Science.gov

Sample records for avoidance

  1. Avoiding Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoiding ticks On people On pets In the yard Removing a tick Symptoms of tickborne illness Geographic ... ticks on your pets Preventing ticks in the yard File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  2. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  3. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  4. Avoidant personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  5. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    PubMed Central

    Gaizauskiene, A; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death accounted for 54%, and preventable, 46% of avoidable mortality. Time trends showed that general mortality and mortality from avoidable causes of death in this age group were almost stable between 1970 and 1990. Mortality from treatable causes of death fell, while deaths from preventable causes increased. The results in the preventable group were greatly affected by deaths from malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lungs. Differences were noted between the sexes in total mortality as well as in avoidable mortality. CONCLUSIONS--Avoidable causes of death are relatively common and, consequently, they are of practical importance for public health and studies of the health care quality in Lithuania. Reorganisation of health care is to be carried out and considerable emphasis will be placed on health education, promotion, and prevention, as primary prevention measures have not been effective thus far. PMID:7629464

  6. Avoiding Statistical Mistakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Nora

    2007-01-01

    Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…

  7. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  8. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  9. Operational Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will describe the early days of the EOS Aqua and Aura operational collision avoidance process. It will highlight EOS debris avoidance maneuvers, EOS high interest event statistic and A-Train systematic conjunctions and conclude with future challenges. This is related to earlier e-DAA (tracking number 21692) that an abstract was submitted to a different conference. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager has reviewed and approved this presentation on May 6, 2015

  10. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  11. Avoiding Sophomore Jinx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, James

    2002-01-01

    After the first year, new superintendents should take care to avoid the "sophomore jinx" by communicating effectively with the board president every week and with board members before meetings. Public engagement is also an integral part of a superintendent's job. (MLF)

  12. Pitcherpot: Avoiding Honeypot Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Vinod K.; Bhatnagar, Pramod K.; Bhatnagar, Mitul

    This paper explores the various ways honeypots could be detected by the malicious attacker. This includes the different prevalent criteria and characteristics for honeypots generation & their weaknesses. Further this paper proposes a new way of implementation of a honeypot (Pitcher pots Systems) that effectively facilitate its identity avoidance and yet offers better ways to study the attacker.

  13. Myelin Avoids the JAM.

    PubMed

    Follis, Rose M; Carter, Bruce D

    2016-08-17

    In this issue of Neuron, Redmond et al. (2016) identify junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitor of somatodendritic myelination in spinal cord neurons, thereby elucidating how myelin forms on axons but avoids dendrites and cell bodies. PMID:27537479

  14. Avoiding the "M" Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of roundtable discussions by top business officers about how higher education can capitalize on strategic alliances. Describes how, by working with one another and with corporate partners, colleges and universities can avoid closing their doors or merging with stronger institutions. (EV)

  15. Plants to Avoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Ann’s lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  16. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  17. Avoidable waste management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  18. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  19. Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

  20. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  1. MEST- avoid next extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2012-11-01

    Asteroid 2011 AG5 will impact on Earth in 2040. (See Donald K. Yoemans, ``Asteroid 2011 AG5 - A Reality Check,'' NASA-JPL, 2012) In 2011, The author say: the dark hole will take the dark comet to impact our solar system in 20 years, and give a systemic model between the sun and its companion-dark hole to explain why were there periodicity mass extinction on earth. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.CAL.C1.7, BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.24, BAPS.2012.APR.K1.78 and BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17) The dark Asteroid 2011 AG5 (as a dark comet) is made of the dark matter which has a space-time (as frequence-amplitude square) center- a different systemic model from solar systemic model. It can asborb the space-time and wave. So it is ``dark.'' When many dark matters hit on our earth, they can break our atom structure and our genetic code to trigger the Mass Extinction. In our experiments, consciousness can change the systematic model and code by a life-informational technology. So it can change the output signals of the solar cell. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.MAR.C1.286 and BAPS.2012.MAR.P33.14) So we will develop the genetic code of lives to evolution and sublimation, will use the dark matter to change the systemic model between dark hole and sun and will avoid next extinction.

  2. Collision avoidance sensor skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to totally eliminate the possibility of a robot (or any mechanism for that matter) inducing a collision in space operations. We were particularly concerned that human beings were safe under all circumstances. This was apparently accomplished, and it is shown that GSFC has a system that is ready for space qualification and flight. However, it soon became apparent that much more could be accomplished with this technology. Payloads could be made invulnerable to collision avoidance and the blind spots behind them eliminated. This could be accomplished by a simple, non-imaging set of 'Capaciflector' sensors on each payload. It also is evident that this system could be used to align and dock the system with a wide margin of safety. Throughout, lighting problems could be ignored, and unexpected events and modeling errors taken in stride. At the same time, computational requirements would be reduced. This can be done in a simple, rugged, reliable manner that will not disturb the form factor of space systems. It will be practical for space applications. The lab experiments indicate we are well on the way to accomplishing this. Still, the research trail goes deeper. It now appears that the sensors can be extended to end effectors to provide precontact information and make robot docking (or any docking connection) very smooth, with minimal loads impacted back into the mating structures. This type of ability would be a major step forward in basic control techniques in space. There are, however, baseline and restructuring issues to be tackled. The payloads must get power and signals to them from the robot or from the astronaut servicing tool. This requires a standard electromechanical interface. Any of several could be used. The GSFC prototype shown in this presentation is a good one. Sensors with their attendant electronics must be added to the payloads, end effectors, and robot arms and integrated into the system.

  3. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk. PMID:18758277

  4. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  5. Acquaintance Rape: Effective Avoidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine-MacCombie, Joyce; Koss, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Determined that acknowledged and unacknowledged acquaintance rape victims and rape avoiders could be discriminated by situational variables and response strategies. Avoiders were less likely to have experienced passive or internalizing emotions at the time of the assault, perceived the assault as less violent, and were more likely to have utilized…

  6. Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Evans, J P

    2014-12-01

    In many species, the negative fitness effects of inbreeding have facilitated the evolution of a wide range of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. Although avoidance mechanisms operating prior to mating are well documented, evidence for postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance remain scarce. Here, we examine the potential for paternity biases to favour unrelated males when their sperm compete for fertilizations though postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. To test this possibility, we used a series of artificial inseminations to deliver an equal number of sperm from a related (either full sibling or half sibling) and unrelated male to a female while statistically controlling for differences in sperm quality between rival ejaculates. In this way, we were able to focus exclusively on postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance and account for differences in sperm competitiveness between rival males. Under these carefully controlled conditions, we report a significant bias in paternity towards unrelated males, although this effect was only apparent when the related male was a full sibling. We also show that sperm competition generally favours males with highly viable sperm and thus that some variance in sperm competitiveness can be attributed to difference in sperm quality. Our findings for postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance are consistent with prior work on guppies, revealing that sperm competition success declines linearly with the level of relatedness, but also that such effects are only apparent at relatedness levels of full siblings or higher. These findings reveal that postcopulatory processes alone can facilitate inbreeding avoidance. PMID:25387854

  7. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  8. Endless self-avoiding walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clisby, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    We introduce a self-avoiding walk model for which end-effects are completely eliminated. We enumerate the number of these walks for various lattices in dimensions two and three, and use these enumerations to study the properties of this model. We find that endless self-avoiding walks have the same connective constant as self-avoiding walks, and the same Flory exponent ν. However, there is no power law correction to the exponential number growth for this new model, i.e. the critical exponent γ = 1 exactly in any dimension. In addition, the number growth has no analytic corrections to scaling, and we have convincing numerical evidence to support the conjecture that the amplitude for the number growth is a universal quantity. The technique by which end-effects are eliminated may be generalized to other models of polymers such as interacting self-avoiding walks.

  9. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  10. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  11. A problem of collision avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Cliff, E. M.; Grantham, W. J.; Peng, W. Y.

    1972-01-01

    Collision avoidance between two vehicles of constant speed with limited turning radii, moving in a horizontal plane is investigated. Collision avoidance is viewed as a game by assuming that the operator of one vehicle has perfect knowledge of the state of the other, whereas the operator of the second vehicle is unaware of any impending danger. The situation envisioned is that of an encounter between a commercial aircraft and a small light aircraft. This worse case situation is examined to determine the conditions under which the commercial aircraft should execute a collision avoidance maneuver. Three different zones of vulnerability are defined and the boundaries, or barriers, between these zones are determined for a typical aircraft encounter. A discussion of the methods used to obtain the results as well as some of the salient features associated with the resultant barriers is included.

  12. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Atul; Filobbos, George

    2013-01-01

    The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960's when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL) is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL) and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author's experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved. PMID:24501475

  13. Biochar aging reduces earthworm avoidance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a black carbon substance produced by the pyrolysis of organic feedstocks, has been used in many soil improvement strategies ranging from nutrient addition to sequestration of C. Simple toxicity studies and laboratory preference/avoidance assays are recommended but results rarely reported. ...

  14. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance. PMID:19186631

  15. Estimating avoidable causes of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D L; Muir, C

    1995-01-01

    Evidence that much cancer is preventable derives from observations of time trends and geographic patterns of cancer, birth cohort changes, high risks in groups with well-defined exposures, and experimental studies. In an effort to identify additional opportunities for reducing the impact of cancer on society, this conference assessed avoidable causes of cancer. The magnitude and extent of preventable causes of cancer are subjects of intense debate, with discrepancies often related to the use of different time frames and different weights for epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence. There is much agreement, however, about the exposures that increase risk, notably tobacco, alcohol, diet, radiation, medications, occupational exposures, general environmental exposures, and infectious agents. Interactions between carcinogenic exposures and genetic susceptibility are also important. Concerted efforts are needed to identify avoidable causes of cancer and to apply knowledge already obtained to reduce the cancer burden. PMID:8741803

  16. Diet, nutrition, and avoidable cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Willett, W C

    1995-01-01

    In a 1981 review, Doll and Peto estimated that approximately 35% of cancer deaths in the United States were potentially avoidable by the modification of diet but that this percentage might be as low as 10% or as high as 70%. Since that time, the epidemiologic literature on diet and cancer has grown greatly, as has understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. In general, this expanded literature has not provided reason to alter the Doll and Peto estimate substantially. For colon cancer, evidence has accumulated that some of the international differences that were attributed to diet are probably due to physical activity. For breast cancer, the concept that fat intake per se is the primary reason for differences in rates among countries has not been supported by prospective studies. Although several lines of evidence suggest that caloric restriction and slow growth rates may contribute importantly to the low rates of breast cancer found outside Western countries, this may not translate directly to practical means of prevention. In contrast to breast cancer, more recent data have supported a causative role for red meat in the development of colon and prostate cancers, although perhaps not entirely due to its fat content. Whereas earlier thinking about nutrition and cancer emphasized the adverse effects of fat and other components in the diet, the most compelling evidence of the last decade has indicated the importance of protective factors, largely unidentified, in fruits and vegetables. Considering the more recent evidence, it is roughly estimated that about 32% of cancer may be avoidable by changes in diet; however, it now seems unlikely that less than 20% or more than 42% of cancer deaths would be avoidable by dietary change. PMID:8741778

  17. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  18. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  19. ACAT Ground Collision Avoidance Flight Tests Over

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has concluded flight tests of an Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) under the joint U.S. Air Force/NASA F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance...

  20. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  1. Are You a Seeker or an Avoider?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Mark L.

    2002-01-01

    Some workers may consistently try to avoid failure, responsibility, and negative feedback. Trainers can help by assessing organizational circumstances; assist avoiders in developing knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes; and locate employee assistance programs or counseling if needed. (JOW)

  2. Termites eavesdrop to avoid competitors

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Theodore A.; Inta, Ra; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Prueger, Stefan; Foo, Nyuk Wei; Fu, Eugene Wei'en; Lenz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Competition exclusion, when a single species dominates resources due to superior competitiveness, is seldom observed in nature. Termites compete for resources with deadly consequences, yet more than one species can be found feeding in the same wooden resource. This is especially surprising when drywood species, with colonies of a few hundred, are found cohabiting with subterranean species, with colonies of millions. Termites communicate vibro-acoustically and, as these signals can travel over long distances, they are vulnerable to eavesdropping. We investigated whether drywood termites could eavesdrop on vibration cues from subterranean species. We show, using choice experiments and recordings, that the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus can distinguish its own species from the dominant competitor in the environment, the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis. The drywood termite was attracted to its own vibration cues, but was repelled by those of the subterranean species. This response increased with decreasing wood size, corresponding with both increased risk and strength of the cue. The drywood termites appear to avoid confrontation by eavesdropping on the subterranean termites; these results provide further evidence that vibro-acoustic cues are important for termite sensory perception and communication. PMID:19710058

  3. FVIII inhibitors: pathogenesis and avoidance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inhibitory antibodies has been the focus of major scientific interest over the last decades, and several studies on underlying immune mechanisms and risk factors for formation of these antibodies have been performed with the aim of improving the ability to both predict and prevent their appearance. It seems clear that the decisive factors for the immune response to the deficient factor are multiple and involve components of both a constitutional and therapy-related nature. A scientific concern and obstacle for research in the area of hemophilia is the relatively small cohorts available for studies and the resulting risk of confounded and biased results. Careful interpretation of data is recommended to avoid treatment decisions based on a weak scientific platform. This review will summarize current concepts of the underlying immunological mechanisms and risk factors for development of inhibitory antibodies in patients with hemophilia A and discuss how these findings may be interpreted and influence our clinical management of patients. PMID:25712994

  4. Avoidance of aluminum by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Exley, C.

    2000-04-01

    Aluminum is the principal toxicant in fish in acid waters. The ability to avoid Al, particularly at low concentrations, would confer a considerable ecological advantage, but previous research into avoidance of Al has produced mixed results. The author used a cylindrical perspex tank, 150 cm in length, to study avoidance of Al by rainbow trout fry. The fish avoided Al, and their response was dependent on pH. Avoidance that was demonstrated at pHs of 5.00, 5.50, 5.50, and 5.75 was abolished at a pH of 6.00. Fry avoided very low Al concentrations being sensitive to [Al] > 1.00 {micro}mol L{sup {minus}1} at a pH of 5.00. This unequivocal demonstration of avoidance by rainbow trout fry of Al may have important implications for the ecology of indigenous fish populations in surface waters impacted by acidic deposition.

  5. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Gemma; Schlund, Michael W.; Dymond, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead to the inference that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known however about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance—instructions and social observation—on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+) and another was a safety cue (CS−). Groups were then either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock (instructed-learning group) or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group). During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed. PMID:26150773

  6. Flight Tests Validate Collision-Avoidance System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flights tests of a smartphone-assisted automatic ground collision avoidance system at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center consistently commanded evasive maneuvers when it sensed that the unmanned ...

  7. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  8. Details Of Collision-Avoidance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Olsen, M. Christine; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Report provides background information on and detailed description of study of pilots' use of traffic-alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS II) in simulated flights. Described in article, "Evaluation of an Aircraft-Collision-Avoidance System" (ARC-12367). Plans, forms, training narratives, scripts, questionnaires, and other information compiled.

  9. A Demonstration of Approach and Avoidance Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…

  10. How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

  11. Recommendations for Sense and Avoid Policy Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since unmanned aircraft do not have a human on board, they need to have a sense and avoid capability that provides an "equivalent level of safety" (ELOS) to manned aircraft. The question then becomes - is sense and avoid ELOS for unmanned aircraft adequate to satisfy the requirements of 14 CFR 91.113? Access 5 has proposed a definition of sense and avoid, but the question remains as to whether any sense and avoid system can comply with 14 CFR 91.113 as currently written. The Access 5 definition of sense and avoid ELOS allows for the development of a sense and avoid system for unmanned aircraft that would comply with 14 CFR 91.113. Compliance is based on sensing and avoiding other traffic at an equivalent level of safety for collision avoidance, as manned aircraft. No changes to Part 91 are necessary, with the possible exception of changing "see" to "sense," or obtaining an interpretation from the FAA General Counsel that "sense" is equivalent to "see."

  12. Strategic Family Therapy of Avoidant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Thomas A.; Hinkle, J. Scott

    1993-01-01

    Notes that Millon's biopsychosocial model asserts that socioenvironmental factors of parental or peer rejection may shape development of avoidant behavior but does not elaborate on how family system may perpetuate its existence once disorder has evolved. Presents brief overview of avoidant behavior and strategic family therapy case study.…

  13. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  14. Passive avoidence learning in the young rat.

    PubMed

    Blozovski, D; Cudennec, A

    1980-09-01

    A step-through locomotor passive avoidance task is described requiring the suppression of a spontaneous escape reaction from a cool toward a warm compartment in order to avoid an electric shock delivered in the warm side. We observed no lerning of this task at 9 days of age, a very low but significant level of acquisition at 11 days, a slow but progressive improvement of avoidance from the 13th until the 17th day when the adult capacity was achieved, and a marked increase in the rate between 17-20 days. PMID:7409331

  15. 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes

    MedlinePlus

    ... consumer www.fda.gov/consumer/updates/medtips062107.html 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes 1. Know the ... labels & follow directions 5. Keep your doctors informed 6. K eep a list of all your medications ...

  16. When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the ...

  17. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Hannan, Mike; Srinivasan, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Present day robotic missions to other planets require precise, a priori knowledge of the terrain to pre-determine a landing spot that is safe. Landing sites can be miles from the mission objective, or, mission objectives may be tailored to suit landing sites. Future robotic exploration missions should be capable of autonomously identifying a safe landing target within a specified target area selected by mission requirements. Such autonomous landing sites must (1) 'see' the surface, (2) identify a target, and (3) land the vehicle. Recent advances in radar technology have resulted in small, lightweight, low power radars that are used for collision avoidance and cruise control systems in automobiles. Such radar systems can be adapted for use as active hazard avoidance systems for planetary landers. The focus of this CIF proposal is to leverage earlier work on collision avoidance systems for MSFC's Mighty Eagle lander and evaluate the use of automotive radar systems for collision avoidance in planetary landers.

  18. Many Manly Men Avoid Needed Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158551.html Many Manly Men Avoid Needed Health Care Gender stereotypes can have dangerous consequences, research suggests ... traditional masculine ideals were less likely to seek health care, more likely to downplay symptoms, and had worse ...

  19. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  20. Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159681.html Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity Good relationship with parents, especially between fathers and ... develop healthy habits that may protect them against obesity, a new study suggests. The researchers also found ...

  1. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  2. Men, Avoid Impotence Drugs Before Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157884.html Men, Avoid Impotence Drugs Before Surgery Let an anesthesia ... 21, 2016 MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men should not take erectile dysfunction drugs such as ...

  3. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required. PMID:24785995

  4. Singularity avoidance and time in quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kreienbuehl, Andreas

    2009-06-15

    We consider the quantization of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We derive a reduced square root Hamiltonian by choosing the scale factor as time variable and quantize the theory using Pauli matrices a la Dirac. From the resulting spinor equation we show that there is no semiclassical wave packet that avoids the big bang singularity. Our work raises the question concerning the relationship between the choice of time and singularity avoidance.

  5. Beyond negligence: avoidability and medical injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Allen B; Mello, Michelle M; Brennan, Troyen A; Studdert, David M

    2008-01-01

    Disenchantment with the tort system and negligence standard in the United States is fueling interest in alternate compensation systems for medical injury. One possibility is experimentation with administrative "health courts," through which specialized adjudicators would utilize neutral experts to render compensability determinations. Compensation would be based not on negligence, but rather on a broader avoidable medical injury (avoidability) standard. Although considerable interest in health courts exists, stakeholders frequently express uncertainty about the meaning and operation of an avoidability standard. Three nations-Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand-have long operated administrative schemes. We conducted interviews with administrators and stakeholders in these systems. Our goal was to garner lessons on how to operate a health court, and specifically, how to develop and apply alternate compensation criteria such as avoidability. This article reports our findings on the origins and operations of the systems, the evolution of their compensation criteria, and how these criteria are actually applied. We found that all three systems had their primary genesis in ensuring compensation for the injured, as opposed to sanctioning providers. All have abandoned the negligence standard. The Nordic systems use an avoidability standard, principally defined as injury that would not occur in the hands of the best practitioner. Their experience demonstrates that this definition is feasible to apply. New Zealand's recent move to a no-fault system sheds light on the benefits and drawbacks of a variety of compensation standards. Key lessons for successfully applying an alternate standard, such as avoidability, include a strict adherence to national precedent, the use of neutral and experienced experts, and a block on routine transfer of information from compensation investigations to disciplinary authorities. Importantly, all three nations are harnessing their systems' power to

  6. Avoidance of hydrolyzed casein by mice

    PubMed Central

    Field, Kristin L.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    When casein, a milk protein, is hydrolyzed, it renders human foods that contain it (e.g., hypoallergenic infant formula, cheeses) distasteful to many people. This rejection of hydrolyzed casein (HC)-containing foods has recently been found to also occur in a non-human species (deer, Odocoileus spp.). Identifying other animals that avoid HC would facilitate understanding how and why HC-containing food is often rejected. This study determined whether HC-containing food is avoided by Mus musculus and whether consumption patterns were sensitive to testing conditions, specifically food form (powder, pellet or dough) and food access (ad libitum or 1.5 h/day following 6 h of food deprivation). Diets were offered in two-choice tests that paired an HC-containing food with an intact casein-containing alternative at seven protein concentrations (0%–50% w/w). Five experimental groups were tested under different combinations of food form and food access. Three groups (ad lib/powder, ad lib/pellet, and 1.5 h/pellet) avoided the HC diet starting at the 30% protein level. At the 40% and 50% protein levels, all groups showed strong avoidance of HC. Although testing conditions influenced total caloric intake and body weight gain, avoidance of HC at the highest concentrations was robust to the manipulations in experimental conditions. Our study suggests that mice may be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of HC rejection. PMID:17900635

  7. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition. PMID:23715617

  8. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  9. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

  10. A collision avoidance system for workpiece protection

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Novak, J.L.; Maslakowski, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an application of Sandia`s non-contact capacitive sensing technology for collision avoidance during the manufacturing of rocket engine thrust chambers. The collision avoidance system consists of an octagon shaped collar with a capacitive proximity sensor mounted on each face. The sensors produced electric fields which extend several inches from the face of the collar and detect potential collisions between the robot and the workpiece. A signal conditioning system processes the sensor output and provides varying voltage signals to the robot controller for stopping the robot.

  11. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Thomas; Rourke, Kenneth

    Collision avoidance must be ensured during Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) operations near the space station. The design of the Collision Avoidance Maneuver (CAM) will involve analysis of CTV failure modes during rendezvous and proximity operations as well as analysis of possible problems external to the CTV, but that would require CTV to execute a CAM. In considering the requirements and design of the CAM for the CTV, the CAM design for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is a useful reference point from which some lessons can be learned and many CTV design options can be set forth.

  12. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, Thomas; Rourke, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Collision avoidance must be ensured during Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) operations near the space station. The design of the Collision Avoidance Maneuver (CAM) will involve analysis of CTV failure modes during rendezvous and proximity operations as well as analysis of possible problems external to the CTV, but that would require CTV to execute a CAM. In considering the requirements and design of the CAM for the CTV, the CAM design for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is a useful reference point from which some lessons can be learned and many CTV design options can be set forth.

  13. Telerobotics with whole arm collision avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Strenn, S.

    1993-09-01

    The complexity of teleorbotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection (VFR) is desirable. With this goal in mind, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinematically master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.

  14. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  15. Inducer Design to Avoid Cavitation Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Donghyuk; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Yonezawa, Koichi; Horiguchi, Hironori; Kawata, Yutaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu

    2010-06-01

    Three inducers were designed to avoid cavitation instabilities. This was accomplished by avoiding the interaction of tip cavity with the leading edge of the opposing blade. The first one applied extremely larger leading edge sweep, the second and third ones applied smaller incidence angle by reducing the inlet blade angle or increasing the design flow rate, respectively. The inducer with larger design flow rate has larger outlet blade angle to obtain sufficient pressure rise. The inducer with larger sweep could suppress the cavitation instabilities in wide ranges of cavitation number and flow rate, owing to weaker tip leakage vortex cavity with stronger disturbance by backflow vortices. The inducer with larger outlet blade angle could avoid the cavitation instabilities at higher flow rates owing to the extension of the tip cavity along the suction surface of the blade. The inducer with smaller inlet blade angle could avoid the cavitation instabilities at the flow rates larger than the design flow coefficient, owing to the occurrence of the cavity first in the blade passage and its extension upstream. The cavity shape and suction performance were reasonably simulated by three dimensional CFD computations under the steady cavitating condition, except for the backflow vortex cavity. The difference in the growth of cavity for each inducer is explained from the difference of the pressure distribution on the suction side of the blades.

  16. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  17. Freeze tolerance and avoidance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold acclimation is a multigenic, quantitative trait that involves biochemical and structural changes that effect the physiology of a plant. Mechanisms associated with freeze tolerance or freeze avoidance develop and are lost on an annual cycle. When conducting studies to characterize and determin...

  18. Perspectives in avoidance-preference bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.W.; Taylor, D.H.; Strickler-Shaw, S.

    1996-12-31

    Although behavioral endpoints are used in hazard assessment, establishment of water quality criteria and assessment of a contaminant`s hazard to aquatic life rely primarily on standard acute and chronic toxicity tests. Sublethal effects of pollutants should, however, be of major concern because more organisms experience sublethal rather than acutely or chronically lethal exposures of contaminants. The avoidance-preference approach to behavioral bioassays is very useful in screening pollutants for which the mechanisms of perception or response are largely unknown. The underlying philosophy of these studies is that an animal which perceives a chemical can be attracted or repulsed by it. No response is frequently assumed to indicate lack of perception. All three responses have broad ecological implications. The authors discuss the conditions required for performing avoidance-preference bioassays, as well as their sensitivities, advantages, and limitations. In this regard, a comparative approach is used in examining the results of avoidance-preference bioassays with zebrafish in two different apparatuses. Finally, they compare the results of avoidance-preference studies with other measures of the behavioral toxicity of lead to tadpoles.

  19. Working with Avoidant Children: A Clinical Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Nancy; Meisburger, Diana

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for interviewing and assisting highly avoidant children who may be victims of maltreatment. Discusses factors inhibiting their self-disclosure, the importance of managing child safety, and establishing and maintaining rapport. Describes strategies including pacing the interview, empowering the child, and using distancing…

  20. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Oaten, Megan J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another—the focus of this theme issue—has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick—stigmatization—and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process—moralization—can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

  1. The Advocacy or Avoidance of Only Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    A brief review of the psychological literature on the characteristics of only children is presented in order to determine if the one-child family should be avoided or advocated. The relevant literature is found to be limited in quantity and conceptualization of the only child. Previous literature is divided into three types of study: those with…

  2. Digital-Difference Processing For Collision Avoidance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shores, Paul; Lichtenberg, Chris; Kobayashi, Herbert S.; Cunningham, Allen R.

    1988-01-01

    Digital system for automotive crash avoidance measures and displays difference in frequency between two sinusoidal input signals of slightly different frequencies. Designed for use with Doppler radars. Characterized as digital mixer coupled to frequency counter measuring difference frequency in mixer output. Technique determines target path mathematically. Used for tracking cars, missiles, bullets, baseballs, and other fast-moving objects.

  3. Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Auria, John

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…

  4. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  5. Metacognitive evaluation in the avoidance of demand.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Timothy L; Lutes, David J C; Risko, Evan F

    2016-09-01

    In the current set of experiments our goal was to test the hypothesis that individuals avoid courses of action based on a kind of metacognitive evaluation of demand in a Demand Selection Task (DST). Individuals in Experiment 1 completed a DST utilizing visual stimuli known to yield a dissociation between performance and perceived demand. Patterns of demand avoidance followed that of perceived demand. Experiment 2 provided a replication of the aforementioned results, in addition to demonstrating a second dissociation between a peripheral physiological measure of demand (i.e., blink rates) and demand avoidance. Experiment 3 directly tested the assumption that individuals make use of a general metacognitive evaluation of task demand during selections. A DST was utilized in a forced-choice paradigm that required individuals to either select the most effortful, time demanding, or least accurate of 2 choices. Patterns of selections were similar across all rating dimensions, lending credit to this notion. Findings are discussed within a metacognitive framework of demand avoidance and contrasted to current theories. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123679

  6. Disgust as a Disease-Avoidance Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaten, Megan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have claimed that the emotion of disgust functions to protect us from disease. Although there have been several discussions of this hypothesis, none have yet reviewed the evidence in its entirety. The authors derive 14 hypotheses from a disease-avoidance account and evaluate the evidence for each, drawing upon research on pathogen…

  7. Specific Language Impairment at Adolescence: Avoiding Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuller, Laurice; Henry, Celia; Sizaret, Eva; Barthez, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study explores complex language in adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) with the aim of finding out how aspects of language characteristic of typical syntactic development after childhood fare and, in particular, whether there is evidence that individuals with SLI avoid using structures whose syntactic derivation involves…

  8. The employment interview. Avoiding discriminatory questioning.

    PubMed

    Poteet, G W

    1984-04-01

    The potential for legal action against health care institutions for unlawful preemployment interviews has never been greater. This article shows how to avoid discriminatory questions when interviewing job applicants in the health care setting. The author presents guidelines for helping nursing administrators obtain necessary information without violating the basic rights of the potential employee. PMID:6561248

  9. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  10. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity.

    PubMed

    McLeod, David V; Day, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host-pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate. PMID:26336170

  11. Social Work Education and Avoidable Ignorance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The quality of professional education affects the quality of services offered to clients. Examples of avoidable ignorance that dilute the quality of education social workers receive are suggested, indicating that we have not been honest and energetic brokers of knowledge and ignorance. Related reasons are suggested, including a reluctance to take…

  12. Women Coping with a Partner's Sexual Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Domeena C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the complexities of sexual avoidance, or Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD), a previously neglected aspect of a couple's relationship. Suggests that learning from a therapist to accept and enjoy other forms of sexual exchange can open up new horizons of physical and emotional intimacy. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)

  13. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  14. Development of a Measure of Experiential Avoidance: The Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamez, Wakiza; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman; Ruggero, Camilo; Watson, David

    2011-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) has been conceptualized as the tendency to avoid negative internal experiences and is an important concept in numerous conceptualizations of psychopathology as well as theories of psychotherapy. Existing measures of EA have either been narrowly defined or demonstrated unsatisfactory internal consistency and/or evidence…

  15. Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    1997-06-01

    Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

  16. GEO Collision Avoidance using a Service Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, M.; Concha, M.

    2013-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is defined as the knowledge and characterization of all aspects of space. SSA is now a fundamental and critical component of space operations. The increased dependence on our space assets has in turn lead to a greater need for accurate, near real-time knowledge of all space activities. Key areas of SSA include improved tracking of small objects, determining the intent of maneuvering spacecraft, identifying all potential high risk conjunction events, and leveraging non-traditional sensors in support of the SSA mission. As the size of the space object population grows, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows. Moreover, as the SSA mission evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis, the need for new, more sophisticated collision avoidance methods are required. This paper demonstrates the utility of using a service vehicle to perform collision avoidance maneuver for GEO satellites. We present the planning and execution details required to successfully execute a maneuver; given the traditional conjunction analysis timelines. Various operational constraints and scenarios are considered as part of the demonstration. Development of the collision avoidance strategy is created using SpaceNav's collision risk management tool suite. This study aims to determine the agility required of any proposed servicing capability to provide collision avoidance within traditional conjunction analysis and collision avoidance operations timelines. Key trades and analysis items are given to be: 1. How do we fuse the spacecraft state data with the tracking data collected from the proximity sensor that resides on the servicing spacecraft? 2. How do we deal with the possibility that the collision threat for the event may change as the time to close approach is reduced? 3. Perform trade space of maneuver/thrust time versus achievable change in the spacecraft's orbit. 4. Perform trade space of proximity of service vehicle to spacecraft versus time

  17. Converging evidence of social avoidant behavior in schizophrenia from two approach-avoidance tasks.

    PubMed

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-10-01

    Many people with schizophrenia suffer from social impairments characterized by active social avoidance, which is related to social phobia common in schizophrenia, while motivational impairments can also result in passive social withdrawal. Although social avoidance is frequently reported in this population, this is the first study to directly compare approach-avoidance tendencies in schizophrenia patients (N = 37) and healthy controls (N = 29). Participants performed two tasks: a computerized approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess response tendencies toward images of happy and angry faces with direct or averted gaze and a one-to-one personal space test (PST) to gauge more naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors toward a real person bearing a neutral expression. The AAT results showed that both groups showed faster avoidance responses to angry faces and faster approach responses to happy faces with a direct gaze. Happy faces with averted gaze, however, resulted in faster avoidance responses in the patient group only. On the PST, the patients approached the experimenter less than healthy controls did. This measure of interpersonal distance was positively related to positive symptom severity. Delusions of reference and increased sensitivity to social rejection may explain the patients' avoidance tendencies in response to pictures of happy faces with averted gaze and in the presence of an actual person. The current findings demonstrate the importance of others adopting positive and unambiguous attitudes when interacting with schizophrenia patients to minimize behavioral avoidance patterns, which is particularly relevant for relatives and clinicians whose interactions with the patients are crucial to facilitating treatment and promoting healthy social relationships. PMID:26343605

  18. The Feasibility of Avoiding Future Climate Impacts: Results from the AVOID Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, J. A.; Warren, R.; Arnell, N.; Buckle, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AVOID programme and its successor, AVOID2, have focused on answering three core questions: how do we characterise potentially dangerous climate change and impacts, which emissions pathways can avoid at least some of these impacts, and how feasible are the future reductions needed to significantly deviate from a business-as-usual future emissions pathway. The first AVOID project succeeded in providing the UK Government with evidence to inform its position on climate change. A key part of the work involved developing a range of global emissions pathways and estimating and understanding the corresponding global impacts. This made use of a combination of complex general circulation models, simple climate models, pattern-scaling and state-of-the art impacts models. The results characterise the range of avoidable impacts across the globe in several key sectors including river and coastal flooding, cooling and heating energy demand, crop productivity and aspects of biodiversity. The avoided impacts between a scenario compatible with a 4ºC global warming and one with a 2ºC global warming were found to be highly sector dependent and avoided fractions typically ranged between 20% and 70%. A further key aspect was characterising the magnitude of the uncertainty involved, which is found to be very large in some impact sectors although the avoided fraction appears a more robust metric. The AVOID2 programme began in 2014 and will provide results in the run up to the Paris CoP in 2015. This includes new post-IPCC 5th assessment evidence to inform the long-term climate goal, a more comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty ranges of feasible emission pathways compatible with the long-term goal and enhanced estimates of global impacts using the latest generation of impact models and scenarios.

  19. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  20. Spacecraft hazard avoidance utilizing structured light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Padgett, Curtis; Chapsky, Jacob; Wilson, Daniel; Brown, Kenneth; Jerebets, Sergei; Goldberg, Hannah; Schroeder, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    At JPL, a <5 kg free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft is being designed for host-vehicle inspection. The spacecraft includes a hazard avoidance sensor to navigate relative to the vehicle being inspected. Structured light was selected for hazard avoidance because of its low mass and cost. Structured light is a method of remote sensing 3-dimensional structure of the proximity utilizing a laser, a grating, and a single regular APS camera. The laser beam is split into 400 different beams by a grating to form a regular spaced grid of laser beams that are projected into the field of view of an APS camera. The laser source and the APS camera are separated forming the base of a triangle. The distance to all beam intersections of the host are calculated based on triangulation.

  1. Inhibited Sexual Desire and Sexual Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Morse, William I.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions, especially in women. Family physicians have an opportunity to recognize ISD before the associated problems become entrenched, and to guide couples toward satisfactory resolution. A summary is presented of current thinking on ISD and its causes. Case reports and observations about frequency of and treatment for ISD are included. Much less has been written about sexual avoidance in the presence of desire. A definition is offered of simple sexual avoidance in the absence of genital dysfunction. Frequency, treatment response, and specific cases are described. A newly identified entity—mutual unwillingness to importune for sex—is discussed briefly. Counselling which focuses on communication, self responsibility, and sex education is very helpful to patients with sexual problems. PMID:21274060

  2. Threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocoy, Edward H.; Pierowicz, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Calspan SRL Corporation is currently developing an on- vehicle threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance (ICA) as part of its ICA program with the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Crash scenarios were previously defined and an on-board radar sensor was designed. This paper describes recent efforts that include the development of a simulation of a multitarget tracker and collision avoidance algorithm used to predict system performance in a variety of target configurations in the various ICA crash scenarios. In addition, a current headway radar was mounted on the Calspan Instrumented Vehicle and in-traffic data were recorded for two limited crash scenarios. Warning functions were developed through the simulation and applied to the recorded data.

