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Sample records for avoid dangerous climate

  1. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  2. Communicating the Need to Avoid Dangerous Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kharecha, P. A.; Sato, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe our past, ongoing and planned efforts to communicate the need for humanity to avoid dangerous climate change. Communications with governments have been largely fruitless, with substantial indication that governments are more disposed to be responsive to financial interests rather than scientific information. Communication with the public is essential to create pressure on governments for appropriate policies, but it is made difficult by the massive resources of the fossil fuel industry. Communication with influential individuals can be effective in reaching both governments and the public.

  3. Climate-society feedbacks and the avoidance of dangerous climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, A. J.; Leedal, D. T.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2012-09-01

    The growth in anthropogenic CO2 emissions experienced since the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important disturbance operating on the Earth's climate system. To avoid dangerous climate change, future greenhouse-gas emissions will have to deviate from business-as-usual trajectories. This implies that feedback links need to exist between climate change and societal actions. Here, we show that, consciously or otherwise, these feedbacks can be represented by linking global mean temperature change to the growth dynamics of CO2 emissions. We show that the global growth of new renewable sources of energy post-1990 represents a climate-society feedback of ~0.25%yr-1 per degree increase in global mean temperature. We also show that to fulfil the outcomes negotiated in Durban in 2011, society will have to become ~ 50 times more responsive to global mean temperature change than it has been since 1990. If global energy use continues to grow as it has done historically then this would result in amplification of the long-term endogenous rate of decarbonization from -0.6%yr-1 to ~-13%yr-1. It is apparent that modest levels of feedback sensitivity pay large dividends in avoiding climate change but that the marginal return on this effort diminishes rapidly as the required feedback strength increases.

  4. On avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system: Formidable challenges ahead

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The observed increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) since the preindustrial era has most likely committed the world to a warming of 2.4°C (1.4°C to 4.3°C) above the preindustrial surface temperatures. The committed warming is inferred from the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates of the greenhouse forcing and climate sensitivity. The estimated warming of 2.4°C is the equilibrium warming above preindustrial temperatures that the world will observe even if GHG concentrations are held fixed at their 2005 concentration levels but without any other anthropogenic forcing such as the cooling effect of aerosols. The range of 1.4°C to 4.3°C in the committed warming overlaps and surpasses the currently perceived threshold range of 1°C to 3°C for dangerous anthropogenic interference with many of the climate-tipping elements such as the summer arctic sea ice, Himalayan–Tibetan glaciers, and the Greenland Ice Sheet. IPCC models suggest that ≈25% (0.6°C) of the committed warming has been realized as of now. About 90% or more of the rest of the committed warming of 1.6°C will unfold during the 21st century, determined by the rate of the unmasking of the aerosol cooling effect by air pollution abatement laws and by the rate of release of the GHGs-forcing stored in the oceans. The accompanying sea-level rise can continue for more than several centuries. Lastly, even the most aggressive CO2 mitigation steps as envisioned now can only limit further additions to the committed warming, but not reduce the already committed GHGs warming of 2.4°C. PMID:18799733

  5. Java Climate Model: a tool for interaction between science, policy and citizens, to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, B.

    2003-04-01

    To reach an effective global agreement to help avoid "dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system" (UNFCCC article 2) we must balance many complex interacting issues, and also inspire the active engagement of citizens around the world. So we have to transfer understanding back from computers and experts, into the ultimate "integrated assessment model" which remains the global network of human heads. The Java Climate Model (JCM) tries to help provide a quantitative framework for this global dialogue, by enabling anybody to explore many mitigation policy options and scientific uncertainties simply by adjusting parameter controls with a mouse in a web browser. The instant response on linked plots helps to demonstrate cause and effect, and the sensitivity to various assumptions, risk and value judgements. JCM implements the same simple models and formulae as used by IPCC for the TAR projections, in efficient modular structure, including carbon cycle and atmospheric chemistry, radiative forcing, changes in temperature and sealevel, including some feedbacks. As well as explore the SRES scenarios, the user can create a wide variety of inverse scenarios for stabilising CO2, forcing, or temperature. People ask how local emissions which they can control, may influence the vast global natural and human systems, and change local climate impacts which affect them directly. JCM includes regional emissions and socioeconomic data, and scaled climate impact maps. However to complete this loop in a fast interactive model is a challenge! For transparency and accessibility, pop-up information is provided in ten languages, and documentation ranges from key cross-cutting questions, to them details of the model formulae, including all source code.

  6. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  7. The Feasibility of Avoiding Future Climate Impacts: Results from the AVOID Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, J. A.; Warren, R.; Arnell, N.; Buckle, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AVOID programme and its successor, AVOID2, have focused on answering three core questions: how do we characterise potentially dangerous climate change and impacts, which emissions pathways can avoid at least some of these impacts, and how feasible are the future reductions needed to significantly deviate from a business-as-usual future emissions pathway. The first AVOID project succeeded in providing the UK Government with evidence to inform its position on climate change. A key part of the work involved developing a range of global emissions pathways and estimating and understanding the corresponding global impacts. This made use of a combination of complex general circulation models, simple climate models, pattern-scaling and state-of-the art impacts models. The results characterise the range of avoidable impacts across the globe in several key sectors including river and coastal flooding, cooling and heating energy demand, crop productivity and aspects of biodiversity. The avoided impacts between a scenario compatible with a 4ºC global warming and one with a 2ºC global warming were found to be highly sector dependent and avoided fractions typically ranged between 20% and 70%. A further key aspect was characterising the magnitude of the uncertainty involved, which is found to be very large in some impact sectors although the avoided fraction appears a more robust metric. The AVOID2 programme began in 2014 and will provide results in the run up to the Paris CoP in 2015. This includes new post-IPCC 5th assessment evidence to inform the long-term climate goal, a more comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty ranges of feasible emission pathways compatible with the long-term goal and enhanced estimates of global impacts using the latest generation of impact models and scenarios.

  8. Kamikazes: youth serving youth in a dangerous climate. Algeria.

    PubMed

    Gataa, R

    1995-01-01

    The Algerian Family Planning Association (FPA) launched its youth project in July 1993 in Oran. The first project of its kind in the Arab world, members call themselves Kamikazes in recognition of the hostile climate they face. The project's goal was to deal with social, cultural, and health problems. They also designed the project's logo, a cartoon booklet on the dangers of AIDS, and a T-shirt for members to wear. They based their activities in the local government-run information center. Between 15 and 25 years old, from a wide variety of social backgrounds, the young people drew up a list of common problems: drugs, alcohol, smoking, relationships with the opposite sex, abortion, contraception, sex education, AIDS, homosexuality, unemployment, the lack of clubs for young people, delinquency, lack of communication between parents and children, the repression of women, the lack of popular entertainment for young people, and the shortage of books. This project now is to be extended to Algiers and other cities. Over an 8-month period, the committee received instruction in contraception and combatting drug addition, participated in a workshop on empowerment and self esteem, and were trained in role-playing techniques. In their first 18 months of existence, the Kamikazes in Oran have succeeded in involving over 1000 of their peers. They have had particular success in reaching teenagers in secondary schools. One of the most valuable aspects of the project has been the sessions held with gynecologists and psychologists on sexual development, relationships between the sexes, and the avoidance of unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases. The success of the Oran Kamikaze project bodes well for the extension of the project to other parts of Algeria and indeed to some other countries of the Arab world. PMID:12319368

  9. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, James D.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions—one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  10. Beyond 'dangerous' climate change: emission scenarios for a new world.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin; Bows, Alice

    2011-01-13

    The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community's commitment to 'hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius'. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a cumulative emissions framing, broken down to Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations, to understand the implications of rapid emission growth in nations such as China and India, for mitigation rates elsewhere. The analysis suggests that despite high-level statements to the contrary, there is now little to no chance of maintaining the global mean surface temperature at or below 2°C. Moreover, the impacts associated with 2°C have been revised upwards, sufficiently so that 2°C now more appropriately represents the threshold between 'dangerous' and 'extremely dangerous' climate change. Ultimately, the science of climate change allied with the emission scenarios for Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations suggests a radically different framing of the mitigation and adaptation challenge from that accompanying many other analyses, particularly those directly informing policy. PMID:21115511

  11. PERSPECTIVE: On the verge of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegler, Elmar

    2007-03-01

    threshold'. The nexus of climate policy is inevitably global since our interference with the climate system is determined by the sum total of greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we are living in a highly interconnected world, and it would be foolish not to take global patterns of drivers and impacts of climate change into account. Finally, some may find the assumption of a harm threshold at odds with a cost benefit approach, since the latter implies trading off avoided climate damage with the costs of mitigation measures. However, even if such a trade-off is made, harm thresholds will occur if damage rises sharply beyond some critical amount of climate change. A look into the climate history will convince us that this is not a far-fetched idea. Climate changes in the past have often exhibited highly non-linear behaviour (see figure 1). Although the paleoclimatic record does not provide a perfect analogue to the current situation, it offers little comfort that abrupt climate change in response to our massive and rapid increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations might not happen in the future. Consequently, cost benefit analyses accounting for the prospect of dangerous climate change have surfaced in recent years (e.g. Keller et al [6]). In addition, society has been prepared to set thresholds, e.g., to limit exposure to contaminants, even in situations where no clear jump in damage could be identified. And often such identification of thresholds was aided by cost benefit analysis (e.g. Gurian et al [7]). Is it appropriate to offer a deep time perspective on climate change such as presented in figure 1 in a discussion of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference'? Yes, because the magnitude of the anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle forces us to go back far into the past, if we want to look for clues of what might happen in the future. Certainly, some of the climate changes reflected in figure 1 are a result of volcanism and continental drift, in particular the

  12. Remaining Safe and Avoiding Dangers Online: A Social Media Q&A with Kimberly Mitchell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The news media is often full of stories about the dangers of social media, including such concerns as cyberbullying and sexting. In this article, Kimberly Mitchell, a researcher noted for her experience on youth internet victimization, answers questions about the risks of social media and how we can keep youth safe online. Questions in this Q&A…

  13. Associative learning for danger avoidance nullifies innate positive chemotaxis to host olfactory stimuli in a parasitic wasp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare; Giunti, Giulia; Geri, Serena; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    Animals rely on associative learning for a wide range of purposes, including danger avoidance. This has been demonstrated for several insects, including cockroaches, mosquitoes, drosophilid flies, paper wasps, stingless bees, bumblebees and honeybees, but less is known for parasitic wasps. We tested the ability of Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) females to associate different dosages of two innately attractive host-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), ethyl octanoate and decanal, with danger (electric shocks). We conducted an associative treatment involving odours and shocks and two non-associative controls involving shocks but not odours and odours but not shocks. In shock-only and odour-only trained wasps, females preferred on HIPV-treated than on blank discs. In associative-trained wasps, however, P. concolor's innate positive chemotaxis for HIPVs was nullified (lowest HIPV dosage tested) or reversed (highest HIPV dosage tested). This is the first report of associative learning of olfactory cues for danger avoidance in parasitic wasps, showing that the effects of learning can override innate positive chemotaxes.

  14. Associative learning for danger avoidance nullifies innate positive chemotaxis to host olfactory stimuli in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare; Giunti, Giulia; Geri, Serena; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    Animals rely on associative learning for a wide range of purposes, including danger avoidance. This has been demonstrated for several insects, including cockroaches, mosquitoes, drosophilid flies, paper wasps, stingless bees, bumblebees and honeybees, but less is known for parasitic wasps. We tested the ability of Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) females to associate different dosages of two innately attractive host-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), ethyl octanoate and decanal, with danger (electric shocks). We conducted an associative treatment involving odours and shocks and two non-associative controls involving shocks but not odours and odours but not shocks. In shock-only and odour-only trained wasps, females preferred on HIPV-treated than on blank discs. In associative-trained wasps, however, P. concolor's innate positive chemotaxis for HIPVs was nullified (lowest HIPV dosage tested) or reversed (highest HIPV dosage tested). This is the first report of associative learning of olfactory cues for danger avoidance in parasitic wasps, showing that the effects of learning can override innate positive chemotaxes. PMID:25008388

  15. Can a Human-Induced Climate Disaster be Avoided?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, R.

    2012-12-01

    to achieve the 2oC goal agreed by Ministers in Copenhagen, Cancun and Durban does not exist. Indeed, the US has argued that this goal will actually inhibit national action while politicians argue about how to achieve such a global goal. If we are to avoid dangerous anthropogenic climate change, the time to act is now, given the inertia in the socio-economic system, and that the adverse effects of climate change cannot be reversed for centuries or are irreversible (for example, climate-induced species loss). We know enough to act, but the current scientific uncertainties, means that we are facing a problem of risk management on an immense scale. Failure to act will impoverish current and future generations.

  16. How much climate change can be avoided by mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, Warren M.; Knutti, Reto; Meehl, Gerald A.; Teng, Haiyan; Tebaldi, Claudia; Lawrence, David; Buja, Lawrence; Strand, Warren G.

    2009-04-01

    Avoiding the most serious climate change impacts will require informed policy decisions. This in turn will require information regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions required to stabilize climate in a state not too much warmer than today. A new low emission scenario is simulated in a global climate model to show how some of the impacts from climate change can be averted through mitigation. Compared to a non-intervention reference scenario, emission reductions of about 70% by 2100 are required to prevent roughly half the change in temperature and precipitation that would otherwise occur. By 2100, the resulting stabilized global climate would ensure preservation of considerable Arctic sea ice and permafrost areas. Future heat waves would be 55% less intense, and sea level rise from thermal expansion would be about 57% lower than if a non-mitigation scenario was followed.

  17. Living with climate change: avoiding conflict through adaptation in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørstad, H.; Webersik, C.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, research on climate change and human security has received much attention among policy makers and academia alike. Communities in the Global South that rely on an intact resource base will especially be affected by predicted changes in temperature and precipitation. The objective of this article is to better understand under what conditions local communities can adapt to anticipated impacts of climate change and avoid conflict over the loss of resources. The empirical part of the paper answers the question to what extent local communities in the Chilwa Basin in Malawi have experienced climate change and how they are affected by it. Further, it assesses one of Malawi's adaptation projects designed to build resilience to a warmer and more variable climate, and points to some of its limitations. This research shows that not all adaptation strategies are suited to cope with a warmer and more variable climate.

  18. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Driscoll, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies ‘reduction’ and ‘resilience’, ‘denying’, ‘ignoring’ and ‘postponing’. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty.

  19. Neuronal interactions in areas of spatial attention reflect avoidance of disgust, but orienting to danger.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Ulrike; Höfler, Margit; Koschutnig, Karl; Ischebeck, Anja

    2016-07-01

    For survival, it is necessary to attend quickly towards dangerous objects, but to turn away from something that is disgusting. We tested whether fear and disgust sounds direct spatial attention differently. Using fMRI, a sound cue (disgust, fear or neutral) was presented to the left or right ear. The cue was followed by a visual target (a small arrow) which was located on the same (valid) or opposite (invalid) side as the cue. Participants were required to decide whether the arrow pointed up- or downwards while ignoring the sound cue. Behaviorally, responses were faster for invalid compared to valid targets when cued by disgust, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for targets after fearful and neutral sound cues. During target presentation, activity in the visual cortex and IPL increased for targets invalidly cued with disgust, but for targets validly cued with fear which indicated a general modulation of activation due to attention. For the TPJ, an interaction in the opposite direction was observed, consistent with its role in detecting targets at unattended positions and in relocating attention. As a whole our results indicate that a disgusting sound directs spatial attention away from its location, in contrast to fearful and neutral sounds. PMID:27039145

  20. Static and Dynamic Factors Limit Chromosomal Replication Complexity in Escherichia coli, Avoiding Dangers of Runaway Overreplication.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharik R; Mahaseth, Tulip; Kouzminova, Elena A; Cronan, Glen E; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    We define chromosomal replication complexity (CRC) as the ratio of the copy number of the most replicated regions to that of unreplicated regions on the same chromosome. Although a typical CRC of eukaryotic or bacterial chromosomes is 2, rapidly growing Escherichia coli cells induce an extra round of replication in their chromosomes (CRC = 4). There are also E. coli mutants with stable CRC∼6. We have investigated the limits and consequences of elevated CRC in E. coli and found three limits: the "natural" CRC limit of ∼8 (cells divide more slowly); the "functional" CRC limit of ∼22 (cells divide extremely slowly); and the "tolerance" CRC limit of ∼64 (cells stop dividing). While the natural limit is likely maintained by the eclipse system spacing replication initiations, the functional limit might reflect the capacity of the chromosome segregation system, rather than dedicated mechanisms, and the tolerance limit may result from titration of limiting replication factors. Whereas recombinational repair is beneficial for cells at the natural and functional CRC limits, we show that it becomes detrimental at the tolerance CRC limit, suggesting recombinational misrepair during the runaway overreplication and giving a rationale for avoidance of the latter. PMID:26801182

  1. Avoiding Drought Risks and Social Conflict Under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towler, E.; Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional drought research has mainly focused on physical drought risks and less on the cultural processes that also contribute to how drought risks are perceived and managed. However, as society becomes more vulnerable to drought and climate change threatens to increase water scarcity, it is clear that drought research would benefit from a more interdisciplinary approach. To assess avoided drought impacts from reduced climate change, drought risks need to be assessed in the context of both climate prediction as well as improved understanding of socio-cultural processes. To this end, this study explores a risk-based framework to combine physical drought likelihoods with perceived risks from stakeholder interviews. Results are presented from a case study on how stakeholders in south-central Oklahoma perceive drought risks given diverse cultural beliefs, water uses, and uncertainties in future drought prediction. Stakeholder interviews (n=38) were conducted in 2012 to understand drought risks to various uses of water, as well as to measure worldviews from the cultural theory of risk - a theory that explains why people perceive risks differently, potentially leading to conflict over management decisions. For physical drought risk, drought projections are derived from a large ensemble of future climates generated from two RCPs that represent higher and lower emissions trajectories (i.e., RCP8.5 and RCP4.5). These are used to develop a Combined Drought Risk Matrix (CDRM) that characterizes drought risks for different water uses as the products of both physical likelihood (from the climate ensemble) and risk perception (from the interviews). We use the CRDM to explore the avoided drought risks posed to various water uses, as well as to investigate the potential for reduction of conflict over water management.

  2. The collective-risk social dilemma and the prevention of simulated dangerous climate change.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred; Sommerfeld, Ralf D; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen; Reed, Floyd A; Marotzke, Jochem

    2008-02-19

    Will a group of people reach a collective target through individual contributions when everyone suffers individually if the target is missed? This "collective-risk social dilemma" exists in various social scenarios, the globally most challenging one being the prevention of dangerous climate change. Reaching the collective target requires individual sacrifice, with benefits to all but no guarantee that others will also contribute. It even seems tempting to contribute less and save money to induce others to contribute more, hence the dilemma and the risk of failure. Here, we introduce the collective-risk social dilemma and simulate it in a controlled experiment: Will a group of people reach a fixed target sum through successive monetary contributions, when they know they will lose all their remaining money with a certain probability if they fail to reach the target sum? We find that, under high risk of simulated dangerous climate change, half of the groups succeed in reaching the target sum, whereas the others only marginally fail. When the risk of loss is only as high as the necessary average investment or even lower, the groups generally fail to reach the target sum. We conclude that one possible strategy to relieve the collective-risk dilemma in high-risk situations is to convince people that failure to invest enough is very likely to cause grave financial loss to the individual. Our analysis describes the social window humankind has to prevent dangerous climate change. PMID:18287081

  3. The 2003 heat wave in France: dangerous climate change here and now.

    PubMed

    Poumadère, Marc; Mays, Claire; Le Mer, Sophie; Blong, Russell

    2005-12-01

    In an analysis of the French episode of heat wave in 2003, this article highlights how heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors. Unusually high temperatures, as well as socioeconomic vulnerability, along with social attenuation of hazards, in a general context where the anthropogenic contribution to climate change is becoming more plausible, led to an excess of 14,947 deaths in France, between August 4 and 18, 2003. The greatest increase in mortality was due to causes directly attributable to heat: dehydration, hyperthermia, heat stroke. In addition to age and gender, combinatorial factors included preexisting disease, medication, urban residence, isolation, poverty, and, probably, air pollution. Although diversely impacted or reported, many parts of Europe suffered human and other losses, such as farming and forestry through drought and fires. Summer 2003 was the hottest in Europe since 1500, very likely due in part to anthropogenic climate change. The French experience confirms research establishing that heat waves are a major mortal risk, number one among so-called natural hazards in postindustrial societies. Yet France had no policy in place, as if dangerous climate were restricted to a distant or uncertain future of climate change, or to preindustrial countries. We analyze the heat wave's profile as a strongly attenuated risk in the French context, as well as the causes and the effects of its sudden shift into amplification. Research and preparedness needs are highlighted. PMID:16506977

  4. Climate-induced variations in global wildfire danger from 1979 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Freeborn, Patrick H.; Holden, Zachary A.; Brown, Timothy J.; Williamson, Grant J.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-07-01

    Climate strongly influences global wildfire activity, and recent wildfire surges may signal fire weather-induced pyrogeographic shifts. Here we use three daily global climate data sets and three fire danger indices to develop a simple annual metric of fire weather season length, and map spatio-temporal trends from 1979 to 2013. We show that fire weather seasons have lengthened across 29.6 million km2 (25.3%) of the Earth's vegetated surface, resulting in an 18.7% increase in global mean fire weather season length. We also show a doubling (108.1% increase) of global burnable area affected by long fire weather seasons (>1.0 σ above the historical mean) and an increased global frequency of long fire weather seasons across 62.4 million km2 (53.4%) during the second half of the study period. If these fire weather changes are coupled with ignition sources and available fuel, they could markedly impact global ecosystems, societies, economies and climate.

  5. Climate-induced variations in global wildfire danger from 1979 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Freeborn, Patrick H.; Holden, Zachary A.; Brown, Timothy J.; Williamson, Grant J.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Climate strongly influences global wildfire activity, and recent wildfire surges may signal fire weather-induced pyrogeographic shifts. Here we use three daily global climate data sets and three fire danger indices to develop a simple annual metric of fire weather season length, and map spatio-temporal trends from 1979 to 2013. We show that fire weather seasons have lengthened across 29.6 million km2 (25.3%) of the Earth's vegetated surface, resulting in an 18.7% increase in global mean fire weather season length. We also show a doubling (108.1% increase) of global burnable area affected by long fire weather seasons (>1.0 σ above the historical mean) and an increased global frequency of long fire weather seasons across 62.4 million km2 (53.4%) during the second half of the study period. If these fire weather changes are coupled with ignition sources and available fuel, they could markedly impact global ecosystems, societies, economies and climate. PMID:26172867

  6. Fiddling with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    Composer and string musician, turned award-winning environmentalist, Aubrey Meyer tells Nature Climate Change why he is campaigning for countries to adopt his 'contraction and convergence' model of global development to avoid dangerous climate change.

  7. Carbon-Neutral Energy Supply and Energy Demand-Reduction Technology Needed for Continued Economic Growth Without Dangerous Interference in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at levels likely to avoid unacceptable climate risk will require a major transformation in the ways we produce and use energy. Most of our energy will need to come from sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and that energy will need to be used efficiently. The required reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as global energy consumption and GDP grow imposes quantitative requirements on some combination of carbon-neutral primary power and energy demand reduction. (Emission reductions are expressed relative to an implicit or explicit baseline; explicit being better for policy-making. Energy demand reduction involves both efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes.) These requirements can be expressed as CO2 emission reductions needed, or as carbon-neutral primary power production needed combined with power not used by virtue of increased energy end use efficiency or lifestyle changes ("negawatts"), always subject to some reasonably well-characterized uncertainty limits. Climatic changes thus far have been closer to the more extreme zone of the climatic uncertainty envelope of global warming indicating the potential for disastrous impacts by mid-century and beyond for business-as-usual. Emission reductions needed to avoid "dangerous interference in the climate system" imply a revolutionary change in the global energy system beginning now; particularly ominous are massive conventional coal-fired electric power energy infrastructures under construction by the US, China & India. Strong arguments, based on physical science considerations, exist for prompt measures such as (1) an immediate moratorium on coal-fired plants that don't sequester CO2, (2) a gradually increasing price on carbon emissions and (3) regulatory standards, for example, that would encourage utilities and car manufacturers to improve efficiency, and (4) Apollo-scale R & D projects beginning now to develop sustainable carbon-neutral power that can be

  8. Quantifying the Benefit of Early Climate Change Mitigation in Avoiding Biodiversity Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, R.; Vanderwal, J.; Price, J.; Welbergen, J.; Atkinson, I. M.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Osborn, T.; Shoo, L.; Jarvis, A.; Williams, S.; Lowe, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative simulations of the global-scale benefits of climate change mitigation in avoiding biodiversity loss are presented. Previous studies have projected widespread global and regional impacts of climate change on biodiversity. However, these have focused on analysis of business-as-usual scenarios, with no explicit mitigation policy included. This study finds that early, stringent mitigation would avoid a large proportion of the impacts of climate change induced biodiversity loss projected for the 2080s. Furthermore, despite the large number of studies addressing extinction risks in particular species groups, few studies have explored the issue of potential range loss in common and widespread species. Our study is a comprehensive global scale analysis of 48,786 common and widespread species. We show that without climate change mitigation, 57+/-6% of the plants and 34+/-7% of the animals studied are likely to lose over 50% of their present climatic range by the 2080s. This estimate incorporates realistic, taxon-specific dispersal rates. With stringent mitigation, in which emissions peak in 2016 and are reduced by 5% annually thereafter, these losses are reduced by 60%. Furthermore, with stringent mitigation, global temperature rises more slowly, allowing an additional three decades for biodiversity to adapt to a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels. The work also shows that even with mitigation not all the impacts can now be avoided, and ecosystems and biodiversity generally has a very limited capacity to adapt. Delay in mitigation substantially reduces the percentage of impacts that can be avoided, for example if emissions do not peak until 2030, the percentage of losses that can be avoided declines to 40%. Since even small declines in common and widespread species can disrupt ecosystem function and services, these results indicate that without mitigation, globally widespread losses in ecosystem service provision are to be expected.

  9. Dangers of using global bioclimatic datasets for ecological niche modeling. Limitations for future climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedia, Joaquín; Herrera, Sixto; Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Global bioclimatic datasets are being widely used in ecological research to estimate the potential distribution of species using Climate Envelope Models (CEMs). These datasets are easily available and offer high resolution information for all land areas globally. However, they have not been tested rigorously in smaller regions, and their use in regional CEM studies may pose problems derived from their poor representation of local climate features. Moreover, these problems may be enhanced when using CEMs for future climate projections—a topic of current active research—due to the uncertainty derived from the future altered climate scenarios.

  10. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  11. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  12. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  13. A new large initial condition ensemble to assess avoided impacts in a climate mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, B. M.; Tebaldi, C.; Knutti, R.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that when considering timescales of up to 50 years, natural variability may play an equal role to anthropogenic forcing on subcontinental trends for a variety of climate indicators. Thus, for many questions assessing climate impacts on such time and spatial scales, it has become clear that a significant number of ensemble members may be required to produce robust statistics (and especially so for extreme events). However, large ensemble experiments to date have considered the role of variability in a single scenario, leaving uncertain the relationship between the forced climate trajectory and the variability about that path. To address this issue, we present a new, publicly available, 15 member initial condition ensemble of 21st century climate projections for the RCP 4.5 scenario using the CESM1.1 Earth System Model, which we propose as a companion project to the existing 40 member CESM large ensemble which uses the higher greenhouse gas emission future of RCP8.5. This provides a valuable data set for assessing what societal and ecological impacts might be avoided through a moderate mitigation strategy in contrast to a fossil fuel intensive future. We present some early analyses of these combined ensembles to assess to what degree the climate variability can be considered to combine linearly with the underlying forced response. In regions where there is no detectable relationship between the mean state and the variability about the mean trajectory, then linear assumptions can be trivially exploited to utilize a single ensemble or control simulation to characterize the variability in any scenario of interest. We highlight regions where there is a detectable nonlinearity in extreme event frequency, how far in the future they will be manifested and propose mechanisms to account for these effects.

  14. Inequality, communication, and the avoidance of disastrous climate change in a public goods game.

    PubMed

    Tavoni, Alessandro; Dannenberg, Astrid; Kallis, Giorgos; Löschel, Andreas

    2011-07-19

    International efforts to provide global public goods often face the challenges of coordinating national contributions and distributing costs equitably in the face of uncertainty, inequality, and free-riding incentives. In an experimental setting, we distribute endowments unequally among a group of people who can reach a fixed target sum through successive money contributions, knowing that if they fail, they will lose all their remaining money with 50% probability. In some treatments, we give players the option to communicate intended contributions. We find that inequality reduces the prospects of reaching the target but that communication increases success dramatically. Successful groups tend to eliminate inequality over the course of the game, with rich players signaling willingness to redistribute early on. Our results suggest that coordination-promoting institutions and early redistribution from richer to poorer nations are both decisive for the avoidance of global calamities, such as disruptive climate change. PMID:21730154

  15. U.S. Air Quality and Health Benefits from Avoided Climate Change under Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Saari, Rebecca K; Monier, Erwan; Selin, Noelle E

    2015-07-01

    We evaluate the impact of climate change on U.S. air quality and health in 2050 and 2100 using a global modeling framework and integrated economic, climate, and air pollution projections. Three internally consistent socioeconomic scenarios are used to value health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation policies specifically derived from slowing climate change. Our projections suggest that climate change, exclusive of changes in air pollutant emissions, can significantly impact ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution across the U.S. and increase associated health effects. Climate policy can substantially reduce these impacts, and climate-related air pollution health benefits alone can offset a significant fraction of mitigation costs. We find that in contrast to cobenefits from reductions to coemitted pollutants, the climate-induced air quality benefits of policy increase with time and are largest between 2050 and 2100. Our projections also suggest that increasing climate policy stringency beyond a certain degree may lead to diminishing returns relative to its cost. However, our results indicate that the air quality impacts of climate change are substantial and should be considered by cost-benefit climate policy analyses. PMID:26053628

  16. World-avoided simulation using a fully coupled climate-chemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is used to study theresponse of the ozone layer and tropospheric climate to continued emissions of chlorine and bromine-containing compounds, such as were envisaged before the adoption of the Montreal Protocol in 1987. The simulation is carried out using a version of WACCM coupled to a deep ocean model, which makes it possible to examine, not only the response of stratospheric composition and temperature, but also the response of tropospheric climate.

