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Sample records for avian respiratory system

  1. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  2. The avian respiratory system: a unique model for studies of respiratory toxicosis and for monitoring air quality.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Brain, J D; Wang, N

    1997-01-01

    There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird's lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following exposure to toxic gases and airborne particulates. We suggest that these differences can be productively exploited to further our understanding of the basic mechanisms of inhalant toxicology (gases and particulates). The large mass-specific gas uptake by the avian respiratory system, at rest and especially during exercise, could be exploited as a sensitive monitor of air quality. Birds have much to offer in our understanding of respiratory toxicology, but that expectation can only be realized by investigating, in a wide variety of avian taxa, the pathophysiologic interactions of a broad range of inhaled toxicants on the bird's unique respiratory system. Images p188-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9105794

  3. A primary chicken tracheal cell culture system for the study of infection with avian respiratory viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major route of infection of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens is through cells of the airway epithelium. Here we describe the development and optimization of conditions for culture of tracheal epithelial cells from chicken embryos as well as their use in st...

  4. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Mbuvi P; Muya, Shadrack; Gicheru, Muita M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27306902

  5. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  6. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral infection of birds that varies in severity from asymptomatic infections to mild respiratory and reproductive diseases to an acute, highly fatal systemic disease of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and other avian species. Avian influenza viruses are divided into two ...

  7. Prevalence of avian respiratory viruses in broiler flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem E; Shany, Salama A S; Ali, A; Dahshan, Al-Hussien M; El-Sawah, Azza A; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-06-01

    In this study, respiratory viral pathogens were screened using real-time RT-PCR in 86 broiler chicken flocks suffering from respiratory diseases problems in 4 Egyptian governorates between January 2012 and February 2014. The mortality rates in the investigated flocks ranged from 1 to 47%. Results showed that mixed infection represented 66.3% of the examined flocks. Mixed infectious bronchitis (IBV) and avian influenza (AI)-H9N2 viruses were the most common infection (41.7%). Lack of AI-H9N2 vaccination and high rates of mixed infections in which AI-H9N2 is involved indicate an early AI-H9N2 infection with a potential immunosuppressive effect that predisposes for other viral infections. High pathogenic AI-H5N1 and virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) infections were also detected (26.7% and 8.1%, respectively). Interestingly, co-infection of AI-H9N2 with either AIV-H5N1 or vNDV rarely resulted in high mortality. Partial cell-mediated immunity against similar internal AI genes, as well as virus interference between AI and vNDV, could be an explanation for this. Highly prevalent IBV and AI-H9N2 were isolated and were molecularly characterized based on S1 gene hypervariable region 3 ( HVR3: ) and hemagglutinin gene (HA) sequences, respectively. IBV strains were related to the variant group of IBV with multiple mutations in HVR3. Though AI-H9N2 viruses showed low rate of evolution in comparison to recent strains, few amino acid substitutions indicative of antibody selection pressure were observed in the HA gene. In conclusion, mixed viral infections, especially with IBV and AI-H9N2 viruses, are the predominant etiology of respiratory disease problems in broiler chickens in Egypt. Further investigations of the role of AI, IBV, and ND viruses' co-infections and interference in terms of altering the severity of clinical signs and lesions and/or generating novel reassortants within each virus are needed. PMID:26976895

  8. The respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Zifko, U; Chen, R

    1996-10-01

    Neurological disorders frequently contribute to respiratory failure in critically ill patients. They may be the primary reason for the initiation of mechanical ventilation, or may develop later as a secondary complication. Disorders of the central nervous system leading to respiratory failure include metabolic encephalopathies, acute stroke, lesions of the motor cortex and brain-stem respiratory centres, and their descending pathways. Guillan-Barré syndrome, critical illness polyneuropathy and acute quadriplegic myopathy are the more common neuromuscular causes of respiratory failure. Clinical observations and pulmonary function tests are important in monitoring respiratory function. Respiratory electrophysiological studies are useful in the investigation and monitoring of respiratory failure. Transcortical and cervical magnetic stimulation can assess the central respiratory drive, and may be useful in determining the prognosis in ventilated patients, with cervical cord dysfunction. It is also helpful in the assessment of failure to wean, which is often caused by a combination of central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Phrenic nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography of the diaphragm and chest wall muscles are useful to characterize neuropathies and myopathies affecting the diaphragm. Repetitive phrenic nerve stimulation can assess neuromuscular transmission defects. It is important to identify patients at risk of respiratory failure. They should be carefully monitored and mechanical ventilation should be initiated before the development of severe hypoxaemia. PMID:9117072

  9. The Avian Proglucagon System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding how the proglucagon system functions in maintaining glycemic control and energy balance in birds, as well as defining its specific roles in regulating metabolism, gastrointestinal tract function and food intake requires detailed knowledge of the components that comprise this system. T...

  10. The Avian Proghrelin System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand how the proghrelin system functions in regulating growth hormone release and food intake as well as defining its pleiotropic roles in such diverse physiological processes as energy homeostasis, gastrointestinal tract function and reproduction requires detailed knowledge of the structur...

  11. Advances in vaccination against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli respiratory disease: potentials and limitations.

    PubMed

    Ghunaim, Haitham; Abu-Madi, Marwan Abdelhamid; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2014-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is one of the most economically devastating pathogens affecting the poultry industry. This group of extra-intestinal E. coli causes a variety of clinical conditions including airsacculitis and cellulitis. The economic impact of APEC is mainly due to mortality, slower growth rates, and carcass downgrading. In commercial broiler operations, APEC infections are controlled indirectly by vaccination against other respiratory diseases and minimizing stress conditions, and directly by administration of antimicrobial agents to suppress the infection in already infected flocks. The fact that most APEC strains possess some common virulence factors suggests that an effective vaccine against APEC is a viable option. The most important virulence factors that have been investigated over the years include type I and P fimbriae, aerobactin iron-acquisition system, and serum resistance traits. Despite the potential for developing an efficacious vaccine to combat this economically important poultry disease, several obstacles hinder such efforts. Those obstacles include the cost, vaccine delivery method and timing of vaccination as the birds should be immune to APEC by 21 days of age. Herein, we review the various attempts to develop an effective vaccine against the respiratory form of APEC diseases in poultry. We also discuss in-depth the potentials and limitations of such vaccines. PMID:24878325

  12. Simultaneous typing of nine avian respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyzer-based multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhixun; Luo, Sisi; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Khan, Mazhar I

    2014-10-01

    A new, rapid, and high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyzer-based multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. The respiratory pathogens included in this study were avian influenza subtypes H5, H7, and H9, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG). Ten pairs of primers were designed using conserved and specific sequence genes of AIV subtypes and respiratory pathogens from GenBank. Single and mixed pathogen cDNA/DNA templates were used to evaluate the specificity of the GeXP-multiplex assay. The corresponding specific DNA products were amplified for each pathogen. The specific DNA product amplification peaks of nine respiratory pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyzer. Non-respiratory avian pathogens, including chicken infectious anemia virus, fowl adenovirus, avian reovirus and infectious bursal disease virus, did not produce DNA products. The detection limit for the GeXP-multiplex assay was determined to be 100 copies/μl using various pre-mixed plasmids/ssRNAs containing known target genes of the respiratory pathogens. Further, GeXP-multiplex PCR assay was 100% specific when 24 clinical samples with respiratory infections were tested in comparison with conventional PCR method. The GeXP-multiplex PCR assay provides a novel tool for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. PMID:25025815

  13. Respiratory System Disease.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Danielle M; Singh, Shipra

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory system involvement in cystic fibrosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene throughout the sinopulmonary tract result in recurrent infections with a variety of organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Lung disease occurs earlier in life than once thought and ideal methods of monitoring lung function, decline, or improvement with therapy are debated. Treatment of sinopulmonary disease may include physiotherapy, mucus-modifying and antiinflammatory agents, antimicrobials, and surgery. In the new era of personalized medicine, CFTR correctors and potentiators may change the course of disease. PMID:27469180

  14. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; i....

  15. AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  16. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  17. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun Woo; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance. PMID:25183346

  18. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  19. China's heath care system and avian influenza preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan A

    2008-02-15

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome crisis exposed serious deficiencies in China's public health system and willingness to report outbreaks of threats to public health. Consequently, China may be one of the weak links in global preparedness for avian influenza. China's rural health care system has been weakened by 20 years of privatization and fiscal decentralization. China plays a huge role in the global poultry industry, with a poultry population of 14 billion birds, 70%-80% of which are reared in backyard conditions. Although surveillance has been strengthened, obstacles to the timely reporting of disease outbreaks still exist. The weakened health care system prevents many sick people from seeking care at a health care facility, where reporting would originate. Inadequate compensation to farmers for culled birds leads to nonreporting, and local officials may be complicit if they suspect that reporting might lead to economic losses for their communities. At the local level, China's crisis-management ability and multisectoral coordination are weak. The poor quality of infection control in many rural facilities is a serious and well-documented problem. However, traditions of community political mobilization suggest that the potential for providing rural citizens with public health information is possible when mandated from the central government. Addressing these issues now and working on capacity issues, authority structures, accountability, and local reporting and control structures will benefit the control of a potential avian influenza outbreak, as well as inevitable outbreaks of other emerging infectious diseases in China's Pearl River Delta or in other densely populated locations of animal husbandry in China. PMID:18269328

  20. Avians as a Model System of Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Michael; Mikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Summary For more then 2000 years philosophers and scientists have turned to the avian embryo with questions of how life begins (Aristotle; Needham, 1959). Then, as now, the unique accessibility of the embryo both in terms of acquisition of eggs from domesticated fowl, and ease at which the embryo can be visualized by simply opening the shell, have made avians an appealing and powerful model system for the study of development. Thus, as the field of embryology has evolved through observational, comparative, and experimental embryology, into its current iteration as the cellular and molecular biology of development, avians have remained a useful and practical system of study. PMID:25468608

  1. A miniaturised respiratory sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, U.; Fasoulas, S.; Linnarsson, D.; Paiva, M.; Stoll, R.; Hammer, F.; Stangl, R.; Martinot, Guy

    2005-10-01

    Solid-electrolyte gas sensors, originally designed for residual oxygen detection in low Earth orbit, have provided the basis for developing a multi-function sensor system for respiratory investigations. These sensors allow the detection of oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures simultaneously with total flow rates. Moreover, with only minor modifications, other gases of interest in cardio-respiratory testing, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen, can be detected. The sensors are highly miniaturised and can be positioned in the mainstream of the breath. Thus there is no delay through sample transport. The characteristics of the flow detection are comparable with common sensors used in spirometry. The oxygen and carbon dioxide sensitivities have reached a level that is comparable to or even better than those of mass spectrometers optimised for respiratory analysis. Data from this sensor system allow single-breath or breath-by-breath analysis. Integrated into a portable system, the system provides greater flexibility than other devices, significantly increasing the range of scientific and health-monitoring applications.

  2. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  3. Respiratory analysis system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements.

  4. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  5. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  6. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection and differentiation of avian influenza viruses and other poultry respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rashid, S; Naeem, K; Ahmed, Z; Saddique, N; Abbas, M A; Malik, S A

    2009-12-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the detection of type A influenza viruses, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7, H9, and H5 hemagglutinin gene with simultaneous detection of 3 other poultry respiratory pathogens, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Seven sets of specific oligonucleotide primers were used in this study for the M gene of AIV and hemagglutinin gene of subtypes H7, H9, and H5 of AIV. Three sets of other specific oligonucleotide primers were used for the detection of avian respiratory pathogens other than AIV. The mRT-PCR DNA products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and consisted of DNA fragments of 1,023 bp for M gene of AIV, 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, and 647 bp for ILTV. The second set of primers used for m-RT-PCR of H7N3, H9N2, and H5N1 provided DNA products of 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The mRT-PCR products for the third format consisted of DNA fragments of 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, 647 bp for ILTV, 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The sensitivity and specificity of mRT-PCR was determined and the test was found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of AIV and other poultry respiratory pathogens. In this present study, multiplex PCR technique has been developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate the 3 most important subtypes of AIV along with the 3 most common avian respiratory pathogens prevalent in poultry in Pakistan. Therefore, a mRT-PCR that can rapidly differentiate between these pathogens will be very important for the control of disease transmission in poultry and in humans, along with the identification of 3 of the most common respiratory pathogens often seen as mixed infections in poultry, and hence economic losses will be reduced in poultry. PMID:19903950

  7. Avians as a model system of vascular development.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Michael; Mikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, philosophers and scientists have turned to the avian embryo with questions of how life begins (Aristotle and Peck Generations of Animals. Loeb Classics, vol. XIII. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1943; Needham, A history of embryology. Abelard-Schuman, New York, 1959). Then, as now, the unique accessibility of the embryo both in terms of acquisition of eggs from domesticated fowl and ease at which the embryo can be visualized by simply opening the shell has made avians an appealing and powerful model system for the study of development. Thus, as the field of embryology has evolved through observational, comparative, and experimental embryology into its current iteration as the cellular and molecular biology of development, avians have remained a useful and practical system of study. PMID:25468608

  8. 76 FR 67017 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Avian Radar Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Avian Radar Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Avian Radar Systems... waivers to foreign manufacturers of airport avian radar systems that meet the requirements of FAA...

  9. Other avian paramyxovirus infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newca...

  10. Other avian paramyxoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newcas...

  11. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Kneyber, Martin CJ; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos WR; Plötz, Frans B; Markhors, Dick G

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation with heliox in these patients is unclear. The objective of this prospective cross-over study was to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation with heliox 60/40 versus conventional gas on respiratory system resistance, air-trapping and CO2 removal. Methods Mechanically ventilated, sedated and paralyzed infants with proven RSV were enrolled within 24 hours after paediatric intensive care unit (PICU)admission. At T = 0, respiratory system mechanics including respiratory system compliance and resistance, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured with the AVEA ventilator. The measurements were repeated at each interval (after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox, after 30 minutes of ventilation with nitrox and again after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox). Indices of gas exchange (ventilation and oxygenation index) were calculated at each interval. Air-trapping (defined by relative change in end-expiratory lung volume) was determined by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at each interval. Results Thirteen infants were enrolled. In nine, EIT measurements were performed. Mechanical ventilation with heliox significantly decreased respiratory system resistance. This was not accompanied by an improved CO2 elimination, decreased peak expiratory flow rate or decreased end-expiratory lung volume. Importantly, oxygenation remained unaltered throughout the experimental protocol. Conclusions Respiratory system resistance is significantly decreased by mechanical ventilation with heliox (ISCRTN98152468). PMID:19450268

  12. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Madabhavi, Irappa; Niranjan, Narasimhalu; Dogra, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion. PMID:26229557

  13. Respiratory system involvement in Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Kuo, Christin; Ananth, Amitha Lakshmi; Myers, Angela; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Stevenson, David A; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Hudgins, Louanne

    2016-07-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a multisystem disorder caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the HRAS proto-oncogene. Respiratory system complications have been reported in individuals with CS, but a comprehensive description of the full spectrum and incidence of respiratory symptoms in these patients is not available. Here, we report the clinical course of four CS patients with respiratory complications as a major cause of morbidity. Review of the literature identified 56 CS patients with descriptions of their neonatal course and 17 patients in childhood/adulthood. We found that in the neonatal period, respiratory complications are seen in approximately 78% of patients with transient respiratory distress reported in 45% of neonates. Other more specific respiratory diagnoses were reported in 62% of patients, the majority of which comprised disorders of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Symptoms of upper airway obstruction were reported in CS neonates but were more commonly diagnosed in childhood/adulthood (71%). Analysis of HRAS mutations and their respiratory phenotype revealed that the common p.Gly12Ser mutation is more often associated with transient respiratory distress and other respiratory diagnoses. Respiratory failure and dependence on mechanical ventilation occurs almost exclusively with rare mutations. In cases of prenatally diagnosed CS, the high incidence of respiratory complications in the neonatal period should prompt anticipatory guidance and development of a postnatal management plan. This may be important in cases involving rarer mutations. Furthermore, the high frequency of airway obstruction in CS patients suggests that otorhinolaryngological evaluation and sleep studies should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27102959

  14. Investigations of respiratory control systems simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Grodins' respiratory control model was investigated and it was determined that the following modifications were necessary before the model would be adaptable for current research efforts: (1) the controller equation must be modified to allow for integration of the respiratory system model with other physiological systems; (2) the system must be more closely correlated to the salient physiological functionings; (3) the respiratory frequency and the heart rate should be expanded to illustrate other physiological relationships and dependencies; and (4) the model should be adapted to particular individuals through a better defined set of initial parameter values in addition to relating these parameter values to the desired environmental conditions. Several of Milhorn's respiratory control models were also investigated in hopes of using some of their features as modifications for Grodins' model.

  15. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented.

  16. Improvement in the accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy using a respiratory guiding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Suh, Tae-Suk; Yoon, Jai-Woong

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) depends on the respiratory regularity because external respiratory signals are used for gating the radiation beam at particular phases. Many studies have applied a respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity. This study aims to evaluate the effect of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. To verify the effectiveness of this system, we acquired respiratory signals from five volunteers. The improvement in respiratory regularity was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of the amplitudes and the periods between free and guided breathing. The reduction in residual motion at each phase was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of sorted data within each corresponding phase bin as obtained from free and guided breathing. The results indicate that the respiratory guiding system improves the respiratory regularity, and that most of the volunteers showed significantly less average residual motion at each phase. The average residual motion measured at phases of 40, 50, and 60%, which showed lower variation than other phases, were, respectively, reduced by 41, 45, and 44% during guided breathing. The results show that the accuracy of RGRT can be improved by using the in-house-developed respiratory guiding system. Furthermore, this system should reduce artifacts caused by respiratory motion in 4D CT imaging.

  17. The respiratory neuromuscular system in Pompe disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, David D.; ElMallah, Mai K.; Smith, Barbara K.; Corti, Manuela; Lawson, Lee Ann; Falk, Darin J.; Byrne, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Pompe disease is due to mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA). Absence of functional GAA typically results in cardiorespiratory failure in the first year; reduced GAA activity is associated with progressive respiratory failure later in life. While skeletal muscle pathology contributes to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease, emerging evidence indicates that respiratory neuron dysfunction is also a significant part of dysfunction in motor units. Animal models show profound glycogen accumulation in spinal and medullary respiratory neurons and altered neural activity. Tissues from Pompe patients show central nervous system glycogen accumulation and motoneuron pathology. A neural mechanism raises considerations about the current clinical approach of enzyme replacement since the recombinant protein does not cross the blood-brain-barrier. Indeed, clinical data suggest that enzyme replacement therapy delays symptom progression, but many patients eventually require ventilatory assistance, especially during sleep. We propose that treatments which restore GAA activity to respiratory muscles, neurons and networks will be required to fully correct ventilatory insufficiency in Pompe disease. PMID:23797185

  18. [Effect of furfural on the respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Pawłowicz, A; Droszcz, W; Garlicki, A; Kutyła, J; Kowalczyk, M

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-one workers of Butadien Plant, exposed to furfurol , had their respiratory system examined. Questionnaire studies demonstrated chronic bronchitis in 23.5% of subjects. Spirometric tests do not show subjective complaints. This seems to be related to hypercortisolemia, as experiments on animals indicate that furfurol inhalations increase corticosteroids concentrations in blood serum. PMID:6738348

  19. Conceptual approaches to avian navigation systems.

    PubMed

    Wallraff, H G

    1991-01-01

    The general basis of migratory orientation in birds is most probably an endogenous time-and-direction programme. Directions are selected with respect to celestial as well as geomagnetic clues. These clues appear to be integrated within a system that profits from the special advantages of either kind of environmental signal, and thereby can cope with their limitations. Using these clues, and following a genetically determined intended direction (or sequence of directions) over a genetically determined period of time, a bird may reach a larger population-specific area. However, it will hardly be able to find a particular location, such as, for instance, its previous breeding site. Homing to a familiar site over several hundred kilometers of unfamiliar terrain is substantially based on the smelling of atmospheric trace compounds. At shorter distances from home, orientation by means of--presumably visual--familiar landmarks completes the repertoire of mechanisms guiding a bird back home. These mechanisms are considered to be based on different kinds of 'maps' and 'compasses'. Conceptual approaches to the properties of an 'olfactory map' have as yet only reached an early state of speculation. PMID:1838512

  20. Microgravity and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G Kim

    2014-05-01

    The structure of the lung, with its delicate network of airspaces and capillaries, means that gravity has a profound influence on its function. Studies of lung function in the absence of gravity provide valuable insight into how, for we Earth-bound individuals, its unavoidable effects shape our lung function. Gravity causes uneven ventilation in the lung through the deformation of lung tissue (the so-called Slinky effect), and uneven perfusion through a combination of the Slinky effect and the zone model of pulmonary perfusion. Both ventilation and perfusion exhibit persisting heterogeneity in microgravity, indicating important other mechanisms. However, gravity serves to maintain a degree of matching of these two processes, so that the ventilation/perfusion ratio, and thus gas exchange, remains efficient. Therefore, while both ventilation and perfusion are more uniform in spaceflight, gas exchange is seemingly no more efficient than on Earth. Despite the changes in lung function when gravity is removed, the lung continues to function well in weightlessness. Unlike many other organ systems, the lung does not appear to undergo structural adaptive changes when gravity is removed, and so there is no apparent degradation in lung function upon return to earth, even after 6 months in space. PMID:24603820

  1. Evolution of the respiratory system in nonavian theropods: evidence from rib and vertebral morphology.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Emma R; Lyson, Tyler R; Dodson, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Recent reports of region-specific vertebral pneumaticity in nonavian theropod dinosaurs have brought attention to the hypothesis that these animals possessed an avian-style respiratory system with flow-through ventilation. This study explores the thoracic rib and vertebral anatomy of Sinraptor, Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Deinonychus; four nonavian theropods that all show well-preserved thoracic vertebrae and ribs. Comparisons to the osteology and soft tissue anatomy of extant saurians provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis of flow-through ventilation in nonavian theropods. Analyses of diapophyseal and parapophyseal position and thoracic rib morphology suggest that most nonavian theropods possessed lungs that were deeply incised by the adjacent bicapitate thoracic ribs. This functionally constrains the lungs as rigid nonexpansive organs that were likely ventilated by accessory nonvascularized air sacs. The axial anatomy of this group also reveals that a crocodilian-like hepatic-piston lung would be functionally and biomechanically untenable. Taken together with the evidence that avian-like air sacs were present in basal theropods, these data lead us to conclude that an avian-style pulmonary system was likely a universal theropod trait. PMID:19711481

  2. Low-cost respiratory motion tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryawala, Mohammed; Del Valle, Misael; Wang, Jiali; Byrne, James; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony

    2008-03-01

    Lung cancer is the cause of more than 150,000 deaths annually in the United States. Early and accurate detection of lung tumors with Positron Emission Tomography has enhanced lung tumor diagnosis. However, respiratory motion during the imaging period of PET results in the reduction of accuracy of detection due to blurring of the images. Chest motion can serve as a surrogate for tracking the motion of the tumor. For tracking chest motion, an optical laser system was designed which tracks the motion of a patterned card placed on the chest by illuminating the pattern with two structured light sources, generating 8 positional markers. The position of markers is used to determine the vertical, translational, and rotational motion of the card. Information from the markers is used to decide whether the patient's breath is abnormal compared to their normal breathing pattern. The system is developed with an inexpensive web-camera and two low-cost laser pointers. The experiments were carried out using a dynamic phantom developed in-house, to simulate chest movement with different amplitudes and breathing periods. Motion of the phantom was tracked by the system developed and also by a pressure transducer for comparison. The studies showed a correlation of 96.6% between the respiratory tracking waveforms by the two systems, demonstrating the capability of the system. Unlike the pressure transducer method, the new system tracks motion in 3 dimensions. The developed system also demonstrates the ability to track a sliding motion of the patient in the direction parallel to the bed and provides the potential to stop the PET scan in case of such motion.

  3. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed. PMID:26611927

  4. [The environment and human respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Nikodemowicz, Marian

    2008-01-01

    The process of gas exchange that is breathing is an important element of any person's relation with the environment. What decides about our health and life are the respiratory systems responsible for the breathing process and the quality of the air we breathe. On an average through a person's life 400 millions liters of air flows which carries pollution in the form of constant gases and liquid particles. Particles of about PM-2.5 size get into the deepest structures of the respiratory system from which they are being spread into the whole organism through circulation exerting thier toxic effect on all tissues and organs. The outdoor pollution diffuses but in certain local circumstances it increases. It was so in big ecological disasters such as in 1930 in the Mozy valley in Belgium, in 1948 in the Donory region in the USA and in 1952 smog pollution in London. On an average any human being spends indoors about 60-80% of his time. The increased concentration of pollution occurs indoors and there is a possibility of exposing oneself to ETS- Environmental Tobacco Smoke. The biggest concentration of inhaled pollution takes place when smoking tobacco. Pollution of air causes diseases of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, tumours and others. Frequent occurrence of COPD in certain areas correlates with the level of air pollution and it significantly increases in tobacco smokers. The number and frequency of bronchial asthma and the need for hospitalization depends on air pollution. Lung cancer cases were rarely described in literature before the area of industrialization and wide spread custom of tobacco smoking. Now it is the most frequently occurred cancer in the whole world. There is an interdependence of the density of population, of the number of smoked cigarettes and of density of pollution with the number lung cancer cases. It is hoped that in the future, smoking habits will be eliminated, the use of crude oil and coal will be replaced by hydroelectric

  5. A molecular atlas of Xenopus respiratory system development

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Scott A.; Tran, Hong Thi; Wlizla, Marcin; Mancini, Pamela; Shifley, Emily T.; Bloor, Sean D.; Han, Lu; Vleminckx, Kris; Wert, Susan E.; Zorn, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory system development is regulated by a complex series of endoderm – mesoderm interactions that are not fully understood. Recently Xenopus has emerged as an alternative model to investigate early respiratory system development, but the extent to which the morphogenesis and molecular pathways involved are conserved between Xenopus and mammals has not been systematically documented. Results In this study we provide a histological and molecular atlas of Xenopus respiratory system development, focusing on Nkx2.1+ respiratory cell fate specification in the developing foregut. We document the expression patterns of Wnt/β-catenin, FGF, and BMP signaling components in the foregut and show that the molecular mechanisms of respiratory lineage induction are remarkably conserved between Xenopus and mice. Finally, using a number of functional experiments we refine the epistatic relationships between FGF, Wnt and BMP signaling in early Xenopus respiratory system development. Conclusions We demonstrate that Xenopus trachea and lung development, before metamorphosis, is comparable at the cellular and molecular levels to embryonic stages of mouse respiratory system development between E8.5 to E10.5. This molecular atlas provides a fundamental starting point for further studies using Xenopus as a model to define the conserved genetic programs controlling early respiratory system development. PMID:25156440

  6. Optimal branching designs in respiratory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    In nature, the size of the flow channels systematically decreases with multiple generations of branching, and a mother branch is ultimately divided into numerous terminal daughters. One important feature of branching designs is an increase in the total cross-sectional area along with generation, which provide more time and area for mass transfer at the terminal branches. However, the expansion of the total cross-sectional area can be costly due to the maintenance of redundant branches or the additional viscous resistance. Accordingly, we expect to find optimal designs in natural branching systems. Here we present two examples of branching designs in respiratory systems: fish gills and human lung airways. Fish gills consist of filaments with well-ordered lamellar structures. By developing a mathematical model of oxygen transfer rate as a function of the dimensions of fish gills, we demonstrate that the interlamellar distance has been optimized to maximize the oxygen transfer rate. Using the same framework, we examine the diameter reduction ratio in human lung airways, which branch by dichotomy with a systematic reduction of their diameters. Our mathematical model for oxygen transport in the airways enables us to unveil the design principle of human lung airways.

  7. Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Di; Gao, George F.

    2009-01-01

    The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the ‘well-known’ reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China. PMID:19687041

  8. Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Di; Gao, George F

    2009-09-27

    The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the 'well-known' reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China. PMID:19687041

  9. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  10. AVIAN IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for studying the avian immune system have matured during the past two decades, with laboratory studies predominating in earlier years and field studies being conducted only in the past decade. One application has been to determine the potential for environmental contamina...

  11. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences. PMID:23763901

  12. Geographic information system-based avian influenza surveillance systems for village poultry in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of surveillance data facilitates the planning, implementation and evaluation of disease control programmes. Geographic information systems (GIS) have several functions, including input (database functions), analysis (interpolation, cluster detection, identification of spatial risk factors) and output (sampling design, disease risk maps). This paper focuses on visualisation techniques that enable improved design and evaluation of surveillance data. Data generated within a pilot GIS-based surveillance programme for avian influenza in village poultry in the Romanian county of Tulcea is used as an example. The use of kriging helped highlight areas in the country where sampling potentially was sub-optimal, and error maps demonstrated the level of confidence that can be placed in serological surveillance results in different localities. Disease surveillance systems traditionally have not focused on the issues of disease risk and sample size visualisation. Standards need to be developed on how sampling and disease data generated within animal health surveillance systems are analysed and presented. This is particularly important for transboundary diseases such as avian influenza. PMID:20422525

  13. Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Patwa, Apeksh; Shah, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, an important safety mechanism, is inhibited by majority of the anaesthetic drugs. Ventilation perfusion mismatch leads to reduced arterial oxygen concentration mainly because of early closure of airway, thus leading to decreased ventilation and atelectasis during anaesthesia. Various anaesthetic drugs alter neuronal control of the breathing and bronchomotor tone. PMID:26556911

  14. Chronic complications of diabetes mellitus related to the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Vojtková, Jarmila; Ciljaková, Miriam; Michnová, Zuzana; Turčan, Tomá

    2012-01-01

    The quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus is mainly determined by chronic diabetic complications which may affect all organ tissues including respiratory system. Microangiopathy of pulmonary capillaries, autonomic neuropathy, myopathy of respiratory muscles or changes in collagen belong to supposed pathophysiological pathways. This paper brings brief review about reported functional consequences in subjects with diabetes - decreased vital lung capacity and pulmonary volumes, decreased diffuse lung capacity for carbon monoxide, lower basal bronchial tone, lower cough reflex sensitivity, increased incidence of sleep obstructive apnea, increase in respiratory infections, disorders in respiratory muscles or phrenical nerve. Examination of pulmonary functions may serve for early detection of chronic complications in patients with diabetes. PMID:23146790

  15. Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Patwa, Apeksh; Shah, Amit

    2015-09-01

    Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, an important safety mechanism, is inhibited by majority of the anaesthetic drugs. Ventilation perfusion mismatch leads to reduced arterial oxygen concentration mainly because of early closure of airway, thus leading to decreased ventilation and atelectasis during anaesthesia. Various anaesthetic drugs alter neuronal control of the breathing and bronchomotor tone. PMID:26556911

  16. Activity of respiratory system during laser irradiation of brain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkulova, N. A.; Sergeyeva, L. I.

    1984-06-01

    The performance of one of the principal links of the respiratory system, the respiratory center, was studied as a function of the exposure of the medulla oblongata and the sensomotor zone of the cerebral hemisphere cortex to low level laser irradiation in the red wavelength of the spectrum. Experiments were done on white rats under barbital anesthesia. Under such conditions a substantial effect was observed on the activity of the respiratory center. Laser light may display activating or inhibitory influences, in some cases the bilateral symmetry of the activity of the respiratory center is affected indicating deep changes in the integrative mechanism of the functioning of the right and left sides of the hemispheres. The laser beam effect depends on many factors: specific light properties, duration of the exposure, repetition of exposures, initial functional state of the CNS, etc.

  17. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  18. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations. PMID:23147058

  19. A Review on the Respiratory System Toxicity of Carbon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pacurari, Maricica; Lowe, Kristine; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Kafoury, Ramzi

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory system represents the main gateway for nanoparticles’ entry into the human body. Although there is a myriad of engineered nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles/nanotubes (CNPs/CNTs) have received much attention mainly due to their light weight, very high surface area, durability, and their diverse applications. Since their discovery and manufacture over two decades ago, much has been learned about nanoparticles’ interactions with diverse biological system models. In particular, the respiratory system has been of great interest because various natural and man-made fibrous particles are known to be responsible for chronic and debilitating lung diseases. In this review, we present up-to-date the literature regarding the effects of CNTs or carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the human respiratory system with respect to respiratory toxicity pathways and associated pathologies. This article is intended to emphasize the potentially dangerous effects to the human respiratory system if inadequate measures are used in the manufacture, handling, and preparation and applications of CNP or CNP-based products. PMID:26999172

  20. [A novel respiratory detecting system based on bio-impedance].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-bo; Deng, Qin-kai; Guo, Jin-song; Feng, Xue-ji

    2009-03-01

    This paper introduces the design and implementation of a novel respiratory detecting system based on bio-impedance method. By increasing electrodes in space, the system make multi-channel respiratory signals be superpositioned and filtered (SNR); Traditional filter methods by both hardware and software are also used to further increase anti-interference ability. A low consumption and portable instrument is designed based on MSP430 Micro Controller Unit (MCU), The experiment shows a better performance in the reduction of interference noises of heartbeat and blood flow especially the motion artifact. Also the system works stably. PMID:19565791

  1. The live bird market system and low-pathogenic avian influenza prevention in southern California.

    PubMed

    Yee, Karen S; Carpenter, Tim E; Mize, Sarah; Cardona, Carol J

    2008-06-01

    Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been associated with outbreaks of avian influenza (AI), there are some LBM systems where AI outbreaks are extremely rare events. The California LBMs have not had any detected avian influenza viruses (AIVs) since December 2005. Responses to a detailed questionnaire on the practices and characteristics of the participants in the California low-pathogenic (LP) AI control program have been described to characterize possible reasons for the lack of AI outbreaks in LBMs. Compliance with an LPAI control program that contains active surveillance, prevention, and rapid response measures by those involved in the LBM system, rendering services to dispose of carcasses, no wholesalers, and few third-party bird deliveries was associated with the lack of LPAIV circulating in the Southern California LBM system. PMID:18646469

  2. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.

    2015-01-01

    The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584

  3. Avian Test Battery for the Evaluation of Developmental Abnormalities of Neuro- and Reproductive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Ahmed, Walaa M. S.; Nagino, Koki; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the currently used toxicity assays for environmental chemicals use acute or chronic systemic or reproductive toxicity endpoints rather than neurobehavioral endpoints. In addition, the current standard approaches to assess reproductive toxicity are time-consuming. Therefore, with increasing numbers of chemicals being developed with potentially harmful neurobehavioral effects in higher vertebrates, including humans, more efficient means of assessing neuro- and reproductive toxicity are required. Here we discuss the use of a Galliformes-based avian test battery in which developmental toxicity is assessed by means of a combination of chemical exposure during early embryonic development using an embryo culture system followed by analyses after hatching of sociosexual behaviors such as aggression and mating and of visual memory via filial imprinting. This Galliformes-based avian test battery shows promise as a sophisticated means not only of assessing chemical toxicity in avian species but also of assessing the risks posed to higher vertebrates, including humans, which are markedly sensitive to nervous or neuroendocrine system dysfunction. PMID:27445667

  4. Avian Test Battery for the Evaluation of Developmental Abnormalities of Neuro- and Reproductive Systems.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Ahmed, Walaa M S; Nagino, Koki; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the currently used toxicity assays for environmental chemicals use acute or chronic systemic or reproductive toxicity endpoints rather than neurobehavioral endpoints. In addition, the current standard approaches to assess reproductive toxicity are time-consuming. Therefore, with increasing numbers of chemicals being developed with potentially harmful neurobehavioral effects in higher vertebrates, including humans, more efficient means of assessing neuro- and reproductive toxicity are required. Here we discuss the use of a Galliformes-based avian test battery in which developmental toxicity is assessed by means of a combination of chemical exposure during early embryonic development using an embryo culture system followed by analyses after hatching of sociosexual behaviors such as aggression and mating and of visual memory via filial imprinting. This Galliformes-based avian test battery shows promise as a sophisticated means not only of assessing chemical toxicity in avian species but also of assessing the risks posed to higher vertebrates, including humans, which are markedly sensitive to nervous or neuroendocrine system dysfunction. PMID:27445667

  5. Evaluation of performance of portable respiratory monitoring system based on micro-electro-mechanical-system for respiratory gated radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Sun Young; Sung, Jiwon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Chung, Mijoo; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-08-01

    In respiratory-gated radiotherapy of patients with lung or liver cancer, the patient's respiratory pattern and repeatability are important factors affecting therapy accuracy; it has been reported that these factors can be controlled if patients undergo respiration training. As such, this study evaluates the feasibility of micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) in radiotherapy by investigating the effect of radiation on a miniature portable respiratory monitoring system based on the MEMS system, which is currently under development. Using a patient respiration simulation phantom, the time-acceleration graph measured by a normal sensor according to the phantom's respiratory movement before irradiation and the change in this graph with accumulated dose were compared using the baseline slope and the change in amplitude and period of the sine wave. The results showed that with a 400Gy accumulated dose in the sensor, a baseline shift occurred and both the amplitude and period changed. As a result, if the MEMS is applied in respiratory-gated radiotherapy, the sensor should be replaced after use with roughly 6-10 patients so as to ensure continued therapy accuracy, based on the characteristics of the sensor itself. In the future, a more diverse range of sensors should be similarly evaluated.

  6. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and integration schemes for physiological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Exercise subroutine modifications are implemented in an exercise-respiratory system model yielding improvement of system response to exercise forcings. A more physiologically desirable respiratory ventilation rate in addition to an improved regulation of arterial gas tensions and cerebral blood flow is observed. A respiratory frequency expression is proposed which would be appropriate as an interfacing element of the respiratory-pulsatile cardiovascular system. Presentation of a circulatory-respiratory system integration scheme along with its computer program listing is given. The integrated system responds to exercise stimulation for both nonstressed and stressed physiological states. Other integration possibilities are discussed with respect to the respiratory, pulsatile cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and the long-term circulatory systems.

  7. 76 FR 62164 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... AFFAIRS VASRD Improvement Forum--Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...) Improvement Forum-- Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing... four body systems: (1) Respiratory System (38 CFR 4.96-4.97), (2) the Cardiovascular System (38 CFR...

  8. Nanocarriers as pulmonary drug delivery systems to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Smola, Malgorzata; Vandamme, Thierry; Sokolowski, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of nanocarriers administered by pulmonary route to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases. Indeed, during the past 10 years, the removal of chlorofluorocarbon propellants from industrial and household products intended for the pulmonary route has lead to the developments of new alternative products. Amongst these ones, on one hand, a lot of attention has been focused to improve the bioavailability of marketed drugs intended for respiratory diseases and to develop new concepts for pulmonary administration of drugs and, on the other hand, to use the pulmonary route to administer drugs for systemic diseases. This has led to some marketed products through the last decade. Although the introduction of nanotechnology permitted to step over numerous problems and to improve the bioavailability of drugs, there are, however, unresolved delivery problems to be still addressed. These scientific and industrial innovations and challenges are discussed along this review together with an analysis of the current situation concerning the industrial developments. PMID:18488412

  9. Computational 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing a comprehensive, morphologically-realistic computational model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while being adaptable for age, race, gender, and health/disease status. The model ...

  10. Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur. PMID:15847721

  11. Avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary A; Maslow, Melanie J

    2006-03-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004 alone, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate over 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantines, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent increased human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short, interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems offer promise, should a pandemic occur. PMID:16566867

  12. A respiratory-gated treatment system for proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.-M.; Brett, Robert; Sharp, Gregory; Safai, Soiros; Jiang, Steve; Flanz, Jay; Kooy, Hanne

    2007-08-15

    Proton therapy offers the potential for excellent dose conformity and reduction in integral dose. The superior dose distribution is, however, much more sensitive to changes in radiological depths along the beam path than for photon fields. Respiratory motion can cause such changes for treatments sites like lung, liver, and mediastinum and thus affect the proton dose distribution significantly. We have implemented and commissioned a respiratory-gated system for range-modulated treatment fields. The gating system was designed to ensure that each gate always contains complete modulation cycles so that for any beam segment the delivered dose has the planned depth-dose distribution. Measurements have been made to estimate the time delays for the various components of the system. The total delay between the actual motion and the beam on/off control is in the range of 65-195 ms. Time-resolved dose measurements and film tests were also conducted to examine the overall gating effect.

  13. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  14. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'. PMID:25451137

  15. Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Respiratory System Disorders. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    We are revising the criteria in the Listing of Impairments (listings) that we use to evaluate claims involving respiratory disorders in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act). The revisions reflect our program experience and advances in medical knowledge since we last comprehensively revised this body system in 1993, as well as comments we received from medical experts and the public. PMID:27295734

  16. Current developments in avian influenza vaccines, including safety of vaccinated birds as food.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, most vaccines against avian influenza were based on oil-emulsified inactivated low- or high-pathogenicity viruses. Now, recombinant fowl pox and avian paramyxovirus type 1 vaccines with avian influenza H5 gene inserts (+ or - N1 gene insert) are available and licensed. New technologies might overcome existing limitations to make available vaccines that can be grown in tissue culture systems for more rapid production; provide optimized protection, as a result of closer genetic relations to field viruses; allow mass administration by aerosol, in drinking-water or in ovo; and allow easier strategies for identifying infected birds within vaccinated populations (DIVA). The technologies include avian influenza viruses with partial gene deletions, avian influenza-Newcastle disease virus chimeras, vectored vaccines such as adenoviruses and Marek's disease virus, and subunit vaccines. These new methods should be licensed only after their purity, safety, efficacy and potency against avian influenza viruses have been demonstrated, and, for live vectored vaccines, restriction of viral transmission to unvaccinated birds. Use of vaccines in countries affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza will not only protect poultry but will provide additional safety for consumers. Experimental studies have shown that birds vaccinated against avian influenza have no virus in meat and minimal amounts in eggs after HPAI virus challenge, and that replication and shedding from their respiratory and alimentary tracts is greatly reduced. PMID:18411943

  17. Avian Astrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian astroviruses comprise a diverse group of viruses affecting many avian species and causing enteritis, hepatitis and nephritis. To date, six different astroviruses have been identified in avian species based on the species of origin and viral genome characteristics: two turkey-origin astroviru...

  18. Avian influenza

    MedlinePlus

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  19. Development of a targeted flip-in system in avian DT40 cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Fujii, Toshihiko; Asada, Ryuta; Ooka, Masato; Hirota, Kouji

    2015-01-01

    Gene-targeting to create null mutants or designed-point mutants is a powerful tool for the molecular dissection of complex phenotypes involving DNA repair, signal transduction, and metabolism. Because gene-targeting is critically impaired in mutants exhibiting attenuated homologous recombination (HR), it is believed that gene-targeting is mediated via homologous recombination, though the precise mechanism remains unknown. We explored gene-targeting in yeast and avian DT40 cells. In animal cells, gene-targeting is activated by DNA double strand breaks introduced into the genomic region where gene-targeting occurs. This is evidenced by the fact that introducing double strand breaks at targeted genome sequences via artificial endonucleases such as TALEN and CRISPR facilitates gene-targeting. We found that in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, gene-targeting was initiated from double strand breaks on both edges of the homologous arms in the targeting construct. Strikingly, we also found efficient gene-targeting initiated on the edges of homologous arms in avian DT40 cells, a unique animal cell line in which efficient gene-targeting has been demonstrated. It may be that yeast and DT40 cells share some mechanism in which unknown factors detect and recombine broken DNA ends at homologous arms accompanied by crossover. We found efficient targeted integration of gapped plasmids accompanied by crossover in the DT40 cells. To take advantage of this finding, we developed a targeted flip-in system for avian DT40 cells. This flip-in system enables the rapid generation of cells expressing tag-fused proteins and the stable expression of transgenes from OVA loci. PMID:25799417

  20. 38 CFR 4.97 - Schedule of ratings-respiratory system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... catheterization), or; episode(s) of acute respiratory failure, or; requires outpatient oxygen therapy 100 FEV-1 of...-respiratory system. 4.97 Section 4.97 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Respiratory System § 4.97 Schedule of...

  1. 38 CFR 4.97 - Schedule of ratings-respiratory system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... catheterization), or; episode(s) of acute respiratory failure, or; requires outpatient oxygen therapy 100 FEV-1 of...-respiratory system. 4.97 Section 4.97 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Respiratory System § 4.97 Schedule of...

  2. 38 CFR 4.97 - Schedule of ratings-respiratory system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... catheterization), or; episode(s) of acute respiratory failure, or; requires outpatient oxygen therapy 100 FEV-1 of...-respiratory system. 4.97 Section 4.97 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Respiratory System § 4.97 Schedule of...

  3. 38 CFR 4.97 - Schedule of ratings-respiratory system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... catheterization), or; episode(s) of acute respiratory failure, or; requires outpatient oxygen therapy 100 FEV-1 of...-respiratory system. 4.97 Section 4.97 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Respiratory System § 4.97 Schedule of...

  4. 38 CFR 4.97 - Schedule of ratings-respiratory system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... catheterization), or; episode(s) of acute respiratory failure, or; requires outpatient oxygen therapy 100 FEV-1 of...-respiratory system. 4.97 Section 4.97 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Respiratory System § 4.97 Schedule of...

  5. Avian influenza virus-induced regulation of duck fibroblast gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have been non-pathogenic in ducks causing no disease or mild respiratory infections. However, in 2002, new viruses emerged causing systemic disease and death. To better understand the differences in pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in ducks, we in...

  6. OSCILLATION MECHANICS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: APPLICATIONS TO LUNG DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kaczka, David W.; Dellacá, Raffaele L.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1950s, the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and the measurement of respiratory impedance have evolved into powerful tools for the assessment of various mechanical phenomena in the mammalian lung during health and disease. In this review, we highlight the most recent developments in instrumentation, signal processing, and modeling relevant to FOT measurements. We demonstrate how FOT provides unparalleled information on the mechanical status of the respiratory system compared to more widely-used pulmonary function tests. The concept of mechanical impedance is reviewed, as well as the various measurement techniques used to acquire such data. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of lower, physiologic frequency ranges (typically less than 10 Hz) that are most sensitive to normal physical processes as well as pathologic structural alterations. Various inverse modeling approaches used to interpret alterations in impedance are also discussed, specifically in the context of three common respiratory diseases: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute lung injury. Finally, we speculate on the potential role for FOT in the clinical arena. PMID:22011237

  7. Flow Transport in Microtubes Inspired by Insect Respiratory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboelkaasem, Yasser; Staples, Anne

    2010-11-01

    The mechanics of insect respiration and tracheal ventilation generally follow either highly discontinuous, or cyclic gas exchange patterns. In the former, gases are exchanged by diffusion, while in the latter, recent imaging of internal respiratory flow dynamics in insects performed at the x-ray synchrotron imaging facility at Argonne indicates that convective gas exchange is accomplished by changes in internal pressure due to rhythmic compressions of the tracheal tubes that comprise the respiratory network. These localized tracheal compressions are induced by global body movements and are used to enhance the oxygen transport to the tissue. Inspired by the dynamics of insect respiratory networks in the cyclic gas exchange regime, we study fluid transport in a mixed rigid/elastic microtube that undergoes localized single and multiple periodic collapses. The latter induces a streaming of flows and therefore enhances convection and flow transport in the tube downstream of the collapse site. The shape of the microtube, the material properties, and the compression and reinflation spatial and temporal profiles are selected to mimic those observed in insect tracheal tubes. A low Reynolds number assumption and lubrication theory are used to develop a mathematical model for the system. The effects of tube shape, collapse amplitude, collapse-to-collapse distance, and collapse phase lags on the net flow rate, pressure gradient, wall shear stress, velocity are investigated.

  8. New insight into the evolution of the vertebrate respiratory system and the discovery of unidirectional airflow in iguana lungs

    PubMed Central

    Cieri, Robert L.; Craven, Brent A.; Schachner, Emma R.; Farmer, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    The generally accepted framework for the evolution of a key feature of the avian respiratory system, unidirectional airflow, is that it is an adaptation for efficiency of gas exchange and expanded aerobic capacities, and therefore it has historically been viewed as important to the ability of birds to fly and to maintain an endothermic metabolism. This pattern of flow has been presumed to arise from specific features of the respiratory system, such as an enclosed intrapulmonary bronchus and parabronchi. Here we show unidirectional airflow in the green iguana, a lizard with a strikingly different natural history from that of birds and lacking these anatomical features. This discovery indicates a paradigm shift is needed. The selective drivers of the trait, its date of origin, and the fundamental aerodynamic mechanisms by which unidirectional flow arises must be reassessed to be congruent with the natural history of this lineage. Unidirectional flow may serve functions other than expanded aerobic capacity; it may have been present in the ancestral diapsid; and it can occur in structurally simple lungs. PMID:25404314

  9. New insight into the evolution of the vertebrate respiratory system and the discovery of unidirectional airflow in iguana lungs.