  3. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan. PMID:16050311

  4. ALHAT: Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2015-01-01

    The ALHAT project was chartered by NASA HQ in 2006 to develop and mature to TRL 6 an autonomous lunar landing GN&C and sensing system for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The multi-center ALHAT team was tasked with providing a system capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real time to enable safe precision landing to within tens of meters of a designated planetary landing site under any lighting conditions.

  5. Amygdala priming results in conditioned place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Thielen, Shelley K; Shekhar, Anantha

    2002-03-01

    Priming involves daily stimulation of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) for 5 days using a dose of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), that is subthreshold to generate anxiogenic-like responses. The coordinated physiological and behavioral response of the primed rat is similar to the symptoms of human panic disorder and has been used as a model to study panic attacks. If the priming procedure is indeed similar to human panic disorder, then the context in which priming occurs should become associated with aversive conditioning and avoidance as seen in secondary agoraphobia following panic attacks in humans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to further characterize the behavioral response of priming using the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) task that utilizes distinct tactile cues of a grid floor (Grid+) or hole floor (Grid-). Male Wistar rats (275-300 g) were implanted bilaterally with guide cannulae positioned 1 mm above the BLA. Grid+ animals were placed in the conditioning chamber containing grid floors immediately after a 6-pmol (in 250 nl) BMI injection into the BLA and on hole floors following a sham (250 nl vehicle) injection. Grid animals were placed in the chamber containing hole floors after the BMI injection and on grid floors following the sham injection. Animals were placed in the chamber for 20 min following each injection and injections were separated by 4 h. After 5 days of this treatment, the animals were primed. Two days later, during avoidance testing, each animal was placed in the chamber containing both floors for 30 min. Priming with daily 6-pmol BMI injections into the BLA results in CPA or an aversion to the floor paired with the BMI injection. These results suggest that priming may result in phobic-like responses, similar to the avoidance behavior exhibited by panic disorder patients. PMID:11830174

  6. Functional neuroimaging of avoidance habits in OCD

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan. Following 4 blocks of training, we tested if the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. We tested for task-related differences in brain activity in 3 ROIs, the caudate, putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex at a statistical threshold of p<.05, family-wise error (FWE) corrected. Results We observed excessive habit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyper-activation in the caudate. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyper-activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) during the acquisition of avoidance, however this did not relate directly to habit formation. Conclusions OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyper-activation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Prior studies suggest that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the build up of stimulus-response habits themselves. PMID:25526600

  7. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  8. How does a cyclist avoid obstacles?

    PubMed

    Miyadait, Masayuki; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the ways bicycles swerve off sidewalks onto roads under various conditions. Seven students, five males and two females participated in an experiment on a road with a 100-cm wide sidewalk. Footage of each participant on a bicycle evading obstacles such as a utility pole and pedestrian were taken with a video camera, while a front-wheel view of the path taken by the bicycle was recorded simultaneously with a digital camera. Twelve experimental conditions were used for each participant, consisting of all the combinations of (1) three obstacle types, (2) the side (left or right) to which the bicycle went to avoid the obstacle, and (3) two weather conditions. Based on the two recorded scenes, the path was then analyzed from the viewpoint of how the bicycle swerved to avoid hitting the obstacle. We found that the conditions of riding a bicycle with an umbrella caused a larger swerve to avoid the obstacle than those conditions when the rider did not have an umbrella. In particular, the condition in which the obstacle was a pedestrian who also had an umbrella caused the largest swerve. Furthermore, the distance required to become aligned with the sidewalk when the obstacle was a pedestrian walking toward the cyclist was longer than that for other obstacles. The swerve width data showed interesting results, including a tendency for swerve width to be wider when the obstacle was a utility pole compared with other obstacles. PMID:25665202

  9. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  10. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  11. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  12. The influence of avoidance temperament and avoidance-based achievement goals on flow.

    PubMed

    Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Brandstätter, Veronika; Augustine, Adam A

    2014-06-01

    In the present research, we conducted two studies designed to examine the joint influence of avoidance temperament and avoidance-based achievement goals on the experience of flow on a creativity task. In both a laboratory study (N = 101; M(age)  = 22.61, SD(age)  = 4.03; 74.3% female) and a naturalistic study (N = 102; M(age)  = 16.23, SD(age)  = 1.13; 48% female), participants high in avoidance temperament were shown to experience greater flow when performance-avoidance goals were induced; no differences were found in any of the other three achievement goal conditions from the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. These findings reveal a short-term benefit for a disposition-goal match grounded in avoidance motivation, and point to the need for more research on both avoidance-based matches and the short-term versus long-term implications of such matches. PMID:23672810

  13. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  14. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  15. Understanding, Avoiding, and Managing Severe Filler Complications.

    PubMed

    Rzany, Berthold; DeLorenzi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Any injectable filler may elicit moderate-to-severe adverse events, ranging from nodules to abscesses to vascular occlusion. Fortunately, severe adverse events are uncommon for the majority of fillers currently on the market. Because these are rare events, it is difficult to identify the relevant risk factors and to design the most efficacious treatment strategies. Poor aesthetic outcomes are far more common than severe adverse events. These in contrast should be easily avoidable by ensuring that colleagues receive proper training and follow best practices. PMID:26441099

  16. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2009-01-01

    An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

  17. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  18. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA. PMID:27249874

  19. Hazard Avoidance For A Mars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1989-03-01

    The challenging geology of the surface of Mars, when coupled with the impossibility of continuous remote driving from Earth, dictate the need for autonomous hazard detection, recognition and possibly hazard avoidance capabilities onboard any robotic Mars roving vehicle. The main technical issues represented by terrain hazards are accidental damage and vehicle entrapment. Several approaches to vehicle design geared to prevent such immobilization threats are identified. The gamut of alternatives for rover autonomy are also presented, and the applicability of the various options for the Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission are assessed in the context of the technology state of the art for hazard sensors and processing algorithms.

  20. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2010-01-01

    A Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pilot reaction to conflict events in the TMA near the airport, different alert timings for various scenarios, alerting display concepts, and directive alerting concepts. This paper gives an overview of the conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept, simulation study, and test results

  1. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission. PMID:24568425

  2. Avoidance learning: a review of theoretical models and recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance is a key characteristic of adaptive and maladaptive fear. Here, we review past and contemporary theories of avoidance learning. Based on the theories, experimental findings and clinical observations reviewed, we distill key principles of how adaptive and maladaptive avoidance behavior is acquired and maintained. We highlight clinical implications of avoidance learning theories and describe intervention strategies that could reduce maladaptive avoidance and prevent its return. We end with a brief overview of recent developments and avenues for further research. PMID:26257618

  3. Avoiding common pitfalls when clustering biological data.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Tom; Qi, Zhijie; Naegle, Kristen M

    2016-01-01

    Clustering is an unsupervised learning method, which groups data points based on similarity, and is used to reveal the underlying structure of data. This computational approach is essential to understanding and visualizing the complex data that are acquired in high-throughput multidimensional biological experiments. Clustering enables researchers to make biological inferences for further experiments. Although a powerful technique, inappropriate application can lead biological researchers to waste resources and time in experimental follow-up. We review common pitfalls identified from the published molecular biology literature and present methods to avoid them. Commonly encountered pitfalls relate to the high-dimensional nature of biological data from high-throughput experiments, the failure to consider more than one clustering method for a given problem, and the difficulty in determining whether clustering has produced meaningful results. We present concrete examples of problems and solutions (clustering results) in the form of toy problems and real biological data for these issues. We also discuss ensemble clustering as an easy-to-implement method that enables the exploration of multiple clustering solutions and improves robustness of clustering solutions. Increased awareness of common clustering pitfalls will help researchers avoid overinterpreting or misinterpreting the results and missing valuable insights when clustering biological data. PMID:27303057

  4. Shape optimization of self-avoiding curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Shawn W.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.

  5. Avoidance of strobe lights by zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at <1 m, 15 m and ⩾100 m distance intervals away from the strobe light. Copepods represented 67.2% and Daphnia spp. represented 23.3% of all zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.

  6. Honey bees selectively avoid difficult choices

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Clint J.; Barron, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Human decision-making strategies are strongly influenced by an awareness of certainty or uncertainty (a form of metacognition) to increase the chances of making a right choice. Humans seek more information and defer choosing when they realize they have insufficient information to make an accurate decision, but whether animals are aware of uncertainty is currently highly contentious. To explore this issue, we examined how honey bees (Apis mellifera) responded to a visual discrimination task that varied in difficulty between trials. Free-flying bees were rewarded for a correct choice, punished for an incorrect choice, or could avoid choosing by exiting the trial (opting out). Bees opted out more often on difficult trials, and opting out improved their proportion of successful trials. Bees could also transfer the concept of opting out to a novel task. Our data show that bees selectively avoid difficult tasks they lack the information to solve. This finding has been considered as evidence that nonhuman animals can assess the certainty of a predicted outcome, and bees’ performance was comparable to that of primates in a similar paradigm. We discuss whether these behavioral results prove bees react to uncertainty or whether associative mechanisms can explain such findings. To better frame metacognition as an issue for neurobiological investigation, we propose a neurobiological hypothesis of uncertainty monitoring based on the known circuitry of the honey bee brain. PMID:24191024

  7. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies: Consensus and Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Dauerman, Harold L.; Rao, Sunil V.; Resnic, Frederic S.; Applegate, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding complications after coronary intervention are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital costs, patient dissatisfaction, morbidity and one year mortality. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies represent a term incorporating multiple modalities that aim to reduce bleeding and vascular complications after cardiovascular catheterization. Recent improvements in the rates of bleeding complications after invasive cardiovascular procedures suggests that the clinical community has successfully embraced specific strategies and improved patient care in this area. There remains controversy regarding the efficacy, safety and/or practicality of 3 key bleeding avoidance strategies for cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention: procedural (radial artery approach, safezone arteriotomy), pharmacologic (multiple agents) and technological (vascular closure devices) approaches to improved access. In this article, we address areas of consensus with respect to selected modalities in order to define the role of each strategy in current practice. Furthermore, we focus on areas of controversy for selected modalities in order to define key areas warranting cautious clinical approaches and the need for future randomized clinical trials in this area. PMID:21700085

  8. Children discard a resource to avoid inequity.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R

    2012-05-01

    Elucidating how inequity aversion (a tendency to dislike and correct unequal outcomes) functions as one develops is important to understanding more complex fairness considerations in adulthood. Although previous research has demonstrated that adults and children reduce inequity, it is unclear if people are actually responding negatively to inequity or if people dislike others getting more than them (motivated by social comparison) and like to share maximal resources, especially with those who have few resources (motivated by social welfare preferences). In order to evaluate if children are truly averse to inequity, we had 3- to 8-year-old children distribute resources to 3rd parties and found that 6- to 8-year-old children would rather throw a resource in the trash than distribute unequally, suggesting that concerns with equity can trump concerns with maximal sharing. We also demonstrated that children's reactions were not based on wanting to avoid upsetting the recipients or based on a preference for visual symmetry and that children will even throw away a resource that could have gone to themselves in order to avoid inequity. These results demonstrate the existence of inequity aversion in children, provide a new method for studying inequity aversion specifically, and suggest the need for new models to explain why inequity aversion may have evolved. PMID:22004168

  9. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    Cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) operations near Space Station Freedom will require positive collision avoidance maneuver (CAM) capability to preclude any change of collision, even in the event of CTV failures. The requirements for CAM are discussed, and the CAM design approach and design of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed; this design met requirements for OMV operation near the Space Station, provided a redundant collision avoidance maneuver capability. Significant portions of the OMV CAM design should be applicable to CTV. The key features of the OMV design are summarized and related to the CTV mission design to that of OMV's. CAM is a defined sequence of events executed by the CTV to place the vehicle in a safe position relative to a target such as the Space Station. CAM can be performed through software commands to the propulsion system, or through commands pre-stored in hardware. Various techniques for triggering CAM are considered, and the risks associated with CAM enable and execution in phases are considered. OMV CAM design features both hardware and software CAM capability, with analyses conducted to assess the ability to meet the collision-free requirement during all phases of the mission.

  10. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    Cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) operations near Space Station Freedom will require positive collision avoidance maneuver (CAM) capability to preclude any change of collision, even in the event of CTV failures. The requirements for CAM are discussed, and the CAM design approach and design of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed; this design met requirements for OMV operation near the Space Station, provided a redundant collision avoidance maneuver capability. Significant portions of the OMV CAM design should be applicable to CTV. The key features of the OMV design are summarized and related to the CTV mission design to that of OMV's. CAM is a defined sequence of events executed by the CTV to place the vehicle in a safe position relative to a target such as the Space Station. CAM can be performed through software commands to the propulsion system, or through commands pre-stored in hardware. Various techniques for triggering CAM are considered, and the risks associated with CAM enable and execution in phases are considered. OMV CAM design features both hardware and software CAM capability, with analyses conducted to assess the ability to meet the collision-free requirement during all phases of the mission.

  11. An Algorithm for Autonomous Formation Obstacle Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Yunior I.

    The level of human interaction with Unmanned Aerial Systems varies greatly from remotely piloted aircraft to fully autonomous systems. In the latter end of the spectrum, the challenge lies in designing effective algorithms to dictate the behavior of the autonomous agents. A swarm of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles requires collision avoidance and formation flight algorithms to negotiate environmental challenges it may encounter during the execution of its mission, which may include obstacles and chokepoints. In this work, a simple algorithm is developed to allow a formation of autonomous vehicles to perform point to point navigation while avoiding obstacles and navigating through chokepoints. Emphasis is placed on maintaining formation structures. Rather than breaking formation and individually navigating around the obstacle or through the chokepoint, vehicles are required to assemble into appropriately sized/shaped sub-formations, bifurcate around the obstacle or negotiate the chokepoint, and reassemble into the original formation at the far side of the obstruction. The algorithm receives vehicle and environmental properties as inputs and outputs trajectories for each vehicle from start to the desired ending location. Simulation results show that the algorithm safely routes all vehicles past the obstruction while adhering to the aforementioned requirements. The formation adapts and successfully negotiates the obstacles and chokepoints in its path while maintaining proper vehicle separation.

  12. Avoiding Complications in Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay Singh; Ratre, Shailendra; Kher, Yatin

    2015-11-01

    Endoscopic neurosurgical techniques hold the potential for reducing morbidity. But they are also associated with limitations such as the initial learning curve, proximal blind spot, visual obscurity, difficulty in controlling bleeding, disorientation, and loss of stereoscopic image. Although some of the surgical techniques in neuroendoscopy and microsurgery are similar, endoscopy requires additional skills. A thorough understanding of endoscopic techniques and their limitations is required to get maximal benefit. Knowledge of possible complications and techniques to avoid such complications can improve results in endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). The surgeon must be able to manage complications and have a second strategy such as a cerebrospinal fluid shunt if ETV fails. It is better to abandon the procedure if there is disorientation or a higher risk of complications such as bleeding or a thick and opaque floor without any clear visualization of anatomy. Attending live workshops, practice on models and simulators, simpler case selection in the initial learning curve, and hands-on cadaveric workshops can reduce complications. Proper case selection, good surgical technique, and better postoperative care are essential for a good outcome in ETV. Although it is difficult to make a preoperative diagnosis of complex hydrocephalus (combination of communicating and obstructive), improving methods to detect the exact type of hydrocephalus before surgery could increase the success rate of ETV and avoid an unnecessary ETV procedure in such cases. PMID:26140421

  13. Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.

  14. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Dancho, Kelly A; Thompson, Rachel H; Rhoades, Melissa M

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training. In situ feedback and response interruption resulted in a decrease in opening ambiguous containers; this decrease was maintained when ambiguous novel containers were presented and when assessments occurred in a novel setting and with a novel experimenter. For 2 children, these gains were also maintained during a brief follow-up period. Twelve children did not ingest ambiguous substances prior to training, and group safety training did not evoke inappropriate ingestion. PMID:18595292

  15. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result, the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.

  16. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result,more » the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.« less

  17. Artifacts in CT: recognition and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Julia F; Keat, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Artifacts can seriously degrade the quality of computed tomographic (CT) images, sometimes to the point of making them diagnostically unusable. To optimize image quality, it is necessary to understand why artifacts occur and how they can be prevented or suppressed. CT artifacts originate from a range of sources. Physics-based artifacts result from the physical processes involved in the acquisition of CT data. Patient-based artifacts are caused by such factors as patient movement or the presence of metallic materials in or on the patient. Scanner-based artifacts result from imperfections in scanner function. Helical and multisection technique artifacts are produced by the image reconstruction process. Design features incorporated into modern CT scanners minimize some types of artifacts, and some can be partially corrected by the scanner software. However, in many instances, careful patient positioning and optimum selection of scanning parameters are the most important factors in avoiding CT artifacts. PMID:15537976

  18. Behavioral economics. Avoiding overhead aversion in charity.

    PubMed

    Gneezy, Uri; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2014-10-31

    Donors tend to avoid charities that dedicate a high percentage of expenses to administrative and fundraising costs, limiting the ability of nonprofits to be effective. We propose a solution to this problem: Use donations from major philanthropists to cover overhead expenses and offer potential donors an overhead-free donation opportunity. A laboratory experiment testing this solution confirms that donations decrease when overhead increases, but only when donors pay for overhead themselves. In a field experiment with 40,000 potential donors, we compared the overhead-free solution with other common uses of initial donations. Consistent with prior research, informing donors that seed money has already been raised increases donations, as does a $1:$1 matching campaign. Our main result, however, clearly shows that informing potential donors that overhead costs are covered by an initial donation significantly increases the donation rate by 80% (or 94%) and total donations by 75% (or 89%) compared with the seed (or matching) approach. PMID:25359974

  19. Lithium chloride and avoidance of novel places.

    PubMed

    Kurz, E M; Levitsky, D A

    1983-06-01

    Rats were exposed to a distinctive chamber (chamber A, part of a two-chamber apparatus), which was novel for half of the rats but familiar for the other half. Each rat was subsequently injected with lithium chloride or saline. In a test trial conducted 24 hr later, all rats were given a choice between chamber A and a second chamber (B), which was novel for all rats. The main result was that the group made familiar with chamber A and then given lithium showed a significant preference for that side or an avoidance of the novel side, a "spatial neophobia." A second experiment confirmed the spatial neophobia effect and demonstrated that it was not dependent on the particular conditioning procedure used in the first experiment. The spatial neophobia effect was related to similar effects in the taste aversion literature, and to the results of research on lithium-induced decreases in exploratory behavior. PMID:6307325

  20. Mars Rover Local Navigation And Hazard Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1989-03-01

    A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between Earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.

  1. Avoidance and Management of Stomal Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatt, Michael; Kawata, Michitaka

    2013-01-01

    The construction of an intestinal stoma is fraught with complications and should not be considered a trivial undertaking. Serious complications requiring immediate reoperations can occur, as can minor problems that will subject the patient to daily and nightly distress. Intestinal stomas undoubtedly will dramatically change lifestyles; patients will experience physiologic and psychologic detriment with stoma-related problems, however minor they may seem. Common complications include poor stoma siting, high output, skin irritation, ischemia, retraction, parastomal hernia (PH), and prolapse. Surgeons should be cognizant of these complications before, during, and after stoma creation, and adequate measures should be taken to avoid them. In this review, the authors highlight these often seen problems and discuss management and prevention strategies. PMID:24436659

  2. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  3. Avoiding Deontic Explosion by Contextually Restricting Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meheus, Joke; Beirlaen, Mathieu; van de Putte, Frederik

    In this paper, we present an adaptive logic for deontic conflicts, called P2.1 r , that is based on Goble's logic SDL a P e - a bimodal extension of Goble's logic P that invalidates aggregation for all prima facie obligations. The logic P2.1 r has several advantages with respect to SDL a P e. For consistent sets of obligations it yields the same results as Standard Deontic Logic and for inconsistent sets of obligations, it validates aggregation "as much as possible". It thus leads to a richer consequence set than SDL a P e. The logic P2.1 r avoids Goble's criticisms against other non-adjunctive systems of deontic logic. Moreover, it can handle all the 'toy examples' from the literature as well as more complex ones.

  4. The vomeronasal system mediates sick conspecific avoidance.

    PubMed

    Boillat, Madlaina; Challet, Ludivine; Rossier, Daniel; Kan, Chenda; Carleton, Alan; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2015-01-19

    Although sociability offers many advantages, a major drawback is the increased risk of exposure to contagious pathogens, like parasites, viruses, or bacteria. Social species have evolved various behavioral strategies reducing the probability of pathogen exposure. In rodents, sick conspecific avoidance can be induced by olfactory cues emitted by parasitized or infected conspecifics. The neural circuits involved in this behavior remain largely unknown. We observed that olfactory cues present in bodily products of mice in an acute inflammatory state or infected with a viral pathogen are aversive to conspecifics. We found that these chemical signals trigger neural activity in the vomeronasal system, an olfactory subsystem controlling various innate behaviors. Supporting the functional relevance of these observations, we show that preference toward healthy individuals is abolished in mice with impaired vomeronasal function. These findings reveal a novel function played by the vomeronasal system. PMID:25578906

  5. Unstable avoided crossing in coupled spinor condensates.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Nathan R; Dalla Torre, Emanuele G; Demler, Eugene

    2014-08-01

    We consider the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate with two internal states, coupled through a coherent drive. We focus on a specific quench protocol, in which the sign of the coupling field is suddenly changed. At a mean-field level, the system is transferred from a minimum to a maximum of the coupling energy and can remain dynamically stable, in spite of the development of negative-frequency modes. In the presence of a nonzero detuning between the two states, the "charge" and "spin" modes couple, giving rise to an unstable avoided crossing. This phenomenon is generic to systems with two dispersing modes away from equilibrium and constitutes an example of class-I(o) nonequilibrium pattern formation in quantum systems. PMID:25148334

  6. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  7. Avoiding Braess' Paradox Through Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert , David H.; Tumer, Kagan

    1999-01-01

    In an Ideal Shortest Path Algorithm (ISPA), at each moment each router in a network sends all of its traffic down the path that will incur the lowest cost to that traffic. In the limit of an infinitesimally small amount of traffic for a particular router, its routing that traffic via an ISPA is optimal, as far as cost incurred by that traffic is concerned. We demonstrate though that in many cases, due to the side-effects of one router's actions on another routers performance, having routers use ISPA's is suboptimal as far as global aggregate cost is concerned, even when only used to route infinitesimally small amounts of traffic. As a particular example of this we present an instance of Braess' paradox for ISPA'S, in which adding new links to a network decreases overall throughput. We also demonstrate that load-balancing, in which the routing decisions are made to optimize the global cost incurred by all traffic currently being routed, is suboptimal as far as global cost averaged across time is concerned. This is also due to "side-effects", in this case of current routing decision on future traffic. The theory of COllective INtelligence (COIN) is concerned precisely with the issue of avoiding such deleterious side-effects. We present key concepts from that theory and use them to derive an idealized algorithm whose performance is better than that of the ISPA, even in the infinitesimal limit. We present experiments verifying this, and also showing that a machine-learning-based version of this COIN algorithm in which costs are only imprecisely estimated (a version potentially applicable in the real world) also outperforms the ISPA, despite having access to less information than does the ISPA. In particular, this COIN algorithm avoids Braess' paradox.

  8. 38 CFR 4.14 - Avoidance of pyramiding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... same disability under various diagnoses is to be avoided. Disability from injuries to the muscles... evaluation, and the evaluation of the same manifestation under different diagnoses are to be avoided....

  9. 38 CFR 4.14 - Avoidance of pyramiding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... same disability under various diagnoses is to be avoided. Disability from injuries to the muscles... evaluation, and the evaluation of the same manifestation under different diagnoses are to be avoided....

  10. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    PubMed

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut. PMID:16828543

  11. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.

    2009-04-01

    Geoengineering (or climate engineering) using stratospheric sulfur injections (Crutzen, 2006) has been called for research in case of an urgent need for stopping global warming when other mitigation efforts were exhausted. Although there are a number of concerns over this idea (e.g. Robock, 2008), it is still useful to consider geoengineering as a possible method to limit warming caused by overshoot. Overshoot is a feature accompanied by low stabilizations scenarios aiming for a stringent target (Rao et al., 2008) in which total radiative forcing temporarily exceeds the target before reaching there. Scenarios achieving a 50% emission reduction by 2050 produces overshoot. Overshoot could cause sustained warming for decades due to the inertia of the climate system. If stratospheric sulfur injections were to be used as a "last resort" to avoid overshoot, what would be the suitable start-year and injection profile of such an intervention? Wigley (2006) examined climate response to combined mitigation/geoengineering scenarios with the intent to avert overshoot. Wigley's analysis demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to avoid temperature overshoot - however it considered only simplistic sulfur injection profiles (all started in 2010), just one mitigation scenario, and did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study builds upon Wigley's premise of the combined mitigation/geoengineering approach and brings associated uncertainty into the analysis. First, this study addresses the question as to how much geoengineering intervention would be needed to avoid overshoot by considering associated uncertainty? Then, would a geoengineering intervention of such a magnitude including uncertainty be permissible in considering all the other side effects? This study begins from the supposition that geoengineering could be employed to cap warming at 2.0°C since preindustrial. A few

  12. Multidisciplinary approach in natural hazards: avoiding misunderstandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angignard, M.

    2009-04-01

    It is today widely recognised that a multidisciplinary approach is worthwhile when it comes to natural hazards. While the knowledge of scientists from different fields about those problematic is getting deeper everyday, the need for a brighter understanding of natural hazards and the risk they induce becomes more and more obvious. A risk situation cannot be limited to a single scientific field. It involves many components, each of them studied by a specific science. The understanding of the whole question of risk requires a dialogue between those sciences. The large amount of research projects based on a multidisciplinary approach shows that this need for dialogue is known and accepted. However, the participants of such projects encounter a problem in communication: they do not speak the same language. Even though scientists are willing to share with colleagues from other fields, they are facing the hinder of the specific terminology they use in their work. Social scientists, natural scientists and engineering scientists do not speak the same language, although they might use the same words. For instance, basic terms like "risk", "vulnerability", or concepts like "risk management" or "governance" might have very different meanings according to the scientists involved. The approach of risk situation itself is specific to each science. How can this hindrance be avoided? The first step of every research project (and further, every work in group on a risk related situation) could be a framing about terminology. It is necessary that all partners acknowledge the different vocabularies involved, and understand that their background and professional context influences their understanding of terms and concepts. The aim is not to negate those vocabularies, nor to define a new one that would fit to all sciences. It is to ensure that all partners are aware of the possible misunderstandings and accept that others might use other terminologies. Thus, major misunderstandings

  13. Conjunctions and Collision Avoidance with Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E.

    2013-09-01

    Electrodynamic propulsion technology is currently in development by NASA, ESA, and JAXA for the purpose of affordable removal of large debris objects from LEO. At the same time, the Naval Research Laboratory is preparing a 3U CubeSat with a 1-km electrodynamic tether for a flight demonstration of electrodynamic propulsion. This type of propulsion does not require fuel. The electrodynamic thrust is the Lorentz force acting on the electric current in a long conductor (tether) in the geomagnetic field. Electrons are collected from the ambient plasma on one end and emitted back into the plasma from the other end. The electric current loop is closed through the ionosphere, as demonstrated in two previous flights. The vehicle is solar powered. To support safe navigation of electrodynamic tethers, proper conjunction analysis and collision avoidance strategies are needed. The typical lengths of electrodynamic tethers for near-term applications are measured in kilometers, and the conjunction geometry is very different from the geometry of conjunctions between compact objects. It is commonly thought that the collision cross-section in a conjunction between a tether and a compact object is represented by the product of the tether length and the size of the object. However, rigorous analysis shows that this is not the case, and that the above assumption leads to grossly overestimated collision probabilities. The paper will present the results of a detailed mathematical analysis of the conjunction geometry and collision probabilities in close approaches between electrodynamic tethers and compact objects, such as satellites, rocket bodies, and debris fragments. Electrodynamic spacecraft will not require fuel, and therefore, can thrust constantly. Their orbit transfers can take many days, but can result in major orbit changes, including large rotations of the orbital plane, both in the inclination and the node. During these orbit transfers, the electrodynamic spacecraft will

  14. Landslide disaster avoidance: learning from Leyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    On 17 February 2006 a gigantic rockslide triggered a debris avalanche that overran the barangay Guinsaugon, St. Bernard in Southern Leyte Province, Philippines, burying 154 victims, with 990 missing including 246 school children. Even with satellite imagery, GIS-based landslide susceptibility modelling and real-time meteorological and seismic data analysis, scientific prediction of every potentially fatal landslide is not possible in most parts of the world. This is particular the case in steep, unstable, densely-populated country in which heavy rain is common. So how can further events of this type be prevented from turning into disasters? A number of precursory phenomena were noted by local inhabitants at Guinsaugon: a crack around the slope that failed was noticed in May 2005; coconut trees near the northern foot of the landslide scarp began to lean increasingly in the down-slope direction in December 2005; a slope around the northern edge of the 17 February 2006 landslide scarp failed on December 17, 2005; in the 9 days prior to the rockslide, 640 mm of rain fell; 450 mm in a 3-day period. Such phenomena are commonly reported by local inhabitants before large landslides (e.g. Elm, Mayunmarca, and many others). In many cases, therefore, it is in principle possible for local people to avoid the consequences of the landslide if they know enough to act appropriately in response to the precursory phenomena. For this possibility to be realized, appropriate information must be provided to and assimilated by the local population. Useful ways of achieving this include pamphlets, video, TV and radio programs and visits from civil defence personnel. The information must be properly presented; scientific language will be ineffective. A communication pyramid, leading from government agencies to local leaders, can facilitate the rapid availability of the information to all potentially susceptible communities. If science can determine those areas not vulnerable to landslide

  15. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 417.231..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis...

  16. Neuroimaging the temporal dynamics of human avoidance to sustained threat.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Hudgins, Caleb D; Magee, Sandy; Dymond, Simon

    2013-11-15

    Many forms of human psychopathology are characterized by sustained negative emotional responses to threat and chronic behavioral avoidance, implicating avoidance as a potential transdiagnostic factor. Evidence from both nonhuman neurophysiological and human neuroimaging studies suggests a distributed frontal-limbic-striatal brain network supports avoidance. However, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of the network to sustained threat that prompts sustained avoidance is limited. To address this issue, 17 adults were given extensive training on a modified free-operant avoidance task in which button pressing avoided money loss during a sustained threat period. Subsequently, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing the avoidance task. In our regions of interest, we observed phasic, rather than sustained, activation during sustained threat in dorsolateral and inferior frontal regions, anterior and dorsal cingulate, ventral striatum and regions associated with emotion, including the amygdala, insula, substantia nigra and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Moreover, trait levels of experiential avoidance were negatively correlated with insula, hippocampal and amygdala activation. These findings suggest knowledge that one can consistently avoid aversive outcomes is not associated with decreased threat-related responses and that individuals with greater experiential avoidance exhibit reduced reactivity to initial threat. Implications for understanding brain mechanisms supporting human avoidance and psychological theories of avoidance are discussed. PMID:24095880

  17. A Contemporary Behavior Analysis of Anxiety and Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Simon; Roche, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the central status of avoidance in explaining the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, surprisingly little behavioral research has been conducted on human avoidance. In the present paper, first we provide a brief review of the empirical literature on avoidance. Next, we describe the implications of research on derived relational…

  18. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 417.231..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis...

  19. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 417.231..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis...

  20. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 417.231..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis...

  1. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 417.231..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis...

  2. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  3. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure. PMID:8641947

  4. Whole arm obstacle avoidance for teleoperated robots

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Novak, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes a collision avoidance system using Whole Arm Proximity (WHAP) sensors on a PUMA 560 robot arm. The capacitance-based sensors generate electric fields which can completely encompass the robot arm and detect obstacles as they approach from any direction. The directional obstacle information gathered by the WHAP sensors together with the sensor geometry and robot configuration is used to scale the commanded joint velocities of the robot. A linearized relationship between the WHAP sensor reading and the distance from the obstacle allows direct transformation of perturbations in VHAP readings to perturbations in joint velocities. The VHAP reading is used to directly reduce the component of the command input velocity along the normal axis of the sensor, allowing graceful reductions in speed as the arm approaches the obstacle. By scaling only the component of the velocity vector in the,direction of the nearest obstacles, the control system restricts motion in the direction of obstacles while permitting unconstrained motion in other directions.

  5. Zone of Avoidance Tully-Fisher Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Woudt, Patrick; Kraan-Korteweg, Renee

    2009-10-01

    We propose to use the Parkes telescope to obtain narrowband HI spectra of a sample of galaxies in the Galactic Zone of Avoidance (ZOA). These observations, combined with high-quality near infrared photometry, will provide both the uniform coverage and accurate distance determinations (via the Tully-Fisher relation) required to map the peculiar velocity flow fields in the ZOA. The mass distribution in this region has a significant effect on the motion of the Local Group. Dynamically important structures, including the Great Attractor and the Local Void, are partially hidden behind our Galaxy. Even the most recent systematic all-sky surveys, such as the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS; Huchra et al. 2005), undersample the ZOA due to stellar crowding and high dust extinction. While statistical reconstruction methods have been used to extrapolate the density field in the ZOA, they are unlikely to truely re?ect the velocity field (Loeb & Narayan 2008). Our project aims for the ?rst time to directly determine the velocity flow fields in this part of the sky. Our sample is taken from the Parkes HIZOA survey (Henning et al. 2005) and is unbiased with respect to extinction and star density.

  6. Windshear detection and avoidance - Airborne systems survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1990-01-01

    Functional requirements for airborne windshear detection and warning systems are discussed in terms of the threat posed to civil aircraft operations. A preliminary set of performance criteria for predictive windshear detection and warning systems is defined. Candidate airborne remote sensor technologies based on microwave Doppler radar, Doppler laser radar (lidar), and infrared radiometric techniques are discussed in the context of overall system requirements, and the performance of each sensor is assessed for representative microburst environments and ground clutter conditions. Preliminary simulation results demonstrate that all three sensors show potential for detecting windshear, and provide adequate warning time to allow flight crews to avoid the affected area or escape from the encounter. Radar simulation and analysis show that by using bin-to-bin automatic gain control, clutter filtering, limited detection range, and suitable antenna tilt management, windshear from wet microbursts can be accurately detected. Although a performance improvement can be obtained at higher radar frequency, the baseline X-band system also detected the presence of windshear hazard for a dry microburst. Simulation results of end-to-end performance for competing coherent lidar systems are presented.