  17. Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance and Perceptions of Group Climate: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research examining group members' attachment styles and group climate perceptions in the context of the attachment styles and group climate perceptions of the other group members. In the current study, the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to examine the relationships among (a) a group member's attachment…

  18. Climate reconstructions of the NH mean temperature: Can underestimation of trends and variability be avoided?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bo

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge about the climate in the period before instrumental records are available is based on climate proxies obtained from tree-rings, sediments, ice-cores etc. Reconstructing the climate from such proxies is therefore necessary for studies of climate variability and for placing recent climate change into a longer term perspective. More than a decade ago pioneering attempts at using a multi-proxy dataset to reconstruct the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean temperature resulted in the much published "hockey-stick"; a NH mean temperature that did not vary much before the rapid increase in the last century. Subsequent reconstructions show some differences but the overall "hockey-stick" structure seems to be a persistent feature However, there has been an increasing awareness of the fact that the applied reconstruction methods underestimate the low-frequency variability and trends. The recognition of the inadequacies of the reconstruction methods has to a large degree originated from pseudo-proxy studies, i.e., from long climate model experiments where artificial proxies have been generated and reconstructions based on these have been compared to the known model climate. It has also been found that reconstructions contain a large element of stochasticity which is revealed as broad distributions of skills. This means that it is very difficult to draw conclusions from a single or a few realizations. Climate reconstruction methods are based on variants of linear regression models relating temperatures and proxies. In this contribution we review some of the theory of linear regression and error-in-variables models to identify the sources of the underestimation of variability. Based on the gained insight we formulate a reconstruction method supposed to minimize this underestimation. The method is tested by applying it to an ensemble of surrogate temperature fields based on two climate simulations covering the last 500 and 1000 years. Compared to the RegEM TTLS method and a

  19. Avoided heat-related mortality through climate adaptation strategies in three US cities.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Habeeb, Dana; DeLucia, Anthony; Trail, Marcus; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2014-01-01

    Heat-related mortality in US cities is expected to more than double by the mid-to-late 21st century. Rising heat exposure in cities is projected to result from: 1) climate forcings from changing global atmospheric composition; and 2) local land surface characteristics responsible for the urban heat island effect. The extent to which heat management strategies designed to lessen the urban heat island effect could offset future heat-related mortality remains unexplored in the literature. Using coupled global and regional climate models with a human health effects model, we estimate changes in the number of heat-related deaths in 2050 resulting from modifications to vegetative cover and surface albedo across three climatically and demographically diverse US metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Employing separate health impact functions for average warm season and heat wave conditions in 2050, we find combinations of vegetation and albedo enhancement to offset projected increases in heat-related mortality by 40 to 99% across the three metropolitan regions. These results demonstrate the potential for extensive land surface changes in cities to provide adaptive benefits to urban populations at risk for rising heat exposure with climate change. PMID:24964213

  20. Quantifying the benefit of early climate change mitigation in avoiding biodiversity loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, R.; Vanderwal, J.; Price, J.; Welbergen, J. A.; Atkinson, I.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Osborn, T. J.; Jarvis, A.; Shoo, L. P.; Williams, S. E.; Lowe, J.

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant influences on terrestrial biodiversity at all system levels, including species-level reductions in range size and abundance, especially amongst endemic species. However, little is known about how mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions could reduce biodiversity impacts, particularly amongst common and widespread species. Our global analysis of future climatic range change of common and widespread species shows that without mitigation, 57+/-6% of plants and 34+/-7% of animals are likely to lose >=50% of their present climatic range by the 2080s. With mitigation, however, losses are reduced by 60% if emissions peak in 2016 or 40% if emissions peak in 2030. Thus, our analyses indicate that without mitigation, large range contractions can be expected even amongst common and widespread species, amounting to a substantial global reduction in biodiversity and ecosystem services by the end of this century. Prompt and stringent mitigation, on the other hand, could substantially reduce range losses and buy up to four decades for climate change adaptation.

  1. Avoided Heat-Related Mortality through Climate Adaptation Strategies in Three US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Habeeb, Dana; DeLucia, Anthony; Trail, Marcus; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2014-01-01

    Heat-related mortality in US cities is expected to more than double by the mid-to-late 21st century. Rising heat exposure in cities is projected to result from: 1) climate forcings from changing global atmospheric composition; and 2) local land surface characteristics responsible for the urban heat island effect. The extent to which heat management strategies designed to lessen the urban heat island effect could offset future heat-related mortality remains unexplored in the literature. Using coupled global and regional climate models with a human health effects model, we estimate changes in the number of heat-related deaths in 2050 resulting from modifications to vegetative cover and surface albedo across three climatically and demographically diverse US metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Employing separate health impact functions for average warm season and heat wave conditions in 2050, we find combinations of vegetation and albedo enhancement to offset projected increases in heat-related mortality by 40 to 99% across the three metropolitan regions. These results demonstrate the potential for extensive land surface changes in cities to provide adaptive benefits to urban populations at risk for rising heat exposure with climate change. PMID:24964213

  2. [Dangerous aquaria].

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mitrus, Małgorzata; Targosz, Dorota; Gwiazdowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    World trends for a home breeding of exotic freshwater and marine fishes did not miss Poland. There are almost all species of aquarium fishes available in Polish pet shops, but there is not enough information about threat given to customers. In some fish, there are masses of one-cell glands, mainly serous, in the proximity of the spines. In others, those one-cell glands may be grouped in larger aggregates of cells called venom glands, that may form organs resembling multicellular glands of terrestrial animals. They are usually located around the spines or hard rays of the fins. Even if covered with a connective tissue sheath, the aggregates of the venom cells do not have any common outlet; they are not, therefore, proper multicellular glands. The venom glands of the catfish are covered with a thin sheath and they release their contents when the fin ray is pressed. Spines are derived from fin rays. When the spine penetrates the body of its prey, it presses its base against the cells, squashes them and squeezes the venomous contents into the wound. Catfish, lionfish and stonefish have the venom glands producing secretion which could be dangerous. The eels and morays blood is also dangerous, as well as slime of reduced squamae. Poison information centers noted several cases of fishes' stings in Poland. PMID:16225137

  3. Headaches - danger signs

    MedlinePlus

    Migraine headache - danger signs; Tension headache - danger signs; Cluster headache - danger signs; Vascular headache - danger signs ... and bleeding in the brain can cause a headache. These problems include: Abnormal connection between the arteries ...

  4. Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 °C global warming is highly dangerous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Hearty, P.; Ruedy, R.; Kelley, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Russell, G.; Tselioudis, G.; Cao, J.; Rignot, E.; Velicogna, I.; Kandiano, E.; von Schuckmann, K.; Kharecha, P.; Legrande, A. N.; Bauer, M.; Lo, K.-W.

    2015-07-01

    There is evidence of ice melt, sea level rise to +5-9 m, and extreme storms in the prior interglacial period that was less than 1 °C warmer than today. Human-made climate forcing is stronger and more rapid than paleo forcings, but much can be learned by combining insights from paleoclimate, climate modeling, and on-going observations. We argue that ice sheets in contact with the ocean are vulnerable to non-linear disintegration in response to ocean warming, and we posit that ice sheet mass loss can be approximated by a doubling time up to sea level rise of at least several meters. Doubling times of 10, 20 or 40 years yield sea level rise of several meters in 50, 100 or 200 years. Paleoclimate data reveal that subsurface ocean warming causes ice shelf melt and ice sheet discharge. Our climate model exposes amplifying feedbacks in the Southern Ocean that slow Antarctic bottom water formation and increase ocean temperature near ice shelf grounding lines, while cooling the surface ocean and increasing sea ice cover and water column stability. Ocean surface cooling, in the North Atlantic as well as the Southern Ocean, increases tropospheric horizontal temperature gradients, eddy kinetic energy and baroclinicity, which drive more powerful storms. We focus attention on the Southern Ocean's role in affecting atmospheric CO2 amount, which in turn is a tight control knob on global climate. The millennial (500-2000 year) time scale of deep ocean ventilation affects the time scale for natural CO2 change, thus the time scale for paleo global climate, ice sheet and sea level changes. This millennial carbon cycle time scale should not be misinterpreted as the ice sheet time scale for response to a rapid human-made climate forcing. Recent ice sheet melt rates have a doubling time near the lower end of the 10-40 year range. We conclude that 2 °C global warming above the preindustrial level, which would spur more ice shelf melt, is highly dangerous. Earth's energy imbalance, which

  5. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  6. Local agriculture traditional knowledge to avoid erosion in a changing climate: Ensuring agricultural livelihoods and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadalupe Rivera Ferré, Marta; Di Masso, Marina; Vara, Isabel; Mailhost, Mara; Bhatta, Goppal; Cuellar, Mamem; López-i-Gelats, Feliu; Gallar, Donald

    2015-04-01

    In the regions that experience substantial climatic risks, considerable traditional expertise exists that is underutilized and that could be valuable as a starting point to build more effective strategies for adapting to climate change and ensure food availability. Some of these are agronomic strategies for soil conservation targeting erosion avoidance as a form to ensure soil fertility and thus, crop production and food availability. Following an extensive literature review in the Indogangetic Plans, we have identified many different practices derived from local traditional knowledge that can be classified as i) Reshaping the landscape (terracing, bunding, efficient distribution of land uses); ii) Stream diversion to reduce flood impact (channels along the edges of the fields, embankments, dams, network of ponds, outlets, walls and fencing); and iii) Others (agroforesty, use of specific trees as indicators of soil erosion, crop-fallow rotation, preservation of patches of forests, reforestation, collective management of forests). These endogenous-based practices have a great potential for adaptation since they are more easily adopted by communities, they require of minimum or not external expertise and aid, and usually, are cheaper than other strategies. A combination of local knowledge with other scientific knowledge may be the most effective way to face climate change. This work was performed as part of the CCAFS-Program of the CGIAR in South Asia.

  7. Avoiding the Water-Climate-Poverty Trap: Adaptive Risk Management for Bangladesh's Coastal Embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our recent research on water security (Sadoff et al., 2015, Dadson et al., 2015) has revealed the dynamic relationship between water security and human well-being. A version of this dynamic is materialising in the coastal polder areas of Khulna, Bangladesh. Repeated coastal floods increase salinity, wipe out agricultural yields for several years and increase out-migration. As a tool to help inform and target future cycles of investment in improvements to the coastal embankments, in this paper we propose a dynamical model of biophysical processes and human well-being, which downscales our previous research to the Khulna region. State variables in the model include agricultural production, population, life expectancy and child mortality. Possible infrastructure interventions include embankment improvements, groundwater wells and drainage infrastructure. Hazard factors include flooding, salinization and drinking water pollution. Our system model can be used to inform adaptation decision making by testing the dynamical response of the system to a range of possible policy interventions, under uncertain future conditions. The analysis is intended to target investment and enable adaptive resource reallocation based on learning about the system response to interventions over the seven years of our research programme. The methodology and paper will demonstrate the complex interplay of factors that determine system vulnerability to climate change. The role of climate change uncertainties (in terms of mean sea level rise and storm surge frequency) will be evaluated alongside multiple other uncertain factors that determine system response. Adaptive management in a 'learning system' will be promoted as a mechanism for coping with climate uncertainties. References:Dadson, S., Hall, J.W., Garrick, D., Sadoff, C. and Grey, D. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model, Global Environmental Change, in review.Sadoff, C.W., Hall, J.W., Grey, D

  8. Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from Paleoclimate Data, Climate Modeling, and Modern Observations that 2C Global Warming Could Be Dangerous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, Makiko; Hearty, Paul; Ruedy, Reto; Kelley, Maxwell; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Russell, Gary; Tselioudis, George; Cao, Junji; Rignot, Eric; Velicogna, Isabella; Tormey, Blair; Donovan, Bailey; Kandiano, Evgeniya; von Schuckmann, Karina; Kharecha, Pushker; Legrande, Allegra N.; Bauer, Michael; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-01-01

    warmer than today. Ice melt cooling of the North Atlantic and Southern oceans increases atmospheric temperature gradients, eddy kinetic energy and baroclinicity, thus driving more powerful storms. The modeling, paleoclimate evidence, and ongoing observations together imply that 2 C global warming above the preindustrial level could be dangerous. Continued high fossil fuel emissions this century are predicted to yield (1) cooling of the Southern Ocean, especially in the Western Hemisphere; (2) slowing of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation, warming of the ice shelves, and growing ice sheet mass loss; (3) slowdown and eventual shutdown of the Atlantic overturning circulation with cooling of the North Atlantic region; (4) increasingly powerful storms; and (5) nonlinearly growing sea level rise, reaching several meters over a timescale of 50-150 years. These predictions, especially the cooling in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic with markedly reduced warming or even cooling in Europe, differ fundamentally from existing climate change assessments. We discuss observations and modeling studies needed to refute or clarify these assertions.

  9. Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 °C global warming could be dangerous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Hearty, Paul; Ruedy, Reto; Kelley, Maxwell; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Russell, Gary; Tselioudis, George; Cao, Junji; Rignot, Eric; Velicogna, Isabella; Tormey, Blair; Donovan, Bailey; Kandiano, Evgeniya; von Schuckmann, Karina; Kharecha, Pushker; Legrande, Allegra N.; Bauer, Michael; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-03-01

    C warmer than today. Ice melt cooling of the North Atlantic and Southern oceans increases atmospheric temperature gradients, eddy kinetic energy and baroclinicity, thus driving more powerful storms. The modeling, paleoclimate evidence, and ongoing observations together imply that 2 °C global warming above the preindustrial level could be dangerous. Continued high fossil fuel emissions this century are predicted to yield (1) cooling of the Southern Ocean, especially in the Western Hemisphere; (2) slowing of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation, warming of the ice shelves, and growing ice sheet mass loss; (3) slowdown and eventual shutdown of the Atlantic overturning circulation with cooling of the North Atlantic region; (4) increasingly powerful storms; and (5) nonlinearly growing sea level rise, reaching several meters over a timescale of 50-150 years. These predictions, especially the cooling in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic with markedly reduced warming or even cooling in Europe, differ fundamentally from existing climate change assessments. We discuss observations and modeling studies needed to refute or clarify these assertions.

  10. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  11. An analysis of avoided impacts on climate extremes when comparing RCP8.5 and RCP4.5, as part of the BRACE project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of detected changes in various aspect of the climate system, both for mean quantities and extremes, while comparing two different scenarios (RCP8.5 and RCP4.5) that were run by the CESM1-CAM5 model with large initial condition ensembles, designed to make the detection robust by sampling internal variability exhaustively. This analysis is one of many organized under the Benefits of Reducing Anthropogenic Climate change (BRACE) project of the Climate and Human System Project at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which focuses on the question of avoided impacts. The differences experienced by the physical system are just the most immediate aspects of avoided impacts, and underpin the explanation of the differences that would be experienced by natural and human systems, which other presentations within this session address.

  12. [Dangerous games in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Le Heuzey, M-F

    2011-02-01

    Dangerous games inside or outside school are a serious social phenomenon, but unfortunately underrecognized. Aggressive games are a part of school bullying, which is in expansion. Choking games are very dangerous, with many deaths or serious neurologic complications. Pediatricians should be knowledgeable about risky behaviors encountered by their patients, and provide guidance about its dangers. PMID:21146376

  13. Chemical Extraction of Carbon Dioxide From Air: A Strategy to Avoid Climate Change and Sustain Fossil Energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M. K.; Ziock, H.; Rueff, G.; Colman, J.; Smith, W. S.

    2002-12-01

    analyzed by X ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis. We identify the atmospheric sub-laminar boundary layer and the stagnant liquid surface as potential barriers to CO2 uptake. Strategies to overcome these limits are developed. We discuss other renewable, energy efficient, and effective CO2 scrubbers with lower binding energies. High-resolution simulations are also being performed to characterize the effects of atmospheric mixing, size and geometry of extractors on the collection efficiency. Capture of CO2 from air is a promising long term strategy to sustain fossil energy use by avoiding climate change but much research and development is needed to implement it. [1] Elliott S. et al.,Compensation of atmospheric CO2 buildup through engineered chemical sinkage, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(7), 1235-1238, 2001. [2] Dubey, M. K. et al., Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through engineered chemical sinkage, 2002 American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry Preprints, 47(1), 81-84, 2002. [3] Johnston, et al. Chemical Transport Modeling of Potential Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Sinks, in press Energy Conversion & Management, 2002.

  14. Dangerous marine life.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J

    1992-09-01

    All physicians must be educated in treating injuries incurred when a diver comes into contact with any dangerous marine life. Stinging invertebrates are the most commonly encountered dangerous marine animals. Venomous vertebrate marine animals are less common than stinging invertebrates and easier to recognize. However, they may be much more deadly. Sharks pose the greatest danger to divers. However, bites from other marine animals can be painful, become infected and require extensive medical treatment. PMID:1358999

  15. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  16. Many Manly Men Avoid Needed Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158551.html Many Manly Men Avoid Needed Health Care Gender stereotypes can have dangerous consequences, research suggests ... traditional masculine ideals were less likely to seek health care, more likely to downplay symptoms, and had worse ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had " ...

  18. Climate negotiations under scientific uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Scott; Dannenberg, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    How does uncertainty about “dangerous” climate change affect the prospects for international cooperation? Climate negotiations usually are depicted as a prisoners’ dilemma game; collectively, countries are better off reducing their emissions, but self-interest impels them to keep on emitting. We provide experimental evidence, grounded in an analytical framework, showing that the fear of crossing a dangerous threshold can turn climate negotiations into a coordination game, making collective action to avoid a dangerous threshold virtually assured. These results are robust to uncertainty about the impact of crossing a threshold, but uncertainty about the location of the threshold turns the game back into a prisoners’ dilemma, causing cooperation to collapse. Our research explains the paradox of why countries would agree to a collective goal, aimed at reducing the risk of catastrophe, but act as if they were blind to this risk. PMID:23045685

  19. Personal Safety in Dangerous Places

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terry; Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Hamid, Ansley

    2009-01-01

    Personal safety during fieldwork is seldom addressed directly in the literature. Drawing from many prior years of ethnographic research and from field experience while studying crack distributors in New York City, the authors provide a variety of strategies by which ethnographic research can be safely conducted in dangerous settings. By projecting an appropriate demeanor, ethnographers can seek others for protector and locator roles, routinely create a safety zone in the field, and establish compatible field roles with potential subjects. The article also provides strategies for avoiding or handling sexual approaches, common law crimes, fights, drive-by shootings, and contacts with the police. When integrated with other standard qualitative methods, ethnographic strategies help to ensure that no physical harm comes to the field-worker and other staff members. Moreover, the presence of researchers may actually reduce (and not increase) potential and actual violence among crack distributors/abusers or others present in the field setting. PMID:19809525

  20. Skin cancer risks avoided by the Montreal Protocol--worldwide modeling integrating coupled climate-chemistry models with a risk model for UV.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Arjan; Slaper, Harry; den Outer, Peter N; Morgenstern, Olaf; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John A; Garny, Hella; Stenke, Andrea; Dameris, Martin; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tourpali, Kleareti; Bais, Alkiviadis F

    2013-01-01

    The assessment model for ultraviolet radiation and risk "AMOUR" is applied to output from two chemistry-climate models (CCMs). Results from the UK Chemistry and Aerosols CCM are used to quantify the worldwide skin cancer risk avoided by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments: by the year 2030, two million cases of skin cancer have been prevented yearly, which is 14% fewer skin cancer cases per year. In the "World Avoided," excess skin cancer incidence will continue to grow dramatically after 2030. Results from the CCM E39C-A are used to estimate skin cancer risk that had already been inevitably committed once ozone depletion was recognized: excess incidence will peak mid 21st century and then recover or even super-recover at the end of the century. When compared with a "No Depletion" scenario, with ozone undepleted and cloud characteristics as in the 1960s throughout, excess incidence (extra yearly cases skin cancer per million people) of the "Full Compliance with Montreal Protocol" scenario is in the ranges: New Zealand: 100-150, Congo: -10-0, Patagonia: 20-50, Western Europe: 30-40, China: 90-120, South-West USA: 80-110, Mediterranean: 90-100 and North-East Australia: 170-200. This is up to 4% of total local incidence in the Full Compliance scenario in the peak year. PMID:22924540

  1. [Dangerous, illegal captivities].

    PubMed

    Winnik, Lidia; Lis, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    On the 21st of August 1997 the Polish legislature introduced the first animal protection law nr 724. This act however failed to specify in a clear and proper manner the problem of possession and maintenance of dangerous animals, which allows its multiple interpretations. Poland ratified the Washington Convention in 1990 restricting the trade of animals classified as endangered species. The present regulations enable illegal purchase and trade of those animals. According to the available data illegal trade of such animals, as well as the trade of products obtained from them, ranks in the third position in terms of crime generated income, only after the trade of drugs and weapons. In our country the sales of such animals have been growing at an alarming rate. The animals often get out of the control of their owners, or are abandoned by them. The presented work describes cases of reptiles being found in public places in our region. It also mentions the problem of possible dangers associated with intentional letting out of such animals in public places. The aim of the following paper is the analysis of the problem of raising of exotic animals, in particular venomous snakes and other animals, the possession of which may be dangerous not only for the owner but also for the people around. The existing laws and executive procedures have been discussed. Both, the family doctors as well as toxicologists have little knowledge as far as diagnosis and treatment of cases of stinging and biting by exotic animals is concerned. The authors suggest providing medical emergency doctors, family doctors and surgeons, with clinic toxicology programs, as well as introduction of special courses for middle medical personnel. Establishment of a central database and a database concerned with basic polyvalent serums are crucial in our country in order have the Toxicology Centers ready to face possible dangers associated with dangerous animals, and to prepare emergency solutions in cases of

  2. Dangers of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, B

    1985-12-01

    Beliefs, myths, and literary expressions of men's fear of female genitals are reviewed. Both clinical evidence and folklore provide evidence that men imagine female genitals not only as a source of pleasure and attraction, but also as a source of danger in a very physical sense. The vagina dentata myth has many versions, including some modern ones, and its message is always the same: an awesome danger emanating from a woman's body. The prevalence of such feelings in folklore and in literature is noted. PMID:3841494

  3. Avoiding Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoiding ticks On people On pets In the yard Removing a tick Symptoms of tickborne illness Geographic ... ticks on your pets Preventing ticks in the yard File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  4. Reflections on Dangerous Fieldwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peritore, N. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Stresses the danger of sociological fieldwork in Latin America for researcher and subject. Recommends that the researcher build a network of contacts for support and protection. Discusses the interpersonal relations, problems of security, and field entry techniques involved in sensitive research situations. Suggests unobtrusive methods of research…

  5. Radon: The Silent Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Jennifer

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the public health dangers associated with radon exposure in homes and schools. In addition, testing and corrective efforts by federal and state agencies are discussed. A map indicating areas in the U.S. with potentially high radon levels is included. (IAH)

  6. A Danger to Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied…

  7. Avoiding verisimilitude when modelling ecological responses to climate change: the influence of weather conditions on trapping efficiency in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Noonan, Michael J; Rahman, M Abidur; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W

    2015-10-01

    The signal for climate change effects can be abstruse; consequently, interpretations of evidence must avoid verisimilitude, or else misattribution of causality could compromise policy decisions. Examining climatic effects on wild animal population dynamics requires ability to trap, observe or photograph and to recapture study individuals consistently. In this regard, we use 19 years of data (1994-2012), detailing the life histories on 1179 individual European badgers over 3288 (re-) trapping events, to test whether trapping efficiency was associated with season, weather variables (both contemporaneous and time lagged), body-condition index (BCI) and trapping efficiency (TE). PCA factor loadings demonstrated that TE was affected significantly by temperature and precipitation, as well as time lags in these variables. From multi-model inference, BCI was the principal driver of TE, where badgers in good condition were less likely to be trapped. Our analyses exposed that this was enacted mechanistically via weather variables driving BCI, affecting TE. Notably, the very conditions that militated for poor trapping success have been associated with actual survival and population abundance benefits in badgers. Using these findings to parameterize simulations, projecting best-/worst-case scenario weather conditions and BCI resulted in 8.6% ± 4.9 SD difference in seasonal TE, leading to a potential 55.0% population abundance under-estimation under the worst-case scenario; 38.6% over-estimation under the best case. Interestingly, simulations revealed that while any single trapping session might prove misrepresentative of the true population abundance, due to weather effects, prolonging capture-mark-recapture studies under sub-optimal conditions decreased the accuracy of population estimates significantly. We also use these projection scenarios to explore how weather could impact government-led trapping of badgers in the UK, in relation to TB management. We conclude that

  8. Avoiding Gridlock on Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Benedick, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    With the Kyoto Protocol’s global process bogging down, a parallel strategy of smaller, focused negotiations to achieve partial solutions could put the world back on the right path. This article will focus on that.

  9. Potential dangers of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçalan, S

    1975-01-01

    Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society. PMID:1181294

  10. Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Thrombosis: A Danger Foreseen is a Danger Avoided

    PubMed Central

    Fatullayev, Javid; Samak, Mostafa; Sabashnikov, Anton; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Rahmanian, Parwis B.; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Schmack, Bastian; Kallenbach, Klaus; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Eghbalzadeh, Kaveh; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Karck, Matthias; Wippermann, Jens; Wahlers, Thorsten; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, Andre R.; Weymann, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are an increasingly implemented therapeutic intervention for patients with end-stage heart failure. A growing body of evidence, however, has shown an elevated risk of device thrombosis, a major complication jeopardizing the patient’s post-implantation survival. To date, multiple causative factors for LVAD thrombosis have been identified, such as internal shear stress, device material, infection, and inadequate anticoagulation. Understanding the mechanisms leading to LVAD thrombosis will not only enable device optimization, but also allow for better patient handling, hence improving post-implantation outcome. In this review we highlight the most commonly identified factors leading to LVAD thrombosis and discuss their mechanisms. PMID:26250695

  11. Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2°C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations. PMID:20525341

  12. Wildfire Danger Potential in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Myoung, B.; Kim, S. H.; Fujioka, F. M.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires are an important concern in California (CA) which is characterized by the semi-arid to arid climate and vegetation types. Highly variable winter precipitation and extended hot and dry warm season in the region challenge an effective strategic fire management. Climatologically, the fire season which is based on live fuel moisture (LFM) of generally below 80% in Los Angeles County spans 4 months from mid-July to mid-November, but it has lasted over 7 months in the past several years. This behavior is primarily due to the ongoing drought in CA during the last decade, which is responsible for frequent outbreaks of severe wildfires in the region. Despite their importance, scientific advances for the recent changes in wildfire risk and effective assessments of wildfire risk are lacking. In the present study, we show impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulations on an early start and then extended length of fire seasons. For example, the strong relationships of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with springtime temperature and precipitation in the SWUS that was recently revealed by our team members have led to an examination of the possible impact of NAO on wildfire danger in the spring. Our results show that the abnormally warm and dry spring conditions associated with positive NAO phases can cause an early start of a fire season and high fire risks throughout the summer and fall. For an effective fire danger assessment, we have tested the capability of satellite vegetation indices (VIs) in replicating in situ LFM of Southern CA chaparral ecosystems by 1) comparing seasonal/interannual characteristics of in-situ LFM with VIs and 2) developing an empirical model function of LFM. Unlike previous studies attempting a point-to-point comparison, we attempt to examine the LFM relationship with VIs averaged over different areal coverage with chamise-dominant grids (i.e., 0.5 km to 25 km radius circles). Lastly, we discuss implications of the results for fire danger

  13. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    PubMed

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  14. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  15. Postponing trauma: the dangers of telling.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Rachel

    2009-12-01

    Surviving a major historical trauma has consequences that are difficult to live with. Survivors who remain silent are often condemned to a desiccated existence, a dried-out life, a death in life. Survivors who speak out run an even greater risk. Telling their ghastly tale may trigger somatic consequences, psychotic episodes, or even suicide. As to the psychoanalytic cure, the free association it requires carries its own danger: negative therapeutic reaction in sometimes extreme forms. Avoidance of horror may turn into avoidance of life itself. Awful as it may seem, this avoidance of life may represent a victory over a menacing chaos. Should we as analysts accept the risk of endangering such a victory, no matter how unsatisfactory? The psychoanalytical injunction to speak out may trigger an upsurge of shame and terror. Is subjectivation always possible? This paper is about what happens when denial and splitting strategies are suspended, when 'crypts' are opened. Is there an analytic 'poros' allowing for a controlled return of affects? Is there a therapeutic solution to the problem of telling a wreckage without being caught in it? The dangers of 'telling' will be discussed in regard to new analytic strategies and new interpretive registers. When the 'silent psychic sharing' proves insufficient, some analysts go so far as to take part in the shame, share the grief, 'lend their own psyche', become a 'double' of the analysand, accept the existence of 'sanctuaries'. To what effect? PMID:20002818

  16. Rice and Climate Change: Danger, or Opportunity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), the principle gas associated with global warming, is also one of four resources needed for plants to complete their life cycle (i.e. water, light, nutrients, CO2). The ongoing increase in its concentration may allow rice breeders to begin selecting for optimal varieties among ...

  17. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Gemma; Schlund, Michael W.; Dymond, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead to the inference that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known however about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance—instructions and social observation—on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+) and another was a safety cue (CS−). Groups were then either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock (instructed-learning group) or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group). During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed. PMID:26150773

  18. Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-12-01

    Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ―open‖ would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

  19. A problem of collision avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Cliff, E. M.; Grantham, W. J.; Peng, W. Y.

    1972-01-01

    Collision avoidance between two vehicles of constant speed with limited turning radii, moving in a horizontal plane is investigated. Collision avoidance is viewed as a game by assuming that the operator of one vehicle has perfect knowledge of the state of the other, whereas the operator of the second vehicle is unaware of any impending danger. The situation envisioned is that of an encounter between a commercial aircraft and a small light aircraft. This worse case situation is examined to determine the conditions under which the commercial aircraft should execute a collision avoidance maneuver. Three different zones of vulnerability are defined and the boundaries, or barriers, between these zones are determined for a typical aircraft encounter. A discussion of the methods used to obtain the results as well as some of the salient features associated with the resultant barriers is included.

  20. Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

  1. Dangers of limited SDI

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.E.

    1987-03-01

    Recent efforts to redefine the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) are mostly aimed at building support for a system to defend US land-based missiles. This is thought to be a more feasible goal than President Reagan's dream of an impregnable shield to defend the US population against ballistic missiles. But a feasible idea is not necessarily a good one. While chasing the population-defense fantasy would destroy the existing arms control regime and waste the national treasure of money and talent, defending land-based missiles would be dangerous and destabilizing. Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger held fast to the idea of population defense in January, when he told the Senate Armed Services Committee that even early deployments of SDI systems that could be developed in the near future should be the first phase of a system that would protect the continent. But such statements may reflect the administration's determination to do away with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty more than its belief that population defense is a reasonable goal. The author notes that, to those longstanding problems of defense decision making, they must now add the pressures of SDI. Furthermore, whatever the motives of those who advocate redirecting SDI, it is clear that concerns about the vulnerability of land-based missiles could be addressed in more sensible ways. 5 references.