    PubMed

    Cieri, Robert L; Craven, Brent A; Schachner, Emma R; Farmer, C G

    2014-12-01

    The generally accepted framework for the evolution of a key feature of the avian respiratory system, unidirectional airflow, is that it is an adaptation for efficiency of gas exchange and expanded aerobic capacities, and therefore it has historically been viewed as important to the ability of birds to fly and to maintain an endothermic metabolism. This pattern of flow has been presumed to arise from specific features of the respiratory system, such as an enclosed intrapulmonary bronchus and parabronchi. Here we show unidirectional airflow in the green iguana, a lizard with a strikingly different natural history from that of birds and lacking these anatomical features. This discovery indicates a paradigm shift is needed. The selective drivers of the trait, its date of origin, and the fundamental aerodynamic mechanisms by which unidirectional flow arises must be reassessed to be congruent with the natural history of this lineage. Unidirectional flow may serve functions other than expanded aerobic capacity; it may have been present in the ancestral diapsid; and it can occur in structurally simple lungs. PMID:25404314

  10. Respiratory system mechanics in sedated, paralyzed, morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, P; Croci, M; Ravagnan, I; Cerisara, M; Vicardi, P; Lissoni, A; Gattinoni, L

    1997-03-01

    The effects of inspiratory flow and inflation volume on the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in eight sedated and paralyzed postoperative morbidly obese patients (aged 37.6 +/- 11.8 yr who had never smoked and had normal preoperative seated spirometry) were investigated by using the technique of rapid airway occlusion during constant-flow inflation. With the patients in the supine position, we measured the interrupter resistance (Rint,rs), which in humans probably reflects airway resistance, the "additional" resistance (delta Rrs) due to viscoelastic pressure dissipation and time-constant inequalities, and static respiratory elastance (Est,rs). Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was measured by using a bladder catheter, and functional residual capacity was measured by the heliumdilution technique. The results were compared with a previous study on 16 normal anesthetized paralyzed humans. Compared with normal persons, we found that in obese subjects: 1) functional residual capacity was markedly lower (0.645 +/- 0.208 liter) and IAP was higher (24 +/- 2.2 cmH2O); 2) alveolar-arterial oxygenation gradient was increased (178 +/- 59 mmHg); 3) the volume-pressure curve of the respiratory system was curvilinear with an "inflection" point; 4) Est,rs, Rint,rs, and delta Rrs were higher than normal (29.3 +/- 5.04 cmH2O/l, 5.9 +/- 2.4 cmH2O.l-1.s, and 6.4 +/- 1.6 cmH2O.l-1.s, respectively); 5) Rint,rs increased with increasing inspiratory flow, Est,rs did not change, and delta Rrs decreased progressively; and 6) with increasing inflation volume, Rint,rs and Est,rs decreased, whereas delta Rrs rose progressively. Overall, our data suggest that obese subjects during sedation and paralysis are characterized by hypoxemia and marked alterations of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, largely explained by a reduction in lung volume due to the excessive unopposed IAP. PMID:9074968

  11. Poultry raising systems and highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Thailand: the situation, associations, and impacts.

    PubMed

    Chantong, Wasan; Kaneene, John B

    2011-05-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), caused by the virus strain H5N1, currently occurs worldwide with the greatest burden in Southeast Asia where the disease was first reported. In Thailand where the disease was first confirmed in January 2004, the virus had been persistent as a major threat to the poultry industry and human health over the past several years. It was generally hypothesized that the main reason for the disease to circulate in Thailand was the existence of traditional backyard chickens and free-range ducks raising systems. Consequently, this study reviewed the structure of poultry raising systems, the recent outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, the disease association to the backyard and free-grazing poultry production, and consequences of the outbreaks in Thailand. Although the major outbreaks in the country had declined, the sustaining disease surveillance and prevention are still strongly recommended. PMID:21706938

  12. The East Jakarta Project: surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) and seasonal influenza viruses in patients seeking care for respiratory disease, Jakarta, Indonesia, October 2011-September 2012.

    PubMed

    Storms, A D; Kusriastuti, R; Misriyah, S; Praptiningsih, C Y; Amalya, M; Lafond, K E; Samaan, G; Triada, R; Iuliano, A D; Ester, M; Sidjabat, R; Chittenden, K; Vogel, R; Widdowson, M A; Mahoney, F; Uyeki, T M

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has reported the most human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus worldwide. We implemented enhanced surveillance in four outpatient clinics and six hospitals for HPAI H5N1 and seasonal influenza viruses in East Jakarta district to assess the public health impact of influenza in Indonesia. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI); respiratory specimens were obtained for influenza testing by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During October 2011-September 2012, 1131/3278 specimens from ILI cases (34·5%) and 276/1787 specimens from SARI cases (15·4%) tested positive for seasonal influenza viruses. The prevalence of influenza virus infections was highest during December-May and the proportion testing positive was 76% for ILI and 36% for SARI during their respective weeks of peak activity. No HPAI H5N1 virus infections were identified, including hundreds of ILI and SARI patients with recent poultry exposures, whereas seasonal influenza was an important contributor to acute respiratory disease in East Jakarta. Overall, 668 (47%) of influenza viruses were influenza B, 384 (27%) were A(H1N1)pdm09, and 359 (25%) were H3. While additional data over multiple years are needed, our findings suggest that seasonal influenza prevention efforts, including influenza vaccination, should target the months preceding the rainy season. PMID:25912029

  13. Comparison of pig and ferret models for evaluation of respiratory versus alimentary transmission of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused over 300 human infections and over 200 deaths since 2003. The majority of the cases have involved close direct or indirect contact with infected poultry but a few cases have incriminated consumption of uncooked poultry p...

  14. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  15. Development, standardization and assessment of PCR systems for purity testing of avian viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ottiger, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) requires avian viral vaccines to be free of adventitious agents. Purity testing is an essential quality requirement of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs) and testing for extraneous agents includes monitoring for many different viruses. Conventional virus detection methods include serology or virus culture, however, molecular tests have become a valid alternative testing method. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is fast, highly sensitive and has a higher degree of discrimination than conventional approaches. These advantages have led to the development and standardization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of avian leucosis virus, avian orthoreovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, influenza A virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, egg drop syndrome virus, chicken anaemia virus, avian adenovirus and avian encephalomyelitis virus. This paper reviews the development, standardization and assessment of PCR for extraneous agent testing in IVMPs with examples from an Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). PMID:20338785

  16. Verification and compensation of respiratory motion using an ultrasound imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Chiu, Wei-Hung; Tien, Der-Chi; Wu, Ren-Hong; Hsu, Chung-Hsien

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to use ultrasound imaging as an aid for moving the treatment couch during diagnosis and treatment procedures associated with radiation therapy, in order to offset organ displacement caused by respiratory motion. A noninvasive ultrasound system was used to replace the C-arm device during diagnosis and treatment with the aims of reducing the x-ray radiation dose on the human body while simultaneously being able to monitor organ displacements. Methods: This study used a proposed respiratory compensating system combined with an ultrasound imaging system to monitor the compensation effect of respiratory motion. The accuracy of the compensation effect was verified by fluoroscopy, which means that fluoroscopy could be replaced so as to reduce unnecessary radiation dose on patients. A respiratory simulation system was used to simulate the respiratory motion of the human abdomen and a strain gauge (respiratory signal acquisition device) was used to capture the simulated respiratory signals. The target displacements could be detected by an ultrasound probe and used as a reference for adjusting the gain value of the respiratory signal used by the respiratory compensating system. This ensured that the amplitude of the respiratory compensation signal was a faithful representation of the target displacement. Results: The results show that performing respiratory compensation with the assistance of the ultrasound images reduced the compensation error of the respiratory compensating system to 0.81–2.92 mm, both for sine-wave input signals with amplitudes of 5, 10, and 15 mm, and human respiratory signals; this represented compensation of the respiratory motion by up to 92.48%. In addition, the respiratory signals of 10 patients were captured in clinical trials, while their diaphragm displacements were observed simultaneously using ultrasound. Using the respiratory compensating system to offset, the diaphragm

  17. Antivirals for Respiratory Viral Infections: Problems and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Zhou, Yuan-Hong; Ye, Feng; Yang, Zhan-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    In the past two decades, several newly emerging and reemerging viral respiratory pathogens including several influenza viruses (avian influenza and pandemic influenza), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have continued to challenge medical and public health systems. Thereafter, the development of cost-effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the urgent mission of both virologists and pharmacologists. Current antiviral developments have focused targets on viral entry, replication, release, and intercellular pathways essential for viral life cycle. Here, we review the current literature on challenges and prospects in the development of these antivirals. PMID:27486742

  18. The Respiratory System. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit with instructor's guide provides materials on aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the respiratory system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human respiratory system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to famlliarize the student with some of the…

  19. An immuno-biosensor system based on quartz crystal microbalance for avian influenza virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengping; Chen, Guoming; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Yunlong

    2007-12-01

    For the quick detection of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), a biosensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was fabricated according to the specific bonding principle between antibody and antigen. Staphylococcal Protein A (SPA) was extracted from Staphylococcus and purified. Then SPA was coated on the surface of QCM for immobilizing AIV monoclonal antibodies. The use of AIV monoclonal antibody could enhance the specificity of the immuno-biosensor. A multi-channel piezoelectricity detection system for the immuno-biosensor was developed. The system can work for the quick detection of AIV antigen in the case of the entirely aqueous status owe to one special oscillating circuit designed in this work. The optimum conditions of SPA coating and AIV monoclonal antibody immobilization were investigated utilizing the multi-channel detection system. The preliminary application of the immuno-biosensor system for detection of AIV was evaluated. Results indicate that the immuno-biosensor system can detect the AIV antigens with a linear range of 3-200ng/ml. The system can accomplish the detection of AIV antigens around 40 minutes.

  20. Fatigue and the design of the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, S L; Hoppeler, H

    1995-01-01

    One source of muscle fatigue may be the failure to provide the required oxygen by any step in the oxygen transport cascade or a lack of the necessary machinery to utilize that oxygen. We favor abandoning the concept of a single rate-limiting step for the concept of tuned resistors, each contributing to the overall resistance to oxygen flow. However, because some of these steps have considerably less phenotypic plasticity than others, these are the component parts of the respiratory system that must be built with adequate "reserve" to accommodate adaptive increases in the other steps (Lindstedt et al., 1988; Weibel et al., 1992; Lindstedt et al., 1994). These structures will usually appear to be over built except in those rare individual animals at the species-specific limit of VO2 in which these less malleable structures may be limiting. PMID:8585466

  1. Systems biology unravels interferon responses to respiratory virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, Andrea L; Coombs, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Interferon production is an important defence against viral replication and its activation is an attractive therapeutic target. However, it has long been known that viruses perpetually evolve a multitude of strategies to evade these host immune responses. In recent years there has been an explosion of information on virus-induced alterations of the host immune response that have resulted from data-rich omics technologies. Unravelling how these systems interact and determining the overall outcome of the host response to viral infection will play an important role in future treatment and vaccine development. In this review we focus primarily on the interferon pathway and its regulation as well as mechanisms by which respiratory RNA viruses interfere with its signalling capacity. PMID:24600511

  2. Mathematical modelling of a human external respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A closed system of algebraic and common differential equations solved by computer is investigated. It includes equations which describe the activity pattern of the respiratory center, the phrenic nerve, the thrust produced by the diaphragm as a function of the lung volume and discharge frequency of the phrenic nerve, as well as certain relations of the lung stretch receptors and chemoreceptors on various lung and blood characteristics, equations for lung biomechanics, pulmonary blood flow, alveolar gas exchange and capillary blood composition equations to determine various air and blood flow and gas exchange parameters, and various gas mixing and arterial and venous blood composition equations, to determine other blood, air and gas mixing characteristics. Data are presented by means of graphs and tables, and some advantages of this model over others are demonstrated by test results.

  3. Aerosol deposition in the human respiratory system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop mathematical models for the deposition of aerosols in the human respiratory system. Expressions were obtained for the mean deposition efficiency for nasal inspiration, nasal expiration, and mouth inspiration. A determination was made of statistical properties associated with each deposition efficiency due to intersubject and intrasubject variabilities. Expressions were then derived for head deposition with combined nose and mouth breathing. In the lung, deposition is a result primarily of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. While there was no adequate model for impaction, several deposition formulae for sedimentation were derived as well as ones for diffusion. Studies were also made of the particle charge effect, as the electrostatic image force on a particle contributes to its deposition. There is, however, a threshold charge per particle below which the particle charge has no effect on deposition. Deposition data on ultrafine particles is scarce due to the difficulties in conducting proper experiments.

  4. Simulation of Flow Patterns Within the Human Respiratory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quatember, Bernhard; Mayr, Martin; Recheis, Wolfgang

    2008-09-01

    A nonlinear simulation model of the respiratory system is presented here. It describes the flow patterns as well as the specific gas mixing and distribution processes that occur in the tracheobronchial tree. The model is based on the commonly used morphometric scheme of E. Weibel. It consists of a "pressure-flow submodel" and a "gas mixing submodel. The former is a lumped parameter model consisting of 24 lumped components. The second type, the "gas mixing submodel," enables the simulation of the mixing processes in the trachea and in the larger bronchi (up to the 10th generation). Several simulation studies that are based on it have been carried out; they deal with both the physiological conditions and the specific pathological changes that occur in the small airways during the early stages of chronic obstructive bronchitis.

  5. Age at infection affects the pathogenicity of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses have changed from producing no disease or mild respiratory infections in ducks to some strains causing systemic disease and death. Differences in pathogenicity between four of these viruses as well as the effect of host age on the outcome of infection were...

  6. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module V. Respiratory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the respiratory system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Five units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system; (2) pathophysiology assessment of the patient; (3) pathophysiology and management of…

  7. [The role of opioidergic and GABAergic systems in the mechanosensitivity regulation of the respiratory system in rats].

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, L N; Safina, N F; Tarakanov, I A

    2015-01-01

    In anaesthetized white outbred male rats we investigated the change of respiratory mechanoreceptors sensitivity to morphine and phenibut. Bilateral transection of the vagus nerves causes a severely slowdown of respiratory rate in 30 minutes after the systemic administration of morphine, however after administration of phenibut the respiratory rate and other respiration parameters have not changed significantly. It means that the activation of opioid receptors by morphine does not significantly affect the function of the respiratory mechanoreceptor control loop, and transection of the vagus nerves on this background increases the probability of respiratory rhythm disorders. Activation of GABAergic system by phenibut significantly weakened the impact of the regulating contour of the respiratory mechanoreceptor on breathing parameters, up to effect of "central vagotomy": that is, to no changes in respiratory parameters after cutting the vagus nerves. PMID:27116874

  8. The respiratory-vocal system of songbirds: Anatomy, physiology, and neural control

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marc F.; Wild, J. Martin

    2015-01-01

    This wide-ranging review presents an overview of the respiratory-vocal system in songbirds, which are the only other vertebrate group known to display a degree of respiratory control during song rivalling that of humans during speech; this despite the fact that the peripheral components of both the respiratory and vocal systems differ substantially in the two groups. We first provide a brief description of these peripheral components in songbirds (lungs, air sacs and respiratory muscles, vocal organ (syrinx), upper vocal tract) and then proceed to a review of the organization of central respiratory-related neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, the latter having an organization fundamentally similar to that of the ventral respiratory group of mammals. The second half of the review describes the nature of the motor commands generated in a specialized “cortical” song control circuit and how these might engage brainstem respiratory networks to shape the temporal structure of song. We also discuss a bilaterally projecting “respiratory-thalamic” pathway that links the respiratory system to “cortical” song control nuclei. This necessary pathway for song originates in the brainstem’s primary inspiratory center and is hypothesized to play a vital role in synchronizing song motor commands both within and across hemispheres. PMID:25194204

  9. The respiratory-vocal system of songbirds: anatomy, physiology, and neural control.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marc F; Martin Wild, J

    2014-01-01

    This wide-ranging review presents an overview of the respiratory-vocal system in songbirds, which are the only other vertebrate group known to display a degree of respiratory control during song rivalling that of humans during speech; this despite the fact that the peripheral components of both the respiratory and vocal systems differ substantially in the two groups. We first provide a brief description of these peripheral components in songbirds (lungs, air sacs and respiratory muscles, vocal organ (syrinx), upper vocal tract) and then proceed to a review of the organization of central respiratory-related neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, the latter having an organization fundamentally similar to that of the ventral respiratory group of mammals. The second half of the review describes the nature of the motor commands generated in a specialized "cortical" song control circuit and how these might engage brainstem respiratory networks to shape the temporal structure of song. We also discuss a bilaterally projecting "respiratory-thalamic" pathway that links the respiratory system to "cortical" song control nuclei. This necessary pathway for song originates in the brainstem's primary inspiratory center and is hypothesized to play a vital role in synchronizing song motor commands both within and across hemispheres. PMID:25194204

  10. Avian Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious viral disease of birds. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as ... often causing no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause ...

  11. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  12. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  13. Avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Locke, Louis N.; Kennelly, James J.

    1985-01-01

    What is avian botulism? Avian botulism, or Western duck sickness, is one of the three most important disease problems of wild migratory birds. Each year, many birds are paralyzed or die after exposure to a toxin produced by the botulinum bacterium. Two of the seven toxin types that have been identifies cause mortality in wild birds; one of these types, type C, is most often associated with dieoffs of ducks, while type E primarily affects gulls and loons.

  14. Recording system and data fusion algorithm for enhancing the estimation of the respiratory rate from photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Roxana A; Ciorecan, Silvia I; Ungureanu, Constantin; Arends, Johan; Strungaru, Rodica; Ungureanu, G Mihaela

    2015-08-01

    The respiratory rate is a vital parameter that can provide valuable information about the health condition of a patient. The extraction of respiratory information from photoplethysmographic signal (PPG) was actually encouraged by the reported results, our main goal being to obtain accurate respiratory rate estimation from the PPG signal. We developed a fusion algorithm that identifies the best derived respiratory signals, from which is possible to extract the respiratory rate; based on these, a global respiratory rate is computed using the proposed fusion algorithm. The algorithm is qualitatively tested on real PPG signals recorded by an acquisition system we implemented, using a reflection pulse oximeter sensor. Its performance is also statistically evaluated using benchmark dataset publically available from CapnoBase.Org. PMID:26737653

  15. Effects of respiratory mechanics on the capnogram phases: importance of dynamic compliance of the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The slope of phase III of the capnogram (SIII) relates to progressive emptying of the alveoli, a ventilation/perfusion mismatch, and ventilation inhomogeneity. SIII depends not only on the airway geometry, but also on the dynamic respiratory compliance (Crs); this latter effect has not been evaluated. Accordingly, we established the value of SIII for monitoring airway resistance during mechanical ventilation. Methods Sidestream capnography was performed during mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery (n = 144). The airway resistance (Raw), total respiratory resistance and Crs displayed by the ventilator, the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and SIII were measured in time domain (ST-III) and in a smaller cohort (n = 68) by volumetry (SV-III) with and without normalization to the average CO2 phase III concentration. Measurements were performed at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels of 3, 6 and 9 cmH2O in patients with healthy lungs (Group HL), and in patients with respiratory symptoms involving low (Group LC), medium (Group MC) or high Crs (Group HC). Results ST-III and SV-III exhibited similar PEEP dependencies and distribution between the protocol groups formed on the basis of Crs. A wide interindividual scatter was observed in the overall Raw-ST-III relationship, which was primarily affected by Crs. Decreases in Raw with increasing PEEP were reflected in sharp falls in SIII in Group HC, and in moderate decreases in SIII in Group MC, whereas ST-III was insensitive to changes in airway caliber in Groups LC and HL. Conclusions SIII assessed in the time domain and by volumetry provide meaningful information about alterations in airway caliber, but only within an individual patient. Although ST-III may be of value for bedside monitoring of the airway properties, its sensitivity depends on Crs. Thus, assessment of the capnogram shape should always be coupled with Crs when the airway resistance or

  16. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among patients with systemic arterial hypertension without respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; Pereira, Sheila Alves; Silva Júnior, José Laerte Rodrigues; de Rezende, Aline Pacheco; Castro da Costa, Adeliane; de Sousa Corrêa, Krislainy; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often delayed until later stages of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD among adults on treatment for systemic arterial hypertension independently of the presence of respiratory symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study included adults aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and systemic arterial hypertension diagnosed at three Primary Health Care facilities in Goiania, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using a standardized respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. COPD prevalence was measured considering the value of forced vital capacity and/or forced expiratory volume in 1 second <0.70. Results Of a total of 570 subjects, 316 (55%) met inclusion criteria and were invited to participate. Two hundred and thirty-three (73.7%) patients with arterial hypertension reported at least one respiratory symptom, while 83 (26.3%) reported no respiratory symptoms; 41 (17.6%) patients with arterial hypertension and at least one respiratory symptom, and 10 (12%) patients with arterial hypertension but no respiratory symptoms were diagnosed with COPD (P=0.24). The prevalence of COPD in people with no previous COPD diagnosis was greater among those with no respiratory symptoms (100%) than among those with respiratory symptoms (56.1%) (P=0.01). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, individuals aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and arterial hypertension may benefit from spirometric evaluation. PMID:26257517

  17. Gender-related changes in the avian vasotocin system during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Jurkevich, A; Grossmann, R; Balthazart, J; Viglietti-Panzica, C

    2001-10-01

    The arginine vasotocin (AVT) system of the avian brain includes a sexually dimorphic part that extends from the caudal part of preoptic region through the medial part of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTm) to the lateral septum. It is composed of the parvocellular neurons located in the BSTm and the dense innervation of the medial preoptic region and lateral septum. In this part of the brain, AVT expression is stronger in males than in females in a few bird species investigated to date. This review focuses on the ontogeny of sexual differences in the vasotocinergic system of two gallinaceous species, domestic chicken and Japanese quail, and on the role of gonadal hormones in organizing during development and maintaining in adulthood these differences. Parvocellular AVT neurons become discernible in the BSTm of males and females during the second half of embryonic development. These cells undergo a profound and irreversible sexual differentiation during ontogenetic development. Recent findings demonstrate a dual role of estrogens in the organization and activation of sex differences in the AVT system. During the embryonic period of ontogeny, estrogens differentiate the AVT system in a sexually dimorphic manner in parallel with the differentiation of sexual behavior, while in adulthood estrogens, locally produced from testosterone in the male brain, activate AVT synthesis in the BSTm. The sexually dimorphic part of the AVT system is sensitive to a number of abiotic factors such as light, temperature, and water availability. It is suggested that sex dimorphic vasotocinergic systems could be implicated in processes of social recognition in various behavioral contexts. PMID:11596147

  18. MODELING OF THE UPPER AND LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casting of silicone rubber replica casts of upper respiratory airways including nose, larynx, trachea, and tracheobronchial airways is described for the human and for standard laboratory animals. Morphometric measurements were made on nasopharyngeal and tracheobronchial airway ca...

  19. Transgenic Quail as a Model for Research in the Avian Nervous System – A Comparative Study of the Auditory Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Armin H.; Sanchez, Jason Tait; Schecterson, Leslayann; Tabor, Kathryn M.; Wang, Yuan; Kashima, Daniel T.; Poynter, Greg; Huss, David; Fraser, Scott E.; Lansford, Rusty; Rubel, Edwin W

    2012-01-01

    Research performed on transgenic animals has led to numerous advances in biological research. However, using traditional retroviral methods to generate transgenic avian research models has proven problematic. As a result, experiments aimed at genetic manipulations on birds remained difficult for this popular research tool. Recently, lentiviral methods have enabled production of transgenic birds, including a transgenic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) line showing neuronal-specificity and stable expression of eGFP across generations (termed here as GFP quail). To test whether the GFP quail may serve as a viable alternative to the popular chicken model system, with the additional benefit of gene manipulation, we compared the development, organization, structure and function of a specific neuronal circuit in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) to that of the GFP quail. This study focuses on a well-defined avian brain region, the principal nuclei of the sound localization circuit in the auditory brainstem, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus laminaris (NL). Our results demonstrate that structural and functional properties of NM and NL neurons in the GFP quail, as well as their dynamic properties in response to changes in the environment, are nearly identical to those in chickens. These similarities demonstrate that the GFP quail, as well as other transgenic quail lines, can serve as an attractive avian model system, with the advantage of being able to build on the wealth of information already available from the chicken. PMID:22806400

  20. Rapid response to systemic bevacizumab therapy in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    MOHR, MICHAEL; SCHLIEMANN, CHRISTOPH; BIERMANN, CHRISTOPH; SCHMIDT, LARS-HENNING; KESSLER, TORSTEN; SCHMIDT, JOACHIM; WIEBE, KARSTEN; MÜLLER, KLAUS-MICHAEL; HOFFMANN, THOMAS K.; GROLL, ANDREAS H.; WERNER, CLAUDIUS; KESSLER, CHRISTINA; WIEWRODT, RAINER; RUDACK, CLAUDIA; BERDEL, WOLFGANG E.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a primary benign disease, which is characterized by papillomatous growth in the respiratory tract. Malignant transformation occurs in only 3–5% of cases, however, local growth of the benign papillomas is interpreted as clinically malignant in a markedly higher proportion of patients. Local surgical or endoscopic interventional debulking or excision is currently the commonly selected treatment method and antiviral therapy is a potential adjuvant approach. However, the long-term management of RRP patients, who commonly require multiple procedures over numerous years, is challenging and the overall therapeutic armamentarium remains unsatisfactory. The administration of systemic bevacizumab treatment in a series of five patients with long histories of RRP, who required repeated local interventions to control papilloma growth is evaluated. Treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab was administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg (n=1), 10 mg/kg (n=3) or 15 mg/kg (n=1) intravenously to the five RRP patients, who were clinically classified as exhibiting progressive disease. Endoscopic evaluations were performed prior to the first infusion of bevacizumab and intermittently at variable time points during the course of therapy. Histopathological analyses were performed using pre- and post-treatment papilloma biopsies, including immunohistochemical analyses of VEGF and phosphorylated VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 expression. The patients received between three and 16 courses of bevacizumab (median, six courses). The first course was initiated when progression following the previous intervention was observed. An immediate response to bevacizumab treatment was demonstrated in all five RRP patients. While the cumulative number of interventions in the five patients was 18 throughout the 12 months prior to the initiation of bevacizumab treatment, only one patient required interventional treatment due to a

  1. Active impedance of respiratory system in anesthetized cats.

    PubMed

    Zin, W A; Pengelly, L D; Milic-Emili, J

    1982-07-01

    We have assessed the validity of the method of Siafakas et al. (J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 51: 109-121, 1981) for determining active elastance (E'rs) and flow resistance (R'rs) of the respiratory system. In six cats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium we have measured flow, volume, and tracheal occlusion pressure during spontaneous breathing. This allowed us to compute E'rs and R'rs. From these data and the occlusion pressure wave we predicted the time course of volume during inspirations with added linear flow resistances (delta R). These were compared to the actual loaded inspirograms. The agreement was generally good, except for small predictable discrepancies with the highest delta R values, which could be attributed to decompression of thoracic gas. These results indicate that the approach of Siakafas et al. to determine E'rs and R'rs is valid. In addition, we have quantified the "terminal inhibition" of inspiratory activity, which occurs toward the end of unoccluded breaths (both loaded and unloaded). PMID:7118628

  2. B lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Tan, Bruce K.; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive humoral immune responses in the airways are mediated by B cells and plasma cells that express highly evolved and specific receptors and produce immunoglobulins of most isotypes. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory diseases caused by excessive exposure to foreign antigens, these same immune cells can cause disease by virtue of overly vigorous responses. This review discusses the generation, differentiation, signaling, activation and recruitment pathways of B cells and plasma cells, with special emphasis on unique characteristics of subsets of these cells functioning within the respiratory system. The primary sensitization events that generate B cells responsible for effector responses throughout the airways usually occur in the upper airways, in tonsils and adenoid structures that make up Waldeyer’s Ring. Upon secondary exposure to antigen in the airways, antigen-processing dendritic cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes that drain the upper and lower airways and further B cell expansion takes place at those sites. Antigen exposure in the upper or lower airways can also drive expansion of B lineage cells in the airway mucosal tissue and lead to the formation of inducible lymphoid follicles or aggregates that can mediate local immunity or disease. PMID:23540615

  3. B-lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E; Tan, Bruce K; Schleimer, Robert P

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive humoral immune responses in the airways are mediated by B cells and plasma cells that express highly evolved and specific receptors and produce immunoglobulins of most isotypes. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory diseases caused by excessive exposure to foreign antigens, these same immune cells can cause disease by virtue of overly vigorous responses. This review discusses the generation, differentiation, signaling, activation, and recruitment pathways of B cells and plasma cells, with special emphasis on unique characteristics of subsets of these cells functioning within the respiratory system. The primary sensitization events that generate B cells responsible for effector responses throughout the airways usually occur in the upper airways, tonsils, and adenoid structures that make up the Waldeyer ring. On secondary exposure to antigen in the airways, antigen-processing dendritic cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes, that drain the upper and lower airways, and further B-cell expansion takes place at those sites. Antigen exposure in the upper or lower airways can also drive expansion of B-lineage cells in the airway mucosal tissue and lead to the formation of inducible lymphoid follicles or aggregates that can mediate local immunity or disease. PMID:23540615

  4. Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Immortalized Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells Depends upon a Delicate Balance between Hemagglutinin Acid Stability and Endosomal pH.

    PubMed

    Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Yasugi, Mayo; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Arai, Fumihito; Ohba, Tomoyuki; Honda, Ayae; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2015-04-24

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus, H5N1, is a serious threat to public health worldwide. Both the currently circulating H5N1 and previously circulating AI viruses recognize avian-type receptors; however, only the H5N1 is highly infectious and virulent in humans. The mechanism(s) underlying this difference in infectivity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the difference in infectivity between the current and previously circulating strains. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen to establish a series of clones (SAEC-Ts). These clones were then used to test the infectivity of AI strains. Human SAEC-Ts could be broadly categorized into two different types based on their susceptibility (high or low) to the viruses. SAEC-T clones were poorly susceptible to previously circulating AI but were completely susceptible to the currently circulating H5N1. The hemagglutinin (HA) of the current H5N1 virus showed greater membrane fusion activity at higher pH levels than that of previous AI viruses, resulting in broader cell tropism. Moreover, the endosomal pH was lower in high susceptibility SAEC-T clones than that in low susceptibility SAEC-T clones. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the infectivity of AI viruses, including H5N1, depends upon a delicate balance between the acid sensitivity of the viral HA and the pH within the endosomes of the target cell. Thus, one of the mechanisms underlying H5N1 pathogenesis in humans relies on its ability to fuse efficiently with the endosomes in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:25673693

  5. Technical evaluation of different respiratory monitoring systems used for 4D CT acquisition under free breathing.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Christian; Reiner, Michael; Belka, Claus; Walter, Franziska; Söhn, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory monitoring systems are required to supply CT scanners with information on the patient's breathing during the acquisition of a respiration-correlated computer tomography (RCCT), also referred to as 4D CT. The information a respiratory monitoring system has to provide to the CT scanner depends on the specific scanner. The purpose of this study is to compare two different respiratory monitoring systems (Anzai Respiratory Gating System; C-RAD Sentinel) with respect to their applicability in combination with an Aquilion Large Bore CT scanner from Toshiba. The scanner used in our clinic does not make use of the full time dependent breathing signal, but only single trigger pulses indicating the beginning of a new breathing cycle. Hence the attached respiratory monitoring system is expected to deliver accurate online trigger pulse for each breathing cycle. The accuracy of the trigger pulses sent to the CT scanner has to be ensured by the selected respiratory monitoring system. Since a trigger pulse (output signal) of a respiratory monitoring system is a function of the measured breathing signal (input signal), the typical clinical range of the input signal is estimated for both examined respiratory monitoring systems. Both systems are analyzed based on the following parameters: time resolution, signal amplitude, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), signal linearity, trigger compatibility, and clinical examples. The Anzai system shows a better SNR (≥ 28 dB) than the Sentinel system (≥ 14.6 dB). In terms of compatibility with the cycle-based image sorting algorithm of the Toshiba CT scanner, the Anzai system benefits from the possibility to generate cycle-based triggers, whereas the Sentinel system is only able to generate amplitude-based triggers. In clinical practice, the combination of a Toshiba CT scanner and the Anzai system will provide better results due to the compatibility of the image sorting and trigger release methods. PMID:26103168

  6. Effect of Spinal Cord Injury on the Respiratory System: Basic Research and Current Clinical Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, M. Beth; Nantwi, Kwaku; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to an impairment of the respiratory system. The more rostral the level of injury, the more likely the injury will affect ventilation. In fact, respiratory insufficiency is the number one cause of mortality and morbidity after SCI. This review highlights the progress that has been made in basic and clinical research, while noting the gaps in our knowledge. Basic research has focused on a hemisection injury model to examine methods aimed at improving respiratory function after SCI, but contusion injury models have also been used. Increasing synaptic plasticity, strengthening spared axonal pathways, and the disinhibition of phrenic motor neurons all result in the activation of a latent respiratory motor pathway that restores function to a previously paralyzed hemidiaphragm in animal models. Human clinical studies have revealed that respiratory function is negatively impacted by SCI. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve inspiratory function after SCI, but more thorough and carefully designed studies are needed to adequately address this issue. Phrenic nerve and diaphragm pacing are options available to wean patients from standard mechanical ventilation. The techniques aimed at improving respiratory function in humans with SCI have both pros and cons, but having more options available to the clinician allows for more individualized treatment, resulting in better patient care. Despite significant progress in both basic and clinical research, there is still a significant gap in our understanding of the effect of SCI on the respiratory system. PMID:17853653

  7. Dispersal in a patchy landscape reveals contrasting determinants of infection in a wild avian malaria system.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Sarah C L; Wood, Matthew J; Alves, Ricardo; Sheldon, Ben C

    2014-03-01

    Understanding exactly when, where and how hosts become infected with parasites is critical to understanding host-parasite co-evolution in natural populations. However, for host-parasite systems in which hosts or parasites are mobile, for example in vector-borne diseases, the spatial location of infection and the relative importance of parasite exposure at successive host life-history stages are often uncertain. Here, using a 6-year longitudinal data set from a spatially referenced population of blue tits, we test the extent to which infection by avian malaria parasites is determined by conditions experienced at natal or breeding sites, as well as by postnatal dispersal between the two. We show that the location and timing of infection differs markedly between two sympatric malaria parasite species. For one species (Plasmodium circumflexum), our analyses indicate that infection occurs after birds have settled on breeding territories, and because the distribution of this parasite is temporally stable across years, hosts born in malarious areas could in principle alter their exposure and potentially avoid infection through postnatal dispersal. Conversely, the spatial distribution of another parasite species (Plasmodium relictum) is unpredictable and infection probability is positively associated with postnatal dispersal distance, potentially indicating that infection occurs during this major dispersal event. These findings suggest that hosts in this population may be subject to divergent selection pressures from these two parasites, potentially acting at different life-history stages. Because this implies parasite species-specific predictions for many coevolutionary processes, they also illustrate the complexity of predicting such processes in multi-parasite systems. PMID:24117384

  8. Effects of acute oligohydramnios on respiratory system of fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Savich, R D; Guerra, F A; Lee, C C; Padbury, J F; Kitterman, J A

    1992-08-01

    Prolonged oligohydramnios, or a lack of amniotic fluid, is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and subsequent perinatal morbidity, but it is unclear whether short-term or acute oligohydramnios has any effect on the fetal respiratory system. To investigate the acute effects of removal of amniotic fluid, we studied nine chronically catheterized fetal sheep at 122-127 days gestation. During a control period, we measured the volume of fluid in the fetal potential airways and air spaces (VL), production rate of that fluid, incidence and amplitude of fetal breathing movements, tracheal pressures, and fetal plasma concentrations of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. We then drained the amniotic fluid for a short period of time [24-48 h, 30.0 +/- 4.0 (SE) h] and repeated the above measurements. The volume of fluid drained for the initial studies was 1,004 +/- 236 ml. Acute oligohydramnios decreased VL from 35.4 +/- 2.9 ml/kg during control to 22.0 +/- 1.6 after oligohydramnios (P less than 0.004). Acute oligohydramnios did not affect the fetal lung fluid production rate, fetal breathing movements, or any of the other measured variables. Seven repeat studies were performed in six of the fetuses after reaccumulation of the amniotic fluid at 130-138 days, and in four of these studies the lung volume also decreased, although the overall mean for the repeat studies was not significantly different (27.0 +/- 5.2 ml/kg for control vs. 25.5 +/- 5.5 ml/kg for oligohydramnios). Again, none of the other measured variables were altered by oligohydramnios in the repeat studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1399988

  9. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    PubMed

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media. PMID:25410122

  10. THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SHORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen of poultry as it can cause severe economic losses through disease, including respiratory signs and mortality, and effects on trade. Avian influenza virus is classified as type A influenza, which is a member of the orthomyxoviridae family. Charact...

  11. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-01

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens. PMID:24480060

  12. Respiratory and Circulatory Systems, Science (Experimental): 5363.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Alan; And Others

    This biology course is especially recommended for students interested in a vocation in nursing, medical technology, dental hygiene or other para-medical areas. In part, it is considered a second course in biology. The course includes an intensive in-depth study of the respiratory structures, nerve and chemical control of breathing, gas exchange,…

  13. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  14. Minimizing the threat of pandemic emergence from avian influenza in poultry systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Live-animal markets are a culturally important feature of meat distribution chains in many populations, yet they provide an opportunity for the maintenance and transmission of potentially emergent zoonotic pathogens. The ongoing human outbreak of avian H7N9 in China highlights the need for increased surveillance and control in these live-bird markets (LBMs). Discussion Closure of retail markets in affected areas rapidly decreased human cases to rare, sporadic occurrence, but little attention has been paid thus far to the role of upstream elements of the poultry distribution chain such as wholesale markets. This could partly explain why transmission in poultry populations has not been eliminated more broadly. We present surveillance data from both wholesale live-bird markets (wLBMs) and rLBMs in Shantou, China (from 2004–2006), and call on disease-dynamic theory to illustrate why closing rLBMs has only minor effects on the overall volume of transmission. We show that the length of time birds stay in rLBMs can severely limit transmission there, but that the system-wide effect may be reduced substantially by high levels of transmission upstream of retail markets. Summary Management plans that minimize transmission throughout the entire poultry supply chain are essential for minimizing exposure to the public. These include reducing stay-time of birds in markets to 1 day, standardizing poultry supply chains to limit transmission in pre-retail settings, and monitoring strains with epidemiological traits that pose a high risk of emergence. These actions will further limit human exposure to extant viruses and reduce the likelihood of the emergence of novel strains by decreasing the overall volume of transmission. PMID:24341669

  15. Central nervous system signs in chickens caused by a new avian reovirus strain: a pathogenesis study.

    PubMed

    Van de Zande, Saskia; Kuhn, Eva-Maria

    2007-02-25

    The present study describes the pathogenesis of infection of chicks with a new avian reovirus strain, belonging to the so-called enteric reovirus strains (ERS) that is capable of causing central nervous system signs in SPF white leghorns. After intramuscular (IM) or oral inoculation birds were either observed for clinical signs or sacrificed for macroscopic, histological and virological examination for 21 days. Virus isolation was performed on the brain, leg muscle, hock joint, liver and spleen. For the detection of viral antigen the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique was performed on the caudal part of the cerebrum, spinal cord including spinal ganglia and right N. Ischiadicus. High mortality (79% in 7 days) was seen in birds that were inoculated IM. Survivors were depressed and stayed small until the end of the experiment. One bird had tremor and showed torticollis at 9 days after IM inoculation. Birds that were inoculated orally were depressed from day 4 and stayed small until the end of the experiment. One bird showed a torticollis at 10 days after inoculation. After both IM and oral inoculation ERS was isolated from the brain between 3 and 10 days after inoculation. Other examined organs were positive for virus isolation from day 1 or 5 until day 21. IHC revealed viral antigen positive cells in the Plexus chorioideus (plexus epithelial cells or cells within the underlying connective tissue) and in a spinal ganglion. The results indicate that the pathogenesis of ERS infection in chickens bears some resemblance with that of the mammalian reoviruses serotype 1 in mice. PMID:17158000

  16. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host for avian influenza virus (AIV) is in wild birds, including ducks, gulls, and shorebirds, where the virus causes primarily an enteric infection with little disease. However, AIV can infect a wide variety of host species, and with a certain level of adaptation for the aberrant host ...

  17. Influence of the Ageing Process on the Resistive and Reactive Properties of the Respiratory System

    PubMed Central

    e Tramont, Caio Vinicius Villalón; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Jansen, José Manoel; de Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In an increasingly old society, the study of the respiratory system changes and new techniques dedicated to older patients are of interest in physiologic studies as well as in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. OBJECTIVES (1) To investigate the impact of ageing on the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system, and (2) to compare the easiness of accomplishment of spirometry and forced oscillation for assessing lung function. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study in which forced oscillation was used to investigate respiratory system resistive and reactive properties, while spirometry was used as a reference test to evaluate 80 normal subjects aged between 20 and 86 years. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the easiness of accomplishment of spirometry and forced oscillation. RESULTS There was a significant increase in the respiratory system resonance frequency (p<0.003) and a reduction in the mean reactance (p<0.004) with increasing age. Respiratory system resistance and dynamic compliance were not related to the ageing process. The easiness of accomplishment of forced oscillation measurements was greater than that of spirometry. This result was particularly relevant in subjects over 70 years old (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Respiratory system resistance and dynamic compliance are not modified with ageing. On the other hand, respiratory system homogeneity decreases during the ageing process. Forced oscillation is easy to perform and provides information complementary to spirometry. This technique may be a promising alternative and/or complement to other conventional exams used to evaluate older people who are unable to adequately perform spirometric tests. PMID:19936180

  18. Computational fluid dynamics model of avian tracheal temperature control as a model for extant and extinct animals.

    PubMed

    Sverdlova, N S; Arkali, F; Witzel, U; Perry, S F

    2013-10-01

    Respiratory evaporative cooling is an important mechanism of temperature control in bird. A computational simulation of the breathing cycle, heat and water loss in anatomical avian trachea/air sac model has not previously been conducted. We report a first attempt to simulate a breathing cycle in a three-dimensional model of avian trachea and air sacs (domestic fowl) using transient computational fluid dynamics. The airflow in the trachea of the model is evoked by changing the volume of the air sacs based on the measured tidal volume and inspiratory/expiratory times for the domestic fowl. We compare flow parameters and heat transfer results with in vivo data and with our previously reported results for a two-dimensional model. The total respiratory heat loss corresponds to about 13-19% of the starvation metabolic rate of domestic fowl. The present study can lend insight into a possible thermoregulatory function in species with long necks and/or a very long trachea, as found in swans and birds of paradise. Assuming the structure of the sauropod dinosaur respiratory system was close to avian, the simulation of the respiratory temperature control (using convective and evaporative cooling) in the extensively experimentally studied domestic fowl may also help in making simulations of respiratory heat control in these extinct animals. PMID:23797184

  19. Influence of Industrial Environments on the Development of Respiratory Systems and Morphofunctional Features in Preadolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Ignasiak, Zofia; Rozek, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the differences between levels of selected structural and functional features of boys 11–13 years in age from regions with varying levels of air pollution, including an industrial and rural region. The sample consisted of 213 boys from the industrial region and 98 from the rural region. Somatic, respiratory parameters and motor abilities were evaluated in both groups. The analysis of respiratory parameters revealed significantly better development of respiratory systems in boys from the rural region. Additionally, motor abilities were also better developed in boys from the rural region. PMID:23486548

  20. The Respiratory System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Respiratory System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This module on the respiratory system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use…

  1. Development of an integrated sensor module for a non-invasive respiratory monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seok-Won; Chang, Keun-Shik

    2013-09-01

    A respiratory monitoring system has been developed for analyzing the carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) concentrations in the expired air using gas sensors. The data can be used to estimate some medical conditions, including diffusion capability of the lung membrane, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide output. For this purpose, a 3-way valve derived from a servomotor was developed, which operates synchronously with human respiratory signals. In particular, the breath analysis system includes an integrated sensor module for valve control, data acquisition through the O2 and CO2 sensors, and respiratory rate monitoring, as well as software dedicated to analysis of respiratory gasses. In addition, an approximation technique for experimental data based on Haar-wavelet-based decomposition is explored to remove noise as well as to reduce the file size of data for long-term monitoring.

  2. Physiological system integrations with emphasis on the respiratory-cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The integration of two types of physiological system simulations is presented. The long term model is a circulatory system model which simulates long term blood flow variations and compartmental fluid shifts. The short term models simulate transient phenomena of the respiratory, thermoregulatory, and pulsatile cardiovascular systems as they respond to stimuli such as LBNP, exercise, and environmental gaseous variations. An overview of the interfacing approach is described. Descriptions of the variable interface for long term to short term and between the three short term models are given.

  3. Development of Non-contact Respiratory Monitoring System for Newborn Using a FG Vision Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurami, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yushi; Natori, Michiya; Ohzeki, Kazuo; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    In recent years, development of neonatal care is strongly hoped, with increase of the low-birth-weight baby birth rate. Especially respiration of low-birth-weight baby is incertitude because central nerve and respiratory function is immature. Therefore, a low-birth-weight baby often causes a disease of respiration. In a NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), neonatal respiration is monitored using cardio-respiratory monitor and pulse oximeter at all times. These contact-type sensors can measure respiratory rate and SpO2 (Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen). However, because a contact-type sensor might damage the newborn's skin, it is a real burden to monitor neonatal respiration. Therefore, we developed the respiratory monitoring system for newborn using a FG (Fiber Grating) vision sensor. FG vision sensor is an active stereo vision sensor, it is possible for non-contact 3D measurement. A respiratory waveform is calculated by detecting the vertical motion of the thoracic and abdominal region with respiration. We attempted clinical experiment in the NICU, and confirmed the accuracy of the obtained respiratory waveform was high. Non-contact respiratory monitoring of newborn using a FG vision sensor enabled the minimally invasive procedure.

  4. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    PubMed

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. PMID:26204893

  5. Predicting Performance and Plasticity in the Development of Respiratory Structures and Metabolic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Montooth, Kristi L.; Helm, Bryan R.