  7. A missed scalp laceration causing avoidable sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Basyuni, Shadi; Panayi, Andreana; Sharma, Valmiki; Santhanam, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present the case of an overlooked scalp laceration in an 81-year-old lady who presented with polytrauma following a fall down stairs. Complications that developed required more extensive treatment compared to what would have sufficed with early identification. Presentation of case Imaging on admission to hospital showed multiple vertebrae and rib fractures as well as a large cranial subcutaneous haematoma with no intracerebral bleed. Before the laceration was identified, the patient developed acute anaemia requiring transfusion. Continued reduction in haemoglobin levels called for a more thorough examination of the scalp. Investigation, following copious irrigation, revealed a large laceration. The presence of infection and necrotic tissue necessitated a general anaesthetic for debridement and closure. Disscussion Diagnostic errors are more common in patients presenting with multiple or severe injuries. Initial management in trauma cases should focus on more evident or life threatening injuries However, it is important that reflections and recommendations are continually made to reduce diagnostic errors, which are higher in polytraumatised patients. Various factors including haemodynamic instability and patient positioning added to the elusive nature of this wound. Adequate examination of lacerations requires thorough cleaning as coagulated blood and other material may obscure findings. This is particularly important in scalp lacerations where the overlying hair can form a barrier that is effective at hiding the wound edges. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of a thorough secondary survey; an effective examination technique would have avoided the need for extensive treatment to manage the sequelae of the missed scalp laceration. PMID:27088847

  8. Avoiding DEET through insect gustatory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Sang Hoon; Montell, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Summary DEET is the most widely used insect repellent worldwide. In Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), DEET is detected through a mechanism that employs the olfactory receptor, OR83b. However, it is controversial as to whether ORNs respond directly to DEET or whether DEET blocks the response to attractive odors. Here, we showed that DEET suppressed feeding behavior in Drosophila and this effect was mediated by gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). DEET was potent in suppressing feeding as <0.1% DEET elicited aversive behavior. Inhibition of feeding by DEET required multiple gustatory receptors (GRs), which were expressed in inhibitory GRNs. DEET stimulated action potentials in GRNs that respond to aversive compounds, and this response was lost in Gr32a, Gr33a and Gr66a mutants. Since 0.02% DEET elicited action potentials, we conclude that DEET directly activates of GRNs. We suggest that the effectiveness of DEET in pest control owes to its dual action in inducing avoidance simultaneously via GRNs and ORNs. PMID:20797533

  9. Laying hens learn to avoid feathers.

    PubMed

    Harlander-Matauschek, A; Wassermann, F; Zentek, J; Bessei, W

    2008-09-01

    Previous work demonstrated an association between feather pecking and feather eating in laying hens. This raised the question if digestive feedback affects feather eating or feather pecking in laying hens. We hypothesized that feathers enriched with sugar form a positive feedback and feathers enriched with quinine sulfate form a negative feedback. Forty-eight laying hens were kept in individual cages and fed a pelleted diet ad libitum. Twenty-four birds were offered feathers on a daily basis; 12 of these birds were offered feathers soaked in 4% quinine sulfate solution (Q), and the other 12 were offered feathers soaked in 4% sucrose solution (S). The other 24 birds were kept as a control (C) without access to feathers. After a 10-d feather feeding period, 3 groups of 4 S and 4 C birds each and 3 groups of 4 Q and 4 C birds each were assembled. Feather-pecking behavior was recorded over a period of 8 d. The number of Q feathers eaten was significantly lower than the number of S feathers. Birds that were offered Q feathers in the feather feeding phase showed significantly less severe feather pecking than S and C birds. The results clearly show that Q as an unpalatable substance was the signal the animal used to avoid damaging the feather cover in laying hens. PMID:18753438

  10. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ramshaw, B. J.; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D.; Betts, Jon B.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Mielke, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Migliori, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5—the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)—and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability—therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5. PMID:25737548

  11. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  12. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Anushka B. P.; Murray, Jennifer E.; Milton, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food) or aversive (e.g. electric shock). We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala's mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes. PMID:24367307

  13. See and avoidance behaviors for autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye; Beard, Randal W.; Merrell, Paul C.; Zhan, Pengcheng

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in many multi-discipline technologies have allowed small, low-cost fixed wing unmanned air vehicles (UAV) or more complicated unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) to be a feasible solution in many scientific, civil and military applications. Cameras can be mounted on-board of the unmanned vehicles for the purpose of scientific data gathering, surveillance for law enforcement and homeland security, as well as to provide visual information to detect and avoid imminent collisions for autonomous navigation. However, most current computer vision algorithms are highly complex computationally and usually constitute the bottleneck of the guidance and control loop. In this paper, we present a novel computer vision algorithm for collision detection and time-to-impact calculation based on feature density distribution (FDD) analysis. It does not require accurate feature extraction, tracking, or estimation of focus of expansion (FOE). Under a few reasonable assumptions, by calculating the expansion rate of the FDD in space, time-to-impact can be accurately estimated. A sequence of monocular images is studied, and different features are used simultaneously in FDD analysis to show that our algorithm can achieve a fairly good accuracy in collision detection. In this paper we also discuss reactive path planning and trajectory generation techniques that can be accomplished without violating the velocity and heading rate constraints of the UAV.

  14. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, B J; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D; Betts, Jon B; Mitchell, J N; Tobash, P H; Mielke, C H; Bauer, E D; Migliori, Albert

    2015-03-17

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5--the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)--and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability--therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5. PMID:25737548

  15. Avoiding the death risk of avoiding a dread risk: the aftermath of March 11 in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Rousseau, Alejandro

    2005-06-01

    Abstract-After the airplane attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States, many Americans drove instead of flying, to avoid the risk of terrorism. As a result, there were extra car accidents in which many people died. This study tested whether a similar effect occurred in Spain after the train bombings of March 11, 2004, in Madrid. Data on train travel, highway traffic, and fatal highway accidents were analyzed for the months immediately following March 11. Results show that, like Americans, Spaniards avoided the dread risk of terror attacks, but unlike Americans, they did not confront the death risk of fatal accidents instead. A sociopolitical interpretation for these findings is offered. PMID:15943666

  16. Obstacle avoiding patterns and cohesiveness of fish school.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh Thi Hoai; Tạ, Việt Tôn; Yagi, Atsushi

    2016-10-01

    This paper is devoted to studying obstacle avoiding patterns and cohesiveness of fish school. First, we introduce a model of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for describing the process of fish school's obstacle avoidance. Second, on the basis of the model we find obstacle avoiding patterns. Our observations show that there are clear four obstacle avoiding patterns, namely, Rebound, Pullback, Pass and Reunion, and Separation. Furthermore, the emerging patterns change when parameters change. Finally, we present a scientific definition for fish school's cohesiveness that will be an internal property characterizing the strength of fish schooling. There are then evidences that the school cohesiveness can be measured through obstacle avoiding patterns. PMID:27449357

  17. Time pressure undermines performance more under avoidance than approach motivation.

    PubMed

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J; Nijstad, Bernard A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2013-06-01

    Four experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that performance is particularly undermined by time pressure when people are avoidance motivated. The results supported this hypothesis across three different types of tasks, including those well suited and those ill suited to the type of information processing evoked by avoidance motivation. We did not find evidence that stress-related emotions were responsible for the observed effect. Avoidance motivation is certainly necessary and valuable in the self-regulation of everyday behavior. However, our results suggest that given its nature and implications, it seems best that avoidance motivation is avoided in situations that involve (time) pressure. PMID:23554176

  18. Faecal avoidance and selective foraging: do wild mice have the luxury to avoid faeces?☆

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Patrick T.; McCreless, Erin; Pedersen, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    Host–parasite interactions are a key determinant of the population dynamics of wild animals, and behaviours that reduce parasite transmission and infection may be important for improving host fitness. While antiparasite behaviours have been demonstrated in laboratory animals and domesticated ungulates, whether these behaviours operate in the wild is poorly understood. Therefore, examining antiparasite behaviours in natural populations is crucial for understanding their ecological significance. In this study, we examined whether two wild rodents (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, and deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus), selectively foraged away from conspecific faeces or avoided faeces altogether, and whether faecal gastrointestinal parasite status affected their behaviour. We also tested whether wild mice, when nesting, avoided using material that had previously been used by healthy or parasite-infected conspecifics. Our results, in contrast to laboratory mouse studies, suggest that wild mice do not demonstrate faecal avoidance, selective foraging or selective use of nesting material; they preferred being near faeces and did not differentiate between faeces from parasitized and uninfected conspecifics. Behavioural avoidance to reduce parasite infection may still represent an important strategy; however, mice in our study population appeared to favour the opportunity to feed and nest over the risks of coming into contact with faecal-transmitted parasites. Furthermore, the presence of conspecific faeces may actually provide a positive cue of a good foraging or nesting location. Ultimately, balancing the trade-off of performing antiparasite behaviours to reduce infection with missing an important feeding or nesting opportunity may be very different for animals in the wild facing complex and stochastic environments. PMID:24027342

  19. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    SciTech Connect

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord or

  20. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    PubMed

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women. PMID:23684944

  1. Collision avoidance of two moving objects using the anticipated path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Seung Hak; Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal; Park, Seung-Jin; Beak, Kyoung-Ju; Park, Jong An

    2004-03-01

    Collision avoidance is one of the most important problems in autonomous vehicles, ship navigation, and robot manipulators, etc. Image processing technique could be applied for solving the collision avoidance of moving objects. The collision could be avoided if the direction of the moving object could be accurately anticipated. The problem is how to anticipate the expected path of the moving object, so that the other moving objects in the expected path should be detected and avoided for collision avoidance. Collisions could be avoided by searching the obstacles and moving objects in the expected path, but the moving objects, which would come inside the expected path, should also be detected for fully collision avoidance. In this paper, the expected path of the moving object is determined from the previous history of the moving object using the statistical measurements.

  2. [PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION TO AVOID SUBJUGATING "OTHER" ETHICS].

    PubMed

    Brelet, Claudine

    2015-10-01

    When we want to implant efficient, lasting healthcare programmes in order to improve the health conditions of a population, we have to be able to distance ourselves from our own conceptions of what is ethical or not, good or bad, better or worse. In fact, these notions can be conceived differently according to the sociocultural context. Thus, international aid has taught us how harmful it can be to impose changes which, a priori, may go against "other" ethics. The imbalances and misunderstandings that result always jeopardise the success of programmes which, otherwise, might have been accepted and even taken over by the populations concerned. Therefore the theoretical and methodological approaches of anthropology can contribute significantly to having certain programmes proposed which respect both so-called 'universal' values and the values of local populations who could benefit from them. In this article, by examining the history of the theoretical and methodological developments of participant observation, we will see how it could constitute an initiatory praxis to ethics in general and culturally enrich certain principles advocated by biomedical ethics. By enabling semantic bridges from one culture to another, and vice versa, this classic approach of anthropology makes it possible to integrate into the ways of implanting healthcare projects the manner in which a population perceives its own systems of reference and values. From the scientific point of view, it is essential to develop approaches which avoid having "other". ethics subjugated to Western concepts. Research on ethnomedicines could therefore contribute to their being taken into account in projects aiming at the common good. PMID:26911080

  3. Avoidance behavior: a free-operant lever-press avoidance task for the assessment of the effects of safety signals.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Anushka B P; Mar, Adam C; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W

    2015-01-01

    This protocol details a free-operant avoidance paradigm that has been developed to evaluate the relative contribution of different sources of reinforcement of avoidance behavior that may play an important role in the development and maintenance of human anxiety disorders. The task enables the assessment of the effects of safety cues that signal a period free from danger on lever-press avoidance behavior. Avoidance behavior trained using this protocol has been shown to be sensitive to both behavioral and pharmacological manipulations and has been optimized so that it takes approximately 1 month for rats to perform at high levels of stable avoidance responding. PMID:25559006

  4. Towards better patient care: drugs to avoid.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare

  5. Avoidance-related EEG asymmetry predicts circulating interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has linked avoidance-oriented motivational states to elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. According to one of many theories regarding the association between avoidance and cytokine levels, because the evolutionarily basic avoidance system may be activated when an organism is threatened or overwhelmed, an associated inflammatory response may be adaptive for dealing with potential injury in such threatening situations. To examine this hypothesis, we tested whether the neural correlate of avoidance motivation associates with baseline levels of the circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Controlling for covariates, greater resting neural activity in the right frontal cortex relative to the left frontal cortex-the neural correlate of avoidance motivation-was associated with baseline IL-6. These results thus support the hypothesis that the avoidance motivational system may be closely linked to systemic inflammatory activity. PMID:26461246

  6. Individual differences in physiological flexibility predict spontaneous avoidance.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-08-01

    People often regulate their emotions by resorting to avoidance, a putatively maladaptive strategy. Prior work suggests that increased psychopathology symptoms predict greater spontaneous utilisation of this strategy. Extending this work, we examined whether heightened resting cardiac vagal tone (which reflects a general ability to regulate emotions in line with contextual demands) predicts decreased spontaneous avoidance. In Study 1, greater resting vagal tone was associated with reduced spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting pictures, beyond anxiety and depression symptoms and emotional reactivity. In Study 2, resting vagal tone interacted with anxiety and depression symptoms to predict spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting film clips. The positive association between symptoms and spontaneous avoidance was more pronounced among participants with reduced resting vagal tone. Thus, increased resting vagal tone might protect against the use of avoidance. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing both subjective and biological processes when studying individual differences in emotion regulation. PMID:26147365

  7. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    PubMed Central

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  8. Generalisation of fear and avoidance along a semantic continuum.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sean; Roche, Bryan; Dymond, Simon; Hermans, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Directly conditioned fear and avoidance readily generalises to dissimilar but conceptually related stimuli. Here, for the first time, we examined the conceptual/semantic generalisation of both fear and avoidance using real words (synonyms). Participants were first exposed to a differential fear conditioning procedure in which one word (e.g., "broth"; CS+) was followed with brief electric shock [unconditioned stimulus (US)] and another was not (e.g., "assist"; CS-). Next, an instrumental conditioning phase taught avoidance in the presence the CS+ but not the CS-. During generalisation testing, synonyms of the CS+ (e.g., "soup"; GCS+) and CS- (e.g., "help"; GCS-) were presented in the absence of shock. Conditioned fear and avoidance, measured via skin conductance responses, behavioural avoidance and US expectancy ratings, generalised to the semantically related, but not to the semantically unrelated, synonyms. Findings have implications for how natural language categories and concepts mediate the expansion of fear and avoidance repertoires in clinical contexts. PMID:25648156

  9. Who Avoids Cancer Information? Examining a Psychological Process Leading to Cancer Information Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jiyoung

    2016-07-01

    Although cancer information avoidance (CIA) is detrimental to public health, predictors of CIA have not been fully investigated. Based on uncertainty management theory, this study viewed CIA as a response to uncertainty related to the distress associated with cancer information and illustrated the psychological process leading to CIA. Given the current information context, it was hypothesized that cancer information overload (CIO), accompanied by confusion and stress about cancer information, causes CIA. As trait anxiety is a strong predictor of CIO, it was also hypothesized that trait anxiety has an indirect effect on CIA through CIO. Study 1 tested this relationship in a U.S. sample (N = 384); the results showed that CIO was positively associated with CIA and that trait anxiety indirectly influenced CIA through CIO. Whereas Study 1 tested the relationship with cross-sectional data in the general cancer context, Study 2 replicated Study 1 with 3-wave longitudinal data in the context of a specific cancer (i.e., stomach cancer) in South Korea (N = 1,130 at Wave 1, 813 at Wave 2, and 582 at Wave 3). Trait anxiety at Wave 1 predicted CIO at Wave 2, which in turn increased CIA at Wave 3, suggesting that some people are inherently inclined to avoid cancer information due to their trait anxiety, which results in confusion about cancer information. PMID:27337343

  10. Avoiding a maneuvering aircraft with TCAS. [Traffic Alert and Collison Avoidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out in NASA's Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility B 727 simulator because of the need for veridical aircraft response. Pilot performance was measured in testing TCAS II after an avoidance maneuver has been initiated. A proposed change to the system will cause the TCAS II to issue a subsequent maneuver. This maneuver may be an increase in climb or descent rate from 1500 to 2500 ft/min, or a change from a climb to a descent or a descent to a climb. Three questions were addressed: (1) can the pilot detect the change in the maneuver advisory, (2) can the pilot respond promptly and accurately to the new advisory, and (3) can the maneuver be performed in the normal operating envelope of the aircraft. The reaction times found in the study suggest that pilots are able to respond within the two seconds targeted by the TCAS logic. The pilot performance data were used to modify the TCAS II logic to reflect actual pilot performance. This will result in a safe and appropriate maneuver selection in the rare instance when the conflicting aircraft maneuvers, and by doing so invalidates the initial maneuver issued by the collision avoidance system.

  11. Exponents of intrachain correlation for self-avoiding walks and knotted self-avoiding polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2013-08-01

    We show numerically that critical exponents for two-point intrachain correlation of an infinite chain characterize those of finite chains in self-avoiding walk (SAW) and self-avoiding polygon (SAP) under a topological constraint. We evaluate short-distance exponents θ(i, j) through the probability distribution functions of the distance between the ith and jth vertices of N-step SAW (or SAP with a knot) for all pairs (1 ⩽ i, j ⩽ N). We construct the contour plot of θ(i, j), and express it as a function of i and j. We suggest that it has quite a simple structure. Here exponents θ(i, j) generalize des Cloizeaux’s three critical exponents for short-distance intrachain correlation of SAW, and we show the crossover among them. We also evaluate the diffusion coefficient of knotted SAP for a few knot types, which can be calculated with the probability distribution functions of the distance between two nodes.

  12. Avoiding DWI Among Bar-room Drinkers: Strategies and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Barry D.; Rogers, John W.; Howard, Jan; Frissell, Kevin C.; Harding, Wayne M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and predictors of 11strategies to avoid driving when feeling intoxicated among 561 bar-room patrons in two medium-sized Maryland communities. Logistic regression analyses identified demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors of avoidance strategies and interactions among predictors. Overall, 89% reported one or more DWI avoidance actions in the past year, and 38% reported driving intoxicated during that time. Average frequencies of avoidance behavior and intoxicated driving increased significantly as drinking level increased. However, the higher the drinking level, the smaller the ratio of avoidance actions to DWI experiences, highlighting the vulnerability of heavy drinkers who had driven intoxicated. Using a sober driver or one who allegedly drank less than the respondent were the most popular and frequent strategies, but paying for a cab, walking, and using a bus or free cab were relatively unpopular. Higher drinking levels predicted significantly higher odds of using avoidance approaches, as did intoxicated driving. Confidence in driving safely when intoxicated was positively related to drinking level and intoxicated driving, but it tended to predict lower odds of avoidance actions. Similarly, marital status, age, gender, and location influenced the odds of avoidance behaviors. Interventions should be strategically tailored to exploit or counter drinker predilections among avoidance options. PMID:22879742

  13. 31 CFR 800.104 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled by a foreign national. With a view towards avoiding possible application of section 721... (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO...

  14. Effects of optimism on creativity under approach and avoidance motivation

    PubMed Central

    Icekson, Tamar; Roskes, Marieke; Moran, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on avoiding failure or negative outcomes (avoidance motivation) can undermine creativity, due to cognitive (e.g., threat appraisals), affective (e.g., anxiety), and volitional processes (e.g., low intrinsic motivation). This can be problematic for people who are avoidance motivated by nature and in situations in which threats or potential losses are salient. Here, we review the relation between avoidance motivation and creativity, and the processes underlying this relation. We highlight the role of optimism as a potential remedy for the creativity undermining effects of avoidance motivation, due to its impact on the underlying processes. Optimism, expecting to succeed in achieving success or avoiding failure, may reduce negative effects of avoidance motivation, as it eases threat appraisals, anxiety, and disengagement—barriers playing a key role in undermining creativity. People experience these barriers more under avoidance than under approach motivation, and beneficial effects of optimism should therefore be more pronounced under avoidance than approach motivation. Moreover, due to their eagerness, approach motivated people may even be more prone to unrealistic over-optimism and its negative consequences. PMID:24616690

  15. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65... analysis. (a) For a permitted flight with a planned maximum altitude greater than 150 kilometers, a permittee must obtain a collision avoidance analysis from United States Strategic Command. (b) The...

  16. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maximum certificated takeoff weight (1) An appropriate class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical... collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Piston... later version, or (3) A collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1)...

  17. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum certificated takeoff weight (1) An appropriate class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical... collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Piston... later version, or (3) A collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1)...

  18. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maximum certificated takeoff weight (1) An appropriate class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical... collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Piston... later version, or (3) A collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1)...

  19. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maximum certificated takeoff weight (1) An appropriate class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical... collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Piston... later version, or (3) A collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1)...

  20. Educational Demands to Reduce Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsa'aideh, Monim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the educational demands to reduce students' avoidance of vocational education in Jordan. Results of a previous study addressing reasons for avoidance of vocational education, distributed these reasons into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. Focus-groups method was used to identify the…

  1. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labels to be avoided. 301.28 Section 301.28 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached,...

  2. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels to be avoided. 301.28 Section 301.28 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached,...

  3. Safety Signals as Instrumental Reinforcers during Free-Operant Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Anushka B. P.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Mar, Adam C.; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Safety signals provide "relief" through predicting the absence of an aversive event. At issue is whether these signals also act as instrumental reinforcers. Four experiments were conducted using a free-operant lever-press avoidance paradigm in which each press avoided shock and was followed by the presentation of a 5-sec auditory safety…

  4. Verbal Avoidance and Dissatisfaction in Intimate Conflict Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tamara D.; McManus, Tara; Steuber, Keli; Coho, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more closely examine the association between avoidance and satisfaction during a potentially conflict-inducing conversation with one's dating partner. The results suggest that the way people respond to their own and their partner's conflict avoidance depends upon whether they are male or female. The perception of…

  5. A collision avoidance system for a spaceplane manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciomachen, Anna; Magnani, Piergiovanni

    1989-01-01

    Part of the activity in the area of collision avoidance related to the Hermes spaceplane is reported. A collision avoidance software system which was defined, developed and implemented in this project is presented. It computes the intersection between the solids representing the arm, the payload, and the objects. It is feasible with respect to the resources available on board, considering its performance.

  6. Passive Avoidance Is Linked to Impaired Fear Extinction in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Brian R.; Overstreet, Cassie; Krimsky, Marissa; Grillon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom dictates we must face our fears to conquer them. This idea is embodied in exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders, where the intent of exposure is to reverse a history of avoidant behavior that is thought to fuel a patient's irrational fears. We tested in humans the relationship between fear and avoidance by combining…

  7. Avoidance behavior of young black ducks treated with chromium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    Pairs of adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were fed a diet containing 0, 20, or 200 ppm chromium in the form of chromium potassium sulfate. Ducklings from these pairs were fed the same diets as adults and were tested for their avoidance responses to a fright stimulus. Neither level of chromium had a significant effect on avoidance behavior.

  8. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65 Section 437.65 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... permittee must obtain a collision avoidance analysis from United States Strategic Command. (b) The...

  9. Semantic Presuppositions Underlying Avoidance Strategies. CUNY Forum No. 3, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W.

    This study proposes that avoidance of a structure by a second language learner can only be claimed for instances where it can be demonstrated that the learner "knows" the avoided language form and that native speakers are expected to use a particular form in that context. Research is reviewed, particularly a study by J. Schachter (1974) in which…

  10. Teacher Distress and the Role of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Erika; Jones, Laura Backen; Gau, Jeffrey M.; Forrester, Kathleen K.; Biglan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' psychological well-being is important for teachers and students, but teaching is highly stressful, particularly in special education. We examined the role of experiential avoidance (EA) in the well-being of 529 middle and elementary school teachers. EA involves the tendency to avoid thoughts, feelings, and other internal…

  11. Twenty Common Testing Mistakes for EFL Teachers to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Grant

    2012-01-01

    To some extent, good testing procedure, like good language use, can be achieved through avoidance of errors. Almost any language-instruction program requires the preparation and administration of tests, and it is only to the extent that certain common testing mistakes have been avoided that such tests can be said to be worthwhile selection,…

  12. 78 FR 35262 - Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... proposed rule was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR 28780 on May 16, 2013. The public comment... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts AGENCY... and the private sector regarding the electronic parts detection and avoidance coverage proposed to...

  13. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction,...

  14. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction,...

  15. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction,...

  16. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction,...

  17. How to Avoid the ER If You Have Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in ... is the last resort for someone who has asthma. If a flare-up is really out of ...

  18. Regulating Cognitive Control through Approach-Avoidance Motor Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Severine; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the regulatory function of approach-avoidance cues in activating cognitive control processes was investigated. It was hypothesized that avoidance motor actions, relative to approach motor actions, increase the recruitment of cognitive resources, resulting in better performance on tasks that draw on these capacities. In Study 1,…

  19. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.71 Section 141.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public...

  20. Quantum walks with tuneable self-avoidance in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Elizabeth; Rohde, Peter P.; Twamley, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Quantum walks exhibit many unique characteristics compared to classical random walks. In the classical setting, self-avoiding random walks have been studied as a variation on the usual classical random walk. Here the walker has memory of its previous locations and preferentially avoids stepping back to locations where it has previously resided. Classical self-avoiding random walks have found numerous algorithmic applications, most notably in the modelling of protein folding. We consider the analogous problem in the quantum setting - a quantum walk in one dimension with tunable levels of self-avoidance. We complement a quantum walk with a memory register that records where the walker has previously resided. The walker is then able to avoid returning back to previously visited sites or apply more general memory conditioned operations to control the walk. We characterise this walk by examining the variance of the walker's distribution against time, the standard metric for quantifying how quantum or classical a walk is. We parameterise the strength of the memory recording and the strength of the memory back-action on the walker, and investigate their effect on the dynamics of the walk. We find that by manipulating these parameters, which dictate the degree of self-avoidance, the walk can be made to reproduce ideal quantum or classical random walk statistics, or a plethora of more elaborate diffusive phenomena. In some parameter regimes we observe a close correspondence between classical self-avoiding random walks and the quantum self-avoiding walk.

  1. Self-Avoiding Walk is Sub-Ballistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Hammond, Alan

    2013-12-01

    We prove that self-avoiding walk on is sub-ballistic in any dimension d ≥ 2. That is, writing for the Euclidean norm of , and for the uniform measure on self-avoiding walks for which γ 0 = 0, we show that, for each v > 0, there exists such that, for each.

  2. Quantum walks with tuneable self-avoidance in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Elizabeth; Rohde, Peter P; Twamley, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Quantum walks exhibit many unique characteristics compared to classical random walks. In the classical setting, self-avoiding random walks have been studied as a variation on the usual classical random walk. Here the walker has memory of its previous locations and preferentially avoids stepping back to locations where it has previously resided. Classical self-avoiding random walks have found numerous algorithmic applications, most notably in the modelling of protein folding. We consider the analogous problem in the quantum setting - a quantum walk in one dimension with tunable levels of self-avoidance. We complement a quantum walk with a memory register that records where the walker has previously resided. The walker is then able to avoid returning back to previously visited sites or apply more general memory conditioned operations to control the walk. We characterise this walk by examining the variance of the walker's distribution against time, the standard metric for quantifying how quantum or classical a walk is. We parameterise the strength of the memory recording and the strength of the memory back-action on the walker, and investigate their effect on the dynamics of the walk. We find that by manipulating these parameters, which dictate the degree of self-avoidance, the walk can be made to reproduce ideal quantum or classical random walk statistics, or a plethora of more elaborate diffusive phenomena. In some parameter regimes we observe a close correspondence between classical self-avoiding random walks and the quantum self-avoiding walk. PMID:24762398

  3. Experiential Avoidance and Problem Behavior: A Mediational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Jessica; Clarke, Sue; Remington, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Despite their formal dissimilarity, problem behaviors (e.g., substance misuse, binge eating, self-harm) may share a common function. According to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), this shared function is "Experiential Avoidance," the process of avoiding, escaping or otherwise altering unwanted private events (e.g., thoughts, feelings,…

  4. Geographic variation in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Gregoire; Georgescu, Vera; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Potentially avoidable hospitalizations are studied as an indirect measure of access to primary care. Understanding the determinants of these hospitalizations can help improve the quality, efficiency, and equity of health care delivery. Few studies have tackled the issue of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France, and none has done so at the national level. We assessed disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France in 2012 and analyzed their determinants. The standardized rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations ranged from 0.1 to 44.4 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, at the ZIP code level. Increased potentially avoidable hospitalizations were associated with higher mortality, lower density of acute care beds and ambulatory care nurses, lower median income, and lower education levels. This study unveils considerable variation in the rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in spite of France's mandatory, publicly funded health insurance system. In addition to epidemiological and sociodemographic factors, this study suggests that primary care organization plays a role in geographic disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations that might be addressed by increasing the number of nurses and enhancing team work in primary care. Policy makers should consider measuring potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France as an indicator of primary care organization. PMID:25941286

  5. Cognitive bias and irrational belief as predictors of avoidance.

    PubMed

    Warren, R; Zgourides, G; Jones, A

    1989-01-01

    Cognitive bias, i.e. overestimates of subjective probability and cost of catastrophic events, and irrational belief were explored as predictors of avoidance. Three groups-anxiety disordered clients, a mixed group of clinic outpatients, and normals--were administered several self-report inventories. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate a modified version of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, the Belief Scale, and the Body Sensations Questionnaire as predictors of avoidance, as measured by the Mobility Inventory. It was hypothesized that frequency x probability x cost of catastrophic cognitions (and the occurrence of the events they represent) would be a better predictor of avoidance than frequency alone. It was also hypothesized that irrational thinking would be a significant predictor of avoidance. The results generally supported the hypotheses, with subjective probability emerging as a particularly potent predictor of avoidance. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:2930444

  6. Neural substrates of approach-avoidance conflict decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Melrose, Andrew J.; Francisco, Alex; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2014-01-01

    Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to operationalize anxiety, quantify the effects of anxiolytic agents, and probe the neural basis of fear and anxiety. Results from human neuroimaging studies support that a frontal-striatal-amygdala neural circuitry is important for approach-avoidance learning. However, the neural basis of decision-making is much less clear in this context. Thus, we combined a recently developed human approach-avoidance paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural substrates underlying approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Fifteen healthy adults completed the approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm during fMRI. Analyses of variance were used to compare conflict to non-conflict (avoid-threat and approach-reward) conditions and to compare level of reward points offered during the decision phase. Trial-by-trial amplitude modulation analyses were used to delineate brain areas underlying decision-making in the context of approach/avoidance behavior. Conflict trials as compared to the non-conflict trials elicited greater activation within bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, and caudate, as well as right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Right caudate and lateral PFC activation was modulated by level of reward offered. Individuals who showed greater caudate activation exhibited less approach behavior. On a trial-by-trial basis, greater right lateral PFC activation related to less approach behavior. Taken together, results suggest that the degree of activation within prefrontal-striatal-insula circuitry determines the degree of approach versus avoidance decision-making. Moreover, the degree of caudate and lateral PFC activation is related to individual differences in approach-avoidance decision-making. Therefore, the AAC paradigm is ideally suited to probe anxiety-related processing differences during approach-avoidance decision-making. PMID:25224633

  7. Reduction in Memory Specificity Following an Approach/Avoidance Scrambled Sentences Task Relates to Cognitive Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J. Mark G.; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    "Overgeneral autobiographical memory" (OGM) refers to the tendency to retrieve less specific personal memories. According to the functional avoidance hypothesis, OGM might act as a cognitive strategy to avoid emotionally distressing details of negative memories. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an experimentally induced avoidant…

  8. On the role of subsecond dopamine release in conditioned avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: (1) fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, (2) the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, (3) over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety (4) the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain's incentive-motivational circuitry. PMID:23759871

  9. Systems and Techniques for Identifying and Avoiding Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John

    1995-01-01

    In-flight icing is one of the most difficult aviation weather hazards facing general aviation. Because most aircraft in the general aviation category are not certified for flight into known icing conditions, techniques for identifying and avoiding in-flight ice are important to maintain safety while increasing the utility and dispatch capability which is part of the AGATE vision. This report summarizes a brief study effort which: (1) Reviewed current ice identification, forecasting, and avoidance techniques; (2) Assessed feasibility of improved forecasting and ice avoidance procedures; and (3) Identified key issues for the development of improved capability with regard to in-flight icing.

  10. The Role of Allergen Exposure and Avoidance in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Sachin N.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Allergy testing and avoidance of allergens plays an important role in asthma control. Increased allergen exposure, in genetically susceptible individuals, can lead to allergic sensitization. Continued allergen exposure can increase the risk of asthma and other allergic diseases. In a patient with persistent asthma, identification of indoor and outdoor allergens and subsequent avoidance can improve symptoms. Often times, a patient will have multiple allergies and the avoidance plan should target all positive allergens. Several studies have shown that successful allergen remediation includes a comprehensive approach including education, cleaning, physical barriers and maintaining these practices. PMID:20568555

  11. Obstacle-avoidance automatic guidance - A concept-development study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper studies the notion of obstacle-avoidance guidance, and investigates the issues in automating this function by considering helicopter nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight as an example. In particular, it considers a hierarchy of guidance components, including mission planning and obstacle avoidance. Based on this hierarchical breakdown, the functional requirements of obstacle-avoidance guidance are identified. An effort in developing automatic guidance algorithms to meet these requirements is presented, along with the necesssary simulation tools for evaluation of these algorithms.

  12. Topologically induced avoided band crossing in an optical checkerboard lattice.

    PubMed

    Olschläger, Matthias; Wirth, Georg; Kock, Thorge; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2012-02-17

    We report on the condensation of bosons in the 4th band of an optical checkerboard lattice providing a topologically induced avoided band crossing involving the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Bloch bands. When the condensate is slowly tuned through the avoided crossing, accelerated band relaxation arises and the zero momentum approximately C4-invariant condensate wave function acquires finite momentum order and reduced C2 symmetry. For faster tuning Landau-Zener oscillations between different superfluid orders arise, which are used to characterize the avoided crossing. PMID:22401220

  13. ITI-Signals and Prelimbic Cortex Facilitate Avoidance Acquisition and Reduce Avoidance Latencies, Respectively, in Male WKY Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kevin D.; Jiao, Xilu; Smith, Ian M.; Myers, Catherine E.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    As a model of anxiety disorder vulnerability, male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats acquire lever-press avoidance behavior more readily than outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, and their acquisition is enhanced by the presence of a discrete signal presented during the inter-trial intervals (ITIs), suggesting that it is perceived as a safety signal. A series of experiments were conducted to determine if this is the case. Additional experiments investigated if the avoidance facilitation relies upon processing through medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The results suggest that the ITI-signal facilitates acquisition during the early stages of the avoidance acquisition process, when the rats are initially acquiring escape behavior and then transitioning to avoidance behavior. Post-avoidance introduction of the visual ITI-signal into other associative learning tasks failed to confirm that the visual stimulus had acquired the properties of a conditioned inhibitor. Shortening the signal from the entirety of the 3 min ITI to only the first 5 s of the 3 min ITI slowed acquisition during the first four sessions, suggesting the flashing light (FL) is not functioning as a feedback signal. The prelimbic (PL) cortex showed greater activation during the period of training when the transition from escape responding to avoidance responding occurs. Only combined PL + infralimbic cortex lesions modestly slowed avoidance acquisition, but PL-cortex lesions slowed avoidance response latencies. Thus, the FL ITI-signal is not likely perceived as a safety signal nor is it serving as a feedback signal. The functional role of the PL-cortex appears to be to increase the drive toward responding to the threat of the warning signal. Hence, avoidance susceptibility displayed by male WKY rats may be driven, in part, both by external stimuli (ITI signal) as well as by enhanced threat recognition to the warning signal via the PL cortex. PMID:25484860

  14. 14 CFR 125.224 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transponder that meets Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-112, or a later version, and one of the following... collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1) of this section....

  15. 14 CFR 125.224 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transponder that meets Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-112, or a later version, and one of the following... collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1) of this section....

  16. 14 CFR 125.224 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transponder that meets Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-112, or a later version, and one of the following... collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1) of this section....

  17. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-112, or a later version, and one... C-118, or a later version, or (3) A collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that...

  18. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-112, or a later version, and one... C-118, or a later version, or (3) A collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that...

  19. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-112, or a later version, and one... C-118, or a later version, or (3) A collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that...

  20. 14 CFR 125.224 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transponder that meets Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-112, or a later version, and one of the following... collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that meet paragraph (a)(1) of this section....

  1. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical Standard Order (TSO) C-112, or a later version, and one... C-118, or a later version, or (3) A collision avoidance system and Mode S transponder that...

  2. You Have Diabetes. How Can You Avoid Serious Eye Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You have diabetes. How can you avoid serious eye diseases? Did you know that diabetic retinopathy, an eye ... loss and other health problems associated with the disease. The National Eye Institute (NEI) offers a guide so you can “ ...

  3. NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE TENDENCIES

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pamela K.; Bargh, John A.

    2008-01-01

    According to the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), having power should be associated with the approach system, and lacking power with the avoidance system. However, to this point research has focused solely on whether power leads to more action, particularly approach-related action, or not. In three experiments, we extend this research by exploring the direct, unintentional relation between power and both approach and avoidance tendencies. Priming high power led to greater relative BAS strength than priming low power, but did not affect the BIS (Exp. 1). High-power priming also facilitated both simple and complex approach behavior, but did not affect avoidance behavior (Exp. 2−3). These effects of power occurred even in power-irrelevant situations. They also cannot be explained by priming of general positive versus negative constructs, nor by changes in positive, negative, approach-related, or avoidance-related affect. PMID:18568085

  4. Avoiding conflict of interest. How boards can withstand close scrutiny.

    PubMed

    Sandrick, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals have focused attention on both for-profit and not-for-profit boards. To avoid even the appearance of impropriety, boards need to be above reproach--starting with conflict of interest. PMID:12891768

  5. Does the Organized Sexual Murderer Better Delay and Avoid Detection?

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Martineau, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    According to the organized-disorganized model, organized sexual murderers adopt specific behaviors during the commission of their crimes that contribute to avoiding police detection. The current study examines the effect of sexual murderers' organized behaviors on their ability to both delay and/or avoid police detection. Using a combination of negative binomial and logistic regression analyses on a sample of 350 sexual murder cases, findings showed that although both measures of delaying and avoiding detection are positively correlated, different behavioral patterns were observed. For instance, offenders who moved the victim's body were more likely to avoid detection but the victim's body was likely to be recovered faster. Moreover, victim characteristics have an impact on both measures; however, this effect disappears for the measure of delaying detection once the organized behaviors are introduced. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25355862

  6. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bookmark Parents: Avoid kids' foot problems with the right shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  7. Smoky bars and restaurants: who avoids them and why?

    PubMed

    Biener, L; Fitzgerald, G

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide new insight into who avoids smoky places, the types of places they avoid, and the reasons they give. A representative sample of Massachusetts adults (N = 4,929) was surveyed by telephone during 1995 and 1996. Forty-six percent of non-smokers reported having avoided a smoky place. Reasons were aversion to the lingering smell (34.8%) and health issues (31.9%). Many adults avoid restaurants and bars because of the expectation of excessive environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Patronage may increase after smoke-free policies are implemented and nonsmokers become aware of the opportunity to dine in establishments free of ETS. PMID:10345515

  8. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  9. Gripped by Gout: Avoiding the Ache and Agony

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Gripped by Gout Avoiding the Ache and Agony Sudden, painful swelling ... toe is often the first warning sign of gout. It can affect other joints as well. Without ...