  2. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  3. Main Dangers of Our Times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2003-03-01

    Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

  4. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  5. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  6. Dangerous Near-Earth Asteroids and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Grigoryan, A. E.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs; Astreoids and Meteorites) is discussed. To have an understanding on the probablity of encounters with such objects, one may use two different approaches: 1) historical, based on the statistics of existing large meteorite craters on the Earth, estimation of the source meteorites size and the age of these craters to derive the frequency of encounters with a given size of meteorites and 2) astronomical, based on the study and cataloging of all medium-size and large bodies in the Earth's neighbourhood and their orbits to estimate the probability, angles and other parameters of encounters. Therefore, we discuss both aspects and give our present knowledge on both phenomena. Though dangerous NEOs are one of the main source for cosmic catastrophes, we also focus on other possible dangers, such as even slight changes of Solar irradiance or Earth's orbit, change of Moon's impact on Earth, Solar flares or other manifestations of Solar activity, transit of comets (with impact on Earth's atmosphere), global climate change, dilution of Earth's atmosphere, damage of ozone layer, explosion of nearby Supernovae, and even an attack by extraterrestrial intelligence.

  7. Students' Ideas about Dangerous Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the concepts and thoughts of primary education students about dangerous animals. A total of 316 primary education students attending a primary school in Turkey participated in the study. The research data was obtained through open-ended questions and word association tests. Data obtained from the questions…

  8. The psychological distance of climate change.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alexa; Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Avoiding dangerous climate change is one of the most urgent social risk issues we face today and understanding related public perceptions is critical to engaging the public with the major societal transformations required to combat climate change. Analyses of public perceptions have indicated that climate change is perceived as distant on a number of different dimensions. However, to date there has been no in-depth exploration of the psychological distance of climate change. This study uses a nationally representative British sample in order to systematically explore and characterize each of the four theorized dimensions of psychological distance--temporal, social, and geographical distance, and uncertainty--in relation to climate change. We examine how each of these different aspects of psychological distance relate to each other as well as to concerns about climate change and sustainable behavior intentions. Results indicate that climate change is both psychologically distant and proximal in relation to different dimensions. Lower psychological distance was generally associated with higher levels of concern, although perceived impacts on developing countries, as an indicator of social distance, was also significantly related to preparedness to act on climate change. Our findings clearly point to the utility of risk communication techniques designed to reduce psychological distance. However, highlighting the potentially very serious distant impacts of climate change may also be useful in promoting sustainable behavior, even among those already concerned. PMID:21992607

  9. Avoidance behavior: a free-operant lever-press avoidance task for the assessment of the effects of safety signals.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Anushka B P; Mar, Adam C; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W

    2015-01-01

    This protocol details a free-operant avoidance paradigm that has been developed to evaluate the relative contribution of different sources of reinforcement of avoidance behavior that may play an important role in the development and maintenance of human anxiety disorders. The task enables the assessment of the effects of safety cues that signal a period free from danger on lever-press avoidance behavior. Avoidance behavior trained using this protocol has been shown to be sensitive to both behavioral and pharmacological manipulations and has been optimized so that it takes approximately 1 month for rats to perform at high levels of stable avoidance responding. PMID:25559006

  10. Perceiving object dangerousness: an escape from pain?

    PubMed

    Anelli, Filomena; Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Nicoletti, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M

    2013-08-01

    A variety of studies showed that participants are facilitated when responding to graspable objects, while it has not been fully investigated what happens during interactions with graspable objects that are potentially dangerous. The present study focuses on the mechanisms underlying the processing of dangerous objects. In two experiments, we adopted a paradigm that has never been employed in this context, a bisection task. The line was flanked by objects belonging to different categories. We explored the sensitivity to the distinction between neutral and dangerous objects, by measuring whether the performance was biased toward a specific object category. In Experiment 1 both teenagers and adults bisected lines flanked by dangerous and neutral graspable objects, and they misperceived the line midpoint toward the neutral graspable object or, stated differently, on the opposite side of the dangerous graspable object. In Experiment 2 adults bisected lines flanked by dangerous and neutral objects matched on graspability (both graspable and ungraspable, Experiment 2a), or by graspable and ungraspable objects matched on dangerousness (both neutral and dangerous, Experiment 2b). Results confirmed the finding of Experiment 1, but also indicated that participants misperceived the line midpoint toward the ungraspable object when it was presented, being it dangerous or not. This evidence demonstrated sensitivity to object dangerousness maintained across lifespan. The emergence of aversive affordances evoked by dangerous graspable objects strenghtens the importance to consider graspability in the investigation of dangerous objects. Possible neural mechanisms involved in the processing of dangerous graspable objects are discussed. PMID:23743714

  11. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  13. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  15. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  17. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  18. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  19. Sensitivity of collective action to uncertainty about climate tipping points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Scott; Dannenberg, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Despite more than two decades of diplomatic effort, concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to trend upwards, creating the risk that we may someday cross a threshold for `dangerous' climate change. Although climate thresholds are very uncertain, new research is trying to devise `early warning signals' of an approaching tipping point. This research offers a tantalizing promise: whereas collective action fails when threshold uncertainty is large, reductions in this uncertainty may bring about the behavioural change needed to avert a climate `catastrophe'. Here we present the results of an experiment, rooted in a game-theoretic model, showing that behaviour differs markedly either side of a dividing line for threshold uncertainty. On one side of the dividing line, where threshold uncertainty is relatively large, free riding proves irresistible and trust illusive, making it virtually inevitable that the tipping point will be crossed. On the other side, where threshold uncertainty is small, the incentive to coordinate is strong and trust more robust, often leading the players to avoid crossing the tipping point. Our results show that uncertainty must be reduced to this `good' side of the dividing line to stimulate the behavioural shift needed to avoid `dangerous' climate change.

  20. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  1. Avoidance maneuevers selected while viewing cockpit traffic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. D.; Ellis, S. R.; Lee, E.

    1982-01-01

    Ten airline pilots rates the collision danger of air traffic presented on cockpit displays of traffic information while they monitored simulated departures from Denver. They selected avoidance maneuvers when necessary for separation. Most evasive maneuvers were turns rather than vertical maneuvers. Evasive maneuvers chosen for encounters with low or moderate collision danger were generally toward the intruding aircraft. This tendency lessened as the perceived threat level increased. In the highest threst situations pilots turned toward the intruder only at chance levels. Intruders coming from positions in front of the pilot's own ship were more frequently avoided by turns toward than when intruders approached laterally or from behind. Some of the implications of the pilots' turning-toward tendencies are discussed with respect to automatic collision avoidance systems and coordination of avoidance maneuvers of conflicting aircraft.

  2. The generic danger and the idiosyncratic support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Arnaud; Nijp, Jelmer; van der Meij, Marijn; Samia, Jalal; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    This contribution argues two main points. First, that generic landscapes used in some modelling studies sometimes have properties or cause simulation results that are unrealistic. Such initially flat or straight-sloped landscapes, sometimes with minor random perturbations, e.g. form the backdrop for ecological simulations of vegetation growth and competition that predict catastrophic shifts. Exploratory results for semi-arid systems suggest that the results based on these generic landscapes are end-members from a distribution of results, rather than an unbiased, typical outcome. Apparently, the desire to avoid idiosyncrasy has unintended consequences. Second, we argue and illustrate that in fact new insights often come from close inspection of idiosyncratic case studies. Our examples from landslide systems, connectivity and soil formation show how a central role for the case study - either in empirical work or to provide model targets - has advanced our understanding. Both points contribute to the conclusion that it is dangerous to forget about annoying, small-scale, idiosyncratic and, indeed, perhaps bad-ass case studies in Earth Sciences.

  3. Dangerousness and mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, J L

    2008-04-01

    Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed. PMID:18307647

  4. Committed ecosystem changes and contributions to climate recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. D.; Lowe, J. A.; Liddicoat, S. K.; Betts, R. A.

    2009-04-01

    Future climate change and the carbon cycle are tightly coupled. Many studies have now shown positive feedbacks which amplify climate change, reduce the natural uptake of carbon and influence global emissions pathways to stabilisation. On the timescale of 1 or 2 centuries, this feedback is mainly due to the terrestrial biosphere. Here we assess to what extent the biosphere contributes to recovery of CO2 levels after a cessation of carbon emissions. We find that when significant climate change has weakened natural terrestrial carbon sinks, these sinks do not recover after a stop of emissions and thus recovery of CO2 (and hence climate) is slow. Further, we find that the terrestrial biosphere exhibits significant inertia and can continue to respond to climate changes decades after stabilisation of climate. This has serious implications for definitions of dangerous climate change based simply on stabilisation temperature as the absence of significant biome changes at the time of stabilisation does not preclude significant and potentially detrimental changes in subsequent decades. Assessments of targets for stabilising climate change often consider the impacts of different levels of global warming. These assessments usually consider impacts that would occur at the time of reaching a particular level of warming. However, global terrestrial ecosystems continue to respond over longer timescales. Here we introduce the concept of "committed ecosystem changes" analogous to climate warming commitments and committed sea-level rise due to thermal inertia. The true impact of climate change on ecosystems will not be revealed for many decades after stabilising temperatures. Further, we suggest that ecosystems may become committed to substantial damage long before any is observable. For example, significant loss of forest cover in Amazonia may become inevitable significantly below a global warming of 2K. When defining dangerous climate change, and forming policy to avoid it, such

  5. Dangerous people or dangerous situations? Some further thoughts.

    PubMed

    Prins, H

    1991-01-01

    The author enlarges upon and develops some observations upon the assessment of dangerousness which appeared in this journal a decade ago. In the present contribution, particular attention is paid to identifying the type of person at risk of committing further acts of serious personal harm to persons and or property and to the factors or circumstances that may be conducive to this. Finally, the author puts forward some views on why cues and clues may be missed and how these omissions might be overcome. 'Between the acting of a dreadful thing And the first motion, all the interim is Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream' Julius Caesar, Act II Scene 1. PMID:2005765

  6. Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary

  7. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-01

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. PMID:24944039

  8. [Doctors and the benefits and dangers of social networks].

    PubMed

    Tisseron, Serge

    2015-05-13

    Social networks have many different uses. Most young people use them for experimentation and innovation. Social networks help young people get familiar with the digital world, and develop themselves in interrelation with their peers. But social networks can also be used to avoid relationships in the real world, or to practice different forms of harassment. A specific danger lies in forgetting that a great number of people can have access to personal information posted online. Doctors should be particularly aware of this issue. PMID:26118232

  9. Antipredator behaviours of a spider mite in response to cues of dangerous and harmless predators.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cleide Rosa; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Mencalha, Jussara; Freitas, Caelum Woods Carvalho; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Janssen, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Prey are known to invest in costly antipredator behaviour when perceiving cues of dangerous, but not of relatively harmless predators. Whereas most studies investigate one type of antipredator behaviour, we studied several types (changes in oviposition, in escape and avoidance behaviour) in the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in response to cues from two predatory mites. The predator Phytoseiulus longipes is considered a dangerous predator for T. evansi, whereas Phytoseiulus macropilis has a low predation rate on this prey, thus is a much less dangerous predator. Spider mite females oviposited less on leaf disc halves with predator cues than on clean disc halves, independent of the predator species. On entire leaf discs, they laid fewer eggs in the presence of cues of the dangerous predator than on clean discs, but not in the presence of cues of the harmless predator. Furthermore, the spider mites escaped more often from discs with cues of the dangerous predator than from discs without predator cues, but they did not escape more from discs with cues of the harmless predator. The spider mites did not avoid plants with conspecifics and predators. We conclude that the spider mites displayed several different antipredator responses to the same predator species, and that some of these antipredator responses were stronger with cues of dangerous predators than with cues of harmless predators. PMID:27067101

  10. The danger theory: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    The self-non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the "danger theory." This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined. PMID:23060876

  11. The danger theory: 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L.

    2012-01-01

    The self–non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the “danger theory.” This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined. PMID:23060876

  12. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  13. Dangerous Spaces, Dangerous Memories, Dangerous Emotions: Informal Education and Heteronormativity--A Manchester UK Youth Work Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsleer, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This article makes a connection between youth work spaces, emotions and some elements of memory, exploring the construction of spaces dangerous for social justice in both meanings of the term "dangerous for". It investigates the contribution to social justice of lesbian and gay youth work and other non-heteronormative youth work in a British…

  14. Avoidant personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  15. Abrupt climate change: can society cope?

    PubMed

    Hulme, Mike

    2003-09-15

    anticipated and prepared for may reverse and, second, the probability of such a scenario occurring remains fundamentally unknown. The implications of both problems for climate policy and for decision making have not been researched. It is premature to argue therefore that abrupt climate change - in the sense referred to here - imposes unacceptable costs on society or the world economy, represents a catastrophic impact of climate change or constitutes a dangerous change in climate that should be avoided at all reasonable cost. We conclude by examining the implications of this contention for future research and policy formation. PMID:14558906

  16. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

  17. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    PubMed Central

    Gaizauskiene, A; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death accounted for 54%, and preventable, 46% of avoidable mortality. Time trends showed that general mortality and mortality from avoidable causes of death in this age group were almost stable between 1970 and 1990. Mortality from treatable causes of death fell, while deaths from preventable causes increased. The results in the preventable group were greatly affected by deaths from malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lungs. Differences were noted between the sexes in total mortality as well as in avoidable mortality. CONCLUSIONS--Avoidable causes of death are relatively common and, consequently, they are of practical importance for public health and studies of the health care quality in Lithuania. Reorganisation of health care is to be carried out and considerable emphasis will be placed on health education, promotion, and prevention, as primary prevention measures have not been effective thus far. PMID:7629464

  18. Avoiding Statistical Mistakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Nora

    2007-01-01

    Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…

  19. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  1. 49 CFR 172.521 - DANGEROUS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... area and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm.) border must be white. The inscription must be black with the 1/8-inch (3.2 mm.) border marker in the white area at each end of the inscription red. ... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.521 DANGEROUS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the DANGEROUS...

  2. 49 CFR 172.521 - DANGEROUS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... area and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm.) border must be white. The inscription must be black with the 1/8-inch (3.2 mm.) border marker in the white area at each end of the inscription red. ... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.521 DANGEROUS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the DANGEROUS...

  3. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  4. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  7. Tennessee Killing Underscores Job Dangers for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the dangers facing school leaders on the job. The school shooting at Campbell County Comprehensive High School in Jacksboro, Tennessee, on November 8, 2005, which left one assistant principal dead and the principal and another assistant principal seriously wounded, is an extreme example of dangers school…

  8. Potential contribution of wind energy to climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

    2014-08-01

    It is still possible to limit greenhouse gas emissions to avoid the 2 °C warming threshold for dangerous climate change. Here we explore the potential role of expanded wind energy deployment in climate change mitigation efforts. At present, most turbines are located in extra-tropical Asia, Europe and North America, where climate projections indicate continuity of the abundant wind resource during this century. Scenarios from international agencies indicate that this virtually carbon-free source could supply 10-31% of electricity worldwide by 2050 (refs , ). Using these projections within Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) climate forcing scenarios, we show that dependent on the precise RCP followed, pursuing a moderate wind energy deployment plan by 2050 delays crossing the 2 °C warming threshold by 1-6 years. Using more aggressive wind turbine deployment strategies delays 2 °C warming by 3-10 years, or in the case of RCP4.5 avoids passing this threshold altogether. To maximize these climate benefits, deployment of non-fossil electricity generation must be coupled with reduced energy use.

  9. Potentiation of the early visual response to learned danger signals in adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Howsley, Philippa; Jordan, Jeff; Johnston, Pat

    2015-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of aversive outcomes on avoidance behaviour are well established. However, their influence on perceptual processes is less well explored, especially during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Using electroencephalography, we examined whether learning to actively or passively avoid harm can modulate early visual responses in adolescents and adults. The task included two avoidance conditions, active and passive, where two different warning stimuli predicted the imminent, but avoidable, presentation of an aversive tone. To avoid the aversive outcome, participants had to learn to emit an action (active avoidance) for one of the warning stimuli and omit an action for the other (passive avoidance). Both adults and adolescents performed the task with a high degree of accuracy. For both adolescents and adults, increased N170 event-related potential amplitudes were found for both the active and the passive warning stimuli compared with control conditions. Moreover, the potentiation of the N170 to the warning stimuli was stable and long lasting. Developmental differences were also observed; adolescents showed greater potentiation of the N170 component to danger signals. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that learned danger signals in an instrumental avoidance task can influence early visual sensory processes in both adults and adolescents. PMID:24652856

  10. Investigations of the Climate System Response to Climate Engineering in a Hierarchy of Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Kelly E.

    . We show that upon cessation, an abrupt, spatially broad, and sustained warming over land occurs that is well outside the bounds of 20th century climate variability. We then use an upwelling-diffusion energy balance climate model to further show the sensitivity of these trends to background greenhouse gas emissions, termination year, and climate sensitivity. We find that the rate of warming from cessation of solar radiation management -- of critical importance for ecological and human systems -- is principally controlled by the background greenhouse gas concentrations. It follows that the only way to avoid the risk of an abrupt and dangerous warming that is inherent to the large-scale implementation of solar radiation management is to also strongly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The climate system responds to radiative forcing on a diverse spectrum of timescales, which will affect what goals can be achieved for a given stratospheric aerosol implementation. We next investigate how different rates of stratospheric sulfate aerosol deployment affect what climate impacts can be avoided by simulating two rates of increasing stratospheric sulfate concentrations in a fully-coupled global climate model. We find that disparate goals are achieved for different rates of deployment; for a slow ramping of sulfate, land surface temperature trends remain small but sea levels continue to rise for decades, whereas a quick ramp-up of sulfate yields large land surface cooling trends and immediately reduces sea level. However, atmospheric circulation changes also act to create a large-scale subsurface ocean environment around Antarctica that is favorable for increased basal melting of ice sheet outlets, thereby leaving the potential open for increased sea level rise even in the absence of large atmospheric surface warming. We show that instead, when greenhouse gases are abruptly returned to preindustrial levels, circulation anomalies are reversed, and the subsurface ocean environment

  11. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  12. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  13. Operational Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will describe the early days of the EOS Aqua and Aura operational collision avoidance process. It will highlight EOS debris avoidance maneuvers, EOS high interest event statistic and A-Train systematic conjunctions and conclude with future challenges. This is related to earlier e-DAA (tracking number 21692) that an abstract was submitted to a different conference. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager has reviewed and approved this presentation on May 6, 2015

  14. Geoengineering and the Risk of Rapid Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. J.; Matthews, D.

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists have proposed that geoengineering could be used to artificially cool the planet as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming. However, several recent studies have shown some of the potential risks of geoengineering, including negative impacts on stratospheric ozone, the hydrologic cycle and the possibility of rapid climate change in the case of abrupt failure, or rapid decommissioning of geoengineering technology. In this study, we have emulated a geoengineering scenario in the MAGICC climate model, by counteracting the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases. We have used a hypothetical scenario of business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions, in which geoengineering is implemented at the year 2020, and is removed abruptly after 40 years. By varying the climate sensitivity of the MAGICC model, and using previously published estimates of climate sensitivity likelihoods, we are able to derive a probabilistic prediction of the rate of temperature change following the removal of geoengineering. In a simulation without geoengineering (considering only the A1B AIM emissions scenario) the maximum annual rate of temperature change (in the highest climate sensitivity simulation) was 0.5° C per decade. In the geoengineering simulations the maximum annual rate of temperature change, occurring in the year after geoengineering was stopped, varied from 0.22° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 0.5° C to nearly 8° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 10° C. The most likely maximum rate of change (corresponding to a climate sensitivity of 2.5° C) was just over 5° C per decade. There is a 99.8 percent probability that the rate of temperature change following the stoppage of geoengineering in this scenario would exceed 3° C per decade. This risk of rapid climate change associated with the use of planetary-scale geoengineering is highly relevant to discussion of climate policies aimed at avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" in the

  15. Messaging climate change uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Roger M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is full of uncertainty and the messengers of climate science are not getting the uncertainty narrative right. To communicate uncertainty one must first understand it, and then avoid repeating the mistakes of the past.

  16. While Travelers Sleep, Brain Patrols for Danger

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158440.html While Travelers Sleep, Brain Patrols for Danger Study findings may explain ... THURSDAY, April 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- When you sleep in a new place, a part of your ...

  17. While Travelers Sleep, Brain Patrols for Danger

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158440.html While Travelers Sleep, Brain Patrols for Danger Study findings may explain ... THURSDAY, April 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- When you sleep in a new place, a part of your ...

  18. Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158828.html Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix Study links moderate drinking to heart damage in people with hypertension To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  19. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  20. Natural visual cues eliciting predator avoidance in fiddler crabs

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Jochen; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    To efficiently provide an animal with relevant information, the design of its visual system should reflect the distribution of natural signals and the animal's tasks. In many behavioural contexts, however, we know comparatively little about the moment-to-moment information-processing challenges animals face in their daily lives. In predator avoidance, for instance, we lack an accurate description of the natural signal stream and its value for risk assessment throughout the prey's defensive behaviour. We characterized the visual signals generated by real, potentially predatory events by video-recording bird approaches towards an Uca vomeris colony. Using four synchronized cameras allowed us to simultaneously monitor predator avoidance responses of crabs. We reconstructed the signals generated by dangerous and non-dangerous flying animals, identified the cues that triggered escape responses and compared them with those triggering responses to dummy predators. Fiddler crabs responded to a combination of multiple visual cues (including retinal speed, elevation and visual flicker) that reflect the visual signatures of distinct bird and insect behaviours. This allowed crabs to discriminate between dangerous and non-dangerous events. The results demonstrate the importance of measuring natural sensory signatures of biologically relevant events in order to understand biological information processing and its effects on behavioural organization. PMID:21490009

  1. Natural visual cues eliciting predator avoidance in fiddler crabs.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Jochen; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M

    2011-12-01

    To efficiently provide an animal with relevant information, the design of its visual system should reflect the distribution of natural signals and the animal's tasks. In many behavioural contexts, however, we know comparatively little about the moment-to-moment information-processing challenges animals face in their daily lives. In predator avoidance, for instance, we lack an accurate description of the natural signal stream and its value for risk assessment throughout the prey's defensive behaviour. We characterized the visual signals generated by real, potentially predatory events by video-recording bird approaches towards an Uca vomeris colony. Using four synchronized cameras allowed us to simultaneously monitor predator avoidance responses of crabs. We reconstructed the signals generated by dangerous and non-dangerous flying animals, identified the cues that triggered escape responses and compared them with those triggering responses to dummy predators. Fiddler crabs responded to a combination of multiple visual cues (including retinal speed, elevation and visual flicker) that reflect the visual signatures of distinct bird and insect behaviours. This allowed crabs to discriminate between dangerous and non-dangerous events. The results demonstrate the importance of measuring natural sensory signatures of biologically relevant events in order to understand biological information processing and its effects on behavioural organization. PMID:21490009

  2. The cognitive interview: does it successfully avoid the dangers of forensic hypnosis?

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Wayne G; Orne, Emily Carota; Dinges, David F; Bates, Brad L; Nadon, Robert; Orne, Martin T

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two undergraduates viewed a videotape of a bank robbery that culminated in the shooting of a young boy. Several days later, participants were interviewed about their recollection of events in the film through baseline oral and written narrative accounts followed by random assignment to a hypnosis (HYP) condition, the cognitive interview (CI), or a motivated, repeated recall (MRR) control interview. Participants also completed a forced interrogatory recall test, which indexed potential report criterion differences between the interview conditions. In terms of information provided for the first time during treatment interviews, HYP led to greater productivity than the CI or the MRR interview, which did not differ significantly from each other. Evidence that these differences in recall resulted primarily from report criterion differences rather than differences in accessible memory was obtained from the forced interrogatory recall test. In this test, no differences were observed between the three interview conditions. Finally, the data revealed that participants' hypnotic ability was associated with the recall of erroneous and confabulatory material for those tested in the HYP and CI conditions but not those in the MRR condition. This suggests that some CI mnemonics may invoke hypnotic-like processes in hypnotizable people. PMID:15989121

  3. Avoiding Sophomore Jinx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, James

    2002-01-01

    After the first year, new superintendents should take care to avoid the "sophomore jinx" by communicating effectively with the board president every week and with board members before meetings. Public engagement is also an integral part of a superintendent's job. (MLF)

  4. Pitcherpot: Avoiding Honeypot Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Vinod K.; Bhatnagar, Pramod K.; Bhatnagar, Mitul

    This paper explores the various ways honeypots could be detected by the malicious attacker. This includes the different prevalent criteria and characteristics for honeypots generation & their weaknesses. Further this paper proposes a new way of implementation of a honeypot (Pitcher pots Systems) that effectively facilitate its identity avoidance and yet offers better ways to study the attacker.

  5. Myelin Avoids the JAM.

    PubMed

    Follis, Rose M; Carter, Bruce D

    2016-08-17

    In this issue of Neuron, Redmond et al. (2016) identify junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitor of somatodendritic myelination in spinal cord neurons, thereby elucidating how myelin forms on axons but avoids dendrites and cell bodies. PMID:27537479

  6. Avoiding the "M" Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of roundtable discussions by top business officers about how higher education can capitalize on strategic alliances. Describes how, by working with one another and with corporate partners, colleges and universities can avoid closing their doors or merging with stronger institutions. (EV)

  7. Plants to Avoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Ann’s lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  8. [Fighting dogs--dangerous dogs: legal situation in Bavaria].

    PubMed

    Breitsamer, F

    2001-03-01

    A report is given on eight years of experience with the Bavarian legal regulation for the protection against dangerous dogs of 10.7.1992. The implementation of the regulation was a success. Since then only two cases of biting accidents are reported. In one case the dogs were euthanatized, in the other case they were taken away and given to other owners. The advantages of the regulation are seen in the increased responsibility of the dog owner who has to give proof of the peaceful character of his dog in form of an expert testimony. This lowers the administration costs and has revealed a preventive effect, the dog owners are looking more carefully after their animals to avoid any security problems. PMID:11314462

  9. Assessing Danger: What Judges Need To Know

    PubMed Central

    Nichols-Hadeed, Corey; Cerulli, Catherine; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Rhodes, Karin V.; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2011-01-01

    Every day, judges are faced with decisions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) victims' requests for protection orders, custody arrangements, and visitation schedules. To make informed decisions, judges must understand victims' risk for future violence. This mixed method study explores the extent to which protection order petitions (n=169) communicate victims' current danger and future risk of violence. Methods included interviews coupled with an archival review of court petitions. Findings suggest judges are inadequately prepared to render decisions to improve victim safety in the absence of standardized risk assessments. The Danger Assessment provides an evidence-based solution to routinize intake interviews with victims petitioning the court. PMID:22661908

  10. Principles of estimation of Radiative danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korogodin, V. I.

    1990-08-01

    The main principles of the estimation of Radiative danger has been discussed. Two main particularities of the danger were pointed out: negatve consequencies of small doses, which does not lead to radiation sickness, but lead to disfunctions of sanguine organs and thin intestines; absolute estimation of biological anomalies, which was forwarded by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1989). The ethic aspects of the use of Nuclear weapons on the fate of Human civilization were pointed out by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1990).

  11. The Power of Metaphor in Communicating Risk in Climate Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlock, T.; Gann, T. M.; Bergmann, T.

    2014-12-01

    Risk messages are intended to capture attention whether danger is almost certain or only a remote possibility. When used the right way, metaphor is an effective tool for getting people to pay attention to hazard and take the right course of action. Metaphor is effective because it immediately grounds what is unknown and abstract in terms what is known and concrete. For instance, when talking about a wildfire that is "swallowing up homes" we instantly understand that it is dangerous and destructive (not literally eating homes), or when talking about a drought "crippling California" we instantly know that it is leading to suboptimal agricultural and economic conditions. TV journalists often use metaphor in reporting climate information because it can vivify information. In contrast, government officials who work with risk are inclined to avoid it. The aim of this presentation is twofold: 1) to analyze and characterize types metaphors in climate discourse, especially messages about extreme wildfires and severe drought conditions, and 2) to discuss the utility of metaphor to framing risk messages for varied stakeholders across varied timescales. Many examples of risk messages in natural discourse about climate are analyzed and discussed, including examples from the TV News Archive.

  12. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Klaus; Robinson, Alexander; Bradford, David F.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO2 emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO2 emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO2 emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO2 abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination—the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change.

  13. The Dangers of Aestheticism in Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meager, Ruby

    1981-01-01

    Prompted by Immanuel Kant's analysis of the nature and operations of the imagination in his "Critique of the Aesthetical Judgment," this article points out the danger of encouraging imagination-borne aesthetical judgments and explanatory hypotheses. Concludes that understanding requires submission to more stringent standards of objectivity and to…

  14. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Safety and Health Officer concludes on the basis of an inspection that conditions or practices exist in... informed of such danger by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, the employer immediately...

  15. Danger and the Decision to Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John

    2005-01-01

    Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that danger--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…

  16. Decreasing Dangerous Infant Behaviors through Parent Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Judith R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four young mothers with one-year-old infants were successfully taught to reduce their children's potential for injury in the home through interventions which included increasing positive interactions with the infant, child-proofing the home, using playpen time-out for potentially dangerous behaviors, and giving positive attention for safe…

  17. Ebola: a very dangerous viral haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian

    2015-01-01

    Ebola is a highly dangerous infectious disease seen mainly in West Africa or travellers from there. All healthcare workers should check the recent travel history of their patients and follow formal guidance issued. Clinical Relevance: This article discusses the relevance of the Ebola virus in dentistry. PMID:26062275

  18. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Safety and Health Officer concludes on the basis of an inspection that conditions or practices exist in... informed of such danger by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, the employer immediately...

  19. Science, Ethics and the Climate Responsibilities of Industrial Carbon Producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumhoff, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The question of responsibility for climate change lies at the heart of societal debate over actions to curb greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for now unavoidable climate impacts. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change established the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" among nations, signaling the recognition that industrialized nations who had produced the lion's share of historic emissions bore particular responsibility for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. But climate responsibilities can be distributed in other ways as well. This talk focuses on the scientific, historical and ethical basis for considering the climate responsibilities of the major fossil energy companies that have produced and marketed the coal, oil and natural gas whose use largely drives global warming, often while investing in efforts to discredit the scientific evidence and prevent policies that would encourage a transition to low-carbon energy. Earth scientists and scientific societies who rely on financial support from these companies have an opportunity to consider what ethical stance they might take to align their research, scientific understanding and values.

  20. Avoidable waste management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  1. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.C.

    1994-04-01

    This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.

  2. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication. PMID:24588355

  3. Climate engineering reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Scott; Lenton, Timothy M.; Millner, Antony; Tavoni, Alessandro; Carpenter, Stephen; Anderies, John M.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Daily, Gretchen; Ehrlich, Paul; Folke, Carl; Galaz, Victor; Hughes, Terry; Kautsky, Nils; Lambin, Eric F.; Naylor, Rosamond; Nyborg, Karine; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Wilen, James; Xepapadeas, Anastasios; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-07-01

    Stratospheric injection of sulphate aerosols has been advocated as an emergency geoengineering measure to tackle dangerous climate change, or as a stop-gap until atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are reduced. But it may not prove to be the game-changer that some imagine.