    2014-01-01

    The scaling laws governing metabolism suggest that we can predict metabolic rates across taxonomic scales that span large differences in mass. Yet, scaling relationships can vary with development, body region, and environment. Within species, there is variation in metabolic rate that is independent of mass and which may be explained by genetic variation, the environment or their interaction (i.e., metabolic plasticity). Additionally, some structures, such as the insect tracheal respiratory system, change throughout development and in response to the environment to match the changing functional requirements of the organism. We discuss how study of the development of respiratory function meets multiple challenges set forth by the NSF Grand Challenges Workshop. Development of the structure and function of respiratory and metabolic systems (1) is inherently stable and yet can respond dynamically to change, (2) is plastic and exhibits sensitivity to environments, and (3) can be examined across multiple scales in time and space. Predicting respiratory performance and plasticity requires quantitative models that integrate information across scales of function from the expression of metabolic genes and mitochondrial biogenesis to the building of respiratory structures. We present insect models where data are available on the development of the tracheal respiratory system and of metabolic physiology and suggest what is needed to develop predictive models. Incorporating quantitative genetic data will enable mapping of genetic and genetic-by-environment variation onto phenotypes, which is necessary to understand the evolution of respiratory and metabolic systems and their ability to enable respiratory homeostasis as organisms walk the tightrope between stability and change. PMID:24812329

  6. Aging-related changes in respiratory system mechanics and morphometry in mice.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Mantilla, Carlos B; Pabelick, Christina M; Roden, Anja C; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-07-01

    Previous work investigating respiratory system mechanics in mice has reported an aging-related increase in compliance and mean linear intercept (Lm). However, these changes were assessed using only a young (2-mo-old) and old (20- and 26-mo-old) group yet were interpreted to reflect a linear evolution across the life span. Therefore, to investigate respiratory system mechanics and lung morphometry across a more complete spectrum of ages, we utilized 2 (100% survival, n = 6)-, 6 (100% survival, n = 12)-, 18 (90% survival, n = 12)-, 24 (75% survival, n = 12)-, and 30 (25% survival, n = 12)-mo-old C57BL/6 mice. We found a nonlinear aging-related decrease in respiratory system resistance and increase in dynamic compliance and hysteresis between 2- and 24-mo-old mice. However, in 30-mo-old mice, respiratory system resistance increased, and dynamic compliance and hysteresis decreased relative to 24-mo-old mice. Respiratory system impedance spectra were measured between 1-20.5 Hz at positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 1, 3, 5, and 7 cmH2O. Respiratory system resistance and reactance at each level of PEEP were increased and decreased, respectively, only in 2-mo-old animals. No differences in the respiratory system impedance spectra were observed in 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-mo-old mice. Additionally, lungs were fixed following tracheal instillation of 4% paraformaldehyde at 25 cmH2O and processed for Lm and airway collagen deposition. There was an aging-related increase in Lm consistent with emphysematous-like changes and no evidence of increased airway collagen deposition. Accordingly, we demonstrate nonlinear aging-related changes in lung mechanics and morphometry in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:27288490

  7. Systemic virus distribution and host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with low pathogenic or high pathogenic avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) is classified into two pathotypes, low pathogenic (LP) and high pathogenic (HP), based on virulence in chickens. Differences in pathogenicity between HPAIV and LPAIV might eventually be related to specific characteristics of strains, tissue tropism and host responses. Methods To study differences in disease development between HPAIV and LPAIV, we examined the first appearance and eventual load of viral RNA in multiple organs as well as host responses in brain and intestine of chickens infected with two closely related H7N1 HPAIV or LPAIV strains. Results Both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV spread systemically in chickens after a combined intranasal/intratracheal inoculation. In brain, large differences in viral RNA load and host gene expression were found between H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Chicken embryo brain cell culture studies revealed that both HPAIV and LPAIV could infect cultivated embryonic brain cells, but in accordance with the absence of the necessary proteases, replication of LPAIV was limited. Furthermore, TUNEL assay indicated apoptosis in brain of HPAIV infected chickens only. In intestine, where endoproteases that cleave HA of LPAIV are available, we found minimal differences in the amount of viral RNA and a large overlap in the transcriptional responses between HPAIV and LPAIV infected chickens. Interestingly, brain and ileum differed clearly in the cellular pathways that were regulated upon an AI infection. Conclusions Although both H7N1 HPAIV and LPAIV RNA was detected in a broad range of tissues beyond the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, our observations indicate that differences in pathogenicity and mortality between HPAIV and LPAIV could originate from differences in virus replication and the resulting host responses in vital organs like the brain. PMID:22390870

  8. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K; Kida, S; Kishi, K; Sato, K; Dobashi, S; Takeda, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  9. Effect of intranasal immunization with inactivated avian influenza virus on local and systemic immune responses in ducks.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Wang, H; Yu, Q; Yang, Q

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of co-administration of inactivated avian influenza H9N2 virus and adjuvants in waterfowls, 10-d-old ducks were immunized intranasally with inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) combined with CpG DNA and sodium cholate. Immunoglobulin A and IgG antibody levels in throat and tracheal tissues increased significantly, as did specific IgA and IgG antibody levels in the serum after intranasal immunization with IAIV combined with CpG DNA and sodium cholate, compared with immunization with IAIV only. Furthermore, enhanced hemagglutination inhibition titers were also detected in serum samples taken between the third and seventh weeks after immunization with IAIV and both adjuvants compared with IAIV alone. The expression of IL-2 and IL-6 in tracheal and lung tissues increased significantly in the early period after booster immunization. However, the enhancement induced by a single adjuvant was insignificant, and no significant change was detected in the antibody titers or cytokine levels between the ducks that received IAIV alone or saline. In the viral challenge study, prior administration of both CpG DNA and sodium cholate with IAIV reduced the viral titers in the oropharynx and cloaca swabs. Our study suggests that the combination of CpG DNA and sodium cholate could be beneficial to immunization with inactivated H9N2 virus by enhancing the local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22499863

  10. Role of ventrolateral medulla in regulation of respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

    PubMed

    Millhorn, D E; Eldridge, F L

    1986-10-01

    It is now widely accepted that the ventrolateral aspect of the medulla oblongata (VLM) plays an important role in regulation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The VLM has been implicated as being involved in a number of different physiological functions, including central chemoreception, integration of afferent inputs from certain sense organs to the respiratory and cardiovascular controllers, the source of excitatory input to preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord, and location of synaptic relay between the higher brain defense areas and spinal cord sympathetic elements. In recent years there have been a number of important findings concerning both the anatomical substrate and neurophysiological characteristics of VLM neurons involved in regulation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. New anatomical findings show that neuronal networks located in the VLM send projections to and receive projections from brain stem nuclei that have traditionally been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular regulation. Nevertheless, there are still many important questions concerning the role of the VLM in control of these vital systems that have yet to be answered. For instance, are the same VLM neurons involved in control of both systems? Is the VLM the only site for central respiratory chemoreception? This review will endeavor to examine new findings and to reexamine some older findings concerning the VLM. PMID:3536832

  11. Antitussive activity and respiratory system effects of levodropropizine in man.

    PubMed

    Bossi, R; Braga, P C; Centanni, S; Legnani, D; Moavero, N E; Allegra, L

    1988-08-01

    Antitussive activity of the new antitussive drug, levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in healthy volunteers by the classical method of citric acid-induced coughing. Levodropropizine dose-dependently reduced cough frequency. Maximal inhibition was observed at 6 h after administration. Cough intensity was also reduced, as shown by the analysis of cough noise. Levodropropizine, at the dosage of 60 mg t.i.d., had no adverse effects on respiratory function nor on airway clearance mechanisms: in fact, it did not affect spirometric parameters. Levodropropizine had no effects on the rheological properties of mucus nor on ciliary activity of airway epithelium. PMID:3196411

  12. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  13. The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yu-Fei; Xu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Min-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and respiratory system disease. In the past few years, levels of smog have increased throughout China resulting in the deterioration of air quality, raising worldwide concerns. PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) can penetrate deeply into the lung, irritate and corrode the alveolar wall, and consequently impair lung function. Hence it is important to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on the respiratory system and then to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this review, we will discuss PM2.5 damage on human respiratory system from epidemiological, experimental and mechanism studies. At last, we recommend to the population to limit exposure to air pollution and call to the authorities to create an index of pollution related to health. PMID:26904255

  14. The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yu-Fei; Xu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Min-Hua; Lian, Yi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and respiratory system disease. In the past few years, levels of smog have increased throughout China resulting in the deterioration of air quality, raising worldwide concerns. PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) can penetrate deeply into the lung, irritate and corrode the alveolar wall, and consequently impair lung function. Hence it is important to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on the respiratory system and then to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this review, we will discuss PM2.5 damage on human respiratory system from epidemiological, experimental and mechanism studies. At last, we recommend to the population to limit exposure to air pollution and call to the authorities to create an index of pollution related to health. PMID:26904255

  15. Robust Unidirectional Airflow through Avian Lungs: New Insights from a Piecewise Linear Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Emily P; Ben-Tal, Alona

    2016-02-01

    Avian lungs are remarkably different from mammalian lungs in that air flows unidirectionally through rigid tubes in which gas exchange occurs. Experimental observations have been able to determine the pattern of gas flow in the respiratory system, but understanding how the flow pattern is generated and determining the factors contributing to the observed dynamics remains elusive. It has been hypothesized that the unidirectional flow is due to aerodynamic valving during inspiration and expiration, resulting from the anatomical structure and the fluid dynamics involved, however, theoretical studies to back up this hypothesis are lacking. We have constructed a novel mathematical model of the airflow in the avian respiratory system that can produce unidirectional flow which is robust to changes in model parameters, breathing frequency and breathing amplitude. The model consists of two piecewise linear ordinary differential equations with lumped parameters and discontinuous, flow-dependent resistances that mimic the experimental observations. Using dynamical systems techniques and numerical analysis, we show that unidirectional flow can be produced by either effective inspiratory or effective expiratory valving, but that both inspiratory and expiratory valving are required to produce the high efficiencies of flows observed in avian lungs. We further show that the efficacy of the inspiratory and expiratory valving depends on airsac compliances and airflow resistances that may not be located in the immediate area of the valving. Our model provides additional novel insights; for example, we show that physiologically realistic resistance values lead to efficiencies that are close to maximum, and that when the relative lumped compliances of the caudal and cranial airsacs vary, it affects the timing of the airflow across the gas exchange area. These and other insights obtained by our study significantly enhance our understanding of the operation of the avian respiratory

  16. Robust Unidirectional Airflow through Avian Lungs: New Insights from a Piecewise Linear Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Emily P.; Ben-Tal, Alona

    2016-01-01

    Avian lungs are remarkably different from mammalian lungs in that air flows unidirectionally through rigid tubes in which gas exchange occurs. Experimental observations have been able to determine the pattern of gas flow in the respiratory system, but understanding how the flow pattern is generated and determining the factors contributing to the observed dynamics remains elusive. It has been hypothesized that the unidirectional flow is due to aerodynamic valving during inspiration and expiration, resulting from the anatomical structure and the fluid dynamics involved, however, theoretical studies to back up this hypothesis are lacking. We have constructed a novel mathematical model of the airflow in the avian respiratory system that can produce unidirectional flow which is robust to changes in model parameters, breathing frequency and breathing amplitude. The model consists of two piecewise linear ordinary differential equations with lumped parameters and discontinuous, flow-dependent resistances that mimic the experimental observations. Using dynamical systems techniques and numerical analysis, we show that unidirectional flow can be produced by either effective inspiratory or effective expiratory valving, but that both inspiratory and expiratory valving are required to produce the high efficiencies of flows observed in avian lungs. We further show that the efficacy of the inspiratory and expiratory valving depends on airsac compliances and airflow resistances that may not be located in the immediate area of the valving. Our model provides additional novel insights; for example, we show that physiologically realistic resistance values lead to efficiencies that are close to maximum, and that when the relative lumped compliances of the caudal and cranial airsacs vary, it affects the timing of the airflow across the gas exchange area. These and other insights obtained by our study significantly enhance our understanding of the operation of the avian respiratory

  17. Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms in welders

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, M; Malo, J; Infante-Rivard, C; Gautrin, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of welding related respiratory symptoms coexisting with welding related systemic symptoms in welders is unknown. Aims: To determine in a sample of welders the prevalence of coexisting welding related systemic symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA), and the strength and significance of any association between these two groups of symptoms. Methods: A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, a systemic symptoms questionnaire, and a questionnaire on occupational history were administered by telephone to 351 of a sample of 441 welders (79.6%) from two cities in Québec, Canada. Results: The co-occurrence of possible MFF (defined as having at least two symptoms of fever, feelings of flu, general malaise, chills, dry cough, metallic taste, and shortness of breath, occurring at the beginning of the working week, 3–10 hours after exposure to welding fumes) together with welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA (defined as having at least two welding related symptoms of cough, wheezing, and chest tightness) was 5.8%. These two groups of symptoms were significantly associated (χ2 = 18.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a strong association between welding related MFF and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. PMID:12937186

  18. A review of recent findings about stress-relaxation in the respiratory system tissues.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Alessandro; Carniel, Emanuele Luigi

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews the state of the art about an unclear physiological phenomenon interesting respiratory system tissues, i.e., stress-relaxation. Due to their visco-elastic properties, the tissues do not maintain constant stress under constant deformation. Rather, the stress slowly relaxes and falls to a lower value. The exact molecular basis of this complex visco-elastic behavior is not well defined, but it has been suggested that it may be generated because of the anisotropic mechanical properties of elastin and collagen fibers in the alveolar septa and their interaction phenomena, such as reciprocal sliding, also in relation to interstitial liquid movements. The effects on stress-relaxation of various biochemical and physical factors are reviewed, including the consequences of body temperature variations, respiratory system inflammations and hyperbaric oxygen exposure, endocrinal factors, circulating blood volume variations, changes in inflation volume and/or flow, changes in intra-abdominal pressure because of pneumoperitoneum or Trendelenburg position. The effects of these factors on stress-relaxation have practical consequences because, depending on visco-elastic pressure amount which is requested to inflate the respiratory system in different conditions, respiratory muscles have to produce different values of inspiratory pressure during spontaneous breathing. High inspiratory pressure values might increase the risk of respiratory failure development on mechanical basis. PMID:25097096

  19. Statistical Determination of the Gating Windows for Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy Using a Visible Guiding System.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se An; Yea, Ji Woon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) is used to minimize the radiation dose to normal tissue in lung-cancer patients. Although determining the gating window in the respiratory phase of patients is important in RGRT, it is not easy. Our aim was to determine the optimal gating window when using a visible guiding system for RGRT. Between April and October 2014, the breathing signals of 23 lung-cancer patients were recorded with a real-time position management (RPM) respiratory gating system (Varian, USA). We performed statistical analysis with breathing signals to find the optimal gating window for guided breathing in RGRT. When we compared breathing signals before and after the breathing training, 19 of the 23 patients showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). The standard deviation of the respiration signals after breathing training was lowest for phases of 30%-70%. The results showed that the optimal gating window in RGRT is 40% (30%-70%) with respect to repeatability for breathing after respiration training with the visible guiding system. RGRT was performed with the RPM system to confirm the usefulness of the visible guiding system. The RPM system and our visible guiding system improve the respiratory regularity, which in turn should improve the accuracy and efficiency of RGRT. PMID:27228097

  20. Statistical Determination of the Gating Windows for Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy Using a Visible Guiding System

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se An; Yea, Ji Woon

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) is used to minimize the radiation dose to normal tissue in lung-cancer patients. Although determining the gating window in the respiratory phase of patients is important in RGRT, it is not easy. Our aim was to determine the optimal gating window when using a visible guiding system for RGRT. Between April and October 2014, the breathing signals of 23 lung-cancer patients were recorded with a real-time position management (RPM) respiratory gating system (Varian, USA). We performed statistical analysis with breathing signals to find the optimal gating window for guided breathing in RGRT. When we compared breathing signals before and after the breathing training, 19 of the 23 patients showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). The standard deviation of the respiration signals after breathing training was lowest for phases of 30%–70%. The results showed that the optimal gating window in RGRT is 40% (30%–70%) with respect to repeatability for breathing after respiration training with the visible guiding system. RGRT was performed with the RPM system to confirm the usefulness of the visible guiding system. The RPM system and our visible guiding system improve the respiratory regularity, which in turn should improve the accuracy and efficiency of RGRT. PMID:27228097

  1. The respiratory system of the piezophile Photobacterium profundum SS9 grown under various pressures.

    PubMed

    Tamegai, Hideyuki; Nishikawa, Shun; Haga, Minami; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2012-01-01

    It is known that the facultative piezophile Shewanella violacea DSS12 alters its respiratory components under the influence of hydrostatic pressure during growth. This can be considered one of the mechanisms of bacterial adaptation to high pressure. In this study, we investigated the respiratory system of another well-studied piezophile, Photobacterium profundum SS9. We analyzed cytochrome contents, the expression of genes encoding respiratory components in P. profundum SS9 grown under various conditions, and the pressure dependency of the terminal oxidase activities. Activity was more tolerant of relatively high pressures, such as 125 MPa when the cells were grown under high pressure as compared with cells grown under atmospheric pressure. Such properties observed are similar to the case of S. violacea. However, the contents of the cytochromes and expression of the respiratory genes were not influenced by growth pressure in P. profundum SS9, inconsistent with the case of S. violacea. We suggest that the mechanism of the piezoadaptation of the respiratory system of P. profundum SS9 differs from that of S. violacea, as described above, and that each strain chooses its own strategy. PMID:22878211

  2. A mainstream monitoring system for respiratory CO2 concentration and gasflow.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachen; Chen, Bobo; Burk, Kyle; Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Jianxiong

    2016-08-01

    Continuous respiratory gas monitoring is an important tool for clinical monitoring. In particular, measurement of respiratory [Formula: see text] concentration and gasflow can reflect the status of a patient by providing parameters such as volume of carbon dioxide, end-tidal [Formula: see text] respiratory rate and alveolar deadspace. However, in the majority of previous work, [Formula: see text] concentration and gasflow have been studied separately. This study focuses on a mainstream system which simultaneously measures respiratory [Formula: see text] concentration and gasflow at the same location, allowing for volumetric capnography to be implemented. A non-dispersive infrared monitor is used to measure [Formula: see text] concentration and a differential pressure sensor is used to measure gasflow. In developing this new device, we designed a custom airway adapter which can be placed in line with the breathing circuit and accurately monitor relevant respiratory parameters. Because the airway adapter is used both for capnography and gasflow, our system reduces mechanical deadspace. The finite element method was used to design the airway adapter which can provide a strong differential pressure while reducing airway resistance. Statistical analysis using the coefficient of variation was performed to find the optimal driving voltage of the pressure transducer. Calibration between variations and flows was used to avoid pressure signal drift. We carried out targeted experiments using the proposed device and confirmed that the device can produce stable signals. PMID:26178886

  3. The Transfer-Messenger RNA-Small Protein B System Plays a Role in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiaohui; Huan, Haixia; Xu, Huiqing; Gao, Qingqing; Xiong, Liping; Gao, Ruxia; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is capable of colonizing outside of the intestinal tract and evolving into a systemic infection. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is a member of the ExPEC group and causes avian colibacillosis. Transfer-mRNA-small protein B (tmRNA-SmpB)-mediated trans-translation is a bacterial translational control system that directs the modification and degradation of proteins, the biosynthesis of which has stalled or has been interrupted, facilitating the rescue of ribosomes stalled at the 3′ ends of defective mRNAs that lack a stop codon. We found that disruption of one, or both, of the smpB or ssrA genes significantly decreased the virulence of the APEC strain E058, as assessed by chicken infection assays. Furthermore, the mutants were obviously attenuated in colonization and persistence assays. The results of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that the transcription levels of the transcriptional regulation gene rfaH and the virulence genes kpsM, chuA, and iss were significantly decreased compared to those of the wild-type strain. Macrophage infection assays showed that the mutant strains reduced the replication and/or survival ability in the macrophage HD11 cell line compared to that of the parent strain, E058. However, no significant differences were observed in ingestion by macrophages and in chicken serum resistance between the mutant and the wild-type strains. These data indicate that the tmRNA-SmpB system is important in the pathogenesis of APEC O2 strain E058. PMID:24013628

  4. The transfer-messenger RNA-small protein B system plays a role in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaohui; Huan, Haixia; Xu, Huiqing; Gao, Qingqing; Xiong, Liping; Gao, Ruxia; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-11-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is capable of colonizing outside of the intestinal tract and evolving into a systemic infection. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is a member of the ExPEC group and causes avian colibacillosis. Transfer-mRNA-small protein B (tmRNA-SmpB)-mediated trans-translation is a bacterial translational control system that directs the modification and degradation of proteins, the biosynthesis of which has stalled or has been interrupted, facilitating the rescue of ribosomes stalled at the 3' ends of defective mRNAs that lack a stop codon. We found that disruption of one, or both, of the smpB or ssrA genes significantly decreased the virulence of the APEC strain E058, as assessed by chicken infection assays. Furthermore, the mutants were obviously attenuated in colonization and persistence assays. The results of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that the transcription levels of the transcriptional regulation gene rfaH and the virulence genes kpsM, chuA, and iss were significantly decreased compared to those of the wild-type strain. Macrophage infection assays showed that the mutant strains reduced the replication and/or survival ability in the macrophage HD11 cell line compared to that of the parent strain, E058. However, no significant differences were observed in ingestion by macrophages and in chicken serum resistance between the mutant and the wild-type strains. These data indicate that the tmRNA-SmpB system is important in the pathogenesis of APEC O2 strain E058. PMID:24013628

  5. Integrative approaches for modeling regulation and function of the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tal, Alona

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models have been central to understanding the interaction between neural control and breathing. Models of the entire respiratory system – which comprises the lungs and the neural circuitry that controls their ventilation - have been derived using simplifying assumptions to compartmentalise each component of the system and to define the interactions between components. These full system models often rely – through necessity - on empirically derived relationships or parameters, in addition to physiological values. In parallel with the development of whole respiratory system models are mathematical models that focus on furthering a detailed understanding of the neural control network, or of the several functions that contribute to gas exchange within the lung. These models are biophysically based, and rely on physiological parameters. They include single-unit models for a breathing lung or neural circuit, through to spatially-distributed models of ventilation and perfusion, or multi-circuit models for neural control. The challenge is to bring together these more recent advances in models of neural control with models of lung function, into a full simulation for the respiratory system that builds upon the more detailed models but remains computationally tractable. This requires first understanding the mathematical models that have been developed for the respiratory system at different levels, and which could be used to study how physiological levels of O2 and CO2 in the blood are maintained. PMID:24591490

  6. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  7. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    PubMed

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  8. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on

  9. End-expiration Respiratory Gating for a High Resolution Stationary Cardiac SPECT system

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual-respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or 8 cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p<0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p<0.05) compared to EXG SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the

  10. Agreement between bovine respiratory disease scoring systems for pre-weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Aly, Sharif S; Love, William J; Williams, Deniece R; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Drake, Christiana; Kass, Philip H; Farver, Thomas B

    2014-12-01

    Clinical scoring systems have been proposed for respiratory disease diagnosis in calves, including the Wisconsin (WI) system (McGuirk in 2008) which uses five clinical signs, each partitioned into four levels of severity. Recently, we developed the California (CA) bovine respiratory disease (BRD) scoring system requiring less calf handling and consisting of six clinical signs, each classified as normal or abnormal. The objective of this study was to estimate the on-farm agreement between the WI and the CA scoring systems. A total of 100 calves were enrolled on a CA dairy and assessed for BRD case status using the two scoring systems simultaneously. The Kappa coefficient of agreement between these two systems was estimated to be 0.85, which indicated excellent agreement beyond chance. The simpler design and reduced calf handling required by the CA BRD scoring system may make it advantageous for on-farm use. PMID:25424381

  11. Endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement sleep in cats

    PubMed Central

    Orem, John; Lovering, Andrew T; Dunin-Barkowski, Witali; Vidruk, Edward H

    2000-01-01

    A putative endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may explain many characteristics of breathing in that state, e.g. its irregularity and variable ventilatory responses to chemical stimuli. This drive is hypothetical, and determinations of its existence and character are complicated by control of the respiratory system by the oscillator and its feedback mechanisms. In the present study, endogenous drive was studied during apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation. We reasoned that if there was a REM-dependent drive to the respiratory system, then respiratory activity should emerge out of the background apnoea as a manifestation of the drive. Diaphragmatic muscle or medullary respiratory neuronal activity was studied in five intact, unanaesthetized adult cats who were either mechanically hyperventilated or breathed spontaneously in more than 100 REM sleep periods. Diaphragmatic activity emerged out of a background apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation an average of 34 s after the onset of REM sleep. Emergent activity occurred in 60 % of 10 s epochs in REM sleep and the amount of activity per unit time averaged approximately 40 % of eupnoeic activity. The activity occurred in episodes and was poorly related to pontogeniculo-occipital waves. At low CO2 levels, this activity was non-rhythmic. At higher CO2 levels (less than 0.5 % below eupnoeic end-tidal percentage CO2 levels in non-REM (NREM) sleep), activity became rhythmic. Medullary respiratory neurons were recorded in one of the five animals. Nineteen of twenty-seven medullary respiratory neurons were excited in REM sleep during apnoea. Excited neurons included inspiratory, expiratory and phase-spanning neurons. Excitation began about 43 s after the onset of REM sleep. Activity increased from an average of 6 impulses s−1 in NREM sleep to 15.5 impulses s−1 in REM sleep. Neuronal activity was non-rhythmic at low CO2 levels and became rhythmic when levels

  12. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  13. A computer-controlled pump and realistic anthropomorphic respiratory phantom for validating image-guided systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ralph; Wilson, Emmanuel; Tang, Jonathan; Stoianovici, Dan; Cleary, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    The development of image-guided interventions requires validation studies to evaluate new protocols. So far, these validation studies have been limited to animal models and to software and physical phantoms that simulate respiratory motion but cannot accommodate needle punctures in a realistic manner. We have built a computer-controlled pump that drives an anthropomorphic respiratory phantom for simulating natural breathing patterns. This pump consists of a power supply, a motion controller with servo amplifier, linear actuator, and custom fabricated pump assembly. By generating several sample waveforms, we were able to simulate typical breathing patterns. Using this pump, we were able to produce chest wall movements similar to typical chest wall movements observed in humans. This system has potential applications for evaluating new respiratory compensation algorithms and may facilitate improved testing of image-guided protocols under realistic interventional conditions.

  14. [The evolution of the human species: a long journey for the respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim

    2008-05-01

    Evolution has involved important changes in hominids, particularly in relation to the process of encephalization and the transition to bipedalism. Some of these changes involved structures related to the respiratory system and altered its functional behavior. Changes affecting the relationship between the skull and the spinal column, together with an improved laryngeal structure (allowing vocalization), resulted in a soft and elongated oropharynx, with part of the tongue integrated into its anterior wall, and thus in an increased tendency towards upper airway collapse during sleep. Vertebral bodies moved inwards into the thorax, which became slightly shorter and went from a bell-shaped appearance to that of a flatter barrel-shaped one. This resulted in respiratory muscle mechanics that were more efficient for upright posture. The pulmonary ventilation and perfusion gradients moved from a dorsoventral to a craniocaudal axis, while the structural organization of the respiratory muscles underwent only minor changes. PMID:18448018

  15. An internet-based system for home monitoring of respiratory muscle disorders.

    PubMed

    Silva Junior, Evert P; Esteves, Guilherme P; Faria, Alvaro C D; Melo, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Home telemonitoring is of great interest in respiratory medicine where large numbers of people have long term conditions. We developed a telemedicine instrument for home monitoring of patients with disturbed respiratory muscles. The instrument measures the maximum inspiratory pressure (Pimax), the inspiratory time constant (τ(i)) and connects to the Internet through TCP/IP protocol. The instrument was evaluated by means of a comparative analysis in 18 normal individuals and 15 COPD patients. In close agreement with the pathophysiology, a reduction in Pimax (p < 0.0001) and an increase in τ(i) (p < 0.001) was observed in COPD patients. We concluded that the developed system could be a useful tool for the evaluation of inspiratory muscle and for the implementation of telemedicine services, contributing to reduce the costs of the assistance offered to patients with respiratory diseases. PMID:21096291

  16. Development and Application of a Miniaturised Sensor System for Respiratory Investigations (MAP-RSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, U.; Drager, T.; Baumann, R.; Fasoulas, S.

    2008-06-01

    The project supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the "Microgravity Application Promotion Programe (MAP)" deals with the development and application of a new respiratory sensor system (RSS) for human respiratory investigations. Eight institutions, including three Industrial partners from different areas, combine their expertise by focusing on two selected applications in the field of ergospirometric exercise testing and lung function diagnostics with subsequent medication. The main goals of this project are to develop miniaturized oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors, to use their capability for simultaneous detection of total flow rates, to integrate them into a mask for the in-situ measurement of respiratory parameters, and to perform first qualification tests. For many manned space missions, and especially on the International Space Station, there is a need for a small, light-weight, portable, potentially body-mounted, metabolic gas analyzer with which periodic fitness or scientific evaluations could be performed by the astronauts.

  17. From Head to Toe: Respiratory, Circulatory, and Skeletal Systems. Book 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Arthur, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement curricular programs dealing with the human body, this booklet offers an activity-based, student-oriented approach for middle school teachers and students. Twelve activities focus on principles and skills related to the respiratory, circulatory, and skeletal systems. Each activity consists of student sheets and a teacher's…

  18. Preliminary results of a miniaturized respiratory sensor system used under hypergravity conditions up to 9 gz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A.; Baumann, R.; Meyer, C.; Schmiel, T.; Nehring, M.; Tajmar, M.

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory gas analyses are used to explore the influence of increased gravity on the physiology of breathing. Due to the mass, size and intricacy of standard measurement systems, previous studies were limited to a maximum acceleration of + 5 gz (head-to-foot direction). Furthermore, no in situ mainstream measurements of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration were possible under hypergravity conditions so far. This paper shows a first study which demonstrates a respiratory sensor system developed at the Institute for Aerospace Engineering at TU Dresden. This system is suitable for an in situ measurement of respiratory changes up to + 9 gz (maximum acceleration of jet pilots) and therefore provides a possibility for detailed physiological analyses in future. Three jet pilots were equipped with this system and accelerated under a defined profile up to 7, 8 and + 9 gz. The breathing air flow, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration were recorded with our miniaturized solid state electrolyte gas sensors, which are also described in this paper. The analysed data show significant changes of the measured respiratory parameters depending on the G-level, the acceleration rate (G-rate of onset [g s-1]) and the examination time.

  19. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Barbering/Cosmetology. Module 9.0: Respiratory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on the respiratory system is the ninth of ten (CE 028 308-318) in the barbering/cosmetology course of a bilingual skills training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook for modules 6-10 is available as CE 028 313.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experiences. Module objectives are for students to…

  20. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian invluenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an ongoing threat to the world poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection at mucosal respiratory sites. Chicken and duck tracheal epithelial ...

  1. SU-D-17A-07: Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Ultrasonography Respiratory Monitoring System for 4DCT Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, P; Cheng, S; Chao, C; Jain, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion artifacts are commonly seen in the abdominal and thoracic CT images. A Real-time Position Management (RPM) system is integrated with CT simulator using abdominal surface as a surrogate for tracking the patient respiratory motion. The respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is then reconstructed by GE advantage software. However, there are still artifacts due to inaccurate respiratory motion detecting and sorting methods. We developed an Ultrasonography Respiration Monitoring (URM) system which can directly monitor diaphragm motion to detect respiratory cycles. We also developed a new 4DCT sorting and motion estimation method to reduce the respiratory motion artifacts. The new 4DCT system was compared with RPM and the GE 4DCT system. Methods: Imaging from a GE CT scanner was simultaneously correlated with both the RPM and URM to detect respiratory motion. A radiation detector, Blackcat GM-10, recorded the X-ray on/off and synchronized with URM. The diaphragm images were acquired with Ultrasonix RP system. The respiratory wave was derived from diaphragm images and synchronized with CT scanner. A more precise peaks and valleys detection tool was developed and compared with RPM. The motion is estimated for the slices which are not in the predefined respiratory phases by using block matching and optical flow method. The CT slices were then sorted into different phases and reconstructed, compared with the images reconstructed from GE Advantage software using respiratory wave produced from RPM system. Results: The 4DCT images were reconstructed for eight patients. The discontinuity at the diaphragm level due to an inaccurate identification of phases by the RPM was significantly improved by URM system. Conclusion: Our URM 4DCT system was evaluated and compared with RPM and GE 4DCT system. The new system is user friendly and able to reduce motion artifacts. It also has the potential to monitor organ motion during

  2. Implementation of a video-based respiratory gating system for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Chester Ray

    In order to increase the effectiveness of radiotherapy in lung cancer treatment, a method must be developed to further increase tumor dose while further minimizing the dose to healthy lung tissue. In this work, a respiratory gated radiation therapy program is established at the Thompson Cancer Survival Center for the treatment lung cancer. A commercially available gating system is used to selectively deliver absorbed dose to moving target volumes during time intervals when the target volume is within the intended region. Although respiratory gating has been used in other applications, such as MRI and CT, free breathing gating has never before been applied to conventional radiotherapy. In this work, techniques are developed for the first time for the implementation of free breathing respiratory gated radiation therapy. In the first phase of this study, the clinical efficacy of the procedure is justified for the treatment of lung, liver, and pancreatic cancers. In the second phase, the stability and reproducibility of the gating hardware are evaluated. This includes an evaluation of the dosimetric stability of the linear accelerator. The consistency of the gating circuit is tested for rapid beam on and off conditions. In addition, a dynamic test phantom is designed and built that simulates respiration in order to test the gating system. In the third phase, monthly and annual quality assurance programs are developed for the respiratory gating system to insure that the entire system is operating correctly. In the final phase, the clinical efficiency and practicality of this respiratory gating is addressed. In addition, patient specific quality assurance (QA) procedures are developed to ensure that the correct dose is delivered safely.

  3. Simple gas chromatographic system for analysis of microbial respiratory gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Dual column ambient temperature system, consisting of pair of capillary columns, microbead thermistor detector and micro gas-sampling valve, is used in remote life-detection equipment for space experiments. Performance outweighs advantage gained by utilizing single-column systems to reduce weight, conserve carrier gas and operate at lower power levels.

  4. A programmable system for acquisition and reduction of respiratory physiological data.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J S; Valcke, C P; Ward, D S

    1989-01-01

    A portable software package (TIDAL--Tools for Intelligent Data Acquisition in the Laboratory) for acquiring and analyzing respiratory physiological data is described. TIDAL supports flow-, volume-, and concentration-measuring devices, and any other instruments that produce linear analog outputs. The system allows users to specify the names and types of channels to be sampled, and the calculations involved in reducing samples to breath-to-breath values. The specification of channels and calculations is given in EDL, an Experiment Description Language designed for respiratory physiology. EDL comprises a set of internal functions (primitives) which can be combined into arbitrarily complex expressions. To simplify EDL programming, TIDAL includes a macro processor and a standard macro library; the library contains definitions for a wide variety of respiratory variables. Examples are inspiratory and expiratory times and total volumes, mean inspired and expired gas volumes and concentrations, and end-tidal concentrations. Variables that are derived from these primary data, such as respiratory quotient, are also easily specified. TIDAL is written entirely in the C programming language, with special attention to portable coding practices. The code is organized in a modular structure that eases porting to multiple hardware/compiler/operating system environments. PMID:2919814

  5. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  6. Evidence and control of bifurcations in a respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, Matías A. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2013-12-15

    We studied the pressure patterns used by domestic canaries in the production of birdsong. Acoustically different sound elements (“syllables”) were generated by qualitatively different pressure gestures. We found that some ubiquitous transitions between syllables can be interpreted as bifurcations of a low dimensional dynamical system. We interpreted these results as evidence supporting a model in which different timescales interact nonlinearly.

  7. A breath sampling system assessing the influence of respiratory rate on exhaled breath composition.

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, T; Salvo, P; Ghimenti, S; Biagini, D; Bellagambi, F; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a computerized system to monitor mouth pressure, tidal volume, exhaled airflow, respiration rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 during breath collection. The system was used to investigate the effect of different respiratory rates on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations in exhaled breath. For this purpose, VOCs with well-defined biochemical pathways and different chemical and physical properties were selected as biomarkers related to metabolism (acetone and isopropyl alcohol), cholesterol synthesis (isoprene) and intestinal microflora activity (ethanol). Mixed breath was collected from a nominally healthy volunteer in resting conditions by filling a Nalophan bag. The subject followed a regimented breathing pattern at different respiratory rates (10, 30 and 50 breaths per minute). Results highlight that ventilation pattern strongly influences the concentration of the selected compounds. The proposed system allows exhaled breath to be collected also in patients showing dyspnea such as in case of chronic heart failure, asthma and pulmonary diseases. PMID:26738056

  8. A Respiratory Movement Monitoring System Using Fiber-Grating Vision Sensor for Diagnosing Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Yasuhiro; Sato, Jun-Ya; Nakajima, Masato

    2005-01-01

    A non-restrictive and non-contact respiratory movement monitoring system that finds the boundary between chest and abdomen automatically and detects the vertical movement of each part of the body separately is proposed. The system uses a fiber-grating vision sensor technique and the boundary position detection is carried out by calculating the centers of gravity of upward moving and downward moving sampling points, respectively. In the experiment to evaluate the ability to detect the respiratory movement signals of each part and to discriminate between obstructive and central apneas, detected signals of the two parts and their total clearly showed the peculiarities of obstructive and central apnea. The cross talk between the two categories classified automatically according to several rules that reflect the peculiarities was ≤ 15%. This result is sufficient for discriminating central sleep apnea syndrome from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and indicates that the system is promising as screening equipment. Society of Japan

  9. An integrated mathematical model of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    PubMed

    Trenhago, Paulo Roberto; Fernandes, Luciano Gonçalves; Müller, Lucas Omar; Blanco, Pablo Javier; Feijóo, Raúl Antonino

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a lumped model for the human cardiorespiratory system. Specifically, we incorporate a sophisticated gas dissociation and transport system to a fully integrated cardiovascular and pulmonary model. The model provides physiologically consistent predictions in terms of hemodynamic variables such as pressure, flow rate, gas partial pressures, and pH. We perform numerical simulations to evaluate the behavior of the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in different vascular and pulmonary compartments. For this, we design the rest condition with low oxygen requirements and carbon dioxide production and exercise conditions with high oxygen demand and carbon dioxide production. Furthermore, model sensitivity to more relevant model parameters is studied. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26198626

  10. The usage of the Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure system in acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Wong, D T; Tam, A D; Van Zundert, T C R V

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) devices have been used to treat patients in acute respiratory failure. However they require an electric power source, are relatively large in size, and may be difficult to use in prehospital settings. The recently introduced Boussignac CPAP system is capable of delivering 10 cmH2O of CPAP, is compact, portable and requires only an oxygen source. This paper reviews the efficacy of using Boussignac CPAP as a treatment for acute respiratory failure in both prehospital and hospital settings. All studies mainly focused on patients treated for cardiogenic pulmonary edema. In the prehospital setting, Boussigac CPAP significantly improved respiratory parameters and oxygenation from baseline values. In the emergency department setting, Boussignac CPAP was more effective than standard oxygen delivery and just as effective as BiPAP in improving patient oxygenation and respiration. In one study, implementing Boussignac CPAP reduced intubation rate and hospital stay. Most hospital staff found Boussignac CPAP easy to use and complication rates were low. Boussigac CPAP is a useful device in the treatment of patients with acute respiratory failure, especially in the prehospital setting. PMID:23419338

  11. Inverse Modeling of Respiratory System during Noninvasive Ventilation by Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatci, Esra; Akan, Aydin

    2010-12-01

    We propose a procedure to estimate the model parameters of presented nonlinear Resistance-Capacitance (RC) and the widely used linear Resistance-Inductance-Capacitance (RIC) models of the respiratory system by Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE). The measurement noise is assumed to be Generalized Gaussian Distributed (GGD), and the variance and the shape factor of the measurement noise are estimated by MLE and Kurtosis method, respectively. The performance of the MLE algorithm is also demonstrated by the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) with artificially produced respiratory signals. Airway flow, mask pressure, and lung volume are measured from patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) under the noninvasive ventilation and from healthy subjects. Simulations show that respiratory signals from healthy subjects are better represented by the RIC model compared to the nonlinear RC model. On the other hand, the Patient group respiratory signals are fitted to the nonlinear RC model with lower measurement noise variance, better converged measurement noise shape factor, and model parameter tracks. Also, it is observed that for the Patient group the shape factor of the measurement noise converges to values between 1 and 2 whereas for the Control group shape factor values are estimated in the super-Gaussian area.

  12. A novel simulator for mechanical ventilation in newborns: MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications.

    PubMed

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Cuttano, Armando; Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Tognarelli, Selene; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Cecchi, Francesca; Gentile, Marzia; Sigali, Emilio; Laschi, Cecilia; Ghirri, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Boldrini, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory problems are among the main causes of mortality for preterm newborns with pulmonary diseases; mechanical ventilation provides standard care, but long-term complications are still largely reported. In this framework, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage assistance devices. However, commercially available neonatal respiratory simulators are rarely suitable for representing anatomical and physiological conditions; a step toward high-fidelity simulation, therefore, is essential for nurses and neonatologists to acquire the practice needed without any risk. An innovative multi-compartmental infant respirator simulator based on a five-lobe model was developed to reproduce different physio-pathological conditions in infants and to simulate many different kinds of clinical scenarios. The work consisted of three phases: (1) a theoretical study and modeling phase, (2) a prototyping phase, and (3) testing of the simulation software during training courses. The neonatal pulmonary simulator produced allows the replication and evaluation of different mechanical ventilation modalities in infants suffering from many different kinds of respiratory physio-pathological conditions. In particular, the system provides variable compliances for each lobe in an independent manner and different resistance levels for the airway branches; moreover, it allows the trainer to simulate both autonomous and mechanically assisted respiratory cycles in newborns. The developed and tested simulator is a significant contribution to the field of medical simulation in neonatology, as it makes it possible to choose the best ventilation strategy and to perform fully aware management of ventilation parameters. PMID:26238790

  13. Thermal inactivation of avian viral and bacterial pathogens in an effluent treatment system within a biosafety level 2 and 3 enhanced facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus, avian paramyxovirus Type 1 (APMV-1 or Newcastle disease virus [NDV]), reovirus, rotavirus, turkey astrovirus (TAstV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV-1), avian parvovirus (ChPV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are significant biosafety...

  14. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease ) Diseases of the chest ( ...

  15. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry. PMID:19618630

  16. Evaluation of integrated respiratory gating systems on a Novalis Tx system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Liu, Tonghai; Cai, Jing; Chen, Qing; Wang, Zhiheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of motion tracking and radiation delivery control of integrated gating systems on a Novalis Tx system. The study was performed on a Novalis Tx system, which is equipped with Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) system, and BrainLAB ExacTrac gating systems. In this study, the two systems were assessed on accuracy of both motion tracking and radiation delivery control. To evaluate motion tracking, two artificial motion profiles and five patients' respiratory profiles were used. The motion trajectories acquired by the two gating systems were compared against the references. To assess radiation delivery control, time delays were measured using a single-exposure method. More specifically, radiation is delivered with a 4 mm diameter cone within the phase range of 10%-45% for the BrainLAB ExacTrac system, and within the phase range of 0%-25% for the Varian RPM system during expiration, each for three times. Radiochromic films were used to record the radiation exposures and to calculate the time delays. In the work, the discrepancies were quantified using the parameters of mean and standard deviation (SD). Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis was used to test correlation of the data, which is quantified using a parameter of r. The trajectory profiles acquired by the gating systems show good agreement with those reference profiles. A quantitative analysis shows that the average mean discrepancies between BrainLAB ExacTrac system and known references are 1.5 mm and 1.9 mm for artificial and patient profiles, with the maximum motion amplitude of 28.0 mm. As for the Varian RPM system, the corresponding average mean discrepancies are 1.1 mm and 1.7 mm for artificial and patient profiles. With the proposed single-exposure method, the time delays are found to be 0.20 ± 0.03 seconds and 0.09 ± 0.01 seconds for BrainLAB ExacTrac and Varian RPM systems, respectively. The results indicate the systems can

  17. Slowly emerging glycinergic transmission enhances inhibition in the sound localization pathway of the avian auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Fischl, Matthew J.; Weimann, Sonia R.; Kearse, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Localization of low-frequency acoustic stimuli is processed in dedicated neural pathways where coincidence-detecting neurons compare the arrival time of sound stimuli at the two ears, or interaural time disparity (ITD). ITDs occur in the submillisecond range, and vertebrates have evolved specialized excitatory and inhibitory circuitry to compute these differences. Glycinergic inhibition is a computationally significant and prominent component of the mammalian ITD pathway. However, evidence for glycinergic transmission is limited in birds, where GABAergic inhibition has been thought to be the dominant or exclusive inhibitory transmitter. Indeed, previous work showed that GABA antagonists completely eliminate inhibition in avian nuclei specialized for processing temporal features of sound, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus laminaris (NL). However, more recent work shows that glycine is coexpressed with GABA in synaptic terminals apposed to neurons in both nuclei (Coleman WL, Fischl MJ, Weimann SR, Burger RM. J Neurophysiol 105: 2405–2420, 2011; Kuo SP, Bradley LA, Trussell LO. J Neurosci 29: 9625–9634, 2009). Here we show complementary evidence of functional glycine receptor (GlyR) expression in NM and NL. Additionally, we show that glycinergic input can be evoked under particular stimulus conditions. Stimulation at high but physiologically relevant rates evokes a slowly emerging glycinergic response in NM and NL that builds over the course of the stimulus. Glycinergic response magnitude was stimulus rate dependent, representing 18% and 7% of the total inhibitory current in NM and NL, respectively, at the end of the 50-pulse, 200-Hz stimulus. Finally, we show that the glycinergic component is functionally relevant, as its elimination reduced inhibition of discharges evoked by current injection into NM neurons. PMID:24198323

  18. [SOME CLINICAL AND CYTOKINE FEATURES OF THE CLINICAL COURSE OF RECURRENT RESPIRATORY SYSTEM DISEASES IN CHILDREN WITH THE TOXOCARIASIS INVASION].

    PubMed

    Dralova, A; Usachova, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze clinical and cytokine features of recurrent respiratory system diseases in children with toxocariasis. 50 children aged 1 to 17 years (mean age - 10±5 years) with recurrent current of respiratory system disorders were studied. During the survey such clinical manifestations of the respiratory system disorders as obstructive bronchitis (50%), bronchial asthma (30%), pneumonia (10%) and laryngotracheitis (10%) have been revealed. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the software package STATISTICA 6.1 (SNANSOFT). We have shown that the disorders of respiratory system in case of toxocariasis invasion often occur with severe intoxication and bronchial obstruction syndromes, temperature reaction, respiratory insufficiency and hepatomegaly. A prolonged course of the disease has been noted. "Inflammatory" indicators of general blood analysis, such as leukocytosis and increased of ESR have been recorded in patients with respiratory system disorders in children with T.canis infection significantly more often, significant "allergic" laboratory changes were in the form of eosinophilia. High average levels of pro-inflammatory IL-6, as well as low levels of IL 5 have been determined in children suffering from the respiratory system disorders and with toxocariasis invasion in the anamnesis. The obtained findings require further study. PMID:26719552

  19. Effects of volatile substance abuse on the respiratory system in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aim Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Chronic inhalant abuse can damage respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. This study aims to determine the physiologic effects of inhaling solvents on the respiratory functions. Methods The general health status of the subjects was assessed by history taking, physical examination and a questionnaire which was designed to show the severity of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were performed to assess pulmonary functions and anatomy. Results Thirty-one male volatile substance abusers and 19 control subjects were included in the study. The mean age of onset of inhalant use was 14.6 ± 2.2 (9-18) years and duration of drug use was 3.7 ± 1.7 years. The most common respiratory symptoms in volatile substance abusers were nasal congestion (45.2%), sputum (38.7%), exercise intolerance (32.3%) and cough (22.6%). Results of spirometric studies showed 12 (41.4%) subjects with low FVC values < 80% of predicted, indicative of restrictive ventilatory pattern in the study group. Although the difference was not statistically significant, restrictive ventilatory pattern was higher in the study group. There was no statistically significant correlation between restrictive ventilatory pattern and the age of onset/duration/frequency of inhalant abuse, respiratory symptoms and scintigraphic abnormalities. Subjects who had restrictive pattern in their pulmonary function tests were more likely to have abnormal findings at HRCT (p < 0.01). Conclusion This study has shown a positive correlation between volatile substance abuse and the development of restrictive ventilatory pattern, but more comprehensive studies are needed for more precise conclusions. PMID:22958270

  20. A Wearable Respiratory Biofeedback System Based on Generalized Body Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-situ experiments with 22 subjects indicated that the biofeedback device was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering wearable respiratory trainings. Pilot studies on wearable training patterns and resultant heart rate variability suggested that paced respirations at abdominal level and with identical inhaling/exhaling ratio were more appropriate for decreasing sympathetic arousal and increasing parasympathetic activities. PMID:21545293

  1. Construction of a fowl adenovirus recombinant to express avian metapneumovirus glycoprotein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is the cause of severe respiratory infection in turkeys. Despite detailed sequence analyses of most of the aMPV genes, very little is known about the role these proteins in viral virulence, pathogenesis, and immune response. Here, we report the construction of an avian a...

  2. Rational design of avian metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccines by inhibiting viral messenger RNA cap methyltransferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...

  3. Oscillatory mechanics of the respiratory system in ozone-exposed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlikoff, M.I.; Jackson, A.C.; Watson, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The respiratory system impedance of tracheostomized cardiorespiratory disease-free Sprague-Dawley rats was measured from 20 to 90 Hz at constant flow amplitudes in 10 rats exposed to 0.64 ppm (UV) ozone for 7 days, and eight rats exposed to the same level of ozone for 20 days. This data was compared with respiratory system impedence spectra of 24 normal rats obtained in the same manner. When compared with control, the real part (effective resistance) was significantly different at several frequencies in the 7-day group (P < 0.05), and group means were higher at all frequencies. The 20-day group showed no significant differences in effective resistance. The imaginary part (effective reactance) was significantly lower at higher frequencies (f > 36) in both exposure groups (P < 0.05). When the impedance curves for each individual were fit to a lumped six-parameter model, and the parameters were compared, only the peripheral resistance parameter of the 7-day group was significantly different from control (P < 0.05). We conclude that ozone exposure at this level causes changes in respiratory system impedance, that these changes consist primarily of decreased reactances at higher frequencies, and that at 7 days these changes can be modeled by an increase in peripheral resistance.

  4. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  5. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  6. Sex dimorphism in the avian arginine vasotocin system with special emphasis to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Roland; Jurkevich, Aleksandr; Köhler, Almut

    2002-04-01

    The avian neuropeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) originally characterized as the antidiuretic hormone (, Endocrinol. 66, 860-871) is produced by neurosecretory cells within the brain. Numerous neuroanatomical studies that employed immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization techniques revealed such cells in the following anatomical brain locations: (a) preoptic area including supraoptic nucleus; (b) paraventricular nucleus; (c) the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BnST) (, J. Hirnforsch. 27, 559-566;, J. Neuroendcrinol. 5, 281-288;, Cell Tiss. Res. 287, 69-77;, J. Comp. Neurol. 369, 141-157). The BnST which influences reproduction and sexual behavior shows sex differences in morphology, steroid responsiveness and synthesis of neuropeptides including AVT (, Brain Res. 657, 171-184). AVT is the main endocrine regulator of fluid balance in avian species and, in addition, is involved in oviposition in these species. Our recent studies clearly demonstrated that AVT secretion after osmotic stimulation is sexually dimorphic. In order to investigate whether AVT is expressed and synthesized in the BnST in a sexually dimorphic manner we have used in situ hybridization technique and immunocytochemistry to analyze AVT gene expressing neurons in the parvocellular (small-celled nulei) BnST of adult male and female chickens. In cocks, AVT peptide-containing neurons were detected in the parvocellular BnST and the lateral septal area, whereas no AVT immunoreactive neurons were detected in the corresponding regions of the hen. Even after osmotic stimulation AVT gene expression in neurons of the parvocellular BnST of hens was not upregulated (, Cell Tiss. Res. 287, 69-77). These results demonstrate: (a) AVT gene expression in the BnST of chickens; and (b) a strong sexual dimorphism in this region. Furthermore, AVT synthesis is regulated on the transcriptional level independent from osmotic stimuli. Thus, sex steroids might be the main regulator of AVT gene expression in the Bn

  7. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  8. A method of calculating total respiratory system compliance from resonant frequency: validity in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Schulze, A; Schaller, P; Dinger, J; Winkler, U; Gmyrek, D

    1990-12-01

    Ten anesthetized, tracheotomized, adult rabbits were used to test the validity of a method for calculation of total respiratory system compliance from resonant frequency (Cr). Reference values were obtained during constant flow inflation of the relaxed respiratory system by dividing the volume gain by the related difference in pressure at the airway opening (inflation method compliance, Ci). The animals were connected to a new type of servo-controlled infant ventilator. Besides volume-controlled mechanical ventilation at constant inspiratory flow rate and intermittent mandatory ventilation, there is a negative ventilator resistance mode integrated in this device for resistive unloading (Schulze A, Schaller P, Gehrhardt B, Mädler H-J, Gmyrek D: Pediatr Res 28:79-82, 1990). To measure resonant frequency (fr), the respiratory system was totally unloaded for a short period by a negative ventilator resistance exceeding the combined resistances of the endotracheal tube and airways. This evoked a continuous oscillation at fr. By analogy with electrical circuit theory, Cr was calculated according to C = 1/(4 pi 2.I.fr2) where C is compliance and I is inertance. The inertance of the endotracheal tube is given and that of the bronchial tree was ignored assuming a much greater total cross-sectional area and therefore much lower inertance when compared with the endotracheal tube. Three pairs of Ci - Cr values were obtained from each animal: 1) during intact respiratory muscle activity; 2) after pancuronium relaxation, and 3) after surfactant depletion by saline washout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2284157

  9. MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications (MERESSINA) project: a novel bioengineering goal

    PubMed Central

    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Baldoli, Ilaria; Bellanti, Lisa; Gentile, Marzia; Cecchi, Francesca; Sigali, Emilio; Tognarelli, Selene; Ghirri, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuttano, Armando; Boldrini, Antonio; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory function is mandatory for extrauterine life, but is sometimes impaired in newborns due to prematurity, congenital malformations, or acquired pathologies. Mechanical ventilation is standard care, but long-term complications, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are still largely reported. Therefore, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage devices for assistance. Commercially available breathing function simulators are rarely suitable for the anatomical and physiological realities. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity mechatronic simulator of neonatal airways and lungs for staff training and mechanical ventilator testing. The project is divided into three different phases: (1) a review study on respiratory physiology and pathophysiology and on already available single and multi-compartment models; (2) the prototyping phase; and (3) the on-field system validation. PMID:23966804

  10. Respiratory motion prediction by using the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakar, Manish; Nyström, Håkan; Rye Aarup, Lasse; Jakobi Nøttrup, Trine; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2005-10-01

    The quality of radiation therapy delivered for treating cancer patients is related to set-up errors and organ motion. Due to the margins needed to ensure adequate target coverage, many breast cancer patients have been shown to develop late side effects such as pneumonitis and cardiac damage. Breathing-adapted radiation therapy offers the potential for precise radiation dose delivery to a moving target and thereby reduces the side effects substantially. However, the basic requirement for breathing-adapted radiation therapy is to track and predict the target as precisely as possible. Recent studies have addressed the problem of organ motion prediction by using different methods including artificial neural network and model based approaches. In this study, we propose to use a hybrid intelligent system called ANFIS (the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) for predicting respiratory motion in breast cancer patients. In ANFIS, we combine both the learning capabilities of a neural network and reasoning capabilities of fuzzy logic in order to give enhanced prediction capabilities, as compared to using a single methodology alone. After training ANFIS and checking for prediction accuracy on 11 breast cancer patients, it was found that the RMSE (root-mean-square error) can be reduced to sub-millimetre accuracy over a period of 20 s provided the patient is assisted with coaching. The average RMSE for the un-coached patients was 35% of the respiratory amplitude and for the coached patients 6% of the respiratory amplitude.