  10. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... avoid fixed fishing gear. (2) The operator of each FFV must maintain on its bridge a current plot of..., including the amount, type of gear, condition, and identification markings. (3) The location of the...

  11. 7 Ways to Avoid Serious Injury from School Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7 Ways to Avoid Serious Injury From School Sports Know how to reduce the risk of getting ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- School sports play a major role in many lives, and ...

  12. Avoidance maneuevers selected while viewing cockpit traffic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. D.; Ellis, S. R.; Lee, E.

    1982-01-01

    Ten airline pilots rates the collision danger of air traffic presented on cockpit displays of traffic information while they monitored simulated departures from Denver. They selected avoidance maneuvers when necessary for separation. Most evasive maneuvers were turns rather than vertical maneuvers. Evasive maneuvers chosen for encounters with low or moderate collision danger were generally toward the intruding aircraft. This tendency lessened as the perceived threat level increased. In the highest threst situations pilots turned toward the intruder only at chance levels. Intruders coming from positions in front of the pilot's own ship were more frequently avoided by turns toward than when intruders approached laterally or from behind. Some of the implications of the pilots' turning-toward tendencies are discussed with respect to automatic collision avoidance systems and coordination of avoidance maneuvers of conflicting aircraft.

  13. The Color Red Supports Avoidance Reactions to Unhealthy Food.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Michaela; Kamm, Friederike; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the color red acts like an implicit avoidance cue in food contexts. Thus specific colors seem to guide the implicit evaluation of food items. We built upon this research by investigating the implicit meaning of color (red vs. green) in an approach-avoidance task with healthy and unhealthy food items. Thus, we examined the joint evaluative effects of color and food: Participants had to categorize food items by approach-avoidance reactions, according to their healthfulness. Items were surrounded by task-irrelevant red or green circles. We found that the implicit meaning of the traffic light colors influenced participants' reactions to the food items. The color red (compared to green) facilitated automatic avoidance reactions to unhealthy foods. By contrast, approach behavior toward healthy food items was not moderated by color. Our findings suggest that traffic light colors can act as implicit cues that guide automatic behavioral reactions to food. PMID:26592533

  14. The Use of Arbitration to Avoid Litigation Under ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Richard P.

    1975-01-01

    In this symposium report it is suggested that arbitration can be used to avoid litigation of ERISA pension and welfare benefit claims if the negotiated plan or related collective bargaining agreement provides for arbitration or benefit disputes. (Author/LBH)

  15. Safety signals as instrumental reinforcers during free-operant avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Mar, Adam C.; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Safety signals provide “relief” through predicting the absence of an aversive event. At issue is whether these signals also act as instrumental reinforcers. Four experiments were conducted using a free-operant lever-press avoidance paradigm in which each press avoided shock and was followed by the presentation of a 5-sec auditory safety signal. When given a choice between two levers in Experiment 1, both avoiding shock, rats preferentially responded on the lever that produced the safety signal as feedback, even when footshock was omitted. Following avoidance training with a single lever in Experiment 2, removal of the signal led to a decrease in avoidance responses and an increase in responses during the safety period normally denoted by the signal. These behavioral changes demonstrate the dual conditioned reinforcing and fear inhibiting properties of the safety signal. The associative processes that support the reinforcing properties of a safety signal were tested using a novel revaluation procedure. Prior experience of systemic morphine during safety signal presentations resulted in an increased rate of avoidance responses to produce the safety signal during a drug-free extinction test, a finding not seen with d-amphetamine in Experiment 3. Morphine revaluation of the safety signal was repeated in Experiment 4 followed by a drug-free extinction test in which responses did not produce the signal for the first 10 min of the session. Instrumental avoidance in the absence of the signal was shown to be insensitive to prior signal revaluation, suggesting that the signal reinforces free-operant avoidance behavior through a habit-like mechanism. PMID:25135197

  16. Nondiscriminated avoidance of shock by pigeons pecking a key1

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Elenice A.; Todorov, João Claudio; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme

    1973-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained to avoid shock by pecking a key on a free-operant avoidance schedule in which no exteroceptive stimulus signalled impending shock. Response rate was an inverse function of response-shock interval when shock-shock interval was held constant at 2 sec and response-shock intervals varied from 5 to 40 sec. Amphetamine increased response rates in two subjects and reserpine markedly reduced responding in one. PMID:16811659

  17. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  18. Gaining a Foothold: How HIV avoids innate immune recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Nan; Lieberman, Judy

    2010-01-01

    During the first week after sexual exposure to HIV, HIV infection does not appear to trigger a strong innate immune response. Here we describe some recent studies that show that HIV may avoid triggering antiviral innate immune responses by not replicating efficiently in dendritic cells and by avoiding detection in infected CD4 T cells and macrophages by harnessing a host cytoplasmic DNase TREX1 to digest nonproductive HIV reverse transcripts. PMID:21123040

  19. Safety signals as instrumental reinforcers during free-operant avoidance.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Anushka B P; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Mar, Adam C; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-09-01

    Safety signals provide "relief" through predicting the absence of an aversive event. At issue is whether these signals also act as instrumental reinforcers. Four experiments were conducted using a free-operant lever-press avoidance paradigm in which each press avoided shock and was followed by the presentation of a 5-sec auditory safety signal. When given a choice between two levers in Experiment 1, both avoiding shock, rats preferentially responded on the lever that produced the safety signal as feedback, even when footshock was omitted. Following avoidance training with a single lever in Experiment 2, removal of the signal led to a decrease in avoidance responses and an increase in responses during the safety period normally denoted by the signal. These behavioral changes demonstrate the dual conditioned reinforcing and fear inhibiting properties of the safety signal. The associative processes that support the reinforcing properties of a safety signal were tested using a novel revaluation procedure. Prior experience of systemic morphine during safety signal presentations resulted in an increased rate of avoidance responses to produce the safety signal during a drug-free extinction test, a finding not seen with d-amphetamine in Experiment 3. Morphine revaluation of the safety signal was repeated in Experiment 4 followed by a drug-free extinction test in which responses did not produce the signal for the first 10 min of the session. Instrumental avoidance in the absence of the signal was shown to be insensitive to prior signal revaluation, suggesting that the signal reinforces free-operant avoidance behavior through a habit-like mechanism. PMID:25135197

  20. Avoidance of selenium-treated food by mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Sanderson, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Adult, male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were given a choice between a control diet and a diet containing 5, 10 or 20 ppm selenium as selenomethionine dissolved in water and mixed into the diet. At 10 and 20 ppm, selenium-treated diets were avoided. Avoidance appeared to be caused by a conditioned response, probably to illness caused by the selenium and not to an aversion to the taste of the selenium.

  1. Collision Avoidance Functional Requirements for Step 1. Revision 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This Functional Requirements Document (FRD) describes the flow of requirements from the high level operational objectives down to the functional requirements specific to cooperative collision avoidance for high altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft systems. These are further decomposed into performance and safety guidelines that are backed up by analysis or references to various documents or research findings. The FRD should be considered when establishing future policies, procedures, and standards pertaining to cooperative collision avoidance.

  2. Global and local obstacle avoidance technique for an autonomous vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Keith W.; Saunders, Kevin S.

    1999-07-01

    The Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) is engaged in developing autonomous ground vehicles. A significant problem for such vehicles is obstacle detection and avoidance. After studying various methods of detection, a scanning laser system was chosen that can detect objects at a distance of up to thirty feet while traveling between five and ten miles per hour. Once an object is detected, the vehicle must avoid it. The project employs a mission-level path planner that predetermines the path of a vehicle. One avoidance scheme is to inform the path planner of the obstacle and then let it re-plan the path. This is the global approach to the problem, which allows the use of existing software for maneuvering the vehicle. However, replanning is time consuming and lacks knowledge of the entire obstacle. An alternative approach is to use local avoidance, whereby a vehicle determines how to get by an obstacle without help from the path planner. This approach offers faster response without requiring the computing resource of the path planner. The disadvantage is that during local avoidance the vehicle ignores the global map of known obstacles and does not know to turn control back to the path planner if mission efficiency is adversely affected. This paper will describe a method for combining the current global path planner with a local obstacle avoidance technique to efficiently complete required tasks in a partially unknown environment.

  3. Attachment avoidance predicts inflammatory responses to marital conflict.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Loving, Timothy J; Malarkey, William B; Stowell, Jeffrey; Houts, Carrie; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2009-10-01

    Marital stress has been associated with immune dysregulation, including increased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Attachment style, one's expectations about the availability and responsiveness of others in intimate relationships, appears to influence physiological stress reactivity and thus could influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. Thirty-five couples were invited for two 24-h admissions to a hospital research unit. The first visit included a structured social support interaction, while the second visit comprised the discussion of a marital disagreement. A mixed effect within-subject repeated measure model indicated that attachment avoidance significantly influenced IL-6 production during the conflict visit but not during the social support visit. Individuals with higher attachment avoidance had on average an 11% increase in total IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit, while individuals with lower attachment avoidance had, on average, a 6% decrease in IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit. Furthermore, greater attachment avoidance was associated with a higher frequency of negative behaviors and a lower frequency of positive behaviors during the marital interaction, providing a mechanism by which attachment avoidance may influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. In sum, these results suggest that attachment avoidance modulates marital behavior and stress-induced immune dysregulation. PMID:18952163

  4. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs. PMID:27302901

  5. The acquisition of passive avoidance, active avoidance, and spatial navigation tasks by animals prenatally exposed to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Riley, E P; Foss, J A

    1991-01-01

    Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered cocaine orally (60 mg/kg) on gestational days 14-21. One control group was administered the vehicle and another left untreated. Cocaine treatment produced some maternal lethality, and the weight gain of the surviving dams was reduced approximately 15%. Offspring of mothers treated with cocaine did not differ from those of untreated mothers in their numbers, birth weight, or growth. Weanling offspring were tested in a passive avoidance task, and adult offspring were tested for two-way active avoidance and in a spatial navigation task. Although a few animals in the cocaine group showed poor retention of passive avoidance, the group differences were not statistically significant. The adult animals showed normal performance in both the active avoidance and spatial navigation tasks. PMID:1758412

  6. Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Confesor; Mueller, Eric Richard; Johnson, Marcus A.; Abramson, Michael; Snow, James William

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft will equip with a detect-and-avoid (DAA) system that enables them to comply with the requirement to "see and avoid" other aircraft, an important layer in the overall set of procedural, strategic and tactical separation methods designed to prevent mid-air collisions. This paper describes a capability called Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling (JADEM), developed to prototype and help evaluate various DAA technological requirements by providing a flexible and extensible software platform that models all major detect-and-avoid functions. Figure 1 illustrates JADEM's architecture. The surveillance module can be actual equipment on the unmanned aircraft or simulators that model the process by which sensors on-board detect other aircraft and provide track data to the traffic display. The track evaluation function evaluates each detected aircraft and decides whether to provide an alert to the pilot and its severity. Guidance is a combination of intruder track information, alerting, and avoidance/advisory algorithms behind the tools shown on the traffic display to aid the pilot in determining a maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear. All these functions are designed with a common interface and configurable implementation, which is critical in exploring DAA requirements. To date, JADEM has been utilized in three computer simulations of the National Airspace System, three pilot-in-the-loop experiments using a total of 37 professional UAS pilots, and two flight tests using NASA's Predator-B unmanned aircraft, named Ikhana. The data collected has directly informed the quantitative separation standard for "well clear", safety case, requirements development, and the operational environment for the DAA minimum operational performance standards. This work was performed by the Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability team under NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project.

  7. Evidence for avoidance of Ag nanoparticles by earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Shoults-Wilson, W A; Zhurbich, Oksana I; McNear, David H; Tsyusko, Olga V; Bertsch, Paul M; Unrine, Jason M

    2011-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been incorporated into a wide variety of consumer products, ideally acting as antimicrobial agents. Silver exposure has long been known to cause toxic effects to a wide variety of organisms, making large scale production of silver nanoparticles a potential hazard to environmental systems. Here we describe the first evidence that an organism may be able to sense manufactured nanoparticles in a complex, environmentally relevant exposure and that the presence of nanoparticles alters the organism's behavior. We found that earthworms (Eisenia fetida) consistently avoid soils containing silver nanoparticles and AgNO(3) at similar concentrations of Ag. However, avoidance of silver nanoparticles occurred over 48 h, while avoidance of AgNO(3) was immediate. It was determined that avoidance of silver nanoparticles could not be explained by release of silver ions or any changes in microbial communities caused by the introduction of Ag. This leads us to conclude that the earthworms were in some way sensing the presence of nanoparticles over the course of a 48 h exposure and choosing to avoid exposure to them. Our results demonstrate that nanoparticle interactions with organisms may be unpredictable and that these interactions may result in ecologically significant effects on behavior at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:21229389

  8. Attentional avoidance of smoking cues in former smokers.

    PubMed

    Peuker, Ana Carolina; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2014-02-01

    It has been speculated that attentional bias (AB) to smoking cues is a permanent feature of addiction. The objective of the present study was to investigate if abstinence duration has an influence on AB. Performance on a visual probe task of three groups (recent, intermediate and prolonged) of ex-smokers (n=62, mean age 50±11 years) with different abstinence durations was compared. Target/Control images were presented at three stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: 200, 500, and 2000 ms) on a 17-inch monitor. Former smokers avoided target images (TIs). Mean reaction time to control images was shorter than to TIs, confirming the attentional avoidance of TIs. Attentional avoidance of TIs and the lower emotional valence of these stimuli may have been a strategy to avoid relapse. Sustained avoidance to smoking-related cues may be a predictor of long-term abstinence. Direct training of AB away from drug cues may improve the results of smoking cessation therapy. PMID:24074848

  9. Providing a food reward reduces inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Zethof, Jan; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-11-01

    As shown in male rats, prior history of subjects changes behavioural and stress-responses to challenges: a two-week history of exposure to rewards at fixed intervals led to slightly, but consistently, lower physiological stress-responses and anxiety-like behaviour. Here, we tested whether similar effects are present in zebrafish (Danio rerio). After two weeks of providing Artemia (brine shrimp; Artemia salina) as food reward or flake food (Tetramin) as control at fixed intervals, zebrafish were exposed to a fear-avoidance learning task using an inhibitory avoidance protocol. Half the number of fish received a 3V shock on day 1 and were tested and sacrificed on day 2; the other half received a second 3V shock on day 2 and were tested and sacrificed on day 3. The latter was done to assess whether effects are robust, as effects in rats have been shown to be modest. Zebrafish that were given Artemia showed less inhibitory avoidance after one shock, but not after two shocks, than zebrafish that were given flake-food. Reduced avoidance behaviour was associated with lower telencepahalic gene expression levels of cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) and higher gene expression levels of corticotropin releasing factor (crf). These results suggest that providing rewards at fixed intervals alters fear avoidance behaviour, albeit modestly, in zebrafish. We discuss the data in the context of similar underlying brain structures in mammals and fish. PMID:26342856

  10. Sense and avoid technology for Global Hawk and Predator UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalmont, John F.; Utt, James; Deschenes, Michael; Taylor, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    The Sensors Directorate at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) along with Defense Research Associates, Inc. (DRA) conducted a flight demonstration of technology that could potentially satisfy the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) requirement for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to sense and avoid local air traffic sufficient to provide an "...equivalent level of safety, comparable to see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft". This FAA requirement must be satisfied for autonomous UAV operation within the national airspace. The real-time on-board system passively detects approaching aircraft, both cooperative and non-cooperative, using imaging sensors operating in the visible/near infrared band and a passive moving target indicator algorithm. Detection range requirements for RQ-4 and MQ-9 UAVs were determined based on analysis of flight geometries, avoidance maneuver timelines, system latencies and human pilot performance. Flight data and UAV operating parameters were provided by the system program offices, prime contractors, and flight-test personnel. Flight demonstrations were conducted using a surrogate UAV (Aero Commander) and an intruder aircraft (Beech Bonanza). The system demonstrated target detection ranges out to 3 nautical miles in nose-to-nose scenarios and marginal visual meteorological conditions. (VMC) This paper will describe the sense and avoid requirements definition process and the system concept (sensors, algorithms, processor, and flight rest results) that has demonstrated the potential to satisfy the FAA sense and avoid requirements.

  11. Forced crumpling of self-avoiding elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliegenthart, G. A.; Gompper, G.

    2006-03-01

    Thin elastic sheets are important materials across length scales ranging from mesoscopic (polymerized membranes, clay platelets, virus capsids) to macroscopic (paper, metal foils). The crumpling of such sheets by external forces is characterized by the formation of a complex pattern of folds. We have investigated the role of self-avoidance, the fact that the sheets cannot self-intersect, for the crumpling process by large-scale computer simulations. At moderate compression, the force-compression relations of crumpled sheets for both self-avoiding and phantom sheets are found to obey universal power-law behaviours. However, self-avoiding sheets are much stiffer than phantom sheets and, for a given compression, develop many more folds. Moreover, self-avoidance is relevant already at very small volume fractions. The fold-length distribution for crumpled sheets is determined, and is found to be well-described by a log-normal distribution. The stiffening owing to self-avoidance is reflected in the changing nature of the sheet-to-sheet contacts from line-like to two-dimensionally extended with increasing compression.

  12. Disease avoidance as a functional basis for stigmatization

    PubMed Central

    Oaten, Megan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is characterized by chronic social and physical avoidance of a person(s) by other people. Infectious disease may produce an apparently similar form of isolation—disease avoidance—but on symptom remission this often abates. We propose that many forms of stigmatization reflect the activation of this disease-avoidance system, which is prone to respond to visible signs and labels that connote disease, irrespective of their accuracy. A model of this system is presented, which includes an emotional component, whereby visible disease cues directly activate disgust and contamination, motivating avoidance, and a cognitive component, whereby disease labels bring to mind disease cues, indirectly activating disgust and contamination. The unique predictions of this model are then examined, notably that people who are stigmatized evoke disgust and are contaminating. That animals too show avoidance of diseased conspecifics, and that disease-related stigma targets are avoided in most cultures, also supports this evolutionary account. The more general implications of this approach are then examined, notably how it can be used to good (e.g. improving hygiene) or bad (e.g. racial vilification) ends, by yoking particular labels with cues that connote disease and disgust. This broadening of the model allows for stigmatization of groups with little apparent connection to disease. PMID:22042920

  13. Plant adaptation to dynamically changing environment: the shade avoidance response.

    PubMed

    Ruberti, I; Sessa, G; Ciolfi, A; Possenti, M; Carabelli, M; Morelli, G

    2012-01-01

    The success of competitive interactions between plants determines the chance of survival of individuals and eventually of whole plant species. Shade-tolerant plants have adapted their photosynthesis to function optimally under low-light conditions. These plants are therefore capable of long-term survival under a canopy shade. In contrast, shade-avoiding plants adapt their growth to perceive maximum sunlight and therefore rapidly dominate gaps in a canopy. Daylight contains roughly equal proportions of red and far-red light, but within vegetation that ratio is lowered as a result of red absorption by photosynthetic pigments. This light quality change is perceived through the phytochrome system as an unambiguous signal of the proximity of neighbors resulting in a suite of developmental responses (termed the shade avoidance response) that, when successful, result in the overgrowth of those neighbors. Shoot elongation induced by low red/far-red light may confer high relative fitness in natural dense communities. However, since elongation is often achieved at the expense of leaf and root growth, shade avoidance may lead to reduction in crop plant productivity. Over the past decade, major progresses have been achieved in the understanding of the molecular basis of shade avoidance. However, uncovering the mechanisms underpinning plant response and adaptation to changes in the ratio of red to far-red light is key to design new strategies to precise modulate shade avoidance in time and space without impairing the overall crop ability to compete for light. PMID:21888962

  14. Distraction affects the performance of obstacle avoidance during walking.

    PubMed

    Weerdesteyn, V; Schillings, A M; van Galen, G P; Duysens, J

    2003-03-01

    In this study, dual-task interference in obstacle-avoidance tasks during human walking was examined. Ten healthy young adults participated in the experiment. While they were walking on a treadmill, an obstacle suddenly fell on the treadmill in front of their left leg during either midswing, early stance, or late stance of the ipsilateral leg. Participants were instructed to avoid the obstacle, both as a single task and while they were concurrently performing a cognitive secondary task (dual task). Rates of failure, avoidance strategy, and a number of kinematic parameters were studied under both task conditions. When only a short response time was available, rates of failure on the avoidance task were larger during the dual task than during the single task. Smaller crossing swing velocities were found during the dual task as compared with those observed in the single task. The difference in crossing swing velocities was attributable to increased stiffness of the crossing swing limb. The results of the present study indicated that divided attention affects young and healthy individuals' obstacle-avoidance performance during walking. PMID:12724099

  15. Enhanced Avoidance Habits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Sule, Akeem; Voon, Valerie; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M.; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition that typically manifests in compulsive urges to perform irrational or excessive avoidance behaviors. A recent account has suggested that compulsivity in OCD might arise from excessive stimulus-response habit formation, rendering behavior insensitive to goal value. We tested if OCD patients have a bias toward habits using a novel shock avoidance task. To explore how habits, as a putative model of compulsivity, might relate to obsessions and anxiety, we recorded measures of contingency knowledge, explicit fear, and physiological arousal. Methods Twenty-five OCD patients and 25 control subjects completed a shock avoidance task designed to induce habits through overtraining, which were identified using goal-devaluation. The relationship between habitual behavior, erroneous cognitions, and physiological arousal was assessed using behavior, questionnaires, subjective report, and skin conductance responses. Results A devaluation sensitivity test revealed that both groups could inhibit unnecessary behavioral responses before overtraining. Following overtraining, OCD patients showed greater avoidance habits than control subjects. Groups did not differ in conditioned arousal (skin conductance responses) at any stage. Additionally, groups did not differ in contingency knowledge or explicit ratings of shock expectancy following the habit test. Habit responses were associated with a subjective urge to respond. Conclusions These data indicate that OCD patients have a tendency to develop excessive avoidance habits, providing support for a habit account of OCD. Future research is needed to fully characterize the causal role of physiological arousal and explicit fear in habit formation in OCD. PMID:23510580

  16. A new collision avoidance model for pedestrian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-Ling; Chen, Yao; Dong, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Min; Ning, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The pedestrians can only avoid collisions passively under the action of forces during simulations using the social force model, which may lead to unnatural behaviors. This paper proposes an optimization-based model for the avoidance of collisions, where the social repulsive force is removed in favor of a search for the quickest path to destination in the pedestrian’s vision field. In this way, the behaviors of pedestrians are governed by changing their desired walking direction and desired speed. By combining the critical factors of pedestrian movement, such as positions of the exit and obstacles and velocities of the neighbors, the choice of desired velocity has been rendered to a discrete optimization problem. Therefore, it is the self-driven force that leads pedestrians to a free path rather than the repulsive force, which means the pedestrians can actively avoid collisions. The new model is verified by comparing with the fundamental diagram and actual data. The simulation results of individual avoidance trajectories and crowd avoidance behaviors demonstrate the reasonability of the proposed model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61233001 and 61322307) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2013JBZ007).

  17. Experimental characterization of collision avoidance in pedestrian dynamics.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Daniel R; Negri, Pablo A; Bruno, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the avoidance behavior of pedestrians was characterized by controlled experiments. Several conflict situations were studied considering different flow rates and group sizes in crossing and head-on configurations. Pedestrians were recorded from above, and individual two-dimensional trajectories of their displacement were recovered after image processing. Lateral swaying amplitude and step lengths were measured for free pedestrians, obtaining similar values to the ones reported in the literature. Minimum avoidance distances were computed in two-pedestrian experiments. In the case of one pedestrian dodging an arrested one, the avoidance distance did not depend on the relative orientation of the still pedestrian with respect to the direction of motion of the first. When both pedestrians were moving, the avoidance distance in a perpendicular encounter was longer than the one obtained during a head-on approach. It was found that the mean curvature of the trajectories was linearly anticorrelated with the mean speed. Furthermore, two common avoidance maneuvers, stopping and steering, were defined from the analysis of the acceleration and curvature in single trajectories. Interestingly, it was more probable to observe steering events than stopping ones, also the probability of simultaneous steering and stopping occurrences was negligible. The results obtained in this paper can be used to validate and calibrate pedestrian dynamics models. PMID:27627328

  18. What Happens after Inbreeding Avoidance? Inbreeding by Rejected Relatives and the Inclusive Fitness Benefit of Inbreeding Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, A. Bradley; Reid, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding inbreeding, and therefore avoiding inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, is widely assumed to be adaptive in systems with biparental reproduction. However, inbreeding can also confer an inclusive fitness benefit stemming from increased relatedness between parents and inbred offspring. Whether or not inbreeding or avoiding inbreeding is adaptive therefore depends on a balance between inbreeding depression and increased parent-offspring relatedness. Existing models of biparental inbreeding predict threshold values of inbreeding depression above which males and females should avoid inbreeding, and predict sexual conflict over inbreeding because these thresholds diverge. However, these models implicitly assume that if a focal individual avoids inbreeding, then both it and its rejected relative will subsequently outbreed. We show that relaxing this assumption of reciprocal outbreeding, and the assumption that focal individuals are themselves outbred, can substantially alter the predicted thresholds for inbreeding avoidance for focal males. Specifically, the magnitude of inbreeding depression below which inbreeding increases a focal male’s inclusive fitness increases with increasing depression in the offspring of a focal female and her alternative mate, and it decreases with increasing relatedness between a focal male and a focal female’s alternative mate, thereby altering the predicted zone of sexual conflict. Furthermore, a focal male’s inclusive fitness gain from avoiding inbreeding is reduced by indirect opportunity costs if his rejected relative breeds with another relative of his. By demonstrating that variation in relatedness and inbreeding can affect intra- and inter-sexual conflict over inbreeding, our models lead to novel predictions for family dynamics. Specifically, parent-offspring conflict over inbreeding might depend on the alternative mates of rejected relatives, and male-male competition over inbreeding might lead to mixed inbreeding

  19. Nucleus accumbens core lesions enhance two-way active avoidance.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, N T; Kashtelyan, V; Burton, A C; Bissonette, G B; Roesch, M R

    2014-01-31

    The majority of work examining the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) has focused on functions pertaining to behaviors guided by appetitive outcomes. These studies have pointed to the NAc as being critical for motivating behavior toward desirable outcomes. For example, we have recently shown that lesions of the NAc impaired performance on a reward-guided decision-making task that required rats to choose between differently valued rewards. Unfortunately, much less is known about the role that the NAc plays in motivating behavior when aversive outcomes are predicted. To address this issue we asked if NAc lesions impact performance on a two-way active avoidance task in which rats must learn to shuttle back and forth in a behavioral training box in order to avoid a footshock predicted by an auditory tone. Although bilateral NAc lesions initially impaired reward-guided decision-making, we found that the same lesions improved acquisition and retention of two-way active avoidance. PMID:24275320

  20. Incautiously Optimistic: Positively-Valenced Cognitive Avoidance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians who conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood have noted that their patients sometimes verbalize overly positive automatic thoughts and set overly optimistic goals. These cognitions are frequently related to failure to engage in compensatory behavioral strategies emphasized in CBT. In this paper, we offer a functional analysis of this problematic pattern, positively-valenced cognitive avoidance, and suggest methods for addressing it within CBT for adult ADHD. We propose that maladaptive positive cognitions function to relieve aversive emotions in the short-term and are therefore negatively reinforced but that, in the long-term, they are associated with decreased likelihood of active coping and increased patterns of behavioral avoidance. Drawing on techniques from Behavioral Activation (BA), we offer a case example to illustrate these concepts and describe step-by-step methods for clinicians to help patients recognize avoidant patterns and engage in more active coping. PMID:25908901

  1. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    PubMed

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-02-01

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation. PMID:25540240

  2. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    PubMed Central

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-01-01

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation. PMID:25540240

  3. Predictive Potential Field-Based Collision Avoidance for Multicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuisen, M.; Schadler, M.; Behnke, S.

    2013-08-01

    Reliable obstacle avoidance is a key to navigating with UAVs in the close vicinity of static and dynamic obstacles. Wheel-based mobile robots are often equipped with 2D or 3D laser range finders that cover the 2D workspace sufficiently accurate and at a high rate. Micro UAV platforms operate in a 3D environment, but the restricted payload prohibits the use of fast state-of-the-art 3D sensors. Thus, perception of small obstacles is often only possible in the vicinity of the UAV and a fast collision avoidance system is necessary. We propose a reactive collision avoidance system based on artificial potential fields, that takes the special dynamics of UAVs into account by predicting the influence of obstacles on the estimated trajectory in the near future using a learned motion model. Experimental evaluation shows that the prediction leads to smoother trajectories and allows to navigate collision-free through passageways.

  4. Experiential Avoidance and Male Dating Violence Perpetration: An Initial Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Dating violence among college students represents a prevalent and serious problem. An abundance of research has examined risk and protective factors for dating violence, although only recently has research begun to focus on risk and protective factors that could be amenable to change in intervention programs. One potential risk factor for dating violence may be experiential avoidance. Using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II; Bond et al., 2011), we examined whether experiential avoidance was associated with male perpetrated dating violence after controlling for age, relationship satisfaction, and alcohol use. Within a sample of male college students in a current dating relationship (N = 109) results demonstrated that experiential avoidance was positively associated with psychological, physical, and sexual aggression perpetration, and that it remained associated with psychological and sexual aggression after controlling for age, relationship satisfaction, and alcohol use. The implications of these findings for future research and prevention programs are discussed. PMID:24955326

  5. Contamination sensitivity and the development of disease-avoidant behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Michael; Fadda, Roberta; Overton, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to their developing cognitive abilities and their limited knowledge about the biological basis of illness, children often have less expertise at disease avoidance than adults. However, affective reactions to contaminants through the acquisition of disgust and the social and cultural transmissions of knowledge about contamination and contagion provide impetus for children to learn effective disease-avoidant behaviours early in their development. In this article, we review the ontogenetic development of knowledge about contamination and contagion with particular attention to the role of socialization and culture. Together with their emerging cognitive abilities and affective reactions to contaminants, informal and formal cultural learning shape children's knowledge about disease. Through this process, the perceptual cues of contamination are linked to threats of disease outcomes and can act as determinants of disease-avoidant behaviours. PMID:22042919

  6. Avoiding loopholes with hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the "clumsiness" Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the "disjoint sampling" Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell locality or a preparation conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical systems are poised to implement this test.

  7. Avoiding Loopholes with Hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell-locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally-invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the ``clumsiness'' Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the ``disjoint sampling'' Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell-locality, or a preparation-conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally-correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical implementations of this test are considered.

  8. A neuro-collision avoidance strategy for robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onema, Joel P.; Maclaunchlan, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The area of collision avoidance and path planning in robotics has received much attention in the research community. Our study centers on a combination of an artificial neural network paradigm with a motion planning strategy that insures safe motion of the Articulated Two-Link Arm with Scissor Hand System relative to an object. Whenever an obstacle is encountered, the arm attempts to slide along the obstacle surface, thereby avoiding collision by means of the local tangent strategy and its artificial neural network implementation. This combination compensates the inverse kinematics of a robot manipulator. Simulation results indicate that a neuro-collision avoidance strategy can be achieved by means of a learning local tangent method.

  9. Sociality, pathogen avoidance, and the neuropeptides oxytocin and arginine vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2011-11-01

    Both humans and nonhumans have evolved a variety of mechanisms to recognize pathogen threat and a variety of adaptive behavioral responses to minimize exposure to it. Because social interactions facilitate the spread of infection among individuals, the ability to recognize and avoid infected and potentially infected individuals is crucial. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are involved in mediating various facets of social behavior, including social recognition and responses to salient social threats. Results of studies with rodents have revealed that OT and AVP are also associated with the olfactory-mediated recognition and avoidance of actually or potentially infected individuals. The evidence reviewed here suggests that OT and AVP likely play parallel roles in modulating the recognition and avoidance of socially relevant pathogen threat in both humans and rodents. PMID:21960250

  10. The inhibitory avoidance discrimination task to investigate accuracy of memory

    PubMed Central

    Atucha, Erika; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at developing a new inhibitory avoidance task, based on training and/or testing rats in multiple contexts, to investigate accuracy of memory. In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given footshock in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus and, 48 h later, retention latencies of each rat were assessed in the training apparatus (Shock box) as well as in a novel, contextually modified, apparatus. Retention latencies in the Shock box were significantly longer than those in the Novel box, indicating accurate memory of the training context. When the noradrenergic stimulant yohimbine (0.3 mg/kg, sc) was administered after the training, 48-h retention latencies in the Shock box, but not Novel box, were increased, indicating that the noradrenergic activation enhanced memory of the training experience without reducing memory accuracy. In the second experiment, rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance discrimination task: They were first trained in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus without footshock (Non-Shock box), followed 1 min later by footshock training in a contextually modified apparatus (Shock box). Forty-eight-hour retention latencies in the Shock and Non-Shock boxes did not differ from each other but were both significantly longer than those in a Novel box, indicating that rats remembered the two training contexts but did not have episodic-like memory of the association of footshock with the correct training context. When the interval between the two training episodes was increased to 2 min, rats showed accurate memory of the association of footshock with the training context. Yohimbine administered after the training also enhanced rats' ability to remember in which training context they had received actual footshock. These findings indicate that the inhibitory avoidance discrimination task is a novel variant of the well-established inhibitory avoidance task suitable to investigate accuracy of memory. PMID:25814942

  11. Modeling and Simulation of an UAS Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliveros, Edgardo V.; Murray, A. Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Collision Avoidance System, capable of representing different types of scenarios for UAS collision avoidance. Commercial and military piloted aircraft currently utilize various systems for collision avoidance such as Traffic Alert and Collision A voidance System (TCAS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Radar and ElectroOptical and Infrared Sensors (EO-IR). The integration of information from these systems is done by the pilot in the aircraft to determine the best course of action. In order to operate optimally in the National Airspace System (NAS) UAS have to work in a similar or equivalent manner to a piloted aircraft by applying the principle of "detect-see and avoid" (DSA) to other air traffic. Hence, we have taken these existing sensor technologies into consideration in order to meet the challenge of researching the modeling and simulation of an approximated DSA system. A Schematic Model for a UAS Collision Avoidance System (CAS) has been developed ina closed loop block diagram for that purpose. We have found that the most suitable software to carry out this task is the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) from Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI). We have used the Aircraft Mission Modeler (AMM) for modeling and simulation of a scenario where a UAS is placed on a possible collision path with an initial intruder and then with a second intruder, but is able to avoid them by executing a right tum maneuver and then climbing. Radars have also been modeled with specific characteristics for the UAS and both intruders. The software provides analytical, graphical user interfaces and data controlling tools which allow the operator to simulate different conditions. Extensive simulations have been carried out which returned excellent results.

  12. Information transfer in pilots' use of a collision avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Scott, Barry C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1987-01-01

    A flight simulator study of pilots' use of the Traffic-alert and Collision Avoidance System is described. Three levels of information on the location of other air traffic were presented to different groups of airline pilots. The amount of informtion on the location of other traffic had little effect on pilots' performance of the maneuvers commanded by the collision avoidance system. Measured crew responses were similar with no presentation of traffic location, with limited information, and with continuous traffic information. No learning effects were observed, and differences in flight experience did not contribute to the performance difference found.

  13. Food avoidance in athletes: FODMAP foods on the list.

    PubMed

    Lis, Dana; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Stellingwerff, Trent; Kitic, Cecilia M; Fell, James

    2016-09-01

    We surveyed 910 athletes to assess behaviours towards self-selected food/ingredient avoidance to minimize gastrointestinal distress. Fifty-five percent eliminated at least 1 high fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) food/category, with up to 82.6% reporting symptom improvement. In athletes indicating that high FODMAP foods trigger gastrointestinal symptoms, lactose (86.5%) was most frequently eliminated, followed by galactooligosaccharides (23.9%), fructose (23.0%), fructans (6.2%), and polyols (5.4%). Athletes avoid predominantly lactose and to a lesser extent other high FODMAP foods to reduce gastrointestinal distress. PMID:27507006

  14. Sense and avoid radar for micro/nano robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Asmolova, Olha

    2014-10-01

    Revolutionary new fly eye radar sensor technologies based on an array of directional antennas is eliminating the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or complicated phase processor. Proposed sense and avoid radar based on fly eye radar technology can be very small, provides continuous surveillance of entire sky (360 degree by azimuth and elevation) and can be applied for separate or swarm of micro/nano UAS or UGS. Monopulse technology increases bearing accuracy several folds and radar can be multi-functional, multi-frequency. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable. Prototype of sense and avoid radar with two directional antennas has been designed and bench tested.

