarely crosses the species barrier. However subtypes H5, H7 and H9 have caused sporadic infections in humans mostly as a result of direct contact with infected birds. H5N1 hi...

  20. Homo- and Heterosubtypic Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure on H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Taiana P.; Brown, Justin D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Swayne, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus has been shown to modulate the outcome of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in multiple domestic avian species, but few studies have addressed this effect in wild birds. In this study, the effect of pre-exposure to homosubtypic (homologous hemagglutinin) and heterosubtypic (heterologous hemagglutinin) low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses on the outcome of a H5N1 HPAI virus infection in wood ducks (Aix sponsa) was evaluated. Pre-exposure of wood ducks to different LPAI viruses did not prevent infection with H5N1 HPAI virus, but did increase survival associated with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. The magnitude of this effect on the outcome of the H5N1 HPAI virus infection varied between different LPAI viruses, and was associated both with efficiency of LPAI viral replication in wood ducks and the development of a detectable humoral immune response. These observations suggest that in naturally occurring outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI, birds with pre-existing immunity to homologous hemagglutinin or neuraminidase subtypes of AI virus may either survive H5N1 HPAI virus infection or live longer than naïve birds and, consequently, could pose a greater risk for contributing to viral transmission and dissemination. The mechanisms responsible for this protection and/or the duration of this immunity remain unknown. The results of this study are important for surveillance efforts and help clarify epidemiological data from outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI virus in wild bird populations. PMID:21253608

  1. Avian influenza: Myth or mass murder?

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI) is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic. PMID:18159544

  2. Environmental and Demographic Determinants of Avian Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl across the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Miller, Ryan S.; Pedersen, Kerri; Lutman, Mark W.; Swafford, Seth R.; Riggs, Philip D.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of avian influenza in North American poultry have been linked to wild waterfowl. A first step towards understanding where and when avian influenza viruses might emerge from North American waterfowl is to identify environmental and demographic determinants of infection in their populations. Laboratory studies indicate water temperature as one determinant of environmental viral persistence and we explored this hypothesis at the landscape scale. We also hypothesized that the interval apparent prevalence in ducks within a local watershed during the overwintering season would influence infection probabilities during the following breeding season within the same local watershed. Using avian influenza virus surveillance data collected from 19,965 wild waterfowl across the contiguous United States between October 2006 and September 2009 We fit Logistic regression models relating the infection status of individual birds sampled on their breeding grounds to demographic characteristics, temperature, and interval apparent prevalence during the preceding overwintering season at the local watershed scale. We found strong support for sex, age, and species differences in the probability an individual duck tested positive for avian influenza virus. In addition, we found that for every seven days the local minimum temperature fell below zero, the chance an individual would test positive for avian influenza virus increased by 5.9 percent. We also found a twelve percent increase in the chance an individual would test positive during the breeding season for every ten percent increase in the interval apparent prevalence during the prior overwintering season. These results suggest that viral deposition in water and sub-freezing temperatures during the overwintering season may act as determinants of individual level infection risk during the subsequent breeding season. Our findings have implications for future surveillance activities in waterfowl and domestic poultry populations

  3. A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Chung-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful for virological and ecological advancements in global avian influenza research. PMID:25057497

  4. Adenovirus as a carrier for the development of influenza virus-free avian influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tang, De-chu C; Zhang, Jianfeng; Toro, Haroldo; Shi, Zhongkai; Van Kampen, Kent R

    2009-01-01

    A long-sought goal during the battle against avian influenza is to develop a new generation of vaccines capable of mass immunizing humans as well as poultry (the major source of avian influenza for human infections) in a timely manner. Although administration of the currently licensed influenza vaccine is effective in eliciting protective immunity against seasonal influenza, this approach is associated with a number of insurmountable problems for preventing an avian influenza pandemic. Many of the hurdles may be eliminated by developing new avian influenza vaccines that do not require the propagation of an influenza virus during vaccine production. Replication-competent adenovirus-free adenovirus vectors hold promise as a carrier for influenza virus-free avian influenza vaccines owing to their safety profile and rapid manufacture using cultured suspension cells in a serum-free medium. Simple and efficient mass-immunization protocols, including nasal spray for people and automated in ovo vaccination for poultry, convey another advantage for this class of vaccines. In contrast to parenteral injection of adenovirus vector, the potency of adenovirus-vectored nasal vaccine is not appreciably interfered by pre-existing immunity to adenovirus. PMID:19348562