  11. Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... exchange between the capillaries and alveoli. CO2 is carbon dioxide, and O2 is oxygen. Airways The airways are ... rich air to your lungs. They also carry carbon dioxide, a waste gas, out of your lungs. The ...

  12. On the Respiratory Mechanics Measured by Forced Oscillation Technique in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ingrid Almeida; Dias Faria, Alvaro Camilo; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Jansen, José Manoel; Lopes de Melo, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary complications are the most common cause of death and morbidity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The forced oscillation technique (FOT) offers a simple and detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that SSc may introduce changes in the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system, and that FOT may help the diagnosis of these abnormalities. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested these hypotheses in controls (n = 30) and patients with abnormalities classified using spirometry (n = 52) and pulmonary volumes (n = 29). Resistive data were interpreted with the zero-intercept resistance (Ri) and the slope of the resistance (S) as a function of frequency. Reactance changes were evaluated by the mean reactance between 4 and 32 Hz (Xm) and the dynamic compliance (Crs,dyn). The mechanical load was evaluated using the absolute value of the impedance in 4 Hz (Z4Hz). A compartmental model was used to obtain central (R) and peripheral (Rp) resistances, and alveolar compliance (C). The clinical usefulness was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The presence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) was also evaluated. For the groups classified using spirometry, SSc resulted in increased values in Ri, R, Rp and Z4Hz (p<0.003) and reductions in Crs,dyn, C and Xm (p<0.004). Z4Hz, C and Crs,dyn exhibited a high diagnostic accuracy (AUC>0.90). In groups classified by pulmonary volume, SSc resulted in reductions in S, Xm, C and Crs,dyn (p<0.01). Xm, C and Crs,dyn exhibited adequate diagnostic accuracy (AUC>0.80). It was also observed that EFL is not common in patients with SSc. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that the respiratory resistance and reactance are changed in SSc. This analysis provides a useful description that is of particular significance for understanding respiratory pathophysiology and to ease the

  13. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  14. Color structured light system of chest wall motion measurement for respiratory volume evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huijun; Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jue; Que, Chengli; Wang, Guangfa; Fang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    We present a structured light system to dynamically measure human chest wall motion for respiratory volume estimation. Based on a projection of an encoded color pattern and a few active markers attached to the trunk, respiratory volumes are obtained by evaluating the 3-D topographic changes of the chest wall in an anatomically consistent measuring region during respiration. Three measuring setups are established: a single-sided illuminating-recording setup for standing posture, an inclined single-sided setup for supine posture, and a double-sided setup for standing posture. Results are compared with the pneumotachography and show good agreement in volume estimations [correlation coefficient: R>0.99 (P<0.001) for all setups]. The isovolume tests present small variations of the obtained volume during the isovolume maneuver (standard deviation<0.085 L for all setups). After validation by the isovolume test, an investigation of a patient with pleural effusion using the proposed method shows pulmonary functional differences between the diseased and the contralateral sides of the thorax, and subsequent improvement of this imbalance after drainage. These results demonstrate the proposed optical method is capable of not only whole respiratory volume evaluation with high accuracy, but also regional pulmonary function assessment in different chest wall behaviors, with the advantage of whole-field measurement.

  15. Pharmacologic Activation of the Innate Immune System to Prevent Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guanjun; Fridlender, Zvi G.; Cheng, Guang-Shing; Chen, Bei; Mangalmurti, Nilam S.; Saloura, Vassiliki; Yu, Zaifang; Kapoor, Veena; Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Moon, Edmund; Sun, Jing; Kreindler, James L.; Cohen, Noam A.; Caton, Andrew J.; Erikson, Jan; Albelda, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Drugs that can rapidly inhibit respiratory infection from influenza or other respiratory pathogens are needed. One approach is to engage primary innate immune defenses against viral infection, such as activating the IFN pathway. In this study, we report that a small, cell-permeable compound called 5,6-di-methylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) can induce protection against vesicular stomatitis virus in vitro and H1N1 influenza A virus in vitro and in vivo through innate immune activation. Using the mouse C10 bronchial epithelial cell line and primary cultures of nasal epithelial cells, we demonstrate DMXAA activates the IFN regulatory factor-3 pathway leading to production of IFN-β and subsequent high-level induction of IFN-β–dependent proteins, such as myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) and 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1). Mice treated with DMXAA intranasally elevate mRNA/protein expression of Mx1 and OAS1 in the nasal mucosa, trachea, and lung. When challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of H1N1 influenza A virus, DMXAA reduced viral titers in the lungs and protected 80% of mice from death, even when given at 24 hours before infection. These data show that agents, like DMXAA, that can directly activate innate immune pathways, such as the IFN regulatory factor-3/IFN-β system, in respiratory epithelial cells can be used to protect from influenza pneumonia and potentially in other respiratory viral infections. Development of this approach in humans could be valuable for protecting health care professionals and “first responders” in the early stages of viral pandemics or bioterror attacks. PMID:21148741

  16. Modulation of virulence genes by the two-component system PhoP-PhoQ in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jian; Huang, Boyan; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yuxi; Xue, Ting; Li, Shaocan; Qi, Kezong

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infections are a very important problem in the poultry industry. PhoP-PhoQ is a two-component system that regulates virulence genes in APEC. In this study, we constructed strains that lacked the PhoP or PhoQ genes to assess regulation of APEC pathogenicity by the PhoP-PhoQ two-component system. The PhoP mutant strain AE18, PhoQ mutant strain AE19, and PhoP/PhoQ mutant strain AE20 were constructed by the Red homologous recombination method. Swim plates were used to evaluate the motility of the APEC strains, viable bacteria counting was used to assess adhesion and invasion of chick embryo fibroblasts, and Real-Time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of virulence genes. We first confirmed that AE18, AE19, and AE20 were successfully constructed from the wild-type AE17 strain. AE18, AE19, and AE20 showed significant decreases in motility of 70.97%, 83.87%, and 37.1%, respectively, in comparison with AE17. Moreover, in comparison with AE17, AE18, AE19, and AE20 showed significant decreases of 63.11%, 65.42%, and 30.26%, respectively, in CEF cell adhesion, and significant decreases of 59.83%, 57.82%, and 37.90%, respectively, in CEF cell invasion. In comparison with AE17, transcript levels of sodA, polA, and iss were significantly decreased in AE18, while transcript levels of fimC and iss were significantly decreased in AE19. Our results demonstrate that deletion of PhoP or PhoQ inhibits invasion and adhesion of APEC to CEF cells and significantly reduces APEC virulence by regulating transcription of virulence genes. PMID:27096785

  17. Two functional type VI secretion systems in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli are involved in different pathogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiale; Bao, Yinli; Sun, Min; Dong, Wenyang; Pan, Zihao; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping; Yao, Huochun

    2014-09-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are involved in the pathogenicity of several Gram-negative bacteria. The VgrG protein, a core component and effector of T6SS, has been demonstrated to perform diverse functions. The N-terminal domain of VgrG protein is a homologue of tail fiber protein gp27 of phage T4, which performs a receptor binding function and determines the host specificity. Based on sequence analysis, we found that two putative T6SS loci exist in the genome of the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain TW-XM. To assess the contribution of these two T6SSs to TW-XM pathogenesis, the crucial clpV clusters of these two T6SS loci and their vgrG genes were deleted to generate a series of mutants. Consequently, T6SS1-associated mutants presented diminished adherence to and invasion of several host cell lines cultured in vitro, decreased pathogenicity in duck and mouse infection models in vivo, and decreased biofilm formation and bacterial competitive advantage. In contrast, T6SS2-associated mutants presented a significant decrease only in the adherence to and invasion of mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) line bEnd.3 and brain tissue of the duck infection model. These results suggested that T6SS1 was involved in the proliferation of APEC in systemic infection, whereas VgrG-T6SS2 was responsible only for cerebral infection. Further study demonstrated that VgrG-T6SS2 was able to bind to the surface of bEnd.3 cells, whereas it did not bind to DF-1 (chicken embryo fibroblast) cells, which further proved the interaction of VgrG-T6SS2 with the surface of BMECs. PMID:24980972

  18. [Respiratory system of Pichia guilliermondii yeasts with different levels of flavinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Zviagil'skaia, R A; Fedorovich, D V; Shavlovskiĭ, G M

    1978-01-01

    The yeast Pichia guilliermondii was grown on media with different content of iron and its respiration system was studied. When the yeast was cultivated on a complete medium, its respiratory chain operated at the maximum rate in the exponential growth phase, i. e. all the three points of phosphorylation were involved; cytochrome oxidase was the only terminal oxidase. When the growth was decelerated and at the stationary phase, the alternative autooxidable cyanide-resistant pathway inhibited with salicyl hydroxamate partly functioned. Iron deficiency in the medium resulted in a two-three-fold decrease in the content of total and non-hemin iron in the cells, changes in the character and rate of growth, a decrease in the biomass yield, a high rate of flavinogenesis, a slight decrease in the respiration activity, though no drastic changes in the respiration system occurred. This system is represented, as in the case of cells grown on a complete medium, by a typical cytochrome system and an alternative autooxidable pathway. The absence of principal differences in the respiration systems of normal and iron-deficient cells, as well as the operation of the first point of coupling in flavinogenic cells, makes it doubtful that Fenh-proteins of the first segment of the respiratory chain are involved in the regulation of flavinogenesis. PMID:745565

  19. Telemedicine system for the care of patients with neuromuscular disease and chronic respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Morete, Emilio; González, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neuromuscular diseases cause a number of limitations which may be improved by using a telemedicine system. These include functional impairment and dependence associated with muscle weakness, the insidious development of respiratory failure and episodes of exacerbation. Material and methods The present study involved three patients with severe neuromuscular disease, chronic respiratory failure and long-term mechanical ventilation, who were followed up using a telemedicine platform. The telemedicine system is based on videoconferencing and telemonitoring of cardiorespiratory variables (oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood pressure and electrocardiogram). Two different protocols were followed depending on whether the patient condition was stable or unstable. Results Over a period of 5 years, we analyzed a series of variables including use of the system, patient satisfaction and clinical impact. Overall we performed 290 videoconference sessions, 269 short monitoring oximetry measurements and 110 blood pressure measurements. With respect to the clinical impact, after enrolment in the telemedicine program, the total number of hospital admissions fell from 18 to 3. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the system was user friendly for patients and care givers. Patient satisfaction scores were acceptable. The telemedicine system was effective for the home treatment of three patients with severe neuromuscular diseases and reduced the need for hospital admissions. PMID:25395959

  20. MIMO Radar System for Respiratory Monitoring Using Tx and Rx Modulation with M-Sequence Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Takashi; Ogiwara, Shun; Yamakoshi, Yoshiki

    The importance of respiratory monitoring systems during sleep have increased due to early diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in the home. This paper presents a simple respiratory monitoring system suitable for home use having 3D ranging of targets. The range resolution and azimuth resolution are obtained by a stepped frequency transmitting signal and MIMO arrays with preferred pair M-sequence codes doubly modulating in transmission and reception, respectively. Due to the use of these codes, Gold sequence codes corresponding to all the antenna combinations are equivalently modulated in receiver. The signal to interchannel interference ratio of the reconstructed image is evaluated by numerical simulations. The results of experiments on a developed prototype 3D-MIMO radar system show that this system can extract only the motion of respiration of a human subject 2m apart from a metallic rotatable reflector. Moreover, it is found that this system can successfully measure the respiration information of sleeping human subjects for 96.6 percent of the whole measurement time except for instances of large posture change.

  1. Optimization of the mammalian respiratory system: symmorphosis versus single species adaptation.

    PubMed

    Jones, J H

    1998-05-01

    Taylor and Weibel's principle of symmorphosis hypothesized optimal design of the mammalian respiratory system, with no excess structure relative to its maximal O2 flux, VO2max. Although they found symmorphosis not to be a general principle of design, it might apply to a highly adapted aerobic athlete, e.g. the Thoroughbred racehorse. Using a mathematical model based on empirical data of the equine O2 transport system at normoxic VO2max, the fraction of the total limitation to O2 flux contributed by each of the respiratory transport steps is calculated as either the fractional change (F) in VO2max for a 1% change in each component, or as the fraction of total O2 pressure drop (R(int)) across each component at VO2max. When calculated as F, alveolar ventilation (VA) and pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLO2) are major limiting factors, circulatory convection (Q) is nearly as limiting, and peripheral tissue diffusing capacity (DTO2) is only one-third as important. When calculated as R(int), DLO2 is the major factor, VA and DTO2 contribute significantly, and Q is smallest. These patterns contrast with analogous studies in humans, in which Q is the single major limiting factor. The results suggest that strong selection for aerobic power in horses has maximized the malleable components of their respiratory systems until the least malleable structure, the lungs, has become a major limitation to O2 flux. Symmorphosis cannot determine if such a design is or is not optimized, as every system falls on a continuous distribution of relative optimization among species. However, the concept of symmorphosis is useful for establishing a framework within which a single species can be compared with a quantitatively defined hypothesis of optimal animal design, and compared with other species according to those criteria. PMID:9787782

  2. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  3. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  4. Glycomic Characterization of Respiratory Tract Tissues of Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Barclay, Wendy S.; Roberts, Kim; Yen, Hui-Ling; Chan, Renee W. Y.; Lam, Alfred K. Y.; Air, Gillian; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Dell, Anne; Nicholls, John M.; Haslam, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    The initial recognition between influenza virus and the host cell is mediated by interactions between the viral surface protein hemagglutinin and sialic acid-terminated glycoconjugates on the host cell surface. The sialic acid residues can be linked to the adjacent monosaccharide by α2–3- or α2–6-type glycosidic bonds. It is this linkage difference that primarily defines the species barrier of the influenza virus infection with α2–3 binding being associated with avian influenza viruses and α2–6 binding being associated with human strains. The ferret has been extensively used as an animal model to study the transmission of influenza. To better understand the validity of this model system, we undertook glycomic characterization of respiratory tissues of ferret, which allows a comparison of potential viral receptors to be made between humans and ferrets. To complement the structural analysis, lectin staining experiments were performed to characterize the regional distributions of glycans along the respiratory tract of ferrets. Finally, the binding between the glycans identified and the hemagglutinins of different strains of influenza viruses was assessed by glycan array experiments. Our data indicated that the respiratory tissues of ferret heterogeneously express both α2–3- and α2–6-linked sialic acids. However, the respiratory tissues of ferret also expressed the Sda epitope (NeuAcα2-3(GalNAcβ1–4)Galβ1–4GlcNAc) and sialylated N,N′-diacetyllactosamine (NeuAcα2–6GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc), which have not been observed in the human respiratory tract surface epithelium. The presence of the Sda epitope reduces potential binding sites for avian viruses and thus may have implications for the usefulness of the ferret in the study of influenza virus infection. PMID:25135641

  5. In vivo-CT system with respiratory and cardiac gating using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sera, Toshihiro; Yokota, Hideo; Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Fukasaku, Kazuaki; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Himeno, Ryutaro

    2007-03-01

    The interest in using small animal models of human disease has produced a need to design a CT system at a microscopic level comparable to that achievable in a clinical CT in human. In this study, we developed a high-resolution in vivo-CT system with respiratory and cardiac gating using synchrotron radiation. The system was constructed in BL20B2 at SPring-8. SPring-8 is the third generation synchrotron radiation source in Hyogo, Japan, and prefers much higher flux X-ray than a laboratory X-ray source. Another advantage of synchrotron monochromatic CT is the minimalization of beam hardening effects, which pose serious problems when using white X-rays. Since the X-ray beam from the synchrotron source is parallel, each horizontal line corresponds to a slice position along the rotation axis. Multiple slices are easily obtained in one rotation (3D-CT). For in vivo scanning, the X-ray mechanical shutter and CCD electrical shutter were synchronized with an airway pressure (respiratory) and electrocardiographic (ECG) signal. Synchronization reduced the motion artifacts caused by respiration and heart beats, markedly improving visualization of the edges of the heart, ribs and diaphragm. In particular, small airways (diameter > 300 μm) and cerebral blood vessels were visualized clearly. This system is very useful for evaluating lung physiology and cardiovascular mechanics in vivo.

  6. [Basic types of respiratory system structure in insect egg envelopes, and genes controlling their formation].

    PubMed

    Omelina, E S; Baricheva, É M; Fedorova, E V

    2012-01-01

    Insects is a taxon surprisingly rich with species and varieties, and its representatives are considered as the most fitted and "evolutionary successful" living things. Insects are distinguished by diversity and abundance of adaptations to environmental conditions, representatives of this class inhabit different ecological niches, they can be found practically in every corner of the Earth and, in particular, in close adjacency to man. Among them are those who man benefits from and those who man struggles against. This determines man's interest in studying peculiarities of their development as well as adaptations formed by them in the course of evolution to become more viable. In the paper, data are presented on morphological structure of respiratory systems in insect egg envelopes that ensure respiration process of developing embryo. Variability of these systems and their dependence on environmental conditions are demonstrated for different insect species. The information about genes controlling development of respiratory systems in fruit fly eggs is brought together, and occurrence of evolutionary conservative genes participating in development of such systems in other insect species is ascertained. PMID:22834166

  7. [Use of spirometry in the evaluation of the cardiovascular and respiratory system in mitral valve prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Bykorez, V A; Rasputiak, O V

    1993-01-01

    Before the operation, in 103 patients with the defects of the right and left atrioventricular valves, echocardiography and spiro-ergometry were performed. Their performance permitted to reveal latent myocardial incompetence in these patients. Changes in the indices of external respiration and gas exchange at a level of the threshold standard load can serve as objective criteria for assessment of reserve resources of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and prognosis of the development of acute cardiac failure at the shortest period after the mitral valve replacement. PMID:8139185

  8. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to systemic lupus erythematosus with hemophagocytic syndrome: an autopsy report.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kazuma; Matsuda, Masayuki; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Hosoda, Waki; Gono, Takahisa; Hoshi, Kenichi; Shimojo, Hisashi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2005-04-01

    This report concerns a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who died of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) 1 day after the onset of pulmonary symptoms. Autopsy demonstrated severe hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow and histopathology indicating a marked increase in vascular permeability in both lungs and kidneys. In this patient, active SLE and associated hemophagocytic syndrome may have induced an increase in the production of inflammatory cytokines, which immediately induced ARDS. Since fatal ARDS can occur as a life-threatening complication of SLE, careful observation is necessary, particularly when there are clinical findings suggestive of associated hemophagocytic syndrome. PMID:15338452

  9. A clinical survey of common avian infectious diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Dong; Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple common avian infectious diseases (CAIDs), namely, avian infectious diseases excluding highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease, such as avian salmonellosis and coccidiosis, cause huge economic loss in poultry production and are of great significance in public health. However, they are usually not covered in the systems for reporting of animal diseases. Consequently, the distribution of CAIDs is not clear in many countries. Here, we report a clinical survey of CAIDs in China based on clinical diagnosis of eight veterinary clinics in 2011 and 2012. This survey provided the distribution data of viral, bacterial, and parasitic CAIDs in different types of avian flocks, seasons, and regions, data that are of great value in the research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases. This survey suggested that avian colibacillosis, infectious serositis in ducks caused by Riemerella anatipestifer, avian salmonellosis, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, avian aspergillosis, coccidiosis, low pathogenic avian influenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, and infectious laryngotracheitis are likely to be prevalent in the poultry in China. PMID:25055636

  10. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review. PMID:26797962

  11. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  12. Respiratory alkalosis

    MedlinePlus

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  13. Deposition of naphthalene and tetradecane vapors in models of the human respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2011-01-01

    Jet-propulsion fuel (particularly JP-8) is currently being used worldwide, exposing especially Air Force personnel and people living near airfields to JP-8 vapors and aerosols during aircraft fueling, maintenance operations, and/or cold starts. JP-8 is a complex mixture containing >200, mostly toxic, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds of which tetradecane and naphthalene were chosen as two representative chemical markers for computer simulations. Thus, transport and deposition of naphthalene and tetradecane vapors have been simulated in models of the human respiratory system. The inspiratory deposition data were analyzed in terms of regional deposition fractions (DFs) and deposition enhancement factors (DEF). The vapor depositions are affected by vapor properties (e.g. diffusivity), airway geometric features, breathing patterns, inspiratory flow rates, as well as airway-wall absorption parameter. Specifically, the respiratory uptake of vapors is greatly influenced by the degree of airway-wall absorption. For example, being an almost insoluble species in the mucus layer, the deposition of tetradecane vapor is nearly zero in the extrathoracic and tracheobronchial (TB) airways, that is, the DF is <1%. The remaining vapors may penetrate further and deposit in the alveolar airways. The DF of tetradecane vapors during inhalation in the alveolar region can range from 7% to 24%, depending on breathing waveform, inhalation rate, and thickness of the mucus layer. In contrast, naphthalene vapor almost completely deposits in the extrathoracic and TB airways and hardly moves downstream and deposits in the respiratory zone. The DFs of naphthalene vapor in the extrathoracic airways from nasal/oral to trachea under normal breathing conditions (Q = 15-60 L/min) are about 12-34%, although they are about 66-87% in the TB airways. In addition, the variation of breathing routes (say, from nasal breathing to oral breathing) may influence the vapor deposition in the

  14. Pseudorandom signals to estimate apparent transfer and coherence functions of nonlinear systems: applications to respiratory mechanics.

    PubMed

    Suki, B; Lutchen, K R

    1992-11-01

    There is an increasing need in physiology to estimate nonparametric linear transfer functions from data originating from biological systems which are invariably nonlinear. For pseudorandom (PRN) input stimuli, we derive general expressions for the apparent transfer (Z) and coherence (gamma 2) functions of nonlinear systems that can be represented by a Volterra series. It is shown that in the case of PRN signals in which the frequency components are integer multiples of other components the estimates of Z are seriously biased due to harmonic distortion and crosstalk among frequency components of the input. When the PRN signal includes components that are not integer multiples of other components harmonic distortion is avoided, but not necessarily cross talk. Here the estimates of Z remain poor without a noticeable influence on gamma 2. To avoid the problems associated with harmonic distortions and minimize the influence of crosstalk, a family of pseudorandom signals is proposed which are especially suited for the estimation of Z and gamma 2 in mechanical measurements of physiological systems at low frequencies. The components in the signals cannot be reproduced as linear combinations of two or more frequency components of the input. In a second-order system, this completely eliminates the bias, while in higher-order, but not strongly nonlinear systems, the interactions among the components are reduced to a level that the response can be considered as if it was measured with independent sine waves of an equivalent amplitude. It is also shown that the values of gamma 2 are not appropriate to assess linearity of the system. The theory is supported by simulation results and experimental examples brought from the field of respiratory mechanics by comparing the input impedance of the respiratory system of a dog measured with various PRN signals. PMID:1487277

  15. Immunohistochemical techniques and their applications in the histopathology of the respiratory system.

    PubMed Central

    Linnoila, I; Petrusz, P

    1984-01-01

    Subsequent to the first report in the 1940s on incubation of tissue sections with fluorescein-conjugated antibodies for localization of antigens, a great number of modifications were introduced to improve the validity of immunohistochemistry which has become a growingly popular tool. The use of immunoenzymatic techniques eliminates the need for expensive fluorescence microscopy equipment, the lack of permanency of preparations and the lack of electron density required in ultrastructural localization of antigens. Regardless of the technique, it is also important to choose a correct fixation which allows the proper preservation of antigens and morphology and the penetration of antibodies through the entire thickness of the preparation. A variety of immunohistochemical techniques have been applied to study several components of the lung, such as collagen, surface active material, lung specific antigens, and enzymes and the detection of tumor markers, immunoglobulins and infectious agents in the respiratory system which is reviewed. The large surface area and the multiplicity of cell types provided by the respiratory tract epithelium of humans for exposure to microbial as well as toxic substances in the environment make this organ system very vulnerable but a good early indicator of adverse health effects. Immunohistochemistry provides valuable information complementary to the immunochemical and biochemical characterization of this barrier. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:6090113

  16. [Influences of chest deformation by upper abdominal retractor on respiratory system impedance during abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Oka, T; Ozawa, Y; Sato, J

    1999-02-01

    The present study was carried out to clarify the effects of chest deformation by upper abdominal retractor on respiratory system impedance during abdominal surgery. We measured the impedances of respiratory system (RS), lung, and chest wall (CW) in nine anesthetized paralyzed subjects employing a pseudorandom noise forced volume oscillation technique. These measurements were performed before and after the lifting chest wall by upper abdominal retractor. The effects of chest deformation was significant on the impedances of RS, lung, while no discernible effect was found in CW impedance. Lifting chest wall decreased RS resistance which was totally accounted for by the decrease in lung resistance, whereas the lifting did not affect reactance in either RS or lung. The mathematical modeling showed the significant lifting effect on the resistance of the parenchyma. In conclusion, change in RS mechanics produced by chest deformation by upper abdominal retractor is dominated in lung but not in CW. Among the lung mechanical components, parenchyma is the primary site of the lifting effect. PMID:10087819

  17. Development of a microspectrophotometer system for monitoring the redox reactions of respiratory pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, Karen Y.; Walsh, James E.; Murphy, J.; Harmey, M.; Farrell, M. A.; Hardimann, O.; Perryman, R.

    1997-05-01

    The continuing demand for non-invasive tools for use in clinical diagnosis has created the need for flexible and innovative optical systems which satisfy current requirements. We report the development of a microspectrophotometer system for use on mitochondrial respiratory pigments. This novel optical fiber set-up uses visible spectrophotometry to monitor the reduction of mitochondrial electron carriers. Preliminary data is presented for the reduction of cytochrome-c by two methods. In the first, cytochrome-c was reduced in isolation using sodium dithionite. The second was an in-vivo simulation of the reduction of cytochrome-c using the mitochondrial extract from rat liver. The key features of the system are; front end adaptability, high sensitivity and fast scanning capabilities which are essential for the rapid biological reactions which are observed.

  18. [Association of fatty acid metabolism with systemic inflammatory response in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Denisenko, Y K; Novgorodtseva, T P; Zhukova, N V; Antonuk, M V; Lobanova, E G; Kalinina, E P

    2016-03-01

    We examined composition of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NFAs), erythrocyte fatty acids, levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with different type of the inflammatory response. The results of our study show that asthma and COPD in remission are associated with changes in the composition NFAs of plasma, FA of erythrocytes, level eicosanoid despite the difference in the regulation of immunological mechanisms of systemic inflammation. These changes are characterized by excessive production of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites (thromboxane B2, leukotriene B4) and deficiency of their functional antagonist, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). The recognized association between altered fatty acid composition and disorders of the immune mechanisms of regulation of systemic inflammation in COPD and asthma demonstrated the important role of fatty acids and their metabolites in persistence of inflammatory processes in diseases of the respiratory system in the condition of remission. PMID:27420629

  19. Oxidative Stress and Respiratory System: Pharmacological and Clinical Reappraisal of N-Acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Santus, Pierachille; Corsico, Angelo; Solidoro, Paolo; Braido, Fulvio; Di Marco, Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    The large surface area for gas exchange makes the respiratory system particularly susceptible to oxidative stress-mediated injury. Both endogenous and exogenous pro-oxidants (e.g. cigarette smoke) trigger activation of leukocytes and host defenses. These mechanisms interact in a “multilevel cycle” responsible for the control of the oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidants (e.g. reduced glutathione [GSH]) in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the contribution of oxidative stress to the pathophysiology of COPD is generally only minimally discussed. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, particularly COPD, and to examine the available clinical and experimental evidence on the use of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of GSH, as an adjunct to standard therapy for the treatment of COPD. The proposed concept of “multilevel cycle” helps understand the relationship between respiratory diseases and oxidative stress, thus clarifying the rationale for using NAC in COPD. Until recently, antioxidant drugs such as NAC have been regarded only as mucolytic agents. Nevertheless, several clinical trials indicate that NAC may reduce the rate of COPD exacerbations and improve small airways function. The most plausible explanation for the beneficial effects observed in patients with COPD treated with NAC lies in the mucolytic and antioxidant effects of this drug. Modulation of bronchial inflammation by NAC may further account for these favorable clinical results. PMID:24787454

  20. Respiratory Impairment and Systemic Inflammation in Cedar Asthmatics Removed from Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Chris; Dybuncio, Anne; Pui, Mandy M.; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown that removing occupational asthmatics from exposure does not routinely lead to significant improvements in respiratory impairment. These studies were of limited duration and factors determining recovery remain obscure. Our objective was to evaluate residual respiratory impairment and associated sputum and blood biomarkers in subjects with Western red cedar asthma after exposure cessation. Methods Subjects previously diagnosed with cedar asthma, and removed from exposure to cedar dust for at least one year, were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire and spirometry. PC20 (methacholine concentration that produces 20% fall in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at 1 second)) sputum cellularity and select Th1/Th2 (T helper cells 1 and 2) cytokine concentrations in peripheral blood were determined. The asthma impairment class was determined and multivariate analyses were performed to determine its relationship with sputum cell counts and serum cytokines. Results 40 non-smoking males (mean age 62) were examined at a mean interval of 25 years from cedar asthma diagnosis and 17 years from last cedar exposure. 40% were in impairment class 2/3. On average, the PC20 had increased by 2.0 mg/ml; the FEV1 decreased by 1.5 L, with greater decrease in those with greater impairment. Higher impairment was associated with serum interferon-gamma (mean = 1.3 pg/ml in class 2/3 versus 0.62 pg/ml in class 0/1, p = 0.04), mainly due to the FEV1 component (correlation with interferon-gamma = −0.46, p = 0.005). Conclusion Years after exposure cessation, patients with Western red cedar asthma have persistent airflow obstruction and respiratory impairment, associated with systemic inflammation. PMID:23468925

  1. Systems-Level Comparison of Host-Responses Elicited by Avian H5N1 and Seasonal H1N1 Influenza Viruses in Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suki M. Y.; Gardy, Jennifer L.; Cheung, C. Y.; Cheung, Timothy K. W.; Hui, Kenrie P. Y.; Ip, Nancy Y.; Guan, Y.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Peiris, J. S. Malik

    2009-01-01

    Human disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 can lead to a rapidly progressive viral pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is increasing evidence from clinical, animal models and in vitro data, which suggests a role for virus-induced cytokine dysregulation in contributing to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. The key target cells for the virus in the lung are the alveolar epithelium and alveolar macrophages, and we have shown that, compared to seasonal human influenza viruses, equivalent infecting doses of H5N1 viruses markedly up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in both primary cell types in vitro. Whether this H5N1-induced dysregulation of host responses is driven by qualitative (i.e activation of unique host pathways in response to H5N1) or quantitative differences between seasonal influenza viruses is unclear. Here we used microarrays to analyze and compare the gene expression profiles in primary human macrophages at 1, 3, and 6 h after infection with H5N1 virus or low-pathogenic seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus. We found that host responses to both viruses are qualitatively similar with the activation of nearly identical biological processes and pathways. However, in comparison to seasonal H1N1 virus, H5N1 infection elicits a quantitatively stronger host inflammatory response including type I interferon (IFN) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α genes. A network-based analysis suggests that the synergy between IFN-β and TNF-α results in an enhanced and sustained IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokine response at the early stage of viral infection that may contribute to the viral pathogenesis and this is of relevance to the design of novel therapeutic strategies for H5N1 induced respiratory disease. PMID:20011590

  2. Technical and dosimetric aspects of respiratory gating using a pressure-sensor motion monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. Allen; Stepaniak, Christopher; Gore, Elizabeth

    2006-01-15

    This work introduces a gating technique that uses 4DCT to determine gating parameters and to plan gated treatment, and employs a Siemens linear accelerator to deliver the gated treatment. Because of technology incompatibility, the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) and the Siemens accelerator require two different motion-monitoring systems. The motion monitoring system (AZ-773V, Anzai Med.) used for the gated delivery utilizes a pressure sensor to detect the external respiratory motion (pressure change) in real time. Another system (RPM, Varian) used for the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) is based on an infrared camera to detect motion of external markers. These two motion monitoring systems (RPM and Anzai systems) were found to correlate well with each other. The depth doses and profile measured for gated delivery (with a duty cycle of 25% or 50%) were found to agree within 1.0% with those measured for ungated delivery, indicating that gating did not significantly alter beam characteristics. The measurement verified also that the MU linearity and beam output remained unchanged (within 0.3%). A practical method of using 4DCT to plan a gated treatment was developed. The duty cycle for either phase or amplitude gating can be determined based on 4DCT with consideration of set-up error and delivery efficiency. The close-loop measurement involving the entire gating process (imaging, planning, and delivery) showed that the measured isodose distributions agreed with those intended, validating the accuracy and reliability of the gating technique. Based these observations, we conclude that the gating technique introduced in this work, integrating Siemens linear accelerator and Anzai pressure sensor device with GE/Varian RPM 4DCT, is reliable and effective, and it can be used clinically to account for respiratory motion during radiation therapy.

  3. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway. PMID:26767978

  4. CONSTANT-PHASE DESCRIPTIONS OF CANINE LUNG, CHEST WALL, AND TOTAL RESPIRATORY SYSTEM VISCOELASTICITY: EFFECTS OF DISTENDING PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Kaczka, David W.; Smallwood, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system reflect the ensemble behavior of its constituent structural elements. This study assessed the appropriateness of constant-phase descriptions of respiratory tissue viscoelasticity at various distending pressures. We measured the mechanical input impedance (Z) of the lungs, chest wall and total respiratory system in twelve dogs at mean airway pressures from 5 to 30 cmH2O. Each Z was fitted with a constant-phase model which provided estimates tissue damping (G), elastance (H), and hysteresivity (η = G/H). Both G and H sharply increased with increasing distending pressure for the lungs and chest wall, while η attained a minimum near 15-20 cm H2O. Model fitting errors for the lungs and total respiratory system increased for distending pressures greater than 20 cm H2O, indicating that constant-phase descriptions of parenchymal and respiratory system viscoelasticty may be inappropriate at volumes closer to total lung capacity. Such behavior may reflect alterations in load distribution across various parenchymal stress-bearing elements. PMID:22691447

  5. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. PMID:27012374

  6. Fast evolution of urban ultrafine particles: Implications for deposition doses in the human respiratory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Avino, Pasquale

    2012-05-01

    The impact of ultrafine particles (diameters <100 nm) on human health has been addressed in many toxicological studies. It is therefore important to assess relevant respiratory exposure of the population. In this paper, aerosol number-size distribution was measured with 1 s time resolution, in a street canyon, in proximity to traffic, with the purpose of studying the fast evolution of UFP doses deposited in the respiratory system. Close to the traffic, nucleation particle concentrations increase within few seconds and decrease in tens of seconds. As a consequence, the exposure pattern, near to traffic, may be represented as a sequence of short-term peak exposures. The number of UFPs deposited for each tidal volume of air inhaled (instant UFP doses) rapidly reaches level of 107 particles, with maximum values for the alveolar interstitial region. For the correct estimate of short-term exposures, in scenarios involving proximity to traffic, it is therefore crucial to rely on aerosol measurements with a time resolution able to trace the fast evolution of aerosol from vehicle exhausts. When traffic levels drop, spike values of instant UFP doses are comparatively less frequent and the maxima of their size distributions shift from 10 to 20 nm (nucleation particles) to greater diameter (up to about 60 nm).

  7. Distribution and Respiratory Activity of Mycobacteria in Household Water System of Healthy Volunteers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ichijo, Tomoaki; Izumi, Yoko; Nakamoto, Sayuri; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2014-01-01

    The primary infectious source of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which are known as opportunistic pathogens, appears to be environmental exposure, and it is important to reduce the frequency of exposure from environmental sources for preventing NTM infections. In order to achieve this, the distribution and respiratory activity of NTM in the environments must be clarified. In this study, we determined the abundance of mycobacteria and respiratory active mycobacteria in the household water system of healthy volunteers using quantitative PCR and a fluorescent staining method, because household water has been considered as one of the possible infectious sources. We chose healthy volunteer households in order to lessen the effect of possible residential contamination from an infected patient. We evaluated whether each sampling site (bathroom drain, kitchen drain, bath heater pipe and showerhead) have the potential to be the sources of NTM infections. Our results indicated that drains in the bathroom and kitchen sink are the niche for Mycobacterium spp. and M. avium cells were only detected in the bathtub inlet. Both physicochemical and biologic selective pressures may affect the preferred habitat of Mycobacterium spp. Regional differences also appear to exist as demonstrated by the presence (US) or absence (Japan) of Mycobacterium spp. on showerheads. Understanding of the country specific human activities and water usage will help to elucidate the infectious source and route of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. PMID:25350137

  8. Enhancement of Aerosol Cisplatin Chemotherapy with Gene Therapy Expressing ABC10 protein in Respiratory System

    PubMed Central

    Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Linsmeier, Bernd; Kioumis, Ioannis; Li, Qiang; Huang, Haidong; Sachpatzidou, Despoina; Lampaki, Sofia; Organtzis, John; Domvri, Kalliopi; Sakkas, Leonidas; Zachariadis, George A.; Archontas, Konstantinos N.; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Yarmus, Lonny; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Brachmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled therapy for lung cancer is a local form of treatment. Currently inhaled non-specific cytotoxic agents have been evaluated as a future treatment for local disease control and distant metastasis control. There are few information regarding the influence of local transporters and gene expression of the respiratory epithelium to the absorption of administered drugs. In the current work we used adenoviral-type 5(dE1/E3) (Cytomegalovirus promoter) with human ABCA10 transgene (Ad-h-ABCA10) purchased from Vector Labs® in order to investigate whether gene therapy can be used as a pre-treatment to enhance the efficiency of inhaled cisplatin. We included the following groups to our work: a) control, b) aerosol vector, c) aerosol vector plus cisplatin, d) aerosol cisplatin, e) intratumoral cisplatin administration, f) intratumoral vector plus cisplatin administration. The results indicate that the aerosol cisplatin group had a long term survival with the intratumoral cisplatin group following. The enhancement of the ABCA family locally to the respiratory system prior to the aerosol cisplatin administration can be used safely and efficiently. Future treatment design of local therapies should include the investigation of local transporters and genes. PMID:24723977

  9. Respiratory dynamics of discontinuous gas exchange in the tracheal system of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Hetz, Stefan K; Chown, Steven L; Terblanche, John S

    2012-07-01

    Gas exchange dynamics in insects is of fundamental importance to understanding evolved variation in breathing patterns, such as discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). Most insects do not rely solely on diffusion for the exchange of respiratory gases but may also make use of respiratory movements (active ventilation) to supplement gas exchange at rest. However, their temporal dynamics have not been widely investigated. Here, intratracheal pressure, V(CO2) and body movements of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria were measured simultaneously during the DGC and revealed several important aspects of gas exchange dynamics. First, S. gregaria employs two different ventilatory strategies, one involving dorso-ventral contractions and the other longitudinal telescoping movements. Second, although a true spiracular closed (C)-phase of the DGC could be identified by means of subatmospheric intratracheal pressure recordings, some CO(2) continued to be released. Third, strong pumping actions do not necessarily lead to CO(2) release and could be used to ensure mixing of gases in the closed tracheal system, or enhance water vapour reabsorption into the haemolymph from fluid-filled tracheole tips by increasing the hydrostatic pressure or forcing fluid into the haemocoel. Finally, this work showed that the C-phase of the DGC can occur at any pressure. These results provide further insights into the mechanistic basis of insect gas exchange. PMID:22675191

  10. Avian response to tidal freshwater habitat creation by controlled reduced tide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchard, Olivier; Jacobs, Sander; Ysebaert, Tom; Meire, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have caused extensive loss of estuarine wetlands, and the restoration of functional habitats remains a challenging task given several physical constraints in strongly embanked estuaries. In the Schelde estuary (Belgium), a new tidal marsh restoration technique, Controlled Reduced Tide system (CRT), is being implemented in the freshwater zone. A polder area of 8.2 ha was equipped with a CRT to test the system functionality. Among different ecological compartments that are studied for assessing the CRT restoration success, avifauna was monitored over three years. The tidal regime generated a habitat gradient typical of tidal freshwater wetlands along which the distributions of bird and ecological groups were studied. 103 bird species were recorded over the three years. In addition to many generalist bird species, several specialist species typical of the North Sea coast were present. Thirty-nine species of local and/or international conservation interest were encountered, emphasising the importance of this habitat for certain species. Species communities and ecological groups were strongly habitat specific and non-randomly organized across habitats. Spatiotemporal analyses highlighted a rapid habitat colonization, and a subsequent stable habitat community structure across seasons in spite of strong seasonal species turnovers. Hence, these findings advocate CRT implementation as a means to effectively compensate for wetland habitat loss.

  11. Procedures for Identifying Infectious Prions After Passage Through the Digestive System of an Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Justin W; Nichols, Tracy A; Phillips, Gregory E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    Infectious prion (PrPRes) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases1. Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal2,3 as well as from environmental sources4-6. Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrPRes material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrPRes material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger7. We describe procedures used to document passage of PrPRes material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice. PMID:24300668

  12. Workshop to identify critical windows of exposure for children's health: immune and respiratory systems work group summary.

    PubMed Central

    Dietert, R R; Etzel, R A; Chen, D; Halonen, M; Holladay, S D; Jarabek, A M; Landreth, K; Peden, D B; Pinkerton, K; Smialowicz, R J; Zoetis, T

    2000-01-01

    Fetuses, infants, and juveniles (preadults) should not be considered simply "small adults" when it comes to toxicological risk. We present specific examples of developmental toxicants that are more toxic to children than to adults, focusing on effects on the immune and respiratory systems. We describe differences in both the pharmacokinetics of the developing immune and respiratory systems as well as changes in target organ sensitivities to toxicants. Differential windows of vulnerability during development are identified in the context of available animal models. We provide specific approaches to directly investigate differential windows of vulnerability. These approaches are based on fundamental developmental biology and the existence of discrete developmental processes within the immune and respiratory systems. The processes are likely to influence differential developmental susceptibility to toxicants, resulting in lifelong toxicological changes. We also provide a template for comparative research. Finally, we discuss the application of these data to risk assessment. PMID:10852848

  13. Effects of inhalation of beta 2-sympathicomimetic and anticholinergic agents on the impedance of the respiratory system in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, G; Vonk, H M; Wouters, E F

    1990-05-01

    Impedance measurement of the respiratory system by forced oscillations is a sensitive and accurate method to detect mechanical parameters, especially in normal subjects. The effects of inhalation of 0.2 mg of fenoterol and 0.02 mg of ipratropium bromide on the impedance of the respiratory system was studied in 20 healthy subjects in a frequency spectrum between 4 and 52 Hz. Both agents caused a statistically significant decrease in resistance (Rrs). Inhalation of fenoterol and ipratropium bromide caused a significant increase in reactance (Xrs). The decrease in Rrs was greater after inhalation of fenoterol than after ipratropium bromide. Fenoterol and ipratropium bromide caused qualitatively similar changes in Rrs and Xrs of the respiratory system. The changes in Rrs can be explained by dilation of the central airways. The changes in Xrs are supposed to be the result of an increase in the capacitance of the lungs. PMID:2139600

  14. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  15. Comparison of visual biofeedback system with a guiding waveform and abdomen-chest motion self-control system for respiratory motion management

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yujiro; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Kanai, Takayuki; Ito, Kengo; Sato, Kiyokazu; Dobashi, Suguru; Yamamoto, Takaya; Ishikawa, Yojiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of 4D computed tomography imaging and cause artifacts. Visual biofeedback systems associated with a patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches) (representing simpler visual coaching techniques without a guiding waveform) are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching in reducing respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. We collected data from 11 healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared with free-breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86 and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18 and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with the wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to the other techniques. Our results showed that visual biofeedback combined with a wave model could potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management, although all techniques were able to reduce respiratory irregularities. PMID:26922090

  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus with distal renal tubular acidosis presenting as hypokalemic paralysis with respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Koul, Parvaiz Ahmad; Wahid, Abdul; Shah, Bashir Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    An eighteen-year-old woman presented with hypokalemic respiratory failure. She was found to have distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) as the underlying cause for hypokalemia. This was treated successfully, and no apparent etiology for the dRTA was discovered. Three years later she presented with full-blown picture of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) together with features of persistent dRTA complicated, this time, with bilateral renal calculi and nephrocalcinosis. It is very likely that the dRTA was an early feature that preceded the other markers of SLE. The moral of this case is that patients with dRTA should be followed-up carefully as a primary cause for the dRTA may show up in-due-course and to monitor the treatment so as to prevent long-term complications of the RTA. PMID:18209445

  17. Bacterial Respiratory Tract Infections are Promoted by Systemic Hyperglycemia after Severe Burn Injury in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Cox, Robert A; Williams, Felicia N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injuries are associated with hyperglycemia leading to increased incidence of infections with pneumonia being one of the most prominent and adverse complication. Recently, various studies in critically ill patients indicated that increased pulmonary glucose levels with airway/blood glucose threshold over 150 mg/dl lead to an overwhelming growth of bacteria in the broncho-pulmonary system, subsequently resulting in an increased risk of pulmonary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a similar cutoff value exists for severely burned pediatric patients. Methods One-hundred six severely burned pediatric patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided in two groups: high (H) defined as daily average glucose levels >75% of LOS >150 mg/dl), and low (L) with daily average glucose levels >75% of the LOS <150 mg/dl). Incidences of pneumonia, atelectasis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were assessed. Incidence of infections, sepsis, and respiratory parameters were recorded. Blood was analyzed for glucose and insulin levels. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test and chi-square test. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results Patient groups were similar in demographics and injury characteristics. Pneumonia in patients on the mechanical ventilation (L: 21% H: 32%) and off mechanical ventilation (L: 5% H: 15%), as well as ARDS were significantly higher in the high group (L: 3% H: 19%), p<0.05, while atelectasis was not different. Patients in the high group required significantly longer ventilation compared to low patients (p<0.05). Furthermore, incidence of infection and sepsis were significantly higher in the high group, p<0.05. Conclusion Our results indicate that systemic glucose levels over 150 mg/dl are associated with a higher incidence of pneumonia confirming the previous studies in critically ill patients. PMID:24074819

  18. Idiopathic scoliosis. Mechanical properties of the respiratory system and the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kafer, E R

    1975-06-01

    The aims were to examine the effects of scoliosis (angle), and age on lung volumes, elastic properties of the respiratory system, and the ventilatory response to CO2. The mean age of the 55 patients was 25.4 plus or minus SEM 2.5 yr, and the mean angle was 80 plus or minus SEM 4.2. The mean plus or minus SEM percent predicted lung volumes were vital capacity (VC), 60.5 plus or minus 2.7; total lung capacity (TLC), 70,2 plus or minus 2.6; functional residual capacity (frc), 79.3 plus or minus 3.2; and residual volume (RV), 99.7 plus or minus 5.2. The correlation coefficients between the angle of scoliosis and each of the following were significant: TLC (-0.548), percent predicted TLC (-0.547), VC (-0.485), percent predicted VC (-0.523), FRC (-0.533), percent predicted FRC (-0.338), RV (-0.438), and percent predicted RV (-0.318). The mean compliance of the total respiratory system (Crs) was 0.049 litter/cm H2O plus or minus SEM 0.004, and the mean compliance of the chest wall (Ccw) was 0.080 liter/cm H2O plus or minus SEM 0.012. The Crs and Ccw were inversely proportional to the angle (r-0.620 and -0.721) and directly proportional to the height and the weight. The mean deltaV/deltaPco2 was 1.32 liter/min per mm Hg (SEM 0.171), and the mean deltaVt/deltaPco2 was 28.9 ml/mm Hg (SEM 3.64). The correlation coefficients between deltaV/deltaPco2 and the following were height, 0.499; VC, 0.792; TLC, 0.632; AND Crs, 0.520; and between the deltaTt/deltaPco2 and the following were height, 0.500; VC, 0.878; TLC, 0.802; and Crs, 0.590. We conclude that body size and the deformity were the determinants of the lung volumes and the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, and that these variables were the major factors in both the magnitude and pattern of the ventilatory response to CO2. The correlations between age and the mechanical properties of the respiratory sytem, deltaV/deltaPco2, and deltaVt/deltaPco2, were not significant, but the correlation coefficients between

  19. Novel Receptor Specificity of Avian Gammacoronaviruses That Cause Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I. N.; de Vries, R. P.; Weerts, E. A. W. S.; van Beurden, S. J.; Peng, W.; McBride, R.; Ducatez, M.; Guy, J.; Brown, P.; Eterradossi, N.; Gröne, A.; Paulson, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses exploit molecules on the target membrane as receptors for attachment and entry into host cells. Thus, receptor expression patterns can define viral tissue tropism and might to some extent predict the susceptibility of a host to a particular virus. Previously, others and we have shown that respiratory pathogens of the genus Gammacoronavirus, including chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), require specific α2,3-linked sialylated glycans for attachment and entry. Here, we studied determinants of binding of enterotropic avian gammacoronaviruses, including turkey coronavirus (TCoV), guineafowl coronavirus (GfCoV), and quail coronavirus (QCoV), which are evolutionarily distant from respiratory avian coronaviruses based on the viral attachment protein spike (S1). We profiled the binding of recombinantly expressed S1 proteins of TCoV, GfCoV, and QCoV to tissues of their respective hosts. Protein histochemistry showed that the tissue binding specificity of S1 proteins of turkey, quail, and guineafowl CoVs was limited to intestinal tissues of each particular host, in accordance with the reported pathogenicity of these viruses in vivo. Glycan array analyses revealed that, in contrast to the S1 protein of IBV, S1 proteins of enteric gammacoronaviruses recognize a unique set of nonsialylated type 2 poly-N-acetyl-lactosamines. Lectin histochemistry as well as tissue binding patterns of TCoV S1 further indicated that these complex N-glycans are prominently expressed on the intestinal tract of various avian species. In conclusion, our data demonstrate not only that enteric gammacoronaviruses recognize a novel glycan receptor but also that enterotropism may be correlated with the high specificity of spike proteins for such glycans expressed in the intestines of the avian host. IMPORTANCE Avian coronaviruses are economically important viruses for the poultry industry. While infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a respiratory pathogen of chickens, is rather well

  20. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  1. Avian Influenza in Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... and even kill certain domesticated bird species including chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Infected birds can shed avian ... virus’ ability to cause disease and mortality in chickens in a laboratory setting [2.5 MB, 64 ...