  15. Managed care contracting and payment reform: avoiding a showdown.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Michael E

    2010-07-01

    Health reform promises to fundamentally change what and how CMS and commercial payers reimburse providers. Providers need to transition from their traditionally adversarial, transactions-based payer relationships to ones that optimize purchaser and patient value for the dollar. To avoid negotiation table showdowns and to prepare for reform, commercial payers and providers should take three actions: Recognize the dead ends with their historical relationships. Formulate their road map to value-based contracting. Avoid operational pot-holes along the way. PMID:20608414

  16. Multifractality of self-avoiding walks on percolation clusters.

    PubMed

    Blavatska, Viktoria; Janke, Wolfhard

    2008-09-19

    We consider self-avoiding walks on the backbone of percolation clusters in space dimensions d=2,3,4. Applying numerical simulations, we show that the whole multifractal spectrum of singularities emerges in exploring the peculiarities of the model. We obtain estimates for the set of critical exponents that govern scaling laws of higher moments of the distribution of percolation cluster sites visited by self-avoiding walks, in a good correspondence with an appropriately summed field-theoretical epsilon=6-d expansion [H.-K. Janssen and O. Stenull, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020801(R) (2007)10.1103/PhysRevE.75.020801]. PMID:18851389

  17. Self-organization and self-avoiding limit cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexner, D.; Levine, D.

    2015-02-01

    A simple periodically driven system displaying rich behavior is introduced and studied. The system self-organizes into a mosaic of static ordered regions with three possible patterns, which are threaded by one-dimensional paths on which a small number of mobile particles travel. These trajectories are self-avoiding and non-intersecting, and their relationship to self-avoiding random walks is explored. Near ρ=0.5 the distribution of path lengths becomes power-law-like up to some cutoff length, suggesting a possible critical state.

  18. Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis through Formal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwogbaga, David M. E.; Nwankwo, Oliver U.; Onwa, Doris O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined how conflicts and crisis can be avoided through formal communication. It was necessitated by the observation that most of the conflicts and crisis which tend to mar school management today are functions of the inconsistencies arising from "grapevines, rumours, and gossips" generated through informal communication…

  19. Implicit Approach-Avoidance Associations for Craved Food Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Martin, Rachel; Elliott, Mecia

    2013-01-01

    Implicit approach associations are well documented for substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. This study reports two experiments designed to establish and modify such associations specifically in the food craving domain. Experiment 1 used a pictorial implicit association task to examine approach-avoidance associations with…

  20. Characterization of white mold disease avoidance in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Physiological resistance and disease avoidance conferred by plant architecture-related traits contribute to white mold field resistance. Our objective was to further exam...

  1. The "Eye Avoidance" Hypothesis of Autism Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, James W; Sung, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Although a growing body of research indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit selective deficits in their ability to recognize facial identities and expressions, the source of their face impairment is, as yet, undetermined. In this paper, we consider three possible accounts of the autism face deficit: (1) the holistic hypothesis, (2) the local perceptual bias hypothesis and (3) the eye avoidance hypothesis. A review of the literature indicates that contrary to the holistic hypothesis, there is little evidence to suggest that individuals with autism do perceive faces holistically. The local perceptual bias account also fails to explain the selective advantage that ASD individuals demonstrate for objects and their selective disadvantage for faces. The eye avoidance hypothesis provides a plausible explanation of face recognition deficits where individuals with ASD avoid the eye region because it is perceived as socially threatening. Direct eye contact elicits a increased physiological response as indicated by heightened skin conductance and amygdala activity. For individuals with autism, avoiding the eyes is an adaptive strategy, however, this approach interferes with the ability to process facial cues of identity, expressions and intentions, exacerbating the social challenges for persons with ASD. PMID:24150885

  2. Avoiding Adolescent Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Cho, Junhan; Allen, Kimberly; Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The timing and social context of pregnancy have significant implications for the well-being of African American young people. Rarely, however, do studies focus on identifying the developmental processes associated with young people’s avoidance of pregnancy until after adolescence. Methods We tested hypotheses regarding the factors associated with delayed fertility (no experience of a pregnancy by age 19) among a sample of 889 African American youth recruited at age 11 and assessed longitudinally through age 19. We hypothesized that, during preadolescence (age 11), health-promoting environmental processes would be linked to nurturant-responsive parenting, which in turn would be linked to youths’ conventional future orientations and risky sexual behavior in midadolescence (age 16) and to pregnancy experience by late adolescence (age 19). Hypotheses were tested with logistic structural equation modeling. Results Our conceptual model fit the data well. We identified a cascade process whereby protective environments were associated with nurturant-responsive parenting, which was associated with youths’ conventional future orientations; conventional future orientations were associated with avoidance of sexual risk behaviors at age 16 and avoidance of pregnancy by age 19. We identified an additional direct effect between nurturant-responsive parenting and avoidance of risky sexual behavior. Conclusions The results suggest processes that may be targeted to facilitate delayed fertility among African American youth. PMID:23583506

  3. Frequently Asked Questions: IDEA Early Childhood--Disclosure Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 document is an adaptation of the 2012 release of "Frequently Asked Questions--Disclosure Avoidance" intended for K-12 audiences. Presented here in the form of responses to frequently asked questions (FAQs) are suggestions intended to provide guidance to IDEA Part C early intervention and Part B 619 preschool special education…

  4. School Bullying: Tools for Avoiding Harm and Liability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Mary Jo

    2006-01-01

    Every hour of every day, students experience bullying and harassment at school by their peers. The immediate and long-term impact on the victims' learning capabilities, emotional health, and self-esteem is staggering. " School Bullying: Tools for Avoiding Harm and Liability" tackles this critical problem with an easy-to-use framework that guides…

  5. Information Seeking and Avoidance Behavior in School Library Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yunfei

    2010-01-01

    Library science students in school librarianship were surveyed to determine their information seeking and avoidance behaviors in Web-based online environments. Two coping styles were identified among students. Barriers to student online collaboration, such as individual preferences, concerns on efficiency, and lack of mutual trust, were observed.…

  6. Binge Eating and Weight Control: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…

  7. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....71 Section 141.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all...

  8. Enuresis Control through Fading, Escape, and Avoidance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Gordon D.

    1979-01-01

    A twin signal device that provides both escape and avoidance conditioning in enuresis control was documented with case studies of two enuretic children (eight and nine years old). In addition, a technique of fading as an adjunct to the process was utilized with one subject. (Author/SBH)

  9. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Turbine-powered airplane of more than 33,000 pounds maximum certificated takeoff weight (1) An appropriate... of the followign approved units;(i) TCAS II that meets TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or takeoff weight a...) A collision avoidance system equivalent to TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or a later version, capable...

  10. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maximum certificated takeoff weight (1) An appropriate class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical... meets TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or takeoff weight a later version. (ii) TCAS II that meets TSO C-119a... that meets TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or a later version.(iii) A collision avoidance system...

  11. Sensorimotor Model of Obstacle Avoidance in Echolocating Bats

    PubMed Central

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Holderied, Marc W.; Peremans, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Bat echolocation is an ability consisting of many subtasks such as navigation, prey detection and object recognition. Understanding the echolocation capabilities of bats comes down to isolating the minimal set of acoustic cues needed to complete each task. For some tasks, the minimal cues have already been identified. However, while a number of possible cues have been suggested, little is known about the minimal cues supporting obstacle avoidance in echolocating bats. In this paper, we propose that the Interaural Intensity Difference (IID) and travel time of the first millisecond of the echo train are sufficient cues for obstacle avoidance. We describe a simple control algorithm based on the use of these cues in combination with alternating ear positions modeled after the constant frequency bat Rhinolophus rouxii. Using spatial simulations (2D and 3D), we show that simple phonotaxis can steer a bat clear from obstacles without performing a reconstruction of the 3D layout of the scene. As such, this paper presents the first computationally explicit explanation for obstacle avoidance validated in complex simulated environments. Based on additional simulations modelling the FM bat Phyllostomus discolor, we conjecture that the proposed cues can be exploited by constant frequency (CF) bats and frequency modulated (FM) bats alike. We hypothesize that using a low level yet robust cue for obstacle avoidance allows bats to comply with the hard real-time constraints of this basic behaviour. PMID:26502063

  12. 20 CFR 606.24 - Application for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for avoidance. 606.24 Section 606.24 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief From...

  13. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.208 Avoiding duplicate payment. (a) Unless a qualifying MA EP is entitled to a maximum payment for a year under the Medicare FFS EHR incentive program, payment for such an individual is only made under the MA EHR incentive...

  14. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.208 Avoiding duplicate payment. (a) CMS requires a qualifying MA organization that registers MA EPs for the purpose of participating in the MA EHR Incentive Program to notify each of the MA EPs for which it is claiming an...

  15. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.208 Avoiding duplicate payment. (a) Unless a qualifying MA EP is entitled to a maximum payment for a year under the Medicare FFS EHR incentive program, payment for such an individual is only made under the MA EHR incentive...

  16. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.208 Avoiding duplicate payment. (a) CMS requires a qualifying MA organization that registers MA EPs for the purpose of participating in the MA EHR Incentive Program to notify each of the MA EPs for which it is claiming an...

  17. Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial…

  18. Differential Cost Avoidance and Successful Criminal Careers: Random or Rational?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemian, Lila; Le Blanc, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Using a sample of adjudicated French Canadian males from the Montreal Two Samples Longitudinal Study, this article investigates individual and social characteristics associated with differential cost avoidance. The main objective of this study is to determine whether such traits are randomly distributed across differential degrees of cost…

  19. 20 CFR 606.24 - Application for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for avoidance. 606.24 Section 606.24 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief From...

  20. Changes for Avoiding Burnout in Teachers and Advisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Mary Lou

    2006-01-01

    All advisers have many concerns and stresses that are unique to their situation. Even though they love their jobs, burnout can creep up without announcing its arrival. Possible signs of burnout may include irritability with students, avoiding responsibility, working harder and getting less done, feeling discouraged and indifferent, showing…

  1. Sensorimotor Model of Obstacle Avoidance in Echolocating Bats.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Holderied, Marc W; Peremans, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    Bat echolocation is an ability consisting of many subtasks such as navigation, prey detection and object recognition. Understanding the echolocation capabilities of bats comes down to isolating the minimal set of acoustic cues needed to complete each task. For some tasks, the minimal cues have already been identified. However, while a number of possible cues have been suggested, little is known about the minimal cues supporting obstacle avoidance in echolocating bats. In this paper, we propose that the Interaural Intensity Difference (IID) and travel time of the first millisecond of the echo train are sufficient cues for obstacle avoidance. We describe a simple control algorithm based on the use of these cues in combination with alternating ear positions modeled after the constant frequency bat Rhinolophus rouxii. Using spatial simulations (2D and 3D), we show that simple phonotaxis can steer a bat clear from obstacles without performing a reconstruction of the 3D layout of the scene. As such, this paper presents the first computationally explicit explanation for obstacle avoidance validated in complex simulated environments. Based on additional simulations modelling the FM bat Phyllostomus discolor, we conjecture that the proposed cues can be exploited by constant frequency (CF) bats and frequency modulated (FM) bats alike. We hypothesize that using a low level yet robust cue for obstacle avoidance allows bats to comply with the hard real-time constraints of this basic behaviour. PMID:26502063

  2. Flip-Flops: Avoid a Flip-Flop Fiasco

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Awareness Diabetes Awareness What is a Podiatrist? Today's Podiatrist Print Share RSS Home » Learn About Feet » Tips for Healthy Feet Flip-Flops Avoid a Flip-Flop Fiasco Donning flip-flops to enjoy warm weather? Follow these dos and don'ts! Do shop ...

  3. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects’ ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects’ motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects’ preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states. PMID:26000735

  4. Crawling-Onset Age Predicts Visual Cliff Avoidance in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John E.; Rader, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effects of crawling-onset age, amount of crawling experience, and testing age on avoidance of the deep side of a visual cliff apparatus by human infants. Crawling-onset age disciminated between infants because crawling during the tactile phase interferes with later visual control of locomotion. (Author/RD)

  5. Maternal Adjustment Following Preterm Birth: Contributions of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Heffner, Michelle; Poe, Susannah; Ritchie, Susan; Polak, Mark; Lynch, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    The birth of a preterm infant has been linked with parental distress and adjustment difficulties, yet little is known about the psychosocial factors contributing to this association. Using a cross-sectional design, we therefore examined maternal adjustment following preterm birth, with an emphasis on the potential role of experiential avoidance.…

  6. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached, or which in the course of offering the fur product for sale,...

  7. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached, or which in the course of offering the fur product for sale,...

  8. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached, or which in the course of offering the fur product for sale,...

  9. Instructional Support Predicts Children's Task Avoidance in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Ahonen, Timo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of observed classroom quality in children's task-avoidant behavior and math skills in kindergarten. To investigate this, 1268 children were tested twice on their math skills during their kindergarten year. Kindergarten teachers (N = 137) filled in questionnaires measuring their professional experience and also rated…

  10. Literature for Children: Avoiding Controversy and Intellectual Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dennis M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses lack of literature on controversial subjects that can help prepare children and young adults to deal perceptively with complexities of modern world. Highlights include meeting the issues head-on, glorifying armed conflict in video media, avoiding issues of nuclear war, and intellectual depth and dealing with controversial issues. (12…

  11. Nine Easy Steps to Avoiding Software Copyright Infringement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Lanny R.; Anderson, Larry S.

    1989-01-01

    To avoid microcomputer software copyright infringement, administrators must be aware of the law, read the software agreements, maintain good records, submit all software registration cards, provide secure storage, post warnings, be consistent when establishing and enforcing policies, consider a site license, and ensure the legality of currently…

  12. Helping Teenage Girls Avoid the Female Athlete Triad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilardi, Deb

    2002-01-01

    Describes how school nurses can advocate for adolescent female students and help them avoid the female athlete triad that includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The article focuses on consequences of the triad, how to uncover the symptoms, working to improve public support, and creating a successful program through partnership.…

  13. Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Martin Morse

    2011-01-01

    What responsibilities do universities have to donors, many of whom are alumni? Presumably, one responsibility is to respect their wishes when they provide gifts with specific purposes. Yet Martin Morse Wooster shows in this report that universities often neglect the wishes of contributors. "Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them"…

  14. Reasons for Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saaideh, Mon'im A.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the factors that lead students to avoid joining Vocational Education (VE) in Jordan. A pilot study was conducted, then a 39-item questionnaire was developed, and its validity and reliability were ensured. The reasons included were divided into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. The…

  15. Optimizing Value and Avoiding Problems in Building Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard County School Board, Cocoa, FL.

    This report describes school design and construction delivery processes used by the School Board of Brevard County (Cocoa, Florida) that help optimize value, avoid problems, and eliminate the cost of maintaining a large facility staff. The project phases are examined from project definition through design to construction. Project delivery…

  16. 20 Biggest Mistakes Principals Make and How to Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, Marilyn Grady examines the twenty most critical mistakes principals make, and provides the strategies needed to avoid them. By surveying both teachers and administrators, and applying her own experiences as both teacher and a principal, the author examines the crucial errors from the following six key categories: (1) People…

  17. Teaching Students How to Understand and Avoid Abusive Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becky, Debra; Farren, Peggy M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a psychoeducational group model for teenage girls. Group goals include helping students define and avoid abusive relationships and the consequences of abuse. Outlines group composition and formation, program content, the context for abuse, warning signs, date rape, date rape prevention, conflict management, and building communication…

  18. Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

    A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

  19. Measuring Experiential Avoidance: A Preliminary Test of a Working Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Steven C.; Strosahl, Kirk; Wilson, Kelly G.; Bissett, Richard T.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Toarmino, Dosheen; Polusny, Melissa A.; Dykstra, Thane A.; Batten, Sonja V.; Bergan, John; Stewart, Sherry H.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Bond, Frank W.; Forsyth, John P.; Karekla, Maria; Mccurry, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a short, general measure of experiential avoidance, based on a specific theoretical approach to this process. A theoretically driven iterative exploratory analysis using structural equation modeling on data from a clinical sample yielded a single factor comprising 9 items. A fully confirmatory factor…

  20. Concept development of automatic guidance for rotorcraft obstacle avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1990-01-01

    The automatic guidance of rotorcraft for obstacle avoidance in nap-of-the-earth flight is studied. A hierarchical breakdown of the guidance components is used to identify the functional requirements. These requirements and anticipated sensor capabilities lead to a preliminary guidance concept, which has been evaluated via computer simulations.

  1. Defining the Collision Avoidance Region for DAA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David; Cone, Andrew; Park, Chunki; Lee, Seung Man; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will be required to equip with a detect-­-and-­-avoid (DAA) system in order to satisfy the federal aviation regulations to maintain well clear of other aircraft, some of which may be equipped with a Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) to mitigate the possibility of mid-­-air collisions. As such, the minimum operational performance standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA systems are being designed with TCAS interoperability in mind by a group of industry, government, and academic institutions named RTCA Special Committee-228 (SC-228). This document will discuss the development of the spatial-­-temporal volume known as the collision avoidance region in which the DAA system is not allowed to provide vertical guidance to maintain or regain DAA well clear that could conflict with resolution advisories (RAs) issued by the intruder aircraft's TCAS system. Three collision avoidance region definition candidates were developed based on the existing TCAS RA and DAA alerting definitions. They were evaluated against each other in terms of their interoperability with TCAS RAs and DAA alerts in an unmitigated factorial encounter analysis of 1.3 million simulated pairs.

  2. Tibialis anterior tenosynovitis: Avoiding extensor retinaculum damage during endoscopic debridement.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier; Sammartino, Martín; Ghisi, Juan P; Mazzuco, Juan

    2003-02-01

    Tibialis anterior tenosynovitis is a rare orthopaedic condition that usually resolves with conservative treatment. Surgery may be required for chronic cases and endoscopy seems to be a valid therapeutic alternative. During debridement of the hypertrophic synovium, care must be taken to avoid damaging the extensor retinaculum to prevent potential postoperative bowstring phenomenon of the tendon. PMID:12579138

  3. Explaining avoidance: two factors are still better than one.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, A; Perone, M

    2001-01-01

    Two-factor theory remains a viable account of avoidance behavior. By emphasizing the interplay of respondent and operant contingencies, two-factor theory encourages the analysis of stimuli that mediate molar consequences and incorporates control by local events as well as events that are temporally remote, improbable, or cumulative. PMID:11453628

  4. Emotional Avoidance and Panicogenic Responding to a Biological Challenge Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karekla, Maria; Forsyth, John P.; Kelly, Megan M.

    2004-01-01

    Healthy undergraduates high (n = 27) and low (n = 27) in experiential avoidance underwent twelve 20 s inhalations of 20% carbon dioxide-enriched air, while physiological (e.g., skin conductance, heart rate, EMG, and end-tidal CO[subscript 2]) and subjective (e.g., subjective units of distress, evaluative ratings, number and severity of panic…

  5. Retained faecolith: an avoidable complication of laparoscopic appendicectomy

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Olivia; Brar, Ranjeet; Clark, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented to the accident and emergency department 9 days post laparoscopic appendicectomy for a non-perforated, but gangrenous appendicitis. She was found to have a retained faecolith with a pelvic abscess. This case demonstrates one of the common pitfalls of the laparoscopic appendicectomy and we discuss some technical points to avoid such complications. PMID:24042211

  6. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, E.; Kam, M.; Hefner, R.; Hersteinsson, P.; Angerbjorn, A.; Dalen, L.; Fuglei, E.; Noren, K.; Adams, J.R.; Vucetich, J.; Meier, T.J.; Mech, L.D.; Vonholdt, B.M.; Stahler, D.R.; Wayne, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1-8% and 20-22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, Eli; Kam, Michael; Hefner, Reuven; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjorn, Anders; Dalen, Love; Fuglei, Eva; Noren, Karin; Adams, Jennifer R.; Vicetich, John; Meier, Thomas J.; Mech, L.D.; VonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1–8% and 20–22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk.

  8. How Teachers Can Avoid Being Sued: Law and American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jim

    This paper explores what teachers can do to avoid potential lawsuits. Section 1 describes different types of laws for public and private schools. Section 2 discusses tort liability. Section 3 presents legal principles that apply to educators (in loco parents, intentional torts, strict liability, negligence, foreseeability, assigned duties,…

  9. Behavioral predispositions to approach or avoid emotional words in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sevos, Jessica; Grosselin, Anne; Fedotova, Tatyana; Massoubre, Catherine

    2016-07-30

    Many data suggest a disjunction between decreased emotional expressions and relatively preserved experience of and ability to assess emotions in schizophrenia. Based in an embodied approach of cognition, several studies have highlighted affective stimulus-response congruency effect in healthy subjects that show a direct link between the perception of emotion and associated motor responses. This study investigated whether the categorization of emotional words involves an automatic sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance behaviors. We asked 28 subjects with schizophrenia and 28 controls to execute arm movements of approach or avoidance to categorize emotional words, according to their valence (positive or negative). Controls were faster to respond to a positive stimulus with a movement of approach and a negative stimulus with a movement of avoidance (congruent condition) than to perform the inverted response movements (incongruent condition). However, responses of patients with schizophrenia did not differ according to congruence condition. Our results support the apparent non-involvement of covert sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance in the categorization of emotional stimuli by patients with schizophrenia, despite their understanding of the emotional valence of words. This absence of affective stimulus-response compatibility effect would imply a decoupling between emotional and bodily states in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27179694

  10. TRIMETHYLTIN IMPAIRS RETENTION OF A PASSIVE AVOIDANCE TASK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trimethyltin is a neurotoxic organometal which produces neuronal damage in several limbic regions including the hippocampus, amygdala and the pyriform cortex. One administration of trimethyltin (5,6 or 7 mg/kg) twenty one days prior to passive avoidance conditioning produced an i...

  11. More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2005-01-01

    As follow-up to a previous article "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants," the author identifies fifty additional misconceptions. Undergeneralizations are added to the list of oversimplifications, obsolete concepts, terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with…

  12. Conformal Invariance of the 3D Self-Avoiding Walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Tom

    2013-10-01

    We show that if the three-dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) is conformally invariant, then one can compute the hitting densities for the SAW in a half-space and in a sphere. We test these predictions by Monte Carlo simulations and find excellent agreement, thus providing evidence that the SAW is conformally invariant in three dimensions.

  13. The Fixed Irreducible Bridge Ensemble for Self-Avoiding Walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Michael James

    2015-04-01

    We define a new ensemble for self-avoiding walks in the upper half-plane, the fixed irredicible bridge ensemble, by considering self-avoiding walks in the upper half-plane up to their -th bridge height, , and scaling the walk by to obtain a curve in the unit strip, and then taking . We then conjecture a relationship between this ensemble to in the unit strip from 0 to a fixed point along the upper boundary of the strip, integrated over the conjectured exit density of self-avoiding walk spanning a strip in the scaling limit. We conjecture that there exists a positive constant such that converges in distribution to that of a stable random variable as . Then the conjectured relationship between the fixed irreducible bridge scaling limit and can be described as follows: If one takes a SAW considered up to and scales by and then weights the walk by to an appropriate power, then in the limit , one should obtain a curve from the scaling limit of the self-avoiding walk spanning the unit strip. In addition to a heuristic derivation, we provide numerical evidence to support the conjecture and give estimates for the boundary scaling exponent.

  14. Recurrent, Robust and Scalable Patterns Underlie Human Approach and Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David N.; Lehár, Joseph; Lee, Myung Joo; Blood, Anne J.; Lee, Sang; Perlis, Roy H.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Morris, Robert; Fava, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Background Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach), decrease (avoid), or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory. Methodology/Principal Findings Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i) a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii) a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii) a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both. Conclusions/Significance These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a relative preference

  15. Sexual selection as a consequence of pathogen avoidance behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.; Logofet, D.O.

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female choice for good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation is proposed. The pathogen avoidance hypothesis argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status so that sick individuals may be avoided during mating. Our studies shown that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits. The showy traits are argued to originate as simple exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers; vigorous movement; large size). Thus the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic in this theory. A game theory analysis is employed to formalize the theory. Results of the game theory model support the theory. In particular, when the possession of male showy traits does not help reduce disease in the female, then showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to the situation in large flocks or herds in which every animal is thoroughly exposed to all group pathogens on average. Such species do not exhibit showy traits. The good genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance) but will lead to selection for resistance if such genes are present. Overall, the pathogen avoidance hypothesis provides a complete alternative to the good genes theory.

  16. Enhanced avoidance learning in behaviorally inhibited young men and women.

    PubMed

    Sheynin, Jony; Shikari, Saima; Gluck, Mark A; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Servatius, Richard J; Myers, Catherine E

    2013-05-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperamental tendency to avoid or withdraw from novel social and nonsocial situations, and has been shown to predispose individuals to anxiety disorders. However, adequate means to assess individual differences in avoidance learning in humans are presently limited. Here, we tested whether individuals with high self-reported BI show faster associative learning on a purely cognitive task and whether such inhibited individuals are more prone to avoid aversive outcomes. In Experiment 1, we tested 74 healthy undergraduate students (mean age 19.5 years; 55.4% female) on a computer-based probabilistic classification task, where participants were asked to classify four distinct visual stimuli into two categories. Two stimuli were associated with reward (point gain) and two were associated with punishment (point loss). In Experiment 2, 79 participants from the same population (mean age 19.8 years; 62% female) were tested on a novel modification of the same task, where they also had the option to opt out of responding on each trial, thus avoiding any chance of being punished (or rewarded) on that trial. Results show that inhibited participants demonstrated better associative learning in Experiment 1, while exhibiting a greater tendency to opt out in Experiment 2 (repeated-measures analysis of variance, main effects of BI, both p < 0.05). These results indicate that the facilitated classically conditioned learning previously observed in inhibited individuals can be extended to a cognitive task, and also highlight a specific preference in inhibited individuals for withdrawal ("opting out") as a response strategy, when multiple strategies are available to avoid punishment. PMID:23101990

  17. A spatially explicit estimate of avoided forest loss.

    PubMed

    Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Ramírez, M Isabel

    2011-10-01

    With the potential expansion of forest conservation programs spurred by climate-change agreements, there is a need to measure the extent to which such programs achieve their intended results. Conventional methods for evaluating conservation impact tend to be biased because they do not compare like areas or account for spatial relations. We assessed the effect of a conservation initiative that combined designation of protected areas with payments for environmental services to conserve over wintering habitat for the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in Mexico. To do so, we used a spatial-matching estimator that matches covariates among polygons and their neighbors. We measured avoided forest loss (avoided disturbance and deforestation) by comparing forest cover on protected and unprotected lands that were similar in terms of accessibility, governance, and forest type. Whereas conventional estimates of avoided forest loss suggest that conservation initiatives did not protect forest cover, we found evidence that the conservation measures are preserving forest cover. We found that the conservation measures protected between 200 ha and 710 ha (3-16%) of forest that is high-quality habitat for monarch butterflies, but had a smaller effect on total forest cover, preserving between 0 ha and 200 ha (0-2.5%) of forest with canopy cover >70%. We suggest that future estimates of avoided forest loss be analyzed spatially to account for how forest loss occurs across the landscape. Given the forthcoming demand from donors and carbon financiers for estimates of avoided forest loss, we anticipate our methods and results will contribute to future studies that estimate the outcome of conservation efforts. PMID:21902720

  18. Dynamics of the shade-avoidance response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ciolfi, Andrea; Sessa, Giovanna; Sassi, Massimiliano; Possenti, Marco; Salvucci, Samanta; Carabelli, Monica; Morelli, Giorgio; Ruberti, Ida

    2013-09-01

    Shade-intolerant plants perceive the reduction in the ratio of red light (R) to far-red light (FR) as a warning of competition with neighboring vegetation and display a suite of developmental responses known as shade avoidance. In recent years, major progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying shade avoidance. Despite this, little is known about the dynamics of this response and the cascade of molecular events leading to plant adaptation to a low-R/FR environment. By combining genome-wide expression profiling and computational analyses, we show highly significant overlap between shade avoidance and deetiolation transcript profiles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The direction of the response was dissimilar at the early stages of shade avoidance and congruent at the late ones. This latter regulation requires LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR RED1/SLENDER IN CANOPY SHADE1 and phytochrome A, which function largely independently to negatively control shade avoidance. Gene network analysis highlights a subnetwork containing ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), a master regulator of deetiolation, in the wild type and not in phytochrome A mutant upon prolonged low R/FR. Network analysis also highlights a direct connection between HY5 and HY5 HOMOLOG (HYH), a gene functionally implicated in the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and known to be a direct target of the HY5 transcription factor. Kinetics analysis show that the HYH gene is indeed late induced by low R/FR and that its up-regulation depends on the action of HY5, since it does not occur in hy5 mutant. Therefore, we propose that one way plants adapt to a low-R/FR environment is by enhancing HY5 function. PMID:23893169

  19. Disruption avoidance by means of electron cyclotron waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, B.; Granucci, G.; Maraschek, M.; Nowak, S.; Lazzaro, E.; Giannone, L.; Gude, A.; Igochine, V.; McDermott, R.; Poli, E.; Reich, M.; Sommer, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.; Treutterer, W.; Zohm, H.; ASDEX Upgrade, the; FTU Teams

    2011-12-01

    Disruptions are very challenging to ITER operation as they may cause damage to plasma facing components due to direct plasma heating, forces on structural components due to halo and eddy currents and the production of runaway electrons. Electron cyclotron (EC) waves have been demonstrated as a tool for disruption avoidance by a large set of recent experiments performed in ASDEX Upgrade and FTU using various disruption types, plasma operating scenarios and power deposition locations. The technique is based on the stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (mainly m/n = 2/1) through the localized injection of EC power on the resonant surface. This paper presents new results obtained in ASDEX Upgrade regarding stable operation above the Greenwald density achieved after avoidance of density limit disruptions by means of ECRH and suitable density feedback control (L-mode ohmic plasmas, Ip = 0.6 MA, Bt = 2.5 T) and NTM-driven disruptions at high-β limit delayed/avoided by means of both co-current drive (co-ECCD) and pure heating (ECRH) with power <=1.7 MW (H-mode NBI-heated plasmas, PNBI ~ 7.5 MW, Ip = 1 MA, Bt = 2.1 T, q95 ~ 3.6). The localized perpendicular injection of ECRH/ECCD onto a resonant surface leads to the delay and/or complete avoidance of disruptions. The experiments indicate the existence of a power threshold for mode stabilization to occur. An analysis of the MHD mode evolution using the generalized Rutherford equation coupled to the frequency and phase evolution equations shows that control of the modes is due to EC heating close to the resonant surface. The ECRH contribution (Δ'H term) is larger than the co-ECCD one in the initial and more important phase when the discharge is 'saved'. Future research and developments of the disruption avoidance technique are also discussed.

  20. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  1. Pain-avoidance versus reward-seeking: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Claes, Nathalie; Crombez, Geert; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2015-08-01

    According to fear-avoidance models, a catastrophic interpretation of a painful experience may give rise to pain-related fear and avoidance, leading to the development and maintenance of chronic pain problems in the long term. However, little is known about how exactly motivation and goal prioritization play a role in the development of pain-related fear. This study investigates these processes in healthy volunteers using an experimental context with multiple, competing goals. In a differential human fear-conditioning paradigm, 57 participants performed joystick movements. In the control condition, one movement (conditioned stimulus; CS) was followed by a painful electrocutaneous unconditioned stimulus (pain-US) in 50% of the trials, whereas another movement (nonreinforced conditioned stimulus; CS) was not. In the experimental condition, a reward in the form of lottery tickets (reward-US) accompanied the presentation of the pain-US. Participants were classified into 3 groups, as a function of the goal, they reported to be the most important: (1) pain-avoidance, (2) reward-seeking, and (3) both goals being equally important. Results indicated that neither the reward co-occurring with pain nor the prioritized goal modulated pain-related fear. However, during subsequent choice trials, participants selected the painful movement more often when the reward was presented compared with the context in which the reward was absent. The latter effect was dependent on goal prioritization, with more frequent selections in the reward-seeking group, and the least selections in the pain-avoidance group. Taken together, these results underscore the importance of competing goals and goal prioritization in the attenuation of avoidance behavior. PMID:25775360

  2. Self-Avoiding Walks over Adaptive Triangular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to constructing a "self-avoiding" walk through a triangular mesh. Unlike the popular approach of visiting mesh elements using space-filling curves which is based on a geometric embedding, our approach is combinatorial in the sense that it uses the mesh connectivity only. We present an algorithm for constructing a self-avoiding walk which can be applied to any unstructured triangular mesh. The complexity of the algorithm is O(n x log(n)), where n is the number of triangles in the mesh. We show that for hierarchical adaptive meshes, the algorithm can be easily parallelized by taking advantage of the regularity of the refinement rules. The proposed approach should be very useful in the run-time partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured grids.

  3. [Big data, Roemer's law and avoidable hospital admissions].

    PubMed

    van der Horst, H E

    2016-01-01

    From an analysis of data from 23 European countries to determine the impact of primary care on avoidable hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes it appeared that, contrary to expectation, countries with strong primary care did not have a lower rate of avoidable hospital admission. It is clear that Roemer's law, 'a bed built is a bed filled,' still applies. However, the validity of this sort of analysis can be questioned, as these data are highly aggregated, and registration quality differs between countries. It is also questionable if these datasets can be considered as 'big data' as there are relatively small numbers per country. Big data analyses are useful for discerning patterns and formulating hypotheses, but not for proving causality. An unwanted side effect of this kind of analysis might be that policymakers use these not so valid results to underpin their policy to their advantage. PMID:27484429

  4. Shunt site chronic calcified extradural hematoma: An avoidable complication

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Satapathy, Mani Charan; Senapati, Satya Bhusan

    2014-01-01

    Extradural hematoma (EDH) after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt procedure is a rare, dangerous but easily avoidable and manageable complication. It is more common in children and young adults presumably due to relatively lax adhesion of dura to calvarium. We report a case of an 18-year-old male with acqueductal stenosis who underwent VP shunt procedure. Three months later, a computed tomography (CT) scan was done for the complaints of intractable headache and altered sensorium which showed chronic calcified EDH near shunt site. The ventricular catheter was in position and the ventricles were decompressed. After surgical decompression of EDH his symptoms improved. We discuss the factors leading to formation of EDH, with stress on proper technique to prevent or minimize such an avoidable complication. PMID:25250078

  5. Departures From Optimality When Pursuing Multiple Approach or Avoidance Goals

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how people depart from optimality during multiple-goal pursuit. The authors operationalized optimality using dynamic programming, which is a mathematical model used to calculate expected value in multistage decisions. Drawing on prospect theory, they predicted that people are risk-averse when pursuing approach goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the best position than the dynamic programming model suggests is optimal. The authors predicted that people are risk-seeking when pursuing avoidance goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the worst position than is optimal. These predictions were supported by results from an experimental paradigm in which participants made a series of prioritization decisions while pursuing either 2 approach or 2 avoidance goals. This research demonstrates the usefulness of using decision-making theories and normative models to understand multiple-goal pursuit. PMID:26963081

  6. Calipso's Mission Design: Sun-Glint Avoidance Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mailhe, Laurie M.; Schiff, Conrad; Stadler, John H.

    2004-01-01

    CALIPSO will fly in formation with the Aqua spacecraft to obtain a coincident image of a portion of the Aqua/MODIS swath. Since MODIS pixels suffering sun-glint degradation are not processed, it is essential that CALIPSO only co- image the glint h e portion of the MODIS instrument swath. This paper presents sun-glint avoidance strategies for the CALIPSO mission. First, we introduce the Aqua sun-glint geometry and its relation to the CALIPSO-Aqua formation flying parameters. Then, we detail our implementation of the computation and perform a cross-track trade-space analysis. Finally, we analyze the impact of the sun-glint avoidance strategy on the spacecraft power and delta-V budget over the mission lifetime.