  4. Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

  5. Mapping the Cultural Learnability Landscape of Danger.

    PubMed

    Clark Barrett, H; Peterson, Christopher D; Frankenhuis, Willem E

    2016-05-01

    Cultural transmission is often viewed as a domain-general process. However, a growing literature suggests that learnability is influenced by content and context. The idea of a learnability landscape is introduced as a way of representing the effects of interacting factors on how easily information is acquired. Extending prior work (Barrett & Broesch, ), learnability of danger and other properties is compared for animals, artifacts, and foods in the urban American children (ages 4-5) and in the Shuar children in Ecuador (ages 4-9). There is an advantage for acquiring danger information that is strongest for animals and weakest for artifacts in both populations, with culture-specific variations. The potential of learnability landscapes for assessing biological and cultural influences on cultural transmission is discussed. PMID:27189404

  6. Decreasing dangerous infant behaviors through parent instruction.

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, J R; Friman, P C; Barone, V J; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R

    1987-01-01

    One adult and three adolescent mothers with 1-year-old infants were taught to reduce their infants' potential for injury in the home. After being taught to increase their positive interactions with their infants, the mothers were taught to child-proof the home, to use playpen time-out for potentially dangerous behaviors, and to give positive attention for safe behaviors. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate functional control. Potentially dangerous behaviors, observed during 10 min of free play, decreased from variable and, at times, high rates during baseline to stable near-zero rates after treatment. These target behaviors remained low at a 7-month follow-up assessment. PMID:3610895

  7. Molds on Food: Are They Dangerous?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Molds on Food: Are they dangerous? Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  8. [Radioecological approaches to ranking radiation dangerous objects].

    PubMed

    Korenkov, I P; Lashchenova, T N; Veselov, E I; Shandala, N K; Maksimova, O A

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives complex criteria for evaluating the hazard of radiation dangerous objects (RDO). The proposed criteria include the following indicators: the ratio of the cumulative activity of radioactive waste to a hazard factor (D value) or to the allowable level of i-radionuclide in the storage; the power of an effective gamma-radiation dose; the rate of radionuclide migration; the doses of human radiation. A scoring system for the hazard of RDO from the above indicators is given. PMID:21899094

  9. A unified narrative for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushell, Simon; Colley, Thomas; Workman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There is a significant 'action gap' between what scientists argue is necessary to prevent potentially dangerous climate change and what the government and public are doing. A coherent strategic narrative is key to making meaningful progress.

  10. A Danger-Theory-Based Immune Network Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times. PMID:23483853

  11. Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Print version Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Celebrating ... excess. And the results can be deadly. Identifying Alcohol Poisoning Critical Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning ...

  12. For 'Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows Danger of Too Much Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows Danger of Too Much Water Frequent fluid stops entice racers to drink more ... News) -- Long-distance triathletes who drink too much water during competition may end up with dangerously low ...

  13. Help Protect Children from Dangers in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Pamela

    1985-01-01

    Children may be exposed to environmental hazards such as lead, arsenic, and dangerous pesticides more often than parents may realize. Dangers of more commonly used chemicals found in the environment are listed. (DF)

  14. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  15. Voice as a Lightning Rod for Dangerous Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbow, Peter

    "Voice" has become a dangerous term. It has tended to imply romanticism, expressionism, and individualism--dangerous things. There are, however, two safe or prudent thoughts that can be expressed about voice and writing and four dangerous or adventuresome thoughts. The first point is that the choice between the use of terms such as text and…

  16. 30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  17. 30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  18. 30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  19. 30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  20. 30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  1. 46 CFR 148.11 - Hazardous or potentially dangerous characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous or potentially dangerous characteristics. 148.11 Section 148.11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING General § 148.11 Hazardous or potentially dangerous characteristics. (a)...

  2. Committed terrestrial ecosystem changes due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chris; Lowe, Jason; Liddicoat, Spencer; Betts, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Targets for stabilizing climate change are often based on considerations of the impacts of different levels of global warming, usually assessing the time of reaching a particular level of warming. However, some aspects of the Earth system, such as global mean temperatures and sea level rise due to thermal expansion or the melting of large ice sheets, continue to respond long after the stabilization of radiative forcing. Here we use a coupled climate-vegetation model to show that in turn the terrestrial biosphere shows significant inertia in its response to climate change. We demonstrate that the global terrestrial biosphere can continue to change for decades after climate stabilization. We suggest that ecosystems can be committed to long-term change long before any response is observable: for example, we find that the risk of significant loss of forest cover in Amazonia rises rapidly for a global mean temperature rise above 2∘C. We conclude that such committed ecosystem changes must be considered in the definition of dangerous climate change, and subsequent policy development to avoid it.

  3. MEST- avoid next extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2012-11-01

    Asteroid 2011 AG5 will impact on Earth in 2040. (See Donald K. Yoemans, ``Asteroid 2011 AG5 - A Reality Check,'' NASA-JPL, 2012) In 2011, The author say: the dark hole will take the dark comet to impact our solar system in 20 years, and give a systemic model between the sun and its companion-dark hole to explain why were there periodicity mass extinction on earth. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.CAL.C1.7, BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.24, BAPS.2012.APR.K1.78 and BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17) The dark Asteroid 2011 AG5 (as a dark comet) is made of the dark matter which has a space-time (as frequence-amplitude square) center- a different systemic model from solar systemic model. It can asborb the space-time and wave. So it is ``dark.'' When many dark matters hit on our earth, they can break our atom structure and our genetic code to trigger the Mass Extinction. In our experiments, consciousness can change the systematic model and code by a life-informational technology. So it can change the output signals of the solar cell. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.MAR.C1.286 and BAPS.2012.MAR.P33.14) So we will develop the genetic code of lives to evolution and sublimation, will use the dark matter to change the systemic model between dark hole and sun and will avoid next extinction.

  4. Collision avoidance sensor skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to totally eliminate the possibility of a robot (or any mechanism for that matter) inducing a collision in space operations. We were particularly concerned that human beings were safe under all circumstances. This was apparently accomplished, and it is shown that GSFC has a system that is ready for space qualification and flight. However, it soon became apparent that much more could be accomplished with this technology. Payloads could be made invulnerable to collision avoidance and the blind spots behind them eliminated. This could be accomplished by a simple, non-imaging set of 'Capaciflector' sensors on each payload. It also is evident that this system could be used to align and dock the system with a wide margin of safety. Throughout, lighting problems could be ignored, and unexpected events and modeling errors taken in stride. At the same time, computational requirements would be reduced. This can be done in a simple, rugged, reliable manner that will not disturb the form factor of space systems. It will be practical for space applications. The lab experiments indicate we are well on the way to accomplishing this. Still, the research trail goes deeper. It now appears that the sensors can be extended to end effectors to provide precontact information and make robot docking (or any docking connection) very smooth, with minimal loads impacted back into the mating structures. This type of ability would be a major step forward in basic control techniques in space. There are, however, baseline and restructuring issues to be tackled. The payloads must get power and signals to them from the robot or from the astronaut servicing tool. This requires a standard electromechanical interface. Any of several could be used. The GSFC prototype shown in this presentation is a good one. Sensors with their attendant electronics must be added to the payloads, end effectors, and robot arms and integrated into the system.

  5. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  6. Low-Cost Avoidance Behaviors are Resistant to Fear Extinction in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Vervliet, Bram; Indekeu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of fear and avoidance are core symptoms across the anxiety disorders. It has long been known that fear serves to motivate avoidance. Consequently, fear extinction has been the primary focus in pre-clinical anxiety research for decades, under the implicit assumption that removing the motivator of avoidance (fear) would automatically mitigate the avoidance behaviors as well. Although this assumption has intuitive appeal, it has received little scientific scrutiny. The scarce evidence from animal studies is mixed, while the assumption remains untested in humans. The current study applied an avoidance conditioning protocol in humans to investigate the effects of fear extinction on the persistence of low-cost avoidance. Online danger-safety ratings and skin conductance responses documented the dynamics of conditioned fear across avoidance and extinction phases. Anxiety- and avoidance-related questionnaires explored individual differences in rates of avoidance. Participants first learned to click a button during a predictive danger signal, in order to cancel an upcoming aversive electrical shock (avoidance conditioning). Next, fear extinction was induced by presenting the signal in the absence of shocks while button-clicks were prevented (by removing the button in Experiment 1, or by instructing not to click the button in Experiment 2). Most importantly, post-extinction availability of the button caused a significant return of avoidant button-clicks. In addition, trait-anxiety levels correlated positively with rates of avoidance during a predictive safety signal, and with the rate of pre- to post-extinction decrease during this signal. Fear measures gradually decreased during avoidance conditioning, as participants learned that button-clicks effectively canceled the shock. Preventing button-clicks elicited a sharp increase in fear, which subsequently extinguished. Fear remained low during avoidance testing, but danger-safety ratings increased again when

  7. Low-Cost Avoidance Behaviors are Resistant to Fear Extinction in Humans.

    PubMed

    Vervliet, Bram; Indekeu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of fear and avoidance are core symptoms across the anxiety disorders. It has long been known that fear serves to motivate avoidance. Consequently, fear extinction has been the primary focus in pre-clinical anxiety research for decades, under the implicit assumption that removing the motivator of avoidance (fear) would automatically mitigate the avoidance behaviors as well. Although this assumption has intuitive appeal, it has received little scientific scrutiny. The scarce evidence from animal studies is mixed, while the assumption remains untested in humans. The current study applied an avoidance conditioning protocol in humans to investigate the effects of fear extinction on the persistence of low-cost avoidance. Online danger-safety ratings and skin conductance responses documented the dynamics of conditioned fear across avoidance and extinction phases. Anxiety- and avoidance-related questionnaires explored individual differences in rates of avoidance. Participants first learned to click a button during a predictive danger signal, in order to cancel an upcoming aversive electrical shock (avoidance conditioning). Next, fear extinction was induced by presenting the signal in the absence of shocks while button-clicks were prevented (by removing the button in Experiment 1, or by instructing not to click the button in Experiment 2). Most importantly, post-extinction availability of the button caused a significant return of avoidant button-clicks. In addition, trait-anxiety levels correlated positively with rates of avoidance during a predictive safety signal, and with the rate of pre- to post-extinction decrease during this signal. Fear measures gradually decreased during avoidance conditioning, as participants learned that button-clicks effectively canceled the shock. Preventing button-clicks elicited a sharp increase in fear, which subsequently extinguished. Fear remained low during avoidance testing, but danger-safety ratings increased again when

  8. Avoided Impacts in Ensembles of Tropical Cyclone Damage Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, J.; Paimazumder, D.; Holland, G. J.; Towler, E.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter current levels of Tropical Cyclone (TC) damage, yet the degree of change and its importance relative to changes in exposure and vulnerability are debated. This study isolates the climate drivers of TC damage and develops an approach to translate climate model data directly to a measure of Cyclone Damage Potential (CDP). The actual damage then depends on a given user's impacted exposure and vulnerability. Our approach is motivated by recent work that highlighted the importance of accounting for TC size and TC translation speed in addition to maximum wind speed in driving TC damage. Since coarse resolution climate models are not able to adequately capture many TC characteristics, these key damaging parameters are modeled in terms of large-scale climate variables, to sidestep the need for information on individual TCs and to enable assessments of CDP directly from large-scale climate model data. The CDP is applied to ensembles of future climates generated under a range of anthropogenic forcing scenarios to assess the degree of avoided CDP under lower emission pathways. Users may then translate avoided CDP to avoided losses using relationships between CDP and their specific exposure and vulnerability characteristics.

  9. Are Computers Dangerous to Our Children's Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Norma L.

    1992-01-01

    Computer use can affect students' health. Recommends instruction on safe computer use, placement of computers to minimize children's exposure to magnetic field. Preventive measures are suggested to help children avoid eye strain and repetitive strain injuries. (SM)

  10. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  11. Flaming alcoholic drinks: flirting with danger.

    PubMed

    Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The dangers associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments. PMID:24043236

  12. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  13. [Dangerous drugs: products containing synthetic chemicals].

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Yoshito

    2016-02-01

    When the patients poisoned with "dangerous drugs", that is, products containing synthetic chemicals such as synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones, are transferred to the emergency facilities, the chemicals really consumed cannot be determined there. So, supportive care may be the most important strategy for treating them. For example, those with serious consciousness disturbance should be supported with ventilator after intubation. Those with remarkable excitatory CNS or sympathetic symptoms, benzodiazepines such as diazepam and midazolam, should be administered. Those with hallucination or delusion, antipsychotics such as haloperidol or risperidone should be administered. Those with rhabdomyolysis, hypermyoglobinemia and acute kidney injury, intravenous fluids and hemodialysis should be introduced. PMID:26915246

  14. [Mental disorders and dangerous acting out].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The major mental disorders which are most likely to lead to dangerous acting out are adult psychoses (schizophrenia and paranoia) and severe mood disorders (major depressive episodes and mania). Good knowledge of the symptomatology of these pathologies and their identification can help to anticipate and prevent much of the violence which people with these disorders may inflict on others or themselves. After mental assessment, those who commit wrongful and criminal acts may be ruled to be criminally irresponsible. They are then handed over to the relevant health care authorities for treatment for their mental disorders. PMID:25751907

  15. Guarding against the most dangerous emerging pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, P. W.

    1996-01-01

    Control of emerging infectious diseases will be difficult because of the large number of disease-causing organisms that are emerging or could emerge and the great diversity of geographic areas in which emergence can occur. The modern view of the evolution of pathogen virulence--specifically its focus on the tradeoff between costs and benefits to the pathogen from increased host exploitation--allows control programs to identify and focus on the most dangerous pathogens (those that can be established with high virulence in human populations). PMID:8969242

  16. ESBLs: A Clear and Present Danger?

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Rishi H.-P.; Clark, John

    2012-01-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes produced by a variety of Gram negative bacteria which confer an increased resistance to commonly used antibiotics. They are a worrying global public health issue as infections caused by such enzyme-producing organisms are associated with a higher morbidity and mortality and greater fiscal burden. Coupled with increasing prevalence rates worldwide and an ever diminishing supply in the antibiotic armamentarium, these enzymes represent a clear and present danger to public health. This article aims to give an overview of the current situation regarding ESBLs, with a focus on the epidemiology and management of such infections. PMID:21766013

  17. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-12-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  18. A dangerous movie? Hollywood does psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Donald R; Silverman, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    After the appearance of David Cronenberg's film A Dangerous Method in 2011, dealing with the relationships of Sigmund Freud, C. G. Jung and Sabina Spielrein, Dr. Donald Ferrell published: A Dangerous Method, A Film Directed by David Cronenberg: An Extended Review (Ferrell 2012) in the Journal of Religion and Health. Upon its publication, Dr. Ferrell's article was nominated for a Gradiva Award by the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. On November 1, 2013, the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society held its annual conference at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Dr. Billie Pivnick, a member at large of the Board of Directors of the APCS and also on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Religion and Health, persuaded the 2013 Conference Program Committee that Cronenberg's film would make an interesting subject for discussion for conference participants. To that end, Dr. Pivnick invited Dr. Ferrell, C. G. Jung Institute of New York, Dr. Steven Reisner, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, and Dr. Martin Silverman, Training and Supervising Analyst and Supervising Child Analyst at the Institute for Psychoanalytic Education, NYU College of Medicine, Training and Supervising Analyst at the Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis of New Jersey, and Associate Editor of The Psychoanalytic Quarterly to serve as panel members to discuss: A Dangerous Movie? Hollywood does Psychoanalysis. Presentations on Cronenberg's film and the early history of psychoanalysis were given by Drs. Ferrell and Reisner, followed by a response to their presentations by Dr. Silverman. Dr. Pivnick chaired the session. The articles presented here were given originally at the APCS conference by Dr. Ferrell and Dr. Silverman. Dr. Reisner declined the invitation to submit his presentation for publication. Dr. Silverman's remarks were based not only on the presentation given by Dr. Ferrell at the session on A Dangerous Movie?, but also on his close and

  19. Modeling a polycentric approach to the problem of climate change. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos & Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is a global problem. Because of unlimited use of fossil energy and resulting greenhouse gas emissions the global temperature is rising causing floods, draughts and storms in all parts of the world with increasing frequency and strength. Dangerous climate change will occur with high probability after the global temperature has passed a certain threshold [1]. To avoid dangerous climate change global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced to a level of 50% or less of the year-2000 emissions by 2050 [2-4]. All people on earth take part in this global target public goods game, "a game that we cannot afford to loose" [5]. Simulating this scenario in a nutshell a collective risk social dilemma game has shown that a small group of subjects can achieve a collective goal by sequential individual contributions but only when the risk of loosing their not invested money is high, e.g. 90% [6]. Cooperation in public goods games usually decreases with increasing group size [7]. Thus, does this mean that the global game will be lost?

  20. Temporal variations and change of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venäläinen, A.; Korhonen, N.; Koutsias, N.; Xystrakis, F.; Urbieta, I. R.; Moreno, J. M.

    2013-11-01

    Understanding how fire-weather danger indices changed in the past, and detecting how changes affected forest fire activity is important in changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), calculated from two reanalysis datasets, ERA 40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012. Additionally, we used national forest-fires statistical data from Greece and Spain to relate fire danger and fire activity. There is no obvious trend in fire danger for the time period covered by ERA 40 (1960-1999) whereas for the period 1980-2012 covered by ERA Interim, the mean FWI and the number of high fire risk days shows an increasing trend which is significant at the 99% confidence level for South and East Europe. The cross-correlation calculated at national level in Greece and Spain between mean yearly area burned and mean FWI of the current season is of the order 0.5-0.6, and demonstrates the importance of the fire-season weather on forest fires. Our results show that, fire risk is multifaceted, and factors like changes in fire fighting capacity, ignition patterns, or landscapes might have played a role in forest fires trends. However, weather trends remain as important determinants of forest fires.

  1. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk. PMID:18758277

  2. [Dangerous comics--only a fantasy?].

    PubMed

    Hammon, C P

    1992-01-01

    Both superhero comics and fairy tales are equally popular with children: they create fantasy worlds full of violence and dangers which the hero must overcome. The question is raised whether the criticism of prevailing violence and a lack of realism can be rejected not only when considering fairy tales but also in the case of comics. The comparison of the two genres leads to the following results: Comics with their regressive pull and their independent superhuman heroes represent the archaic world of narcissism unconscious, unwilling to develop and conservative. Violence serves to maintain the original state or regain a harmonious "paradise". However, the rich world of symbols is also the creative source of our existence to which we keep returning--whether in dreams or in other fields of imagination. As works of literature, fairy tales seem to be more progressive and concerned with solutions. In the main, they support the development of the self. Violence is used to overthrow the old order and usher in the new. The aggression results in overcoming the unconscious. The image of the fairy tale hero corresponds to the child's view of the world. He does not seek narcissistic solitude and greatness but the companionship of prince or princess. A progressive and optimistic view of the future as well as a more conservative and retrospective tendency are part of human nature. For children, however, problems of development take precedence. Thus superhero comics are only dangerous for severely disturbed children, but fairy tales are certainly more beneficial. PMID:1635907

  3. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a storage unit located on the Hanford Site. The unit consists of two earth-covered railroad tunnels that are used for storage of process equipment (some containing dangerous waste) removed from the PUREX Plant. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railroad cars and remotely transferred into the tunnels for long-term storage. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as a co-operator of the PUREX Storage Tunnels, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The PUREX Storage Tunnels Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision O) consists of both a Part A and Part B permit application and is based on information available as of August 31, 1990. An explanation of the Part A revision submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. In this Part A revision, the PUREX Storage Tunnels have been redesignated as a miscellaneous unit. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  4. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    PubMed

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. PMID:27039979

  5. Drosophila Avoids Parasitoids by Sensing Their Semiochemicals via a Dedicated Olfactory Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Shimaa A. M.; Dweck, Hany K. M.; Stökl, Johannes; Hofferberth, John E.; Trona, Federica; Weniger, Kerstin; Rybak, Jürgen; Seki, Yoichi; Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S.; Knaden, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Detecting danger is one of the foremost tasks for a neural system. Larval parasitoids constitute clear danger to Drosophila, as up to 80% of fly larvae become parasitized in nature. We show that Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults avoid sites smelling of the main parasitoid enemies, Leptopilina wasps. This avoidance is mediated via a highly specific olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) type. While the larval OSN expresses the olfactory receptor Or49a and is tuned to the Leptopilina odor iridomyrmecin, the adult expresses both Or49a and Or85f and in addition detects the wasp odors actinidine and nepetalactol. The information is transferred via projection neurons to a specific part of the lateral horn known to be involved in mediating avoidance. Drosophila has thus developed a dedicated circuit to detect a life-threatening enemy based on the smell of its semiochemicals. Such an enemy-detecting olfactory circuit has earlier only been characterized in mice and nematodes. PMID:26674493

  6. Acquaintance Rape: Effective Avoidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine-MacCombie, Joyce; Koss, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Determined that acknowledged and unacknowledged acquaintance rape victims and rape avoiders could be discriminated by situational variables and response strategies. Avoiders were less likely to have experienced passive or internalizing emotions at the time of the assault, perceived the assault as less violent, and were more likely to have utilized…

  7. Imidacloprid Alters Foraging and Decreases Bee Avoidance of Predators

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ken; Chen, Weiwen; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Yuchong; Nieh, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb) imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana) showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera), to other important bee species. PMID:25025334

  8. Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Tebaldi, Claudia; Arblaster, Julie M.; Washington, Warren M.; Teng, Haiyan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Ault, Toby; Strand, Warren G.; White, James B.

    2012-08-01

    There is a common perception that, if human societies make the significant adjustments necessary to substantively cut emissions of greenhouse gases, global temperature increases could be stabilized, and the most dangerous consequences of climate change could be avoided. Here we show results from global coupled climate model simulations with the new representative concentration pathway mitigation scenarios to 2300 to illustrate that, with aggressive mitigation in two of the scenarios, globally averaged temperature increase indeed could be stabilized either below 2 °C or near 3 °C above pre-industrial values. However, even as temperatures stabilize, sea level would continue to rise. With little mitigation, future sea-level rise would be large and continue unabated for centuries. Though sea-level rise cannot be stopped for at least the next several hundred years, with aggressive mitigation it can be slowed down, and this would buy time for adaptation measures to be adopted.

  9. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  10. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  11. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  12. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  13. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  14. Shunt site chronic calcified extradural hematoma: An avoidable complication

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Satapathy, Mani Charan; Senapati, Satya Bhusan

    2014-01-01

    Extradural hematoma (EDH) after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt procedure is a rare, dangerous but easily avoidable and manageable complication. It is more common in children and young adults presumably due to relatively lax adhesion of dura to calvarium. We report a case of an 18-year-old male with acqueductal stenosis who underwent VP shunt procedure. Three months later, a computed tomography (CT) scan was done for the complaints of intractable headache and altered sensorium which showed chronic calcified EDH near shunt site. The ventricular catheter was in position and the ventricles were decompressed. After surgical decompression of EDH his symptoms improved. We discuss the factors leading to formation of EDH, with stress on proper technique to prevent or minimize such an avoidable complication. PMID:25250078

  15. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.

    2009-04-01

    Geoengineering (or climate engineering) using stratospheric sulfur injections (Crutzen, 2006) has been called for research in case of an urgent need for stopping global warming when other mitigation efforts were exhausted. Although there are a number of concerns over this idea (e.g. Robock, 2008), it is still useful to consider geoengineering as a possible method to limit warming caused by overshoot. Overshoot is a feature accompanied by low stabilizations scenarios aiming for a stringent target (Rao et al., 2008) in which total radiative forcing temporarily exceeds the target before reaching there. Scenarios achieving a 50% emission reduction by 2050 produces overshoot. Overshoot could cause sustained warming for decades due to the inertia of the climate system. If stratospheric sulfur injections were to be used as a "last resort" to avoid overshoot, what would be the suitable start-year and injection profile of such an intervention? Wigley (2006) examined climate response to combined mitigation/geoengineering scenarios with the intent to avert overshoot. Wigley's analysis demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to avoid temperature overshoot - however it considered only simplistic sulfur injection profiles (all started in 2010), just one mitigation scenario, and did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study builds upon Wigley's premise of the combined mitigation/geoengineering approach and brings associated uncertainty into the analysis. First, this study addresses the question as to how much geoengineering intervention would be needed to avoid overshoot by considering associated uncertainty? Then, would a geoengineering intervention of such a magnitude including uncertainty be permissible in considering all the other side effects? This study begins from the supposition that geoengineering could be employed to cap warming at 2.0°C since preindustrial. A few

  16. Intra- and intergenerational discounting in the climate game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Jennifer; Hagel, Kristin; Hauert, Christoph; Marotzke, Jochem; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2013-12-01

    The difficulty of avoiding dangerous climate change arises from a tension between group and self-interest and is exacerbated by climate change's intergenerational nature. The present generation bears the costs of cooperation, whereas future generations accrue the benefits if present cooperation succeeds, or suffer if present cooperation fails. Although temporal discounting has long been known to matter in making individual choices, the extent of temporal discounting is poorly understood in a group setting. We represent the effect of both intra- and intergenerational discounting through a collective-risk group experiment framed around climate change. Participants could choose to cooperate or to risk losing an additional endowment with a high probability. The rewards of defection were immediate, whereas the rewards of cooperation were delayed by one day, delayed by seven weeks (intragenerational discounting), or delayed by several decades and spread over a much larger number of potential beneficiaries (intergenerational discounting). We find that intergenerational discounting leads to a marked decrease in cooperation; all groups failed to reach the collective target. Intragenerational discounting was weaker by comparison. Our results experimentally confirm that international negotiations to mitigate climate change are unlikely to succeed if individual countries' short-term gains can arise only from defection.

  17. Flying and danger, joy and fear.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R

    1986-02-01

    U.S. Air Force fliers are all volunteers who undergo rigorous training for their profession. Their motivation may be deeprooted and emotional, or may arise from a conscious decision made in early adulthood. Some motivation is flawed and fails early. Other motivation may be eroded by a single dangerous event, by an accumulation of "close calls" (one's own or others'), or by a growing interest in nonaviation elements. Since Air Force fliers may "quit" only at some personal cost to pride or pocketbook, they may develop a fear of flying. This may be truly phobic, a situational reaction, or an awareness of personal vulnerability. Some displace anxiety about flying into somatic symptoms. The author discusses motivation to fly, its various modes of failure, and some clinical aspects of fear of flying. PMID:3954701

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-18

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit.

  19. Intensive care unit syndrome: a dangerous misnomer.

    PubMed

    McGuire, B E; Basten, C J; Ryan, C J; Gallagher, J

    2000-04-10

    The terms intensive care unit (ICU) syndrome and ICU psychosis have been used interchangeably to describe a cluster of psychiatric symptoms that are unique to the ICU environment. It is often postulated that aspects of the ICU, such as sleep deprivation and sensory overload or monotony, are causes of the syndrome. This article reviews the empirical support for these propositions. We conclude that ICU syndrome does not differ from delirium and that ICU syndrome is caused exclusively by organic stressors on the central nervous system. We argue further that the term ICU syndrome is dangerous because it impedes standardized communication and research and may reduce the vigilance necessary to promptly investigate and reverse the medical cause of the delirium. Directions for future research are suggested. PMID:10761954

  20. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a storage unit located on the Hanford Site. The unit consists of two earth-covered railroad tunnels that are used for storage of process equipment (some containing dangerous waste) removed from the PUREX Plant. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railroad cars and remotely transferred into the tunnels for long-term storage. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as a co-operator of the PUREX Storage Tunnels, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. This appendix contains Tunnel 1 Construction Specifications, HWS-5638, consisting of 49 pages.

  1. Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G M

    2003-06-01

    One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs.

  2. Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Evans, J P

    2014-12-01

    In many species, the negative fitness effects of inbreeding have facilitated the evolution of a wide range of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. Although avoidance mechanisms operating prior to mating are well documented, evidence for postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance remain scarce. Here, we examine the potential for paternity biases to favour unrelated males when their sperm compete for fertilizations though postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. To test this possibility, we used a series of artificial inseminations to deliver an equal number of sperm from a related (either full sibling or half sibling) and unrelated male to a female while statistically controlling for differences in sperm quality between rival ejaculates. In this way, we were able to focus exclusively on postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance and account for differences in sperm competitiveness between rival males. Under these carefully controlled conditions, we report a significant bias in paternity towards unrelated males, although this effect was only apparent when the related male was a full sibling. We also show that sperm competition generally favours males with highly viable sperm and thus that some variance in sperm competitiveness can be attributed to difference in sperm quality. Our findings for postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance are consistent with prior work on guppies, revealing that sperm competition success declines linearly with the level of relatedness, but also that such effects are only apparent at relatedness levels of full siblings or higher. These findings reveal that postcopulatory processes alone can facilitate inbreeding avoidance. PMID:25387854

  3. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  4. Endless self-avoiding walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clisby, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    We introduce a self-avoiding walk model for which end-effects are completely eliminated. We enumerate the number of these walks for various lattices in dimensions two and three, and use these enumerations to study the properties of this model. We find that endless self-avoiding walks have the same connective constant as self-avoiding walks, and the same Flory exponent ν. However, there is no power law correction to the exponential number growth for this new model, i.e. the critical exponent γ = 1 exactly in any dimension. In addition, the number growth has no analytic corrections to scaling, and we have convincing numerical evidence to support the conjecture that the amplitude for the number growth is a universal quantity. The technique by which end-effects are eliminated may be generalized to other models of polymers such as interacting self-avoiding walks.

  5. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  6. Climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Robert W.; Davidson, Eric A.; Goodale, Christine L.; Greaver, Tara L.; Herrick, Jeffrey D.; Liu, Lingli

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer application in the United States have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle, with serious effects on climate change. The climate effects can be short-lived, by impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, or long-lived, by altering ecosystem greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we develop a coherent framework for assessing the climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen emissions, including oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N2O). We use the global temperature potential (GTP), calculated at 20 and 100 y, in units of CO2 equivalents (CO2e), as a common metric. The largest cooling effects are due to combustion sources of oxides of nitrogen altering tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations and enhancing carbon sequestration in forests. The combined cooling effects are estimated at −290 to −510 Tg CO2e on a GTP20 basis. However, these effects are largely short-lived. On a GTP100 basis, combustion contributes just −16 to −95 Tg CO2e. Agriculture contributes to warming on both the 20-y and 100-y timescales, primarily through N2O emissions from soils. Under current conditions, these warming and cooling effects partially offset each other. However, recent trends show decreasing emissions from combustion sources. To prevent warming from US reactive nitrogen, reductions in agricultural N2O emissions are needed. Substantial progress toward this goal is possible using current technology. Without such actions, even greater CO2 emission reductions will be required to avoid dangerous climate change. PMID:22547815

  7. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology: clotting, inflammation, epithelial and mesenchymal healing.