  2. The effect of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system; involvement of phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Bora B; Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Saha, Sikha; Batten, Trevor F; Savci, Vahide; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-05-01

    CDP-choline is an endogenous metabolite in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Exogenous administration of CDP-choline has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular, neuroendocrine neuroprotective actions. On the other hand, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effect. Therefore the current study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cholinergic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway on CDP-choline-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of CDP-choline induced dose- and time-dependent increased respiratory rates, tidal volume and minute ventilation of male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. İ.c.v. pretreatment with atropine failed to alter the hyperventilation responses to CDP-choline whereas mecamylamine, cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist, mepacrine, phospholipase A2 inhibitor, and neomycin phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked completely the hyperventilation induced by CDP-choline. In addition, central pretreatment with furegrelate, thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially blocked CDP-choline-evoked hyperventilation effects. These data show that centrally administered CDP-choline induces hyperventilation which is mediated by activation of central nicotinic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway. PMID:24560778

  3. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Tae; Okano, Shozo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation frequency, 14 times/min. Respiration was regulated so that the PaCO2 was approximately 35 to 40 mmHg before the start of the experiment. PP with CO2 (intraperitoneal pressure 15 mmHg) and a postural change (15°C) was performed during the experiment. As parameters of circulatory kinetics, heart rate (HR), mean aortic pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), central venous pressure (CVP), femoral venous pressure (FVP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured. As parameters of respiratory kinetics, airway pressure (PAW) and blood gas (BG) were measured. There were significant increases in HR, MAP, MPAP, CVP, FVP, CO, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the horizontal position. There were significant increases in CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the Trendelenburg position. There were significant increases in the MPAP, CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the inverse Trendelenburg position. There was a significant difference in FVP after PP between the Trendelenburg position and inverse Trendelenburg position. The results of this experiment suggest that appropriate anesthesia control, such as changing the ventilation conditions after PP, is required for laparoscopic surgery under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane. PMID:26027843

  4. Evaluation of a nasal/oral discriminate sampling system for capnographic respiratory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Derrick, S J; Waters, H; Kang, S W; Cwalina, T F; Simmons, W

    1993-10-01

    Although continuous end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2 mmHg) measurements permit the earliest detection of alveolar hypoventilation, apnea and/or obstruction, technical difficulties have thus far precluded its reliable implementation in the spontaneously breathing patient with a natural (e.g., nonartificially secured) airway. Among the technical difficulties is the fact that conventional sampling devices do not take into account the possibility that breathing may take place primarily through either the nose or the mouth. As a result, the efficacy of a new nasal/oral discriminate sampling system (NODSS) was examined for capnographic observation of respiratory adequacy. NODSS is unique because it provides the opportunity to select simultaneous or discriminate collection of carbon dioxide exhaled through the nose and/or mouth. Twenty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to IV patients (ages 30-88 years) were capnographically monitored in the postanesthesia care unit following general anesthesia for various surgical procedures. All patients were extubated and breathing spontaneously. Simultaneously, direct arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 mmHg) determinations were made using an indwelling radial artery catheter to determine their correlation with PETCO2 obtained by NODSS. A comparison between PaCO2 values and noninvasive nasal and/or oral PETCO2 obtained by NODSS showed a positive correlation (r value) of 0.602 to 0.849 when statistically analyzed by Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference between the mean (PaCO2-PETCO2) gradient derived through nasal sampling, as compared to the mean gradient derived by oral sampling with this device (P > 0.05). Noninvasive capnographic monitoring by NODSS is a convenient, reliable, effective, and accurate alternative to direct arterial blood gas determination that may be used for the early detection of respiratory inadequacy in the spontaneously breathing patient who

  5. Multiple Roles and Interactions of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in Development of the Respiratory System

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ripla; Metzger, Ross J.; Papaioannou, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    Normal development of the respiratory system is essential for survival and is regulated by multiple genes and signaling pathways. Both Tbx4 and Tbx5 are expressed throughout the mesenchyme of the developing lung and trachea; and, although multiple genes are known to be required in the epithelium, only Fgfs have been well studied in the mesenchyme. In this study, we investigated the roles of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in lung and trachea development using conditional mutant alleles and two different Cre recombinase transgenic lines. Loss of Tbx5 leads to a unilateral loss of lung bud specification and absence of tracheal specification in organ culture. Mutants deficient in Tbx4 and Tbx5 show severely reduced lung branching at mid-gestation. Concordant with this defect, the expression of mesenchymal markers Wnt2 and Fgf10, as well as Fgf10 target genes Bmp4 and Spry2, in the epithelium is downregulated. Lung branching undergoes arrest ex vivo when Tbx4 and Tbx5 are both completely lacking. Lung-specific Tbx4 heterozygous;Tbx5 conditional null mice die soon after birth due to respiratory distress. These pups have small lungs and show severe disruptions in tracheal/bronchial cartilage rings. Sox9, a master regulator of cartilage formation, is expressed in the trachea; but mesenchymal cells fail to condense and consequently do not develop cartilage normally at birth. Tbx4;Tbx5 double heterozygous mutants show decreased lung branching and fewer tracheal cartilage rings, suggesting a genetic interaction. Finally, we show that Tbx4 and Tbx5 interact with Fgf10 during the process of lung growth and branching but not during tracheal/bronchial cartilage development. PMID:22876201

  6. Respiratory papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas. PMID:27625447

  7. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparison of results of two groups suggested that, traditional Chinese medicine granules has satisfactory curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically. PMID:26431646

  8. Genomic Avenue to Avian Colisepticemia

    PubMed Central

    Huja, Sagi; Oren, Yaara; Trost, Eva; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Biran, Dvora; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Hacker, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we present an extensive genomic and genetic analysis of Escherichia coli strains of serotype O78 that represent the major cause of avian colisepticemia, an invasive infection caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity, resulting in significant economic consequences for the poultry industry. To understand the genetic basis of the virulence of avian septicemic E. coli, we sequenced the entire genome of a clinical isolate of serotype O78—O78:H19 ST88 isolate 789 (O78-9)—and compared it with three publicly available APEC O78 sequences and one complete genome of APEC serotype O1 strain. Although there was a large variability in genome content between the APEC strains, several genes were conserved, which are potentially critical for colisepticemia. Some of these genes are present in multiple copies per genome or code for gene products with overlapping function, signifying their importance. A systematic deletion of each of these virulence-related genes identified three systems that are conserved in all septicemic strains examined and are critical for serum survival, a prerequisite for septicemia. These are the plasmid-encoded protein, the defective ETT2 (E. coli type 3 secretion system 2) type 3 secretion system ETT2sepsis, and iron uptake systems. Strain O78-9 is the only APEC O78 strain that also carried the regulon coding for yersiniabactin, the iron binding system of the Yersinia high-pathogenicity island. Interestingly, this system is the only one that cannot be complemented by other iron uptake systems under iron limitation and in serum. PMID:25587010

  9. A system for continuous long-term measurement of respiratory gas exchange in ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, J; Krieg, N; Vogel, W M

    1987-01-01

    A system for continuous long-term measurement of respiratory gas exchange in ventilated patients is presented. The method is noninvasive and may be applied in a clinical setting over a period of several days without adversely affecting the patient's wellbeing. The set-up was designed exclusively as a research tool. It registers oxygen uptake and CO2 elimination at 5 min intervals; breath-averaged measurements are carried out every 30 s. Expired minute volume is measured with a pneumotachograph equipped with an automatic drift compensation. A newly developed gas mixer insures that the inspiratory oxygen concentration remains constant. Expired gases are analysed for O2 and CO2 concentrations by mass spectrometer. The effect of the compressible gas volume is eliminated by segregating the inspiratory gas from the expired gas. The basic accuracy of measurement of the method is +/- 2.5% for oxygen uptake and +/- 2.0% for CO2 elimination. This result is based on a comparison of the individual components of the system with standard methods. The system's time constant (t90) for changes in O2 and CO2 concentrations is about 50 s. Based on the results of a case study, we will discuss oxygen uptake, CO2 elimination and the oxygen uptake profile of a patient measured over a period of seven days. PMID:3120837

  10. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  11. Comparative in vitro study of interactions between particles and respiratory surface macrophages, erythrocytes, and epithelial cells of the chicken and the rat

    PubMed Central

    Kiama, S G; Adekunle, J S; Maina, J N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In mammals, surface macrophages (SMs) play a foremost role in protecting the respiratory system by engulfing and destroying inhaled pathogens and harmful particulates. However, in birds, the direct defense role(s) that SMs perform remains ambiguous. Paucity and even lack of SMs have been reported in the avian respiratory system. It has been speculated that the pulmonary defenses in birds are inadequate and that birds are exceptionally susceptible to pulmonary diseases. In an endeavour to resolve the existing controversy, the phagocytic capacities of the respiratory SMs of the domestic fowl and the rat were compared under similar experimental conditions by exposure to polystyrene particles. In cells of equivalent diameters (8.5 µm in the chicken and 9.0 µm in the rat) and hence volumes, with the volume density of the engulfed polystyrene particles, i.e. the volume of the particles per unit volume of the cell (SM) of 23% in the chicken and 5% in the rat cells, the avian cells engulfed substantially more particles. Furthermore, the avian SMs phagocytized the particles more efficiently, i.e. at a faster rate. The chicken erythrocytes and the epithelial cells of the airways showed noteworthy phagocytic activity. In contrast to the rat cells that did not, 22% of the chicken erythrocytes phagocytized one to six particles. In birds, the phagocytic efficiencies of the SMs, erythrocytes, and epithelial cells may consolidate pulmonary defense. The assorted cellular defenses may explain how and why scarcity of SMs may not directly lead to a weak pulmonary defense. The perceived susceptibility of birds to respiratory diseases may stem from the human interventions that have included extreme genetic manipulation and intensive management for maximum productivity. The stress involved and the structural–functional disequilibria that have occurred from a ‘directed evolutionary process’, rather than weak immunological and cellular immunity, may explain the alleged

  12. Evaluation of a lightweight protective-mask concept for Respiratory Protection System 21. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of combat where Nuclear, Biological, or Chemical (NBC) weapons could be presented, the soldier must be protected while being able to perform his mission. NBC protective equipment for individuals included both protection for the body and the head. However, this equipment causes disadvantages due to the physiological burden on the soldier, such as: Reduction in vision, both field of view and acuity; Degradation on communications, both speech and hearing capabilities; Increased heat load by containing body heat and preventing exposure to cooling air. The U.S. Army Chemical, Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is entering development of the next generation of respiratory protection (RESPO 21) to replace the current M40 series of protective masks. One of the system concepts is a lightweight protective mask (LPM) which utilizes a barrier film for both the facepiece and hood. This concept provides a lightweight, conformal mask design which can be rolled or folded into a very smal package. Concept studies have been competed for advanced seal designs, attachment systems, and electronics for this mask.

  13. Transmissibility of the monkeypox virus clades via respiratory transmission: investigation using the prairie dog-monkeypox virus challenge system.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Christina L; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S; Clemmons, Cody; Salzer, Johanna S; Nagy, Tamas; Hughes, Christine M; Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2013-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is endemic within Africa where it sporadically is reported to cause outbreaks of human disease. In 2003, an outbreak of human MPXV occurred in the US after the importation of infected African rodents. Since the eradication of smallpox (caused by an orthopoxvirus (OPXV) related to MPXV) and cessation of routine smallpox vaccination (with the live OPXV vaccinia), there is an increasing population of people susceptible to OPXV diseases. Previous studies have shown that the prairie dog MPXV model is a functional animal model for the study of systemic human OPXV illness. Studies with this model have demonstrated that infected animals are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple routes of exposure causing subsequent infection, but were not able to prove that infected animals could transmit the virus exclusively via the respiratory route. Herein we used the model system to evaluate the hypothesis that the Congo Basin clade of MPXV is more easily transmitted, via respiratory route, than the West African clade. Using a small number of test animals, we show that transmission of viruses from each of the MPXV clade was minimal via respiratory transmission. However, transmissibility of the Congo Basin clade was slightly greater than West African MXPV clade (16.7% and 0% respectively). Based on these findings, respiratory transmission appears to be less efficient than those of previous studies assessing contact as a mechanism of transmission within the prairie dog MPXV animal model. PMID:23408990

  14. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    PubMed

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future. PMID:27300144

  15. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenesis and interaction with the immune System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis and control. Worldwide PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic...

  16. Efficacy of a Low-Cost Bubble CPAP System in Treatment of Respiratory Distress in a Neonatal Ward in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kawaza, Kondwani; Machen, Heather E.; Brown, Jocelyn; Mwanza, Zondiwe; Iniguez, Suzanne; Gest, Al; Smith, E. O'Brian; Oden, Maria; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care. Methods We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups. Findings 87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls) were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62) compared with 44.0% (11/25) for controls. 65.5% (19/29) of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13) of controls. 64.6% (31/48) of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17) of controls. 61.5% (16/26) of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived. Interpretation Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries. PMID:24489715

  17. The human respiratory gate

    PubMed Central

    Eckberg, Dwain L

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this ‘respiratory gating’ is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R–R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R–R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms. PMID:12626671

  18. The human respiratory gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, Dwain L.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this 'respiratory gating' is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R-R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R-R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms.

  19. Micromachined polymerase chain reaction system for multiple DNA amplification of upper respiratory tract infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Sheng; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Chang, Chih-Ching; Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Huang, Fu-Chun; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2005-01-15

    This paper presents a micro polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip for the DNA-based diagnosis of microorganism genes and the detection of their corresponding antibiotic-resistant genes. The micro PCR chip comprises cheap biocompatible soda-lime glass substrates with integrated thin-film platinum resistors as heating/sensing elements, and is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) techniques in a reliable batch-fabrication process. The heating and temperature sensing elements are made of the same material and are located inside the reaction chamber in order to ensure a uniform temperature distribution. This study performs the detection of several genes associated with upper respiratory tract infection microorganisms, i.e. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemopilus influenze, Staphylococcu aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Neisseria meningitides, together with their corresponding antibiotic-resistant genes. The lower thermal inertia of the proposed micro PCR chip relative to conventional bench-top PCR systems enables a more rapid detection operation with reduced sample and reagent consumption. The experimental data reveal that the high heating and cooling rates of the system (20 and 10 degrees C/s, respectively) permit successful DNA amplification within 15 min. The micro PCR chip is also capable of performing multiple DNA amplification, i.e. the simultaneous duplication of multiple genes under different conditions in separate reaction wells. Compared with the large-scale PCR system, it is greatly advantageous for fast diagnosis of multiple infectious diseases. Multiplex PCR amplification of two DNA segments in the same well is also feasible using the proposed micro device. The developed micro PCR chip provides a crucial tool for genetic analysis, molecular biology, infectious disease detection, and many other biomedical applications. PMID:15590288

  20. Occupational exposure to poultry dust and effects on the respiratory system in workers.

    PubMed

    Viegas, S; Faísca, V M; Dias, H; Clérigo, A; Carolino, E; Viegas, C

    2013-01-01

    Farmers are occupationally exposed to many respiratory hazards at work and display higher rates of asthma and respiratory symptoms than other workers. Dust is one of the components present in poultry production that increases risk of adverse respiratory disease occurrence. Dust originates from poultry residues, molds, and feathers and is biologically active as it contains microorganisms. Exposure to dust is known to produce a variety of clinical responses, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic airways obstructive disease (COPD), allergic alveolitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). A study was developed to determine particle contamination in seven poultry farms and correlate this with prevalence rate of respiratory defects and record by means of a questionnaire the presence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases by European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Poultry farm dust contamination was found to contain higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM5 and PM10. Prevalence rate of obstructive pulmonary disorders was higher in individuals with longer exposure regardless of smoking status. In addition, a high prevalence for asthmatic (42.5%) and nasal (51.1%) symptoms was noted in poultry workers. Data thus show that poultry farm workers are more prone to suffer from respiratory ailments and this may be attributed to higher concentrations of PM found in the dust. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to dust will ameliorate occupational working conditions and enhance the health of workers. PMID:23514065

  1. Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

  2. Determining respiratory system resistance and reactance by impulse oscillometry in obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Cláudio Gonçalves; de Andrade, Flávio Maciel Dias; Rocha, Marcus Aurélio de Almeida; de Oliveira, Alina Farias França; Ladosky, Waldemar; Victor, Edgar Guimarães; Rizzo, José Ângelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate peripheral respiratory system resistance and reactance (Rrs and Xrs, respectively) in obese individuals. Methods: We recruited 99 individuals, dividing them into four groups by body mass index (BMI): < 30.0 kg/m2 (control, n = 31); 30.0-39.9 kg/m2 (obesity, n = 13); 40.0-49.9 kg/m2 (severe obesity, n = 28); and ≥ 50.0 kg/m2 (morbid obesity, n = 13). Using impulse oscillometry, we measured total Rrs, central Rrs, and Xrs. Peripheral Rrs was calculated as the difference between total Rrs and central Rrs. All subjects also underwent spirometry. Results: Of the 99 individuals recruited, 14 were excluded because they failed to perform forced expiratory maneuvers correctly during spirometry. The individuals in the severe obesity and morbid obesity groups showed higher peripheral Rrs and lower Xrs in comparison with those in the two other groups. Conclusions: Having a BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 was associated with a significant increase in peripheral Rrs and with a decrease in Xrs. PMID:26578133

  3. Mn Enhancement and Respiratory Gating for In Utero MRI of the Embryonic Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Deans, Abby E.; Wadghiri, Youssef Zaim; Berrios-Otero, César A.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    The mouse is the preferred model organism for genetic studies of mammalian brain development. MRI has potential for in utero studies of mouse brain development, but has been limited previously by challenges of maximizing image resolution and contrast while minimizing artifacts due to physiological motion. Manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) studies have demonstrated central nervous system (CNS) contrast enhancement in mice from the earliest postnatal stages. The purpose of this study was to expand MEMRI to in utero studies of the embryonic CNS in combination with respiratory gating to decrease motion artifacts. We investigated MEMRI-facilitated CNS segmentation and three-dimensional (3D) analysis in wild-type mouse embryos from midgestation, and explored effects of Mn on embryonic survival and image contrast. Motivated by observations that MEMRI provided an effective method for visualization and volumetric analysis of embryonic CNS structures, especially in ventral regions, we used MEMRI to examine Nkx2.1 mutant mice that were previously reported to have ventral forebrain defects. Quantitative MEMRI analysis of Nkx2.1 knockout mice demonstrated volumetric changes in septum (SE) and basal ganglia (BG), as well as alterations in hypothalamic structures. This method may provide an effective means for in utero analysis of CNS phenotypes in a variety of mouse mutants. PMID:18506798

  4. Influence of apnoeic oxygenation in respiratory and circulatory system under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kolettas, Alexander; Grosomanidis, Vasilis; Kolettas, Vasilis; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kiougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Drylis, Georgios; Kesisis, Georgios; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    Apnoeic oxygenation is an alternative technique of oxygenation which is recommended in the consecutive oxygen administration with varying flows (2-10 lt/min) through a catheter which is positioned over the keel of the trachea. Apnoeic oxygenation maintains for a significant period of time the oxygenation of blood in breathless conditions. This technique was first applied in 1947 by Draper, Whitehead, and Spencer and it was studied sporadically by other inventors too. However, the international literature shows few studies that have examined closely apnoeic oxygenation and its effects on Hemodynamic image and the respiratory system of the human body. Recently they have begun to arise some studies which deal with the application of this technique in several conditions such as difficult tracheal intubation, ventilation of guinea pigs in campaign conditions where the oxygen supply is limited and calculable, the application of this technique in combination with the use of extracorporeal removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). All the above indicate, the clinical use of this technique. PMID:24672687

  5. Influence of apnoeic oxygenation in respiratory and circulatory system under general anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kolettas, Alexander; Grosomanidis, Vasilis; Kolettas, Vasilis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kiougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Drylis, Georgios; Kesisis, Georgios; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Apnoeic oxygenation is an alternative technique of oxygenation which is recommended in the consecutive oxygen administration with varying flows (2-10 lt/min) through a catheter which is positioned over the keel of the trachea. Apnoeic oxygenation maintains for a significant period of time the oxygenation of blood in breathless conditions. This technique was first applied in 1947 by Draper, Whitehead, and Spencer and it was studied sporadically by other inventors too. However, the international literature shows few studies that have examined closely apnoeic oxygenation and its effects on Hemodynamic image and the respiratory system of the human body. Recently they have begun to arise some studies which deal with the application of this technique in several conditions such as difficult tracheal intubation, ventilation of guinea pigs in campaign conditions where the oxygen supply is limited and calculable, the application of this technique in combination with the use of extracorporeal removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). All the above indicate, the clinical use of this technique. PMID:24672687

  6. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and auditory processing in autism: Modifiable deficits of an integrated social engagement system?

    PubMed Central

    Porges, Stephen W.; Macellaio, Matthew; Stanfill, Shannon D.; McCue, Kimberly; Lewis, Gregory F.; Harden, Emily R.; Handelman, Mika; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga V.; Heilman, Keri J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated processes underlying two common symptoms (i.e., state regulation problems and deficits in auditory processing) associated with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Although these symptoms have been treated in the literature as unrelated, when informed by the Polyvagal Theory, these symptoms may be viewed as the predictable consequences of depressed neural regulation of an integrated social engagement system, in which there is down regulation of neural influences to the heart (i.e., via the vagus) and to the middle ear muscles (i.e., via the facial and trigeminal cranial nerves). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart period were monitored to evaluate state regulation during a baseline and two auditory processing tasks (i.e., the SCAN tests for Filtered Words and Competing Words), which were used to evaluate auditory processing performance. Children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were contrasted with aged matched typically developing children. The current study identified three features that distinguished the ASD group from a group of typical developing children: 1) baseline RSA, 2) direction of RSA reactivity, and 3) auditory processing performance. In the ASD group, the pattern of change in RSA during the attention demanding SCAN tests moderated the relation between performance on the Competing Words test and IQ. In addition, in a subset of ASD participants, auditory processing performance improved and RSA increased following an intervention designed to improve auditory processing. PMID:23201146

  7. Clinical Accuracy of the Respiratory Tumor Tracking System of the CyberKnife: Assessment by Analysis of Log Files

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogeman, Mischa Prevost, Jean-Briac; Nuyttens, Joost; Poell, Johan; Levendag, Peter; Heijmen, Ben

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To quantify the clinical accuracy of the respiratory motion tracking system of the CyberKnife treatment device. Methods and Materials: Data in log files of 44 lung cancer patients treated with tumor tracking were analyzed. Errors in the correlation model, which relates the internal target motion with the external breathing motion, were quantified. The correlation model error was compared with the geometric error obtained when no respiratory tracking was used. Errors in the prediction method were calculated by subtracting the predicted position from the actual measured position after 192.5 ms (the time lag to prediction in our current system). The prediction error was also measured for a time lag of 115 ms and a new prediction method. Results: The mean correlation model errors were less than 0.3 mm. Standard deviations describing intrafraction variations around the whole-fraction mean error were 0.2 to 1.9 mm for cranio-caudal, 0.1 to 1.9 mm for left-right, and 0.2 to 2.5 mm for anterior-posterior directions. Without the use of respiratory tracking, these variations would have been 0.2 to 8.1 mm, 0.2 to 5.5 mm, and 0.2 to 4.4 mm. The overall mean prediction error was small (0.0 {+-} 0.0 mm) for all directions. The intrafraction standard deviation ranged from 0.0 to 2.9 mm for a time delay of 192.5 ms but was halved by using the new prediction method. Conclusions: Analyses of the log files of real clinical cases have shown that the geometric error caused by respiratory motion is substantially reduced by the application of respiratory motion tracking.

  8. Do Male and Female Cowbirds See Their World Differently? Implications for Sex Differences in the Sensory System of an Avian Brood Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Ojeda, Agustin; Deisher, Marcella; Burry, Brianna; Baumhardt, Patrice; Stark, Amy; Elmore, Amanda G.; Ensminger, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Male and female avian brood parasites are subject to different selection pressures: males compete for mates but do not provide parental care or territories and only females locate hosts to lay eggs. This sex difference may affect brain architecture in some avian brood parasites, but relatively little is known about their sensory systems and behaviors used to obtain sensory information. Our goal was to study the visual resolution and visual information gathering behavior (i.e., scanning) of brown-headed cowbirds. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured the density of single cone photoreceptors, associated with chromatic vision, and double cone photoreceptors, associated with motion detection and achromatic vision. We also measured head movement rates, as indicators of visual information gathering behavior, when exposed to an object. We found that females had significantly lower density of single and double cones than males around the fovea and in the periphery of the retina. Additionally, females had significantly higher head-movement rates than males. Conclusions Overall, we suggest that female cowbirds have lower chromatic and achromatic visual resolution than males (without sex differences in visual contrast perception). Females might compensate for the lower visual resolution by gazing alternatively with both foveae in quicker succession than males, increasing their head movement rates. However, other physiological factors may have influenced the behavioral differences observed. Our results bring up relevant questions about the sensory basis of sex differences in behavior. One possibility is that female and male cowbirds differentially allocate costly sensory resources, as a recent study found that females actually have greater auditory resolution than males. PMID:23544049

  9. Spectacularly robust! Tensegrity principle explains the mechanical strength of the avian lung.

    PubMed

    Maina, J N

    2007-01-15

    Among the air-breathing vertebrates, the respiratory system of birds, the lung-air sac system, is remarkably complex and singularly efficient. The most perplexing structural property of the avian lung pertains to its exceptional mechanical strength, especially that of the minuscule terminal respiratory units, the air- and the blood capillaries. In different species of birds, the air capillaries range in diameter from 3 to 20 micro m: the blood capillaries are in all cases relatively smaller. Over and above their capacity to withstand enormous surface tension forces at the air-tissue interface, the air capillaries resist mechanical compression (parabronchial distending pressure) as high as 20 cm H(2)O (2 kPa). The blood capillaries tolerate a pulmonary arterial vascular pressure of 24.1 mmHg (3.2 kPa) and vascular resistance of 22.5 mmHg (3 kPa) without distending. The design of the avian respiratory system fundamentally stems from the rigidity (strength) of the lung. The gas exchanger (the lung) is uncoupled from the ventilator (the air sacs), allowing the lung (the paleopulmonic parabronchi) to be ventilated continuously and unidirectionally by synchronized bellows like action of the air sacs. Since during the ventilation of the lung the air capillaries do not have to be distended (dilated), i.e., surface tension force does not have to be overcome (as would be the case if the lung was compliant), extremely intense subdivision of the exchange tissue was possible. Minuscule terminal respiratory units developed, producing a vast respiratory surface area in a limited lung volume. I make a case that a firm (rigid) rib cage, a lung tightly held by the ribs and the horizontal septum, a lung directly attached to the trunk, specially formed and compactly arranged parabronchi, intertwined atrial muscles, and tightly set air capillaries and blood capillaries form an integrated hierarchy of discrete network system of tension and compression, a tensegrity (tensional integrity

  10. Physiological and pathophysiological interactions between the respiratory central pattern generator and the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zoccal, Daniel B; Baekey, David M; Abdala, Ana P L; Machado, Benedito H; Dick, Thomas E; Paton, Julian F R; Rybak, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory modulation seen in the sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) implies that the respiratory and sympathetic networks interact. During hypertension elicited by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the SNA displays an enhanced respiratory modulation reflecting strengthened interactions between the networks. In this chapter, we review a series of experimental and modeling studies that help elucidate possible mechanisms of sympatho-respiratory coupling. We conclude that this coupling significantly contributes to both the sympathetic baroreflex and the augmented sympathetic activity after exposure to CIH. This conclusion is based on the following findings. (1) Baroreceptor activation results in perturbation of the respiratory pattern via transient activation of postinspiratory neurons in the Bötzinger complex (BötC). The same BötC neurons are involved in the respiratory modulation of SNA, and hence provide an additional pathway for the sympathetic baroreflex. (2) Under hypercapnia, phasic activation of abdominal motor nerves (AbN) is accompanied by synchronous discharges in SNA due to the common source of this rhythmic activity in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). CIH conditioning increases the CO2 sensitivity of central chemoreceptors in the RTN which results in the emergence of AbN and SNA discharges under normocapnic conditions similar to those observed during hypercapnia in naïve animals. Thus, respiratory-sympathetic interactions play an important role in defining sympathetic output and significantly contribute to the sympathetic activity and hypertension under certain physiological or pathophysiological conditions, and the theoretical framework presented may be instrumental in understanding of malfunctioning control of sympathetic activity in a variety of disease states. PMID:25194190

  11. Optimizing early detection of avian influenza H5N1 in backyard and free-range poultry production systems in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Goutard, Flavie L; Paul, Mathilde; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Houisse, Ivan; Chanachai, Karoon; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Cameron, Angus; Stärk, Katharina D C; Roger, François

    2012-07-01

    For infectious diseases such as highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by the H5N1 virus (A/H5N1 HP), early warning system is essential. Evaluating the sensitivity of surveillance is a necessary step in ensuring an efficient and sustainable system. Stochastic scenario tree modeling was used here to assess the sensitivity of the A/H5N1 HP surveillance system in backyard and free-grazing duck farms in Thailand. The whole surveillance system for disease detection was modeled with all components and the sensitivity of each component and of the overall system was estimated. Scenarios were tested according to selection of high-risk areas, inclusion of components and sampling procedure, were tested. Nationwide passive surveillance (SSC1) and risk-based clinical X-ray (SSC2) showed a similar sensitivity level, with a median sensitivity ratio of 0.96 (95% CI 0.40-15.00). They both provide higher sensitivity than the X-ray laboratory component (SSC3). With the current surveillance design, the sensitivity of detection of the overall surveillance system when the three components are implemented, was equal to 100% for a farm level prevalence of 0.05% and 82% (95% CI 71-89%) for a level of infection of 3 farms. Findings from this study illustrate the usefulness of scenario-tree modeling to document freedom from diseases in developing countries. PMID:22296731

  12. Fate of inhaled monoclonal antibodies after the deposition of aerosolized particles in the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, L; Azzopardi, N; Arnoult, C; Sobilo, J; Hervé, V; Montharu, J; Guillon, A; Andres, C; Herault, O; Le Pape, A; Diot, P; Lemarié, E; Paintaud, G; Gouilleux-Gruart, V; Heuzé-Vourc'h, N

    2014-12-28

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are usually delivered systemically, but only a small proportion of the drug reaches the lung after intravenous injection. The inhalation route is an attractive alternative for the local delivery of mAbs to treat lung diseases, potentially improving tissue concentration and exposure to the drug while limiting passage into the bloodstream and adverse effects. Several studies have shown that the delivery of mAbs or mAb-derived biopharmaceuticals via the airways is feasible and efficient, but little is known about the fate of inhaled mAbs after the deposition of aerosolized particles in the respiratory system. We used cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, as our study model and showed that, after its delivery via the airways, this mAb accumulated rapidly in normal and cancerous tissues in the lung, at concentrations twice those achieved after intravenous delivery, for early time points. The spatial distribution of cetuximab within the tumor was heterogeneous, as reported after i.v. injection. Pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses were carried out in both mice and macaques and showed aerosolized cetuximab bioavailability to be lower and elimination times shorter in macaques than in mice. Using transgenic mice, we showed that FcRn, a key receptor involved in mAb distribution and PK, was likely to make a greater contribution to cetuximab recycling than to the transcytosis of this mAb in the airways. Our results indicate that the inhalation route is potentially useful for the treatment of both acute and chronic lung diseases, to boost and ensure the sustained accumulation of mAbs within the lungs, while limiting their passage into the bloodstream. PMID:25451545

  13. Reductions in the variations of respiration signals for respiratory-gated radiotherapy when using the video-coaching respiration guiding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Yea, Ji Woon; Oh, Se An

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) has been used to minimize the dose to normal tissue in lung-cancer radiotherapy. The present research aims to improve the regularity of respiration in RGRT by using a video-coached respiration guiding system. In the study, 16 patients with lung cancer were evaluated. The respiration signals of the patients were measured by using a realtime position management (RPM) respiratory gating system (Varian, USA), and the patients were trained using the video-coaching respiration guiding system. The patients performed free breathing and guided breathing, and the respiratory cycles were acquired for ~5 min. Then, Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used to calculate the mean and the standard deviation for each phase. The standard deviation was computed in order to analyze the improvement in the respiratory regularity with respect to the period and the displacement. The standard deviation of the guided breathing decreased to 48.8% in the inhale peak and 24.2% in the exhale peak compared with the values for the free breathing of patient 6. The standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was found to be decreased when using the respiratory guiding system. The respiratory regularity was significantly improved when using the video-coaching respiration guiding system. Therefore, the system is useful for improving the accuracy and the efficiency of RGRT.

  14. [Respiratory behavior].

    PubMed

    Gallego, J; Gaultier, C

    2000-02-01

    The notion of respiratory behaviour is grounded, among other approaches, on studies of neuronal mechanisms of voluntary breathing, clinical data, conditioning experiments and respiratory sensations. The interactions between cortical centres of voluntary breathing and respiratory neurones in the brain stem are poorly understood: voluntary control operates through the direct action of corticomotor centres on respiratory motoneurones; however these cortical structures may directly act on bulbopontine centres, and therefore indirectly on respiratory motoneurones. Recordings in animals of brain stem neuronal activity, brain imaging in humans, and transcortical stimulation of the diaphragm in humans and in animal models support either one or the other hypothesis. The mutual independence of the automatic and the voluntary controls of breathing appears in patients with impaired bulbopontine automatism and operational voluntary control (Central Congenital Hypoventilation Syndrome), and in patients with the reverse impairment (locked-in syndrome). Finally, recent studies in humans and animals show that classical conditioning affects respiratory control and sensations. PMID:10756555

  15. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA. PMID:26240698

  16. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-07-25

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA. PMID:26240698

  17. Respiratory infections unique to Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kenneth W; File, Thomas M

    2008-11-01

    Asia is a highly heterogeneous region with vastly different cultures, social constitutions and populations affected by a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases caused by tropical pathogens. Asian patients with community-acquired pneumonia differ from their Western counterparts in microbiological aetiology, in particular the prominence of Gram-negative organisms, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the differences in socioeconomic and health-care infrastructures limit the usefulness of Western management guidelines for pneumonia in Asia. The importance of emerging infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza infection remain as close concerns for practising respirologists in Asia. Specific infections such as melioidosis, dengue haemorrhagic fever, scrub typhus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, penicilliosis marneffei, malaria, amoebiasis, paragonimiasis, strongyloidiasis, gnathostomiasis, trinchinellosis, schistosomiasis and echinococcosis occur commonly in Asia and manifest with a prominent respiratory component. Pulmonary eosinophilia, endemic in parts of Asia, could occur with a wide range of tropical infections. Tropical eosinophilia is believed to be a hyper-sensitivity reaction to degenerating microfilariae trapped in the lungs. This article attempts to address the key respiratory issues in these respiratory infections unique to Asia and highlight the important diagnostic and management issues faced by practising respirologists. PMID:18945321

  18. The avian heterophil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterophils play an indispensable role in the immune defense of the avian host. To accomplish this defense, heterophils use sophisticated mechanisms to both detect and destroy pathogenic microbes. Detection of pathogens through toll-like receptors (TLR), FC and complement receptors, and other path...

  19. Avian influenza: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J

    2004-08-01

    This paper reviews the worldwide situation regarding avian influenza infections in poultry from 1997 to March 2004. The increase in the number of primary introductions and the scientific data available on the molecular basis of pathogenicity have generated concerns particularly for legislative purposes and for international trade. This has led to a new proposed definition of 'avian influenza' to extend all infections caused by H5 and H7 viruses regardless of their virulence as notifiable diseases, although this has encountered some difficulties in being approved. The paper also reviews the major outbreaks caused by viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype and the control measures applied. The zoonotic aspects of avian influenza, which until 1997 were considered to be of limited relevance in human medicine, are also discussed. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a reassortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic. PMID:15370036

  20. Respiratory Homeostasis and Exploitation of the Immune System for Lung Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yagui-Beltrán, Adam; Coussens, Lisa M; Jablons, David M

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of all cancer deaths in the US. The international scientific and clinical community has made significant advances toward understanding specific molecular mechanisms underlying lung carcinogenesis; however, despite these insights and advances in surgery and chemoradiotherapy, the prognosis for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor. Nonetheless, significant effort is being focused on advancing translational research evaluating the efficacy of novel targeted therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. Illustrative examples of this include antagonists of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib, and a diverse assortment of anti-angiogenic compounds targeting growth factors and/or their receptors that regulate tumor-associated angiogenic programs. In addition, with the increased awareness of the significant role chronically activated leukocytes play as potentiators of solid-tumor development, the role of innate and adaptive immune cells as regulators of lung carcinogenesis is being examined. While some of these studies are examining how novel therapeutic strategies may enhance the efficacy of lung cancer vaccines, others are evaluating the intrinsic characteristics of the immune response to lung cancer in order to identify rate-limiting molecular and/or cellular programs to target with novel anticancer therapeutics. In this article, we explore important aspects of the immune system and its role in regulating normal respiratory homeostasis compared with the immune response accompanying development of lung cancer. These hallmarks are then discussed in the context of recent efforts to develop lung cancer vaccines, where we have highlighted important concepts that must be taken into consideration for future development of novel therapeutic strategies and clinical trials assessing their efficacy. PMID:22368692

  1. Avian dark cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  2. Emerging Respiratory Viruses: Challenges and Vaccine Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gillim-Ross, Laura; Subbarao, Kanta

    2006-01-01

    The current threat of avian influenza to the human population, the potential for the reemergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus, and the identification of multiple novel respiratory viruses underline the necessity for the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies to combat viral infection. Vaccine development is a key component in the prevention of widespread viral infection and in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with many viral infections. In this review we describe the different approaches currently being evaluated in the development of vaccines against SARS-associated coronavirus and avian influenza viruses and also highlight the many obstacles encountered in the development of these vaccines. Lessons learned from current vaccine studies, coupled with our increasing knowledge of the host and viral factors involved in viral pathogenesis, will help to increase the speed with which efficacious vaccines targeting newly emerging viral pathogens can be developed. PMID:17041137

  3. Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic morphine-induced analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Northcutt, Alexis L.; Chao, Lindsey W.; Kearney, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Loram, Lisa C.; Rozeske, Robert R.; Bland, Sondra T.; Maier, Steven F.; Gleeson, Todd T.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest that opioids can activate immune-like cells of the central nervous system (glia). This opioid-induced glial activation is associated with decreased analgesia, owing to the release of proinflammatory mediators. Here we examine in rats whether the putative microglial inhibitor, minocycline, may affect morphine-induced respiratory depression and/or morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference). Systemic co-administration of minocycline significantly attenuated morphine-induced reductions in tidal volume, minute volume, inspiratory force and expiratory force, but did not affect morphine-induced reductions in respiratory rate. Minocycline attenuation of respiratory depression was also paralleled with significant attenuation by minocycline of morphine-induced reductions in blood oxygen saturation. Minocycline also attenuated morphine conditioned place preference. Minocycline did not simply reduce all actions of morphine, as morphine analgesia was significantly potentiated by minocycline co-administration. Lastly, morphine dose-dependently increased cyclooxygenase-1 gene expression in a rat microglial cell line, an effect that was dose-dependently blocked by minocycline. Together, these data support that morphine can directly activate microglia in a minocycline-suppressible manner and suggest a pivotal role for minocycline-sensitive processes in the mechanisms of morphine-induced respiration depression, reward, and pain modulation. PMID:18706994

  4. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Morino, Katsutaro; Mengistu, Lemecha; Ishibashi, Taishi; Kiriyama, Kohei; Ikami, Takao; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders. PMID:27340504

  5. Emerging infectious diseases: Focus on infection control issues for novel coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa and Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9).

    PubMed

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Fischer, William A; Kanamori, Hajime; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E

    2016-05-01

    Over the past several decades, we have witnessed the emergence of many new infectious agents, some of which are major public threats. New and emerging infectious diseases which are both transmissible from patient-to-patient and virulent with a high mortality include novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa, Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9). All healthcare facilities need to have policies and plans in place for early identification of patients with a highly communicable diseases which are highly virulent, ability to immediately isolate such patients, and provide proper management (e.g., training and availability of personal protective equipment) to prevent transmission to healthcare personnel, other patients and visitors to the healthcare facility. PMID:27131142

  6. Pandemic Threat Posed by Avian Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. PMID:11148006

  7. Assessing particle and fiber toxicology in the respiratory system: the stereology toolbox.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, Christina; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of airborne particles can lead to pathological changes in the respiratory tract. For this reason, toxicology studies on effects of inhalable particles and fibers often include an assessment of histopathological alterations in the upper respiratory tract, the trachea and/or the lungs. Conventional pathological evaluations are usually performed by scoring histological lesions in order to obtain "quantitative" information and an estimation of the severity of the lesion. This approach not only comprises a potential subjective bias, depending on the examiner's judgment, but also conveys the risk that mild alterations escape the investigator's eye. The most accurate way of obtaining unbiased quantitative information about three-dimensional (3D) features of tissues, cells, or organelles from two-dimensional physical or optical sections is by means of stereology, the gold standard of image-based morphometry. Nevertheless, it can be challenging to express histopathological changes by morphometric parameters such as volume, surface, length or number only. In this review we therefore provide an overview on different histopathological lesions in the respiratory tract associated with particle and fiber toxicology and on how to apply stereological methods in order to correctly quantify and interpret histological lesions in the respiratory tract. The article further aims at pointing out common pitfalls in quantitative histopathology and at providing some suggestions on how respiratory toxicology can be improved by stereology. Thus, we hope that this article will stimulate scientists in particle and fiber toxicology research to implement stereological techniques in their studies, thereby promoting an unbiased 3D assessment of pathological lesions associated with particle exposure. PMID:26521139

  8. A possible neural cascade involving the photoneuroendocrine system (PNES) responsible for regulating gonadal development in an avian species, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Kuenzel, Wayne J

    2008-08-15

    Neurons located in the lateral septal organ (LSO) and medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) have been proposed to be encephalic photoreceptors (EPRs), which sense photoperiodic time and initiate avian gonadal development. Controversy continues regarding the location of EPRs serving the PNES and their signal transduction pathway. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR we determined activation of key genes following prolonged light periods and sulfamethethazine (compound known to advance light-induced testes development) in 21-day old chicks. Earliest activation occurred in genes of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and type 6 phosphodiesterase beta subunit (PDE-6 beta) in the LSO at 4 and 6h, respectively, after onset of light and sulfamethazine intake. In contrast, no change was detected in the MBH during the first 8h of that treatment. Thereafter, significant increases in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-1) and VIP receptor (VIPR) mRNA transcripts were detected in the bed nucleus of the pallial commissure (NCPa). Hours later, activation of all four genes (VIP, PDE-6 beta, GnRH-1, VIPR) were induced solely by photostimulation. Deiodinase 2 and tyrosine hydroxylase in the MBH did not show increased gene expression until 12h of photostimulation. Prolactin mRNA transcripts showed significant increases at 4h due to SMZ intake and at 24, 36 and 48 h due to long-day photoperiodic effects. Data suggest that VIP neurons in the LSO may serve as EPRs and utilize PDE, present in the phototransduction cascade of known photoreceptors. Additionally, VIP released from the LSO may modulate GnRH-1 neurons in the NCPa via VIP receptors by increasing GnRH-1 gene expression. PMID:18598849

  9. Only one of the two type VI secretion systems encoded in the Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin genome is involved in colonization of the avian and murine hosts.

    PubMed

    Pezoa, David; Blondel, Carlos J; Silva, Cecilia A; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; Santiviago, Carlos A; Contreras, Inés

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a virulence factor for many Gram-negative bacteria. Salmonella genus harbors five phylogenetically distinct T6SS loci encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs) SPI-6, SPI-19, SPI-20, SPI-21 and SPI-22, which are differentially distributed among serotypes. The T6SSs encoded in SPI-6 and SPI-19 contribute to pathogenesis of serotypes Typhimurium and Gallinarum in mice and chickens, respectively. Salmonella Dublin is a pathogen restricted to cattle where it causes a systemic disease. Also, it can colonize other hosts such as chickens and mice, which can act as reservoirs of this serotype. Salmonella Dublin harbors the genes for both T6SS(SPI-6) and T6SS(SPI-19). This study has determined the contribution of T6SS(SPI-6) and T6SS(SPI-19) to host-colonization by Salmonella Dublin using avian and murine models of infection. Competitive index experiments showed that, a mutant strain lacking both T6SSs (∆T6SS(SPI-6)/∆T6SS(SPI-19)) presents a strong colonization defect in cecum of chickens, similar to the defect observed for the ∆T6SS(SPI-6) mutant, suggesting that this serotype requires a functional T6SS(SPI-6) for efficient colonization of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Colonization of mice was also defective, although to a lesser extent than in chickens. In contrast, the T6SS(SPI-19) was not necessary for colonization of either chickens or mice. Transfer of T6SS(SPI-6), but not T6SS(SPI-19), restored the ability of the double mutant to colonize both animal hosts. Our data indicate that Salmonella Dublin requires only the T6SS(SPI-6) for efficient colonization of mice and chickens, and that the T6SS(SPI-6) and T6SS(SPI-19) are not functionally redundant. PMID:24405577

  10. Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System 2 ATPase EivC Is Involved in the Motility and Virulence of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Xin; Xu, Xuan; Yang, Denghui; Wang, Dong; Han, Xiangan; Shi, Yonghong; Tian, Mingxing; Ding, Chan; Peng, Daxin; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are crucial for bacterial infections because they deliver effector proteins into host cells. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is present in the majority of E. coli strains, and although it is degenerate, ETT2 regulates bacterial virulence. An ATPase is essential for T3SS secretion, but the function of the ETT2 ATPase has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that EivC is homologous to the β subunit of F0F1 ATPases and it possesses ATPase activity. To investigate the effects of ETT2 ATPase EivC on the phenotype and virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), eivC mutant and complemented strains were constructed and characterized. Inactivation of eivC led to impaired flagella production and augmented fimbriae on the bacterial surface, and, consequently, reduced bacterial motility. In addition, the eivC mutant strain exhibited attenuated virulence in ducks, diminished serum resistance, reduced survival in macrophage cells and in ducks, upregulated fimbrial gene expression, and downregulated flagellar and virulence gene expression. The expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 were increased in HD-11 macrophages infected with the eivC mutant strain, compared with the wild-type strain. These virulence-related phenotypes were restored by genetic complementation. These findings demonstrate that ETT2 ATPase EivC is involved in the motility and pathogenicity of APEC.

  11. Prenatal diazepam exposure alters respiratory control system and GABAA and adenosine receptor gene expression in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Picard, Nathalie; Guénin, Stéphanie; Perrin, Yolande; Hilaire, Gérard; Larnicol, Nicole

    2008-07-01

    In experimental animals, prenatal diazepam exposure has clearly been associated with behavioral disturbances. Its impact on newborn breathing has not been documented despite potential deleterious consequences for later brain development. We addressed this issue in neonatal rats (0-2 d) born from dams, which consumed 2 mg/kg/d diazepam via drinking fluid throughout gestation. In vivo, prenatal diazepam exposure significantly altered the normoxic-breathing pattern, lowering breathing frequency (105 vs. 125 breaths/min) and increasing tidal volume (16.2 vs. 12.7 mL/kg), and the ventilatory response to hypoxia, inducing an immediate and marked decrease in tidal volume (-30%) absent in controls. In vitro, prenatal diazepam exposure significantly increased the respiratory-like frequency produced by pontomedullary and medullary preparations (+38% and +19%, respectively) and altered the respiratory-like response to application of nonoxygenated superfusate. Both in vivo and in vitro, the recovery from oxygen deprivation challenges was delayed by prenatal diazepam exposure. Finally, real-time PCR showed that prenatal diazepam exposure affected mRNA levels of alpha1 and alpha2 GABAA receptor subunits and of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in the brainstem. These mRNA changes, which are region-specific, suggest that prenatal diazepam exposure interferes with developmental events whose impact on the respiratory system maturation deserves further studies. PMID:18360306

  12. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  13. An in depth view of avian sleep.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Rattenborg, Niels C

    2015-03-01

    Brain rhythms occurring during sleep are implicated in processing information acquired during wakefulness, but this phenomenon has almost exclusively been studied in mammals. In this review we discuss the potential value of utilizing birds to elucidate the functions and underlying mechanisms of such brain rhythms. Birds are of particular interest from a comparative perspective because even though neurons in the avian brain homologous to mammalian neocortical neurons are arranged in a nuclear, rather than a laminar manner, the avian brain generates mammalian-like sleep-states and associated brain rhythms. Nonetheless, until recently, this nuclear organization also posed technical challenges, as the standard surface EEG recording methods used to study the neocortex provide only a superficial view of the sleeping avian brain. The recent development of high-density multielectrode recording methods now provides access to sleep-related brain activity occurring deep in the avian brain. Finally, we discuss how intracerebral electrical imaging based on this technique can be used to elucidate the systems-level processing of hippocampal-dependent and imprinting memories in birds. PMID:25107492

  14. The Impact of Sugar Cane–Burning Emissions on the Respiratory System of Children and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, José E.D.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.; Pereira, Luiz A.A.; Lara, Luciene B.L.S.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Arbex, Marcos A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Braga, Alfesio L.F.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of emissions from burning sugar cane on the respiratory system during almost 1 year in the city of Piracicaba in southeast Brazil. From April 1997 through March 1998, samples of inhalable particles were collected, separated into fine and coarse particulate mode, and analyzed for black carbon and tracer elements. At the same time, we examined daily records of children (< 13 years of age) and elderly people (> 64 years of age) admitted to the hospital because of respiratory diseases. Generalized linear models were adopted with natural cubic splines to control for season and linear terms to control for weather. Analyses were carried out for the entire period, as well as for burning and nonburning periods. Additional models were built using three factors obtained from factor analysis instead of particles or tracer elements. Increases of 10.2 μg/m3 in particles ≥ 2.5 μm/m3 aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and 42.9 μg/m3 in PM10 were associated with increases of 21.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.3–38.5] and 31.03% (95% CI, 1.25–60.21) in child and elderly respiratory hospital admissions, respectively. When we compared periods, the effects during the burning period were much higher than the effects during nonburning period. Elements generated from sugar cane burning (factor 1) were those most associated with both child and elderly respiratory admissions. Our results show the adverse impact of sugar cane burning emissions on the health of the population, reinforcing the need for public efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate this source of air pollution. PMID:16675427

  15. Strategies for Development of a Peptide Vaccine for Poultry Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial respiratory disease of turkeys causes millions of dollars in economic losses to the poultry industries. Poultry or avian respiratory disease complex may involve several pathogens both viral and bacterial, and disease is exacerbated by environmental stress. Live attenuated vaccines are avai...