  7. Predicting Avoidance of Skin Damage Feedback among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura A.; Shepperd, James A.; Stock, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Showing people a personal ultraviolet (UV) photograph depicting skin damage can be an effective method for changing sun protection cognitions and behaviors. Purpose We examined whether people opt not to see their UV photograph if given a choice. We also examined predictors of avoidance of skin damage feedback. Methods College students (N = 257) completed questionnaires, viewed example UV photographs, and received the opportunity to see a UV photograph of their face. Results Over one-third of participants opted not to see their UV photograph. Greater perceived risk of sun damage and having fewer coping resources corresponded with greater avoidance, particularly among participants who reported infrequent sun protection behavior. Conclusion The health benefits of UV photography are realized only if people are willing to view the photograph. Our findings suggest the need for interventions that increase receptivity to viewing one’s UV photograph. PMID:25894276

  8. Accumbens dopamine-acetylcholine balance in approach and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Understanding systems for approach and avoidance is basic for behavioral neuroscience. Research on the neural organization and functions of the dorsal striatum in movement disorders, such as Huntington's and Parkinson's Disease, can inform the study of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in motivational disorders, such as addiction and depression. We propose opposing roles for dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the NAc in the control of GABA output systems for approach and avoidance. Contrary to DA, which fosters approach, ACh release is a correlate or cause of meal satiation, conditioned taste aversion and aversive brain stimulation. ACh may also counteract excessive DA-mediated approach behavior as revealed during withdrawal from drugs of abuse or sugar when the animal enters an ACh-mediated state of anxiety and behavioral depression. This review summarizes evidence that ACh is important in the inhibition of behavior when extracellular DA is high and the generation of an anxious or depressed state when DA is relatively low. PMID:18023617

  9. Departures from optimality when pursuing multiple approach or avoidance goals.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Timothy; Yeo, Gillian; Neal, Andrew; Farrell, Simon

    2016-07-01

    This article examines how people depart from optimality during multiple-goal pursuit. The authors operationalized optimality using dynamic programming, which is a mathematical model used to calculate expected value in multistage decisions. Drawing on prospect theory, they predicted that people are risk-averse when pursuing approach goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the best position than the dynamic programming model suggests is optimal. The authors predicted that people are risk-seeking when pursuing avoidance goals and are therefore more likely to prioritize the goal in the worst position than is optimal. These predictions were supported by results from an experimental paradigm in which participants made a series of prioritization decisions while pursuing either 2 approach or 2 avoidance goals. This research demonstrates the usefulness of using decision-making theories and normative models to understand multiple-goal pursuit. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963081

  10. Avoidance coping and HIV risk behavior among gay men.

    PubMed

    Martin, James I; Pryce, Jo G; Leeper, James D

    2005-08-01

    This study describes how coping strategies are related to unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among gay men, and provides support for a new theoretical underpinning for HIV prevention practice and research with this population. A sample of 470 gay and bisexual men completed a self-administered questionnaire that included a measure of coping strategies used in relation to a recent problem. More participants who reported recent UAI endorsed avoidance strategies than did those who did not report UAI. There was a positive relationship between avoidance coping scores and odds for reported UAI. Among the study's implications was the importance of the larger context in which prevention efforts with this population occur, one that is marked by stigmatization, discrimination, loneliness, and other stresses. In addition, prevention practice and research must attend to the meaning and purpose of sex in gay men's lives. PMID:16190295

  11. DAIDALUS: Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Narkawicz, Anthony; Hagen, George; Upchurch, Jason; Dutle, Aaron; Consiglio, Maria; Chamberlain, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DAIDALUS (Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems), a reference implementation of a detect and avoid concept intended to support the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into civil airspace. DAIDALUS consists of self-separation and alerting algorithms that provide situational awareness to UAS remote pilots. These algorithms have been formally specified in a mathematical notation and verified for correctness in an interactive theorem prover. The software implementation has been verified against the formal models and validated against multiple stressing cases jointly developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and NASA. The DAIDALUS reference implementation is currently under consideration for inclusion in the appendices to the Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems presently being developed by RTCA Special Committee 228.

  12. Real-time obstacle avoidance using harmonic potential functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jin-Oh; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new formulation of the artificial potential approach to the obstacle avoidance problem for a mobile robot or a manipulator in a known environment. Previous formulations of artificial potentials for obstacle avoidance have exhibited local minima in a cluttered environment. To build an artificial potential field, harmonic functions that completely eliminate local minima even for a cluttered environment are used. The panel method is employed to represent arbitrarily shaped obstacles and to derive the potential over the whole space. Based on this potential function, an elegant control strategy is proposed for the real-time control of a robot. The harmonic potential, the panel method, and the control strategy are tested with a bar-shaped mobile robot and a three-degree-of-freedom planar redundant manipulator.

  13. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Driscoll, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies ‘reduction’ and ‘resilience’, ‘denying’, ‘ignoring’ and ‘postponing’. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty.

  14. Avoidance-preference testing in density stratified solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.H.; Logan, D.T.; Hansen, S.

    1994-12-31

    Toxicity testing is sometimes required where density stratifies test and reference solutions. Examples include freshwater effluents that float in estuarine and marine waters and desalinating plant effluents that sink. Standard avoidance-preference testing methods and apparatus are designed to test horizontal rather than vertical gradients and so are inappropriate for density stratified solutions. To overcome associated deficiencies, the authors modified testing chambers to take advantage of density stratification. Exposure levels for tests were selected based on NOELs from standard toxicity testing. Behavior of 10 striped bass was simultaneously observed using electronic surveillance. Measure of behavior include position in two axes and swimming speed. Avoidance-preference between several types of high density byproducts of salt water evaporation and lower density receiving water were tested. Results indicate that the modified test protocols allowed the authors to determine behavior responses to test materials.

  15. Compressed self-avoiding walks, bridges and polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, Nicholas R.; Guttmann, Anthony J.; Jensen, Iwan; Lawler, Gregory F.

    2015-11-01

    We study various self-avoiding walks (SAWs) which are constrained to lie in the upper half-plane and are subjected to a compressive force. This force is applied to the vertex or vertices of the walk located at the maximum distance above the boundary of the half-space. In the case of bridges, this is the unique end-point. In the case of SAWs or self-avoiding polygons, this corresponds to all vertices of maximal height. We first use the conjectured relation with the Schramm-Loewner evolution to predict the form of the partition function including the values of the exponents, and then we use series analysis to test these predictions. Dedicated to R J Baxter, for his 75th birthday.

  16. Structural characterization of ice polymorphs from self-avoiding walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Carlos P.

    2014-08-01

    Topological properties of crystalline ice structures are studied by means of self-avoiding walks on their H-bond networks. The number of self-avoiding walks, Cn, for eight ice polymorphs has been obtained by direct enumeration up to walk length n=27. This has allowed us to determine the ‘connective constant' or effective coordination number μ of these structures as the limit of the ratio Cn/Cn-1 for large n. This structure-dependent parameter μ is related with other topological characteristics of ice polymorphs, such as the mean and minimum ring size, or the topological density of network sites. A correlation between the connective constant and the configurational entropy of hydrogen-disordered ice structures is discussed.

  17. Evaluation Of An Aircraft-Collision-Avoidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Olsen, M. Christine; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes study of pilots' use of traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS II) in simulated airplane flights. Gives alert by light and sound when another aircraft within 40 s of passing very closely. If other aircraft still poses threat 15 to 20 s later, TCAS II advises pilot to maneuver vertically or to continue on same flightpath but alter rate of ascent or descent. Report describes methodology, summarizes results, and presents conclusions.

  18. Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Dooling, R.

    2002-06-01

    This report provides a complete summary of what is known about basic hearing capabilities in birds in relation to the characteristics of noise generated by wind turbines. It is a review of existing data on bird hearing with some preliminary estimates of environmental noise and wind turbine noise at Altamont Pass, California, in the summer of 1999. It is intended as a resource in future discussions of the role that hearing might play in bird avoidance of turbines.

  19. The pathogen transmission avoidance theory of sexual selection

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.

  20. Line-bisectioning and obstacle avoidance: evidence for separate strategies.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alasdair I; Schenk, Thomas; Hesse, Constanze

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have frequently applied a combination of line-bisection tasks (in which participants indicate the middle of a line) and obstacle avoidance tasks (in which participants move their hand between two obstacles) with the aim of revealing perception-action dissociations in certain neurological disorders, such as visual form agnosia and optic ataxia. However, valid conclusions about the underlying processing pathways can only be drawn if participants apply the same strategy in both tasks (i.e. finding the middle between the obstacles). Yet, this assumption has never been tested directly. In this experiment, we investigated whether participants perform obstacle avoidance and line-bisectioning using similar strategies by manipulating the position of the obstacles and the start position of the hand relative to the obstacles. Our results indicate that the lateral hand position during obstacle avoidance does not only vary as a function of obstacle location but also strongly depends on the start position. Moreover, participants showed increased sensitivity to obstacle shifts occurring closer to the hand's start position. In contrast, during line-bisectioning the sensitivity to obstacles shifts was unaffected by the hand's start position. The findings suggest that during obstacle-avoidance the need to keep a safe distance from the obstacles is balanced with the requirement to minimise energetic demands. In contrast, the main intention during line-bisectioning is to move to the perceived midpoint as accurately as possible. The fact that very different constraints underlie trajectory planning in both tasks implies that caution has to be taken when interpreting differences in performance levels. PMID:24951918

  1. Potential effects of reward and loss avoidance in overweight adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Sussanne; Peirano, Patricio; Luna, Beatriz; Lozoff, Betsy; Algarín, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background Reward system and inhibitory control are brain functions that exert an influence on eating behavior regulation. We studied the differences in inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward and loss avoidance between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents. Methods We assessed 51 overweight/obese and 52 normal-weight 15-y-old Chilean adolescents. The groups were similar regarding sex and intelligence quotient. Using Antisaccade and Incentive tasks, we evaluated inhibitory control and the effect of incentive trials (neutral, loss avoidance, and reward) on generating correct and incorrect responses (latency and error rate). Results Compared to normal-weight group participants, overweight/obese adolescents showed shorter latency for incorrect antisaccade responses (186.0 (95% CI: 176.8–195.2) vs. 201.3 ms (95% CI: 191.2–211.5), P < 0.05) and better performance reflected by lower error rate in incentive trials (43.6 (95% CI: 37.8–49.4) vs. 53.4% (95% CI: 46.8–60.0), P < 0.05). Overweight/obese adolescents were more accurate on loss avoidance (40.9 (95% CI: 33.5–47.7) vs. 49.8% (95% CI: 43.0–55.1), P < 0.05) and reward (41.0 (95% CI: 34.5–47.5) vs. 49.8% (95% CI: 43.0–55.1), P < 0.05) compared to neutral trials. Conclusion Overweight/obese adolescents showed shorter latency for incorrect responses and greater accuracy in reward and loss avoidance trials. These findings could suggest that an imbalance of inhibition and reward systems influence their eating behavior. PMID:25927543

  2. Self-avoiding walks subject to a force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.; Whittington, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    We prove some theorems about self-avoiding walks attached to an impenetrable surface (i.e. positive walks) and subject to a force. Specifically we show the force dependence of the free energy is identical when the force is applied at the last vertex or at the top (confining) plane. We discuss the relevance of this result to numerical results and to a recent result about convergence rates when the walk is being pushed towards the surface.

  3. How to avoid future Vioxx-type scandals.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    The market withdrawal of rofecoxib (Vioxx) in September 2004 was the logical, if long-overdue, result of what has become a major scandal. How can similar situations be avoided in the future? The authorities must of course come to grips with their responsibilities, but caregivers, patients and journalists also have a role to play. This was the theme of the press conference held at Prescrire headquarters after the annual awards ceremony on 20 January 2005 PMID:15984108

  4. Altered avoidance behavior of young black ducks fed cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were fed a diet containing 0, 4 or 40 ppm cadmium as cadmium chloride. One-week-old ducklings that had been fed thc same dietary concentrations of cadmium as had their parents were tested for avoidance of a fright stimulus. Ducklings fed 4 ppm cadmium ran significantly farther from the stimulus than did controls or ducklings fed 40 ppm cadmium. Such an alteration in behavior could have harmful effects on wild birds.

  5. NASA's Orbital Debris Conjuction Assessment and Collision Avoidance Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has successfully used debris avoidance maneuvers to protect our spacecraft for more than 20 . years. This process which started out using parametric data and maneuver boxes has seen considerable evolution and now allows us to continue nominal operations for all but the most threatening objects. This has greatly reduced the interruptions to the critical mission objectives being pursued by NASA s Space Station, Space Shuttle, and robotic satellites.

  6. Flies stretch their cells to avoid a chromatin trap

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Before the final step of cytokinesis, termed abscission, dividing cells need to ensure that the cleavage plane is clear of chromatin. In this issue, Kotadia et al. (2012. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/jcb.201208041) show that in Drosophila melanogaster, larval neuroblasts elongate to allow segregation of extra-long chromatids and clearance of the midzone, thereby avoiding cytokinesis failure and aneuploidy. PMID:23185028

  7. Group force mobility model and its obstacle avoidance capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Sean A.; Huang, Dijiang

    2009-10-01

    Many mobility models attempt to provide realistic simulation to many real world scenarios. However, existing mobility models, such as RPGM [X. Hong, M. Gerla, G. Pei, C. Chiang, A group mobility model for ad hoc wireless networks, in: Proceedings of ACM/IEEE MSWiM'99, Seattle, WA, August 1999, pp. 53-60] and others, fail to address many aspects. These limitations range from mobile node (MN) collision avoidance, obstacle avoidance, and the interaction of MNs within a group. Our research, the group force mobility model (GFMM) [S.A. Williams, D. Huang, A group force mobility model, Appeared at 9th Communications and Networking Simulation Symposium, April 2006], proposes a novel idea which introduces the concept of attraction and repulsion forces to address many of these limitations. Williams and Huang [A group force mobility model, Appeared at 9th Communications and Networking Simulation Symposium, April 2006] described some of the limitations and drawbacks that many models neglect. This model effectively simulates the interaction of MNs within a group, the interaction of groups to one another, the coherency of a group, and the avoidance of collision with groups, nodes, and obstacles. This paper provides an overview of GFMM and particularly illustrates the GFMM's ability to avoid collision with obstacles, which is a vital property to posses in order to provide a realistic simulaition. We compare our model with the commonly used RPGM model and provide statistical assessments based on connectivity metrics such as link changed, link duration, and relative speed. All will be detailed and explained in this paper.

  8. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Ana Paula A.; de Andréa, Mara M.

    2011-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05). No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000) for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms. PMID:22247652

  9. Obstacle avoidance for redundant robots using configuration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor); Colbaugh, Richard D. (Inventor); Glass, Kristin L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A redundant robot control scheme is provided for avoiding obstacles in a workspace during the motion of an end effector along a preselected trajectory by stopping motion of the critical point on the robot closest to the obstacle when the distance between is reduced to a predetermined sphere of influence surrounding the obstacle. Algorithms are provided for conveniently determining the critical point and critical distance.

  10. Avoiding common problems during online submission of manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Welch, Stephen J

    2007-05-01

    Online submission of manuscripts is normally fast, relatively easy, and timely. However, failure to follow journal instructions, omitting required aspects of manuscripts, and other problems can delay or stop the submission and peer-review process. This article discusses common problems encountered during online submission and advises authors on how to avoid those problems and maximize the efficiency of the online submission process. PMID:17494812

  11. Avoidance behavior of ruffe exposed to selected formulations of piscicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Verdel K.; Bills, Terry D.; Boogaard, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe were introduced into Duluth Harbor, Minnesota in the early 1980s, probably by release of ballast water from sea-going freighters. Since then, it has become the most abundant species in the fish community. The sensitivity of ruffe to a number of piscicides has been demonstrated, however, the feasibility of using piscicides to control populations depends on whether ruffe cart detect piscicides and move to untreated water, We used a two-choice preference resting system to evaluate avoidance or attraction reactions of ruffe during exposures to the lampricides TFM and bayluscide and the general fish toxicants rotenone and antimycin. We used a second testing system to evaluate the potential for benthic ruffe to move vertically in the water column to avoid piscicides dissolving from experimental bottom-release formulations of bayluscide and antimycin. Near-lethal concentrations of TFM and rotenone tended to repel ruffe. Antimycin and bayluscide did not seem to repel ruffe in the avoidance chamber, but bottom-release formulations (antimycin granules-0.25% a.i. And bayluscide granules-3.2% a.i.) did cause increased swimming and surfacing activity among ruffe in column tests. We conclude that TFM and rotenone could be used to trent entire bodies of water, while bottom-release formulations of antimycin and bayluscide may have more application for treating localized concentrations of ruffe.

  12. Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie; de Barra, Mícheál; Aunger, Robert

    2011-02-12

    Disgust is an evolved psychological system for protecting organisms from infection through disease avoidant behaviour. This 'behavioural immune system', present in a diverse array of species, exhibits universal features that orchestrate hygienic behaviour in response to cues of risk of contact with pathogens. However, disgust is also a dynamic adaptive system. Individuals show variation in pathogen avoidance associated with psychological traits like having a neurotic personality, as well as a consequence of being in certain physiological states such as pregnancy or infancy. Three specialized learning mechanisms modify the disgust response: the Garcia effect, evaluative conditioning and the law of contagion. Hygiene behaviour is influenced at the group level through social learning heuristics such as 'copy the frequent'. Finally, group hygiene is extended symbolically to cultural rules about purity and pollution, which create social separations and are enforced as manners. Cooperative hygiene endeavours such as sanitation also reduce pathogen prevalence. Our model allows us to integrate perspectives from psychology, ecology and cultural evolution with those of epidemiology and anthropology. Understanding the nature of disease avoidance psychology at all levels of human organization can inform the design of programmes to improve public health. PMID:21199843

  13. Obstacle avoidance in social groups: new insights from asynchronous models

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Simon; Budgey, Richard; Pitchford, Jonathan W.; Wood, A. Jamie

    2015-01-01

    For moving animals, the successful avoidance of hazardous obstacles is an important capability. Despite this, few models of collective motion have addressed the relationship between behavioural and social features and obstacle avoidance. We develop an asynchronous individual-based model for social movement which allows social structure within groups to be included. We assess the dynamics of group navigation and resulting collision risk in the context of information transfer through the system. In agreement with previous work, we find that group size has a nonlinear effect on collision risk. We implement examples of possible network structures to explore the impact social preferences have on collision risk. We show that any social heterogeneity induces greater obstacle avoidance with further improvements corresponding to groups containing fewer influential individuals. The model provides a platform for both further theoretical investigation and practical application. In particular, we argue that the role of social structures within bird flocks may have an important role to play in assessing the risk of collisions with wind turbines, but that new methods of data analysis are needed to identify these social structures. PMID:25833245

  14. Avoidant coping in panic disorder: a yohimbine biological challenge study.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Johanna S; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Tinsley, Ruth; Geraci, Marilla; Hernandez, Elisa; Luckenbaugh, David; Drevets, Wayne C; Carlson, Paul J

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have addressed whether the use of avoidance-oriented coping strategies is related to the development of panic in patients with panic disorder(PD). Self-report, clinician-rated, and physiological data were collected from 42 individuals who participated in a yohimbine biological challenge study, performed under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. Participants included 20 healthy controls and 22 currently symptomatic patients who met DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for PD. Consistent with prediction, patients with PD who had higher perceived efficacy of avoidance-oriented strategies in reducing anxiety-related thoughts reported increased severity in panic symptoms during the yohimbine challenge condition as compared to the placebo. Further, patients with PD who had more fear of cognitive dyscontrol, cardiovascular symptoms, and publicly observable anxiety also reported increased severity in panic symptoms during the challenge. Healthy controls who had more fear of cardiovascular symptoms similarly reported increased severity in panic symptoms during the challenge. No effects were found for heart rate response to the challenge agent. These results provide support for the role of avoidance-oriented coping strategies and fear of anxiety-related symptoms as risk and maintenance factors in the development of panic symptoms, particularly within a biological challenge model. PMID:21864204

  15. A Robot Manipulator with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Obstacle Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, Muthuswamy

    2016-03-01

    Building robots and machines to act within a fuzzy environment is a problem featuring complexity and ambiguity. In order to avoid obstacles, or move away from it, the robot has to perform functions such as obstacle identification, finding the location of the obstacle, its velocity, direction of movement, size, shape, and so on. This paper presents about the design, and implementation of an adaptive fuzzy controller designed for a 3 degree of freedom spherical coordinate robotic manipulator interfaced with a microcontroller and an ultrasonic sensor. Distance between the obstacle and the sensor and its time rate are considered as inputs to the controller and how the manipulator to take diversion from its planned trajectory, in order to avoid collision with the obstacle, is treated as output from the controller. The obstacles are identified as stationary or moving objects and accordingly adaptive self tuning is accomplished with three set of linguistic rules. The prototype of the manipulator has been fabricated and tested for collision avoidance by placing stationary and moving obstacles in its planned trajectory. The performance of the adaptive control algorithm is analyzed in MATLAB by generating 3D fuzzy control surfaces.

  16. Obstacle avoidance in social groups: new insights from asynchronous models.

    PubMed

    Croft, Simon; Budgey, Richard; Pitchford, Jonathan W; Wood, A Jamie

    2015-05-01

    For moving animals, the successful avoidance of hazardous obstacles is an important capability. Despite this, few models of collective motion have addressed the relationship between behavioural and social features and obstacle avoidance. We develop an asynchronous individual-based model for social movement which allows social structure within groups to be included. We assess the dynamics of group navigation and resulting collision risk in the context of information transfer through the system. In agreement with previous work, we find that group size has a nonlinear effect on collision risk. We implement examples of possible network structures to explore the impact social preferences have on collision risk. We show that any social heterogeneity induces greater obstacle avoidance with further improvements corresponding to groups containing fewer influential individuals. The model provides a platform for both further theoretical investigation and practical application. In particular, we argue that the role of social structures within bird flocks may have an important role to play in assessing the risk of collisions with wind turbines, but that new methods of data analysis are needed to identify these social structures. PMID:25833245

  17. Detection and avoidance of errors in computer software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, Les

    1989-01-01

    The acceptance test errors of a computer software project to determine if the errors could be detected or avoided in earlier phases of development. GROAGSS (Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Ground Support System) was selected as the software project to be examined. The development of the software followed the standard Flight Dynamics Software Development methods. GROAGSS was developed between August 1985 and April 1989. The project is approximately 250,000 lines of code of which approximately 43,000 lines are reused from previous projects. GROAGSS had a total of 1715 Change Report Forms (CRFs) submitted during the entire development and testing. These changes contained 936 errors. Of these 936 errors, 374 were found during the acceptance testing. These acceptance test errors were first categorized into methods of avoidance including: more clearly written requirements; detail review; code reading; structural unit testing; and functional system integration testing. The errors were later broken down in terms of effort to detect and correct, class of error, and probability that the prescribed detection method would be successful. These determinations were based on Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) documents and interviews with the project programmers. A summary of the results of the categorizations is presented. The number of programming errors at the beginning of acceptance testing can be significantly reduced. The results of the existing development methodology are examined for ways of improvements. A basis is provided for the definition is a new development/testing paradigm. Monitoring of the new scheme will objectively determine its effectiveness on avoiding and detecting errors.

  18. Autonomous obstacle avoidance using visual fixation and looming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joarder, Kunal; Raviv, Daniel

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes a vision-based method for avoiding obstacles using the concepts of visual looming and fixating motion. Visual looming refers to the expansion of images of objects in the retina. Usually, this is due to the decreasing distance between the observer and the object. An increasing looming value signifies an increasing threat of collision with the object. The visual task of avoiding collision can be further simplified by purposive control of visual fixation at the objects in front of the moving camera. Using these two basic concepts real time obstacle avoidance in a tight perception-action loop is implemented. Three-dimensional space in front of the camera is divided into zones with various degrees of looming-based threat of collision. For each obstacle seen by a fixating camera, looming and its time derivative are calculated directly from the 2-D image. Depending on the threat posed by an obstacle, a course change is dictated. This looming based approach is simple, independent of the size of the 3-D object and its range and involves simple quantitative measurements. Results pertinent to a camera on a robot arm navigating between obstacles are presented.

  19. Hierarchical Brain Networks Active in Approach and Avoidance Goal Pursuit

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal-pursuit processes (e.g., motivation) has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity) vital to goal-pursuit remain largely unexplored. Specificity in location, process, and network relationship is vital for moving beyond gross characterizations of function and identifying the precise cortical mechanisms involved in motivation. The present paper integrates research using more spatially specific methodologies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging) with the rich psychological literature on approach/avoidance to propose an integrative network model that takes advantage of the strengths of each of these literatures. PMID:23785328

  20. Cavity Femtochemistry: Manipulating Nonadiabatic Dynamics at Avoided Crossings.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-06-01

    Molecular potential energy surfaces can be actively manipulated by light. This is usually done by strong classical laser light but was recently demonstrated for the quantum field in an optical cavity. The photonic vacuum state of a localized cavity mode can be strongly mixed with the molecular degrees of freedom to create hybrid field-matter states known as polaritons. We simulate the avoided crossing of sodium iodide in a cavity by incorporating the quantized cavity field into the nuclear wave packet dynamics calculation. The quantized field is represented on a numerical grid in quadrature space, thus avoiding the limitations set by the rotating wave approximation (RWA) when the field is expanded in Fock space. This approach allows the investigation of cavity couplings in the vicinity of naturally occurring avoided crossings and conical intersections, which is too expensive in the fock space expansion when the RWA does not apply. Numerical results show how the branching ratio between the covalent and ionic dissociation channels can be strongly manipulated by the optical cavity. PMID:27186666

  1. Reinforcement learning for congestion-avoidance in packet flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Keisuke; Tretiakov, Alexei

    2005-04-01

    Occurrence of congestion of packet flow in computer networks is one of the unfavorable problems in packet communication and hence its avoidance should be investigated. We use a neural network model for packet routing control in a computer network proposed in a previous paper by Horiguchi and Ishioka (Physica A 297 (2001) 521). If we assume that the packets are not sent to nodes whose buffers are already full of packets, then we find that traffic congestion occurs when the number of packets in the computer network is larger than some critical value. In order to avoid the congestion, we introduce reinforcement learning for a control parameter in the neural network model. We find that the congestion is avoided by the reinforcement learning and at the same time we have good performance for the throughput. We investigate the packet flow on computer networks of various types of topology such as a regular network, a network with fractal structure, a small-world network, a scale-free network and so on.

  2. Sense and avoid technology for unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalmont, John; Utt, James; Deschenes, Michael; Taylor, Michael; Sanderson, Richard; Montgomery, Joel; Johnson, Randal S.; McDermott, David

    2007-04-01

    The Sensors Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), in conjunction with the Global Hawk Systems Group, the J-UCAS System Program Office and contractor Defense Research Associates, Inc. (DRA) is conducting an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) of a sense-and-avoid capability with the potential to satisfy the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) requirement for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) to provide "an equivalent level of safety, comparable to see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft". This FAA requirement must be satisfied for UAS operations within the national airspace. The Sense-and-Avoid, Phase I (Man-in-the-Loop) and Phase II (Autonomous Maneuver) ATD demonstrated an on-board, wide field of regard, multi-sensor visible imaging system operating in real time and capable of passively detecting approaching aircraft, declaring potential collision threats in a timely manner and alerting the human pilot located in the remote ground control station or autonomously maneuvered the aircraft. Intruder declaration data was collected during the SAA I & II Advanced Technology Demonstration flights conducted during December 2006. A total of 27 collision scenario flights were conducted and analyzed. The average detection range was 6.3 NM and the mean declaration range was 4.3 NM. The number of false alarms per engagement has been reduced to approximately 3 per engagement.

  3. Plant Responses to Vegetation Proximity: A Whole Life Avoiding Shade

    PubMed Central

    Roig-Villanova, Irma; Martínez-García, Jaime F.

    2016-01-01

    In high density of vegetation, plants detect neighbors by perceiving changes in light quality through phytochrome photoreceptors. Close vegetation proximity might result in competition for resources, such as light. To face this challenge, plants have evolved two alternative strategies: to either tolerate or avoid shade. Shade-avoiding species generally adapt their development by inducing hypocotyl, stem, and petiole elongation, apical dominance and flowering, and decreasing leaf expansion and yield, a set of responses collectively known as the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). The SAS responses have been mostly studied at the seedling stage, centered on the increase of hypocotyl elongation. After compiling the main findings about SAS responses in seedlings, this review is focused on the response to shade at adult stages of development, such as petioles of adult leaves, and the little information available on the SAS responses in reproductive tissues. We discuss these responses based on the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and components with a role in regulating the SAS response of the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. The transcriptional networks involved in this process, as well as the communication among the tissues that perceive the shade and the ones that respond to this stimulus will also be briefly commented. PMID:26973679

  4. Avoiding Management Errors in Patients with Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manthous, Constantine A; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea are increasing rapidly in the United States in parallel with the obesity epidemic. As the pathogenesis of this chronic illness is better understood, effective evidence-based therapies are being deployed to reduce morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, patients with obesity hypoventilation still fall prey to at least four avoidable types of therapeutic errors, especially at the time of hospitalization for respiratory or cardiovascular decompensation: (1) patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome may develop acute hypercapnia in response to administration of excessive supplemental oxygen; (2) excessive diuresis for peripheral edema using a loop diuretic such as furosemide exacerbates metabolic alkalosis, thereby worsening daytime hypoventilation and hypoxemia; (3) excessive or premature pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illnesses can exacerbate sleep-disordered breathing and worsen hypercapnia, thereby exacerbating psychiatric symptoms; and (4) clinicians often erroneously diagnose obstructive lung disease in patients with obesity hypoventilation, thereby exposing them to unnecessary and potentially harmful medications, including β-agonists and corticosteroids. Just as literary descriptions of pickwickian syndrome have given way to greater understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity hypoventilation, clinicians might exercise caution to consider these potential pitfalls and thus avoid inflicting unintended and avoidable complications. PMID:26512908

  5. Predictors of Driving Avoidance and Exposure Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Labbe, Donald R.; Vance, David E.; Wadley, Virginia; Novack, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 40–60% of individuals who experience a moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) return to driving. However, little is known about driving behavior post-TBI and how this may be related to demographic, injury, and outcome factors. Methods A total of 184 participants who experienced moderate to severe TBI were included in this study. Participants completed a telephone survey regarding return to driving and current driving behavior. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze predicted relationships between demographic and injury-related variables with driving exposure and avoidance within 5 years of injury. Results The model indicated that participants who were older and female tended to avoid a greater number of challenging everyday driving scenarios. Participants that had more severe injuries and those with poorer performance on cognitive measures at the time of rehabilitation discharge were likely to drive less frequently and over less distances at follow up, though they did not avoid challenging driving situations. Conclusions Young males and those with more severe injuries may require additional attention regarding their driving behavior following TBI. PMID:23474877

  6. Avoided Impacts in Ensembles of Tropical Cyclone Damage Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, J.; Paimazumder, D.; Holland, G. J.; Towler, E.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter current levels of Tropical Cyclone (TC) damage, yet the degree of change and its importance relative to changes in exposure and vulnerability are debated. This study isolates the climate drivers of TC damage and develops an approach to translate climate model data directly to a measure of Cyclone Damage Potential (CDP). The actual damage then depends on a given user's impacted exposure and vulnerability. Our approach is motivated by recent work that highlighted the importance of accounting for TC size and TC translation speed in addition to maximum wind speed in driving TC damage. Since coarse resolution climate models are not able to adequately capture many TC characteristics, these key damaging parameters are modeled in terms of large-scale climate variables, to sidestep the need for information on individual TCs and to enable assessments of CDP directly from large-scale climate model data. The CDP is applied to ensembles of future climates generated under a range of anthropogenic forcing scenarios to assess the degree of avoided CDP under lower emission pathways. Users may then translate avoided CDP to avoided losses using relationships between CDP and their specific exposure and vulnerability characteristics.

  7. Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie; de Barra, Mícheál; Aunger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Disgust is an evolved psychological system for protecting organisms from infection through disease avoidant behaviour. This ‘behavioural immune system’, present in a diverse array of species, exhibits universal features that orchestrate hygienic behaviour in response to cues of risk of contact with pathogens. However, disgust is also a dynamic adaptive system. Individuals show variation in pathogen avoidance associated with psychological traits like having a neurotic personality, as well as a consequence of being in certain physiological states such as pregnancy or infancy. Three specialized learning mechanisms modify the disgust response: the Garcia effect, evaluative conditioning and the law of contagion. Hygiene behaviour is influenced at the group level through social learning heuristics such as ‘copy the frequent’. Finally, group hygiene is extended symbolically to cultural rules about purity and pollution, which create social separations and are enforced as manners. Cooperative hygiene endeavours such as sanitation also reduce pathogen prevalence. Our model allows us to integrate perspectives from psychology, ecology and cultural evolution with those of epidemiology and anthropology. Understanding the nature of disease avoidance psychology at all levels of human organization can inform the design of programmes to improve public health. PMID:21199843

  8. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition.

    PubMed

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al-Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Plant strategy and life-history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life-history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitive ability (CA) of different plant life histories and growth forms; (2) whether life history or growth form is associated with CA; (3) whether shade avoidance plasticity is connected to reproductive efficiency under simulated competition. We examined plastic responses of 11 herbaceous species representing different life histories and growth forms to simulated competition (spectral shade). We found that both annual and perennial plants invested more to reproduction under simulated competition in accordance with life-history theory predictions. There was no significant difference between competitive abilities of different life histories, but across growth forms, erect species expressed greater CA (in terms of leaf number) than other growth forms. We also found that shade avoidance plasticity can increase the reproductive efficiency by capitalizing on the early life resource acquisition and conversion of these resources into reproduction. Therefore, we suggest that a reassessment of the interpretation of shade avoidance plasticity is necessary by revealing its role in reproduction, not only in competition of plants. PMID:27547325

  9. A laser imaging system for helicopter avoidance obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, WeiRan; Yuan, HongChun; Jin, Yuan

    2006-09-01

    Rotorcraft flying in low-altitude is endangered by power lines or telephone wires. The development of automated tools that can detect obstacles in the flight path and warn the crew would significantly reduce the workload of pilot and increase the safety. Detection and warning are rudimental demand and desire for Helicopter Avoidance Obstacle System (HAOS). And that, An advanced HAOS may be capable of classifying thin obstacles and enhanced vision with distances of obstacles. A laser 3D imaging system for helicopter avoidance obstacle (HAO) had been developed successfully. The laser 3D imaging helicopter avoidance obstacle system can not only detect thin obstacles but also catch more information of all objects of the area in front of the helicopter as possible. Then the information is transformed into intuitionist 3D image modality. In this paper, special features and characteristic of the laser imaging system for HAO are analyzed and discussed. Several design gist for this system are proposed. Especially, the developed zero backlash imaging technology and real-time dynamic imaging synchronizing with radar space scanning are described. The technique implementation problem and the system structure are given as well. Finally, the results of system ground test are presented. The ground test of the developed laser imaging system has demonstrated that the developed imaging system performance can achieve and satisfy commendably the requirements of the mission to prevent "wire strike".

  10. Avoidable factors contributing to death of children with head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, P M; Storey, A; Aynsley-Green, A; Eyre, J A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the incidence of potentially avoidable complications contributing to death of children with head injuries. DESIGN--Retrospective review of children who died with head injuries from 1979 to 1986 from data of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Hospital Activity Analyses, case notes, coroners' records, and necropsy reports. SETTING--District general hospitals and two regional neurosurgical centres in Northern region. RESULTS--255 Children died from head injury in the region, the mortality being 5.3 per 100,000 children per year. Head injury was the single most important cause of death in children aged greater than 1 year, accounting for 15% of deaths in children aged 1-15 years and a quarter for those aged 5-15 years. 121 Potentially avoidable factors possibly or probably contributing to death occurred in 81 children (32%). Half the children (125) died before admission, 27 of whom (22%) had potentially avoidable factors possibly or probably contributing to death, and 130 died after admission, 54 of whom (42%) had 93 such factors, which included failure of diagnosis or delayed recognition of intracranial haemorrhage or associated injury, inadequate management of the airways, and poor management of the transfer between hospitals. IMPLICATIONS--Regions should revise urgently their guidelines for optimal management and indications for neurosurgical referral to include children with severe head injuries and audit their systems of care for all patients with head injuries. PMID:2105782

  11. A Robot Manipulator with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Obstacle Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, Muthuswamy

    2016-07-01

    Building robots and machines to act within a fuzzy environment is a problem featuring complexity and ambiguity. In order to avoid obstacles, or move away from it, the robot has to perform functions such as obstacle identification, finding the location of the obstacle, its velocity, direction of movement, size, shape, and so on. This paper presents about the design, and implementation of an adaptive fuzzy controller designed for a 3 degree of freedom spherical coordinate robotic manipulator interfaced with a microcontroller and an ultrasonic sensor. Distance between the obstacle and the sensor and its time rate are considered as inputs to the controller and how the manipulator to take diversion from its planned trajectory, in order to avoid collision with the obstacle, is treated as output from the controller. The obstacles are identified as stationary or moving objects and accordingly adaptive self tuning is accomplished with three set of linguistic rules. The prototype of the manipulator has been fabricated and tested for collision avoidance by placing stationary and moving obstacles in its planned trajectory. The performance of the adaptive control algorithm is analyzed in MATLAB by generating 3D fuzzy control surfaces.