  5. Performance of rapid influenza diagnostic testing in outbreak settings.

    PubMed

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; King, Eddie-Chong; Blair, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2014-12-01

    Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) may be useful during institutional respiratory disease outbreaks to identify influenza and enable antivirals to be rapidly administered to patients and for the prophylactic treatment of those exposed to the virus but not yet symptomatic. The performance of RIDTs at the outbreak level is not well documented in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of RIDTs in comparison with that of real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-PCR in the context of institutional respiratory disease outbreaks. This study included outbreak-related respiratory specimens tested for influenza virus at Public Health Ontario Laboratories by both RIDT and rRT-PCR, from 1 September 2010 to 30 April 2013. At the outbreak level, performance testing of RIDTs compared to rRT-PCR for the detection of any influenza virus type demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 76.5%, a specificity of 99.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.5%, and a negative predictive value of 85.3%. Because of their high specificity and PPV, even outside of the influenza season, RIDTs can play a role in screening for influenza virus in outbreaks and instituting antiviral therapy in a timely manner when positive. RIDTs can also be useful in remote settings where molecular virology testing is not easily accessible. Suboptimal sensitivity of RIDTs can be addressed by the use of molecular testing. PMID:25320225

  6. Performance of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Testing in Outbreak Settings

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Anne-Luise; King, Eddie-Chong; Blair, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) may be useful during institutional respiratory disease outbreaks to identify influenza and enable antivirals to be rapidly administered to patients and for the prophylactic treatment of those exposed to the virus but not yet symptomatic. The performance of RIDTs at the outbreak level is not well documented in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of RIDTs in comparison with that of real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-PCR in the context of institutional respiratory disease outbreaks. This study included outbreak-related respiratory specimens tested for influenza virus at Public Health Ontario Laboratories by both RIDT and rRT-PCR, from 1 September 2010 to 30 April 2013. At the outbreak level, performance testing of RIDTs compared to rRT-PCR for the detection of any influenza virus type demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 76.5%, a specificity of 99.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.5%, and a negative predictive value of 85.3%. Because of their high specificity and PPV, even outside of the influenza season, RIDTs can play a role in screening for influenza virus in outbreaks and instituting antiviral therapy in a timely manner when positive. RIDTs can also be useful in remote settings where molecular virology testing is not easily accessible. Suboptimal sensitivity of RIDTs can be addressed by the use of molecular testing. PMID:25320225

  7. Occurrence and Reassortment of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Viruses Derived from Coinfected Birds in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Fan, Hang; Raghwani, Jayna; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Li, Jing; Pybus, Oliver G.; Yao, Hong-Wu; Wo, Ying; Liu, Kun; An, Xiao-Ping; Pei, Guang-Qian; Li, Hao; Wang, Hong-Yu; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Jiang, Tao; Ma, Mai-Juan; Xia, Xian; Dong, Yan-De; Zhao, Tong-Yan; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Yang, Yin-Hui; Guan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the course of two waves of infection, H7N9 avian influenza A virus has caused 436 human infections and claimed 170 lives in China as of July 2014. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of H7N9, we surveyed avian influenza viruses in poultry in Jiangsu province within the outbreak epicenter. We found frequent occurrence of H7N9/H9N2 coinfection in chickens. Molecular clock phylogenetic analysis confirms coinfection by H7N9/H9N2 viruses and also reveals that the identity of the H7N9 outbreak lineage is confounded by ongoing reassortment between outbreak viruses and diverse H9N2 viruses in domestic birds. Experimental inoculation of a coinfected sample in cell culture yielded two reassortant H7N9 strains with polymerase segments from the original H9N2 strain. Ongoing reassortment between the H7N9 outbreak lineage and diverse H9N2 viruses may generate new strains with the potential to infect humans, highlighting the need for continued viral surveillance in poultry and humans. IMPORTANCE We found frequent occurrence of H7N9/H9N2 coinfection in chickens. The H7N9 outbreak lineage is confounded by ongoing reassortment between H7N9 and H9N2 viruses. The importance of H9N2 viruses as the source of novel avian influenza virus infections in humans requires continuous attention. PMID:25210174

  8. Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Franson, J. Christian; Derksen, Dirk V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity. Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

  9. Avian influenza viruses and avian paramyxoviruses in wintering and breeding waterfowl populations in North Carolina, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although wild ducks are recognized reservoirs for avian influenza (AIV) and avian paramyxoviruses (APMV), information related to the prevalence of these viruses in breeding and migratory duck populations on North American wintering grounds is limited. Wintering (n=2,889) and resident breeding (n=524...