  16. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P < 0.001). Furthermore, increased mean mealtime, frequency

  17. Novel Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Induces Impaired Interferon Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arilahti, Veera; Mäkelä, Sanna M.; Tynell, Janne; Julkunen, Ilkka; Österlund, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013 a new avian influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in China and infected humans with a case fatality rate of over 30%. Like the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, H7N9 virus is causing severe respiratory distress syndrome in most patients. Based on genetic analysis this avian influenza A virus shows to some extent adaptation to mammalian host. In the present study, we analyzed the activation of innate immune responses by this novel H7N9 influenza A virus and compared these responses to those induced by the avian H5N1 and seasonal H3N2 viruses in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We observed that in H7N9 virus-infected cells, interferon (IFN) responses were weak although the virus replicated as well as the H5N1 and H3N2 viruses in moDCs. H7N9 virus-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines remained at a significantly lower level as compared to H5N1 virus-induced “cytokine storm” seen in human moDCs. However, the H7N9 virus was extremely sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFN-α and IFN-β in pretreated cells. Our data indicates that different highly pathogenic avian viruses may show considerable differences in their ability to induce host antiviral responses in human primary cell models such as moDCs. The unexpected appearance of the novel H7N9 virus clearly emphasizes the importance of the global influenza surveillance system. It is, however, equally important to systematically characterize in normal human cells the replication capacity of the new viruses and their ability to induce and respond to natural antiviral substances such as IFNs. PMID:24804732

  18. Central neural mechanisms of progesterone action: application to the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E

    1992-08-01

    Around the turn of the century, it was recognized that women hyperventilate during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Although a causative role for the steroid hormone progesterone in this hyperventilation was suggested as early as the 1940s, there has been no clear indication as to the mechanism by which it produces its respiratory effects. In contrast, much mechanistic information has been obtained over the same period about a different effect of progesterone, i.e., the facilitation of reproductive behaviors. In this case, the bulk of the evidence supports the hypothesis that progesterone acts via a genomic mechanism with characteristics not unlike those predicted by classic models for steroid hormone action. We recently, therefore, undertook a series of experiments to test predictions of those same models with reference to the respiratory effects of progesterone. Here we highlight the results of those studies; as background to and precedent for our experiments, we briefly review previous work in which effects of progesterone on respiration and reproductive behaviors have been studied. Our results indicate that the respiratory response to progesterone is mediated at hypothalamic sites through an estrogen- (E2) dependent progesterone receptor- (PR) mediated mechanism requiring RNA and protein synthesis, i.e., gene expression. The E2 dependence of the respiratory response to progesterone is likely a consequence of the demonstrated induction of PR mRNA and PR in hypothalamic neurons by E2. In short, we found that neural mechanisms underlying the stimulation of respiration by progesterone were similar to those mediating its reproductive effects. PMID:1399957

  19. Avian flu: pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    Jan, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is unpredictable, and the risk of an avian flu outbreak is unclear. It is critical that home health providers, who may become overburdened quickly in the event of a pandemic outbreak, be prepared to ensure a sustainable healthcare response. This article offers information on strategies that may be used by home health providers to prepare for, prevent, and manage pandemic influenza. PMID:17984642

  20. Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D J

    2000-08-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses, is included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties. Historically, ND has been a devastating disease of poultry, and in many countries the disease remains one of the major problems affecting existing or developing poultry industries. Even in countries where ND may be considered to be controlled, an economic burden is still associated with vaccination and/or maintaining strict biosecurity measures. The variable nature of Newcastle disease virus strains in terms of virulence for poultry and the different susceptibilities of the different species of birds mean that for control and trade purposes, ND requires careful definition. Confirmatory diagnosis of ND requires the isolation and characterisation of the virus involved. Assessments of virulence conventionally require in vivo testing. However, in vitro genetic characterisation of viruses is being used increasingly now that the molecular basis of pathogenicity is more fully understood. Control of ND is by prevention of introduction and spread, good biosecurity practices and/or vaccination. Newcastle disease viruses may infect humans, usually causing transient conjunctivitis, but human-to-human spread has never been reported. Eight other serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses are recognised, namely: APMV-2 to APMV-9. Most of these serotypes appear to be present in natural reservoirs of specific feral avian species, although other host species are usually susceptible. Only APMV-2 and APMV-3 viruses have made a significant disease and economic impact on poultry production. Both types of viruses cause respiratory disease and egg production losses which may be severe when exacerbated by other infections or environmental stresses. No reports exist of natural infections of chickens with APMV-3 viruses. PMID:10935273

  1. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the lungs cannot remove all of the carbon dioxide the body produces. This causes body fluids, especially ... Acute respiratory acidosis is a condition in which carbon dioxide builds up very quickly, before the kidneys can ...

  2. Strategies and challenges for eliciting immunity against avian influenza virus in birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged during the past two decades as essential tools in avian influenza (AI) control for poultry because they: increase resistance to infection, prevent illness and death, reduce virus replication and shed from respiratory and alimentary tracts, and reduce virus trans...

  3. Pathobiology of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ducks and other wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza type A viruses which normally are nonpathogenic in these birds. However, the Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses have evolved from producing no disease or mild respiratory infections in ducks, to some strains producing se...

  4. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the United States. In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coot (AC) and Canada goose (CG) were passa...

  5. Avian Influenza (H7N9) Virus Infection in Chinese Tourist in Malaysia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    William, Timothy; Thevarajah, Bharathan; Lee, Shiu Fee; Suleiman, Maria; Jeffree, Mohamad Saffree; Menon, Jayaram; Saat, Zainah; Thayan, Ravindran; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2015-01-01

    Of the ≈400 cases of avian influenza (H7N9) diagnosed in China since 2003, the only travel-related cases have been in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Detection of a case in a Chinese tourist in Sabah, Malaysia, highlights the ease with which emerging viral respiratory infections can travel globally. PMID:25531078

  6. Geographic information systems applied to the international surveillance and control of transboundary animal diseases, a focus on highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent; De Simone, Lorenzo; Lubroth, Juan

    2007-01-01

    To respond to the lack of early warning in dealing with livestock diseases, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) developed and launched the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) programme in 1994. Emphasis was placed on the prevention of emergencies due to transboundary epidemic diseases of livestock of significant economic, trade and/or food security importance. EMPRES early warning activities, mainly based on disease surveillance, reporting and epidemiological analysis are supported by the EMPRES-i information system which enables integration, analysis and sharing of animal health data, combined with relevant layers of information, such as socio-economic, production and climatic data. Indeed, data integration, analysis and mapping represent a key step towards a better understanding of the distribution and behaviour, source and evolution of a disease (or infection) for the definition of appropriate cost-effective disease control strategies. With the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in South-East Asia and its rapid spread beyond its known original distribution range, through its EMPRES programme the FAO has invested time and resources in the implementation of several studies to reveal HPAI epidemiological features in specific ecosystems of Asia and advise member countries accordingly on the best disease control options. Some of the key findings are presented in this paper and illustrate the incredible potential of using geographic information systems as part of international early warning systems and their multiple applications in the surveillance and control of infectious diseases, such as HPAI. PMID:20422520

  7. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Shen, Wei; Liao, Ming; Bartlam, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV M{sup pro} was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6{sub 1}22. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function.

  8. Evaluating respiratory patient disability.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Manzano, Juan; Alfageme Michavila, Inmaculada; Chiner Vives, Eusebi; Martínez González, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    The evaluation of the disabilities of patients with respiratory disease is regulated by the Spanish Ministry of Labor and Social Security, as are disabilities of any other type. We believe, however, that in respiratory pathologies this evaluation is especially complicated because, as they are chronic processes, they inter-relate with other systems. Furthermore, they tend to have occasional exacerbations; therefore, normal periods may alternate with other periods of important functional limitations. The present document arises from the desire of SEPAR to update this topic and to respond to the requests of respiratory disease patient associations who have asked us to do so. In this paper, we analyze the current situation of work disability legislation as well as the determination of degrees and percentages, including the current criteria for assigning disabilities due to respiratory tract deficiencies. Lastly, we propose work guidelines that would improve the existing scenario and outline this evaluation for specific pathologies. PMID:22341300

  9. Respiratory chain supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Schägger, H

    2001-01-01

    Respiratory chain supercomplexes have been isolated from mammalian and yeast mitochondria, and bacterial membranes. Functional roles of respiratory chain supercomplexes are catalytic enhancement, substrate channelling, and stabilization of complex I by complex III in mammalian cells. Bacterial supercomplexes are characterized by their relatively high detergent-stability compared to yeast or mammalian supercomplexes that are stable to sonication. The mobility of substrate cytochrome c increases in the order bacterial, yeast, and mammalian respiratory chain. In bacterial supercomplexes, the electron transfer between complexes III and IV involves movement of the mobile head of a tightly bound cytochrome c, whereas the yeast S. cerevisiae seems to use substrate channelling of a mobile cytochrome c, and mammalian respiratory chains have been described to use a cytochrome c pool. Dimeric ATP synthase seems to be specific for mitochondrial OXPHOS systems. Monomeric complex V was found in Acetobacterium woodii and Paracoccus denitrificans. PMID:11798023

  10. Self-Calibrating Respiratory-Flowmeter Combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Orr, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Dual flowmeters ensure accuracy over full range of human respiratory flow rates. System for measurement of respiratory flow employs two flowmeters; one compensates for deficiencies of other. Combination yields easily calibrated system accurate over wide range of gas flow.

  11. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Lungs and Respiratory System Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Lungs and Respiratory System Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  12. The influence of boundary conditions to the flow through model of upper part of human respiratory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elcner, Jakub; Chovancova, Michaela; Jicha, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    Respiratory system represents relatively large system of gradually branching channels which can be hardly solved by numerical simulations. Nowadays, research in this area is focused to solve problems in selected parts of respiratory tract rather than whole system. This simplification comes with problem of accurate assessment of boundary conditions on model geometry. Geometry used on Department of Thermomechanics and Environmental Engineering on Brno University of Technology consists of mouth cavity, larynx, trachea and bronchial tree up to seventh generation of branching. This article is focused on comparison of two different settings of boundary conditions steady inspiration during light activity regime. First set of boundary conditions represents commonly used setting with zero pressure resistance on outlet from the model and second method deals with more realistic assumption, where incomplete 3D geometry is coupled with the rest of bronchial tree described by 1D equations and also correlated by the amount of air, which flows in specific lung lobe. The article observed differences in individual mass flow through the model branches under different conditions and its influence on the flow structures.

  13. Validity of Outcome Prediction Scoring Systems in Korean Patients with Severe Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several prognostic scoring systems for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been published. The aim of this study was to validate the established scoring systems for outcome prediction in Korean patients. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 50 patients on ECMO therapy in our center from 2012 to 2014. A calculation of outcome prediction scoring tools was performed and the comparison across various models was conducted. In our study, the overall hospital survival was 46% and successful weaning rate was 58%. The Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V-V ECMO (PRESERVE) score showed good discrimination of mortality prediction for patients on ECMO with AUC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.66-0.90). The respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival prediction (RESP) score and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II score also showed fair prediction ability with AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.65-0.89) and AUC of 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.88), respectively. However, the ECMOnet score failed to predict mortality with AUC of 0.51 (95% CI 0.37-0.66). When evaluating the predictive accuracy according to optimal cut-off point of each scoring system, RESP score had a best specificity of 91.3% and 66.7% of sensitivity, respectively. This study supports the clinical usefulness of the prognostic scoring tools for severe ARDS with ECMO therapy when applying to the Korean patients receiving ECMO. PMID:27247503

  14. Validity of Outcome Prediction Scoring Systems in Korean Patients with Severe Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yeo, Hye Ju; Yoon, Seong Hoon; Lee, Seung Eun; Cho, Woo Hyun; Jeon, Doo Soo; Kim, Yun Seong; Son, Bong Soo; Kim, Do Hyung

    2016-06-01

    Recently, several prognostic scoring systems for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been published. The aim of this study was to validate the established scoring systems for outcome prediction in Korean patients. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 50 patients on ECMO therapy in our center from 2012 to 2014. A calculation of outcome prediction scoring tools was performed and the comparison across various models was conducted. In our study, the overall hospital survival was 46% and successful weaning rate was 58%. The Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V-V ECMO (PRESERVE) score showed good discrimination of mortality prediction for patients on ECMO with AUC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.66-0.90). The respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival prediction (RESP) score and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II score also showed fair prediction ability with AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.65-0.89) and AUC of 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.88), respectively. However, the ECMOnet score failed to predict mortality with AUC of 0.51 (95% CI 0.37-0.66). When evaluating the predictive accuracy according to optimal cut-off point of each scoring system, RESP score had a best specificity of 91.3% and 66.7% of sensitivity, respectively. This study supports the clinical usefulness of the prognostic scoring tools for severe ARDS with ECMO therapy when applying to the Korean patients receiving ECMO. PMID:27247503

  15. Moderate local and systemic respiratory syncytial virus-specific T-cell responses upon mild or subclinical RSV infection.

    PubMed

    de Waal, L; Koopman, L P; van Benten, I J; Brandenburg, A H; Mulder, P G H; de Swart, R L; Fokkens, W J; Neijens, H J; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2003-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are a major cause of severe respiratory disease in infants. It has been shown that there is an increased frequency of childhood wheezing in ex-bronchiolitic preteen children. This was postulated to be mediated by a vigorous virus-specific Th2 response influencing the further development of the immune system. Little is known about the possible role of the immune response to clinically mild RSV infections in this respect. We have studied the RSV-specific cellular immune response in infants with a laboratory-confirmed RSV upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; n = 13, mean age 12 months, range 2-22 months) in comparison with infants with non-RSV mediated URTI (n = 9, mean age 9.3 months, range 4-18 months) or infants with severe RSV bronchiolitis (n = 11, mean age 2.3 months, range 1-6 months). RSV-specific cytokine-producing cells were enumerated using the ELISPOT method in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and nasal brush T-cells, collected during the acute and convalescent phase of the infection. Mixed Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13) responses were detected in all three groups. Frequencies of RSV-specific T-cells were lower in both URTI groups than in the RSV bronchiolitis group, and not significantly different between the RSV URTI and the non-RSV URTI group. The absence of vigorous virus-specific Th2 responses upon mild RSV infection does not support the hypothesis that these infections influence the development of the immune system and that they predispose for the development of atopic disease. PMID:12696123

  16. Evaluation of a Decision Support System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Nonlinear Analysis of Respiratory Signals

    PubMed Central

    Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Tsara, Venetia; Bratsas, Charalambos; Sichletidis, Lazaros; Karvounis, Charalambos; Maglaveras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder requiring the time/money consuming polysomnography for diagnosis. Alternative methods for initial evaluation are sought. Our aim was the prediction of Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) in patients potentially suffering from OSA based on nonlinear analysis of respiratory biosignals during sleep, a method that is related to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Materials and Methods Patients referred to a Sleep Unit (135) underwent full polysomnography. Three nonlinear indices (Largest Lyapunov Exponent, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Approximate Entropy) extracted from two biosignals (airflow from a nasal cannula, thoracic movement) and one linear derived from Oxygen saturation provided input to a data mining application with contemporary classification algorithms for the creation of predictive models for AHI. Results A linear regression model presented a correlation coefficient of 0.77 in predicting AHI. With a cutoff value of AHI = 8, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 71.4% in discrimination between patients and normal subjects. The decision tree for the discrimination between patients and normal had sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 60%, respectively. Certain obtained nonlinear values correlated significantly with commonly accepted physiological parameters of people suffering from OSA. Discussion We developed a predictive model for the presence/severity of OSA using a simple linear equation and additional decision trees with nonlinear features extracted from 3 respiratory recordings. The accuracy of the methodology is high and the findings provide insight to the underlying pathophysiology of the syndrome. Conclusions Reliable predictions of OSA are possible using linear and nonlinear indices from only 3 respiratory signals during sleep. The proposed models could lead to a better study of the pathophysiology of OSA and facilitate initial evaluation/follow up of suspected patients OSA

  17. Independent-Trajectories Thermodynamic-Integration Free-Energy Changes for Biomolecular Systems: Determinants of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Neuraminidase Inhibition by Peramivir

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Free-energy changes are essential physicochemical quantities for understanding most biochemical processes. Yet, the application of accurate thermodynamic-integration (TI) computation to biological and macromolecular systems is limited by finite-sampling artifacts. In this paper, we employ independent-trajectories thermodynamic-integration (IT-TI) computation to estimate improved free-energy changes and their uncertainties for (bio)molecular systems. IT-TI aids sampling statistics of the thermodynamic macrostates for flexible associating partners by ensemble averaging of multiple, independent simulation trajectories. We study peramivir (PVR) inhibition of the H5N1 avian influenza virus neuraminidase flexible receptor (N1). Binding site loops 150 and 119 are highly mobile, as revealed by N1-PVR 20-ns molecular dynamics. Due to such heterogeneous sampling, standard TI binding free-energy estimates span a rather large free-energy range, from a 19% underestimation to a 29% overestimation of the experimental reference value (−62.2 ± 1.8 kJ mol−1). Remarkably, our IT-TI binding free-energy estimate (−61.1 ± 5.4 kJ mol−1) agrees with a 2% relative difference. In addition, IT-TI runs provide a statistics-based free-energy uncertainty for the process of interest. Using ∼800 ns of overall sampling, we investigate N1-PVR binding determinants by IT-TI alchemical modifications of PVR moieties. These results emphasize the dominant electrostatic contribution, particularly through the N1 E277−PVR guanidinium interaction. Future drug development may be also guided by properly tuning ligand flexibility and hydrophobicity. IT-TI will allow estimation of relative free energies for systems of increasing size, with improved reliability by employing large-scale distributed computing. PMID:19461872

  18. Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

  19. Avian influenza prevention and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry around the world. Avian Influenza virus (AIV) has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infectio...

  20. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  1. Avian influenza vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian AI outbreaks when used as part of a compr...

  2. Respiratory Allergies: A General Overview of Remedies, Delivery Systems, and the Need to Progress

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giselda; Celenza, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    The spread of respiratory allergies is increasing in parallel with the alarm of the scientific community. Evidently, our knowledge of the onset mechanisms of these diseases and, as a consequence, of the available remedies is inadequate. This review provides a brief, general description of current therapeutic resources and the state of research with regard to both drugs and medical devices in order to highlight their limits and the urgent need for progress. Increasing the amount of basic biochemical research will improve our knowledge of such onset mechanisms and the potential efficacy of therapeutic preparations. PMID:25006500

  3. Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1) Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2) Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3) Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4) Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the

  4. Dual origin of avian lymphatics.

    PubMed

    Wilting, Jörg; Aref, Yama; Huang, Ruijin; Tomarev, Stanislav I; Schweigerer, Lothar; Christ, Bodo; Valasek, Petr; Papoutsi, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The earliest signs of the lymphatic vascular system are the lymph sacs, which develop adjacent to specific embryonic veins. It has been suggested that sprouts from the lymph sacs form the complete lymphatic vascular system. We have studied the origin of the jugular lymph sacs (JLS), the dermal lymphatics and the lymph hearts of avian embryos. In day 6.5 embryos, the JLS is an endothelial-lined sinusoidal structure. The lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) stain (in the quail) positive for QH1 antibody and soybean agglutinin. As early as day 4, the anlagen of the JLS can be recognized by their Prox1 expression. Prox1 is found in the jugular section of the cardinal veins, and in scattered cells located in the dermatomes along the cranio-caudal axis and in the splanchnopleura. In the quail, such cells are positive for Prox1 and QH1. In the jugular region, the veins co-express the angiopoietin receptor Tie2. Quail-chick-chimera studies show that the peripheral parts of the JLS form by integration of cells from the paraxial mesoderm. Intra-venous application of DiI-conjugated acetylated low-density lipoprotein into day 4 embryos suggests a venous origin of the deep parts of the JLS. Superficial lymphatics are directly derived from the dermatomes, as shown by dermatome grafting. The lymph hearts in the lumbo-sacral region develop from a plexus of Prox1-positive lymphatic capillaries. Both LECs and muscle cells of the lymph hearts are of somitic origin. In sum, avian lymphatics are of dual origin. The deep parts of the lymph sacs are derived from adjacent veins, the superficial parts of the JLS and the dermal lymphatics from local lymphangioblasts. PMID:16457798

  5. Replication, Neurotropism, and Pathogenicity of Avian Paramyxovirus Serotypes 1–9 in Chickens and Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Xiao, Sa; Shive, Heather; Collins, Peter L.; Samal, Siba K.

    2012-01-01

    Avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotypes 1–9 have been isolated from many different avian species. APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) is the only well-characterized serotype, because of the high morbidity, mortality, and economic loss caused by highly virulent strains. Very little is known about the pathogenesis, replication, virulence, and tropism of the other APMV serotypes. Here, this was evaluated for prototypes strains of APMV serotypes 2–9 in cell culture and in chickens and ducks. In cell culture, only APMV-1, -3 and -5 induced syncytium formation. In chicken DF1 cells, APMV-3 replicated with an efficiency approaching that of APMV-1, while APMV-2 and -5 replicated to lower, intermediate titers and the others were much lower. Mean death time (MDT) assay in chicken eggs and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) test in 1-day-old SPF chicks demonstrated that APMV types 2–9 were avirulent. Evaluation of replication in primary neuronal cells in vitro as well as in the brains of 1-day-old chicks showed that, among types 2–9, only APMV-3 was neurotropic, although this virus was not neurovirulent. Following intranasal infection of 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, replication of APMV types 2–9 was mostly restricted to the respiratory tract, although APMV-3 was neuroinvasive and neurotropic (but not neurovirulent) and also was found in the spleen. Experimental intranasal infection of 3-week-old mallard ducks with the APMVs did not produce any clinical signs (even for APMV-1) and exhibited restricted viral replication of the APMVs (including APMV-1) to the upper respiratory tract regardless of their isolation source, indicating avirulence of APMV types 1–9 in mallard ducks. The link between the presence of a furin cleavage site in the F protein, syncytium formation, systemic spread, and virulence that has been well-established with APMV-1 pathotypes was not evident with the other APMV serotypes. PMID:22558104

  6. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infection in aged nonhuman primates is associated with modulated pulmonary and systemic immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many respiratory viruses disproportionately impact the elderly. Likewise, advanced age correlated with more adverse disease outcomes following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection in humans. We used an aged African green monkey SARS-CoV infection model to better understand age-related mechanisms of increased susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. Nonhuman primates are critical translational models for such research given their similarities to humans in immune-ageing as well as lung structure. Results Significant age- and infection-dependent differences were observed in both systemic and mucosal immune compartments. Peripheral lymphocytes, specifically CD8 T and B cells were significantly lower in aged monkeys pre- and post- SARS-CoV infection, while neutrophil and monocyte numbers were not impacted by age or infection status. Serum proinflammatory cytokines were similar in both age groups, whereas significantly lower levels of IL-1beta, IL-18, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-15 were detected in the lungs of SARS-CoV-infected aged monkeys at either 5 or 10 days post infection. Total lung leukocyte numbers and relative frequency of CD8 T cells, B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells were greatly reduced in the aged host during SARS-CoV infection, despite high levels of chemoattractants for many of these cells in the aged lung. Dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages showed age-dependent differences in activation and chemokine receptor profiles, while the CD8 T cell and B cell responses were significantly reduced in the aged host. In examination of viral titers, significantly higher levels of SARS-CoV were detected in the nasal swabs early, at day 1 post infection, in aged as compared to juvenile monkeys, but virus levels were only slightly higher in aged animals by day 3. Although there was a trend of higher titers in respiratory tissues at day 5 post infection, this did not reach statistical significance and virus was

  7. Respiratory dysfunction associated with traumatic injury to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Slack, R S; Shucart, W

    1994-12-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction is a common complication of head trauma and spinal cord injury. Abnormal breathing patterns reflect the influence of altered neural integration. Early arterial hypoxemia can result from ventilation-perfusion mismatching, microatelectasis, aspiration, fat embolism, or the development of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Significant changes in lung volumes, ventilation, and gas exchange can occur in spinal cord injury as a result of the loss of diaphramatic or intercostal muscle function. Recruitment of accessory respiratory muscles plays an important role in stabilizing the rib cage and improving expiratory function. Strength training improves expiratory muscle function in quadriplegics and should be continued indefinitely. Most importantly, survival of patients with CNS injuries improves with meticulous and vigorous pulmonary hygiene. The pulmonary hygiene program should include regular changes in the patient's position, assisted coughing and deep breathing exercises, incentive spirometer, bronchodilators, fiberoptic bronchoscopy when indicated, and frequent monitoring of pulmonary mechanics. Long-term survival of the patient with head trauma or spinal cord injury is correlated to successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. Various forms of mechanical ventilator support can be adopted for the patient's ventilatory needs, and many patients will achieve some degree of freedom from mechanical ventilation. Newer ventilatory assist devices that do not require tracheostomy should be considered. PMID:7867288

  8. Smoking status in parents of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of respiratory system disorders.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Nursan; Dede, Cemile; Cevahir, Reyhan; Sevimli, Döndü

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the statuses of hospitalized children with diagnosis of respiratory tract disease with cigarette use in the parents. This descriptive study was conducted in a Gowerment Hospital in the Sakarya city center in Turkey between June 2007 and June 2008. The inclusion criterion was willingness of families with children hospitalized due to diagnosis of respiratory disease to participate in the study. Data were collected from 345 parents using the questionnaire prepared by researchers. In our study parental smoking was observed in 42.3% of fathers, 7.8% mothers and for 20.9% both parents were smoking. It was found that the hospitalization rates were more than two times higher in children diagnosed with pneumonia and bronchitis and three times higher in children hospitalized for asthma whose parents smoke at home compared to those whose parents are non-smokers. Health care professionals who take care of children need to discuss the harmful effects of smoking and the importance of reducing childhood exposure to secondhand smoke; parents should be educated and encouraged not to smoke. PMID:21108615

  9. [Characteristics of the respiratory chain and the oxidative phosphorylation system of mitochondria in the flavinogenic Eremothecium ashbyii strain].

    PubMed

    Zviagil'skaia, R A; Korosteleva, N L; Mironov, V A

    1976-01-01

    Tightly coupled mitochondria were isolated from cells of the flavinogenic strain of Eremothecium ashbyii collected during the logarithmic and stationary growth phases. The composition of the respiratory chain and characteristics of the energy coupling system are described. The mitochondria show a wide spectrum of metabolic activity and oxidize Krebs cycle compenents and exogenous NADH. The terminal segment of the respiratory chain is represented by a typical cytochrome system. The mitochondria of the ascomycete collected during the logarithmic growth phase are characterized by a relatively high content of cytochromes b and c, a high rate of oxidation of NAD-dependent substrates, the presence of lower homologues of ubiquinone, UQ6 and UQ7, and extremely high sensitivity of respiration to the action of antimycin A, low content of a component sensitive to rotenone, contrasting with the operation of all three sites of phosphorylation. Transition to the stationary growth phase is accompanied with a decrease in the rate of oxidation of all substrates studied and a declined effectiveness of oxidative phosphorylation. The data obtained are discussed in relation to the ability of the cells for "overproduction" of flavins. PMID:187903

  10. Single and combined effects of air pollutants on circulatory and respiratory system-related mortality in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stojić, Svetlana Stanišić; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja; Šoštarić, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and soot and mortality attributed to circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade area (Serbia). The analyzed data set comprised results of regular pollutant monitoring and corresponding administrative records on frequency of daily mortality in the period 2009-2014. Nonlinear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects of temperature were examined by means of distributed lag nonlinear models. The air pollutant loadings and circulatory system-related death rates in Belgrade area are among the highest in Europe. Data demonstrated that excess risk of death with short-term exposure to elevated concentrations of PM10, SO2, and soot was not significant, whereas marked effect size estimates for exposure over 90 d preceding mortality were found. The influence of chronic exposure was shown to be greater for respiratory than circulatory system-related mortality. When stratified by age and gender, higher risk was noted for male individuals below the age of 65 years. PMID:26699658

  11. Successful management of acute respiratory failure in an Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis patient using an extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal system.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Andrea; Arcaro, Giovanna; Paladini, Luciana; Iovino, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (IMV) following unsuccessful treatment with Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) have a high mortality rate. IMV is, moreover, an independent predictor of poor outcome during the post-transplantation period in patients on waiting lists for Lung Transplantation (LT). Here we describe the successful management of an IPF patient with acute respiratory failure (ARF) using a pump-assisted veno-venous system for extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) (ProLUNG® system) as an alternative to endotracheal intubation (ETI) following NIV failure. Given this positive experience, further studies are warranted focusing on the ECCO2R system's tolerability, safety, and efficacy in patients with IPF and severe ARF in whom NIV alone is ineffective. PMID:27537725

  12. Investigation of the flow-field in the upper respiratory system when wearing N95 filtering facepiece respirator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotie; Li, Hui; Shen, Shengnan; Cai, Mang

    2016-05-01

    This article presents a reverse modeling of the headform when wearing a filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation based on the modeling. The whole model containing the upper respiratory airway, headform, and FFR was directly recorded by computed tomography (CT) scanning, and a medical contrast medium was used to make the FFR "visible." The FFR was normally worn by the subject during CT scanning so that the actual deformation of both the FFR and the face muscles during contact can be objectively conserved. The reverse modeling approach was introduced to rebuild the geometric model and convert it into a CFD solvable model. In this model, we conducted a transient numerical simulation of air flow containing carbon dioxide, thermal dynamics, and pressure and wall shear stress distribution in the respiratory system taking into consideration an individual wearing a FFR. The breathing cycle was described as a time-dependent profile of the air velocity through the respiratory airway. The result shows that wearing the N95 FFR results in CO2 accumulation, an increase in temperature and pressure elevation inside the FFR cavity. The volume fraction of CO2 reaches 1.2% after 7 breathing cycles and then is maintained at 3.04% on average. The wearers re-inhale excessive CO2 in every breathing cycle from the FFR cavity. The air temperature in the FFR cavity increases rapidly at first and then stays close to the exhaled temperature. Compared to not wearing an FFR, wearers have to increase approximately 90 Pa more pressure to keep the same breathing flow rate of 30.54 L/min after wearing an FFR. The nasal vestibule bears more wall shear stress than any other area in the airway. PMID:26653154

  13. Avian pox in blue-fronted Amazon parrots.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S E; Lowenstine, L J; Ardans, A A

    1981-12-01

    During a 1-month period at a quarantine station, an epornitic of avian pox occurred in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Clinical signs included conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and varying degrees of anorexia and respiratory distress. Lesions included periocular ulcerations and scabs and necrotic plaques in the oral cavity. Histologically, the lesions consisted of epithelial hyperplasia, secondary inflammatory changes, and eosinophilic inclusions which, by electron microscopy, were shown to contain poxvirus. When chicken embryos were inoculated with material from eyelid scabs and pharyngeal plaques, lesions of avian pox developed on the chorioallantoic membrane. The death rate of infected birds was high because of secondary bacterial and fungal infections, but uncomplicated cases were usually self-limiting. Periocular lesions also developed in 2 other species of psittacine birds housed in the same facility. PMID:6276348

  14. The effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory system mechanics and hemodynamics in postoperative cardiac surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Auler, J O; Carmona, M J; Barbas, C V; Saldiva, P H; Malbouisson, L M

    2000-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the respiratory mechanical properties and hemodynamics of 10 postoperative adult cardiac patients undergoing mechanical ventilation while still anesthetized and paralyzed. The respiratory mechanics was evaluated by the inflation inspiratory occlusion method and hemodynamics by conventional methods. Each patient was randomized to a different level of PEEP (5, 10 and 15 cmH2O), while zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) was established as control. PEEP of 15-min duration was applied at 20-min intervals. The frequency dependence of resistance and the viscoelastic properties and elastance of the respiratory system were evaluated together with hemodynamic and respiratory indexes. We observed a significant decrease in total airway resistance (13.12 +/- 0.79 cmH2O l-1 s-1 at ZEEP, 11.94 +/- 0.55 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (P<0.0197) at 5 cmH2O of PEEP, 11.42 +/- 0.71 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (P<0.0255) at 10 cmH2O of PEEP, and 10.32 +/- 0.57 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (P<0.0002) at 15 cmH2O of PEEP). The elastance (Ers; cmH2O/l) was not significantly modified by PEEP from zero (23.49 +/- 1.21) to 5 cmH2O (21.89 +/- 0.70). However, a significant decrease (P<0.0003) at 10 cmH2O PEEP (18.86 +/- 1.13), as well as (P<0.0001) at 15 cmH2O (18.41 +/- 0.82) was observed after PEEP application. Volume dependence of viscoelastic properties showed a slight but not significant tendency to increase with PEEP. The significant decreases in cardiac index (l min-1 m-2) due to PEEP increments (3.90 +/- 0.22 at ZEEP, 3.43 +/- 0.17 (P<0. 0260) at 5 cmH2O of PEEP, 3.31 +/- 0.22 (P<0.0260) at 10 cmH2O of PEEP, and 3.10 +/- 0.22 (P<0.0113) at 15 cmH2O of PEEP) were compensated for by an increase in arterial oxygen content owing to shunt fraction reduction (%) from 22.26 +/- 2.28 at ZEEP to 11.66 +/- 1.24 at PEEP of 15 cmH2O (P<0.0007). We conclude that increments in PEEP resulted in a reduction of both airway resistance and respiratory elastance

  15. Contribution of a Cyanide-insensitive Alternate Respiratory System to Increases in Formamide Hydro-lyase Activity and to Growth in Stemphylium loti in Vitro1

    PubMed Central

    Rissler, Jane F.; Millar, Roy L.

    1977-01-01

    Stemphylium loti, a pathogen of a cyanogenic plant, possesses a cyanide-insensitive alternate respiratory pathway. In the absence of cytochrome inhibitors, the alternate system had only a minor role in respiration. When S. loti was grown in medium amended with antimycin to block the cytochrome chain, the alternate system accounted for the total oxygen consumption associated with respiration. The contribution of the alternate respiratory system to increases in formamide hydro-lyase (FHL) activity and to growth in S. loti in vitro was assessed. FHL, induced by cyanide, converts cyanide to nontoxic formamide and is partially responsible for the tolerance of S. loti to high concentrations of cyanide in vitro. When the cytochromes were blocked and the cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway accounted for 100% of the oxygen uptake associated with respiration, FHL activity, but not changes in dry weight, was positively correlated with activity of the alternate pathway. As the alternate pathway activity decreased with increasing concentrations of salicylhydroxamic acid, the level of FHL activity correspondingly decreased. The alternate respiratory system may provide for increases in FHL activity but not for growth. S. loti appears to have two mechanisms for cyanide tolerance in vitro: cyanide-insensitive respiration and FHL activity. The initial activity of FHL for detoxification of cyanide may depend on the alternate respiratory pathway when the cytochromes of the electron transport chain are blocked. PMID:16660201

  16. Electrochemical label-free and reagentless genosensor based on an ion barrier switch-off system for DNA sequence-specific detection of the avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Kurzątkowska, Katarzyna; Sirko, Agnieszka; Zagórski-Ostoja, Włodzimierz; Dehaen, Wim; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    This paper concerns the development of genosensors based on redox-active monolayers incorporating (dipyrromethene)2Cu(II) and (dipyrromethene)2Co(II) complexes formed step by step on a gold electrode surface. They were applied for electrochemical determination of oligonucleotide sequences related to avian influenza virus (AIV) type H5N1. A 20-mer probe (NH2-NC3) was covalently attached to the gold electrode surface via a reaction performed in the presence of ethyl(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide / N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) between the amine group present in the probe and carboxylic groups present on the surface of the redox-active layer. Each modification step has been controlled with Osteryoung square-wave voltammetry. The genosensor incorporating the (dipyrromethene)2Cu(II) complex was able to detect a fully complementary single-stranded DNA target with a detection limit of 1.39 pM. A linear dynamic range was observed from 1 to 10 pM. This genosensor displays good discrimination between three single-stranded DNA targets studied: fully complementary, partially complementary (with only six complementary bases), and totally noncomplementary to the probe. When the (dipyrromethene)2Co(II) complex was applied, a detection limit of 1.28 pM for the fully complementary target was obtained. However, this genosensor was not able to discriminate partially complementary and totally noncomplementary oligonucleotide sequences to the probe. Electrochemical measurements, using both types of genosensors in the presence of different supporting electrolytes, were performed in order to elaborate a new mechanism of analytical signal generation based on an ion barrier "switch-off" system. PMID:26359972

  17. A linear, time-varying simulation of the respiratory tract system

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, O.

    1992-11-01

    These results show that regional deposition efficiencies of inhaled particles are highly dependent on the level of physical activity in all the spectrum of thermodynamic and aerodynamic aerosol particle sizes; also it was shown that for particles in the aerodynamic size range, the values of regional deposition efficiencies at the inner regions of the lung are highly dependent on age. In addition, the shape of regional deposition efficiency curves as a function of particle size have a similar behavior for all ages; thus, any variation of the airway geometry and respiratory physiological parameters such as tidal volumes and breathing frequencies due to age difference do not cause a change in the fundamental mechanisms of deposition. Thus, for all the cases of physical activity and age dependency, the deposition of ultrafine aerosol particles is highly enhanced by diffusive processes in all regions of the respiratory tract, and for very large aerosol size particles this behavior is repeated again due to impaction and sedimentation mechanisms. Although the results presented at this work, are the result of computer simulations based on different sources of experimental data, the structure of the computer simulation code BIODEP is flexible enough to the acquisition of any kind of new experimental information in terms of biokinetic analysis and regional deposition parameters. In addition, since the design of BIODEP was intended for easy access to the users, then with exception of the subroutine DIVPAG, at this moment, the modular design of BIODEP using FORTRAN 77 allows the implementation of all the subroutines of BIODEP to be used in a interactive mode with any microcomputer.

  18. Closed system respirometry may underestimate tissue gas exchange and bias the respiratory exchange ratio (RER).

    PubMed

    Malte, Christian Lind; Nørgaard, Simon; Wang, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Closed respirometry is a commonly used method to measure gas exchange in animals due to its apparent simplicity. Typically, the rates of O2 uptake and CO2 excretion (VO2 and VCO2, respectively) are assumed to be in steady state, such that the measured rates of gas exchange equal those at tissue level. In other words, the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is assumed to equal the respiratory quotient (RQ). However, because the gas concentrations change progressively during closure, the animal inspires air with a progressively increasing CO2 concentration and decreasing O2 concentration. These changes will eventually affect gas exchange causing the O2 and CO2 stores within the animal to change. Because of the higher solubility/capacitance of CO2 in the tissues of the body, VCO2 will be more affected than VO2, and we hypothesize therefore that RER will become progressively underestimated as closure time is prolonged. This hypothesis was addressed by a combination of experimental studies involving closed respirometry on ball pythons (Python regius) as well as mathematical models of gas exchange. We show that increased closed duration of the respirometer reduces RER by up to 13%, and these findings may explain previous reports of RER values being below 0.7. Our model reveals that the maximally possible reduction in RER is determined by the storage capacity of the body for CO2 (product of size and specific capacitance) relative to the respirometer storage capacity. Furthermore, modeling also shows that pronounced ventilatory and circulatory response to hypercapnia can alleviate the reduction in RER. PMID:26523499

  19. Temperature control of a microspectrophotometer system for monitoring the redox reactions of respiratory pigments in small volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, Karen Y.; Walsh, James E.; Murphy, J.; Harmey, M.; Farrell, M. A.; Hardimann, O.; Perryman, R.

    1998-05-01

    We report the development of a microspectrophotometer system for use on micro samples of mitochondrial respiratory pigments. A novel optical fiber set-up uses visible spectrophotometry to monitor the reduction of mitochondrial electron carriers. Data is presented for the reduction of cytochrome-c and for the effect of temperature on the levels of complex II/III activity from the mitochondria of rat liver. This in-vivo simulation of the reduction of cytochrome-c can be observed using a fiber optic probe which requires less than twenty (mu) l of sample for analysis. The key features of the system are: front end adaptability, high sensitivity and fast multispectral acquisition which are essential for the biological reactions which are observed.

  20. Management of Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Singh Lamba, Tejpreet; Sharara, Rihab Saeed; Leap, Jennifer; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    The management of acute respiratory failure varies according to the etiology. A clear understanding of physiology of respiration and pathophysiological mechanisms of respiratory failure is mandatory for managing these patients. The extent of abnormality in arterial blood gas values is a result of the balance between the severity of disease and the degree of compensation by cardiopulmonary system. Normal blood gases do not mean that there is an absence of disease because the homeostatic system can compensate. However, an abnormal arterial blood gas value reflects uncompensated disease that might be life threatening. PMID:26919671

  1. Conservation planning and monitoring avian habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Migratory bird conservation plans should not only develop population goals, they also should establish attainable objectives for optimizing avian habitats. Meeting population goals is of paramount importance, but progress toward established habitat objectives can generally be monitored more easily than can progress toward population goals. Additionally, local or regional habitat objectives can be attained regardless of perturbations to avian populations that occur outside the geographic area covered by conservation plans. Assessments of current avian habitats, obtained from remotely sensed data, and the historical distribution of habitats should be used in establishing habitat objectives. Habitat planning and monitoring are best conducted using a geographic information system. Habitat objectives are assigned to three categories: maintaining existing habitat, restoring habitat, and creating new or alternative habitat. Progress toward meeting habitat objectives can be monitored through geographic information systems by incorporating georeferenced information on public lands, private lands under conservation easements, corporate lands under prescribed management, habitat restoration areas, and private lands under alternative management to enhance wildlife values. We recommend that the area and distribution of habitats within the area covered by conservation plans be reassessed from remotely sensed imagery at intervals appropriate to detect predicted habitat changes.

  2. Stability of the human respiratory control system. I. Analysis of a two-dimensional delay state-space model.

    PubMed

    Batzel, J J; Tran, H T

    2000-07-01

    A number of mathematical models of the human respiratory control system have been developed since 1940 to study a wide range of features of this complex system. Among them, periodic breathing (including Cheyne-Stokes respiration and apneustic breathing) is a collection of regular but involuntary breathing patterns that have important medical implications. The hypothesis that periodic breathing is the result of delay in the feedback signals to the respiratory control system has been studied since the work of Grodins et al. in the early 1950's [12]. The purpose of this paper is to study the stability characteristics of a feedback control system of five differential equations with delays in both the state and control variables presented by Khoo et al. [17] in 1991 for modeling human respiration. The paper is divided in two parts. Part I studies a simplified mathematical model of two nonlinear state equations modeling arterial partial pressures of O2 and CO2 and a peripheral controller. Analysis was done on this model to illuminate the effect of delay on the stability. It shows that delay dependent stability is affected by the controller gain, compartmental volumes and the manner in which changes in the ventilation rate is produced (i.e., by deeper breathing or faster breathing). In addition, numerical simulations were performed to validate analytical results. Part II extends the model in Part I to include both peripheral and central controllers. This, however, necessitates the introduction of a third state equation modeling CO2 levels in the brain. In addition to analytical studies on delay dependent stability, it shows that the decreased cardiac output (and hence increased delay) resulting from the congestive heart condition can induce instability at certain control gain levels. These analytical results were also confirmed by numerical simulations. PMID:10958415

  3. Stability of the human respiratory control system. II. Analysis of a three-dimensional delay state-space model.

    PubMed

    Batzel, J J; Tran, H T

    2000-07-01

    A number of mathematical models of the human respiratory control system have been developed since 1940 to study a wide range of features of this complex system. Among them, periodic breathing (including Cheyne-Stokes respiration and apneustic breathing) is a collection of regular but involuntary breathing patterns that have important medical implications. The hypothesis that periodic breathing is the result of delay in the feedback signals to the respiratory control system has been studied since the work of Grodins et al. in the early 1950's [1]. The purpose of this paper is to study the stability characteristics of a feedback control system of five differential equations with delays in both the state and control variables presented by Khoo et al. [4] in 1991 for modeling human respiration. The paper is divided in two parts. Part I studies a simplified mathematical model of two nonlinear state equations modeling arterial partial pressures of O2 and CO2 and a peripheral controller. Analysis was done on this model to illuminate the effect of delay on the stability. It shows that delay dependent stability is affected by the controller gain, compartmental volumes and the manner in which changes in the ventilation rate is produced (i.e., by deeper breathing or faster breathing). In addition, numerical simulations were performed to validate analytical results. Part II extends the model in Part I to include both peripheral and central controllers. This, however, necessitates the introduction of a third state equation modeling CO2 levels in the brain. In addition to analytical studies on delay dependent stability, it shows that the decreased cardiac output (and hence increased delay) resulting from the congestive heart condition can induce instability at certain control gain levels. These analytical results were also confirmed by numerical simulations. PMID:10958416

  4. Investigations of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems on Board the International Space Station: Experiments Puls and Pneumocard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. M.; Baevsky, R. M.; Drescher, J.; Tank, J.

    parameters describing the results of the function of these systems like heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, or breathing frequency, concentration of O2 and CO2 , etc. Missing significant changes of these parameters during weightlessness supports the hypothesis that adaptational and compensatory mechanisms are sufficient and guarantee cardiovascular homeostasis under changing environmental conditions. characteristic changes of the vegetative balance and of the activity of different regulatory elements at the brainstem and subcortical level. This changes guaranteed the adaptation to long term weightlessness. However, it remains unclear to what extent the different levels are involved. Moreover, the criteria describing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory interaction for the different functional states are not defined yet. The investigation of this problems is highly relevant in order to improve the medical control, especially if considering that the disruption of regulatory systems mostly precedes dangerous destruction of homeostasis. cardiovascular and respiratory function on Board the International Space Station (ISS) aiming to obtain new insights into the interaction between different regulatory elements. "Puls" is measures ECG, photoplethysmogram (PPG), and the pneumotachogram (PTG). The ECG is used to measure time series of R-R intervals and to analyse HRV. PPG is used to define the pulse wave velocity, phases of the cardiac cycle, and an estimate of the filling of finger vessels. The variability of these parameters is also calculated and compared to HRV. The analysis of the PTG allows to describe the interaction of the regulatory parameters of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Hence, an important feature of the experiment "Puls" is the investigation of regulatory mechanisms rather than of cardiovascular homeostasis. cardiography) and left ventricular contractility (seismocardiography) will be obtained. This expansion is of major importance

  5. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... from inhaling smoke or harmful fumes Treatment for respiratory failure depends on whether the condition is acute (short-term) or chronic (ongoing) and how severe it is. It also depends on the underlying cause. You may receive oxygen therapy and other treatment to help you breathe. NIH: ...