  12. Avoiding the Demonstration of Lack of Ability: An Underexplored Aspect of Goal Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Michael J.; Midgley, Carol

    1997-01-01

    A scale to assess the goal of avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability (performance-avoid) was included with scales assessing approach goals for 703 sixth graders. Performance-avoid scales negatively predicted academic efficacy and positively predicted avoiding seeking help and test anxiety. Implications for goal theory are discussed. (SLD)

  13. The Relationship among Student Basic Need Satisfaction, Approaches to Learning, Reporting of Avoidance Strategies and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the relationship between student basic need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, relatedness and belonging), their reporting of approaches to learning (deep and surface), their reporting of avoidance strategies (avoidance of effort and challenge, avoidance of help seeking and preference to avoid novelty) and…

  14. Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschall, Steve; Brady, Tye; Sostaric, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing the software and hardware technology needed to support a safe and precise landing for the next generation of lunar missions. ALHAT provides this capability through terrain-relative navigation measurements to enhance global-scale precision, an onboard hazard detection system to select safe landing locations, and an Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (AGNC) capability to process these measurements and safely direct the vehicle to a landing location. This paper focuses on the key trajectory design issues relevant to providing an onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) capability for the lander. Hazard detection can be accomplished by the crew visually scanning the terrain through a window, a sensor system imaging the terrain, or some combination of both. For ALHAT, this hazard detection activity is provided by a sensor system, which either augments the crew s perception or entirely replaces the crew in the case of a robotic landing. Detecting hazards influences the trajectory design by requiring the proper perspective, range to the landing site, and sufficient time to view the terrain. Following this, the trajectory design must provide additional time to process this information and make a decision about where to safely land. During the final part of the HDA process, the trajectory design must provide sufficient margin to enable a hazard avoidance maneuver. In order to demonstrate the effects of these constraints on the landing trajectory, a tradespace of trajectory designs was created for the initial ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle (ALDAC-1) and each case evaluated with these HDA constraints active. The ALHAT analysis process, described in this paper, narrows down this tradespace and subsequently better defines the trajectory design needed to support onboard HDA. Future ALDACs will enhance this trajectory design by balancing these issues and others in an overall system

  15. Estimate of avoidance maneuver rate for HASTOL tether boost facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The Hypersonic Airplane Space Tether Orbital Launch (HASTOL) Architecture uses a hypersonic airplane (or reusable launch vehicle) to carry a payload from the surface of the Earth to 150 km altitude and a speed of Mach 17. The hypersonic airplane makes a rendezvous with the grapple at the tip of a long, rotating, orbiting space tether boost facility, which picks up the payload from the airplane. Release of the payload at the proper point in the tether rotation boosts the payload into a higher orbit, typically into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO), with lower orbits and Earth escape other options. The HASTOL Tether Boost Facility will have a length of 636 km. Its center of mass will be in a 604 km by 890 km equatorial orbit. It is estimated that by the time of the start of operations of the HASTOL Tether Boost facility in the year 2020, there will be 500 operational spacecraft using the same volume of space as the HASTOL facility. These operational spacecraft would likely be made inoperative by an impact with one of the lines in the multiline HASTOL Hoytether™ and should be avoided. There will also be non-operational spacecraft and large pieces of orbital debris with effective size greater than five meters in diameter that could cut a number of lines in the HASTOL Hoytether™, and should also be avoided. It is estimated, using two different methods and combining them, that the HASTOL facility will need to make avoidance maneuvers about once every four days if the 500 operational spacecraft and large pieces of orbital debris greater than 5 m in diameter, were each protected by a 2 km diameter miss distance protection sphere. If by 2020, the ability to know the positions of operational spacecraft and large pieces of orbital debris improved to allow a 600 m diameter miss distance protection sphere around each object, then the number of HASTOL facility maneuvers needed drops to one every two weeks. .

  16. Risk avoidance in sympatric large carnivores: reactive or predictive?

    PubMed

    Broekhuis, Femke; Cozzi, Gabriele; Valeix, Marion; McNutt, John W; Macdonald, David W

    2013-09-01

    1. Risks of predation or interference competition are major factors shaping the distribution of species. An animal's response to risk can either be reactive, to an immediate risk, or predictive, based on preceding risk or past experiences. The manner in which animals respond to risk is key in understanding avoidance, and hence coexistence, between interacting species. 2. We investigated whether cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), known to be affected by predation and competition by lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta), respond reactively or predictively to the risks posed by these larger carnivores. 3. We used simultaneous spatial data from Global Positioning System (GPS) radiocollars deployed on all known social groups of cheetahs, lions and spotted hyaenas within a 2700 km(2) study area on the periphery of the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana. The response to risk of encountering lions and spotted hyaenas was explored on three levels: short-term or immediate risk, calculated as the distance to the nearest (contemporaneous) lion or spotted hyaena, long-term risk, calculated as the likelihood of encountering lions and spotted hyaenas based on their cumulative distributions over a 6-month period and habitat-associated risk, quantified by the habitat used by each of the three species. 4. We showed that space and habitat use by cheetahs was similar to that of lions and, to a lesser extent, spotted hyaenas. However, cheetahs avoided immediate risks by positioning themselves further from lions and spotted hyaenas than predicted by a random distribution. 5. Our results suggest that cheetah spatial distribution is a hierarchical process, first driven by resource acquisition and thereafter fine-tuned by predator avoidance; thus suggesting a reactive, rather than a predictive, response to risk. PMID:23692142

  17. An enhanced obstacle avoiding system for AUV`s

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, G.; Zanoli, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper concerns the development of a sonar-based navigation and guidance system for underwater, unmanned vehicles. In particular, the authors describe and discuss an obstacle avoidance procedure that is capable of dealing with situations involving several obstacles. The main features of the system are the use of a Kalman filter, both for estimating data and for predicting the evolution of the observed scene, and the possibility of working at different levels of data abstraction. The system has shown satisfactory performances in dealing with moving obstacles in general situations.

  18. How to avoid the ten most frequent EMS pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.

    1982-04-19

    It pays to do your homework before investing in an energy management system if you want to avoid the 10 most common pitfalls listed by users, consultants, and manufacturers as: oversimplification, improper maintenance, failure to involve operating personnel, inaccurate savings estimates, failure to include monitoring capability, incompetent or fradulent firms, improper load control, not allowing for a de-bugging period, failure to include manual override, and software problems. The article describes how each of these pitfalls can lead to poor decisions and poor results. (DCK)

  19. Z-Basic algorithm for collision avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dear, Roger G.; Sherif, Yosef S.

    1991-01-01

    A Z-Basic prediction algorithm for an aircraft ground-based collision avoidance system is presented. This system searches for mutually overlapping prediction intervals that are influenced by the aircrafts' maneuver capabilities and surveillance accuracy. Z-Basic provides a powerful, fast, interactive, simple to use, and inexpensive Basic compiler. The algorithm is applied to a typical terminal airspace situation. The computer program was executed on Macintosh+, and the execution was less than one minute. The program is easy to understand and implement.

  20. To make a glass—avoid the crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palberg, Thomas; Bartsch, Eckhard; Beyer, Richard; Hofmann, Maximilian; Lorenz, Nina; Marquis, Janina; Niu, Ran; Okubo, Tsuneo

    2016-07-01

    Colloidal model systems allow for a flexible tuning of particle sizes, particle spacings and mutual interactions at constant temperature. Colloidal suspensions typically crystallize as soon as the interactions get sufficiently strong and long-ranged. Several strategies have been successfully applied to avoid crystallization and instead produce colloidal glasses. Most of these amorphous solids are formed at high particle concentrations. This paper shortly reviews experimental attempts to produce amorphous colloidal solids using strategies based on topological, thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. We complement this overview by introducing a (transient) amorphous solid forming in a thoroughly deionized aqueous suspension of highly charged spheres at low salt concentration and very low volume fractions.

  1. Maintenance immunosuppression regimens: conversion, minimization, withdrawal, and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Harold

    2006-04-01

    A wide choice of drug combinations is available to clinicians for immunosuppression regimens for their kidney transplant patients. Although many protocols have minimized early graft loss, the optimal long-term regimen is unknown. Recent studies clearly showed that cardiovascular death is now the leading cause of graft loss. Strategies must be developed that address this risk while keeping immunologic events low. Transplant physicians have focused on exploring regimens that minimize or avoid the use of corticosteroids. Studies also have started to explore protocols that minimize calcineurin inhibitor therapy. PMID:16567240

  2. Self-Avoiding Walks Over Adaptive Triangular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Space-filling curves is a popular approach based on a geometric embedding for linearizing computational meshes. We present a new O(n log n) combinatorial algorithm for constructing a self avoiding walk through a two dimensional mesh containing n triangles. We show that for hierarchical adaptive meshes, the algorithm can be locally adapted and easily parallelized by taking advantage of the regularity of the refinement rules. The proposed approach should be very useful in the runtime partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured grids.

  3. Avoiding condylar displacement after intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Ritto, Fabio; Parente, Eduardo; da Silveira, Henrique Martins; Medeiros, Paulo José; de Moraes, Márcio

    2010-05-01

    The intraoral vertical osteotomy is a versatile and simple technique usually applied to correct mandibular prognathism. Its greatest advantages include ease of performance and minimum neurosensory disturbances, whereas maxillomandibular fixation is pointed as its major disadvantage. Another important concern about this technique is condylar displacement, which may lead to temporomandibular dysfunction. Technical notes to avoid condylar luxation are discussed after 15 years of experience using this osteotomy as the technique of choice to correct mandibular prognathism. Three similar cases are presented, where 1 condyle was displaced from the glenoid fossa, resulting in mandibular deviation during function in patients requiring small mandibular setback. PMID:20485061

  4. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2010-01-01

    When facing a conjunction between space objects, decision makers must chose whether to maneuver for collision avoidance or not. We apply a well-known decision procedure, the sequential probability ratio test, to this problem. We propose two approaches to the problem solution, one based on a frequentist method, and the other on a Bayesian method. The frequentist method does not require any prior knowledge concerning the conjunction, while the Bayesian method assumes knowledge of prior probability densities. Our results show that both methods achieve desired missed detection rates, but the frequentist method's false alarm performance is inferior to the Bayesian method's

  5. Managing Big Science Projects: Avoiding the Near Death Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Gary

    2004-05-26

    Very large scientific projects attempt the near impossible. They involve new technology and measurements that have not been made before. They are invariably one of a kind efforts. Yet they must be designed and built and commissioned in a predictable manner. How can we avoid 'low balling' that mega project on our horizon? Why must we use industrial strength planning and performance tracking when we never did that before and we got this far? There are techniques to do these things and there are new project models emerging.

  6. Avoiding pitfalls in simulating real-time computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The software simulation of a computer target system on a computer host system, known as an interpretive computer simulator (ICS), functionally models and implements the action of the target hardware. For an ICS to function as efficiently as possible and to avoid certain pitfalls in designing an ICS, it is important that the details of the hardware architectural design of both the target and the host computers be known. This paper discusses both host selection considerations and ICS design features that, without proper consideration, could make the resulting ICS too slow to use or too costly to maintain and expand.

  7. Ten Mistakes To Avoid When Injecting Botulinum Toxin.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, R; Martin-Gorgojo, A

    2015-01-01

    Injection of botulinum toxin is currently the most common cosmetic procedure in the United States, and in recent years it has become-together with dermal fillers-the mainstay of therapy for the prevention and treatment of facial aging. However, in some cases the treatment may lead to a somewhat unnatural appearance, usually caused by loss of facial expression or other telltale signs. In the present article, we review the 10 mistakes that should be avoided when injecting botulinum toxin. We also reflect on how treatment with botulinum toxin influences us through our facial expressions, both in terms of how we feel and what others perceive. PMID:25956528

  8. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W.

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller—advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)—that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot. PMID:27123001

  9. Intelligent Surveillance Robot with Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities Using Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Budiharto, Widodo

    2015-01-01

    For specific purpose, vision-based surveillance robot that can be run autonomously and able to acquire images from its dynamic environment is very important, for example, in rescuing disaster victims in Indonesia. In this paper, we propose architecture for intelligent surveillance robot that is able to avoid obstacles using 3 ultrasonic distance sensors based on backpropagation neural network and a camera for face recognition. 2.4 GHz transmitter for transmitting video is used by the operator/user to direct the robot to the desired area. Results show the effectiveness of our method and we evaluate the performance of the system. PMID:26089863

  10. Intelligent Surveillance Robot with Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities Using Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    For specific purpose, vision-based surveillance robot that can be run autonomously and able to acquire images from its dynamic environment is very important, for example, in rescuing disaster victims in Indonesia. In this paper, we propose architecture for intelligent surveillance robot that is able to avoid obstacles using 3 ultrasonic distance sensors based on backpropagation neural network and a camera for face recognition. 2.4 GHz transmitter for transmitting video is used by the operator/user to direct the robot to the desired area. Results show the effectiveness of our method and we evaluate the performance of the system. PMID:26089863

  11. Anaphylaxis avoidance and management: educating patients and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Kirsi M; Celestin, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the increasing numbers of patients at risk for anaphylaxis receive proper education on the etiology and risk factors as well as appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis with epinephrine. The physician’s role is crucial in order to educate the patients and care takers on effective measures to prevent anaphylaxis and empower them to take charge of early recognition and proper management of an anaphylactic reaction to prevent poor outcomes. This review summarizes the clinical presentation, triggers, avoidance, and management of anaphylaxis. PMID:25031541

  12. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller--advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)--that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot. PMID:27123001

  13. Emotion facilitation and passive avoidance learning in psychopathic female offenders

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    Research on psychopathy among incarcerated, Caucasian males has consistently demonstrated deficits in emotion processing and response inhibition. Using the PCL-R to classify participants as psychopathic or non-psychopathic, this study examined the performance of incarcerated, Caucasian females on two laboratory tasks: A lexical decision task used to assess emotion processing and a passive avoidance task used to assess response inhibition. Contrary to prediction, deficits in performance typically exhibited by psychopathic males were not exhibited by psychopathic females in this sample. Implications of these findings are discussed and an interpretation of the results in the context of the Response Modulation Hypothesis is presented. PMID:21686054

  14. Communicating the Need to Avoid Dangerous Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kharecha, P. A.; Sato, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe our past, ongoing and planned efforts to communicate the need for humanity to avoid dangerous climate change. Communications with governments have been largely fruitless, with substantial indication that governments are more disposed to be responsive to financial interests rather than scientific information. Communication with the public is essential to create pressure on governments for appropriate policies, but it is made difficult by the massive resources of the fossil fuel industry. Communication with influential individuals can be effective in reaching both governments and the public.

  15. Cooperative Conflict Avoidance Sensor Trade Study Report, Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This study develops evaluation criteria for systems and technologies against the Cooperative Conflict Avoidance (CCA) requirements for unmanned flight at and above FL430 as part of Step 1 of the Access-5 program. These evaluation criteria are then applied to both current and future technologies to identify those which might be used to provide an Equivalent Level of Safety (ELOS) for CCA. This document provides the results of this analysis of various systems and technologies intended for evaluation as part of the CCA work package.

  16. Avoiding revenue loss due to 'lesser of' contract clauses.

    PubMed

    Stodolak, Frederick; Gutierrez, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Finance managers seeking to avoid lost revenue attributable to lesser-of-charge-or-fixed-fee (lesser-of) clauses in their contracts should: Identify payer contracts that contain lesser-of clauses. Prepare lesser-of lost-revenue reports for non-bundled and bundled rates. For claims with covered charges below the bundled rate, identify service codes associated with the greatest proportion of total gross revenue and determine new, higher charge levels for those codes. Establish an approach for setting charges for non-bundled fee schedules to address lost-revenue-related issues. Incorporate changes into overall strategic or hospital zero-based pricing modeling and parameters. PMID:25145034

  17. Avoiding infrared catastrophes in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Kevrekidis, P.G.; Theocharis, G.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.; Trombettoni, A.

    2004-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the long-wavelength instabilities (infrared catastrophes) occurring in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We examine the modulational instability in 'cigar-shaped' (one-dimensional) attractive BECs and the transverse instability of dark solitons in 'pancake' (two-dimensional) repulsive BECs. We suggest mechanisms, and give explicit estimates, on how to engineer the trapping conditions of the condensate to avoid such instabilities: the main result being that a tight enough trapping potential suppresses the instabilities present in the homogeneous limit. We compare the obtained estimates with numerical results and we highlight the relevant regimes of dynamical behavior.

  18. Boundary Avoidance Tracking for Instigating Pilot Induced Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craun, Robert W.; Acosta, Diana M.; Beard, Steven D.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Leonard, Michael W.; Weinstein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In order to advance research in the area of pilot induced oscillations, a reliable method to create PIOs in a simulated environment is necessary. Using a boundary avoidance tracking task, researchers performing an evaluation of control systems were able to create PIO events in 42% of cases using a nominal aircraft, and 91% of cases using an aircraft with reduced actuator rate limits. The simulator evaluation took place in the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, a high-fidelity motion-based simulation facility.

  19. The importance of nuclear power in emissions avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.

    1999-11-01

    Most people knowledgeable about the nuclear power industry are aware that nuclear power plants do not emit air pollutants or greenhouse gases in the generation of electricity. What is commonly not known, however, is that these avoided emissions have become important for compliance with increasingly stringent limitations on air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions required by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the Kyoto Protocol. This article is intended to heighten the awareness of this important environmental service and how its valuation can have an impact on the future operation of existing nuclear power plants

  20. Avoiding irregularities on the nasal dorsum in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, Fernando Javier; Cardemil, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Palpable irregularities along the nasal dorsum are a frequent complication of dorsal handling in rhinoplasty because resection techniques are used. This is often a result of improper management of the dorsum after resection. The surgical technique for handling of dorsal irregularities following dorsal resection is described. The key steps to avoid irregularities are diamond rasps, autospreader and morselized cartilage as camouflage. Following resection of the hump, the anatomy of the nasal dorsum should be adequately restructured; thereby we achieve an adequate aesthetic result and ideally preventing irregularities on palpation. PMID:27097285

  1. Avoiding Intellectual Stagnation: The Starship as an Expander of Minds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2014-06-01

    Interstellar exploration will advance human knowledge and culture in multiple ways. Scientifically, it will advance our understanding of the interstellar medium, stellar astrophysics, planetary science and astrobiology. In addition, significant societal and cultural benefits will result from a programme of interstellar exploration and colonisation. Most important will be the cultural stimuli resulting from expanding the horizons of human experience, and increased opportunities for the spread and diversification of life and culture through the Galaxy. Ultimately, a programme of interstellar exploration may be the only way for human (and post-human) societies to avoid the intellectual stagnation predicted for the `end of history'.

  2. Tolerance and phenological avoidance of herbivory in tarweed species.

    PubMed

    Krimmel, Billy; Pearse, Ian S

    2016-05-01

    Avoidance and tolerance of herbivory are important components of plant interactions with herbivores. Their relationship to each other and to plant defense is important in understanding how plants maximize fitness in the face of herbivore pressure. Various tarweed species have populations comprised of both early-season and late-season flowering individuals. Late-season flowering individuals employ a recently described indirect defense against herbivores in which the accumulation of dead insects on their sticky surfaces attracts predatory insects that eat herbivores. In two tarweed species (Hemizonia congesta and Madia elegans), we observed that key herbivores rarely interact with early-season individuals in the field, and early-season individuals did not invest in dense glandular trichomes that cause indirect defense. We conducted field and greenhouse bud-removal experiments to assess tolerance of M elegans to herbivore damage. We found that late-season individuals were more tolerant of simulated herbivory than early-season individuals in both the field and the greenhouse. Late-season individuals that were forced into an earlier phenology with a 24-h light cue lost their tolerance to simulated herbivory. One possible mechanism linking phenological avoidance of herbivores with decreased tolerance is that early-season individuals invested less in below-ground biomass than late-season individuals, which may accumulate belowground resources for regrowth at the expense of early flowering. PMID:27349109

  3. Cooperative Collision Avoidance Technology Demonstration Data Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This report details the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Access 5 Project Office Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) Technology Demonstration for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) conducted from 21 to 28 September 2005. The test platform chosen for the demonstration was the Proteus Optionally Piloted Vehicle operated by Scaled Composites, LLC, flown out of the Mojave Airport, Mojave, CA. A single intruder aircraft, a NASA Gulf stream III, was used during the demonstration to execute a series of near-collision encounter scenarios. Both aircraft were equipped with Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System-II (TCAS-II) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) systems. The objective of this demonstration was to collect flight data to support validation efforts for the Access 5 CCA Work Package Performance Simulation and Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL). Correlation of the flight data with results obtained from the performance simulation serves as the basis for the simulation validation. A similar effort uses the flight data to validate the SIL architecture that contains the same sensor hardware that was used during the flight demonstration.

  4. Do aquatic insects avoid cadmium-contaminated sediments?

    SciTech Connect

    Hare, L.; Shooner, F.

    1995-06-01

    The long-term colonization of profundal lake sediments having a range of spiked cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0.007 to 2.7 {mu}mol/g dry wt.) was measured in the field. Population densities of two of the most abundant colonizing insects (the chironomids Procladius [Holotanypus] sp., and Sergentia coracina) were unrelated to the Cd gradient, even though both taxa accumulated Cd in direct relation to its concentration in sediment Cd gradient Cd gradient. Cadmium concentrations in Chironomus (salinarius gp.) sp. larvae also responded positively to the sediment Cd gradient and ranged from 0.2 to 50 {mu}g/g. In contrast with the two other taxa, the abundance of Chironomus (salinarius gp.) sp. was the result of a behavioral or a toxic response, larvae of the three chironomid taxa were given a choice between field-control and Cd-spiked sediments in the laboratory. None of the taxa avoided the Cd-spiked sediments, suggesting that the lower abundance of Chironomus (salinarius gp.) sp. at high Cd concentrations in the field was due to Cd toxicity and not to avoidance of the Cd-rich sediments.

  5. Aircrew decision-making behavior in hazardous weather avoidance.

    PubMed

    Lee, A T

    1991-02-01

    In-flight encounters with hazardous weather represent one of the most significant safety issues in civil aviation operations. Aircrew judgment is often cited as the probable cause of incidents and accidents involving weather, although lack of information is also a factor. The present study examines how information, presented at different times and in different forms, affects the awareness and decision-making behavior of aircrews in a flight simulation study of a recent microburst/windshear incident. In order to examine the influence of enhanced information transfer on aircrew behavior, intracrew communications and approach-to-land decisions were evaluated with conventional ATC communications and with automated cockpit alerting and display of weather information. Results of the study revealed that aircrews provided only with conventional ATC transmissions of weather information had difficulty discriminating conditions conducive to microburst events from less hazardous windshear events. Improved situation awareness for microburst events was found when ground-based convective weather information was provided in real time to aircrews. Avoidance decision-making was found to be less efficient with conventional ATC alert transmissions when compared to the performance of crews provided with a visual display of microburst events. The importance of information transfer on aircrew situation awareness and decision-making in hazardous weather avoidance is discussed. PMID:2001213

  6. Trust-based learning and behaviors for convoy obstacle avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Karlsen, Robert E.

    2015-05-01

    In many multi-agent systems, robots within the same team are regarded as being fully trustworthy for cooperative tasks. However, the assumption of trustworthiness is not always justified, which may not only increase the risk of mission failure, but also endanger the lives of friendly forces. In prior work, we addressed this issue by using RoboTrust to dynamically adjust to observed behaviors or recommendations in order to mitigate the risks of illegitimate behaviors. However, in the simulations in prior work, all members of the convoy had knowledge of the convoy goal. In this paper, only the lead vehicle has knowledge of the convoy goals and the follow vehicles must infer trustworthiness strictly from lead vehicle performance. In addition, RoboTrust could only respond to observed performance and did not dynamically learn agent behavior. In this paper, we incorporate an adaptive agent-specific bias into the RoboTrust algorithm that modifies its trust dynamics. This bias is learned incrementally from agent interactions, allowing good agents to benefit from faster trust growth and slower trust decay and bad agents to be penalized with slower trust growth and faster trust decay. We then integrate this new trust model into a trust-based controller for decentralized autonomous convoy operations. We evaluate its performance in an obstacle avoidance mission, where the convoy attempts to learn the best speed and following distances combinations for an acceptable obstacle avoidance probability.

  7. Future singularity avoidance in phantom dark energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Haro, Jaume de

    2012-07-01

    Different approaches to quantum cosmology are studied in order to deal with the future singularity avoidance problem. Our results show that these future singularities will persist but could take different forms. As an example we have studied the big rip which appear when one considers the state equation P = ωρ with ω < −1, showing that it does not disappear in modified gravity. On the other hand, it is well-known that quantum geometric effects (holonomy corrections) in loop quantum cosmology introduce a quadratic modification, namely proportional to ρ{sup 2}, in Friedmann's equation that replace the big rip by a non-singular bounce. However this modified Friedmann equation could have been obtained in an inconsistent way, what means that the obtained results from this equation, in particular singularity avoidance, would be incorrect. In fact, we will show that instead of a non-singular bounce, the big rip singularity would be replaced, in loop quantum cosmology, by other kind of singularity.

  8. How to Avoid Facial Nerve Injury in Mastoidectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Nam-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Unexpected iatrogenic facial nerve paralysis not only affects facial disfiguration, but also imposes a devastating effect on the social, psychological, and economic aspects of an affected person's life at once. The aims of this study were to postulate where surgeons had mistakenly drilled or where obscured by granulations or by fibrous bands and to look for surgical approach with focused on the safety of facial nerve in mastoid surgery. We had found 14 cases of iatrogenic facial nerve injury (IFNI) during mastoid surgery for 5 years in Korea. The medical records of all the patients were obtained and analyzed injured site of facial nerve segment with surgical technique of mastoidectomy. Eleven patients underwent facial nerve exploration and three patients had conservative management. 43% (6 cases) of iatrogenic facial nerve injuries had occurred in tympanic segment, 28.5% (4 cases) of injuries in second genu combined with tympanic segment, and 28.5% (4 cases) of injuries in mastoid segment. Surgeons should try to identify the facial nerve using available landmarks and be kept in mind the anomalies of the facial nerve. With use of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, the avoidance of in order to avoid IFNI would be possible in more cases. Many authors emphasized the importance of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, even in primary otologic surgery. However, anatomical understanding of intratemporal landmarks with meticulous dissection could not be emphasized as possible to prevent IFNI.

  9. Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Manes, K. R.; Spaeth, M. L.; Adams, J. J.; Bowers, M. W.; Bude, J. D.; Carr, C. W.; Conder, A. D.; DiNicola, J. M. G.; Dixit, S. N.; Feigenbaum, E.; et al

    2016-02-09

    After every other failure mode has been considered, in the end, the high-performance limit of all lasers is set by optical damage. The demands of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pushed lasers designed as ICF drivers into this limit from their very earliest days. The first ICF lasers were small, and their pulses were short. Their goal was to provide as much power to the target as possible. Typically, they faced damage due to high intensity on their optics. As requests for higher laser energy, longer pulse lengths, and better symmetry appeared, new kinds of damage also emerged, some of themmore » anticipated and others unexpected. This paper will discuss the various types of damage to large optics that had to be considered, avoided to the extent possible, or otherwise managed as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser was designed, fabricated, and brought into operation. Furthermore, it has been possible for NIF to meet its requirements because of the experience gained in previous ICF systems and because NIF designers have continued to be able to avoid or manage new damage situations as they have appeared.« less

  10. Small zooplankton sensing their environment: feeding, mating, and predator avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihongi, Ai

    2004-03-01

    Since zooplankton play a significant role at the base of the food web in aquatic environments, it is important to understand their feeding behaviors, mating behaviors, and predator avoidance. First, I will present the water flow regime of Daphnia. Using a high-speed video, I filmed how water with algae particles enters and leaves Daphnia, how the water flows within Daphnia and how the appendages of Daphnia work to produce the water flow. Second, I will discuss mate-searching behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods and Daphnia. Male and female zooplankters have to encounter each other for successful mating in 3D environment. I have observed the behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods from Lake Michigan. As a result, they showed different behaviors from other species studied. Likewise, I have observed differences in mate-searching behaviors of D. pulex and D. magna. Last, I will show the results of predator-prey interactions in D. pulex with kairomone, a chemical cue, from predatory fish using 3-D near infrared optical system. As experimental conditions, we used the following treatments: (a) no light/ no kairomone, (b) no light/ kairomone, (c) light/ no kairomone, and (d) light/ kairomone. While it appears that light and kairomone have an interactive effect on the swimming behaviors of Daphnia, light seems to be the most influential factor. The observed frequent spinning movements of D. pulex in a darkened tank with a predatory fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were successful predator avoidance maneuvers.

  11. Rumination, experiential avoidance, and dysfunctional thinking in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Adhip; Park, Rebecca J; Williams, J Mark G

    2010-09-01

    The majority of research in eating disorders (ED) has investigated the content of disorder-specific thoughts, while few studies have addressed underlying cognitive-affective processes. A better understanding of processes underpinning ED may have important implications for treatment development. Two studies were conducted that investigated levels of rumination, beliefs about rumination, experiential avoidance, and aspects of schematic thinking in individuals with eating pathology. The latter was assessed with a newly designed ED-Sentence Completion Task (ED-SCT). Study 1 (N = 177) examined relations between ED psychopathology and these variables in a student population. Extending this, Study 2 (N = 26) assessed differences between patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy control participants. The results showed that ED psychopathology was related to disorder-specific cognitions, experiential avoidance as well as ruminative brooding but not reflection. A follow-up of anorexia nervosa patients indicated that changes in ED psychopathology were associated with changes in dysfunctional attitudes and maladaptive cognitive-affective processes. These findings highlight cognitive processes that may play an important role in the maintenance of eating pathology. PMID:20598670

  12. Hospital admission avoidance through the introduction of a virtual ward.

    PubMed

    Jones, Joanne; Carroll, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    The ageing British population is placing increased demands on the delivery of care in mainstream health-care institutions. While people are living longer, a significant percentage is also living with one or more long-term conditions. These issues, alongside continuing financial austerity measures, require a radical improvement in the care of patients away from hospitals. The Wyre Forest Clinical Commissioning Group introduced a virtual ward model for two main purposes: to save on spiralling costs of hospital admissions, and, secondly, to ensure the preferred wishes of most patients to be cared for and even die at home were achieved. This commentary describes how the virtual ward model was implemented and the impact of preventing unplanned emergency admissions to hospitals. The setting up of enhanced care services and virtual wards in one county is discussed, aiming to highlight success points and potential pitfalls to avoid. The results from the implementation of the virtual ward model show a significant reduction in emergency and avoidable patient admissions to hospital. The success of virtual wards is dependent on integrated working between different health-care disciplines. PMID:25039341

  13. Neural correlates of cigarette health warning avoidance among smokers

    PubMed Central

    Stothart, George; Maynard, Olivia; Lavis, Rosie; Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background Eye-tracking technology has indicated that daily smokers actively avoid pictorial cigarette package health warnings. Avoidance may be due to a pre-cognitive perceptual bias or a higher order cognitive bias, such as reduced emotional processing. Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study aimed to identify the temporal point at which smokers’ responses to health warnings begin to differ. Method Non-smokers (n = 20) and daily smokers (n = 20) viewed pictorial cigarette package health warnings and neutral control stimuli. These elicited Event Related Potentials reflecting early perceptual processing (visual P1), pre-attentive change detection (visual Mismatch Negativity), selective attentional orientation (P3) and a measure of emotional processing, the Late Positive Potential (LPP). Results There was no evidence for a difference in P1 responses between smokers and non-smokers. There was no difference in vMMN and P3 amplitude but some evidence for a delay in vMMN latency amongst smokers. There was strong evidence for delayed and reduced LPP to health warning stimuli amongst smokers compared to non-smokers. Conclusion We find no evidence for an early perceptual bias in smokers’ visual perception of health warnings but strong evidence that smokers are less sensitive to the emotional content of cigarette health warnings. Future health warning development should focus on increasing the emotional salience of pictorial health warning content amongst smokers. PMID:26874916

  14. Assuring Ground-Based Detect and Avoid for UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganeshmadhav Jagadeesh; Berthold, Randall; Fladeland, Matthew; Storms, Bruce; Sumich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the Marginal Ice Zones Observations and Processes Experiment (MIZOPEX) NASA Earth science mission was to show the operational capabilities of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when deployed on challenging missions, in difficult environments. Given the extreme conditions of the Arctic environment where MIZOPEX measurements were required, the mission opted to use a radar to provide a ground-based detect-and-avoid (GBDAA) capability as an alternate means of compliance (AMOC) with the see-and-avoid federal aviation regulation. This paper describes how GBDAA safety assurance was provided by interpreting and applying the guidelines in the national policy for UAS operational approval. In particular, we describe how we formulated the appropriate safety goals, defined the processes and procedures for system safety, identified and assembled the relevant safety verification evidence, and created an operational safety case in compliance with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requirements. To the best of our knowledge, the safety case, which was ultimately approved by the FAA, is the first successful example of non-military UAS operations using GBDAA in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS), and, therefore, the first nonmilitary application of the safety case concept in this context.

  15. Teacher Distress and the Role of Experiential Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Erika; Jones, Laura Backen; Gau, Jeffrey M.; Forrester, Kathleen K.; Biglan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ psychological wellbeing is important for teachers and students, but is highly stressful, particularly in special education. We examined the role of experiential avoidance (EA) in the wellbeing of 529 middle and elementary school teachers. EA involves the tendency to avoid thoughts, feelings, and other internal experiences even when doing so causes long-range consequences. Using a teacher-specific measure, we investigated its relationship to stress associated with student misbehavior and limited social support. We assessed EA’s relationship to burnout and depression, finding EA significantly and moderately correlated with depression and all scales of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory. Mediation analyses showed EA mediated the relationship between stress associated with student behavior and measures of wellbeing. We found 26.8% of teachers mildly, 8.9% moderately, and 2.8% moderately severely or severely depressed. This evidence concurs with studies showing the value of mindfulness-based interventions and points to the utility of implementing interventions aimed at decreasing EA in teachers. PMID:25691804

  16. Reexamining individual differences in women's rape avoidance behaviors.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jeffrey K; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2013-05-01

    A growing number of investigators explore evolutionary psychological hypotheses concerning the avoidance of rape using self-report measures of behavior. Among the most recent and most ambitious, is the work of McKibbin et al. (2011). McKibbin et al. presented evidence supporting their predictions that such behaviors would vary according to the individual's physical attractiveness, relationship status, and proximity to kin. In addition, McKibbin et al. predicted, but failed to find evidence, that age would exercise a similar influence. We question McKibbin et al.'s position on both theoretical and empirical grounds, arguing that (1) two of their predictions do not rule out alternative explanations, and (2) their key supporting findings may well be artifacts of their measurement instrument, the Rape Avoidance Inventory (RAI). Employing new empirical evidence derived from a broader sample of U.S. women, we simultaneously tested McKibbin et al.'s predictions and compared the RAI to alternative dependent measures. We found that McKibbin et al.'s substantive predictions were not supported, and suggest that there may be limits to the utility of the RAI beyond one specific demographic category. PMID:22722957

  17. Dynamic obstacle avoidance using Bayesian Occupancy Filter and approximate inference.

    PubMed

    Llamazares, Angel; Ivan, Vladimir; Molinos, Eduardo; Ocaña, Manuel; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to solve the problem of dynamic obstacle avoidance for a mobile platform using the stochastic optimal control framework to compute paths that are optimal in terms of safety and energy efficiency under constraints. We propose a three-dimensional extension of the Bayesian Occupancy Filter (BOF) (Coué et al. Int. J. Rob. Res. 2006, 25, 19-30) to deal with the noise in the sensor data, improving the perception stage. We reduce the computational cost of the perception stage by estimating the velocity of each obstacle using optical flow tracking and blob filtering. While several obstacle avoidance systems have been presented in the literature addressing safety and optimality of the robot motion separately, we have applied the approximate inference framework to this problem to combine multiple goals, constraints and priors in a structured way. It is important to remark that the problem involves obstacles that can be moving, therefore classical techniques based on reactive control are not optimal from the point of view of energy consumption. Some experimental results, including comparisons against classical algorithms that highlight the advantages, are presented. PMID:23529117

  18. Accumbens dopamine-acetylcholine balance in approach and avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.; Rada, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Summary Understanding systems for approach and avoidance is basic for behavioral neuroscience. Research on the neural organization and functions of the dorsal striatum in movement disorders, such as Huntington's and Parkinson's Disease, can inform the study of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in motivational disorders, such as addiction and depression. We propose opposing roles for dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the NAc in the control of GABA output systems for approach and avoidance. Contrary to DA, which fosters approach, ACh release is a correlate or cause of meal satiation, conditioned taste aversion and aversive brain stimulation. ACh may also counteract excessive DA-mediated approach behavior as revealed during withdrawal from drugs of abuse or sugar, when the animal enters an ACh-mediated state of anxiety and behavioral depression. This review summarizes evidence that ACh is important in the inhibition of behavior when extracellular DA is high and the generation of an anxious or depressed state when DA is relatively low. PMID:18023617

  19. Neuroprotection by radical avoidance: search for suitable agents.

    PubMed

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2009-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is frequently associated with damage by free radicals. However, increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which may ultimately lead to neuronal cell death, do not necessarily reflect its primary cause, but can be a consequence of otherwise induced cellular dysfunction. Detrimental processes which promote free radical formation are initiated, e.g., by disturbances in calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial malfunction, and an age-related decline in the circadian oscillator system. Free radicals generated at high rates under pathophysiological conditions are insufficiently detoxified by scavengers. Interventions at the primary causes of dysfunction, which avoid secondary rises in radical formation, may be more efficient. The aim of such approaches should be to prevent calcium overload, to reduce mitochondrial electron dissipation, to support electron transport capacity, and to avoid circadian perturbations. L-theanine and several amphiphilic nitrones are capable of counteracting excitotoxicity and/or mitochondrial radical formation. Resveratrol seems to promote mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial effects of leptin include attenuation of electron leakage. Melatonin combines all the requirements mentioned, additionally regulates anti- and pro-oxidant enzymes and is, with few exceptions, very well tolerated. In this review, the perspectives, problems and limits of drugs are compared which may be suitable for reducing the formation of free radicals. PMID:20032877

  20. Disgust: the disease-avoidance emotion and its dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Graham C. L.

    2011-01-01

    This review analyses the accumulating evidence from psychological, psychophysiological, neurobiological and cognitive studies suggesting that the disease-avoidance emotion of disgust is a predominant emotion experienced in a number of psychopathologies. Current evidence suggests that disgust is significantly related to small animal phobias (particularly spider phobia), blood–injection–injury phobia and obsessive–compulsive disorder contamination fears, and these are all disorders that have primary disgust elicitors as a significant component of their psychopathology. Disgust propensity and sensitivity are also significantly associated with measures of a number of other psychopathologies, including eating disorders, sexual dysfunctions, hypochondriasis, height phobia, claustrophobia, separation anxiety, agoraphobia and symptoms of schizophrenia—even though many of these psychopathologies do not share the disease-avoidance functionality that characterizes disgust. There is accumulating evidence that disgust does represent an important vulnerability factor for many of these psychopathologies, but when disgust-relevant psychopathologies do meet the criteria required for clinical diagnosis, they are characterized by significant levels of both disgust and fear/anxiety. Finally, it has been argued that disgust may also facilitate anxiety and distress across a broad range of psychopathologies through its involvement in more complex human emotions such as shame and guilt, and through its effect as a negative affect emotion generating threat-interpretation biases. PMID:22042921

  1. Control of a serpentine manipulator with collision avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The robotics lab at the Kennedy Space Center is investigating the possibility of using a 'serpentine' manipulator for Shuttle inspection and payload processing. Serpentine manipulators are characterized by a large number of degrees of freedom giving them a high degree of redundancy. This redundancy allows them to be used to reach confined areas while avoiding collisions with their environment. In this paper, the author describes a new approach to controlling the joint rates for an n degree of freedom robot such that it moves its end effector to a desired position while simultaneously avoiding collision of any part of the robot arm with obstacles. Joint rates which move the end effector toward the target are found via a Lyapunov stability function. The gradient of an obstacle cost function indicates the direction toward obstacle collision in the joint space. The component of the end effector joint rates orthogonal to the obstacle gradient becomes the commanded joint rates. A notional eleven DOF model is used to numerically demonstrate the efficacy of the control law.