    PubMed

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

  8. Global climatic catastrophes

    SciTech Connect

    Budyko, M.I.; Golitsyn, G.S.; Izrael, A

    1988-01-01

    This work inquires into global climatic catastrophes of the past, presenting data not easily available outside of the Socialist Countries, and applies these results to the study of future climatic developments, especially as they threaten in case of Nuclear Warfare - Nuclear Winter. The authors discuss probable after effects from the Soviet point of view on the basis of research, stressing the need to avoid all conflict which might lead to the next and final Global Climatic Catastrophy.

  9. Beginning Teachers: In Danger of Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick

    This study examined the relationship between environmental factors of teaching climate for beginning teachers and the desire to remain in teaching. Data from 23,088 Public School Teacher Questionnaires from the Schools and Staffing Survey longitudinal database were analyzed to determine the effect of environmental demographic factors…

  10. 33 CFR 401.80 - Reporting dangerous cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting dangerous cargo. 401.80 Section 401.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Information and Reports § 401.80 Reporting dangerous cargo. (a) The master of...

  11. 46 CFR 190.25-15 - Guards in dangerous places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards in dangerous places. 190.25-15 Section 190.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-15 Guards in dangerous places. (a) Suitable hand covers, guards, or rails shall be installed...

  12. 30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent dangers and harms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent dangers and harms. 722.11 Section 722... INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.11 Imminent dangers and harms. (a) If an... expected to cause, significant, imminent environmental harm to land, air, or water resources,...

  13. 48 CFR 245.7310-4 - Dangerous property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous property. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7310-4 Dangerous property. The following warning shall be included when it cannot be certified that the property...

  14. Validity of Scoring "Dangerous Answers" on a Written Certification Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slogoff, Stephen; Hughes, Francis P.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of "dangerous answers" as a scoring method for certification examinations in anesthesiology concluded that selection of dangerous answers in multiple-choice tests results from lack of information rather than purposeful action, and that implementation of the scoring method is unjustified and unfairly punitive. (MSE)

  15. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific...

  20. Children in Danger: Coping with the Consequences of Community Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James; And Others

    This book examines the threat to childhood development posed by living amid chronic community violence and the link between a child's response to growing up in an atmosphere of violence and danger and the social context established for that child by community and caregivers. The 11 chapters in the book are as follows: (1) "The Meaning of Danger in…

  1. Dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Penkunas, Michael J; Platt, Michael L; Coss, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions). We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target) among arrays of nondangerous animals (distractors) as well as detected images of a nondangerous animal (target) among arrays of dangerous animals (distractors). We found that participants were quicker to locate targets when the targets were dangerous animals compared with nondangerous animals, even when spatial frequency and luminance were controlled. The participants were slower to locate nondangerous targets because they spent more time looking at dangerous distractors, a process known as delayed disengagement, and looked at a larger number of dangerous distractors. These results indicate that dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans, suggesting that historical predation has shaped some facets of visual orienting and its underlying neural architecture in modern humans. PMID:25299991

  2. Are proton pump inhibitors really so dangerous?

    PubMed

    Savarino, Vincenzo; Dulbecco, Pietro; Savarino, Edoardo

    2016-08-01

    For decades, millions of patients with acid-related disorders have had their acid inhibited effectively and safely first with H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and then with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). As with any pharmacological agent, PPIs have been reported to be associated with some adverse events, but several recent large-scale observational studies have evidenced new and serious abnormalities generally linked to their chronic use. However, these studies have often important limitations for their frequent retrospective design and other methodological drawbacks, such as selection biases of the analyzed populations and the presence of various confounding factors. Overall, although the conclusions of these pharmacovigilant investigations must be taken into account and can generate important hypotheses for future research, they do not have to create panic among patients and alarmism among physicians. On considering the weakness of these studies, we suggest physicians should not refrain from continuing to use PPIs, if these drugs are given for medical indications clearly established in the literature and, more importantly, they should not be induced to shift to H2RAs, a class of antisecretory agents that are much less effective than PPIs. A return to the past is potentially dangerous for the patients, taking into account the well-known success of PPIs in the wide spectrum of all acid-related conditions. PMID:27321544

  3. The Medawar Lecture 1998 Is science dangerous?

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2005-01-01

    The idea that science is dangerous is deeply embedded in our culture, particularly in literature, yet science provides the best way of understanding the world. Science is not the same as technology. In contrast to technology, reliable scientific knowledge is value-free and has no moral or ethical value. Scientists are not responsible for the technological applications of science; the very nature of science is that it is not possible to predict what will be discovered or how these discoveries could be applied. The obligation of scientists is to make public both any social implications of their work and its technological applications. A rare case of immoral science was eugenics. The image of Frankenstein has been turned by the media into genetic pornography, but neither cloning nor stem cells or gene therapy raise new ethical issues. There are no areas of research that are so socially sensitive that research into them should be proscribed. We have to rely on the many institutions of a democratic society: parliament, a free and vigorous press, affected groups and the scientists themselves. That is why programmes for the public understanding of science are so important. Alas, we still do not know how best to do this. PMID:16147520

  4. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark B.

    2015-10-01

    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  5. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  6. [Lightnings--danger while practising sport].

    PubMed

    Lewartowski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Certain kinds of sporting disciplines are connected with a high risk of the lightning strike. Although most injuries are non-fatal, the transient or permanent damages of the nervous and ciruculatory systems or other internal organs are common. The concomitant psychological trauma may also be crucial. Various cases could be avoided by following simple safety rules. Wide educational programmes how to act during the stormy weather and elaboration of "stormy guidelines" should concern both sportsmen and people responsible for events safety. PMID:26827562

  7. Dangerous Predatory Publishers Threaten Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    This article introduces predatory publishers in the context of biomedical sciences research. It describes the characteristics of predatory publishers, including spamming and using fake metrics, and it describes the problems they cause for science and universities. Predatory journals often fail to properly manage peer review, allowing pseudo-science to be published dressed up as authentic science. Academic evaluation is also affected, as some researchers take advantage of the quick, easy, and cheap publishing predatory journals provide. By understanding how predatory publishers operate, researchers can avoid becoming victimized by them. PMID:27550476

  8. Potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan - Research overview of 2004-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansky, Bohumir; Yerokhin, Sergey; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Cerny, Michal; Falatkova, Kristyna; Kocum, Jan; Benes, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Global warming causes intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in most of high mountains all over the world. This process is also evident in the mountain regions of central Tien Shan. Glacier melt water affects changes in hydrological regime of water streams and causes overfilling of high mountain lake basins. The dams of many lakes are very unstable and can burst open. To determine the degree of such risk, it is necessary to analyse the genesis of lakes, to characterize the morphology of the lake basins and to know the particularities of their hydrological regime. According to the latest inventory within territory of Kyrgyzstan, a total of 1328 lakes have been identified as potentially dangerous, 12 lakes are considered as currently dangerous, other 25 feature high potential hazard. Since 1952 more than 70 disastrous cases of lake outburst have been registered. The hazardous alpine lakes are studied in Kyrgyzstan systematically since 1966. Since 2004, Czech-Kyrgyz research team has been operating in Kyrgyzstan in the field of dangerous glacial lakes. Projects were focused primarily on high-mountain glacial lakes risk assessment, propositions of risk mitigation measures, establishment of permanent research station near one of the studied glacier complexes, preparation of risk analysis for selected endangered valleys, evaluation of climatic and hydrological data and glacier development within observed regions. The most significant portion of data and information has been gathered during field work, complemented by satellite image analysis and surveillance flights over the monitored sites.

  9. Improving Communication About Potentially Catastrophic Risks of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R. E. T.; Stern, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific assessments of future climate change tend to focus on central estimates and may understate or ignore the significance of low probability outcomes that may have extremely severe consequences. This relative neglect of tail risks is partly a result of traditions in prediction and forecasting, and conservatism about phenomena for which few data and information exist. The misinterpretation of such scientific assessments can have adverse results. Even though the central estimates of high emissions scenarios present obvious dangers, the tails of lower emissions scenarios still contain very serious risks which may be overlooked by policy-makers. Economic analyses may omit the possibility of catastrophic impacts, leading to substantial under-estimates of damage caused by climate change. So how do we avoid these shortcomings and achieve more effective communication about the risks of climate change? The scientific assessments of climate change differ in significant ways from the formal risk assessment methods successfully employed in other fields. We outline a 'good practice' approach to the identification, assessment and communication of potentially catastrophic risks based on examples from sectors such as civil engineering, national security and insurance. We illustrate how this 'good practice' approach could be applied to provide a better presentation of some catastrophic tail risks that are outlined in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The risks we consider include the possibility of 'extreme' rises in temperature and sea level lying outside the central projections described in the report, and the plausibility of significant releases of methane from the thawing of permafrost. Using these illustrations, we examine how scientific researchers can improve their communication about climate change to assist decision-making, and how policy-makers and politicians might respond differently to alternative presentations of

  10. The evolution of the danger theory

    PubMed Central

    Matzinger, Polly

    2016-01-01

    Polly Matzinger, now Chief of the Ghost Laboratory and the section on T-cell Tolerance and Memory at the NIH, has previously worked as a bartender, carpenter, jazz musician, playboy bunny and dog trainer. She completed her PhD at the University of California, San Diego (USA) and was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Cambridge (UK). She has worried for years that the dominant model of immunity does not explain a wealth of accumulated data and has recently suggested an alternative, the danger model, which suggests that the immune system is far less concerned with things that are foreign than with those that do damage. This model, whose two major tenets Matzinger admits were thought up in a bath and on a field while herding sheep, has very few assumptions and yet “explains most of what the immune system seems to do right, as well as most of what it appears to do wrong”, covering such areas as transplantation, autoimmunity and the immunobiology of tumors. The model has been the subject of a BBC Horizon film and has featured in two other films about immunity and countless articles in both the scientific and the lay press. In her spare time, Matzinger trains border collies for competitive shepherding trials and, in her own words, “composes songs that are not really worth listening to, and worries about the next major question in the immune system”, namely “once it decides to respond, how does the immune system know what kind of response to make?” PMID:22607177

  11. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    PubMed

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  12. Multicentury changes in ocean and land contributions to the climate-carbon feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Lindsay, K.; Munoz, E.; Fu, W.; Moore, J. K.; Hoffman, F. M.; Mahowald, N. M.; Doney, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    Improved constraints on carbon cycle responses to climate change are needed to inform mitigation policy, yet our understanding of how these responses may evolve after 2100 remains highly uncertain. Using the Community Earth System Model (v1.0), we quantified climate-carbon feedbacks from 1850 to 2300 for the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and its extension. In three simulations, land and ocean biogeochemical processes experienced the same trajectory of increasing atmospheric CO2. Each simulation had a different degree of radiative coupling for CO2 and other greenhouse gases and aerosols, enabling diagnosis of feedbacks. In a fully coupled simulation, global mean surface air temperature increased by 9.3 K from 1850 to 2300, with 4.4 K of this warming occurring after 2100. Excluding CO2, warming from other greenhouse gases and aerosols was 1.6 K by 2300, near a 2 K target needed to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Ocean contributions to the climate-carbon feedback increased considerably over time and exceeded contributions from land after 2100. The sensitivity of ocean carbon to climate change was found to be proportional to changes in ocean heat content, as a consequence of this heat modifying transport pathways for anthropogenic CO2 inflow and solubility of dissolved inorganic carbon. By 2300, climate change reduced cumulative ocean uptake by 330 Pg C, from 1410 Pg C to 1080 Pg C. Land fluxes similarly diverged over time, with climate change reducing stocks by 232 Pg C. Regional influence of climate change on carbon stocks was largest in the North Atlantic Ocean and tropical forests of South America. Our analysis suggests that after 2100, oceans may become as important as terrestrial ecosystems in regulating the magnitude of the climate-carbon feedback.

  13. Exploring Undergraduate Engagement With The Consequences of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, N.; Danielson, R.; Lombardi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Engendering conceptual change from naive to scientifically sophisticated beliefs is a difficult task. One factor that fosters conceptual change is greater engagement with a topic. Yet if one asks about a topic in the wrong way, one may fail to find engagement where it exists or assume it exists where it does not. Climate change is an immense topic with consequences across many domains and people may be more concerned with specific consequences than with the topic generally. Therefore, it may be helpful to disambiguate the various risks to see which consequences people find especially engaging and which they do not. We asked 188 undergraduate students at a large university in California to rate twenty-five potential consequences of climate change on several questions. The questions were drawn from constructs that lead to greater engagement with a topic according to the Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model (Dole & Sinatra, 1998). Scores were then combined to create engagement scores. We found that two potential consequences of climate change were rated as more engaging than climate change generally: air pollution and increases in the price of food. Many consequences were rated as less engaging, including floods, stronger hurricanes, and melting permafrost. This implies that some consequences that scientists consider potentially worthy of concern are nonetheless not considered engaging by many. We also asked participants several open-ended questions about their perceptions of climate change and what consequences they especially cared about. Results were broadly similar but demonstrated many misconceptions about the mechanics and consequences of climate change. Several participants expressed concerns about increases in earthquakes, changes to the ozone layer, and dangerous changes to the density of the atmosphere. We asked participants about the relationship between the terms climate change and global warming. There was considerable disagreement on how these two

  14. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Atul; Filobbos, George

    2013-01-01

    The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960's when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL) is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL) and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author's experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved. PMID:24501475

  15. Biochar aging reduces earthworm avoidance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a black carbon substance produced by the pyrolysis of organic feedstocks, has been used in many soil improvement strategies ranging from nutrient addition to sequestration of C. Simple toxicity studies and laboratory preference/avoidance assays are recommended but results rarely reported. ...

  16. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance. PMID:19186631

  17. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  18. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points. PMID:22270703

  19. Comparing Angular and Curved Shapes in Terms of Implicit Associations and Approach/Avoidance Responses

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Letizia; Ruta, Nicole; Bertamini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Most people prefer smoothly curved shapes over more angular shapes. We investigated the origin of this effect using abstract shapes and implicit measures of semantic association and preference. In Experiment 1 we used a multidimensional Implicit Association Test (IAT) to verify the strength of the association of curved and angular polygons with danger (safe vs. danger words), valence (positive vs. negative words) and gender (female vs. male names). Results showed that curved polygons were associated with safe and positive concepts and with female names, whereas angular polygons were associated with danger and negative concepts and with male names. Experiment 2 used a different implicit measure, which avoided any need to categorise the stimuli. Using a revised version of the Stimulus Response Compatibility (SRC) task we tested with a stick figure (i.e., the manikin) approach and avoidance reactions to curved and angular polygons. We found that RTs for approaching vs. avoiding angular polygons did not differ, even in the condition where the angles were more pronounced. By contrast participants were faster and more accurate when moving the manikin towards curved shapes. Experiment 2 suggests that preference for curvature cannot derive entirely from an association of angles with threat. We conclude that smoothly curved contours make these abstract shapes more pleasant. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of such a preference. PMID:26460610

  20. Comparing Angular and Curved Shapes in Terms of Implicit Associations and Approach/Avoidance Responses.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Letizia; Ruta, Nicole; Bertamini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Most people prefer smoothly curved shapes over more angular shapes. We investigated the origin of this effect using abstract shapes and implicit measures of semantic association and preference. In Experiment 1 we used a multidimensional Implicit Association Test (IAT) to verify the strength of the association of curved and angular polygons with danger (safe vs. danger words), valence (positive vs. negative words) and gender (female vs. male names). Results showed that curved polygons were associated with safe and positive concepts and with female names, whereas angular polygons were associated with danger and negative concepts and with male names. Experiment 2 used a different implicit measure, which avoided any need to categorise the stimuli. Using a revised version of the Stimulus Response Compatibility (SRC) task we tested with a stick figure (i.e., the manikin) approach and avoidance reactions to curved and angular polygons. We found that RTs for approaching vs. avoiding angular polygons did not differ, even in the condition where the angles were more pronounced. By contrast participants were faster and more accurate when moving the manikin towards curved shapes. Experiment 2 suggests that preference for curvature cannot derive entirely from an association of angles with threat. We conclude that smoothly curved contours make these abstract shapes more pleasant. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of such a preference. PMID:26460610

  1. TRPA1 detects environmental chemicals and induces avoidance behavior and arousal from sleep.

    PubMed

    Yonemitsu, Toru; Kuroki, Chiharu; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Mori, Yasuo; Kanmura, Yuichi; Kashiwadani, Hideki; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Detecting threats and escaping before serious confrontations are important for animals to avoid danger and death. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a member of the TRP superfamily, is expressed in a subset of sensory neurons and mediates nociception evoked by pungent chemicals. Using behavioral testing, we found that TRPA1 knockout mice failed to avoid entering a chamber filled with vapor of formalin, allyl isothiocyanate, and acrolein. The avoidance behavior was blocked by nasal but not subcutaneous administration of a blocker to TRPA1. We also found that TRPA1 knockout mice did not wake when exposed to formalin during sleep. Additionally, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the first relay neurons of the trigeminal system, showed massive expression of c-Fos after a brief (3 min) exposure to formalin vapor. TRPA1 seems to be a sentinel for environmental chemicals and induces avoidance behaviors and waking by way of the trigeminal system. PMID:24172941

  2. 1 in 6 Seniors Takes Dangerous Combos of Meds, Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... their patients about their use of complementary and alternative medicines. On the flip side, many patients are often ... telling primary care providers about using complementary and alternative medicines can be dangerous, especially if the type being ...

  3. Type 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159330.html Type 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Prognosis may ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Prospects for people with type 2 diabetes and heart disease may be grimmer than ...

  4. Dangerous Urinary Tract Infections Common in Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159308.html Dangerous Urinary Tract Infections Common in Nursing Homes Study found 1 in 20 residents developed ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in nursing home residents can often have serious effects, including ...

  5. Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160530.html Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids Establish a ' ... this burn accident was not an isolated case. Cooking burns are common among American children, but can ...

  6. Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159631.html Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer More than half of ... not keeping a close eye on any specific child. They are trained to enforce pool rules, scan, ...

  7. CDC Warns of Dangers of Plastic Surgery in Dominican Republic

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159884.html CDC Warns of Dangers of Plastic Surgery in Dominican Republic Report details cases of ... Coast became infected with a disfiguring bacteria following plastic surgery procedures they had in the Dominican Republic. ...

  8. Diabetes May Raise Risk for Dangerous Staph Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157736.html Diabetes May Raise Risk for Dangerous Staph Infection Researchers believe the disease might dampen immune system, ... News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Diabetes Complications Staphylococcal Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  9. Body Fat May Be Bigger Health Danger Than Body Size

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157631.html Body Fat May Be Bigger Health Danger Than Body Size Study finds fat levels ... Body Weight Obesity Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Body Weight Obesity About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  10. Stereo-based Collision Avoidance System for Urban Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi; Ishikawa, Naoto; Sasaki, Kazuyuki; Nakajima, Masato

    2002-11-01

    Numerous car accidents occur on urban road. However, researches done so far on driving assistance are subjecting highways whose environment is relatively simple and easy to handle, and new approach for urban settings is required. Our purpose is to extend its support to the following conditions in city traffic: the presence of obstacles such as pedestrians and telephone poles; the lane mark is not always drawn on a road; drivers may lack the sense of awareness of the lane mark. We propose a collision avoidance system, which can be applied to both highways and urban traffic environment. In our system, stereo cameras are set in front of a vehicle and the captured images are processed through a computer. We create a Projected Disparity Map (PDM) from stereo image pair, which is a disparity histogram taken along ordinate direction of obtained disparity image. When there is an obstacle in front, we can detect it by finding a peak appeared in the PDM. With a speed meter and a steering sensor, the stop distance and the radius of curvature of the self-vehicle are calculated, in order to set the observation-required area, which does not depend on lane marks, within a PDM. A danger level will be computed from the distance and the relative speed to the closest approaching object detected within the observation-required area. The method has been tested in urban traffic scenes and has shown to be effective for judging dangerous situation, and gives proper alarm to a driver.

  11. Estimating avoidable causes of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D L; Muir, C

    1995-01-01

    Evidence that much cancer is preventable derives from observations of time trends and geographic patterns of cancer, birth cohort changes, high risks in groups with well-defined exposures, and experimental studies. In an effort to identify additional opportunities for reducing the impact of cancer on society, this conference assessed avoidable causes of cancer. The magnitude and extent of preventable causes of cancer are subjects of intense debate, with discrepancies often related to the use of different time frames and different weights for epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence. There is much agreement, however, about the exposures that increase risk, notably tobacco, alcohol, diet, radiation, medications, occupational exposures, general environmental exposures, and infectious agents. Interactions between carcinogenic exposures and genetic susceptibility are also important. Concerted efforts are needed to identify avoidable causes of cancer and to apply knowledge already obtained to reduce the cancer burden. PMID:8741803

  12. The dangerousness of persons with the Othello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leong, G B; Silva, J A; Garza-Treviño, E S; Oliva, D; Ferrari, M M; Komanduri, R V; Caldwell, J C

    1994-11-01

    The Othello syndrome, or delusional jealousy, often raises significant forensic issues, particularly dangerousness. Dangerous patients suffering from the Othello delusion may present with hostility ranging from verbal threats to homicidal acts. We present three cases of individuals suffering from Othello syndrome associated with significant hostility and organic mental factors. We analyze these cases along with Othello syndrome cases culled from the recent anglophonic literature, especially in terms of implications for domestic and public safety. PMID:7815024

  13. [Requirements for the keeping of dangerous exotic animals].

    PubMed

    Moritz, J

    2003-05-01

    The problem of dangerous dogs receives a lot of public attention. However, there is another group of animals that can threaten public security--the group of dangerous exotic animals. In daily routine mainly venomous snakes, spiders and scorpions or crocodiles, giant snakes and snapping turtles are of practical importance. The paper gives hints how to keep these animals according to animal protection and public safety rules. PMID:12822263

  14. Ancient Origin of the New Developmental Superfamily DANGER

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, D. Neil; Barrow, Roxanne K.; Snyder, Solomon H.; van Rossum, Damian B.; Patterson, Randen L.

    2007-01-01

    Developmental proteins play a pivotal role in the origin of animal complexity and diversity. We report here the identification of a highly divergent developmental protein superfamily (DANGER), which originated before the emergence of animals (∼850 million years ago) and experienced major expansion-contraction events during metazoan evolution. Sequence analysis demonstrates that DANGER proteins diverged via multiple mechanisms, including amino acid substitution, intron gain and/or loss, and recombination. Divergence for DANGER proteins is substantially greater than for the prototypic member of the superfamily (Mab-21 family) and other developmental protein families (e.g., WNT proteins). DANGER proteins are widely expressed and display species-dependent tissue expression patterns, with many members having roles in development. DANGER1A, which regulates the inositol trisphosphate receptor, promotes the differentiation and outgrowth of neuronal processes. Regulation of development may be a universal function of DANGER family members. This family provides a model system to investigate how rapid protein divergence contributes to morphological complexity. PMID:17301879

  15. PERSPECTIVE: Climate change: seeking balance in media reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntingford, Chris; Fowler, David

    2008-06-01

    Boykoff and Mansfield (2008), in a recent paper in this journal, provide a detailed analysis of the representation of climate change in the UK tabloid newspapers. They conclude that the representation of this issue in these papers 'diverged from the scientific consensus that humans contribute to climate change'. That is, portrayal of climate change in tabloid newspapers contradicts the conclusions of the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment (IPCC 2007). Is it healthy to have the scientific consensus challenged so frequently? But should we worry about systematic misrepresentation of scientific consensus? We believe the answer to both of these questions is yes. To present regular updates on climate change issues in the popular press is important because the changes in behaviour needed to achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions require a broad understanding of the basic facts. However, if the majority of readers receive misleading information, it will be difficult to achieve the level of public understanding necessary to make such reductions needed to avoid dangerous climate change (Schellnhuber et al 2006 and references therein). Boykoff and Mansfield (2008) identify a gulf in presentation of the scientific facts and their interpretation on the subject of 'global warming' in tabloid newspapers, when compared to the scientific consensus. What is really sobering is the huge circulation of these papers (see table 1 of Boykoff and Mansfield—many millions per day); even the most important 'landmark' research papers very rarely achieve five hundred plus citations. We find it heartening, therefore, that the area of climate change research does at least have the umbrella of the IPCC. This provides an additional channel through which current research associated with the effects of burning fossil fuels can be presented, and in our personal experience at least, we have found the non-tabloid UK newspapers to report accurately

  16. Geoethics in the Years of Living Dangerously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences lag behind the ecologic and atmospheric sciences in addressing the major scientific and societal ethical issues facing the inhabitants of planet Earth. Regardless, major emerging ethical issues at the interface of the earth system with society demand geoscientist engagement. These include climate change, extinction and biodiversity decline, transformation of terrestrial landscapes and related impacts on ocean ecosystems, and the consequential resonance of these changes on human health, economic and environmental justice, and political stability. The societal factors driving these issues derive from a world view founded on speciesism (human dominion), utilitarian use of resources, unquestioned population and economic growth, and human difficulty in perceiving deep time and large spatial scale. Accommodation of the supernatural, mythical, and political realms with science has led to widespread conflation of scientific consensus with opinion, driving denial of both climate change and evolution. Future success in rationally addressing these ethical conundrums requires geoscientist engagement across the social, political, economic, ethical, philosophical, and historical realms of inquiry. Geoscientists must be well-versed in earth system science principles and the major geologic concepts relevant to understanding anthropogenic change including deep time, the fossil record of evolution, and changes across multiple spatial and temporal scales that transcend human experience. They must also: 1) confront the global population issue, using the archaeological and historical record of its recent rapidly accelerated growth, especially as it impacts resource consumption and earth system function, 2) forcefully address the effects of agriculture on the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, disease, urbanization, and political instability, 3) apply the synthetic principles of conservation biology, including ecosystem science, geoecology, and major advances

  17. Geoengineering the climate: an overview and update.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J G

    2012-09-13

    The climate change that we are experiencing now is caused by an increase in greenhouse gases due to human activities, including burning fossil fuels, agriculture and deforestation. There is now widespread belief that a global warming of greater than 2(°)C above pre-industrial levels would be dangerous and should therefore be avoided. However, despite growing concerns over climate change and numerous international attempts to agree on reductions of global CO(2) emissions, these have continued to climb. This has led some commentators to suggest more radical 'geoengineering' alternatives to conventional mitigation by reductions in CO(2) emissions. Geoengineering is deliberate intervention in the climate system to counteract man-made global warming. There are two main classes of geoengineering: direct carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management that aims to cool the planet by reflecting more sunlight back to space. The findings of the review of geoengineering carried out by the UK Royal Society in 2009 are summarized here, including the climate effects, costs, risks and research and governance needs for various approaches. The possible role of geoengineering in a portfolio of responses to climate change is discussed, and various recent initiatives to establish good governance of research activity are reviewed. Key findings include the following.- Geoengineering is not a magic bullet and not an alternative to emissions reductions. - Cutting global greenhouse gas emissions must remain our highest priority. (i) But this is proving to be difficult, and geoengineering may be useful to support it. - Geoengineering is very likely to be technically possible. (i) However, there are major uncertainties and potential risks concerning effectiveness, costs and social and environmental impacts. - Much more research is needed, as well as public engagement and a system of regulation (for both deployment and for possible large-scale field tests). - The acceptability of

  18. Helping Athletes Avoid Hazardous Weight Control Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janz, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    This article addresses dangerous dieting techniques used by athletes and provides coaches and teachers specific strategies to aid in preventing eating-related disorders among athletes. Symptoms of anorexia and of bulimia are described. (JL)

  19. Regional projections of climate change using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, S. R.; Murdock, T. Q.

    2011-12-01

    Earth system models of intermediate complexity have been generally employed in experiments studying global temperature changes, carbon-cycle responses and millennial-scale climate variability. Their reduced computational demands mean many different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios can be examined, including exploring thresholds of dangerous climate change and geo-engineering schemes. In response to requests from users for more information on regional climate change under both more optimistic and more pessimistic emissions scenarios than the range provided by SRES, EMICs are able to produce additional climate change projections relatively rapidly. However, as a result of their parameterizations and reduced complexity, EMICs have been generally avoided when examining sub-global spatial scales in favour of GCMs or RCMs. To investigate these concerns, we compare responses to changes in radiative forcing from both the University of Victoria Earth system climate model and an ensemble of CMIP3 global climate models at a variety of sub-global spatial scales. Temperature trends and anomalies from commonly used intervals in the 20th and 21st centuries (e.g. 1961-1990, 2046-2065) are evaluated for both model types under standard emissions scenarios. Results indicate that the UVIC model produces statistically similar regional temperature responses as those of the ensemble average of the IPCC AR4 global climate models. Precipitation anomalies display fewer statistical matches with rainfall increases underestimated and snowfall decreases overestimated by the UVIC model. The results suggest regional consequences of more varied emissions scenarios could be examined in certain cases using the UVIC model (and potentially other EMICs) instead of GCMs or RCMs. A selection of regional climate change responses comparing the UVIC model to the AR4 ensemble average will be presented for a variety of areas.

  20. "If I feel anxious, there must be danger": ex-consequentia reasoning in inferring danger in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Arntz, A; Rauner, M; van den Hout, M

    1995-11-01

    It has been suggested that neurotic patients engage in 'emotional reasoning', i.e. draw invalid conclusions about a situation on the basis of their subjective emotional response. The present experiment investigated whether anxiety patients infer danger on the basis of their anxious response, whereas normals infer danger only on the basis of objective information. Four groups of anxiety patients (52 spider phobics, 41 panic patients, 38 social phobics, and 31 other anxiety patients) and 24 normal controls made ratings of the danger they perceived in scripts in which information about objective safety vs objective danger, and anxiety response vs non-anxiety response information were systematically varied. As hypothesized, anxiety patients were not only influenced by objective danger information, but also by anxiety response information, whereas normal controls were not. The effect was neither situation-specific, nor specific for panic patients. This tendency to infer danger on the basis of subjective anxiety ('ex-consequentia reasoning') may play a role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. PMID:7487851

  1. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    PubMed

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy. PMID:20025789

  2. Diet, nutrition, and avoidable cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Willett, W C

    1995-01-01

    In a 1981 review, Doll and Peto estimated that approximately 35% of cancer deaths in the United States were potentially avoidable by the modification of diet but that this percentage might be as low as 10% or as high as 70%. Since that time, the epidemiologic literature on diet and cancer has grown greatly, as has understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. In general, this expanded literature has not provided reason to alter the Doll and Peto estimate substantially. For colon cancer, evidence has accumulated that some of the international differences that were attributed to diet are probably due to physical activity. For breast cancer, the concept that fat intake per se is the primary reason for differences in rates among countries has not been supported by prospective studies. Although several lines of evidence suggest that caloric restriction and slow growth rates may contribute importantly to the low rates of breast cancer found outside Western countries, this may not translate directly to practical means of prevention. In contrast to breast cancer, more recent data have supported a causative role for red meat in the development of colon and prostate cancers, although perhaps not entirely due to its fat content. Whereas earlier thinking about nutrition and cancer emphasized the adverse effects of fat and other components in the diet, the most compelling evidence of the last decade has indicated the importance of protective factors, largely unidentified, in fruits and vegetables. Considering the more recent evidence, it is roughly estimated that about 32% of cancer may be avoidable by changes in diet; however, it now seems unlikely that less than 20% or more than 42% of cancer deaths would be avoidable by dietary change. PMID:8741778

  3. The sounds of safety: stress and danger in music perception

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas; Huron, David; Shanahan, Daniel; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1) there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2) any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3) in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the environment. PMID:26300825

  4. The sounds of safety: stress and danger in music perception.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thomas; Huron, David; Shanahan, Daniel; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1) there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2) any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3) in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the environment. PMID:26300825

  5. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  6. Cultural Values, U.S. Neighborhood Danger, and Mexican American Parents' Parenting

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed. PMID:23750519

  7. Cultural values, U.S. neighborhood danger, and Mexican American parents' parenting.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Gonzales, Nancy A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters, most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed. PMID:23750519

  8. Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers.