  6. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase

  7. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase

  8. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  9. Functional respiratory imaging to assess the interaction between systemic roflumilast and inhaled ICS/LABA/LAMA

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Wim; Hajian, Bita; De Backer, Jan; Van Holsbeke, Cedric; Vinchurkar, Samir; Claes, Rita; Hufkens, Annemie; Parizel, Paul M; Bedert, Lieven; De Backer, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with COPD show a significant reduction of the lobar hyperinflation at the functional residual capacity level in the patients who improved >120 mL in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after 6 months of treatment with roflumilast in addition to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs)/long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs)/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs). Methods Functional respiratory imaging was used to quantify lobar hyperinflation, blood vessel density, ventilation, aerosol deposition, and bronchodilation. To investigate the exact mode of action of roflumilast, correlations between lobar and global measures have been tested using a mixed-model approach with nested random factors and Pearson correlation, respectively. Results The reduction in lobar hyperinflation appears to be associated with a larger blood vessel density in the respective lobes (t=−2.154, P=0.040); lobes with a higher percentage of blood vessels reduce more in hyperinflation in the responder group. Subsequently, it can be observed that lobes that reduce in hyperinflation after treatment are better ventilated (t=−5.368, P<0.001). Functional respiratory imaging (FRI)-based aerosol deposition showed that enhanced ventilation leads to more peripheral particle deposition of ICS/LABA/LAMA in the better-ventilated areas (t=2.407, P=0.024). Finally, the study showed that areas receiving more particles have increased FRI-based bronchodilation (t=2.564, P=0.017), leading to an increase in FEV1 (R=0.348, P=0.029). Conclusion The study demonstrated that orally administered roflumilast supports the reduction of regional hyperinflation in areas previously undertreated by inhalation medication. The local reduction in hyperinflation induces a redistribution of ventilation and aerosol deposition, leading to enhanced efficacy of the concomitant ICS/LABA/LAMA therapy. FRI appears to be a sensitive tool to describe the mode of action of novel compounds in chronic obstructive pulmonary

  10. The immunostimulating complex (ISCOM) is an efficient mucosal delivery system for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) envelope antigens inducing high local and systemic antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, K-F; Elvander, M; Merza, M; Åkerblom, L; Brandenburg, A; Morein, B

    1998-01-01

    ISCOM is an efficient mucosal delivery system for RSV envelope proteins as measured by antibody responses in respiratory tract secretions and in sera of mice following two intranasal (i.n.) administrations. Intranasally administered RSV ISCOMs induced high levels of IgA antibodies both in the upper respiratory tract and in the lungs. In the lungs, a prominent and long-lasting IgA response was recorded, which still persisted 22 weeks after the second i.n. immunization when the experiment ended. Subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization only induced low IgA titres in the upper respiratory tract and no measurable response to RSV was found in the lungs. Differences were also noticed in serum between the i.n. and s.c. modes of immunization. ISCOMs given intranasally induced earlier, higher and longer lasting IgM and IgG1 serum anti-RSV antibody responses than those induced by the s.c. mode of administration. A low serum IgE response was only detectable at 2 weeks after i.n. immunization with ISCOMs and after s.c. immunization with an inactivated virus, but no IgE response was detectable after s.c. injection of ISCOMs. The serum IgA response was more pronounced following s.c. injection of inactivated virus than after i.n. application of ISCOMs, and a clear-cut booster effect was obtained with a second immunization. Virtually no serum IgA response was detected after the s.c. administration of ISCOMs. In conclusion, the high immune responses induced by RSV ISCOMs in the respiratory tract and serum after i.n. administration indicate prominent mucosal delivery and adjuvant properties of the ISCOMs, warranting further studies. PMID:9717973

  11. SARS/avian coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Monceyron Jonassen, C

    2006-01-01

    In the hunt for the aetiology of the SARS outbreak in 2003, a newly developed virus DNA micro-array was successfully used to hybridise PCR products obtained by random amplification of nucleic acids extracted from a cell culture infected with material from a SARS patient. The SARS agent was found to hybridise with micro-array probes from both coronaviruses and astroviruses, but one of the coronavirus probes and the four astrovirus probes contained redundant sequences, spanning a highly conserved motif, named s2m, found at the 3' end of the genomes of almost all astroviruses, one picornavirus, and the poultry coronaviruses. The three other coronavirus probes, that hybridised with the SARS agent, were located in the replicase gene, and it could be concluded that the SARS agent was a novel coronavirus, harbouring s2m. The presence of this motif in different virus families is probably the result of recombinations between unrelated viruses, but its presence in both poultry and SARS coronaviruses could suggest a bird involvement in the history of the SARS coronavirus. A recent screening of wild birds for the presence of coronaviruses, using a pan-coronavirus RT-PCR, led to the identification of novel coronaviruses in the three species studied. Phylogenetic analyses performed on both replicase gene and nucleocapsid protein could not add support to a close relationship between avian and SARS coronaviruses, but all the novel avian coronaviruses were found to harbour s2m. The motif is inserted at a homologous place in avian and SARS coronavirus genomes, but in a somewhat different context for the SARS coronavirus. If the presence of s2m in these viruses is a result of two separate recombination events, this suggests that its particular position in these genomes is the only one that would not be deleterious for coronaviral replication, or that it is the result of a copy-choice recombination between coronaviruses, following an ancestral introduction in the coronavirus family by

  12. Global phylogeographic limits of Hawaii's avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.S.; Ishtiaq, F.; Covas, R.; Melo, M.; Warren, B.H.; Atkinson, C.T.; Bensch, S.; Graves, G.R.; Jhala, Y.V.; Peirce, M.A.; Rahmani, A.R.; Fonseca, D.M.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) to Hawaii has provided a model system for studying the influence of exotic disease on naive host populations. Little is known, however, about the origin or the genetic variation of Hawaii's malaria and traditional classification methods have confounded attempts to place the parasite within a global ecological and evolutionary context. Using fragments of the parasite mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the nuclear gene dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase obtained from a global survey of greater than 13 000 avian samples, we show that Hawaii's avian malaria, which can cause high mortality and is a major limiting factor for many species of native passerines, represents just one of the numerous lineages composing the morphological parasite species. The single parasite lineage detected in Hawaii exhibits a broad host distribution worldwide and is dominant on several other remote oceanic islands, including Bermuda and Moorea, French Polynesia. The rarity of this lineage in the continental New World and the restriction of closely related lineages to the Old World suggest limitations to the transmission of reproductively isolated parasite groups within the morphological species. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  13. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C

    1980-04-10

    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present. PMID:6446008

  14. Secretion of the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein from insect cells using the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Boon-Huan; Brown, Gaie; Sugrue, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Sequences derived from the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein were expressed in insect cells as recombinant glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged proteins. The sequence covering the F2 subunit (GST-F2), and a truncated form of the F protein in which the transmembrane domain was removed (GST-F2/F1), were cloned into the baculovirus pAcSecG2T secretory vector. These virus sequences also had the endogenous virus signal sequence removed and replaced with a signal sequence derived from the baculovirus gp67 glycoprotein, which was present in pAcSecG2T. The recombinant RSV glycoproteins were successfully detected in expressing cells by immunofluorescence assay and in the tissue culture medium by western blot analysis. The secreted recombinant GST-F2/F1 protein was further analysed using glycosidases. Our results showed that the GST-F2/F1 protein were sensitive to peptide:N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) treatment, but not to Endoglycosidase H (EndoH) treatment. This indicates that the secreted recombinant proteins were modified by the addition of mature N-linked glycan chains. PMID:17502677

  15. Effects of ozone on the respiratory health, allergic sensitization, and cellular immune system in children

    SciTech Connect

    Zwick, H.; Popp, W.; Wagner, C.; Reiser, K.; Schmoeger, J.B.; Boeck, A.H.; Herkner, K.; Radunsky, K. )

    1991-11-01

    To investigate the lasting effects of high ozone concentrations under environmental conditions, we examined the respiratory health, pulmonary function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, allergic sensitization, and lymphocyte subpopulations of 10- to 14-yr-old children. A total of 218 children recruited from an area with high ozone concentrations (Group A) were tested against 281 children coming from an area with low ozone concentrations (Group B). As to subjective complaints, categorized as 'usually cough with or without phlegm,' 'breathlessness,' and 'susceptibility to chest colds,' there was no difference between the two groups. The lung function parameters were similar, but in Group A subjects' bronchial hyperresponsiveness occurred more frequently and was found to be more severe than in Group B (29.4 versus 19.9%, p less than 0.02; PD20 2,100 {plus minus} 87 versus 2,350 {plus minus} 58 micrograms, p less than 0.05). In both groups the number of children who had been suffering from allergic diseases and sensitization to aeroallergens, found by means of the skin test, was the same. Comparison of the total IgE levels showed no difference at all between the two groups. As far as the white blood cells are concerned, the total and differential cell count was the same, whereas lymphocyte subpopulations showed readily recognizable changes.

  16. Early-life Exposure to Widespread Environmental Toxicants and Health Risk: A Focus on the Immune and Respiratory Systems.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junjun; Xu, Xijin; Hylkema, Machteld N; Zeng, Eddy Y; Sly, Peter D; Suk, William A; Bergman, Åke; Huo, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that exposure to widespread environmental toxicants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tobacco smoke adversely affect fetal development and organ maturation, even after birth. The developing immune and respiratory systems are more sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their long-term physical development, starting from the early embryonic stage and persisting into early postnatal life, which requires complex signaling pathways that control proliferation and differentiation of highly heterogeneous cell types. In this review, we summarize the effect of early-life exposure to several widespread environmental toxicants on immune and lung development before and after birth, including the effects on immune cell counts, baseline characteristics of cell-mediated and humoral immunity, and alteration of lung structure and function in offspring. We also review evidence supporting the association between early-life exposure to environmental toxicants and risk for immune-related diseases and lung dysfunction in offspring in later life. PMID:27325070

  17. Massive Systemic Air Embolism during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support of a Neonate with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Timpa, Joseph G.; O’Meara, Carlisle; McILwain, R. Britt; Dabal, Robert J.; Alten, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is universally accepted as a potential lifesaving therapy for neonates suffering severe cardiorespiratory failure, with survival reported as 81% weaning off ECMO and 69% to hospital discharge in this population. Although ECMO may reduce mortality in certain neonatal patients, it is associated with significant complications. Air in the circuit complicates 4.9% of neonatal ECMO runs, and it is crucial that all ECMO caregivers are trained in the prevention of air embolism and possess the knowledge necessary to efficiently identify and remove air from the ECMO circuit to prevent life threatening consequences. We present a fatal case of neonatal systemic air embolism leading to massive entrainment of air into the ECMO venous return cannula of a neonatal patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome following repair of obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. We describe the pathophysiology and presentation of this rare condition and the importance of early recognition, due to its high mortality rate. PMID:21848179

  18. Acid particles and the tracheobronchial region of the respiratory system. An irritation-signaling model for possible health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hattis, D.; Wasson, J.M.; Page, G.S.; Stern, B.; Franklin, C.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper explores some detailed mechanistic hypotheses for the possible action of acid particles on the tracheobronchial region of the human respiratory system. Because of the buffering capacity and volume of mucus produced per day it appears doubtful that ordinary ambient exposures to acid particles could markedly change the overall pH of tracheobronchial mucus considered as a whole. However, it is possible that individual acidic particles could contain enough acid to deliver localized irritant signals that could be the triggers for enhanced mucus secretion and cell division in sensitive portions of the bronchial tree, and thereby contribute to the processes involved in chronic bronchitis. Depending on the exact pH depression required for a signal to be perceived by the tracheobronchial epithelium, the acid content of the incoming particles per unit weight, and the effect of neutralization by ammonia in the upper respiratory tract, the minimum size of an acidic particle required to deliver a perceptible signal might range from about 0.4 to 0.7 microns for portions of the epithelium that are frequently swept by 4-micron mucus droplets. Since particle number per unit weight declines dramatically with increasing particle size, the most potent fraction of particles in terms of signals delivered per /sup +/g/m/sup 3/ is likely to be just above the minimum size that is needed to produce an effective signal. The model developed here makes predictions of the relative potency of particles of different size and acid delivery capacity that could be tested in both experimental animal systems and human epidemiological studies.

  19. The Avian Development Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  20. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution. PMID:15306314

  1. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  2. A baculovirus dual expression system-based vaccine confers complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 avian influenza virus in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype have become highly prevalent in avian species. Although these viruses generally cause only mild to moderate disease, they can infect a wide variety of species, including chickens, quail, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasant, partridge, and pigeon, even transmitted to mammalian species, including humans, accelerating the efforts to devise protective strategies against them. Results The results showed that stronger immune responses were induced in a mouse model immunized with BV-Dual-HA than in those vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding the same antigen. Moreover, complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 virus was observed in mice. Conclusion BV-Dual-HA could be utilized as a vaccine candidate against H9N2 virus infection. PMID:21639929

  3. The effect of tumor location and respiratory function on tumor movement estimated by real-time tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system

    SciTech Connect

    Onimaru, Rikiya; Shirato, Hiroki . E-mail: hshirato@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Fujino, Masaharu; Suzuki, Keishiro; Yamazaki, Kouichi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: The effects of tumor location and pulmonary function on the motion of fiducial markers near lung tumors were evaluated to deduce simple guidelines for determining the internal margin in radiotherapy without fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Pooled data collected by a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system on 42 markers in 39 patients were analyzed. The pulmonary functions of all patients were assessed before radiotherapy. Using chest X-ray film, the position of the marker was expressed relative to the geometry of the unilateral lung. Posterior location meant the area of the posterior half of the lung in a lateral chest X-ray film, and caudal location meant the caudal half of the chest X-ray film; these categories were determined by measuring the distance between the marker and anatomic landmarks, including the apex, costophrenic angle, midline of spinal canal, lateral, anterior, and posterior boundary of the lung. Results: Before the radiotherapy, 18 patients had obstructive respiratory dysfunction (ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity [FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC] <70), 5 patients had constrictive dysfunction (percent vital capacity [%VC] <80), and 3 had mixed dysfunction. Means of FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC and %VC were 97.0% and 66.5%, respectively. Median tumor movements in the x (left-right), y (anteroposterior), and z (craniocaudal) directions were 1.1 mm, 2.3 mm, and 5.4 mm, respectively. There was no significant correlation between respiratory function and magnitude of marker movement in any direction. Median marker movement in the z direction was 2.6 mm for the cranial location and 11.8 mm for the caudal location, respectively (p < 0.001). Median movement in the z direction was 11.8 mm for posterior location and 3.4 mm for anterior location, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Simple measurement of the relative location on plain chest X-ray film was related, but respiratory function test was not related, to the craniocaudal

  4. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions. PMID:26953950

  5. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Method Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Results Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65%) showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI) infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Conclusion Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen avian influenza surveillance

  6. Comparison of Respiratory Disease Prevalence among Voluntary Monitoring Systems for Pig Health and Welfare in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Eze, J. I.; Correia-Gomes, C.; Borobia-Belsué, J.; Tucker, A. W.; Sparrow, D.; Strachan, D. W.; Gunn, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases provides information essential for the protection of animal health and ultimately public health. The voluntary pig health schemes, implemented in the United Kingdom, are integrated systems which capture information on different macroscopic disease conditions detected in slaughtered pigs. Many of these conditions have been associated with a reduction in performance traits and consequent increases in production costs. The schemes are the Wholesome Pigs Scotland in Scotland, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme in England and Wales and the Pig Regen Ltd. health and welfare checks done in Northern Ireland. This report set out to compare the prevalence of four respiratory conditions (enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia lesions and abscesses in the lung) assessed by these three Pig Health Schemes. The seasonal variations and year trends associated with the conditions in each scheme are presented. The paper also highlights the differences in prevalence for each condition across these schemes and areas where further research is needed. A general increase in the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia like lesions was observed in Scotland, England and Wales since 2009, while a general decrease was observed in Northern Ireland over the years of the scheme. Pleurisy prevalence has increased since 2010 in all three schemes, whilst pleuropneumonia has been decreasing. Prevalence of abscesses in the lung has decreased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland but has increased in Scotland. This analysis highlights the value of surveillance schemes based on abattoir pathology monitoring of four respiratory lesions. The outputs at scheme level have significant value as indicators of endemic and emerging disease, and for producers and herd veterinarians in planning and evaluating herd health control programs when comparing individual farm results with national averages. PMID:26020635

  7. Evaluation of an air-filtration system for preventing aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a commercial air-filtration system to reduce aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The system consisted of a pre-filter and 2 filters with EU8 and EU13 ratings. In each of 4 trials, 5 PRRSV-infected donor pigs and 1 naïve recipient pig (each 25 kg) were housed in opposing chambers connected by a 1.3-m-long duct. The system filtered air entering 1 recipient-pig chamber (filtered facility) from the donor- chamber but not a 2nd recipient-pig chamber (nonfiltered facility). The donor pigs had been experimentally infected with PRRSV MN-184, an isolate previously documented to be shed at a high frequency in contagious aerosols. On days 3 to 7 after infection of the donors, the 2 groups were housed in their respective chambers for 6 h and then in separate facilities, where samples were collected for testing by polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay over 14 d. Aerosol transmission was observed in 6 of the 20 replicates in the nonfiltered facility, whereas all pigs remained PRRSV-negative in the filtered facility; the difference was significant at P < 0.01. Thus, under the conditions of this study, the air-filtration system evaluated appeared to be highly effective at reducing aerosol transmission of PRRSV. PMID:16479728

  8. Global gene expression profiling in infants with acute respiratory syncytial virus broncholitis demonstrates systemic activation of interferon signaling networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract infections and has a high impact on pediatric emergency department utilization. Variation in host response may influence the pathogenesis and disease severity. We evaluated global gene expression profiles to be...

  9. ABCD: a functional database for the avian brain.

    PubMed

    Schrott, Aniko; Kabai, Peter

    2008-01-30

    Here we present the first database developed for storing, retrieving and cross-referencing neuroscience information about the connectivity of the avian brain. The Avian Brain Circuitry Database (ABCD) contains entries about the new and old terminology of the areas and their hierarchy, data on connections between brain regions, as well as a functional keyword system linked to brain regions and connections. Data were collected from the primary literature and textbooks, and an online submission system was developed to facilitate further data collection directly from researchers. The database aims to help spread the results of avian connectivity studies, the recently revised nomenclature and also to provide data for brain network research. ABCD is freely available at http://www.behav.org/abcd. PMID:17889371

  10. Evaluating the cell mediated immune response of avian species to avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measurement of avian cellular immunity is critical to understanding the role and regulation of avian lymphocytes following avian influenza virus infection. Although the ability to measure avian T cell responses has steadily increased over the last few years, few studies have examined the role o...

  11. Respiratory Systems of Dental Technicians Negatively Affected during 5 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Nurgül; Yurdasal, Belkıs; Bozkurt, Ali İhsan; Yılmaz, Özlem; Tekin, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    volume in one second (FEV1). While restrictive disorder was found 25% in the first PFT evaluations, this ratio increased to 31% in the second PFT. When the radiological results were considered, 62% of the first X-ray results were found to be normal but this ratio decreased to 18% in 2013. While reticular/reticulonodular opacities were found in 11% of cases in 2008, it increased to 30% in 2013. Seven technicians were diagnosed with pneumoconiosis (5.6%). Conclusion: Respiratory tracts of the technicians were negatively affected during the five year period. The number of pneumoconiosis cases (5.6%) shows that it is necessary to adopt comprehensive work health and safety precautions for laboratories. PMID:27606139

  12. Systemic combined melatonin-mitochondria treatment improves acute respiratory distress syndrome in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Lee, Fan-Yen; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Chun; Leu, Steve; Wu, Ying-Chung; Lu, Hung-I; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Su, Hong-Lin; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2015-03-01

    Despite high in-hospital mortality associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there is no effective therapeutic strategy. We tested the hypothesis that combined melatonin-mitochondria treatment ameliorates 100% oxygen-induced ARDS in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) were equally categorized into normal controls, ARDS, ARDS-melatonin, ARDS with intravenous liver-derived mitochondria (1500 μg per rat 6 hr after ARDS induction), and ARDS receiving combined melatonin-mitochondria. The results showed that 22 hr after ARDS induction, oxygen saturation (saO2 ) was lowest in the ARDS group and highest in normal controls, significantly lower in ARDS-melatonin and ARDS-mitochondria than in combined melatonin-mitochondria group, and significantly lower in ARDS-mitochondria than in ARDS-melatonin group. Conversely, right ventricular systolic blood pressure and lung weight showed an opposite pattern compared with saO2 among all groups (all P < 0.001). Histological integrity of alveolar sacs showed a pattern identical to saO2 , whereas lung crowding score exhibited an opposite pattern (all P < 0.001). Albumin level and inflammatory cells (MPO+, CD40+, CD11b/c+) from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed a pattern opposite to saO2 (all P < 0.001). Protein expression of indices of inflammation (MMP-9, TNF-α, NF-κB), oxidative stress (oxidized protein, NO-1, NOX-2, NOX-4), apoptosis (mitochondrial Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and PARP), fibrosis (Smad3, TGF-β), mitochondrial damage (cytochrome C), and DNA damage (γ-H2AX+) exhibited an opposite pattern compared to saO2 in all groups, whereas protein (HO-1, NQO-1, GR, GPx) and cellular (HO-1+) expressions of antioxidants exhibited a progressively increased pattern from normal controls to ARDS combined melatonin-mitochondria group (all P < 0.001). In conclusion, combined melatonin-mitochondrial was superior to either treatment alone in attenuating ARDS in this rat model. PMID:25491480

  13. Combining Healthcare-Based and Participatory Approaches to Surveillance: Trends in Diarrheal and Respiratory Conditions Collected by a Mobile Phone System by Community Health Workers in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Surveillance systems are increasingly relying upon community-based or crowd-sourced data to complement traditional facilities-based data sources. Data collected by community health workers during the routine course of care could combine the early warning power of community-based data collection with the predictability and diagnostic regularity of facility data. These data could inform public health responses to epidemics and spatially-clustered endemic diseases. Here, we analyze data collected on a daily basis by community health workers during the routine course of clinical care in rural Nepal. We evaluate if such community-based surveillance systems can capture temporal trends in diarrheal diseases and acute respiratory infections. Methods During the course of their clinical activities from January to December 2013, community health workers recorded healthcare encounters using mobile phones. In parallel, we accessed condition-specific admissions from 2011–2013 in the hospital from which the community health program was based. We compared diarrhea and acute respiratory infection rates from both the hospital and the community, and assigned three categories of local disease activity (low, medium, and high) to each week in each village cluster with categories determined by tertiles. We compared condition-specific mean hospital rates across categories using ANOVA to assess concordance between hospital and community-collected data. Results There were 2,710 cases of diarrhea and 373 cases of acute respiratory infection reported by community health workers during the one-year study period. At the hospital, the average weekly incidence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections over the three-year period was 1.8 and 3.9 cases respectively per 1,000 people in each village cluster. In the community, the average weekly rate of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections was 2.7 and 0.5 cases respectively per 1,000 people. Both diarrhea and acute respiratory

  14. 'O sibling, where art thou?'--a review of avian sibling recognition with respect to the mammalian literature.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Waas, Joseph R

    2004-02-01

    Avian literature on sibling recognition is rare compared to that developed by mammalian researchers. We compare avian and mammalian research on sibling recognition to identify why avian work is rare, how approaches differ and what avian and mammalian researchers can learn from each other. Three factors: (1) biological differences between birds and mammals, (2) conceptual biases and (3) practical constraints, appear to influence our current understanding. Avian research focuses on colonial species because sibling recognition is considered adaptive where 'mixing potential' of dependent young is high; research on a wider range of species, breeding systems and ecological conditions is now needed. Studies of acoustic recognition cues dominate avian literature; other types of cues (e.g. visual, olfactory) deserve further attention. The effect of gender on avian sibling recognition has yet to be investigated; mammalian work shows that gender can have important influences. Most importantly, many researchers assume that birds recognise siblings through 'direct familiarisation' (commonly known as associative learning or familiarity); future experiments should also incorporate tests for 'indirect familiarisation' (commonly known as phenotype matching). If direct familiarisation proves crucial, avian research should investigate how periods of separation influence sibling discrimination. Mammalian researchers typically interpret sibling recognition in broad functional terms (nepotism, optimal outbreeding); some avian researchers more successfully identify specific and testable adaptive explanations, with greater relevance to natural contexts. We end by reporting exciting discoveries from recent studies of avian sibling recognition that inspire further interest in this topic. PMID:15005175

  15. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Españ ...

  16. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H.S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  17. The Potent Respiratory System of Osedax mucofloris (Siboglinidae, Annelida) - A Prerequisite for the Origin of Bone-Eating Osedax?

    PubMed Central

    Huusgaard, Randi S.; Vismann, Bent; Kühl, Michael; Macnaugton, Martin; Colmander, Veronica; Rouse, Greg W.; Glover, Adrian G.; Dahlgren, Thomas; Worsaae, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Members of the conspicuous bone-eating genus, Osedax, are widely distributed on whale falls in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. These gutless annelids contain endosymbiotic heterotrophic bacteria in a branching root system embedded in the bones of vertebrates, whereas a trunk and anterior palps extend into the surrounding water. The unique life style within a bone environment is challenged by the high bacterial activity on, and within, the bone matrix possibly causing O2 depletion, and build-up of potentially toxic sulphide. We measured the O2 distribution around embedded Osedax and showed that the bone microenvironment is anoxic. Morphological studies showed that ventilation mechanisms in Osedax are restricted to the anterior palps, which are optimized for high O2 uptake by possessing a large surface area, large surface to volume ratio, and short diffusion distances. The blood vascular system comprises large vessels in the trunk, which facilitate an ample supply of oxygenated blood from the anterior crown to a highly vascularised root structure. Respirometry studies of O. mucofloris showed a high O2 consumption that exceeded the average O2 consumption of a broad line of resting annelids without endosymbionts. We regard this combination of features of the respiratory system of O. mucofloris as an adaptation to their unique nutrition strategy with roots embedded in anoxic bones and elevated O2 demand due to aerobic heterotrophic endosymbionts. PMID:22558289

  18. 78 FR 38044 - Authorization of Emergency Use of an In Vitro Diagnostic for Detection of the Novel Avian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Respiratory Support Devices signed by then Secretary Michael Leavitt on December 17, 2008 (73 FR 78362... on April 30, 2013 (78 FR 25273). On April 19, 2013, CDC requested, and on April 22, 2013, FDA issued... Detection of the Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  19. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  20. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype...

  1. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  2. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a type A influenza virus isolated from and adapted to an avian host. This chapter covers the basic physicochemical aspects of AIV including; virus family and properties, subtype classification; basic molecular biology and genetics. The avian host range and ecology...

  3. The use of a generalized reconstruction by inversion of coupled systems (GRICS) approach for generic respiratory motion correction in PET/MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Hadi; Odille, Freddy; Schmidt, Holger; Würslin, Christian; Küstner, Thomas; Feblinger, Jacques; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2015-03-21

    Respiratory motion is a source of artifacts in multimodality imaging such as PET/MR. Solutions include retrospective or prospective gating. They have however found limited use in clinical practice, since their increased overall acquisition duration to maintain overall image quality. More elaborate methods consist of using 4D MR datasets to extract spatial deformations in order to correct for the respiratory motion in PET. The main drawbacks of such approaches is the relatively long acquisition times associated with 4D MR imaging which is often incompatible with clinical PET/MR protocols. The objective of this work was to overcome these limitations by exploiting a generalized reconstruction by inversion of coupled systems (GRICS) approach. The methodology is based on a joint estimation of motion during the MR image reconstruction process, providing internal structure motion and associated deformation matrices for retrospective use in PET respiratory motion correction. This method was first validated on four MR volunteers and two PET/MR patient datasets by comparing GRICS generated MR images to 4D MR series obtained by retrospective gating. In a second step 4D PET datasets corresponding to acquired 4D MR images were simulated using the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform. GRICS generated deformation matrices were subsequently used to correct respiratory motion in comparison to the 4D MR image based deformations both for the simulated and the two 4D PET/MR patient datasets. Results confirm that GRICS synchronized MR images correlate well with the acquired 4D MR series. Similarly, the use of GRICS for respiratory motion correction allows an equivalent percentage improvement on lesion contrast, position and size, considering the PET simulated tumors as well as PET real tumors. This work demonstrates the potential interest of using GRICS for PET respiratory motion correction in combined PET/MR using shorter duration acquisitions without the need for 4D MRI and

  4. The use of a generalized reconstruction by inversion of coupled systems (GRICS) approach for generic respiratory motion correction in PET/MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayad, Hadi; Odille, Freddy; Schmidt, Holger; Würslin, Christian; Küstner, Thomas; Feblinger, Jacques; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Respiratory motion is a source of artifacts in multimodality imaging such as PET/MR. Solutions include retrospective or prospective gating. They have however found limited use in clinical practice, since their increased overall acquisition duration to maintain overall image quality. More elaborate methods consist of using 4D MR datasets to extract spatial deformations in order to correct for the respiratory motion in PET. The main drawbacks of such approaches is the relatively long acquisition times associated with 4D MR imaging which is often incompatible with clinical PET/MR protocols. The objective of this work was to overcome these limitations by exploiting a generalized reconstruction by inversion of coupled systems (GRICS) approach. The methodology is based on a joint estimation of motion during the MR image reconstruction process, providing internal structure motion and associated deformation matrices for retrospective use in PET respiratory motion correction. This method was first validated on four MR volunteers and two PET/MR patient datasets by comparing GRICS generated MR images to 4D MR series obtained by retrospective gating. In a second step 4D PET datasets corresponding to acquired 4D MR images were simulated using the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform. GRICS generated deformation matrices were subsequently used to correct respiratory motion in comparison to the 4D MR image based deformations both for the simulated and the two 4D PET/MR patient datasets. Results confirm that GRICS synchronized MR images correlate well with the acquired 4D MR series. Similarly, the use of GRICS for respiratory motion correction allows an equivalent percentage improvement on lesion contrast, position and size, considering the PET simulated tumors as well as PET real tumors. This work demonstrates the potential interest of using GRICS for PET respiratory motion correction in combined PET/MR using shorter duration acquisitions without the need for 4D MRI and

  5. Local and systemic antibody response to bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection and reinfection in calves with and without maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kimman, T G; Westenbrink, F; Schreuder, B E; Straver, P J

    1987-06-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were used to measure antibody responses of calves after experimental or natural infection with BRSV. Serially collected sera, lung lavage samples, nasal and eye secretions, and feces were tested for the presence of these antibodies. Lung lavage fluids and nasal secretions were further examined for the presence of virus. After experimental infection of 3- to 4-week-old, colostrum-deprived (seronegative) calves, the virus was detected from days 3 to 8 post-initial inoculation day (PID). An immune response was first detected 8 to 10 days PID, when BRSV-specific IgM and IgA appeared nearly simultaneously in serum, secretions, and feces. BRSV-specific IgG1 appeared only in serum on days 13 to 17 PID, and IgG2 was first detected in sera from 1 to 3 months PID. Specific IgM and IgA were detectable in the different samples for various periods. In the respiratory and eye secretions, IgA usually remained detectable for long periods, that is, for up to 3.5 months or longer. In lung lavage samples, BRSV-specific IgG1 was only incidentally demonstrated and appeared to be blood derived. The immune response of a 5-month-old calf strongly resembled that of the 3- to 4-week-old calves (feces excepted), indicating that an age effect on the immune response to BRSV is unlikely. After experimental infection of colostrum-fed, seropositive calves, both local and systemic antibody responses were largely or totally suppressed. The degree of suppression seemed to be related to the level of preinoculation virus-specific serum IgG1. Of all isotypes, IgM was least affected. Colostrum-fed animals shed virus in about equal amounts and for the same length of time as colostrum-deprived calves. Clinical signs were mild in both groups. After reinfection, no virus shedding was detected in either colostrum-deprived or colostrum-fed calves. In

  6. Internal validation of a telemedical system for monitoring patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, I; Glomb, G; Guszkowski, T; Kasprzak, B; Pekala, J; Polak, A G; Stepien, A F; Swierczynski, Z; Mroczka, J

    2010-01-01

    One of the most promising and innovative developments in medicine are telemedical systems. The system PulmoTel 2010 and its internal validation are presented, focusing on the system architecture, hardware, software and communication solutions. PulmoTel 2010 consists of a distant server managing users and medical devices, as well as data transmission, processing, storage and presentation. The server cooperates with home units used by patients, capable of performing lung function tests. All the elements communicate via the Internet, however other media, as wire and mobile telephony, can be additionally applied in regions with a less developed infrastructure. Internal validation of the system was performed using data generated by application simulating features of a home unit. It demonstrated an appropriate operation of the overall system and fulfillment of the main objectives of the project. PMID:21096156

  7. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  8. Immunomodulator plasmid projected by systems biology as a candidate for the development of adjunctive therapy for respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vargas, José Eduardo; de Souza, Ana Paula Duarte; Porto, Bárbara Nery; Fazolo, Tiago; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio; Stein, Renato Tetelbom

    2016-03-01

    An imbalance in Th1/Th2 cytokine immune response has been described to influence the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acute bronchiolitis and the severity of infection. Th2-driven response has been well described under first RSV vaccine (formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine antigens) and replicated in some conditions for RSV-infected mice, in which a Th2-dependent lung eosinophilia increases illness severity, accompanied of tissue damage. Currently, several prototypes of RSV vaccine are being tested, but there is no vaccine available so far. The advance of bioinformatics can help to solve this issue. Systems biology approaches based on network topological analysis may help to identify new genes in order to direct Th1 immune response during RSV challenge. For this purpose, network centrality analyses from high-throughput experiments were performed in order to select major genes enrolled in each T-helper immune response. Thus, genes termed Hub (B) and bottlenecks (H), which control the flow of biological information (Th1 or Th2 immune response, in this case) within the network, would be identified. As these genes possess high potential to promote Th1 immune response, they could be cloned under regulation of specific promoters in a plasmid, which will be available as a gene-transfer adjunctive to vaccines. Th1 immune response potentiated by our strategy may contribute to accelerate Th1/Th2 shift from neonatal immune system, which might favor protective immunity against RSV infection and reduce lung damage. PMID:26601594

  9. Exploring membrane respiratory chains.

    PubMed

    Marreiros, Bruno C; Calisto, Filipa; Castro, Paulo J; Duarte, Afonso M; Sena, Filipa V; Silva, Andreia F; Sousa, Filipe M; Teixeira, Miguel; Refojo, Patrícia N; Pereira, Manuela M

    2016-08-01

    Acquisition of energy is central to life. In addition to the synthesis of ATP, organisms need energy for the establishment and maintenance of a transmembrane difference in electrochemical potential, in order to import and export metabolites or to their motility. The membrane potential is established by a variety of membrane bound respiratory complexes. In this work we explored the diversity of membrane respiratory chains and the presence of the different enzyme complexes in the several phyla of life. We performed taxonomic profiles of the several membrane bound respiratory proteins and complexes evaluating the presence of their respective coding genes in all species deposited in KEGG database. We evaluated 26 quinone reductases, 5 quinol:electron carriers oxidoreductases and 18 terminal electron acceptor reductases. We further included in the analyses enzymes performing redox or decarboxylation driven ion translocation, ATP synthase and transhydrogenase and we also investigated the electron carriers that perform functional connection between the membrane complexes, quinones or soluble proteins. Our results bring a novel, broad and integrated perspective of membrane bound respiratory complexes and thus of the several energetic metabolisms of living systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27044012

  10. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  11. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    PubMed

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records. PMID:24814817

  12. Recovery of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C from cDNA: cross-recognition of avian and human metapneumovirus support proteins.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Buchholz, Ursula J; Samal, Siba K

    2006-06-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an acute respiratory disease in turkeys and is associated with "swollen head syndrome" in chickens, contributing to significant economic losses for the U.S. poultry industry. With a long-term goal of developing a better vaccine for controlling AMPV in the United States, we established a reverse genetics system to produce infectious AMPV of subgroup C entirely from cDNA. A cDNA clone encoding the entire 14,150-nucleotide genome of AMPV subgroup C strain Colorado (AMPV/CO) was generated by assembling five cDNA fragments between the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the autocatalytic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme of a transcription plasmid, pBR 322. Transfection of this plasmid, along with the expression plasmids encoding the N, P, M2-1, and L proteins of AMPV/CO, into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase resulted in the recovery of infectious AMPV/CO. Characterization of the recombinant AMPV/CO showed that its growth properties in tissue culture were similar to those of the parental virus. The potential of AMPV/CO to serve as a viral vector was also assessed by generating another recombinant virus, rAMPV/CO-GFP, that expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a foreign protein. Interestingly, GFP-expressing AMPV and GFP-expressing human metapneumovirus (HMPV) could be recovered using the support plasmids of either virus, denoting that the genome promoters are conserved between the two metapneumoviruses and can be cross-recognized by the polymerase complex proteins of either virus. These results indicate a close functional relationship between AMPV/CO and HMPV. PMID:16731918

  13. Evaluation of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation System Using Yeast Models of OXPHOS Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Fontanesi, Flavia; Diaz, Francisca; Barrientos, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system consists of five multimeric complexes embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane. They work in concert to drive the aerobic synthesis of ATP. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA mutations affecting the accumulation and function of these enzymes are the most common cause of mitochondrial diseases and have also been associated with neurodegeneration and aging. Several approaches for the assessment of the OXPHOS system enzymes have been developed. Based on the methods described elsewhere, we present here the creation and study of yeast models of mitochondrial OXPHOS deficiencies. PMID:19806592

  14. Optimal diving behaviour and respiratory gas exchange in birds.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Butler, Patrick J

    2006-11-01

    This review discusses the advancements in our understanding of the physiology and behaviour of avian diving that have been underpinned by optimal foraging theory and the testing of optimal models. To maximise their foraging efficiency during foraging periods, diving birds must balance numerous factors that are directly or indirectly related to the replenishment of the oxygen stores and the removal of excess carbon dioxide. These include (1) the time spent underwater (which diminishes the oxygen supply, increases carbon dioxide levels and may even include a build up of lactate due to anaerobic metabolism), (2) the time spent at the surface recovering from the previous dive and preparing for the next (including reloading their oxygen supply, decreasing their carbon dioxide levels and possibly also metabolising lactate) and (3) the trade-off between maximising oxygen reserves for consumption underwater by taking in more air to the respiratory system, and minimising the energy costs of positive buoyancy caused by this air, to maximise the time available underwater to forage. Due to its importance in avian diving, replenishment of the oxygen stores has become integral to models of optimal diving, which predict the time budgeting of animals foraging underwater. While many of these models have been examined qualitatively, such tests of predictive trends appear fallible and only quantifiable support affords strong evidence of their predictive value. This review describes how the quantification of certain optimal diving models, using tufted ducks, indeed demonstrates some predictive success. This suggests that replenishment of the oxygen stores and removal of excess carbon dioxide have significant influences on the duration of the surface period between dives. Nevertheless, present models are too simplistic to be robust predictors of diving behaviour for individual animals and it is proposed that they require refinement through the incorporation of other variables that also

  15. Contribution of Bordetella bronchiseptica Type III secretion system to respiratory disease in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The type III secretion system (TTSS) of gram negative bacteria allows injection of effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the B. bronchiseptica TTSS plays a role in the persistent bacterial colonization of the trachea of m...

  16. [Effects of histamine on the pressure-volume curve of the respiratory system in the guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Clerici, C; Macquin, I; Lhoste, F; Atlan, G; Harf, A

    1985-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of histamine has been shown to constrict smooth muscle of alveolar ducts. In this study, we have assessed the effects of a prolonged infusion of histamine to obtain a steady state response on quasistatic pressure-volume curves (P-V curves) together with the changes in dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and conductance (G) of the respiratory system. Increasing doses of histamine were given in order to obtain the dose-response characteristics of the changes in Cdyn, G and P-V curves. In nine anesthetized guinea-pigs under mechanical ventilation, administration of histamine resulted in a fall in Cdyn and G with a decrease of 50% of initial value approximately for 150 ng X kg-1 X s-1 of histamine. Modifications of the P-V curves were characterized by a decrease in the maximal volume, and an increase in the hysteresis of the P-V loop due to the downward displacement of the inflation limb. With infusion of histamine, there was a large decrease of quasi-static compliance which appeared to account for most of the decrease in dynamic compliance. Such changes in P-V curves can be related both to a closure of alveolar ducts and to an alteration of lung distensibility. Comparison of the dose-response curves for the different parameters indicated that Cdyn and G reflect, at least in part, events occurring in the periphery of the lung. PMID:4041662

  17. Conducting influenza virus pathogenesis studies in avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian infection studies with influenza A are an important means of assessing host susceptibility, viral pathogenesis, host responses to infection, mechanisms of transmission and viral pathotype. Complex systems and natural settings may also be explored with carefully designed infection studies. In ...

  18. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Daesub; Kang, Bokyu; Lee, Chulseung; Jung, Kwonil; Ha, Gunwoo; Kang, Dongseok; Park, Seongjun; Park, Bongkyun

    2008-01-01

    In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) isolate. The beagles shed virus through nasal excretion, seroconverted, and became ill with severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis with accompanying clinical signs (e.g., high fever). Consistent with histologic observation of lung lesions, large amounts of avian influenza virus binding receptor (SAα 2,3-gal) were identified in canine tracheal, bronchial, and bronchiolar epithelial cells, which suggests potential for direct transmission of avian influenza virus (H3N2) from poultry to dogs. Our data provide evidence that dogs may play a role in interspecies transmission and spread of influenza virus. PMID:18439355

  19. Structural and Biomechanical Properties of the Exchange Tissue of the Avian Lung.

    PubMed

    Maina, John N

    2015-10-01

    The blood capillaries (BC) and the air capillaries (ACs) are the terminal gas exchange units of the avian lung. The minuscule structures are astonishingly strong. It is only recently that the morphologies and the biomechanical properties of the BCs and the ACs were investigated. Regarding size and shape, the BCs and the ACs differ remarkably. While they were previously claimed to be tubular (cylindrical) in shape, the ACs are rather rotund structures which interconnect across short, narrow passageways. Atypical of those in other tissues, the BCs in the exchange tissue of the avian lung comprise of distinct segments which are about as long as they are wide and which are coupled in three-dimensions. The thin blood-gas barrier (BGB) which separates the ACs from the BCs is peculiarly strong. The causes of the strengths of the ACs and the BCs in general and the BGB in particular are varied and controversial. Here, the recent morphological and physiological findings on the structure, biomechanical properties, and the strengths of the respiratory units of the avian lung and the BGB have been critically examined. Also, in light of the new morphological findings of the ACs and the BCs, the functional model which is currently in use to assess the gas exchange efficiency of the avian lung should be revised and the inappropriateness of the terms 'blood capillary' and 'air capillary' for the gas exchange units of the avian lung is pointed out. PMID:25857723

  20. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  1. Evaluation of two different swab transport systems in the detection of avian influenza virus excretion from infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Roelandt, Sophie; Outtrim, Linzy; Browning, Clare; Alexander, Dennis J; Brown, Ian H; Irvine, Richard M

    2012-09-01

    The role of wild birds in the epidemiology and ecology of influenza A viruses has long been recognised (Alexander, 2007a). As a result of the emergence of a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and the apparent role of wild birds in its spread across Asia, Europe and Africa, avian influenza (AI) wild bird surveillance has been implemented in many countries including, since February 2006, a mandatory programme in the European Union (CEC, 2006a). In the present study the detection of virus excreted from Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally with A/mallard/England/2126/07 (H3N6) was investigated over a fourteen day period post-infection using cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs, with (wet) and without (dry) viral transport medium which were collected from each duck in alternating order. For influenza A virus matrix gene RNA detection, wet oropharyngeal swabs were significantly more sensitive than dry oropharyngeal on days 4-5 after infection. For cloacal samples, dry swabs were equivalent or superior to wet swabs throughout the study. Although differences in detection between dry and wet swabs were observed, the qualitative bird-level results were unaffected, meaning that the infection status of individual birds was correctly determined. PMID:22609802

  2. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J F; Harness, R E; Donohue, K

    2014-02-01

    Electrocution on overhead power structures negatively affects avian populations in diverse ecosystems worldwide, contributes to the endangerment of raptor populations in Europe and Africa, and is a major driver of legal action against electric utilities in North America. We investigated factors associated with avian electrocutions so poles that are likely to electrocute a bird can be identified and retrofitted prior to causing avian mortality. We used historical data from southern California to identify patterns of avian electrocution by voltage, month, and year to identify species most often killed by electrocution in our study area and to develop a predictive model that compared poles where an avian electrocution was known to have occurred (electrocution poles) with poles where no known electrocution occurred (comparison poles). We chose variables that could be quantified by personnel with little training in ornithology or electric systems. Electrocutions were more common at distribution voltages (≤ 33 kV) and during breeding seasons and were more commonly reported after a retrofitting program began. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n = 265) and American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (n = 258) were the most commonly electrocuted species. In the predictive model, 4 of 14 candidate variables were required to distinguish electrocution poles from comparison poles: number of jumpers (short wires connecting energized equipment), number of primary conductors, presence of grounding, and presence of unforested unpaved areas as the dominant nearby land cover. When tested against a sample of poles not used to build the model, our model distributed poles relatively normally across electrocution-risk values and identified the average risk as higher for electrocution poles relative to comparison poles. Our model can be used to reduce avian electrocutions through proactive identification and targeting of high-risk poles for retrofitting. PMID:24033371

  3. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  4. Respiratory tract versus cloacal sampling of migratory ducks for influenza A viruses: are both ends relevant?

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Scott; Pryor, Sydney Paul; Raven, Garnet; Danner, Angela; Kayali, Ghazi; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Krauss et al. (2012) Respiratory tract versus cloacal sampling of migratory ducks for influenza A viruses: are both ends relevant? Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: . Background  Early studies in dabbling ducks showed that cloacal swabs yielded a larger number of avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates than did respiratory tract swabs. Historically, AIV surveillance has been performed by collecting cloacal or environmental fecal samples only. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus emerged in 1996 and replicated to higher titers in the respiratory rather than the gastrointestinal tract of ducks, prompting the collection of respiratory samples in addition to cloacal swabs from wild birds. Studies confirmed that some virus subtypes, especially H9 and highly pathogenic H5, are shed primarily through the respiratory tract and may not be detected in cloacal swabs. Objectives  To examine prevalence and subtype differences for AIV isolates from cloacal or respiratory swabs of wild ducks and to determine whether individual respiratory tract samples should be included in AIV surveillance studies in wild birds. Methods  Individual respiratory tract and cloacal swabs were collected from each of 1036 wild ducks in Alberta, Canada, during the month of August from 2007 to 2010 in an ongoing surveillance study. Virus isolation in eggs and subtype identification by antigenic and molecular methods were performed. Results and conclusions  Respiratory tract and cloacal swabs yielded ten influenza virus HA subtypes representing 28 HA–NA combinations. Three HA–NA subtype combinations were found exclusively in respiratory tract samples. Only four HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, and H7) were recovered from respiratory samples, but respiratory shedding was associated with the dominance of 1 year’s subtype. Might respiratory shedding provide a risk assessment indicator? PMID:22458473

  5. Management of the baseline shift using a new and simple method for respiratory-gated radiation therapy: Detectability and effectiveness of a flexible monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Nozomi; Ito, Yasushi; Kawai, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masaru; Tsuda, Akihisa; Shiizuka, Hisao

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiation therapy, a baseline shift decreases the accuracy of target coverage and organs at risk (OAR) sparing. The effectiveness of audio-feedback and audio-visual feedback in correcting the baseline shift in the breathing pattern of the patient has been demonstrated previously. However, the baseline shift derived from the intrafraction motion of the patient's body cannot be corrected by these methods. In the present study, the authors designed and developed a simple and flexible system. Methods: The system consisted of a web camera and a computer running our in-house software. The in-house software was adapted to template matching and also to no preimage processing. The system was capable of monitoring the baseline shift in the intrafraction motion of the patient's body. Another marker box was used to monitor the baseline shift due to the flexible setups required of a marker box for gated signals. The system accuracy was evaluated by employing a respiratory motion phantom and was found to be within AAPM Task Group 142 tolerance (positional accuracy <2 mm and temporal accuracy <100 ms) for respiratory-gated radiation therapy. Additionally, the effectiveness of this flexible and independent system in gated treatment was investigated in healthy volunteers, in terms of the results from the differences in the baseline shift detectable between the marker positions, which the authors evaluated statistically. Results: The movement of the marker on the sternum [1.599 {+-} 0.622 mm (1 SD)] was substantially decreased as compared with the abdomen [6.547 {+-} 0.962 mm (1 SD)]. Additionally, in all of the volunteers, the baseline shifts for the sternum [-0.136 {+-} 0.868 (2 SD)] were in better agreement with the nominal baseline shifts than was the case for the abdomen [-0.722 {+-} 1.56 mm (2 SD)]. The baseline shifts could be accurately measured and detected using the monitoring system, which could acquire the movement of the marker on the

  6. The Avian Transcriptome Response to Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 postinfection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). We found considerable differences in the transcriptomes of infected and uninfected individuals, with a large number of genes differentially expressed during both peak and decreasing parasitemia stages. These genes were overrepresented among functions involved in the immune system, stress response, cell death regulation, metabolism, and telomerase activity. Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse) revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. By using RNA-sequencing we gained a more complete view of the host response, and were able to pinpoint not only well-documented host genes but also unannotated genes with clear significance during infection, such as microRNAs. This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe that it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections. PMID:25636457

  7. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A) is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI) and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC) and augmented RIC (aRIC) models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B) and post- bronchodilation (post-B) conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H) and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI). The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp) and peripheral resistance (Rp) tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle") showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In this work we

  8. Are treatment guides and rational drug use policies adequately exploited in combating respiratory system diseases?

    PubMed

    Dogan, Mustafa; Mutlu, Levent C; Yilmaz, İbrahim; Bilir, Bulent; Varol Saracoglu, Gamze; Yildirim Guzelant, Aliye

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to increase awareness regarding the rational use of medicines. The data were obtained via the Material Resources Management System Module of the Ministry of Health. For the appropriateness of treatments, the Global Initiative for Asthma, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, and the guidelines for the rational use of medicines were used. We also investigated whether any de-escalation method or physical exercise was performed. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics to determine the mean, standard deviation, and frequency. The results showed that healthcare providers ignored potential drug reactions or adverse interactions, and reflecting the lack of adherence to the current treatment guides, 35.8% irrational use of medicines was recorded. Thus, de-escalation methods should be used to decrease costs or narrow the antibiotic spectrum, antibiotic selection should consider the resistance patterns, culturing methods should be analyzed, and monotherapy should be preferred over combination treatments. PMID:26166817

  9. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-01-01

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task. PMID:26021823

  10. Use of a feline respiratory epithelial cell culture system grown at the air-liquid interface to characterize the innate immune response following feline herpesvirus 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Nelli, Rahul K; Maes, Roger; Kiupel, Matti; Hussey, Gisela Soboll

    2016-03-01

    Infection with feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) accounts for 50% of viral upper respiratory diseases in domestic cats and is a significant cause of ocular diseases. Despite the clinical significance and high prevalence of FHV-1 infection, currently available vaccines cannot completely protect cats from infection and lifelong latency. FHV-1 infects via the mucous membranes and replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, but very little is known about the early innate immunity at this site. To address questions about immunity to FHV-1, feline respiratory epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI-FRECs) were established by collecting respiratory tracts from 6 healthy cats after euthanasia. Cells were isolated, cultured and characterized histologically and immunologically before infection with FHV-1. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine and chemokine responses were measured by real time PCR. ALI-FRECs morphologically resembled the natural airways of cats with multilayered columnar epithelial cells and cilia. Immunological properties of the natural airways were maintained in ALI-FRECs, as evidenced by the expression of TLRs, cytokines, chemokines, interferons, beta-defensins, and other regulatory genes. Furthermore, ALI-FRECs were able to support infection and replication of FHV-1, as well as modulate transcriptional regulation of various immune genes in response to infection. IL-1β and TNFα were increased in ALI-FRECs by 24hpi, whereas expression levels of IFN-α and TLR9 were not increased until 36hpi. In contrast, TLR3, GM-CSF and TGF-1β expression was down-regulated at 36hpi. The data presented show the development of a system ideal for investigating the molecular pathogenesis and immunity of FHV-1 or other respiratory pathogens. PMID:26795546

  11. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  12. Laser Cleaning of Avian Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, L.; Ball, A.; Russell, D.