  10. Susceptibility of avian species to north american H13 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemag...

  11. Comparative susceptibility of avian species to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H13 subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemag...

  12. Lack of chicken adaptation of newly emergent Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in the U.S. is consistent with restricted poultry outbreaks in the Pacific flyway during 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L

    2016-07-01

    In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, initially affecting mainly wild birds and few backyard and commercial poultry premises. To better model the outbreak, the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics of representative Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses detected early in the North American outbreak were investigated in chickens. High mean chicken infectious doses and lack of seroconversion in survivors indicated the viruses were poorly chicken adapted. Pathobiological features were consistent with HPAI virus infection, although the delayed appearance of lesions, longer mean death times, and reduced replication in endothelial cells differed from features of most other Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses. Although these initial U.S. H5 HPAI viruses had reduced adaptation and transmissibility in chickens, multi-generational passage in poultry could generate poultry adapted viruses with higher infectivity and transmissibility. PMID:27110710

  13. Living with avian FLU--Persistence of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Njabo, Kevin Yana; Zanontian, Linda; Sheta, Basma N; Samy, Ahmed; Galal, Shereen; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-05-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cross J-function to investigate the degree and spatial temporal nature of the clustering between sightings of infected birds of different types, and the risk of infection associated with direct contact with infected birds. While we found no infection in wild birds, outbreaks occurred year round between 2009 and 2012, with a positive interaction between chickens and ducks. The disease was more present in the years 2010 and 2011 coinciding with the political unrest in the country. Egypt thus continues to experience endemic outbreaks of avian influenza HPAIV in poultry and an increased potential risk of infection to other species including humans. With the current trends, the elimination of the HPAIV infection is highly unlikely without a complete revamp of current policies. The application of spatial statistics techniques to these types of data may help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and may subsequently allow practitioners to explore possible preventive solutions. PMID:27066713

  14. Susceptibility and Status of Avian Influenza in Ostriches.

    PubMed

    Abolnik, Celia; Olivier, Adriaan; Reynolds, Chevonne; Henry, Dominic; Cumming, Graeme; Rauff, Dionne; Romito, Marco; Petty, Deryn; Falch, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    The extensive nature of ostrich farming production systems bears the continual risk of point introductions of avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild birds, but immune status, management, population density, and other causes of stress in ostriches are the ultimate determinants of the severity of the disease in this species. From January 2012 to December 2014, more than 70 incidents of AIV in ostriches were reported in South Africa. These included H5N2 and H7N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in 2012, H7N7 LPAI in 2013, and H5N2 LPAI in 2014. To resolve the molecular epidemiology in South Africa, the entire South African viral repository from ostriches and wild birds from 1991 to 2013 (n = 42) was resequenced by next-generation sequencing technology to obtain complete genomes for comparison. The phylogenetic results were supplemented with serological data for ostriches from 2012 to 2014, and AIV-detection data from surveillance of 17 762 wild birds sampled over the same period. Phylogenetic evidence pointed to wild birds, e.g., African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus), in the dissemination of H7N1 LPAI to ostriches in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces during 2012, in separate incidents that could not be epidemiologically linked. In contrast, the H7N7 LPAI outbreaks in 2013 that were restricted to the Western Cape Province appear to have originated from a single-point introduction from wild birds. Two H5N2 viruses detected in ostriches in 2012 were determined to be LPAI strains that were new introductions, epidemiologically unrelated to the 2011 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks. Seventeen of 27 (63%) ostrich viruses contained the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) E627K marker, and 2 of the ostrich isolates that lacked E627K contained the compensatory Q591K mutation, whereas a third virus had a D701N mutation. Ostriches maintain a low upper- to midtracheal temperature as part of their adaptive physiology for desert survival, which may