    PubMed

    Dlugokencky, Edward J; Nisbet, Euan G; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David

    2011-05-28

    A factor of 2.5 increase in the global abundance of atmospheric methane (CH(4)) since 1750 contributes 0.5 Wm(-2) to total direct radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases (2.77 Wm(-2) in 2009), while its role in atmospheric chemistry adds another approximately 0.2 Wm(-2) of indirect forcing. Since CH(4) has a relatively short lifetime and it is very close to a steady state, reductions in its emissions would quickly benefit climate. Sensible emission mitigation strategies require quantitative understanding of CH(4)'s budget of emissions and sinks. Atmospheric observations of CH(4) abundance and its rate of increase, combined with an estimate of the CH(4) lifetime, constrain total global CH(4) emissions to between 500 and 600 Tg CH(4) yr(-1). While total global emissions are constrained reasonably well, estimates of emissions by source sector vary by up to a factor of 2. Current observation networks are suitable to constrain emissions at large scales (e.g. global) but not at the regional to national scales necessary to verify emission reductions under emissions trading schemes. Improved constraints on the global CH(4) budget and its break down of emissions by source sector and country will come from an enhanced observation network for CH(4) abundance and its isotopic composition (δ(13)C, δD(D=(2)H) and δ(14)C). Isotopic measurements are a valuable tool in distinguishing among various sources that contribute emissions to an air parcel, once fractionation by loss processes is accounted for. Isotopic measurements are especially useful at regional scales where signals are larger. Reducing emissions from many anthropogenic source sectors is cost-effective, but these gains may be cancelled, in part, by increasing emissions related to economic development in many parts of the world. An observation network that can quantitatively assess these changing emissions, both positive and negative, is required, especially in the context of emissions trading schemes. PMID

  9. Brain–immune interactions and the neural basis of disease-avoidant ingestive behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Neuro–immune interactions are widely manifested in animal physiology. Since immunity competes for energy with other physiological functions, it is subject to a circadian trade-off between other energy-demanding processes, such as neural activity, locomotion and thermoregulation. When immunity is challenged, this trade-off is tilted to an adaptive energy protecting and reallocation strategy that is identified as ‘sickness behaviour’. We review diverse disease-avoidant behaviours in the context of ingestion, indicating that several adaptive advantages have been acquired by animals (including humans) during phylogenetic evolution and by ontogenetic experiences: (i) preventing waste of energy by reducing appetite and consequently foraging/hunting (illness anorexia), (ii) avoiding unnecessary danger by promoting safe environments (preventing disease encounter by olfactory cues and illness potentiation neophobia), (iii) help fighting against pathogenic threats (hyperthermia/somnolence), and (iv) by associative learning evading specific foods or environments signalling danger (conditioned taste avoidance/aversion) and/or at the same time preparing the body to counteract by anticipatory immune responses (conditioning immunomodulation). The neurobiology behind disease-avoidant ingestive behaviours is reviewed with special emphasis on the body energy balance (intake versus expenditure) and an evolutionary psychology perspective. PMID:22042916

  10. Reducing abrupt climate change risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Mario; Zaelke, Durwood; Sarma, K. Madhava; Andersen, Stephen O.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Kaniaru, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Current emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) have already committed the planet to an increase in average surface temperature by the end of the century that may be above the critical threshold for tipping elements of the climate system into abrupt change with potentially irreversible and unmanageable consequences. This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (DAI). Scientific and policy literature refers to the need for “early,” “urgent,” “rapid,” and “fast-action” mitigation to help avoid DAI and abrupt climate changes. We define “fast-action” to include regulatory measures that can begin within 2–3 years, be substantially implemented in 5–10 years, and produce a climate response within decades. We discuss strategies for short-lived non-CO2 GHGs and particles, where existing agreements can be used to accomplish mitigation objectives. Policy makers can amend the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with high global warming potential. Other fast-action strategies can reduce emissions of black carbon particles and precursor gases that lead to ozone formation in the lower atmosphere, and increase biosequestration, including through biochar. These and other fast-action strategies may reduce the risk of abrupt climate change in the next few decades by complementing cuts in CO2 emissions. PMID:19822751

  11. Does Climate Literacy Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    One obstacle to climate science education is the perception that climate literacy plays little or no role in the formation of opinions about the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), or that members of the non-specialist public already know enough climate science to hold an informed opinion. Why engage in climate science education if climate literacy does not matter? The idea that resistance to or dismissal of the findings and policy implications of climate science can be addressed simply by providing more and better information—the 'deficit model'—has been heavily critiqued in recent years. However, the pendulum is in danger of swinging too far in the opposite direction, with the view that information deficits either do not exist or are not relevant at all to attitude formation, and that cultural perspectives are sufficient by themselves to explain attitudes to AGW. This paper briefly reviews several recent publications that find a correlation between higher levels of climate literacy and greater acceptance of or concern about AGW, then presents results from a survey completed by 458 students at a primarily undergraduate institution in northern Utah in April-May 2013. These data indicate that attitudes to AGW are largely tribal, based on political outlook, Democrats being more concerned, Republicans less concerned. Overall levels of climate literacy demonstrated by respondents were low, but concern about AGW increased with higher levels of climate literacy among Republicans—though not among Democrats, for whom acceptance of AGW appears to be more an article of faith or badge of identity. Findings such as this suggest that, contrary to some recent critiques of the deficit model, information deficits do exist and do matter for opinion formation on AGW, although cultural factors are clearly also of great importance. Climate science education therefore can potentially help engage members of the public in issues related to AGW.

  12. 46 CFR 154.1015 - Lighting in gas-dangerous space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting in gas-dangerous space. 154.1015 Section 154... Equipment Electrical § 154.1015 Lighting in gas-dangerous space. (a) Each gas-dangerous space that has... protective device for any lighting circuit that is in a gas-dangerous space must open each conductor of...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1015 - Lighting in gas-dangerous space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lighting in gas-dangerous space. 154.1015 Section 154... Equipment Electrical § 154.1015 Lighting in gas-dangerous space. (a) Each gas-dangerous space that has... protective device for any lighting circuit that is in a gas-dangerous space must open each conductor of...

  14. 33 CFR 95.020 - Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.020 Section 95.020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.020 Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. An individual is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug when: (a) The individual is operating...

  15. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  16. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  17. Birth order, self-concept, and participation in dangerous sports.

    PubMed

    Seff, M A; Gecas, V; Frey, J H

    1993-03-01

    We examined the effect of birth order on participation in dangerous sports, using data from a mail survey of 841 members of the United States Parachute Association drawn from the membership list of over 18,000; 52% (N = 436) responded. The questionnaires included detailed information on participation in leisure activities, background characteristics, reasons for parachuting, and self-concept; answers were obtained from an overwhelmingly middle-class, White, male, young, and college educated sample. The findings (based on descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analysis) did not support our expectations regarding birth order and participation in dangerous sports. Several were even in opposite direction to our expectations. We did find some support for our expectation that self-efficacy would be positively related to participation in dangerous sports, but not for our expectation that self-efficacy would be related to birth order. We concluded that birth order continues to be a frustrating variable in studies of socialization. PMID:8336297

  18. Infrared small target detection based on Danger Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Jinhui; Yang, Xiao

    2009-11-01

    To solve the problem that traditional method can't detect the small objects whose local SNR is less than 2 in IR images, a Danger Theory-based model to detect infrared small target is presented in this paper. First, on the analog with immunology, the definition is given, in this paper, to such terms as dangerous signal, antigens, APC, antibodies. Besides, matching rule between antigen and antibody is improved. Prior to training the detection model and detecting the targets, the IR images are processed utilizing adaptive smooth filter to decrease the stochastic noise. Then at the training process, deleting rule, generating rule, crossover rule and the mutation rule are established after a large number of experiments in order to realize immediate convergence and obtain good antibodies. The Danger Theory-based model is built after the training process, and this model can detect the target whose local SNR is only 1.5.

  19. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context. PMID:22142214

  20. ACAT Ground Collision Avoidance Flight Tests Over

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has concluded flight tests of an Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) under the joint U.S. Air Force/NASA F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance...

  1. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  2. Are You a Seeker or an Avoider?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Mark L.

    2002-01-01

    Some workers may consistently try to avoid failure, responsibility, and negative feedback. Trainers can help by assessing organizational circumstances; assist avoiders in developing knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes; and locate employee assistance programs or counseling if needed. (JOW)

  3. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    PubMed

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  4. How Framing Climate Change Influences Citizen Scientists' Intentions to Do Something about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Janis L.; Crain, Rhiannon; Yalowitz, Steve; Cherry, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    How we communicate the dangers of climate change may influence attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. Here we test two pairs of positive and negative framing statements with North American citizen scientists interested in gardening and birdwatching. Mentioning dangers for humans did not increase participants' interest in taking personal action on…

  5. Termites eavesdrop to avoid competitors

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Theodore A.; Inta, Ra; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Prueger, Stefan; Foo, Nyuk Wei; Fu, Eugene Wei'en; Lenz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Competition exclusion, when a single species dominates resources due to superior competitiveness, is seldom observed in nature. Termites compete for resources with deadly consequences, yet more than one species can be found feeding in the same wooden resource. This is especially surprising when drywood species, with colonies of a few hundred, are found cohabiting with subterranean species, with colonies of millions. Termites communicate vibro-acoustically and, as these signals can travel over long distances, they are vulnerable to eavesdropping. We investigated whether drywood termites could eavesdrop on vibration cues from subterranean species. We show, using choice experiments and recordings, that the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus can distinguish its own species from the dominant competitor in the environment, the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis. The drywood termite was attracted to its own vibration cues, but was repelled by those of the subterranean species. This response increased with decreasing wood size, corresponding with both increased risk and strength of the cue. The drywood termites appear to avoid confrontation by eavesdropping on the subterranean termites; these results provide further evidence that vibro-acoustic cues are important for termite sensory perception and communication. PMID:19710058

  6. FVIII inhibitors: pathogenesis and avoidance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inhibitory antibodies has been the focus of major scientific interest over the last decades, and several studies on underlying immune mechanisms and risk factors for formation of these antibodies have been performed with the aim of improving the ability to both predict and prevent their appearance. It seems clear that the decisive factors for the immune response to the deficient factor are multiple and involve components of both a constitutional and therapy-related nature. A scientific concern and obstacle for research in the area of hemophilia is the relatively small cohorts available for studies and the resulting risk of confounded and biased results. Careful interpretation of data is recommended to avoid treatment decisions based on a weak scientific platform. This review will summarize current concepts of the underlying immunological mechanisms and risk factors for development of inhibitory antibodies in patients with hemophilia A and discuss how these findings may be interpreted and influence our clinical management of patients. PMID:25712994

  7. Protecting climate with forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert B.; Randerson, James T.; Canadell, Josep G.; Anderson, Ray G.; Avissar, Roni; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Caldeira, Ken; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Field, Christopher B.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Nosetto, Marcelo D.; Pataki, Diane E.

    2008-10-01

    Policies for climate mitigation on land rarely acknowledge biophysical factors, such as reflectivity, evaporation, and surface roughness. Yet such factors can alter temperatures much more than carbon sequestration does, and often in a conflicting way. We outline a framework for examining biophysical factors in mitigation policies and provide some best-practice recommendations based on that framework. Tropical projects—avoided deforestation, forest restoration, and afforestation—provide the greatest climate value, because carbon storage and biophysics align to cool the Earth. In contrast, the climate benefits of carbon storage are often counteracted in boreal and other snow-covered regions, where darker trees trap more heat than snow does. Managers can increase the climate benefit of some forest projects by using more reflective and deciduous species and through urban forestry projects that reduce energy use. Ignoring biophysical interactions could result in millions of dollars being invested in some mitigation projects that provide little climate benefit or, worse, are counter-productive.

  8. The Climate Change--Social Change Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David

    1992-01-01

    Argues that the scientific community cannot evoke the desired response from the general community concerning environmental problems, such as climate change, simply by warning the community of its dangers. Discusses the need for new meaning systems arising out of new ways of relating and communicating with each other about our ecology. (MDH)

  9. 33 CFR 62.29 - Isolated danger marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isolated danger marks. 62.29 Section 62.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.29 Isolated...

  10. 33 CFR 62.29 - Isolated danger marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isolated danger marks. 62.29 Section 62.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.29 Isolated...

  11. 33 CFR 62.29 - Isolated danger marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isolated danger marks. 62.29 Section 62.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.29 Isolated...

  12. 33 CFR 62.29 - Isolated danger marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolated danger marks. 62.29 Section 62.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.29 Isolated...

  13. 33 CFR 62.29 - Isolated danger marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isolated danger marks. 62.29 Section 62.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.29 Isolated...

  14. 33 CFR 401.80 - Reporting dangerous cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting dangerous cargo. 401.80 Section 401.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... commencing transit from a port, dock or wharf, the nature, quantity and IMO classification of the...

  15. 33 CFR 401.80 - Reporting dangerous cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting dangerous cargo. 401.80 Section 401.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... commencing transit from a port, dock or wharf, the nature, quantity and IMO classification of the...

  16. 33 CFR 401.80 - Reporting dangerous cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting dangerous cargo. 401.80 Section 401.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... commencing transit from a port, dock or wharf, the nature, quantity and IMO classification of the...

  17. 33 CFR 401.80 - Reporting dangerous cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting dangerous cargo. 401.80 Section 401.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... commencing transit from a port, dock or wharf, the nature, quantity and IMO classification of the...

  18. Type 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159330.html Type 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Prognosis may be ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Heart Diseases Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  19. The Neglected Heart: The Emotional Dangers of Premature Sexual Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Discussions of teen sex usually focus on the dangers of pregnancy and disease but ignore the emotional hazards and destructive psychological consequences of temporary sexual relationships. Teenagers absorbed in a sexual relationship may turn inward at a time then they should be reaching out to others. (SLD)

  20. Scores Based on Dangerous Responses to Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)

  1. 30 CFR 56.12030 - Correction of dangerous conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correction of dangerous conditions. 56.12030 Section 56.12030 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12030 - Correction of dangerous conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correction of dangerous conditions. 56.12030 Section 56.12030 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. Assessing risk from dangerous meteoroids in main meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtazov, A.

    2015-01-01

    The risk from dangerous meteoroids in main meteor showers is calculated. The showers were: Quadrantids-2014; Eta Aquariids-2013, Perseids-2014 and Geminids-2014. The computed results for the risks during the shower periods of activity and near the maximum are provided.

  4. Nuclear Dangers: A Resource Guide for Secondary School Teachers. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mierzwa, Nancy; Bloom, Luanne

    The continuing escalation of the nuclear arms race and the proliferation of nuclear power have forced the current generation to face the dangers of living in a nuclear age. This period has brought a special responsibility to teachers. This guide is an annotated list of materials dealing with nuclear power and weapons issues. Sections include: (1)…

  5. Predicting Dangerous Juvenile Inpatients: The Ecological Validity of Cognitive Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calicchia, John A.; And Others

    Psychologists and psychiatrists are regularly used during civil commitment and other hearings to prognosticate dangerousness for the courts. In this process, the judiciary has shown almost complete deference to the recommendations of forensic specialists despite a number of early studies that did not support a clinician's ability to predict…

  6. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  7. 30 CFR 56.12030 - Correction of dangerous conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correction of dangerous conditions. 56.12030 Section 56.12030 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12030 - Correction of dangerous conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correction of dangerous conditions. 56.12030 Section 56.12030 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12030 - Correction of dangerous conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correction of dangerous conditions. 56.12030 Section 56.12030 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  10. Teens Share Sexually Explicit Messages: Simple Rebellion or Dangerous Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly popular form of communication among teenagers is "sexting," sending nude photos via text messaging, reported The Orange County Register (3/20/09). This "flirtation" technique has sparked quite a bit of debate: is this simply a form of rebellion or is it dangerous behavior that could have adverse penalties? Although many teens say…

  11. Ethical Considerations in Maintaining Confidentiality with Dangerous Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, J. Kelley

    This paper discusses ethical considerations involved in breach of confidentiality in counseling dangerous clients, i.e., those who have the potential to inflict bodily harm on others. The ethical basis for confidentiality is presented in a model for decision making in ethical dilemmas which encompasses three evaluative levels or tiers: ethical…

  12. Innate danger signals in acute injury: From bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Mathieu; Lepape, Alain; Piriou, Vincent; Venet, Fabienne; Friggeri, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    The description of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a reaction to numerous insults marked a turning point in the understanding of acute critical states, which are intensive care basic cases. This concept highlighted the final inflammatory response features whichever the injury mechanism is: infectious, or non-infectious such as extensive burns, traumas, major surgery or acute pancreatitis. In these cases of severe non-infectious insult, many endogenous mediators are released. Like infectious agents components, they can activate the immune system (via common signaling pathways) and initiate an inflammatory response. They are danger signals or alarmins. These molecules generally play an intracellular physiological role and acquire new functions when released in extracellular space. Many progresses brought new information on these molecules and on their function in infectious and non-infectious inflammation. These danger signals can be used as biomarkers and provide new pathophysiological and therapeutic approaches, particularly for immune dysfunctions occurring after an acute injury. We present herein the danger model, the main danger signals and the clinical consequences. PMID:26987739

  13. Thieves in Your Stacks: Are Government Documents in Danger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravois, Jim; Barrett, Kayla

    1996-01-01

    Book thefts and mutilation remain common problems in college libraries. This article: demonstrates that some government publications are rare and valuable; recommends ways of identifying which documents are in danger; and suggests strategies for protecting those documents are at risk. (Author/AEF)

  14. The Grave Dangers in the Discourse on Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheurich, James Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Democracy rightly holds a critical significance in any context in which relatively small elites have subjugated majorities. When a democracy has been established in a societal context that encompasses minority subgroups along with a dominant majority, minority groups are in danger. Democracy is not equity, nor any guarantee of equity. (MLH)

  15. Humiliating Ironies and Dangerous Dignities: A Dialectic of School Pushout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This article explores youth resistance to urban public high schools that both inadvertently and by design push out students before graduation. The author details how youth experience the institutional production of school non-completion as a dialectic of humiliating ironies and dangerous dignities, a dialectic of school pushout. The author…

  16. 49 CFR 176.30 - Dangerous cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations (49 CFR parts 171 through 180) or the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code) (IBR.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 176.30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... signature. (d) For barges, manned or unmanned, the requirements of this section apply except for...

  17. 49 CFR 176.30 - Dangerous cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations (49 CFR parts 171 through 180) or the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code) (IBR.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 176.30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... signature. (d) For barges, manned or unmanned, the requirements of this section apply except for...

  18. 46 CFR 148.11 - Hazardous or potentially dangerous characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... considered a Marine Pollutant in accordance with 49 CFR 172.101 Appendix B. 27 This entry is considered a certain dangerous cargo in accordance with 33 CFR 160.204. ... of explosion in the event of contamination (e.g., by a fuel oil) or strong confinement. If...

  19. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11 Section 15.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond...

  20. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11 Section 15.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond...

  1. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11 Section 15.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond...

  2. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11 Section 15.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond...

  3. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11 Section 15.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond...

  4. 46 CFR 148.11 - Hazardous or potentially dangerous characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... considered a Marine Pollutant in accordance with 49 CFR 172.101 Appendix B. 27 This entry is considered a certain dangerous cargo in accordance with 33 CFR 160.204. ... Contact with water may cause evolution of toxic gases. 4 If involved in a fire, will greatly intensify...

  5. 46 CFR 148.11 - Hazardous or potentially dangerous characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... considered a Marine Pollutant in accordance with 49 CFR 172.101 Appendix B. 27 This entry is considered a certain dangerous cargo in accordance with 33 CFR 160.204. ... Contact with water may cause evolution of toxic gases. 4 If involved in a fire, will greatly intensify...

  6. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Sherstyukov, Boris G.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Knight, Richard W.; Enloe, Jesse G.; Stroumentova, Nina S.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Førland, Eirik; Hannsen-Bauer, Inger; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Aleksandersson, Hans; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Karl, Thomas R.

    2007-04-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. Data from these archives (approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses) are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. We use four indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index was developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Nesterov, (3) Modified Nesterov, and (4) Zhdanko Indices (these indices were developed and widely used in Russia). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) statistically significant increases in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires were found. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of "dry weather summer days" during the past 60 yr. This study is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires and with observed changes in drought statistics in agricultural regions of Northern Eurasia.

  7. Avoidance of aluminum by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Exley, C.

    2000-04-01

    Aluminum is the principal toxicant in fish in acid waters. The ability to avoid Al, particularly at low concentrations, would confer a considerable ecological advantage, but previous research into avoidance of Al has produced mixed results. The author used a cylindrical perspex tank, 150 cm in length, to study avoidance of Al by rainbow trout fry. The fish avoided Al, and their response was dependent on pH. Avoidance that was demonstrated at pHs of 5.00, 5.50, 5.50, and 5.75 was abolished at a pH of 6.00. Fry avoided very low Al concentrations being sensitive to [Al] > 1.00 {micro}mol L{sup {minus}1} at a pH of 5.00. This unequivocal demonstration of avoidance by rainbow trout fry of Al may have important implications for the ecology of indigenous fish populations in surface waters impacted by acidic deposition.

  8. Food security and climate change: a perfect storm needing an integrated solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholes, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The challenges of feeding the world and keeping it within a comfortable climate range loom large in public and policy debates, but to date have mostly been treated as independent issues. In reality they are closely intertwined, and any actions taken to manage one will have to consider the consequences for the other. It is well-understood that agriculture is climatically-sensitive. One of the thresholds defining 'dangerous' climate change is the limit of tolerance of major food production systems to high temperatures, droughts, floods, severe weather events and tropospheric ozone. Less widely-appreciated is the substantial effect which the food system has on climate forcing - currently around a third of the effect, once land use change is included. The size of the effect is highly influenced by land use and food system practices and policies. The remarkable gains in agricultural production since the 1960s and food surpluses in the developed world have masked the severe nutritional inadequacies already faced by a fifth of the global population. For a range of reasons, recent increases in food production have not matched the increasing demand brought about by population growth, changing diets and non-food uses for agricultural products. The result is rising food commodity prices and increasing food insecurity in many parts of the world. In the absence of decisive interventions, these trends are bound to worsen as the global population rises to a projected 9-10 billion people, per capita wealth rises, and water and land resources come under increasing pressure. The imperatives of ensuring food security are likely to materialize earlier than those related to avoiding climate disasters, which could result in actions making the later transgression of the safe climate limits inevitable. There is a narrow trajectory, involving technological, institutional, economic and values-based changes, that could navigate between two equally-unpleasant outcomes.

  9. A fair compromise to break the climate impasse. A major economies forum approach to emissions reductions budgeting

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Marco; J. Roberts, Timmons

    2013-04-15

    Key messages of the study are: Given the stalemate in U.N. climate negotiations, the best arena to strike a workable deal is among the members the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF); The 13 MEF members—including the EU-27 (but not double-counting the four EU countries that are also individual members of the MEF)—account for 81.3 percent of all global emissions; This proposal devises a fair compromise to break the impasse to develop a science-based approach for fairly sharing the carbon budget in order to have a 75 percent chance of avoiding dangerous climate change; To increase the likelihood of a future climate agreement, carbon accounting must shift from production-based inventories to consumption-based ones; The shares of a carbon budget to stay below 2 deg C through 2050 are calculated by cumulative emissions since 1990, i.e. according to a short-horizon polluter pays principle, and national capability (income), and allocated to MEF members through emission rights. This proposed fair compromise addresses key concerns of major emitters; According to this accounting, no countries have negative carbon budgets, there is substantial time for greening major developing economies, and some developed countries need to institute very rapid reductions in emissions; and, To provide a 'green ladder' to developing countries and to ensure a fair global deal, it will be crucial to agree how to extend sufficient and predictable financial support and the rapid transfer of technology.

  10. A scientific critique of the two-degree climate change target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutti, Reto; Rogelj, Joeri; Sedláček, Jan; Fischer, Erich M.

    2016-01-01

    The world's governments agreed to limit global mean temperature change to below 2 °C compared with pre-industrial levels in the years following the 2009 climate conference in Copenhagen. This 2 °C warming target is perceived by the public as a universally accepted goal, identified by scientists as a safe limit that avoids dangerous climate change. This perception is incorrect: no scientific assessment has clearly justified or defended the 2 °C target as a safe level of warming, and indeed, this is not a problem that science alone can address. We argue that global temperature is the best climate target quantity, but it is unclear what level can be considered safe. The 2 °C target is useful for anchoring discussions, but has been ineffective in triggering the required emission reductions; debates on considering a lower target are strongly at odds with the current real-world level of action. These debates are moot, however, as the decisions that need to be taken now to limit warming to 1.5 or 2 °C are very similar. We need to agree how to start, not where to end mitigation.

  11. A Nuclear Renaissance: The Role of Nuclear Power in Mitigating Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Anne

    2011-06-01

    The U. N. Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for the stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at double the preindustrial atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. To achieve this goal, carbon emissions in 2050 must not exceed their current level, despite predictions of a dramatic increase in global electricity demand. The need to reduce GHG emissions and simultaneously provide for additional electricity demand has led to a renewed interest in the expansion of alternatives to fossil fuels—particularly renewable energy and nuclear power. As renewable energy sources are often constrained by the intermittency of natural energy forms, scale-ability concerns, cost and environmental barriers, many governments and even prominent environmentalist turn to nuclear energy as a source of clean, reliable base-load electricity. Described by some as a "nuclear renaissance", this trend of embracing nuclear power as a tool to mitigate climate change will dramatically influence the feasibility of emerging nuclear programs around the world.

  12. A Nuclear Renaissance: The Role of Nuclear Power in Mitigating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, Anne

    2011-06-28

    The U. N. Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for the stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at double the preindustrial atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. To achieve this goal, carbon emissions in 2050 must not exceed their current level, despite predictions of a dramatic increase in global electricity demand. The need to reduce GHG emissions and simultaneously provide for additional electricity demand has led to a renewed interest in the expansion of alternatives to fossil fuels--particularly renewable energy and nuclear power. As renewable energy sources are often constrained by the intermittency of natural energy forms, scale-ability concerns, cost and environmental barriers, many governments and even prominent environmentalist turn to nuclear energy as a source of clean, reliable base-load electricity. Described by some as a ''nuclear renaissance'', this trend of embracing nuclear power as a tool to mitigate climate change will dramatically influence the feasibility of emerging nuclear programs around the world.

  13. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. PMID:23525177

  14. The Gravest Danger:. Nuclear Weapons and Their Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, S.

    2005-02-01

    Nuclear weapons are unique in their terrifying potential. With an energy release a million times larger than that of previous explosives, mass destruction is inevitable. The prospect of the spread of nuclear weapons and other dangerous technologies into the hands of suicidal terrorists and rogue nations unrestrained by the norms of civilized behavior has led President Bush to remark that "the gravest danger our nation faces lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology." This talk will address what can and should be done, in the face of new challenges in times punctuated by terrorist threats, to sustain and strengthen the non-proliferation regime, taking into consideration technical realities, and the roles and limits of diplomatic initiatives and of military force.

  15. Fire Danger Estimation in Siberia Using SMOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    One of the most important tasks of fire monitoring is to forecast the conditions that determine the possibility of occurrence and spread of fire in forests. Weather fire danger assessment is mainly based on the analysis of the meteorological parameters recorded by weather stations. The main drawback of such a method for the fire danger assessment is an absence of regular network of weather stations. This situation takes place, for example, in Siberia. The area of possible interpolation of weather stations data is generally up to 30 km. The analysis of the existing network of weather stations shows that there should be an interpolation in the zone up to 100 - 150 km between weather stations which restricts the correctness of weather fire danger distribution maps for the forest zone of Siberia. The area of research associated with the development of methodologies for the forest fire danger assessment remains urgent today. To solve this problem it is necessary to perform a geospatial analysis of fire distribution and distribution of forest fuel moisture which can only be done with the involvement of satellite monitoring. This can provide the necessary spatial coverage and frequency of data updates. Over the past 30 years the technical means of remote sensing and methods of land cover moisture measurement were developed. In 2009 the SMOS spacecraft was launched by the European Space Agency, equipped with microwave radiometer operating at the frequency of 1.4 GHz. Moisture is restored based on the angular dependence of the brightness of temperatures measured by spacecraft (Level 1C product). Geospatial analysis of the relationship between occurrence of fires, burned areas as well as fire radiative power during the fire season and land cover moisture measured by SMOS was performed. Daily updated database of forest fires detected using MODIS radiometer over the fire seasons of 2010 - 2012 as well as the land cover moisture data obtained from SMOS measurements were used in

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-05-19

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report).

  17. Flight Tests Validate Collision-Avoidance System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flights tests of a smartphone-assisted automatic ground collision avoidance system at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center consistently commanded evasive maneuvers when it sensed that the unmanned ...

  18. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  19. A spatially explicit estimate of avoided forest loss.

    PubMed

    Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Ramírez, M Isabel

    2011-10-01

    With the potential expansion of forest conservation programs spurred by climate-change agreements, there is a need to measure the extent to which such programs achieve their intended results. Conventional methods for evaluating conservation impact tend to be biased because they do not compare like areas or account for spatial relations. We assessed the effect of a conservation initiative that combined designation of protected areas with payments for environmental services to conserve over wintering habitat for the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in Mexico. To do so, we used a spatial-matching estimator that matches covariates among polygons and their neighbors. We measured avoided forest loss (avoided disturbance and deforestation) by comparing forest cover on protected and unprotected lands that were similar in terms of accessibility, governance, and forest type. Whereas conventional estimates of avoided forest loss suggest that conservation initiatives did not protect forest cover, we found evidence that the conservation measures are preserving forest cover. We found that the conservation measures protected between 200 ha and 710 ha (3-16%) of forest that is high-quality habitat for monarch butterflies, but had a smaller effect on total forest cover, preserving between 0 ha and 200 ha (0-2.5%) of forest with canopy cover >70%. We suggest that future estimates of avoided forest loss be analyzed spatially to account for how forest loss occurs across the landscape. Given the forthcoming demand from donors and carbon financiers for estimates of avoided forest loss, we anticipate our methods and results will contribute to future studies that estimate the outcome of conservation efforts. PMID:21902720

  20. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C. R.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

  1. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... the Air Navigation Commission or the panel: 5.1: Review of provisions for the transport of lithium batteries 5.2: Dangerous goods incident and accident data collection 5.3: Dangerous goods requirements...