    A low vacuum SEM was used to evaluate the effect of using an Nd:YAG laser as a non-contact technique for cleaning avian eggshells. The technique shows potential, since there are no obvious deleterious effects from cleaning, but further study is required to understand how the laser is interacting with the sample surface.

  13. Molecular characterization of avian astroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astroviruses are frequently associated with enteric diseases in poultry, being isolated from cases of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) of broiler chickens, poult enteritis complex (PEC) and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS) of turkeys. Currently, five types of avian astrovirus have been ident...

  14. Avian Influenza: Our current understanding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) has become one of the most important diseases of the poultry industry around the world. The virus has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infection. T...

  15. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  16. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Salamati, Payman; Safiabadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry results can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respiratory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ultimately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement). There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. PMID:23735551

  17. Respiratory Paradoxical Adverse Drug Reactions Associated with Acetylcysteine and Carbocysteine Systemic Use in Paediatric Patients: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Bavoux, Françoise; Boyer-Gervoise, Marie-José; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Chalumeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine) that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. Design The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. Setting Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. Patients The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg) and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. Results The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old) were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27), worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35), dyspnoea (n = 18), cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11), and bronchospasm (n = 1). Fifty-one (86%) children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. Conclusion Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence. PMID:21818391

  18. Effects of High Altitude on Sleep and Respiratory System and Theirs Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    San, Turhan; Polat, Senol; Cingi, Cemal; Eskiizmir, Gorkem; Oghan, Fatih; Cakir, Burak

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude (HA) environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbondioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2. PMID:23690739

  19. Effects of high altitude on sleep and respiratory system and theirs adaptations.

    PubMed

    San, Turhan; Polat, Senol; Cingi, Cemal; Eskiizmir, Gorkem; Oghan, Fatih; Cakir, Burak

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude (HA) environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbon-dioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2. PMID:23690739

  20. The thermal tolerance of crayfish could be estimated from respiratory electron transport system activity.

    PubMed

    Simčič, Tatjana; Pajk, Franja; Jaklič, Martina; Brancelj, Anton; Vrezec, Al

    2014-04-01

    Whether electron transport system (ETS) activity could be used as an estimator of crayfish thermal tolerance has been investigated experimentally. Food consumption rate, respiration rates in the air and water, the difference between energy consumption and respiration costs at a given temperature ('potential growth scope', PGS), and ETS activity of Orconectes limosus and Pacifastacus leniusculus were determined over a temperature range of 5-30°C. All concerned parameters were found to be temperature dependent. The significant correlation between ETS activity and PGS indicates that they respond similarly to temperature change. The regression analysis of ETS activity as an estimator of thermal tolerance at the mitochondrial level and PGS as an indicator of thermal tolerance at the organismic level showed the shift of optimum temperature ranges of ETS activity to the right for 2° in O. limosus and for 3° in P. leniusculus. Thus, lower estimated temperature optima and temperatures of optimum ranges of PGS compared to ETS activity could indicate higher thermal sensitivity at the organismic level than at a lower level of complexity (i.e. at the mitochondrial level). The response of ETS activity to temperature change, especially at lower and higher temperatures, indicates differences in the characteristics of the ETSs in O. limosus and P. leniusculus. O. limosus is less sensitive to high temperature. The significant correlation between PGS and ETS activity supports our assumption that ETS activity could be used for the rapid estimation of thermal tolerance in crayfish species. PMID:24679968

  1. Former migrant mineworkers with respiratory disease: the South African compensation system, and implications for neighbouring countries.

    PubMed

    Steen, T W; Mabongo, N; Moeti, T; Monare, B; Trapido, A S

    2000-01-01

    In the region of Southern Africa, substantial numbers of people, primarily males, have been employed in the South African mining industry. Migrant workers from neighbouring countries have constituted a large part of the work force. Until recently, there has been little or no attention directed toward the state of health of these individuals, despite the fact that their work involves a high health risk, especially in regard to mine-related lung diseases. In addition, the South African workers' compensation programme has seldom been utilised by the migrant worker who is a victim of occupational disease. However, recent experiences from Botswana show that compensation claims can be successfully made from the neighbouring countries where the migrant workers originate. Efforts are being made to address the problem systematically, and the government of Botswana is actively involved. The major occupational lung disorders are described briefly, and differential diagnostic problems with pulmonary TB are discussed. Furthermore, a survey of the compensation system in South Africa is presented, and practical steps for medical examinations involving compensation claims are described. PMID:14674203

  2. Ecology of avian influenza virus in birds.

    PubMed

    Causey, Douglas; Edwards, Scott V

    2008-02-15

    Avian influenza A virus (an orthomyxovirus) is a zoonotic pathogen with a natural reservoir entirely in birds. The influenza virus genome is an 8-segment single-stranded RNA with high potential for in situ recombination. Two segments code for the hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) antigens used for host-cell entry. At present, 16 H and 9 N subtypes are known, for a total of 144 possible different influenza subtypes, each with potentially different host susceptibility. With >10,000 species of birds found in nearly every terrestrial and aquatic habitat, there are few places on earth where birds cannot be found. The avian immune system differs from that of humans in several important features, including asynchronous B and T lymphocyte systems and a polymorphic multigene immune complex, but little is known about the immunogenetics of pathogenic response. Postbreeding dispersal and migration and a naturally high degree of environmental vagility mean that wild birds have the potential to be vectors that transmit highly pathogenic variants great distances from the original sources of infection. PMID:18269325

  3. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory. PMID:18479045

  4. Jellyfish blooms result in a major microbial respiratory sink of carbon in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Condon, Robert H; Steinberg, Deborah K; del Giorgio, Paul A; Bouvier, Thierry C; Bronk, Deborah A; Graham, William M; Ducklow, Hugh W

    2011-06-21

    Jellyfish blooms occur in many estuarine and coastal regions and may be increasing in their magnitude and extent worldwide. Voracious jellyfish predation impacts food webs by converting large quantities of carbon (C), fixed by primary producers and consumed by secondary producers, into gelatinous biomass, which restricts C transfer to higher trophic levels because jellyfish are not readily consumed by other predators. In addition, jellyfish release colloidal and dissolved organic matter (jelly-DOM), and could further influence the functioning of coastal systems by altering microbial nutrient and DOM pathways, yet the links between jellyfish and bacterioplankton metabolism and community structure are unknown. Here we report that jellyfish released substantial quantities of extremely labile C-rich DOM, relative to nitrogen (25.6 ± 31.6 C:1N), which was quickly metabolized by bacterioplankton at uptake rates two to six times that of bulk DOM pools. When jelly-DOM was consumed it was shunted toward bacterial respiration rather than production, significantly reducing bacterial growth efficiencies by 10% to 15%. Jelly-DOM also favored the rapid growth and dominance of specific bacterial phylogenetic groups (primarily γ-proteobacteria) that were rare in ambient waters, implying that jelly-DOM was channeled through a small component of the in situ microbial assemblage and thus induced large changes in community composition. Our findings suggest major shifts in microbial structure and function associated with jellyfish blooms, and a large detour of C toward bacterial CO(2) production and away from higher trophic levels. These results further suggest fundamental transformations in the biogeochemical functioning and biological structure of food webs associated with jellyfish blooms. PMID:21646531

  5. Evaluation of respiratory impedance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by an impulse oscillation system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Su-Gang; Yang, Wen-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Jin-Ming

    2014-11-01

    An impulse oscillometry system (IOS) assesses pulmonary resistance and reactance. The present study investigated which IOS measurement is correlated with airflow obstruction, airway conductance and lung volume in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 180 patients with COPD were selected and 95 agreed to follow‑up 1 year after the initial tests. IOS measurements [R5, R20, X5 and resonant frequency (Fres)], body plethysmography [forced end‑expiratory flow (FEF)75, total lung capacity, residual volume (RV) and total inspiratory resistance (Rtot)] and spirometry [forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1)] were performed. Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests were used to determine the correlation between the IOS and other measurements. R5, X5 and Fres were all significantly associated (P<0.05) with FEV1, FEF75, RV and Rtot. However, R20 was not correlated with these measurements except from FEF75 and Rtot (r values were all<0.25). The strongest associations were observed with FEV1 and the reactance measurements X5 (r=0.635), Fres (r=‑0.721) and R5 (r=‑0.496); FEF75 with X5 (r=0.505), Fres (r=‑0.629) and R5 (r=‑0.468); RV with X5 (r=‑0.485), Fres (r=0.570) and R5 (r=0.326); and Rtot with X5 (r=‑0.691), Fres (r=0.632) and R5 (r=0.570). There was a significant increase in FEV1 and X5 after one year as compared with the RV. The other measurements did not change over the year. The changes in X5, Fres and R5 were significantly correlated with the changes in FEV1 and the correlation coefficients were 0.355, ‑0.364 and ‑0.381, respectively. Similarly, the changes in X5, Fres and R5 were significantly correlated with the changes in RV and the correlation coefficients were ‑0.264, 0.287 and 0.318, respectively. In the COPD patients, the IOS reactance measurements were more closely correlated with other pulmonary function measurements rather than with resistance measurements. The IOS reactance measurements, particularly X5, appear to

  6. Computational modeling as part of alternative testing strategies in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems: inhaled nanoparticle dose modeling based on representative aerosol measurements and corresponding toxicological analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilou, Marika; Mavrofrydi, Olga; Housiadas, Christos; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Papazafiri, Panagiota

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of modeling in this work were (a) the integration of two existing numerical models in order to connect external exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) with internal dose through inhalation, and (b) to use computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) to analyze the behavior of NPs in the respiratory and the cardiovascular system. Regarding the first objective, a lung transport and deposition model was combined with a lung clearance/retention model to estimate NPs dose in the different regions of the human respiratory tract and some adjacent tissues. On the other hand, CFPD was used to estimate particle transport and deposition of particles in a physiologically based bifurcation created by the third and fourth lung generations (respiratory system), as well as to predict the fate of super-paramagnetic particles suspended in a liquid under the influence of an external magnetic field (cardiovascular system). All the above studies showed that, with proper refinement, the developed computational models and methodologies may serve as an alternative testing strategy, replacing transport/deposition experiments that are expensive both in time and resources and contribute to risk assessment. PMID:24295373

  7. Correlation and prediction uncertainties in the CyberKnife Synchrony respiratory tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei; Zhang, Yuenian; Lord, Bryce

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The CyberKnife uses an online prediction model to improve radiation delivery when treating lung tumors. This study evaluates the prediction model used by the CyberKnife radiation therapy system in terms of treatment margins about the gross tumor volume (GTV). Methods: From the data log files produced by the CyberKnife synchrony model, the uncertainty in radiation delivery can be calculated. Modeler points indicate the tracked position of the tumor and Predictor points predict the position about 115 ms in the future. The discrepancy between Predictor points and their corresponding Modeler points was analyzed for 100 treatment model data sets from 23 de-identified lung patients. The treatment margins were determined in each anatomic direction to cover an arbitrary volume of the GTV, derived from the Modeler points, when the radiation is targeted at the Predictor points. Each treatment model had about 30 min of motion data, of which about 10 min constituted treatment time; only these 10 min were used in the analysis. The frequencies of margin sizes were analyzed and truncated Gaussian normal functions were fit to each direction's distribution. The standard deviation of each Gaussian distribution was then used to describe the necessary margin expansions in each signed dimension in order to achieve the desired coverage. In this study, 95% modeler point coverage was compared to 99% modeler coverage. Two other error sources were investigated: the correlation error and the targeting error. These were added to the prediction error to give an aggregate error for the CyberKnife during treatment of lung tumors. Results: Considering the magnitude of 2{sigma} from the mean of the Gaussian in each signed dimension, the margin expansions needed for 95% modeler point coverage were 1.2 mm in the lateral (LAT) direction and 1.7 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction. For the superior-inferior (SI) direction, the fit was poor; but empirically, the expansions were 3.5 mm

  8. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  9. Broad respiratory virus detection in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis by use of a multiplex RT-PCR DNA microarray system.

    PubMed

    Huguenin, Antoine; Moutte, Lauryane; Renois, Fanny; Leveque, Nicolas; Talmud, Deborah; Abely, Michel; Nguyen, Yohan; Carrat, Fabrice; Andreoletti, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    Newly available molecular tools allow a sensitive detection of a broad panel of viruses in respiratory tract specimens. In the present study, the application of a multiplex RT-PCR DNA microarray in diagnosis and epidemiological survey of viral infections in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis was assessed. One hundred and thirty-eight nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from October 2007 to September 2008 were tested by direct immunofluorescence and viral culture, a combination of referenced RT-PCRs and the DNA microarray. One or more viruses were detected in 96, 126 and 126 of the specimens by direct immunofluorescence and viral culture, RT-PCRs and DNA microarray, respectively (70 vs. 91 vs. 91%, P < 10(-3)). The RT-PCRs and the DNA microarray yielded concordant results for 99% of specimens and identified mixed viral infections in 85 (62%). The most common associations were: human bocavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (32%), adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (30%), and parainfluenza virus type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus (23%). None of the bronchiolitis severity parameters including intensive care unit admission, O(2) supply, O(2) saturation percentage, O(2) length and length of stay at the hospital appeared to be significantly increased in multiple viral infections compared to single viral infections (P > 0.1). In conclusion, the use of this DNA microarray in clinical virology practice allows rapid and accurate identification of common and uncommon viral respiratory pathogens in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis. It should improve the clinical management, the epidemiological survey, and the prevention of the nosocomial transmission of respiratory viruses in pediatric wards. PMID:22499022

  10. The static pressure-volume relationship of the respiratory system determined with a computer-controlled ventilator.

    PubMed

    Svantesson, C; Drefeldt, B; Jonson, B

    1997-07-01

    The pressure-volume relationship of the respiratory system offers a guideline for setting of ventilators. The occlusion method for determination of the static elastic pressure-volume (Pel(st)/V) relationship is used as a reference and the aim of the study was to improve it with respect to time consumption and precision of recording and analysis. The inspiratory Pel(st)/V curve was determined with a computer-controlled ventilator using its pressure and flow sensors. During an automated procedure, an operator-defined volume history preceded each of a number of study breaths. These were interrupted at different volumes evenly distributed over a predefined volume interval. Total positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was measured and could be separated into its components, external PEEP and auto-PEEP. The volume relationship between the curve and the current tidal volume was defined. An analytical method for definition of a linear segment of the Pel(st)/V curve and determination of its compliance is presented. In eight healthy human anaesthetized subjects duplicate Pel(st)/V curves were studied with respect to compliance and the position along the volume axis of the linear segment. The difference in compliance between measurements was 1.6 +/- 1.3 ml cmH2O(-1) or 1.2 +/- 0.9%. The position of the curve differed between measurements by 15 +/- 10 ml or by 1.1 +/- 0.9%. In a patient with acute lung injury the feasibility of applying a numerical method for a more detailed description of the Pel(st)/V curve was illustrated. PMID:19361153

  11. The relationship between respiratory exchange ratio, plasma lactate and muscle lactate concentrations in exercising horses using a valved gas collection system.

    PubMed Central

    Gauvreau, G M; Young, S S; Staempfli, H; McCutcheon, L J; Wilson, B A; McDonell, W N

    1996-01-01

    A valved gas collection system for horses was validated, then used to examine the relationship between the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and plasma and muscle lactate in exercising horses. Four healthy Standardbred horses were trained to breathe through the apparatus while exercising on a treadmill. Comparisons of arterial blood gas tensions were made at 3 work levels for each horse, without (control), and with the gas collection system present. At the highest work level, the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) was significantly lower (P < 0.05), and the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) was significantly higher (P < 0.05), than control levels when the apparatus was present; however arterial oxygen content remained unchanged. The horses completed a standardized incremental treadmill test on 4 occasions to determine the repeatability of measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), inspired minute ventilation (VI), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VI/VO2), tidal volume (VT), and ventilatory frequency (VF). All gas exchange and respiratory measurements showed good reproducibility with the mean coefficient of variation of the 4 horses ranging from 3.8 to 12%. We examined the relationship between 3 indices of energy metabolism in horses performing treadmill exercise: respiratory exchange ratio (RER), central venous plasma and muscle lactate concentrations. A relationship between RER and plasma lactate concentration was established. To compare muscle and plasma lactate concentrations, the horses completed a discontinuous exercise test without the gas collection apparatus present. Significant relationships (P < 0.05), between plasma lactate concentration and RER, and between plasma and muscle lactate concentration, were described for each horse. The valved gas collection system produced a measurable but tolerable degree of interference to respiration, and provided reproducible measurements of gas

  12. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  13. Real-time tumor tracking using sequential kV imaging combined with respiratory monitoring: a general framework applicable to commonly used IGRT systems

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Keall, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Clinical image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems have kV imagers and respiratory monitors, the combination of which provides an ‘internal–external’ correlation for respiratory-induced tumor motion tracking. We developed a general framework of correlation-based position estimation that is applicable to various imaging configurations, particularly alternate stereoscopic (ExacTrac) or rotational monoscopic (linacs) imaging, where instant 3D target positions cannot be measured. By reformulating the least-squares estimation equation for the correlation model, the necessity to measure 3D target positions from synchronous stereoscopic images can be avoided. The performance of this sequential image-based estimation was evaluated in comparison with a synchronous image-based estimation. Both methods were tested in simulation studies using 160 abdominal/thoracic tumor trajectories and an external respiratory signal dataset. The sequential image-based estimation method (1) had mean 3D errors less than 1 mm at all the imaging intervals studied (0.2, 1, 2, 5 and 10 s), (2) showed minimal dependencies of the accuracy on the geometry and (3) was equal in accuracy to the synchronous image-based estimation method when using the same image input. In conclusion, the sequential image-based estimation method can achieve sub-mm accuracy for commonly used IGRT systems, and is equally accurate and more broadly applicable than the synchronous image-based estimation method. PMID:20484777

  14. Boussignac CPAP system for brain death confirmation with apneic test in case of acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome – series of cases

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are some patients with severe respiratory disturbances like adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and suspicion of brain death, for whom typical performance of the apneic test is difficult to complete because of quick desaturation and rapid deterioration without effective ventilation. To avoid failure of brain death confirmation and possible loss of organ donation another approach to apneic test is needed. We present two cases of patients with clinical symptoms of brain death, with lung pathology (acute lung injury, ARDS, lung embolism and lung infection), in whom apneic tests for recognizing brain death were difficult to perform. During typical performance of apneic test involving the use of oxygen catheter for apneic oxygenation we observed severe desaturation with growing hypotension and hemodynamic destabilization. But with the use of Boussignac CPAP system all necessary tests were successfully completed, confirming the patient’s brain death, which gave us the opportunity to perform procedures for organ donation. The main reason of apneic test difficulties was severe gas exchange disturbances secondary to ARDS. Thus lack of positive end expiratory pressure during classical performance of apneic test leads to quick desaturation and rapid hemodynamic deterioration, limiting the observation period below dedicated at least 10-minute interval. Conclusion The Boussignac CPAP system may be an effective tool for performing transparent apneic test in case of serious respiratory disturbances, especially in the form of acute lung injury or ARDS. PMID:26124664

  15. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... growth. Without oxygen, the body's cells would die. Carbon dioxide is the waste gas that is produced when ... also enabling the body to get rid of carbon dioxide in the air breathed out. Respiration is the ...

  16. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... called alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide actually takes place. Each lung houses about 300- ... growth. Without oxygen, the body's cells would die. Carbon dioxide is the waste gas produced when carbon is ...

  17. Social Stress, Smoking Behavior and Mortality from Cancer of the Respiratory System: A Macro-Social Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between the stressfulness of each state's social environment, smoking, and mortality rates for respiratory cancer. It was based on a health behavior model which assumed that under conditions of high stress some people fail to exercise normal prudence in either protecting their health or engage in practices…

  18. Radial-femoral concordance in time and frequency domain-based estimates of systemic arterial respiratory variation.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Robert H; Colquhoun, Douglas A; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M; Gillies, George T; Durieux, Marcel E

    2012-10-01

    Commonly used arterial respiratory variation metrics are based on mathematical analysis of arterial waveforms in the time domain. Because the shape of the arterial waveform is dependent on the site at which it is measured, we hypothesized that analysis of the arterial waveform in the frequency domain might provide a relatively site-independent means of measuring arterial respiratory variation. Radial and femoral arterial blood pressures were measured in nineteen patients undergoing liver transplantation. Systolic pressure variation (SPV), pulse pressure variation (PPV), area under the curve variation (AUCV), and mean arterial pressure variation (MAPV) at radial and femoral sites were calculated off-line. Two metrics, "Spectral Peak Ratio" (SPeR) and "Spectral Power Ratio" (SPoR) based on ratios of the spectral peak and spectral area (power) at the respiratory and cardiac frequencies, were calculated at both radial and femoral sites. Variance among radial-femoral differences was compared and correlation coefficients describing the relationship between respiratory variation at the radial and femoral sites were developed. The variance in radial-femoral differences were significantly different (p < 0.001). The correlation between radial and femoral estimates of respiratory variation were 0.746, 0.658, 0.858, 0.882, 0.941, and 0.925 for SPV, PPV, AUCV, MAPV, SPeR, and SPoR, respectively. Assuming a PPV treatment threshold of 12 % (or equivalent), differences in treatment decisions based on radial or femoral estimates would arise in 12, 14, 5.4, 5.7, 4.8, and 5.5 % of minutes for SPV, PPV, AUCV, MAPV, spectral peak ratio, and spectral power ratio, respectively. As compared to frequency domain-based estimates of respiratory variation, SPV and PPV are relatively dependent on the anatomic site at which they are measured. Spectral peak and power ratios are relatively site-independent means of measuring respiratory variation, and may offer a useful alternative to time

  19. Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M

    2002-01-01

    The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management. PMID:12028770

  20. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types. PMID:26751596

  1. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy. PMID:18618061

  2. What do Children Aged Four to Seven Know about the Digestive System and the Respiratory System of the Human Being and of Other Animals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Barros, Susana; Martínez-Losada, Cristina; Garrido, María

    2011-10-01

    The object of this paper is to learn what little children know about the inside of their bodies before they have studied these particular aspects at school. The data for our project were collected by means of drawings made by 342 Spanish children aged four to seven. They were required to depict where the food, drink, and air which enter their bodies go. In addition to this, we intend to study how the ideas of children evolve during three consecutive years. For this purpose, a group of 32 subjects was monitored. Our findings show that the children recognise specific organs in their own bodies which they associate with the intake of food and air. Furthermore, they usually extrapolate those organs to other animals they are familiar with. Their ideas about the digestive system are more adequate than the ones about the respiratory system, though their ideas improve as they become older, above all those concerning the digestive system. Taking these findings as a basis, this paper suggests some points to be taken into consideration for teaching purposes.

  3. Toxin-induced respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    McKay, Charles A

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the impact of various toxic substances on the airway and pulmonary system. Pulmonary anatomy and physiology provide the basis for understanding the response to toxin-induced injury. Simple asphyxiants displace oxygen from the inspired air. Respiratory irritants include water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Several inhaled agents produce direct airway injury, which may be mediated by caustic, thermal, and hydrocarbon exposures. Unique pulmonary toxins and toxicants are discussed, as well as inhaled toxin mixtures. Several inhaled toxins may also impair oxygen transport. The pulmonary system may also provide a mechanism for systemic toxin delivery on respiratory exposure. PMID:24275172

  4. Development of system using beam's eye view images to measure respiratory motion tracking errors in image-guided robotic radiosurgery system.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Shiomi, Hiroya; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Taguchi, Junichi; Okawa, Kohei; Kikuchi, Chie; Inada, Kosaku; Iwabuchi, Michio; Murai, Taro; Koike, Izumi; Tatewaki, Koshi; Ohta, Seiji; Inoue, Tomio

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the CyberKnife Synchrony Respiratory Tracking System (SRTS) is considered to be patient-dependent because the SRTS relies on an individual correlation between the internal tumor position (ITP) and the external marker position (EMP), as well as a prediction method to compensate for the delay incurred to adjust the position of the linear accelerator (linac). We aimed to develop a system for obtaining pretreatment statistical measurements of the SRTS tracking error by using beam's eye view (BEV) images, to enable the prediction of the patient-specific accuracy. The respiratory motion data for the ITP and the EMP were derived from cine MR images obtained from 23 patients. The dynamic motion phantom was used to reproduce both the ITP and EMP motions. The CyberKnife was subsequently operated with the SRTS, with a CCD camera mounted on the head of the linac. BEV images from the CCD camera were recorded during the tracking of a ball target by the linac. The tracking error was measured at 15 Hz using in-house software. To assess the precision of the position detection using an MR image, the positions of test tubes (determined from MR images) were compared with their actual positions. To assess the precision of the position detection of the ball, ball positions measured from BEV images were compared with values measured using a Vernier caliper. The SRTS accuracy was evaluated by determining the tracking error that could be identified with a probability of more than 95% (Ep95). The detection precision of the tumor position (determined from cine MR images) was < 0.2 mm. The detection precision of the tracking error when using the BEV images was < 0.2mm. These two detection precisions were derived from our measurement system and were not obtained from the SRTS. The median of Ep95 was found to be 1.5 (range, 1.0-3.5) mm. The difference between the minimum and maximum Ep95 was 2.5mm, indicating that this provides a better means of evaluating patient-specific SRTS

  5. Gender determination of avian embryo

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  6. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R

    2014-07-01

    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand. PMID:24313228

  7. Avian influenza: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Berhane, Y; Hooper-McGrevy, K

    2009-04-01

    Reports of sporadic avian influenza outbreaks involving domestic poultry date back to the 1960s. With the exception of A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9), which was isolated from a turkey breeding establishment, all viruses characterised prior to 2004 fit the criteria of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). Only in retrospect was A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 shown to meet the criteria of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In 2004, Canada reported its first case of HPAI to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The outbreak, which began in a broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, involved an H7N3 LPAI virus which underwent a sudden virulence shift to HPAI. More than 17 million birds were culled and CAN$380 million in gross economic costs incurred before the outbreak was eventually brought under control. In its aftermath a number of changes were implemented to mitigate the impact of any future HPAI outbreaks. These changes involved various aspects of avian influenza detection and control, including self-quarantine, biosecurity, surveillance, and laboratory testing. In 2005, a national surveillance programme for influenza A viruses in wild birds was initiated. Results of this survey provided evidence for wild birds as the likely source of an H5N2 LPAI outbreak that occurred in domestic ducks in the Fraser Valley in the autumn of 2005. Wild birds were once again implicated in an H7N3 HPAI outbreak involving a broiler breeder operation in Saskatchewan in 2007. Fortunately, both of these outbreaks were limited in extent, a consequence of some of the changes implemented in response to the 2004 British Columbia outbreak. PMID:19618638

  8. Avian embryos in hypoxic environments.

    PubMed

    León-Velarde, F; Monge-C, C

    2004-08-12

    Avian embryos at high altitude do not benefit of the maternal protection against hypoxia as in mammals. Nevertheless, avian embryos are known to hatch successfully at altitudes between 4,000 and 6,500 m. This review considers some of the processes that bring about the outstanding modifications in the pressure differences between the environment and mitochondria of avian embryos in hypoxic environments. Among species, some maintain normal levels of oxygen consumption ( VO2) have a high oxygen carrying capacity, lower the air cell-arterial pressure difference ( PAO2 - PaO2 ) with a constant pH. Other species decrease VO2, increase only slightly the oxygen carrying capacity, have a higher PAO2 - PaO2 difference than sea-level embryos and lower the PCO2 and pH. High altitude embryos, and those exposed to hypoxia have an accelerated decline of erythrocyte ATP levels during development and an earlier stimulation of 2,3-BPG synthesis. A higher Bohr effect may ensure high tissue PO2 in the presence of the high-affinity hemoglobin. Independently of the strategy used, they serve together to promote suitable rates of development and successful hatching of high altitude birds in hypoxic environments. PMID:15288603

  9. Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

  10. Pathophysiology and Classification of Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Tejpreet Singh; Sharara, Rihab Saeed; Singh, Anil C; Balaan, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a condition in which the respiratory system fails in one or both of its gas exchange functions. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. It is a result of either lung failure, resulting in hypoxemia, or pump failure, resulting in alveolar hypoventilation and hypercapnia. This article covers the basic lung anatomy, pathophysiology, and classification of respiratory failure. PMID:26919670

  11. Development of a novel clinical scoring system for on-farm diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Love, William J.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Kass, Philip H.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    Several clinical scoring systems for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves have been proposed. However, such systems were based on subjective judgment, rather than statistical methods, to weight scores. Data from a pair-matched case-control study on a California calf raising facility was used to develop three novel scoring systems to diagnose BRD in preweaned dairy calves. Disease status was assigned using both clinical signs and diagnostic test results for BRD-associated pathogens. Regression coefficients were used to weight score values. The systems presented use nasal and ocular discharge, rectal temperature, ear and head carriage, coughing, and respiratory quality as predictors. The systems developed in this research utilize fewer severity categories of clinical signs, require less calf handling, and had excellent agreement (Kappa > 0.8) when compared to an earlier scoring system. The first scoring system dichotomized all clinical predictors but required inducing a cough. The second scoring system removed induced cough as a clinical abnormality but required distinguishing between three levels of nasal discharge severity. The third system removed induced cough and forced a dichotomized variable for nasal discharge. The first system presented in this study used the following predictors and assigned values: coughing (induced or spontaneous coughing, 2 points), nasal discharge (any discharge, 3 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (≥39.2°C or 102.5°F, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ≥4. This system correctly classified 95.4% cases and 88.6% controls. The second presented system categorized the predictors and assigned weights as follows: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), mild nasal discharge (unilateral, serous, or watery discharge, 3 points), moderate to

  12. Effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sen, Oznur; Umutoglu, Tarik; Aydın, Nurdan; Toptas, Mehmet; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur

    2016-01-01

    Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) is less frequently employed in general anesthesia. With its high and decelerating inspiratory flow, PCV has faster tidal volume delivery and different gas distribution. The same tidal volume setting, delivered by PCV versus volume-controlled ventilation (VCV), will result in a lower peak airway pressure and reduced risk of barotrauma. We hypothesized that PCV instead of VCV during laparoscopic surgery could achieve lower airway pressures and reduce the systemic stress response. Forty ASA I-II patients were randomly selected to receive either the PCV (Group PC, n = 20) or VCV (Group VC, n = 20) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Blood sampling was made for baseline arterial blood gases (ABG), cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels. General anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl was employed to all patients. After anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation, patients in Group PC were given pressure support to form 8 mL/kg tidal volume and patients in Group VC was maintained at 8 mL/kg tidal volume calculated using predicted body weight. All patients were maintained with 5 cmH2O positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Respiratory parameters were recorded before and 30 min after pneumoperitonium. Assessment of ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin and glucose levels were repeated 30 min after pneumoperitonium and 60 min after extubation. The P-peak levels observed before (18.9 ± 3.8 versus 15 ± 2.2 cmH2O) and during (23.3 ± 3.8 versus 20.1 ± 2.9 cmH2O) pneumoperitoneum in Group VC were significantly higher. Postoperative partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) values are higher (98 ± 12 versus 86 ± 11 mmHg) in Group PC. Arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) values (41.8 ± 5.4 versus 36.7 ± 3.5 mmHg) during pneumoperitonium and post-operative mean cortisol and insulin levels were higher in Group VC. When compared to VCV mode, PCV mode may improve compliance during pneumoperitoneum

  13. Immediate and long-term effects in the hematopoietic system and the morphology of the respiratory system in experimental animals under chronic combined action of external gamma exposure and inhalation exposure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarkin, Sergey; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Aleksandr, Shafirkin; Barantseva, Maria; Ivanova, Svetlana

    The need to solve hygiene problems valuation of environmental factors in the implementation of the projected manned interplanetary missions, determined the relevance of studying the effect of external gamma-irradiation with inhalation of mixtures of chemicals on the parameters of major critical body systems: hematopoiesis and respiratory (morphological and morphometric parameters) in the short and long periods. The study conducted on 504 male mice F1 (CBA × C57BL6) under chronic fractional gamma-irradiation (within 10 weeks at a total dose 350sGr) and then under inhalation by mixtures of chemicals in low concentrations. Duration of the experiment (124 days) and 90 -day recovery period. Displaying adaptive reorganization in hematopoietic system, which was characterized by a tension of regulatory systems of animals and by a proliferation of bone marrow cells and by dynamic changes in amount of lymphoid cells in peripheral blood, elevated levels of the antioxidant activity of red blood cells, and morphological manifestations of "incomplete recovery " of the spleen, which are retained in the recovery period. Morphological changes in the respiratory organs of animals testified about immunogenesis activation and development of structural changes as a chronic inflammatory process. Increase of fibrous connective tissue in the walls of the trachea, bronchus and lung, against reduction of loose fibrous connective tissue (more pronounced in respiratory parts of the respiratory system) in experimental animals, which may indicate a reduction of the functional reserves of the body and increase the risk of adverse long-term effects.

  14. Sequencing and functional annotation of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroup O78 strains reveal the evolution of E. coli lineages pathogenic for poultry via distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dziva, Francis; Hauser, Heidi; Connor, Thomas R; van Diemen, Pauline M; Prescott, Graham; Langridge, Gemma C; Eckert, Sabine; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Ewers, Christa; Mellata, Melha; Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Curtiss, Roy; Dougan, Gordon; Wieler, Lothar H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Pickard, Derek J; Stevens, Mark P

    2013-03-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes respiratory and systemic disease in poultry. Sequencing of a multilocus sequence type 95 (ST95) serogroup O1 strain previously indicated that APEC resembles E. coli causing extraintestinal human diseases. We sequenced the genomes of two strains of another dominant APEC lineage (ST23 serogroup O78 strains χ7122 and IMT2125) and compared them to each other and to the reannotated APEC O1 sequence. For comparison, we also sequenced a human enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strain of the same ST23 serogroup O78 lineage. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the APEC O78 strains were more closely related to human ST23 ETEC than to APEC O1, indicating that separation of pathotypes on the basis of their extraintestinal or diarrheagenic nature is not supported by their phylogeny. The accessory genome of APEC ST23 strains exhibited limited conservation of APEC O1 genomic islands and a distinct repertoire of virulence-associated loci. In light of this diversity, we surveyed the phenotype of 2,185 signature-tagged transposon mutants of χ7122 following intra-air sac inoculation of turkeys. This procedure identified novel APEC ST23 genes that play strain- and tissue-specific roles during infection. For example, genes mediating group 4 capsule synthesis were required for the virulence of χ7122 and were conserved in IMT2125 but absent from APEC O1. Our data reveal the genetic diversity of E. coli strains adapted to cause the same avian disease and indicate that the core genome of the ST23 lineage serves as a chassis for the evolution of E. coli strains adapted to cause avian or human disease via acquisition of distinct virulence genes. PMID:23275093

  15. Rapid emergence of a virulent PB2 E627K variant during adaptation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N7 virus to mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a potential human health threat as they can be transmitted directly from infected poultry to humans. During a large outbreak of HPAI H7N7 virus among poultry in The Netherlands in 2003, bird to human transmission was confirmed in 89 cases, of which one had a fatal outcome. Methods To identify genetic determinants of virulence in a mammalian host, we passaged an avian H7N7/03 outbreak isolate in mouse lungs and evaluated the phenotype of the mouse-adapted variant in animal models and in vitro. Results Three passages in mouse lungs were sufficient to select a variant that was highly virulent in mice. The virus had a MLD50 that was >4.3 logs lower than that of its non-lethal parental virus. Sequence analysis revealed a single mutation at position 627 in PB2, where the glutamic acid was changed to a lysine (E627K). The mouse-adapted virus has this mutation in common with the fatal human case isolate. The virus remained highly pathogenic for chickens after its passage in mice. In ferrets, the mouse-adapted virus induced more severe disease, replicated to higher titers in the lower respiratory tract and spread more efficiently to systemic organs compared with the parental virus. In vitro, the PB2 E627K mutation had a promoting effect on virus propagation in mammalian, but not in avian cells. Conclusions Our results show that the E627K mutation in PB2 alone can be sufficient to convert an HPAI H7N7 virus of low virulence to a variant causing severe disease in mice and ferrets. The rapid emergence of the PB2 E627K mutant during mouse adaptation and its pathogenicity in ferrets emphasize the potential risk of HPAI H7N7 viruses for human health. PMID:24007444

  16. Pathogenesis of two strains of Avian Paramyxovirus serotype 2, Yucaipa and Bangor, in chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Madhuri; Xiao, Sa; Khattar, Sunil K.; Dias, Flavia Militino; Collins, Peter L.; Samal, Siba K.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Nine serological types of Avian Paramyxovirus (APMV) have been recognized. Newcastle Disease Virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized virus; while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two strains of APMV-2, Yucaipa and Bangor, in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) chicks, and 4-week-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time (MDT) in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was more than 168 h for both strains and their Intra Cerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI) was zero, indicating that these viruses are nonpathogenic in chickens. When inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day old chicks, neither strain caused disease nor replicated detectably in the brain. This suggests that the zero ICPI value of APMV-2 reflects the inability of the virus to grow in neural cells. Groups of twelve 4-week-old SPF chickens and turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with either strain, and three birds per group were euthanized on days 2, 4, 6, and 14 post-inoculation for analysis. There were no overt clinical signs of illnesses, although all birds seroconverted by day 6. The viruses were isolated predominantly from the respiratory and alimentary tracts. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of large amount of viral antigens in epithelial linings of respiratory and alimentary tracts. There also was evidence of systemic spread even though the cleavage site of the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin protease cleavage site. PMID:20945787

  17. Differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) using recombinant fowlpox-H5 Avian-Influenza vaccine and standard serological tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines protect chickens from morbidity and mortality and reduce, but do not completely prevent, respiratory and intestinal replication of an AI challenge virus. Therefore, surveillance programs must be developed to differentiate infected from non-infected flocks of vaccinated ...

  18. Differences in sialic acid repertoire provides a molecular platform for replication of both avian and mammalian influenza viruses in turkeys but not chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus infection in turkeys results in clinical signs ranging from asymptomatic to severe. Symptoms may include respiratory disease, drop in egg production, reduced hatchability, eggshell abnormalities, decreased feed efficiency, and increased mortality. In 2003, an H3N2 subtype of ...

  19. Role of immune-related host gene responses in the pathobiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have changed from producing mild respiratory infections in ducks to some strains causing severe disease and mortality. In this study we examined host response to infection with HPAI H5N1 viruses in ducks. With the use of a whole genom...

  20. Use of genomic interspecies microarray hybridization to detect differentially expressed genes associated with H5N1 avian influenza virus infections in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have changed from producing mild respiratory infections in ducks, to some strains producing severe disease and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in host response to infection with H5N1 HPAI viruses w...

  1. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C as a bivalent vaccine in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling both NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. In the present study, an N...

  2. The effect of open and closed endotracheal tube suctioning system on respiratory parameters of infants undergoing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Parvin; Asgari, Narges; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Golchin, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Mechanical ventilation is used for some infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) due to many physiological and clinical causes. Since these patients have endotracheal tubes, cleaning and keeping the airways open through suctioning should be done to increase oxygenation. This study aimed to evaluate effect of open and closed suctioning methods on respiratory parameters of infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: In this crossover clinical trial, 44 infants were selected among those undergone mechanical ventilation in NICU of Isfahan's Al-Zahra Hospital using convenience sampling method. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, open suctioning was carried out and after three hours of cleaning, closed suctioning was done. In the second group, closed suctioning was firstly done and following three hours of cleaning, open suctioning was implemented. Respiratory rate (RR) and percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation was measured before, during and after each type of suctioning. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and independent student's t-test. Findings: There was a significant difference between mean respiratory rate and arterial blood oxygen saturation in infants before, during and after the closed and open suctioning. The percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation had a significant reduction in open method compared to closed method during suctioning and immediately after it. RR three minutes after suctioning showed a significant reduction in both steps in open method compared to closed method. Conclusions: Close method caused fewer changes in hemodynamic status of infants. Therefore, in order to prevent respiratory complications in infants, nurses are recommended to perform the endotracheal tube suctioning by closed method. PMID:23493041

  3. Field detection of avian influenza virus in wild birds: evaluation of a portable rRT-PCR system and freeze-dried reagents.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, John Y; Iverson, Samuel A; Schultz, Annie K; Hill, Nichola J; Cardona, Carol J; Boyce, Walter M; Dudley, Joseph P

    2010-06-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of limited local analytical capabilities, difficulties with sample transportation and permitting, or problems keeping samples cold in the field. In response to these challenges, the performance of a portable real-time, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) unit (RAPID((R)), Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employed lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies) was compared to virus isolation combined with real-time RT-PCR conducted in a laboratory. This study included both field- and experimental-based sampling. Field samples were collected from migratory shorebirds captured in northern California, while experimental samples were prepared by spiking fecal material with an H6N2 AIV isolate. Results indicated that the portable rRT-PCR unit had equivalent specificity to virus isolation with no false positives, but sensitivity was compromised at low viral titers. Use of portable rRT-PCR with lyophilized reagents may expedite surveillance results, paving the way to a better understanding of wild bird involvement in HPAIV H5N1 transmission. PMID:20206650

  4. Field detection of avian influenza virus in wild birds: evaluation of a portable rRT-PCR system and freeze-dried reagents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Schultz, Annie K.; Hill, Nichola J.; Cardona, Carol J.; Boyce, Walter M.; Dudley, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of limited local analytical capabilities, difficulties with sample transportation and permitting, or problems keeping samples cold in the field. In response to these challenges, the performance of a portable real-time, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) unit (RAPID(Registered), Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employed lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies) was compared to virus isolation combined with real-time RT-PCR conducted in a laboratory. This study included both field and experimental-based sampling. Field samples were collected from migratory shorebirds captured in northern California, while experimental samples were prepared by spiking fecal material with an H6N2 AIV isolate. Results indicated that the portable rRT-PCR unit had equivalent specificity to virus isolation with no false positives, but sensitivity was compromised at low viral titers. Use of portable rRT-PCR with lyophilized reagents may expedite surveillance results, paving the way to a better understanding of wild bird involvement in HPAIV H5N1 transmission.

  5. Experimental shifts in egg-nest contrasts do not alter egg rejection responses in an avian host-brood parasite system.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Mark E; Aidala, Zachary; Igic, Branislav; Shawkey, Matthew D; Moskát, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds exploit their hosts to provide care for unrelated young in the nest. Potential hosts can reduce the cost of parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs from the nest. Observational, comparative, and experimental studies have concluded that most hosts use the coloration and patterning of eggshells to discriminate between own and foreign eggs in the nest. However, an alternative hypothesis is that birds use the colour contrasts between eggshells and the nest lining to identify parasitic eggs (egg-nest contrast hypothesis). In support of this hypothesis, we found that the avian perceivable chromatic contrasts between dyed eggs and unmanipulated nest linings significantly and negatively covaried with the rejection rates of different dyed eggs of the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, a frequently parasitized host of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. To experimentally test whether egg-nest contrasts influence rejection, we reciprocally dyed both eggs and the nest lining of this host species with one of two colours: orange and green. Contrary to the egg-nest contrast hypothesis, host rejection patterns in response to dyed eggs were not altered by dyeing nests, relative to unmanipulated control eggs and nests. In turn, experimental egg colour was the only significant predictor of egg rejection rate. Our results demonstrate that egg-nest contrast is a collateral, not a causal factor in egg rejection, and confirm the conclusions of previous studies that hosts can rely on the parasitic egg's appearance itself to recognize the foreign egg in the nest. PMID:26118673

  6. Epidemiological-environmental study of diesel bus garage workers: chronic effects of diesel exhaust on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Minshall, S.

    1987-10-01

    Two hundred and eighty-three (283) male diesel bus garage workers from four garages in two cities were examined to determine if there was excess chronic respiratory morbidity related to diesel exposure. The dependent variables were respiratory symptoms, radiographic interpretation for pneumoconiosis, and pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and flow rates). Independent variables included race, age, smoking, drinking, height, and tenure (as surrogate measure of exposure). Exposure-effect relationships within the study population showed no detectable associations of symptoms with tenure. There was an apparent association of pulmonary function and tenure. Seven workers (2.5%) had category 1 pneumoconiosis (three rounded opacities, two irregular opacities, and one with both rounded and irregular). The study population was also compared to a nonexposed blue-collar population. After indirect adjustment for age, race, and smoking, the study population had elevated prevalences of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but there was no association with tenure. Dyspnea showed a dose-response trend but no apparent increase in prevalence. Mean percent predicted pulmonary function of the study population was greater than 100%, i.e., elevated above the comparison population. These data show there is an apparent effect of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function but not chest radiographs. Respiratory symptoms are high compared to blue-collar workers, but there is no relationship with tenure.

  7. Benchmarking a novel ultrasound-CT fusion system for respiratory motion management in radiotherapy: Assessment of spatio-temporal characteristics and comparison to 4DCT

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, J. A.; Oldham, S. A.

    2008-01-15

    Management of respiratory motion during radiation therapy requires treatment planning and simulation using imaging modalities that possess sufficient spatio-temporal accuracy and precision. An investigation into the use of a novel ultrasound (United States) imaging system for assessment of respiratory motion is presented, exploiting its good soft tissue contrast and temporal precision. The system dynamically superimposes the appropriate image plane sampled from a reference CT data set with the corresponding US B-mode image. An articulating arm is used for spatial registration. While the focus of the study was to quantify the system's ability to track respiratory motion, certain unique spatial calibration procedures were devised that render the software potentially valuable to the general research community. These include direct access to all transformation matrix elements and image scaling factors, a manual latency correction function, and a three-point spatial registration procedure that allows the system to be used in any room possessing a traditional radiotherapy laser localization system. Counter-intuitively, it was discovered that a manual procedure for calibrating certain transformation matrix elements produced superior accuracy to that of an algorithmic Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method. The absolute spatial accuracy was verified by comparing the physical locations of phantom test objects measured using the spatially registered US system, and using data from a 3DCT scan of the phantom as a reference. The spatial accuracy of the display superposition was also tested in a similar manner. The system's dynamic properties were then assessed using three methods. First, the overall system response time was studied using a programmable motion phantom. This included US video update, articulating arm update, CT data set resampling, and image display. The next investigation verified the system's ability to measure the range of motion of a moving anatomical test

  8. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  9. Psittacid Herpesvirus 1 and Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus: Comparative Genome Sequence Analysis of Two Avian Alphaherpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Thureen, Dean R.; Keeler, Calvin L.

    2006-01-01

    Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1) is the causative agent of Pacheco's disease, an acute, highly contagious, and potentially lethal respiratory herpesvirus infection in psittacine birds, while infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is a highly contagious and economically significant avian herpesvirus which is responsible for an acute respiratory disease limited to galliform birds. The complete genome sequence of PsHV-1 has been determined and compared to the ILTV sequence, assembled from published data. The PsHV-1 and ILTV genomes exhibit similar structural characteristics and are 163,025 bp and 148,665 bp in length, respectively. The PsHV-1 genome contains 73 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), while the ILTV genome contains 77 predicted ORFs. Both genomes contain an inversion in the unique long region similar to that observed in pseudorabies virus. PsHV-1 is closely related to ILTV, and it is proposed that it be assigned to the Iltovirus genus. These two avian herpesviruses represent a phylogenetically unique clade of alphaherpesviruses that are distinct from the Marek's disease-like viruses (Mardivirus). The determination of the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of PsHV-1 and ILTV provides a tool for further comparative and functional analysis of this unique class of avian alphaherpesviruses. PMID:16873243

  10. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  11. Intermittent hypoxia promotes recovery of respiratory motor function in spinal cord-injured mice depleted of serotonin in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Komnenov, Dragana; Solarewicz, Julia Z; Afzal, Fareeza; Nantwi, Kwaku D; Kuhn, Donald M; Mateika, Jason H

    2016-08-01

    We examined the effect of repeated daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) on the recovery of respiratory and limb motor function in mice genetically depleted of central nervous system serotonin. Electroencephalography, diaphragm activity, ventilation, core body temperature, and limb mobility were measured in spontaneously breathing wild-type (Tph2(+/+)) and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockout (Tph2(-/-)) mice. Following a C2 hemisection, the mice were exposed daily to IH (i.e., twelve 4-min episodes of 10% oxygen interspersed with 4-min normoxic periods followed by a 90-min end-recovery period) or normoxia (i.e., sham protocol, 21% oxygen) for 10 consecutive days. Diaphragm activity recovered to prehemisection levels in the Tph2(+/+) and Tph2(-/-) mice following exposure to IH but not normoxia [Tph2(+/+) 1.3 ± 0.2 (SE) vs. 0.3 ± 0.2; Tph2(-/-) 1.06 ± 0.1 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1, standardized to prehemisection values, P < 0.01]. Likewise, recovery of tidal volume and breathing frequency was evident, although breathing frequency values did not return to prehemisection levels within the time frame of the protocol. Partial recovery of limb motor function was also evident 2 wk after spinal cord hemisection. However, recovery was not dependent on IH or the presence of serotonin in the central nervous system. We conclude that IH promotes recovery of respiratory function but not basic motor tasks. Moreover, we conclude that spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery of respiratory and motor limb function is not dependent on serotonin in the central nervous system in a mouse model of spinal cord injury. PMID:27402561

  12. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...We are amending the regulations concerning the importation of animals and animal products to prohibit or restrict the importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. We are also adding restrictions concerning importation of live poultry and birds that have been vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza,......

  13. Biology and transmission of avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal-oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

  14. Avian influenza diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) varies by virus strain and host species. The clinical disease and lesions the virus produces in poultry are not pathognomonic for avian influenza; therefore, diagnosis of AI virus (AIV) infection requires a laboratory test. Detection of AIV infecti...

  15. Avian influenza biology and disease transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

  16. Avian influenza: preparedness and response strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is naturally found in wild birds, primarily waterfowl, but the virus may also be found in poultry. In the United States we have a strong passive and active surveillance program for avian influenza in poultry. This includes serologic testing on most flocks that go through the ...

  17. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  18. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination for both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used for countries that have been endemic for avian influenza influenza virus, but stamping out policies are common for countries that are normally free of the disease. Stamping out policies of euthanizing infecte...

  19. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...