  15. Detection method for avian influenza viruses in water.

    PubMed

    Rönnqvist, Maria; Ziegler, Thedi; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Recent events have shown that humans may become infected with some pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIV). Since soil and water, including lakes, rivers, and seashores, may be contaminated by AIV excreted by birds, effective methods are needed for monitoring water for emerging viruses. Combining water filtration with molecular methods such as PCR is a fast and effective way for detecting viruses. The objective of this study was to apply a convenient method for the detection of AIV in natural water samples. Distilled water and lake, river, and seawater were artificially contaminated with AIV (H5N3) and passed through a filter system. AIV was detected from filter membrane by real-time RT-PCR. The performance of Zetapor, SMWP, and Sartobind D5F membranes in recovering influenza viruses was first evaluated using contaminated distilled water. SWMP, which gave the highest virus recoveries, was then compared with a pre-filter combined GF/F filter membrane in a trial using natural water samples. In this study, the cellulose membrane SMWP was found to be practical for recovery of AIVs in water. Viral yields varied between 62.1 and 65.9% in distilled water and between 1 and 16.7% in natural water samples. The borosilicate glass membrane GF/F combined with pre-filter was also feasible in filtering natural water samples with viral yields from 1.98 to 7.33%. The methods described can be used for monitoring fresh and seawater samples for the presence of AIV and to determine the source of AIV transmission in an outbreak situation. PMID:23412765

  16. A Bayesian Outbreak Detection Method for Influenza-Like Illness

    PubMed Central

    García, Yury E.; Christen, J. Andrés; Capistrán, Marcos A.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic outbreak detection is an important problem in public health and the development of reliable methods for outbreak detection remains an active research area. In this paper we introduce a Bayesian method to detect outbreaks of influenza-like illness from surveillance data. The rationale is that, during the early phase of the outbreak, surveillance data changes from autoregressive dynamics to a regime of exponential growth. Our method uses Bayesian model selection and Bayesian regression to identify the breakpoint. No free parameters need to be tuned. However, historical information regarding influenza-like illnesses needs to be incorporated into the model. In order to show and discuss the performance of our method we analyze synthetic, seasonal, and pandemic outbreak data. PMID:26425552

  17. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic. PMID:18269323

  18. Cost-benefit analysis of avian influenza control in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Karki, N P S; Rushton, J; Ivanek, R

    2015-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A strain H5N1 have occurred in Nepal since 2009 despite implementation of a national programme to control the disease through surveillance and culling of infected poultry flocks. The objective of the study was to use cost-benefit analysis to compare the current control programme (CCP) with the possible alternatives of: i) no intervention (i.e., absence of control measures [ACM]) and ii) vaccinating 60% of the national poultry flock twice a year. In terms of the benefit-cost ratio, findings indicate a return of US $1.94 for every dollar spent in the CCP compared with ACM. The net present value of the CCP versus ACM, i.e., the amount of money saved by implementing the CCP rather than ACM, is US $861,507 (the benefits of CCP [prevented losses which would have occurred under ACM] minus the cost of CCP). The vaccination programme yields a return of US $2.32 for every dollar spent when compared with the CCR The net present value of vaccination versus the CCP is approximately US $12 million. Sensitivity analysis indicated thatthe findings were robust to different rates of discounting, whereas results were sensitive to the assumed market loss and the number of birds affected in the outbreaks under the ACM and vaccination options. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that the CCP is economically superior to ACM, but that vaccination could give greater economic returns and may be a better control strategy. Future research should be directed towards evaluating the financial feasibility and social acceptability of the CCP and of vaccination, with an emphasis on evaluating market reaction to the presence of H5N1 infection in the country. PMID:27044153

  19. A Humidity-Driven Prediction System for Influenza Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrastarson, H. T.; Teixeira, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of absolute (or specific) humidity conditions as a leading explanation for the seasonal behavior of influenza outbreaks in temperate regions. If the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be forecast, this would be of great value for public health response efforts. We have developed and implemented a SIRS (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible) type numerical prediction system that is driven by specific humidity to predict influenza outbreaks. For the humidity, we have explored using both satellite data from the AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) instrument as well as ERA-Interim re-analysis data. We discuss the development, testing, sensitivities and limitations of the prediction system and show results for influenza outbreaks in the United States during the years 2010-2014 (modeled in retrospect). Comparisons are made with other existing prediction systems and available data for influenza outbreaks from Google Flu Trends and the CDC (Center for Disease Control), and the incorporation of these datasets into the forecasting system is discussed.