  2. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Analysis of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Cho, Cheolhung; Krey, Volker; Patt, Anthony; Rafaj, Peter; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Wagner, Fabian

    2010-05-01

    Even if a drastic 50% CO2-equivalent emissions reduction is achieved by year 2050, the chances of exceeding a 2°C warming are still substantial due to the uncertainty in the climate system (Meinshausen et al., 2009). Moreover, a strong mitigation is accompanied by overshoot, in which the global-mean temperature temporarily exceeds the target before arriving there. We are motivated by the question as to how much geoengineering would be considered if it were to be used to avoid overshoot even combined with a strong mitigation? How serious would the side effects be expected? This study focuses on stratospheric sulfur injections among other geoengineering proposals, the idea of which has been put forward by Crutzen (2006) and reviewed by Rasch et al. (2008). There are a number of concerns over geoengineering (e.g. Robock, 2008). But the concept of geoengineering requires further research (AMS, 2009). Studying geoengineering may be instructive to revisit the importance of mainstream mitigation strategies. The motivations above led to the following two closely linked studies: 1) Mitigation and Geoengineering The first study investigates the magnitude and start year of geoengineering intervention with the intent to avoid overshoot. This study explores the sensitivity of geoengineering profile to associated uncertainties in the climate system (climate sensitivity, tropospheric aerosol forcing, and ocean diffusivity) and in mitigation scenarios (target uncertainty (450ppm CO2-eq and 400ppm CO2-eq) and baseline uncertainty (A2, B1, and B2)). This study builds on Wigley's premise that demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach (Wigley, 2006) - however it did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study uses a set of GGI low mitigation scenarios generated from the MESSAGE model (Riahi et al., 2007). The reduced-complexity climate and carbon cycle model ACC2 (Tanaka, 2008; Tanaka et al

  3. Kidney sales and the analogy with dangerous employment.

    PubMed

    Malmqvist, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Proponents of permitting living kidney sales often argue as follows. Many jobs involve significant risks; people are and should be free to take these risks in exchange for money; the risks involved in giving up a kidney are no greater than the risks involved in acceptable hazardous jobs; so people should be free to give up a kidney for money, too. This paper examines this frequently invoked but rarely analysed analogy. Two objections are raised. First, it is far from clear that kidney sales and dangerous jobs involve comparable risks on an appropriately broad comparison. Second, and more importantly, even if they do involve comparable risks it does not follow that kidney sales must be permitted because dangerous jobs are. The analogy assumes that kidney sales are banned for paternalistic reasons. But there may be other, non-paternalistic reasons for the ban. And paternalists, too, can consistently defend the ban even if kidney sales are no riskier than occupations that they find acceptable. Soft paternalists may want to protect would-be vendors from harms that they have not voluntarily chosen. Egalitarian hard paternalists may want to protect already badly off vendors from further worsening their situation. For neither species of paternalist is the size of the risk prevented decisive. I conclude that the analogy with dangerous jobs, while rhetorically powerful, pulls little real argumentative weight. Future debates on living kidney sales should therefore proceed without it. PMID:24370887

  4. River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    SciTech Connect

    POHTO, R.E.

    2000-03-09

    This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E.

  5. The subtle danger of symmetry restrictions in time series regressions, with application to fertility models.

    PubMed

    Haynes, S E

    1983-10-01

    It is widely known that linear restrictions involve bias. What is not known is that some linear restrictions are especially dangerous for hypothesis testing. For some, the expected value of the restricted coefficient does not lie between (among) the true unconstrained coefficients, which implies that the estimate is not a simple average of these coefficients. In this paper, the danger is examined regarding the additive linear restriction almost universally imposed in statistical research--the restriction of symmetry. Symmetry implies that the response of the dependent variable to a unit decrease in an expanatory variable is identical, but of opposite sign, to the response to a unit increase. The 1st section of the paper demonstrates theoretically that a coefficient restricted by symmetry (unlike coefficients embodying other additive restrictions) is not a simple average of the unconstrained coefficients because the relevant interacted variables are inversly correlated by definition. The next section shows that, under the restriction of symmetry, fertility in Finland from 1885-1925 appears to respond in a prolonged manner to infant mortality (significant and positive with a lag of 4-6 years), suggesting a response to expected deaths. However, unscontrained estimates indicate that this finding is spurious. When the restriction is relaxed, the dominant response is rapid (significant and positive with a lag of 1-2 years) and stronger for declines in mortality, supporting an aymmetric response to actual deaths. For 2 reasons, the danger of the symmetry restriction may be especially pervasive. 1st, unlike most other linear constraints, symmetry is passively imposed merely by ignoring the possibility of asymmetry. 2nd, modles in a wide range of fields--including macroeconomics (e.g., demand for money, consumption, and investment models, and the Phillips curve), international economics (e.g., intervention models of central banks), and labor economics (e.g., sticky wage

  6. Climate Science: A Journalist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roosevelt, M.

    2011-12-01

    U.S. public opinion polls show that concern over global warming has dropped precipitously in the wake of economic turmoil. With a dearth of climate change coverage on network news, and in large newspapers and magazines, the public largely gets its climate news--and science news generally--from local TV weathermen. At the same time, many local weathercasters have little time to educate themselves about climate change--although the National Science Foundation is funding an effort to inform them. The Heartland Institute and other climate-skeptic organizations are reaching out to TV weathermen, and some prominent weathercasters have embraced the skeptics' arguments, but websites such as Climate Central, and blogs such as DotEarth are seeking to fill the void. The innate caution of climate scientists, most of whom are reluctant to extrapolate from a narrow study on, say, carbon flux or sea ice, to talk about why the planet is in danger is another challenge. For the most part, they don't want to stick their necks out for fear of professional retribution. When scientists limit themselves to talking about narrow results, journalists' eyes glaze over and no one connects the dots. Much attention is devoted to whether or not the media is doing a good job in covering climate change, when energy might better be spent on applying pressure to decision makers? The media can't make legislators vote for progressive climate change policies--only constituents can do that.

  7. Active Avoidance Requires a Serial Basal Amygdala to Nucleus Accumbens Shell Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Franchesca; Moscarello, Justin M.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Freezing is a species-typical defensive reaction to conditioned threats. While the neural circuitry of aversive Pavlovian behavior has been extensively studied, less is known about the circuitry underlying more active responses to danger. Here we show that the flow of information between the basal amygdala (BA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is necessary for signaled active avoidance behavior. Rats trained to avoid shock by shuttling during an auditory conditioned stimulus showed increased expression of the activity-dependent protein c-Fos in the NAcc, specifically the shell subregion (NAccSh). Silencing neural activity in the NAccSh, but not in the adjacent NAcc core, disrupted avoidance behavior. Disconnection of the BA and the NAccSh was just as effective at disrupting avoidance behavior as bilateral NAccSh inactivations, suggesting learned avoidance behavior requires an intact BA-NAccSh circuit. Together, these data highlight an essential role for the amygdalar projection to the ventral striatum in aversively motivated actions. PMID:25716846

  8. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyukov, B. G.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.; Knight, R. W.; Enloe, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interests, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network (Gleason et al. 2002) and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by NCDC an RIHMI. Data from these archives are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. Within the boundaries of the former USSR, each of the archives, GHCN and GSDN, includes more than 2100 stations with only approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses. We use three indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index uses only daily data on maximum temperature and precipitation and is developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Modified Nesterov, and (3) Zhdanko Indices (these indices are developed and widely used in Russia; their computation requires synoptic daytime data on temperature and humidity and daily precipitation and snow on the ground). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the entire Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) we found a statistically significant increase in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of the "dry weather summer days" during the past sixty

  9. 14 CFR 1204.1005 - Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials. 1204.1005 Section 1204.1005 Aeronautics and Space... Weapons or Dangerous Materials § 1204.1005 Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives... or causing to be introduced, or using firearms or other dangerous weapons, explosives or...

  10. 10 CFR 860.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... § 860.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  11. 10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PROPERTY § 160.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  12. 10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PROPERTY § 160.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  13. 10 CFR 860.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... § 860.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  14. 14 CFR 1204.1005 - Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials. 1204.1005 Section 1204.1005 Aeronautics and Space... Weapons or Dangerous Materials § 1204.1005 Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives... or causing to be introduced, or using firearms or other dangerous weapons, explosives or...

  15. 10 CFR 860.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... § 860.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  16. 10 CFR 860.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... § 860.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  17. 10 CFR 860.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... § 860.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  18. 10 CFR 1048.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... facility or real property subject to this part, of a dangerous weapon, explosive or other...

  19. 10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PROPERTY § 160.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  20. 10 CFR 1048.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... facility or real property subject to this part, of a dangerous weapon, explosive or other...

  1. 14 CFR 1204.1005 - Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials. 1204.1005 Section 1204.1005 Aeronautics and Space... Weapons or Dangerous Materials § 1204.1005 Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives... or causing to be introduced, or using firearms or other dangerous weapons, explosives or...

  2. 10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PROPERTY § 160.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  3. 14 CFR 1204.1005 - Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials. 1204.1005 Section 1204.1005 Aeronautics and Space... Weapons or Dangerous Materials § 1204.1005 Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives... or causing to be introduced, or using firearms or other dangerous weapons, explosives or...

  4. 10 CFR 1048.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... facility or real property subject to this part, of a dangerous weapon, explosive or other...

  5. 10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PROPERTY § 160.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or...

  6. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger... its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... existing 1.8 mile Danger Zone [as described in Sec. 334.420(b)(1)(i)] in the Pamlico Sound and...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  12. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  18. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  19. 46 CFR 154.1015 - Lighting in gas-dangerous space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lighting in gas-dangerous space. 154.1015 Section 154... Equipment Electrical § 154.1015 Lighting in gas-dangerous space. (a) Each gas-dangerous space that has lighting fixtures must have at least two branch circuits for lighting. (b) Each switch and each...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1015 - Lighting in gas-dangerous space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lighting in gas-dangerous space. 154.1015 Section 154... Equipment Electrical § 154.1015 Lighting in gas-dangerous space. (a) Each gas-dangerous space that has lighting fixtures must have at least two branch circuits for lighting. (b) Each switch and each...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1015 - Lighting in gas-dangerous space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lighting in gas-dangerous space. 154.1015 Section 154... Equipment Electrical § 154.1015 Lighting in gas-dangerous space. (a) Each gas-dangerous space that has lighting fixtures must have at least two branch circuits for lighting. (b) Each switch and each...

  2. Details Of Collision-Avoidance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Olsen, M. Christine; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Report provides background information on and detailed description of study of pilots' use of traffic-alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS II) in simulated flights. Described in article, "Evaluation of an Aircraft-Collision-Avoidance System" (ARC-12367). Plans, forms, training narratives, scripts, questionnaires, and other information compiled.

  3. A Demonstration of Approach and Avoidance Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…

  4. How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

  5. Recommendations for Sense and Avoid Policy Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since unmanned aircraft do not have a human on board, they need to have a sense and avoid capability that provides an "equivalent level of safety" (ELOS) to manned aircraft. The question then becomes - is sense and avoid ELOS for unmanned aircraft adequate to satisfy the requirements of 14 CFR 91.113? Access 5 has proposed a definition of sense and avoid, but the question remains as to whether any sense and avoid system can comply with 14 CFR 91.113 as currently written. The Access 5 definition of sense and avoid ELOS allows for the development of a sense and avoid system for unmanned aircraft that would comply with 14 CFR 91.113. Compliance is based on sensing and avoiding other traffic at an equivalent level of safety for collision avoidance, as manned aircraft. No changes to Part 91 are necessary, with the possible exception of changing "see" to "sense," or obtaining an interpretation from the FAA General Counsel that "sense" is equivalent to "see."

  6. Strategic Family Therapy of Avoidant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Thomas A.; Hinkle, J. Scott

    1993-01-01

    Notes that Millon's biopsychosocial model asserts that socioenvironmental factors of parental or peer rejection may shape development of avoidant behavior but does not elaborate on how family system may perpetuate its existence once disorder has evolved. Presents brief overview of avoidant behavior and strategic family therapy case study.…

  7. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  8. Antipsychotic Meds Pose Little Danger to Fetus, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Boston. "However, for women suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder, avoiding medication use is ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Bipolar Disorder Pregnancy and Medicines Schizophrenia Recent Health News Related ...

  9. Modeling human behaviors and reactions under dangerous environment.

    PubMed

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions of different people; capturing different motion postures by the Eagle Digital System; establishing 3D character animation models; establishing 3D models for the scene; planning the scenario and the contents; and programming within Virtools Dev. Programming within Virtools Dev is subdivided into modeling dangerous events, modeling character's perceptions, modeling character's decision making, modeling character's movements, modeling character's interaction with environment and setting up the virtual cameras. The real-time simulation of human reactions in hazardous environments is invaluable in military defense, fire escape, rescue operation planning, traffic safety studies, and safety planning in chemical factories, the design of buildings, airplanes, ships and trains. Currently, human motion modeling can be realized through established technology, whereas to integrate perception and intelligence into virtual human's motion is still a huge undertaking. The challenges here are the synchronization of motion and intelligence, the accurate modeling of human's vision, smell, touch and hearing, the diversity and effects of emotion and personality in decision making. There are three types of software platforms which could be employed to realize the motion and intelligence within one system, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:15850116

  10. Passive avoidence learning in the young rat.

    PubMed

    Blozovski, D; Cudennec, A

    1980-09-01

    A step-through locomotor passive avoidance task is described requiring the suppression of a spontaneous escape reaction from a cool toward a warm compartment in order to avoid an electric shock delivered in the warm side. We observed no lerning of this task at 9 days of age, a very low but significant level of acquisition at 11 days, a slow but progressive improvement of avoidance from the 13th until the 17th day when the adult capacity was achieved, and a marked increase in the rate between 17-20 days. PMID:7409331

  11. The social costs of dangerous products: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Sidney; Ruttenberg, Ruth; Leigh, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Defective consumer products impose significant costs on consumers and third parties when they cause fatalities and injuries. This Article develops a novel approach to measuring the true extent of such costs, which may not be accurately captured under current methods of estimating the cost of dangerous products. Current analysis rests on a narrowly defined set of costs, excluding certain types of costs. The cost-of-injury estimates utilized in this Article address this omission by quantifying and incorporating these costs to provide a more complete picture of the true impact of defective consumer products. The new estimates help to gauge the true value of the civil liability system. PMID:20235402

  12. Educating women about the hidden dangers of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Cook, Linda J

    2004-06-01

    1. There is mounting research evidence that alcohol use and abuse affects women much differently than men. 2. Research indicates that women absorb and metabolize alcohol differently than men, partly due to body composition differences and the production of less gastric alcohol dehydrogenase by women. 3. Women of child-bearing age who engage in binge drinking are at increased risk of bearing children with fetal alcohol syndrome or alcohol-related neurological deficits. 4. Psychiatric nurses are often in the position to provide education and counseling to women regarding the hidden dangers of alcohol use and abuse. PMID:15237789

  13. Kamchatkan Volcanoes Explosive Eruptions in 2014 and Danger to Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In 2014, three of the Kamchatkan volcanoes - Sheveluch, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky - had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2014: on January 08 and 12, May 12, September 24, October 02 and 28, November 16, 22 and 26, and December 05, 17, 26 and 29: ash plumes rose up to 9-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the eastern and western directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Klyuchi Village (on January 12, June 11, and November 16). Activity of the volcano was dangerous to international and local aviation. Karymsky volcano has been in a state of explosive eruption since 1996. The moderate ash explosions of this volcano were noting during 2014: from March 24 till April 02; and from September 03 till December 10. Ash plumes rose up to 5 km a.s.l. and extended more 300 km mainly to the eastern directions of the volcano. Activity of the volcano was dangerous to local aviation. Explosive eruption of Zhupanovsky volcano began on June 06, 2014 and continues in January 2015 too. Ash explosions rose up to 8-10 km a.s.l. on June 19, September 05 and 07, October 11

  14. Potential dangers from topical preparations containing methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y

    1996-09-01

    Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) is widely available in many over-the-counter liniments, ointments, lotions or medicated oils for the relief of musculoskeletal aches and pains. Ingestion of methyl salicylate poses the threat of severe, rapid-onset salicylate poisoning because of its liquid, concentrated form and lipid solubility. Excessive usage of these preparations in patients receiving warfarin may result in adverse interactions and bleedings. Methyl salicylate in topical analgesic preparations may cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis and anaphylactic reactions. Physicians should fully appreciate the potential dangers from topical preparations containing methyl salicylate. PMID:8880210

  15. Dangers and opportunities for social media in medicine.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L

    2013-09-01

    Health professionals have begun using social media to benefit patients, enhance professional networks, and advance understanding of individual and contextual factors influencing public health. However, discussion of the dangers of these technologies in medicine has overwhelmed consideration of positive applications. This article summarizes the hazards of social media in medicine and explores how changes in functionality on sites like Facebook may make these technologies less perilous for health professionals. Finally, it describes the most promising avenues through which professionals can use social media in medicine-improving patient communication, enhancing professional development, and contributing to public health research and service. PMID:23903375

  16. Tank waste remediation system dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    POHTO, R.E.

    1999-05-13

    This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units operated by TWRS are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (including 204-AR Waste Transfer Building), the 600 Area Purgewater Storage and the Effluent Treatment Facility. TSD Units undergoing closure are: the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System, 207-A South Retention Basin, and the 216-B-63 Trench.

  17. Radioactive γ/β tracer to explore dangerous technogenic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorsky, P. M.; Yakovleva, V. S.; Makarov, E. O.; Firstov, P. P.; Kondratyeva, A. G.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A radioactive γ/β tracer to explore dangerous technogenic phenomena has been proposed: the ratio of the measured flux density of β- and γ-radiations in the surface layer of the atmosphere. The time dependence analysis of the ratio of β- and γ-pulse count rate has been carried out. A significant increase of the γ/β ratio was recorded under the cyclone passing through Japan (Fukushima) to Kamchatka. The proposed γ/β tracer can be a very sensitive indicator of nonstationary processes related to hazardous natural and technogenic phenomena.

  18. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as the size of the population at risk – that may vary from one region to another. PMID:24099013

  19. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  20. Self/not self, innate immunity, danger, cancer potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Edwin L.

    2010-03-01

    Self/not self is an important hypothesis that has guided research in immunology. It is closely connected to adaptive immunity (restricted to vertebrates) and innate immunity (found in vertebrates and invertebrates). Self/not self is now being challenged and investigators are turning to the danger hypothesis to guide and open new areas of research. Emerging information suggests that genes involved in development of cancer are present in Drosophila and C. elegans. Short life span may not preclude the presence of genes that are related to the development of cancer.

  1. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Analysis of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Cho, Cheolhung; Krey, Volker; Patt, Anthony; Rafaj, Peter; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Wagner, Fabian

    2010-05-01

    Even if a drastic 50% CO2-equivalent emissions reduction is achieved by year 2050, the chances of exceeding a 2°C warming are still substantial due to the uncertainty in the climate system (Meinshausen et al., 2009). Moreover, a strong mitigation is accompanied by overshoot, in which the global-mean temperature temporarily exceeds the target before arriving there. We are motivated by the question as to how much geoengineering would be considered if it were to be used to avoid overshoot even combined with a strong mitigation? How serious would the side effects be expected? This study focuses on stratospheric sulfur injections among other geoengineering proposals, the idea of which has been put forward by Crutzen (2006) and reviewed by Rasch et al. (2008). There are a number of concerns over geoengineering (e.g. Robock, 2008). But the concept of geoengineering requires further research (AMS, 2009). Studying geoengineering may be instructive to revisit the importance of mainstream mitigation strategies. The motivations above led to the following two closely linked studies: 1) Mitigation and Geoengineering The first study investigates the magnitude and start year of geoengineering intervention with the intent to avoid overshoot. This study explores the sensitivity of geoengineering profile to associated uncertainties in the climate system (climate sensitivity, tropospheric aerosol forcing, and ocean diffusivity) and in mitigation scenarios (target uncertainty (450ppm CO2-eq and 400ppm CO2-eq) and baseline uncertainty (A2, B1, and B2)). This study builds on Wigley's premise that demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach (Wigley, 2006) - however it did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study uses a set of GGI low mitigation scenarios generated from the MESSAGE model (Riahi et al., 2007). The reduced-complexity climate and carbon cycle model ACC2 (Tanaka, 2008; Tanaka et al

  2. Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    Climate is the average weather in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. ...

  3. Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  4. 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes

    MedlinePlus

    ... consumer www.fda.gov/consumer/updates/medtips062107.html 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes 1. Know the ... labels & follow directions 5. Keep your doctors informed 6. K eep a list of all your medications ...

  5. When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the ...

  6. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Hannan, Mike; Srinivasan, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Present day robotic missions to other planets require precise, a priori knowledge of the terrain to pre-determine a landing spot that is safe. Landing sites can be miles from the mission objective, or, mission objectives may be tailored to suit landing sites. Future robotic exploration missions should be capable of autonomously identifying a safe landing target within a specified target area selected by mission requirements. Such autonomous landing sites must (1) 'see' the surface, (2) identify a target, and (3) land the vehicle. Recent advances in radar technology have resulted in small, lightweight, low power radars that are used for collision avoidance and cruise control systems in automobiles. Such radar systems can be adapted for use as active hazard avoidance systems for planetary landers. The focus of this CIF proposal is to leverage earlier work on collision avoidance systems for MSFC's Mighty Eagle lander and evaluate the use of automotive radar systems for collision avoidance in planetary landers.

  7. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  8. Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159681.html Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity Good relationship with parents, especially between fathers and ... develop healthy habits that may protect them against obesity, a new study suggests. The researchers also found ...

  9. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  10. Men, Avoid Impotence Drugs Before Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157884.html Men, Avoid Impotence Drugs Before Surgery Let an anesthesia ... 21, 2016 MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men should not take erectile dysfunction drugs such as ...

  11. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required. PMID:24785995

  12. Intensification of Climate-Carbon Feedbacks after 2100 and Implications for Disturbance Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Lindsay, K. T.; Munoz, E.; Fu, W.; Hoffman, F. M.; Moore, J. K.; Doney, S. C.; Mahowald, N. M.; Bonan, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term ecosystem and carbon cycle responses to climate change are needed to inform mitigation policy, yet our understanding of how these responses may evolve after 2100 remains highly uncertain. Using the Community Earth System Model (version 1.0), we quantified climate-carbon feedbacks from 1850 to 2300 for the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (and its extension). In three simulations, land and ocean biogeochemical models were exposed to the same trajectory of increasing atmospheric CO2. In one simulation, atmospheric CO2 and other forcing agents were radiatively active (fully coupled), modifying temperature and other aspects of climate. In another, CO2 was radiatively uncoupled, and in the third, both CO2 and other atmospheric forcing agents (including CH4, N2O, and aerosols) were radiatively uncoupled. In the fully coupled simulation, global mean air temperatures increased by 9.3°C from 1850 to 2300, with 4.4°C of this warming occurring after 2100. Without radiative forcing from CO2, cumulative warming was much lower at 2.4°C, but exceeding 2°C targets needed to avoid dangerous interference with the climate system. In response to climate change, ocean and land rates of carbon uptake were reduced, with the size of the impact increasing over time. In the oceans, reductions in cumulative carbon uptake from climate change increased from 3% during the 20th century to 40% during the 23rd century. By 2300, climate change had reduced cumulative ocean uptake by 330 Pg C, from 1410 Pg C to 1080 Pg C. Most of this reduction occurred after 2100 as a consequence of increases in surface stratification and decreases in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Land fluxes similarly diverged over time, with climate change inducing a cumulative loss of 230 Pg C by 2300. On land the intensification of the hydrological cycle globally increased terrestrial water storage, although asymmetric responses were observed across different continents in the tropics. Net

  13. Singularity avoidance and time in quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kreienbuehl, Andreas

    2009-06-15

    We consider the quantization of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We derive a reduced square root Hamiltonian by choosing the scale factor as time variable and quantize the theory using Pauli matrices a la Dirac. From the resulting spinor equation we show that there is no semiclassical wave packet that avoids the big bang singularity. Our work raises the question concerning the relationship between the choice of time and singularity avoidance.

  14. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Zittermann, A.; Heer, M.

    1998-11-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplementat and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for `sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods.

  15. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) use social information as an indicator of safety in dangerous environments

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Erika H.; Chittka, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding predation is one of the most important challenges that an animal faces. Several anti-predation behaviours can be employed, yet simply using the presence of conspecifics can be a good signal of safety in an environment with potential predation hazards. Here, we show, for the first time, that past experience of predation causes bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) to aggregate with conspecifics, facilitating the identification of safe foraging patches. Bees were trained to differentiate between flowers that harboured predators and flowers that were predator free. When test subjects were subsequently presented solely with the previously predator-infested flower species, there was a significant preference to only land on flowers occupied by other feeding conspecifics. Yet, when safe flowers were made available to subjects previously entrained to discriminate safe from predator-occupied flowers, subjects ignored other bees and the social information potentially provided by them, demonstrating that attraction towards conspecifics is confined to dangerous situations. Our findings demonstrate a previously unknown social interaction in pollinators which may have important implications for plant–pollinator interactions. PMID:24789891

  16. Danger Control Programs Cause Tissue Injury and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, Jan H.; Haegele, Holger; Müller, Susanna; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Are there common pathways underlying the broad spectrum of tissue pathologies that develop upon injuries and from subsequent tissue remodeling? Here, we explain the pathophysiological impact of a set of evolutionary conserved danger control programs for tissue pathology. These programs date back to the survival benefits of the first multicellular organisms upon traumatic injuries by launching a series of danger control responses, i.e., 1. Haemostasis, or clotting to control bleeding; 2. Host defense, to control pathogen entry and spreading; 3. Re-epithelialisation, to recover barrier functions; and 4. Mesenchymal, to repair to regain tissue stability. Taking kidney pathology as an example, we discuss how clotting, inflammation, epithelial healing, and fibrosis/sclerosis determine the spectrum of kidney pathology, especially when they are insufficiently activated or present in an overshooting and deregulated manner. Understanding the evolutionary benefits of these response programs may refine the search for novel therapeutic targets to limit organ dysfunction in acute injuries and in progressive chronic tissue remodeling. PMID:23759985

  17. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    The `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit- Specific Portion. The scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Documentation included in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the General Information Portion, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance documentation, is located in the Contents Section. The intent of the General Information Portion is: (1) to provide an overview of the Hanford Facility; and (2) to assist in streamlining efforts associated with treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific Part B permit application, preclosure work plan, closure work plan, closure plan, closure/postclosure plan, or postclosure permit application documentation development, and the `Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit` modification process. Revision 2 of the General Information Portion of the `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` contains information current as of May 1, 1996. This document is a complete submittal and supersedes Revision 1.

  19. Dangerous and endangered youth: social structures and determinants of violence.

    PubMed

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    Structural violence is violence that is permissible, even encouraged. It refers to the invisible social machinery of inequality that reproduces social relations of exclusion and marginalization via ideologies, stigmas, and dangerous discourses (such as "youth violence" itself) attendant to race, class, sex, and other invidious distinctions. Structural violence "naturalizes" poverty, sickness, hunger, and premature death, erasing their social and political origins so that they are taken for granted and no one is held accountable except the poor themselves. Structural violence also refers to the ease with which humans are capable of reducing the socially vulnerable (even those from their own class and community) into expendable non-persons, thus allowing the licence--even the duty--to kill them. I exemplify this through two ethnographic critical case studies: the operation of a virulent death squad in Northeast Brazil that mobilized the support of ordinary people in an almost genocidal attack against Afro-Brazilian street kids and young "marginals"; and the uneasy truce with, and incomplete integration of "dangerous and endangered" youth still living in squatter camps and shack communities of urban South Africa. PMID:15817729

  20. Stroke: a Hidden Danger of Margin Trading in Stock Markets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Chien-Ho; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Using 10-year population data from 2000 through 2009 in Taiwan, this is the first paper to analyze the relationship between margin trading in stock markets and stroke hospitalizations. The results show that 3 and 6 days after an increase of margin trading in the Taiwan stock markets are associated with greater stoke hospitalizations. In general, a 1 % increase in total margin trading positions is associated with an increment of 2.5 in the total number of stroke hospitalizations, where the mean number of hospital admissions is 233 cases a day. We further examine the effects of margin trading by gender and age groups and find that the effects of margin trading are significant for males and those who are 45-74 years old only. In summary, buying stocks with money you do not have is quite risky, especially if the prices of those stocks fall past a certain level or if there is a sudden and severe drop in the stock market. There is also a hidden danger to one's health from margin trading. A person should be cautious before conducting margin trading, because while it can be quite profitable, danger always lurks just around the corner. PMID:26014381

  1. IP telephony based danger alert communication system and its implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Tomala, Karel; Partila, Pavol

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses a danger alert system created as a part of the research project at Department of Telecommunications of Technical University of Ostrava. The aim of the system is to distribute pre-recorded voice messages in order to alert the called party in danger. This article describes individual technologies, which the application uses for its operation as well as issues relating to hardware requirements and transfer line bandwidth load. The article also describes new algorithms, which had to be developed in order to ensure the reliability of the system. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transformation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations). The benefit of such communication compared to others, is the fact, that it uses a phone call and, therefore, it is possible to get feedback who accepted the message and to improve efficiency of alert system. Finally, the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users can be informed via SMS.

  2. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility.