  2. Experiential avoidance and well-being: a daily diary analysis.

    PubMed

    Machell, Kyla A; Goodman, Fallon R; Kashdan, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is a regulatory strategy characterised by efforts to control or avoid unpleasant thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations. Most studies of EA have used trait measures without considering the effects of EA on psychological functioning in naturalistic settings. To address this gap, we used daily diary methodology to examine the influence of EA of anxiety on everyday well-being. For two weeks, 89 participants provided daily reports of EA, positive and negative affect, enjoyment of daily events and meaning in life (MIL). Daily EA predicted higher negative affect, lower positive affect, less enjoyment of daily events (exercising, eating food and listening to music) and less MIL. The effect of EA on positive affect was not accounted for by the amount of negative affect experienced. Our daily measure of EA was a stronger predictor of daily well-being than a traditional trait measure (The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire). Taken together, results offer insights into the adverse effects of EA on daily well-being and suggest that EA is a context-specific regulatory strategy that might be best captured using a state-dependent measure. PMID:24800802

  3. Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Germain, Ryan R; Duthie, A Bradley; Losdat, Sylvain; Wolak, Matthew E; Nietlisbach, Pirmin

    2015-01-01

    Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesized to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females’ alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially paired male. However, such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring that die during early development. Analyses of multigenerational song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) pedigree data showed that most females had opportunity to increase or decrease the coefficient of inbreeding of their offspring through extra-pair reproduction with neighboring males. In practice, observed extra-pair offspring had lower inbreeding coefficients than females’ within-pair offspring on average, while the probability of extra-pair reproduction increased substantially with the coefficient of kinship between a female and her socially paired male. However, simulations showed that such effects could simply reflect bias stemming from inbreeding depression in early offspring survival. The null hypothesis that extra-pair reproduction is random with respect to kinship therefore cannot be definitively rejected in song sparrows, and existing general evidence that females avoid inbreeding through extra-pair reproduction requires reevaluation given such biases. PMID:25346331

  4. Dynamic Obstacle Avoidance Using Bayesian Occupancy Filter and Approximate Inference

    PubMed Central

    Llamazares, Ángel; Ivan, Vladimir; Molinos, Eduardo; Ocaña, Manuel; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to solve the problem of dynamic obstacle avoidance for a mobile platform by using the stochastic optimal control framework to compute paths that are optimal in terms of safety and energy efficiency under constraints. We propose a three-dimensional extension of the Bayesian Occupancy Filter (BOF) (Coué et al. Int. J. Rob. Res. 2006, 25, 19–30) to deal with the noise in the sensor data, improving the perception stage. We reduce the computational cost of the perception stage by estimating the velocity of each obstacle using optical flow tracking and blob filtering. While several obstacle avoidance systems have been presented in the literature addressing safety and optimality of the robot motion separately, we have applied the approximate inference framework to this problem to combine multiple goals, constraints and priors in a structured way. It is important to remark that the problem involves obstacles that can be moving, therefore classical techniques based on reactive control are not optimal from the point of view of energy consumption. Some experimental results, including comparisons against classical algorithms that highlight the advantages are presented. PMID:23529117

  5. Natural visual cues eliciting predator avoidance in fiddler crabs

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Jochen; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    To efficiently provide an animal with relevant information, the design of its visual system should reflect the distribution of natural signals and the animal's tasks. In many behavioural contexts, however, we know comparatively little about the moment-to-moment information-processing challenges animals face in their daily lives. In predator avoidance, for instance, we lack an accurate description of the natural signal stream and its value for risk assessment throughout the prey's defensive behaviour. We characterized the visual signals generated by real, potentially predatory events by video-recording bird approaches towards an Uca vomeris colony. Using four synchronized cameras allowed us to simultaneously monitor predator avoidance responses of crabs. We reconstructed the signals generated by dangerous and non-dangerous flying animals, identified the cues that triggered escape responses and compared them with those triggering responses to dummy predators. Fiddler crabs responded to a combination of multiple visual cues (including retinal speed, elevation and visual flicker) that reflect the visual signatures of distinct bird and insect behaviours. This allowed crabs to discriminate between dangerous and non-dangerous events. The results demonstrate the importance of measuring natural sensory signatures of biologically relevant events in order to understand biological information processing and its effects on behavioural organization. PMID:21490009

  6. European operative registry to avoid complications in operative gynecology.

    PubMed

    Putz, Andreas; Bohlin, Tonje; Rakovan, Martin; Putz, Ariane Maria; De Wilde, Rudy Leon

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine how complications can be avoided in gynecological minimally invasive surgery in Europe. The Norwegian Gynecological Endoscopic Registry (NGER) facilitates medical research over a long duration. Can experiences from the Norwegian registry be used to develop a European registry to avoid complications? To answer this question, we used the NGER data from February 2013 until March 2015 to analyze the complications of gynecological endoscopy. The registry includes sociodemographic factors, related comorbidity, previous surgery, present procedure, and intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications were identified with a questionnaire administered 4 weeks after surgery. The risk factors leading to complications in gynecological endoscopy were found to be obesity, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, previous surgery due to cervical carcinoma in situ, and low educational level. Regional differences in the complication rate were noted. National web-based operation registries such as the NGER can identify the risk factors for complications of gynecological endoscopic surgery and can help improve the outcome after surgery. The experience from NGER can be used to establish a European register. PMID:26805611

  7. Flu, risks, and videotape: escalating fear and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, Heather; John, Richard S; Prager, Fynnwin

    2012-04-01

    While extensive risk perception research has focused on emotions, cognitions, and behavior at static points in time, less attention has been paid to how these variables might change over time. This study assesses how negative affect, threat beliefs, perceived risk, and intended avoidance behavior change over the course of an escalating biological disaster. A scenario simulation methodology was used that presents respondents with a video simulation of a 15-day series of local news reports to immerse respondents in the developing details of the disaster. Systemic manipulation of the virus's causal origin (terrorist attack, medical lab accident, unknown) and the respondent's proximity to the virus (local vs. opposite coast) allowed us to investigate the dynamics of public response. The unfolding scenario was presented in discrete episodes, allowing responses to be tracked over the episodes. The sample includes 600 respondents equally split by sex and by location, with half in the Washington, DC area, and half in the Los Angeles area. The results showed respondents' reactions to the flu epidemic increased as the disaster escalated. More importantly, there was considerable consistency across respondents' emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to the epidemic over the episodes. In addition, the reactions of respondents proximally closer to the epidemic increased more rapidly and with greater intensity than their distant counterparts. Finally, as the flu epidemic escalated, both terrorist and accidental flu releases were perceived as being less risky and were less likely to lead to avoidance behavior compared to the unknown flu release. PMID:22332702

  8. Avoiding Obstructions in Aiming a High-Gain Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2006-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna Pointing and Obstruction Avoidance software performs computations for pointing a Mars Rover high-gain antenna for communication with Earth while (1) avoiding line-of-sight obstructions (the Martian terrain and other parts of the Rover) that would block communication and (2) taking account of limits in ranges of motion of antenna gimbals and of kinematic singularities in gimbal mechanisms. The software uses simplified geometric models of obstructions and of the trajectory of the Earth in the Martian sky(see figure). It treats all obstructions according to a generalized approach, computing and continually updating the time remaining before interception of each obstruction. In cases in which the gimbal-mechanism design allows two aiming solutions, the algorithm chooses the solution that provides the longest obstruction-free Earth-tracking time. If the communication session continues until an obstruction is encountered in the current pointing solution and the other solution is now unobstructed, then the algorithm automatically switches to the other position. This software also notifies communication- managing software to cease transmission during the switch to the unobstructed position, resuming it when the switch is complete.

  9. Natural visual cues eliciting predator avoidance in fiddler crabs.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Jochen; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M

    2011-12-01

    To efficiently provide an animal with relevant information, the design of its visual system should reflect the distribution of natural signals and the animal's tasks. In many behavioural contexts, however, we know comparatively little about the moment-to-moment information-processing challenges animals face in their daily lives. In predator avoidance, for instance, we lack an accurate description of the natural signal stream and its value for risk assessment throughout the prey's defensive behaviour. We characterized the visual signals generated by real, potentially predatory events by video-recording bird approaches towards an Uca vomeris colony. Using four synchronized cameras allowed us to simultaneously monitor predator avoidance responses of crabs. We reconstructed the signals generated by dangerous and non-dangerous flying animals, identified the cues that triggered escape responses and compared them with those triggering responses to dummy predators. Fiddler crabs responded to a combination of multiple visual cues (including retinal speed, elevation and visual flicker) that reflect the visual signatures of distinct bird and insect behaviours. This allowed crabs to discriminate between dangerous and non-dangerous events. The results demonstrate the importance of measuring natural sensory signatures of biologically relevant events in order to understand biological information processing and its effects on behavioural organization. PMID:21490009

  10. Avoidance and tolerance of freezing in ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates have colonized regions that are seasonally or perpetually cold, and some species, particularly terrestrial hibernators, must cope with temperatures that fall substantially below 0°C. Survival of such excursions depends on either freeze avoidance through supercooling or freeze tolerance. Supercooling, a metastable state in which body fluids remain liquid below the equilibrium freezing/melting point, is promoted by physiological responses that protect against chilling injury and by anatomical and behavioral traits that limit risk of inoculative freezing by environmental ice and ice-nucleating agents. Freeze tolerance evolved from responses to fundamental stresses to permit survival of the freezing of a substantial amount of body water under thermal and temporal conditions of ecological relevance. Survival of freezing is promoted by a complex suite of molecular, biochemical and physiological responses that limit cell death from excessive shrinkage, damage to macromolecules and membranes, metabolic perturbation and oxidative stress. Although freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance generally are mutually exclusive strategies, a few species can switch between them, the mode used in a particular instance of chilling depending on prevailing physiological and environmental conditions. PMID:23678097

  11. Cow's milk allergy in children, from avoidance to tolerance.

    PubMed

    Calligaris, Lorenzo; Longo, Giorgio; Badina, Laura; Berti, Irene; Barbi, Egidio

    2014-03-01

    Food allergy is the primary cause of anaphylaxis in paediatric age affecting roughly 4% of children and their families worldwide, and requiring changes in dietary habits. The prognosis for food allergy in children has traditionally been regarded as good for the most frequent allergens, however the prognosis for cow's milk allergy in the pediatric age is currently considered to be worse than previously believed. There is now enough evidence that measures of avoidance for children at risk did not have any preventive effect whatsoever, but they still came to be counterproductive by avoiding the physiological interaction between food allergens and gastrointestinal mucosal immune system. Programs of specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) have obtained interesting results in the treatment of food allergy supporting the idea that antigen exposure through gastrointestinal section is important to allow the development of tolerance. Nevertheless this approach is not yet considered "ready" for community recommendations. In this paper we describe our experience in the field of SOTI in children with cow's milk allergy. PMID:24450451

  12. Human Threat Management Systems: Self-Protection and Disease Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Neuberg, Steven L.; Kenrick, Douglas T.; Schaller, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Humans likely evolved precautionary systems designed to minimize the threats to reproductive fitness posed by highly interdependent ultrasociality. A review of research on the self-protection and disease avoidance systems reveals that each system is functionally distinct and domain-specific: Each is attuned to different cues; engages different emotions, inferences, and behavioral inclinations; and is rooted in somewhat different neurobiological substrates. These systems share important features, however. Each system is functionally coherent, in that perceptual, affective, cognitive, and behavioral processes work in concert to reduce fitness costs of potential threats. Each system is biased in a risk-averse manner, erring toward precautionary responses even when available cues only heuristically imply threat. And each system is functionally flexible, being highly sensitive to specific ecological and dispositional cues that signal greater vulnerability to the relevant threat. These features characterize a general template useful for understanding not only the self-protection and disease avoidance systems, but also a broader set of evolved, domain-specific precautionary systems. PMID:20833199

  13. Too close to home. Factors predicting meat avoidance.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J

    2012-08-01

    In most societies, meat is valued more highly, yet tabooed more frequently, than any other type of food. Past research suggests that people avoid eating animals they consider similar to themselves, but what specific factors influence which they eat, and which they avoid? Across an array of samples from the USA, Canada, Hong Kong, and India, perceived animal intelligence and appearance emerged as the chief predictors of disgust at the thought of eating them. Furthermore, reflecting on animals' psychological attributes increased reported disgust, especially among Euro-Canadians and Euro-Americans, suggesting that these factors are more influential in shaping disgust in individualistic cultural contexts. Concordant with past research, disgust was a major predictor of willingness to eat animals, but social influence (frequency of consumption by friends and family) also emerged as a strong predictor, especially among Hong Kong Chinese and Indians, providing evidence that one's friends and family have a stronger influence on one's food choices in collectivistic cultural contexts. PMID:22465239

  14. Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy to Avoid Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Shocks

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Jaber

    2016-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective in the prevention of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death. Many patients receiving an ICD are affected by heart failure and are at risk of ventricular arrhythmias, which may lead to appropriate shocks. On the other hand, in this population the incidence of atrial fibrillation, giving rise to inappropriate ICD shocks, is high. Accordingly, ICD discharges occur frequently and many patients with an ICD will need concomitant antiarrhythmic drug therapy to avoid or reduce the frequency of shocks. Therapeutic agents such as β-blockers, class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs effectively suppress arrhythmias, but may have side-effects. Some drugs could eventually influence the function of ICDs by altering defibrillation or pacing threshold. Few prospective randomised trials are available, but current data suggest that amiodarone is most effective for prevention of appropriate or inappropriate ICD shocks. This review article summarises current knowledge regarding the antiarrhythmic management of patients with ICDs.

  15. Avoiding occlusal derangement in facial fractures: An evidence based approach.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Derick; Kenkere, Deepika

    2013-05-01

    Facial fractures with occlusal derangement describe any fracture which directly or indirectly affects the occlusal relationship. Such fractures include dento-alveolar fractures in the maxilla and mandible, midface fractures - Le fort I, II, III and mandible fractures of the symphysis, parasymphysis, body, angle, and condyle. In some of these fractures, the fracture line runs through the dento-alveolar component whereas in others the fracture line is remote from the occlusal plane nevertheless altering the occlusion. The complications that could ensue from the management of maxillofacial fractures are predominantly iatrogenic, and therefore can be avoided if adequate care is exercised by the operating surgeon. This paper does not emphasize on complications arising from any particular technique in the management of maxillofacial fractures but rather discusses complications in general, irrespective of the technique used. PMID:24501457

  16. Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ritchie; Kochenderfer, Mykel J.; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Brat, Guillaume P.; Owen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable method to efficiently search for the most likely state trajectory leading to an event given only a simulator of a system. Our approach uses a reinforcement learning formulation and solves it using Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS). The approach places very few requirements on the underlying system, requiring only that the simulator provide some basic controls, the ability to evaluate certain conditions, and a mechanism to control the stochasticity in the system. Access to the system state is not required, allowing the method to support systems with hidden state. The method is applied to stress test a prototype aircraft collision avoidance system to identify trajectories that are likely to lead to near mid-air collisions. We present results for both single and multi-threat encounters and discuss their relevance. Compared with direct Monte Carlo search, this MCTS method performs significantly better both in finding events and in maximizing their likelihood.

  17. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Thelander, Carl; Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger.

  18. Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy to Avoid Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Shocks.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Jaber; R Ehrlich, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective in the prevention of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death. Many patients receiving an ICD are affected by heart failure and are at risk of ventricular arrhythmias, which may lead to appropriate shocks. On the other hand, in this population the incidence of atrial fibrillation, giving rise to inappropriate ICD shocks, is high. Accordingly, ICD discharges occur frequently and many patients with an ICD will need concomitant antiarrhythmic drug therapy to avoid or reduce the frequency of shocks. Therapeutic agents such as β-blockers, class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs effectively suppress arrhythmias, but may have side-effects. Some drugs could eventually influence the function of ICDs by altering defibrillation or pacing threshold. Few prospective randomised trials are available, but current data suggest that amiodarone is most effective for prevention of appropriate or inappropriate ICD shocks. This review article summarises current knowledge regarding the antiarrhythmic management of patients with ICDs. PMID:27617090

  19. Singularity avoidance in the hybrid quantization of the Gowdy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrío, Paula; Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.

    2013-10-01

    One of the most remarkable phenomena in loop quantum cosmology is that, at least for homogeneous cosmological models, the big bang is replaced with a big bounce that connects our Universe with a previous branch without passing through a cosmological singularity. The goal of this work is to study the existence of singularities in loop quantum cosmology, including inhomogeneities, and check whether the behavior obtained in the purely homogeneous setting continues to be valid. With this aim, we focus our attention on the three-torus Gowdy cosmologies with linearly polarized gravitational waves and use effective dynamics to carry out the analysis. For this model, we prove that all the potential cosmological singularities are avoided, generalizing the results about resolution of singularities to this scenario with inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that, if a bounce in the (Bianchi background) volume occurs, the inhomogeneities increase the value of this volume at the bounce with respect to its counterpart in the homogeneous case.

  20. Avoidance of unfavourable results following primary flexor tendon surgery

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, D.; Giesen, T.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes the biological problems faced by those managing primary flexor tendon injuries and explains why these problems still thwart attempts to achieve normal, or near normal, function after this injury, despite a century of surgical effort. It considers the historical background of the early 20th century attempts to improve the results and analyses the clinical usefulness of more recent research into tendon core and circumferential suture modification, including the authors’ work in this field, and changes in post-operative mobilisation over the last 50 years. More recent manipulation of the sheath to improve results and the future possibility of manipulation of adhesions are discussed. It also discusses other factors, e.g., the patient, the experience of the surgeon, the use of therapists, the timing of repair, complex injuries, injuries in zones other than zone 2, which can have a bearing on the results and considers how these can be modified to avoid an unfavourable outcome. PMID:24501468

  1. How much climate change can be avoided by mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, Warren M.; Knutti, Reto; Meehl, Gerald A.; Teng, Haiyan; Tebaldi, Claudia; Lawrence, David; Buja, Lawrence; Strand, Warren G.

    2009-04-01

    Avoiding the most serious climate change impacts will require informed policy decisions. This in turn will require information regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions required to stabilize climate in a state not too much warmer than today. A new low emission scenario is simulated in a global climate model to show how some of the impacts from climate change can be averted through mitigation. Compared to a non-intervention reference scenario, emission reductions of about 70% by 2100 are required to prevent roughly half the change in temperature and precipitation that would otherwise occur. By 2100, the resulting stabilized global climate would ensure preservation of considerable Arctic sea ice and permafrost areas. Future heat waves would be 55% less intense, and sea level rise from thermal expansion would be about 57% lower than if a non-mitigation scenario was followed.

  2. Folk beliefs about genetic variation predict avoidance of biracial individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sonia K.; Plaks, Jason E.; Remedios, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    People give widely varying estimates for the amount of genetic overlap that exists between humans. While some laypeople believe that humans are highly genetically similar to one another, others believe that humans share very little genetic overlap. These studies examine how beliefs about genetic overlap affect neural and evaluative reactions to racially-ambiguous and biracial targets. In Study 1, we found that lower genetic overlap estimates predicted a stronger neural avoidance response to biracial compared to monoracial targets. In Study 2, we found that lower genetic overlap estimates predicted longer response times to classify biracial (vs. monoracial) faces into racial categories. In Study 3, we manipulated genetic overlap beliefs and found that participants in the low overlap condition explicitly rated biracial targets more negatively than those in the high overlap condition. Taken together, these data suggest that genetic overlap beliefs influence perceivers’ processing fluency and evaluation of biracial and racially-ambiguous individuals. PMID:25904875

  3. A Constrained Multibody System Dynamics Avoiding Kinematic Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Fang; Yan, Chang-Dau; Jeng, Shyr-Long; Cheing, Wei-Hua

    In the analysis of constrained multibody systems, the constraint reaction forces are normally expressed in terms of the constraint equations and a vector of Lagrange multipliers. Because it fails to incorporate conservation of momentum, the Lagrange multiplier method is deficient when the constraint Jacobian matrix is singular. This paper presents an improved dynamic formulation for the constrained multibody system. In our formulation, the kinematic constraints are still formulated in terms of the joint constraint reaction forces and moments; however, the formulations are based on a second-order Taylor expansion so as to incorporate the rigid body velocities. Conservation of momentum is included explicitly in this method; hence the problems caused by kinematic singularities can be avoided. In addition, the dynamic formulation is general and applicable to most dynamic analyses. Finally the 3-leg Stewart platform is used for the example of analysis.

  4. Avoiding type III, IV, and V errors through collaborative research.

    PubMed

    Yamatani, Hide; Mann, Aaron; Feit, Marvin

    2013-01-01

    Major types of empirical errors reviewed by a number of leading research textbooks include discussions of Type I and Type II errors. However, applied human service researchers can commit other types of errors that should be avoided. The potential benefits of the applied, collaborative research (in contrast to traditional participatory research) include an assurance that the study begins with the "right" questions that are important for community residents. Such research practice also helps generate useful research findings for decisions regarding redistribution of resources and resolving community issues. The aim of collaborative research is not merely to advance scientific understanding, but also to produce empirical findings that are usable for addressing priority needs and problems of distressed communities. A review of a case example (Garfield Community Assessment Study) illustrates the principles and practices of collaborative research. PMID:23879359

  5. Windshear avoidance - Requirements and proposed system for airborne lidar detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell; Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    A generalized windshear hazard index is derived from considerations of wind conditions and an aircraft's present and potential altitude. Based on a systems approach to the windshear threat, lidar appears to be a viable methodology for windshear detection and avoidance, even in conditions of moderately heavy precipitation. The airborne CO2 and Ho:YAG lidar windshear detection systems analyzed can each give the pilot information about the line-of-sight component of windshear threat from his present position to a region extending 1 to 3 km in front of the aircraft. This constitutes a warning time of 15 to 45 s. The technology necessary to design, build and test such a brassboard 10.6-micron CO2 lidar is at hand.

  6. Living with climate change: avoiding conflict through adaptation in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørstad, H.; Webersik, C.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, research on climate change and human security has received much attention among policy makers and academia alike. Communities in the Global South that rely on an intact resource base will especially be affected by predicted changes in temperature and precipitation. The objective of this article is to better understand under what conditions local communities can adapt to anticipated impacts of climate change and avoid conflict over the loss of resources. The empirical part of the paper answers the question to what extent local communities in the Chilwa Basin in Malawi have experienced climate change and how they are affected by it. Further, it assesses one of Malawi's adaptation projects designed to build resilience to a warmer and more variable climate, and points to some of its limitations. This research shows that not all adaptation strategies are suited to cope with a warmer and more variable climate.

  7. Radar system on a large autonomous vehicle for personnel avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvious, Jerry; Wellman, Ron; Tahmoush, Dave; Clark, John

    2010-04-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory designed, developed and tested a novel switched beam radar system operating at 76 GHz for use in a large autonomous vehicle to detect and identify roadway obstructions including slowly-moving personnel. This paper discusses the performance requirements for the system to operate in an early collision avoidance mode to a range of 150 meters and at speeds of over 20 m/s. We report the measured capabilities of the system to operate in these modes under various conditions, such as rural and urban environments, and on various terrains, such as asphalt and grass. Finally, we discuss the range-Doppler map processing capabilities that were developed to correct for platform motion and identify roadway vehicles and personnel moving at 1 m/s or more along the path of the system.

  8. Avoiding failed reconstitution of ultradeformable liposomes upon dehydration.

    PubMed

    Montanari, J; Roncaglia, D I; Lado, L A; Morilla, M J; Romero, E L

    2009-05-01

    Although freeze-drying is an ordinarily used technique to dehydrate conventional liposomes, we have found that ultradeformable liposomes (UDLs) suffered irreversible aggregation when rehydrated upon freeze-drying (99.4% water elimination), even in high sugar content (4/1 sucrose/lipid mass ratio). When dehydrated by speed vac and vacuum drying, two alternative techniques that rendered less pronounced dehydration (94.27 and 96.2% water elimination, respectively) and avoid ice formation, however, UDL could only be successfully rehydrated when vacuum dried in 4/1 sucrose/lipid mass ratios. Conventional liposomes, on the other hand, were successfully reconstituted upon dehydrated by the three methods in lower sugar content (2/1 sucrose/lipid mass ratio). These results indicated that the 27% mole sodium cholate within the UDL lipid matrix was responsible for a greater and differential mechanical sensitivity of the bilayers to the different dehydration stress, as compared to conventional liposomes. PMID:19429279

  9. Application of an ADS-B Sense and Avoid Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Kotcher, Robert; Cavalin, Moshe; Dandachy, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California is leading a program aimed towards integrating unmanned aircraft system into the national airspace system (UAS in the NAS). The overarching goal of the program is to reduce technical barriers associated with related safety issues as well as addressing challenges that will allow UAS routine access to the national airspace. This research paper focuses on three novel ideas: (1) A design of an integrated UAS equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast that constructs a more accurate state-based airspace model; (2) The use of Stratway Algorithm in a real-time environment; and (3) The verification and validation of sense and avoid performance and usability test results which provide a pilot's perspective on how our system will benefit the UAS in the NAS program for both piloted and unmanned aircraft.

  10. A real-time robot arm collision avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Clifford A.; Herb, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A data structure and update algorithm are presented for a prototype real-time collision avoidance safety system simulating a multirobot workspace. The data structure is a variant of the octree, which serves as a spatial index. An octree recursively decomposes 3D space into eight equal cubic octants until each octant meets some decomposition criteria. The N-objects octree, which indexes a collection of 3D primitive solids is used. These primitives make up the two (seven-degrees-of-freedom) robot arms and workspace modeled by the system. As robot arms move, the octree is updated to reflect their changed positions. During most update cycles, any given primitive does not change which octree nodes it is in. Thus, modification to the octree is rarely required. Cycle time for interpreting current arm joint angles, updating the octree to reflect new positions, and detecting/reporting imminent collisions averages 30 ms on an Intel 80386 processor running at 20 MHz.

  11. Nursing Home Resident Symptomatology Triggering Transfer: Avoiding Unnecessary Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Ashcraft, Alyce S.; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nursing home resident symptomatology and medical diagnoses associated with nursing home to hospital transfers. A retrospective chart review of documented transfers was conducted at a 120-bed, nonprofit urban Continuing Care Retirement Center nursing home facility located in the southwestern United States. The transferred residents (n = 101) had seventy different medical diagnoses prior to hospital transfer with hypertension, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure most frequently reported. Most frequently reported symptomatology included fatigue, lethargy or weakness, shortness of breath, and change in level of consciousness. Multiple symptomatology was indicative of a wide variety of medical diagnoses. The diagnoses and symptomatology recorded in this paper identify the importance of strategic planning concerning assessment and communication of common nursing home resident symptomatology and the importance of basic nursing and diagnostic procedures for prevention of potentially avoidable hospitalizations. PMID:23091714

  12. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses sequential probability ratio tests that explicitly allow decision-makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models the null hypotheses that the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming, highly elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

  13. Safe Practice of Cosmetic Dermatology: Avoiding Legal Tangles

    PubMed Central

    Sacchidanand, Sarvajnamurthy A; Bhat, Shilpa

    2012-01-01

    The present day dermatologists, in addition to conventional skin physicians, are also dermatologic-surgeons and cosmetologists in their practice. The cosmetic procedures have the inherent risk of malpractice litigations leaving an unsatisfied patient and a troublesome lawsuit against the doctor. A MEDLINE search was conducted for article with words such as legal issues and dermatology, malpractice in dermatology, safe practice of cosmetology etc. The selected articles are scrutinized and compiled so as to help the young dermatologists to have a comprehensive overview of safe cosmetology practice. This article aims at sensitizing the young dermatologists for the possible complications and provides an overview of safe practice. It also provides a list of simple routine precautions which helps the dermatologist to avoid unnecessary trips to the courthouse. PMID:23112511

  14. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry. PMID:26744049

  15. Avoided level crossings in very highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Scofield, J. H.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, M. H.; Hell, N.; Osterheld, A. L.; Vogel, D. A.; Wong, K. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report a systematic measurement of the (2p1/2 -13 d3/2) J =1 and (2s1/2 -13 p1/2) J =1 levels in 14 neonlike ions between Ba46 + and Pb72 + and document the effects of their avoided crossing near Z =68 . Strong mixing affects the oscillator strengths over a surprisingly wide range of atomic numbers and leads to the vanishing of one transition two atomic numbers below the crossing. The crossing voids the otherwise correct expectation that the (2p1/2 -13 d3/2) J =1 level energy is only weakly affected by quantum electrodynamics (QED). For about 10 atomic numbers surrounding the crossing, its QED contributions are anomalously large, attaining almost equality to those affecting the (2s1/2 -13 p1/2) J =1 level. As a result, the accuracy of energy level calculations appears compromised near the crossing.

  16. Adsorbed self-avoiding walks subject to a force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.; Whittington, S. G.

    2013-11-01

    We consider a self-avoiding walk model of polymer adsorption where the adsorbed polymer can be desorbed by the application of a force. In this paper the force is applied normal to the surface at the last vertex of the walk. We prove that the appropriate limiting free energy exists where there is an applied force and a surface potential term, and prove that this free energy is convex in appropriate variables. We then derive an expression for the limiting free energy in terms of the free energy without a force and the free energy with no surface interaction. Finally we show that there is a phase boundary between the adsorbed phase and the desorbed phase in the presence of a force, prove some qualitative properties of this boundary and derive bounds on the location of the boundary.

  17. Complex network classification using partially self-avoiding deterministic walks.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Wesley Nunes; Martinez, Alexandre Souto; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

    2012-09-01

    Complex networks have attracted increasing interest from various fields of science. It has been demonstrated that each complex network model presents specific topological structures which characterize its connectivity and dynamics. Complex network classification relies on the use of representative measurements that describe topological structures. Although there are a large number of measurements, most of them are correlated. To overcome this limitation, this paper presents a new measurement for complex network classification based on partially self-avoiding walks. We validate the measurement on a data set composed by 40000 complex networks of four well-known models. Our results indicate that the proposed measurement improves correct classification of networks compared to the traditional ones. PMID:23020478

  18. The critical pulling force for self-avoiding walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, Nicholas R.

    2015-04-01

    Self-avoiding walks (SAWs) are a simple and well-known model of long, flexible polymers in a good solvent. Polymers being pulled away from a surface by an external agent can be modelled with SAWs in a half-space, with a Boltzmann weight y={{e}f} associated with the pulling force. This model is known to have a critical point at a certain value yc of this Boltzmann weight, which is the location of a transition between the so-called free and ballistic phases. The value yc = 1 has been conjectured by several authors using numerical estimates. We provide a relatively simple proof of this result, and show that further properties of the free energy of this system can be determined by re-interpreting existing results about the two-point function of SAWs.

  19. Whole-arm obstacle avoidance system conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Butler, P.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Ericson, M.N.; Britton, C.L. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Whole-arm obstacle avoidance is needed for a variety of robotic applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Program. Typical industrial applications of robotics involve well-defined workspaces, allowing a predetermined knowledge of collision-free paths for manipulator motion. In the unstructured or poorly defined hazardous environments of the ER&WM Program, the potential for significant problems resulting from collisions between manipulators and the environment in which they are utilized is great. The conceptual design for a sensing system that will provide protection against such collisions is described herein. The whole-arm obstacle avoidance system consists of a set of sensor ``bracelets,`` which cover the surface area of the manipulator links to the maximum extent practical, and a host processor. The host processor accepts commands from the robot control system, controls the operation of the sensors, manipulates data received from the bracelets, and makes the data available to the manipulator control system. The bracelets consist of a subset of the sensors, associated sensor interface electronics, and a bracelet interface. Redundant communications links between the host processor and the bracelets are provided, allowing single-point failure protection. The system allows reporting of 8-bit data from up to 1000 sensors at a minimum of 50 Hz. While the initial prototype implementation of the system utilizes capacitance proximity sensor, the system concept allows multiple types of sensors. These sensors are uniquely addressable, allowing remote calibration, thresholding at the bracelet, and correlation of a sensor measurement with the associated sensor and its location on the manipulator. Variable resolution allows high-speed, single-bit sensing as well as lower-speed higher-resolution sensing, which is necessary for sensor calibration and potentially useful in control.

  20. Whole-arm obstacle avoidance system conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Butler, P.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Ericson, M.N.; Britton, C.L. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Whole-arm obstacle avoidance is needed for a variety of robotic applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER WM) Program. Typical industrial applications of robotics involve well-defined workspaces, allowing a predetermined knowledge of collision-free paths for manipulator motion. In the unstructured or poorly defined hazardous environments of the ER WM Program, the potential for significant problems resulting from collisions between manipulators and the environment in which they are utilized is great. The conceptual design for a sensing system that will provide protection against such collisions is described herein. The whole-arm obstacle avoidance system consists of a set of sensor bracelets,'' which cover the surface area of the manipulator links to the maximum extent practical, and a host processor. The host processor accepts commands from the robot control system, controls the operation of the sensors, manipulates data received from the bracelets, and makes the data available to the manipulator control system. The bracelets consist of a subset of the sensors, associated sensor interface electronics, and a bracelet interface. Redundant communications links between the host processor and the bracelets are provided, allowing single-point failure protection. The system allows reporting of 8-bit data from up to 1000 sensors at a minimum of 50 Hz. While the initial prototype implementation of the system utilizes capacitance proximity sensor, the system concept allows multiple types of sensors. These sensors are uniquely addressable, allowing remote calibration, thresholding at the bracelet, and correlation of a sensor measurement with the associated sensor and its location on the manipulator. Variable resolution allows high-speed, single-bit sensing as well as lower-speed higher-resolution sensing, which is necessary for sensor calibration and potentially useful in control.