  20. Agro-Environmental Determinants of Avian Influenza Circulation: A Multisite Study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mathilde C.; Gilbert, Marius; Desvaux, Stéphanie; Rasamoelina Andriamanivo, Harena; Peyre, Marisa; Khong, Nguyen Viet; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Chevalier, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1) lower-Northern Thailand, where H5N1 circulated in 2004–2005, (2) the Red River Delta in Vietnam, where H5N1 is circulating widely, (3) the Vietnam highlands, where sporadic H5N1 outbreaks have occurred, and (4) the Lake Alaotra region in Madagascar, which features remarkable similarities with Asian agro-ecosystems and where low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been found. We analyzed H5N1 outbreak data in Thailand in parallel with serological data collected on the H5 subtype in Vietnam and on low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar. Several agro-environmental covariates were examined: poultry densities, landscape dominated by rice cultivation, proximity to a water body or major road, and human population density. Relationships between covariates and AIV circulation were explored using spatial generalized linear models. We found that AIV prevalence was negatively associated with distance to the closest water body in the Red River Delta, Vietnam highlands and Madagascar. We also found a positive association between AIV and duck density in the Vietnam highlands and Thailand, and with rice landscapes in Thailand and Madagascar. Our findings confirm the important role of wetlands-rice-ducks ecosystems in the epidemiology of AI in diverse settings. Variables influencing circulation of the H5 subtype in Southeast Asia played a similar role for low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar, indicating that this area may be at risk if a highly virulent strain is introduced. PMID:25029441

  1. Quantifying Transmission of Highly Pathogenic and Low Pathogenicity H7N1 Avian Influenza in Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Saenz, Roberto A.; Essen, Steve C.; Brookes, Sharon M.; Iqbal, Munir; Wood, James L. N.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; McCauley, John W.; Brown, Ian H.; Gog, Julia R.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of avian influenza in poultry can be devastating, yet many of the basic epidemiological parameters have not been accurately characterised. In 1999–2000 in Northern Italy, outbreaks of H7N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAI) were followed by the emergence of H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI). This study investigates the transmission dynamics in turkeys of representative HPAI and LPAI H7N1 virus strains from this outbreak in an experimental setting, allowing direct comparison of the two strains. The fitted transmission rates for the two strains are similar: 2.04 (1.5–2.7) per day for HPAI, 2.01 (1.6–2.5) per day for LPAI. However, the mean infectious period is far shorter for HPAI (1.47 (1.3–1.7) days) than for LPAI (7.65 (7.0–8.3) days), due to the rapid death of infected turkeys. Hence the basic reproductive ratio, is significantly lower for HPAI (3.01 (2.2–4.0)) than for LPAI (15.3 (11.8–19.7)). The comparison of transmission rates and are critically important in relation to understanding how HPAI might emerge from LPAI. Two competing hypotheses for how transmission rates vary with population size are tested by fitting competing models to experiments with differing numbers of turkeys. A model with frequency-dependent transmission gives a significantly better fit to experimental data than density-dependent transmission. This has important implications for extrapolating experimental results from relatively small numbers of birds to the commercial poultry flock size, and for how control, including vaccination, might scale with flock size. PMID:23028760

  2. Avian influenza: mini-review, European control measures and current situation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Van Borm, S; Van den Berg, T P

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease for birds, which can easily take epidemic proportions when appropriate and efficacious measures are not taken immediately. Influenza viruses can vary in pathogenicity from low to medium or highly pathogenic. A low pathogenic strain can become highly pathogenic by introduction of new mutations (insertions, deletions or substitutions) in the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin during circulation in chickens. Up till now only H5 and H7 strains gave rise to highly pathogenic strains in this manner. At present the avian H5N1 influenza virus is endemic in Southeast Asia (47) and is expanding westward. In addition, its virulence is extremely higher than other HPAI, like H7N7. Moreover, the avian host range is expanding, as species previously considered resistant, now get infected and can contribute to the dissemination of the virus. In the context of H5N1, all movements (trade, high international mobility, migration and smuggling) can become high risk factors of spreading the disease. In most European countries eradication measures are applied when an outbreak occurs. But such measures have great economical and social implications, and are no longer generally accepted. The combination of prophylactic measures (vaccination and medicines), hygienic measures and surveillance could offer an acceptable alternative. PMID:16800241

  3. A generic model of contagious disease and its application to human-to-human transmission of avian influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Gary B.