  3. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  4. Dopamine and Octopamine Influence Avoidance Learning of Honey Bees in a Place Preference Assay

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Maitreyi; Giannoni Guzmán, Manuel; Morales-Matos, Carla; Del Valle Díaz, Rafael Alejandro; Abramson, Charles I.; Giray, Tugrul

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines are widely characterized in pathways evaluating reward and punishment, resulting in appropriate aversive or appetitive responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. We utilized the honey bee model and a newly developed spatial avoidance conditioning assay to probe effects of biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) on avoidance learning. In this new protocol non-harnessed bees associate a spatial color cue with mild electric shock punishment. After a number of experiences with color and shock the bees no longer enter the compartment associated with punishment. Intrinsic aspects of avoidance conditioning are associated with natural behavior of bees such as punishment (lack of food, explosive pollination mechanisms, danger of predation, heat, etc.) and their association to floral traits or other spatial cues during foraging. The results show that DA reduces the punishment received whereas octopamine OA increases the punishment received. These effects are dose-dependent and specific to the acquisition phase of training. The effects during acquisition are specific as shown in experiments using the antagonists Pimozide and Mianserin for DA and OA receptors, respectively. This study demonstrates the integrative role of biogenic amines in aversive learning in the honey bee as modeled in a novel non-appetitive avoidance learning assay. PMID:21980435

  5. Dopamine and octopamine influence avoidance learning of honey bees in a place preference assay.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Maitreyi; Giannoni Guzmán, Manuel; Morales-Matos, Carla; Del Valle Díaz, Rafael Alejandro; Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines are widely characterized in pathways evaluating reward and punishment, resulting in appropriate aversive or appetitive responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. We utilized the honey bee model and a newly developed spatial avoidance conditioning assay to probe effects of biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) on avoidance learning. In this new protocol non-harnessed bees associate a spatial color cue with mild electric shock punishment. After a number of experiences with color and shock the bees no longer enter the compartment associated with punishment. Intrinsic aspects of avoidance conditioning are associated with natural behavior of bees such as punishment (lack of food, explosive pollination mechanisms, danger of predation, heat, etc.) and their association to floral traits or other spatial cues during foraging. The results show that DA reduces the punishment received whereas octopamine OA increases the punishment received. These effects are dose-dependent and specific to the acquisition phase of training. The effects during acquisition are specific as shown in experiments using the antagonists Pimozide and Mianserin for DA and OA receptors, respectively. This study demonstrates the integrative role of biogenic amines in aversive learning in the honey bee as modeled in a novel non-appetitive avoidance learning assay. PMID:21980435

  6. Innate threat-sensitive foraging: black-tailed deer remain more fearful of wolf than of the less dangerous black bear even after 100 years of wolf absence.

    PubMed

    Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Malcuit, Hélène; Le Saout, Soizic; Martin, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    Anti-predator behaviors often entail foraging costs, and thus prey response to predator cues should be adjusted to the level of risk (threat-sensitive foraging). Simultaneously dangerous predators (with high hunting success) should engender the evolution of innate predator recognition and appropriate anti-predator behaviors that are effective even upon the first encounter with the predator. The above leads to the prediction that prey might respond more strongly to cues of dangerous predators that are absent, than to cues of less dangerous predators that are actually present. In an applied context this would predict an immediate and stronger response of ungulates to the return of top predators such as wolves (Canis lupus) in many parts of Europe and North America than to current, less threatening, mesopredators. We investigated the existence of innate threat-sensitive foraging in black-tailed deer. We took advantage of a quasi-experimental situation where deer had not experienced wolf predation for ca. 100 years, and were only potentially exposed to black bears (Ursus americanus). We tested the response of deer to the urine of wolf (dangerous) and black bear (less dangerous). Our results support the hypothesis of innate threat-sensitive foraging with clear increased passive avoidance and olfactory investigation of cues from wolf, and surprisingly none to black bear. Prey which have previously evolved under high risk of predation by wolves may react strongly to the return of wolf cues in their environments thanks to innate responses retained during the period of predator absence, and this could be the source of far stronger non-consumptive effects of the predator guild than currently observed. PMID:24288079

  7. Individual differences in response to positive and negative stimuli: endocannabinoid-based insight on approach and avoidance behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Laricchiuta, Daniela; Petrosini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Approach and avoidance behaviors—the primary responses to the environmental stimuli of danger, novelty and reward—are associated with the brain structures that mediate cognitive functionality, reward sensitivity and emotional expression. Individual differences in approach and avoidance behaviors are modulated by the functioning of amygdaloid-hypothalamic-striatal and striatal-cerebellar networks implicated in action and reaction to salient stimuli. The nodes of these networks are strongly interconnected and by acting on them the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems increase the intensity of appetitive or defensive motivation. This review analyzes the approach and avoidance behaviors in humans and rodents, addresses neurobiological and neurochemical aspects of these behaviors, and proposes a possible synaptic plasticity mechanism, related to endocannabinoid-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression that allows responding to salient positive and negative stimuli. PMID:25565991

  8. High resolution fire danger modeling : integration of quantitative precipitation amount estimates derived from weather radars as an input of FWI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloppet, E.; Regimbeau, M.

    2009-09-01

    Fire meteo indices provide efficient guidance tools for the prevention, early warning and surveillance of forest fires. The indices are based on meteorological input data. The underlying approach is to exploit meteorological information as fully as possible to model the soil water content, biomass condition and fire danger. Fire meteorological danger is estimated by Météo-France at national level through the use of Fire Weather Index. The fire index services developed within the PREVIEW project (2005-2008) offer for the first time very high resolution mapping of forest fire risk. The high resolution FWI has been implemented in France complementary to the existing EFFIS operated by the Joint Research Center. A new method (ANTILOPE method) of combining precipitation data originating from different sources like rain gauges and weather radar measurements has been applied in the new service. Some of the advantages of this new service are: · Improved detection of local features of fire risk · More accurate analysis of meteorological input data used in forest fire index models providing added value for forest fire risk forecasts · Use of radar precipitation data "as is” utilizing the higher resolution, i.e. avoiding averaging operations The improved accuracy and spatial resolution of the indices provide a powerful early warning tool for national and regional civil protection and fire fighting authorities to alert and initiate forest fire fighting actions and measures.

  9. Beyond negligence: avoidability and medical injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Allen B; Mello, Michelle M; Brennan, Troyen A; Studdert, David M

    2008-01-01

    Disenchantment with the tort system and negligence standard in the United States is fueling interest in alternate compensation systems for medical injury. One possibility is experimentation with administrative "health courts," through which specialized adjudicators would utilize neutral experts to render compensability determinations. Compensation would be based not on negligence, but rather on a broader avoidable medical injury (avoidability) standard. Although considerable interest in health courts exists, stakeholders frequently express uncertainty about the meaning and operation of an avoidability standard. Three nations-Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand-have long operated administrative schemes. We conducted interviews with administrators and stakeholders in these systems. Our goal was to garner lessons on how to operate a health court, and specifically, how to develop and apply alternate compensation criteria such as avoidability. This article reports our findings on the origins and operations of the systems, the evolution of their compensation criteria, and how these criteria are actually applied. We found that all three systems had their primary genesis in ensuring compensation for the injured, as opposed to sanctioning providers. All have abandoned the negligence standard. The Nordic systems use an avoidability standard, principally defined as injury that would not occur in the hands of the best practitioner. Their experience demonstrates that this definition is feasible to apply. New Zealand's recent move to a no-fault system sheds light on the benefits and drawbacks of a variety of compensation standards. Key lessons for successfully applying an alternate standard, such as avoidability, include a strict adherence to national precedent, the use of neutral and experienced experts, and a block on routine transfer of information from compensation investigations to disciplinary authorities. Importantly, all three nations are harnessing their systems' power to

  10. Measuring Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Athanasios G.; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Kosmidou, Eudoxia; Milosis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    A new instrument of motivational climate in physical education is presented with the goal of measuring perceptions of teachers' emphasis on mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and social approval goals. The measure was based on the principle of compatibility, according to which climate perceptions and achievement goals should be…

  11. Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.

    2013-02-12

    Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earth’s surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

  12. Avoidance of hydrolyzed casein by mice

    PubMed Central

    Field, Kristin L.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    When casein, a milk protein, is hydrolyzed, it renders human foods that contain it (e.g., hypoallergenic infant formula, cheeses) distasteful to many people. This rejection of hydrolyzed casein (HC)-containing foods has recently been found to also occur in a non-human species (deer, Odocoileus spp.). Identifying other animals that avoid HC would facilitate understanding how and why HC-containing food is often rejected. This study determined whether HC-containing food is avoided by Mus musculus and whether consumption patterns were sensitive to testing conditions, specifically food form (powder, pellet or dough) and food access (ad libitum or 1.5 h/day following 6 h of food deprivation). Diets were offered in two-choice tests that paired an HC-containing food with an intact casein-containing alternative at seven protein concentrations (0%–50% w/w). Five experimental groups were tested under different combinations of food form and food access. Three groups (ad lib/powder, ad lib/pellet, and 1.5 h/pellet) avoided the HC diet starting at the 30% protein level. At the 40% and 50% protein levels, all groups showed strong avoidance of HC. Although testing conditions influenced total caloric intake and body weight gain, avoidance of HC at the highest concentrations was robust to the manipulations in experimental conditions. Our study suggests that mice may be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of HC rejection. PMID:17900635

  13. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition. PMID:23715617

  14. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry. PMID:26744049

  15. Psychological research and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Stern, Paul C.; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda; Steg, Linda; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2015-07-01

    Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. Here, we argue that psychological research should inform efforts to address climate change, to avoid misunderstandings about human behaviour and motivations that can lead to ineffective or misguided policies. We review three key research areas: describing human perceptions of climate change; understanding and changing individual and household behaviour that drives climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate change and adaptation responses. Although much has been learned in these areas, we suggest important directions for further research.

  16. Mixed emotional appeals in emotional and danger control processes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Pilar; Muñoz, Dolores; Caballero, Amparo

    2010-12-01

    Negative emotional appeals do not always help to reduce risk behaviors. We report two studies about a new strategy based on the presentation of appeals with mixed sequential emotions (e.g., sadness/fear-joy/relief). Study 1 shows that a mixed message generates lower post-message discomfort than an exclusively negative message; moreover, in this first study, reported probability of performing the risk behavior, binge drinking, in the future is also lower in the mixed condition. Study 2 replicates these results and relates them to the extended parallel process model (EPPM) (Witte, 1992). Here, the mixed emotional message again generates lower post-message discomfort than the negative one, and participants are motivated to control the danger (response efficacy is evaluated more positively in the mixed condition). PMID:21153989

  17. Social support and parenting in poor, dangerous neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Ceballo, Rosario; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated how stressful environmental conditions influence the relation between mothers' social support and parenting strategies, utilizing interview data from a sample of 262 poor, African American single mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, as well as objective data about respondents' neighborhoods. In general, the results indicated that neighborhood conditions moderate the relation between social support and parenting behaviors. Specifically, as neighborhood conditions worsened, the positive relation between emotional support and mothers' nurturant parenting was weakened. In a similar fashion, the negative relation between instrumental social support and punishment was stronger in better neighborhoods. As the surrounding environments became poorer and more dangerous, the relation between greater instrumental support and a lower reliance on punishment was weakened. Thus, on the whole, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the positive influences of social support on parenting behavior were strained and attenuated in poorer, high-crime environments. PMID:12146749

  18. Seeing it coming: infants' brain responses to looming danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental property of most animals is the ability to see whether an object is approaching on a direct collision course and, if so, when it will collide. Using high-density electroencephalography in 5- to 11-month-old infants and a looming stimulus approaching under three different accelerations, we investigated how the young human nervous system extracts and processes information for impending collision. Here, we show that infants’ looming related brain activity is characterised by theta oscillations. Source analyses reveal clear localised activity in the visual cortex. Analysing the temporal dynamics of the source waveform, we provide evidence that the temporal structure of different looming stimuli is sustained during processing in the more mature infant brain, providing infants with increasingly veridical time-to-collision information about looming danger as they grow older and become more mobile.

  19. New model and estimation of the danger of ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatov, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    A new model of ball lightning is proposed. The main model assumption is that ball lightning has a core consisting of clouds of electrons and totally ionized ions which oscillate with respect to each other. According to the model, ball lightning emits high energy photons that are sometimes dangerous for human beings, and in a number of situations it can kill humans by electric pulses; the ball lightning energy can be of the order of 106 J and even greater. The electric charges that need to be injected into the atmosphere to create ball lightning and the currents, providing the injection of such charges, are estimated. These estimates predict that ball lightning can be created in the experiments with ordinary lightning or powerful electrical installations.

  20. Living dangerously on borrowed time during slow, unrecognized regime shifts.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Terry P; Linares, Cristina; Dakos, Vasilis; van de Leemput, Ingrid A; van Nes, Egbert H

    2013-03-01

    Regime shifts from one ecological state to another are often portrayed as sudden, dramatic, and difficult to reverse. Yet many regime shifts unfold slowly and imperceptibly after a tipping point has been exceeded, especially at regional and global scales. These long, smooth transitions between equilibrium states are easy to miss, ignore, or deny, confounding management and governance. However, slow responses by ecosystems after transgressing a dangerous threshold also affords borrowed time - a window of opportunity to return to safer conditions before the new state eventually locks in and equilibrates. In this context, the most important challenge is a social one: convincing enough people to confront business-as-usual before time runs out to reverse unwanted regime shifts even after they have already begun. PMID:22995893

  1. Biological mothers may be dangerous blood donors for their neonates.

    PubMed

    Elbert, C; Strauss, R G; Barrett, F; Goeken, N E; Pittner, B; Cordle, D

    1991-01-01

    Premature neonates require blood transfusions, and biological parents may wish to be directed donors. Biological mothers pose a potential danger because their plasma may contain antibodies that will react with blood cell antigens inherited by the infant from the father. We studied 25 healthy, pregnant women at the time of delivery for the presence of antibodies against red blood cell, leukocyte and platelet antigens. Mothers known to have red cell antibodies earlier in pregnancy were excluded, and no new red cell antibodies appeared at delivery. Antileukocyte and antiplatelet antibodies were found in 16 and 12% of mothers, respectively. Because these antibodies have the potential to cause adverse reactions when transfused passively, we suggest that either biological mothers not provide blood components containing plasma for their neonates or that maternal red cells and platelets be given as washed products. PMID:1853680

  2. Synthetic cannabinoids: the dangers of spicing it up.

    PubMed

    Salani, Deborah A; Zdanowicz, Martin M

    2015-05-01

    Cannabinoids are the most commonly used illegal substances in the world. Spice and K2 are synthetic cannabinoid (SC) products that contain a mixture of herbs and plant matter combined with synthetic compounds similar to tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Because the effects of Spice and K2 are similar to cannabis, many users are smoking these products as legal substitutes despite package labeling that they are not designed for human consumption. These SC products appeal to users because they are easily accessible and not readily detected in standard urine drug screens. The active components in SC products are highly potent and poorly characterized. Use of these agents has been associated with serious psychological and physiological side effects. Because abuse of SC products has become a national public health issue, nurses should be aware of the effects of SC compounds and must take a lead role in educating patients about the dangers of their use. PMID:25974923

  3. The Pott's puffy tumor: a dangerous sign for intracranial complications.

    PubMed

    Ketenci, Ibrahim; Unlü, Yaşar; Tucer, Bülent; Vural, Alperen

    2011-12-01

    The Pott's puffy tumor is a subperiosteal abscess of the frontal bone associated with osteomyelitis. The purpose of this article is to alert the physician to the severe complications of this entity. The records of six patients were reviewed retrospectively. There were four adults and two adolescents. Nasal endoscopy showed edematous, polypoid mucosa in middle meatus in three and nasal polyps in the rest. At initial admission, two had orbital subperiosteal abscess, but normal cranial CT findings. During hospitalization, three experienced frontal lobe abscess and one frontal cerebritis. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in all with external drainage of Pott's puffy tumor in addition to antibiotherapy. Three patients underwent craniotomy/craniectomy for removal of frontal lobe abscesses. One patient with frontal lobe abscess died. Pott's puffy tumor may result in potentially dangerous intracranial complications. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:21660452

  4. The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor of immune danger signals.

    PubMed

    Cassel, Suzanne L; Joly, Sophie; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S

    2009-08-01

    The innate immune system senses danger signals via evolutionary conserved receptors. The nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) family is a group of intracellular receptors that drive a wide variety of inflammatory responses. A number of the NLR family members can form inflammasomes, which are multiprotein complexes that can activate caspase-1 and ultimately lead to the processing and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-18 and IL-33. One of the best-studied members of the NLR family is NLRP3 for which a number of divergent activators have recently been described. These and other studies examining the NLRP3 inflammasome will be discussed in this review. PMID:19501527

  5. Reservoir Systems in Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, W.; Tung, C.; Tai, C.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change may cause more climate variability and further results in more frequent extreme hydrological events which may greatly influence reservoir¡¦s abilities to provide service, such as water supply and flood mitigation, and even danger reservoir¡¦s safety. Some local studies have identified that climate change may cause more flood in wet period and less flow in dry period in Taiwan. To mitigate climate change impacts, more reservoir space, i.e. less storage, may be required to store higher flood in wet periods, while more reservoir storage may be required to supply water for dry periods. The goals to strengthen adaptive capacity of water supply and flood mitigation are conflict under climate change. This study will focus on evaluating the impacts of climate change on reservoir systems. The evaluation procedure includes hydrological models, a reservoir water balance model, and a water supply system dynamics model. The hydrological models are used to simulate reservoir inflows under different climate conditions. Future climate scenarios are derived from several GCMs. Then, the reservoir water balance model is developed to calculate reservoir¡¦s storage and outflows according to the simulated inflows and operational rules. The ability of flood mitigation is also evaluated. At last, those outflows are further input to the system dynamics model to assess whether the goal of water supply can still be met. To mitigate climate change impacts, the implementing adaptation strategies will be suggested with the principles of risk management. Besides, uncertainties of this study will also be analyzed. The Feitsui reservoir system in northern Taiwan is chosen as a case study.

  6. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.M.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.

  7. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for T Plant Complex

    SciTech Connect

    BARNES, B.M.

    2002-09-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the T Plant Complex (this document, DOE/RL-95-36). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the T Plant Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the T Plant Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text.

  8. Potential dangers of oxygen supplementation during facial surgery.

    PubMed

    Greco, R J; Gonzalez, R; Johnson, P; Scolieri, M; Rekhopf, P G; Heckler, F

    1995-05-01

    The use of local anesthesia and intravenous sedation has made same-day outpatient surgery a viable option for many aesthetic and reconstructive procedures. These procedures often include the use of supplemental oxygen. Oxygen-enriched environments increase the combustibility of most materials, and "oxygen pooling" has been suspected to play an integral role in intraoperative fires. A personal experience with an intraoperative explosion and fire during a cosmetic blepharoplasty compelled us to explore the potential danger inherent in the use of supplemental oxygen as well as potential strategies to minimize that danger. This study systematically examines the microenvironment created by the use of oxygen both in the operative field and beneath the surgical drapes under conditions simulating routine facial surgery and various recommended modifications of its delivery. With the use of oxygen supplementation, oxygen concentration beneath the drapes was found to be consistently elevated when compared with ambient air (20.9 percent) and reached levels as high as 53.5 percent. Oxygen concentration in the operative environment was mildly but not significantly elevated. Although criteria for the use of oxygen supplementation are not clear, when administration is deemed necessary, the use of a posterior pharyngeal catheter for its delivery had no advantage over nasal prongs. However, appropriate alternatives include the use of "open face" draping techniques, the use of compressed air beneath the drapes as a substitute for oxygen supplementation in unsedated patients, and cessation of oxygen supplementation for 60 seconds prior to the use of a possible ignition source with oxygen flow rates of less than 3 liters per minute. PMID:7732145

  9. Traveler's guide to avoiding infectious diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider or local travel clinic. PREVENTING MALARIA Malaria is a serious disease that spreads by the ... It occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Malaria can cause high fevers, shaking chills, flu-like ...

  10. Traveler's guide to avoiding infectious diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... The following things should be considered: Local climate Insects and parasites Sanitation The best public sources for ... vary. You should also take steps to prevent insect bites. ZIKA VIRUS Zika is a virus passed ...

  11. 77 FR 25952 - Oregon Army National Guard, Camp Rilea, Clatsop County, OR; Danger Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is proposing to establish a new danger zone in the waters adjacent to Camp Rilea located in Clatsop County, Oregon. The regulation would prohibit any activity by the public within the danger zone during use of weapons training ranges. The new danger zone is necessary to ensure public safety and satisfy the Oregon National Guard operations requirements for small......

  12. [SOME ASPECTS OF NON-SPECIFIC PROPHYLAXIS AND THERAPY OF ESPECIALLY DANGEROUS INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Filippenko, A V; Omelchenko, N D; Ivanova, I A; Bespalova, I A; Doroshenko, E P; Galicheva, A L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, due to spread of dangerous and especially dangerous infections much attention is given to development of complex approaches to their prophylaxis and therapy. Data on use of immune modulators, cytokines, probiotics, preparations of plant origin for non-specific prophylaxis of especially dangerous infections are analyzed in the review, and expediency of their combined use with specific and emergency prophlaxis of these diseases is evaluated. PMID:26829862

  13. Where Danger Lurks: Evaluating New and Existing Playground Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reily, Sue

    1996-01-01

    Provides a checklist of safety features to look for when purchasing playground equipment or when evaluating the safety of existing equipment. The checklist covers playground surface, all equipment, slides, swings, climbing and stationary equipment, and equipment spacing. Also lists types of equipment to avoid and playground supervision tips. (TJQ)

  14. Do Emergency Text Messaging Systems Put Students in More Danger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambenek, John; Klus, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones have become prevalent on college campuses. Most students use them as their primary phone to avoid changing phone service every year or dealing with university-based long-distance charges. In the wake of recent college shootings and threats of violence on campus, administrators have begun to deploy cell phone solutions to send emergency…

  15. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  16. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

  17. A collision avoidance system for workpiece protection

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Novak, J.L.; Maslakowski, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an application of Sandia`s non-contact capacitive sensing technology for collision avoidance during the manufacturing of rocket engine thrust chambers. The collision avoidance system consists of an octagon shaped collar with a capacitive proximity sensor mounted on each face. The sensors produced electric fields which extend several inches from the face of the collar and detect potential collisions between the robot and the workpiece. A signal conditioning system processes the sensor output and provides varying voltage signals to the robot controller for stopping the robot.

  18. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Thomas; Rourke, Kenneth

    Collision avoidance must be ensured during Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) operations near the space station. The design of the Collision Avoidance Maneuver (CAM) will involve analysis of CTV failure modes during rendezvous and proximity operations as well as analysis of possible problems external to the CTV, but that would require CTV to execute a CAM. In considering the requirements and design of the CAM for the CTV, the CAM design for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is a useful reference point from which some lessons can be learned and many CTV design options can be set forth.

  19. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, Thomas; Rourke, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Collision avoidance must be ensured during Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) operations near the space station. The design of the Collision Avoidance Maneuver (CAM) will involve analysis of CTV failure modes during rendezvous and proximity operations as well as analysis of possible problems external to the CTV, but that would require CTV to execute a CAM. In considering the requirements and design of the CAM for the CTV, the CAM design for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is a useful reference point from which some lessons can be learned and many CTV design options can be set forth.

  20. Telerobotics with whole arm collision avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Strenn, S.

    1993-09-01

    The complexity of teleorbotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection (VFR) is desirable. With this goal in mind, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinematically master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.

  1. Interactions of Mean Climate Change and Climate Variability on Food Security Extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alexander C.; McDermid, Sonali; Mavromatis, Theodoros; Hudson, Nicholas; Morales, Monica; Simmons, John; Prabodha, Agalawatte; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahuja, Laj R.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing that climate change will affect agricultural systems both through mean changes and through shifts in climate variability and associated extreme events, we present preliminary analyses of climate impacts from a network of 1137 crop modeling sites contributed to the AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP). At each site sensitivity tests were run according to a common protocol, which enables the fitting of crop model emulators across a range of carbon dioxide, temperature, and water (CTW) changes. C3MP can elucidate several aspects of these changes and quantify crop responses across a wide diversity of farming systems. Here we test the hypothesis that climate change and variability interact in three main ways. First, mean climate changes can affect yields across an entire time period. Second, extreme events (when they do occur) may be more sensitive to climate changes than a year with normal climate. Third, mean climate changes can alter the likelihood of climate extremes, leading to more frequent seasons with anomalies outside of the expected conditions for which management was designed. In this way, shifts in climate variability can result in an increase or reduction of mean yield, as extreme climate events tend to have lower yield than years with normal climate.C3MP maize simulations across 126 farms reveal a clear indication and quantification (as response functions) of mean climate impacts on mean yield and clearly show that mean climate changes will directly affect the variability of yield. Yield reductions from increased climate variability are not as clear as crop models tend to be less sensitive to dangers on the cool and wet extremes of climate variability, likely underestimating losses from water-logging, floods, and frosts.

  2. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  3. Inducer Design to Avoid Cavitation Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Donghyuk; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Yonezawa, Koichi; Horiguchi, Hironori; Kawata, Yutaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu

    2010-06-01

    Three inducers were designed to avoid cavitation instabilities. This was accomplished by avoiding the interaction of tip cavity with the leading edge of the opposing blade. The first one applied extremely larger leading edge sweep, the second and third ones applied smaller incidence angle by reducing the inlet blade angle or increasing the design flow rate, respectively. The inducer with larger design flow rate has larger outlet blade angle to obtain sufficient pressure rise. The inducer with larger sweep could suppress the cavitation instabilities in wide ranges of cavitation number and flow rate, owing to weaker tip leakage vortex cavity with stronger disturbance by backflow vortices. The inducer with larger outlet blade angle could avoid the cavitation instabilities at higher flow rates owing to the extension of the tip cavity along the suction surface of the blade. The inducer with smaller inlet blade angle could avoid the cavitation instabilities at the flow rates larger than the design flow coefficient, owing to the occurrence of the cavity first in the blade passage and its extension upstream. The cavity shape and suction performance were reasonably simulated by three dimensional CFD computations under the steady cavitating condition, except for the backflow vortex cavity. The difference in the growth of cavity for each inducer is explained from the difference of the pressure distribution on the suction side of the blades.

  4. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  5. Freeze tolerance and avoidance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold acclimation is a multigenic, quantitative trait that involves biochemical and structural changes that effect the physiology of a plant. Mechanisms associated with freeze tolerance or freeze avoidance develop and are lost on an annual cycle. When conducting studies to characterize and determin...

  6. Perspectives in avoidance-preference bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.W.; Taylor, D.H.; Strickler-Shaw, S.

    1996-12-31

    Although behavioral endpoints are used in hazard assessment, establishment of water quality criteria and assessment of a contaminant`s hazard to aquatic life rely primarily on standard acute and chronic toxicity tests. Sublethal effects of pollutants should, however, be of major concern because more organisms experience sublethal rather than acutely or chronically lethal exposures of contaminants. The avoidance-preference approach to behavioral bioassays is very useful in screening pollutants for which the mechanisms of perception or response are largely unknown. The underlying philosophy of these studies is that an animal which perceives a chemical can be attracted or repulsed by it. No response is frequently assumed to indicate lack of perception. All three responses have broad ecological implications. The authors discuss the conditions required for performing avoidance-preference bioassays, as well as their sensitivities, advantages, and limitations. In this regard, a comparative approach is used in examining the results of avoidance-preference bioassays with zebrafish in two different apparatuses. Finally, they compare the results of avoidance-preference studies with other measures of the behavioral toxicity of lead to tadpoles.

  7. Working with Avoidant Children: A Clinical Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Nancy; Meisburger, Diana

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for interviewing and assisting highly avoidant children who may be victims of maltreatment. Discusses factors inhibiting their self-disclosure, the importance of managing child safety, and establishing and maintaining rapport. Describes strategies including pacing the interview, empowering the child, and using distancing…

  8. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Oaten, Megan J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another—the focus of this theme issue—has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick—stigmatization—and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process—moralization—can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

  9. The Advocacy or Avoidance of Only Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    A brief review of the psychological literature on the characteristics of only children is presented in order to determine if the one-child family should be avoided or advocated. The relevant literature is found to be limited in quantity and conceptualization of the only child. Previous literature is divided into three types of study: those with…

  10. Digital-Difference Processing For Collision Avoidance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shores, Paul; Lichtenberg, Chris; Kobayashi, Herbert S.; Cunningham, Allen R.

    1988-01-01

    Digital system for automotive crash avoidance measures and displays difference in frequency between two sinusoidal input signals of slightly different frequencies. Designed for use with Doppler radars. Characterized as digital mixer coupled to frequency counter measuring difference frequency in mixer output. Technique determines target path mathematically. Used for tracking cars, missiles, bullets, baseballs, and other fast-moving objects.

  11. Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Auria, John

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…

  12. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  13. Metacognitive evaluation in the avoidance of demand.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Timothy L; Lutes, David J C; Risko, Evan F

    2016-09-01

    In the current set of experiments our goal was to test the hypothesis that individuals avoid courses of action based on a kind of metacognitive evaluation of demand in a Demand Selection Task (DST). Individuals in Experiment 1 completed a DST utilizing visual stimuli known to yield a dissociation between performance and perceived demand. Patterns of demand avoidance followed that of perceived demand. Experiment 2 provided a replication of the aforementioned results, in addition to demonstrating a second dissociation between a peripheral physiological measure of demand (i.e., blink rates) and demand avoidance. Experiment 3 directly tested the assumption that individuals make use of a general metacognitive evaluation of task demand during selections. A DST was utilized in a forced-choice paradigm that required individuals to either select the most effortful, time demanding, or least accurate of 2 choices. Patterns of selections were similar across all rating dimensions, lending credit to this notion. Findings are discussed within a metacognitive framework of demand avoidance and contrasted to current theories. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123679

  14. Disgust as a Disease-Avoidance Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaten, Megan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have claimed that the emotion of disgust functions to protect us from disease. Although there have been several discussions of this hypothesis, none have yet reviewed the evidence in its entirety. The authors derive 14 hypotheses from a disease-avoidance account and evaluate the evidence for each, drawing upon research on pathogen…

  15. Specific Language Impairment at Adolescence: Avoiding Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuller, Laurice; Henry, Celia; Sizaret, Eva; Barthez, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study explores complex language in adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) with the aim of finding out how aspects of language characteristic of typical syntactic development after childhood fare and, in particular, whether there is evidence that individuals with SLI avoid using structures whose syntactic derivation involves…

  16. The employment interview. Avoiding discriminatory questioning.

    PubMed

    Poteet, G W

    1984-04-01

    The potential for legal action against health care institutions for unlawful preemployment interviews has never been greater. This article shows how to avoid discriminatory questions when interviewing job applicants in the health care setting. The author presents guidelines for helping nursing administrators obtain necessary information without violating the basic rights of the potential employee. PMID:6561248

  17. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  18. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity.

    PubMed

    McLeod, David V; Day, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host-pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate. PMID:26336170

  19. Social Work Education and Avoidable Ignorance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The quality of professional education affects the quality of services offered to clients. Examples of avoidable ignorance that dilute the quality of education social workers receive are suggested, indicating that we have not been honest and energetic brokers of knowledge and ignorance. Related reasons are suggested, including a reluctance to take…

  20. Women Coping with a Partner's Sexual Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Domeena C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the complexities of sexual avoidance, or Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD), a previously neglected aspect of a couple's relationship. Suggests that learning from a therapist to accept and enjoy other forms of sexual exchange can open up new horizons of physical and emotional intimacy. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)