    2007-03-01

    Modeling contagious diseases has taken on greater importance over the past several years as diseases such as SARS and avian influenza have raised concern about worldwide pandemics. Most models developed to consider projected outbreaks have been specific to a single disease. This paper describes a generic System Dynamics contagious disease model and its application to human-to-human transmission of a mutant version of avian influenza. The model offers the option of calculating rates of new infections over time based either on a fixed ''reproductive number'' that is traditional in contagious disease models or on contact rates for different sub-populations and likelihood of transmission per contact. The paper reports on results with various types of interventions. These results suggest the potential importance of contact tracing, limited quarantine, and targeted vaccination strategies as methods for controlling outbreaks, especially when vaccine supplies may initially be limited and the efficacy of anti-viral drugs uncertain.

  4. Broadly protective adenovirus-based multivalent vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Sai V; Ahi, Yadvinder S; Swaim, Anne-Marie; Katz, Jacqueline M; Donis, Ruben; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Mittal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry accompanied by their occasional transmission to humans have highlighted the public health threat posed by these viruses. Newer vaccine approaches for pandemic preparedness against these viruses are needed, given the limitations of vaccines currently approved for H5N1 viruses in terms of their production timelines and the ability to induce protective immune responses in the absence of adjuvants. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of an adenovirus (AdV)-based multivalent vaccine approach for pandemic preparedness against H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in a mouse model. Replication-defective AdV vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA) from different subtypes and nucleoprotein (NP) from one subtype induced high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses and conferred protection against virus replication following challenge with H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza virus subtypes. Inclusion of HA from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus in the vaccine formulation further broadened the vaccine coverage. Significantly high levels of HA stalk-specific antibodies were observed following immunization with the multivalent vaccine. Inclusion of NP into the multivalent HA vaccine formulation resulted in the induction of CD8 T cell responses. These results suggest that a multivalent vaccine strategy may provide reasonable protection in the event of a pandemic caused by H5, H7, or H9 avian influenza virus before a strain-matched vaccine can be produced. PMID:23638099

  5. Effects of closing and reopening live poultry markets on the epidemic of human infection with avian influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Liu, Wendong; Xia, Rui; Dai, Qigang; Bao, Changjun; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, yefei; Wang, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Live poultry markets (LPMs) are crucial places for human infection of influenza A (H7N9 virus). In Yangtze River Delta, LPMs were closed after the outbreak of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, and then reopened when no case was found. Our purpose was to quantify the effect of LPMs’ operations in this region on the transmission of influenza A (H7N9) virus. We obtained information about dates of symptom onset and locations for all human influenza A (H7N9) cases reported from Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces by May 31, 2014, and acquired dates of closures and reopening of LPMs from official media. A two-phase Bayesian model was fitted by Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to process the spatial and temporal influence of human cases. A total of 235 cases of influenza A (H7N9) were confirmed in Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang by May 31, 2014. Using these data, our analysis showed that, after LPM closures, the influenza A (H7N9) outbreak disappeared within two weeks in Shanghai, one week in Jiangsu, and one week in Zhejiang, respectively. Local authorities reopened LPMs when there was no outbreak of influenza A (H7N9), which did not lead to reemergence of human influenza A (H7N9). LPM closures were effective in controlling the H7N9 outbreak. Reopening of LPM in summer did not increase the risk of human infection with H7N9. Our findings showed that LPMs should be closed immediately in areas where the H7N9 virus is confirmed in LPM. When there is no outbreak of H7N9 virus, LPMs can be reopened to satisfy the Chinese traditional culture of buying live poultry. In the long term, local authorities should take a cautious attitude in permanent LPM closure.

  6. Conducting influenza virus pathogenesis studies in avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian infection studies with influenza A are an important means of assessing host susceptibility, viral pathogenesis, host responses to infection, mechanisms of transmission and viral pathotype. Complex systems and natural settings may also be explored with carefully designed infection studies. In ...

  7. DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS USING AN INTERFEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An optical interferometric waveguide immunoassay for direct and label-less detection of avian influenza virus is described. The assay response is based on index of refraction changes that occur upon binding of virus particles to antigen (hemagglutinin) specific antibodies on the waveguide surface. ...

  8. Practical aspects of surveillance for avian influenza in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall approach to surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry will vary depending on the situation, resources, and goals of a given surveillance program. However, the optimal methods for sample collection, transport, and handling are universal. Many practical questions have been ...

  9. Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions. PMID:26079209

  10. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...