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Sample records for axonemal microtubule doublets

  1. Molecular architecture of axonemal microtubule doublets revealedby cryo-electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Haixin; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2006-05-22

    The axoneme, which forms the core of eukaryotic flagella and cilia, is one of the largest macromolecular machines with a structure that is largely conserved from protists to mammals. Microtubule doublets are structural components of axonemes containing a number of proteins besides tubulin, and are usually found in arrays of nine doublets arranged around two singlet microtubules. Coordinated sliding of adjacent doublets, which involves a host of other proteins in the axoneme, produces periodic beating movements of the axoneme. We have obtained a 3D density map of intact microtubule doublets using cryo-electron tomography and image averaging. Our map, with a resolution of about 3 nm, provides insights into locations of particular proteins within the doublets and the structural features of the doublets that define their mechanical properties. We identify likely candidates for several of these non-tubulin components of the doublets. This work offers novel insight on how tubulin protofilaments and accessory proteins attach together to form the doublets and provides a structural basis for understanding doublet function in axonemes.

  2. Casein kinase I is anchored on axonemal doublet microtubules and regulates flagellar dynein phosphorylation and activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Sale, W S

    2000-06-23

    Flagellar dynein activity is regulated by phosphorylation. One critical phosphoprotein substrate in Chlamydomonas is the 138-kDa intermediate chain (IC138) of the inner arm dyneins (Habermacher, G., and Sale, W. S. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 136, 167-176). In this study, several approaches were used to determine that casein kinase I (CKI) is physically anchored in the flagellar axoneme and regulates IC138 phosphorylation and dynein activity. First, using a videomicroscopic motility assay, selective CKI inhibitors rescued dynein-driven microtubule sliding in axonemes isolated from paralyzed flagellar mutants lacking radial spokes. Rescue of dynein activity failed in axonemes isolated from these mutant cells lacking IC138. Second, CKI was unequivocally identified in salt extracts from isolated axonemes, whereas casein kinase II was excluded from the flagellar compartment. Third, Western blots indicate that within flagella, CKI is anchored exclusively to the axoneme. Analysis of multiple Chlamydomonas motility mutants suggests that the axonemal CKI is located on the outer doublet microtubules. Finally, CKI inhibitors that rescued dynein activity blocked phosphorylation of IC138. We propose that CKI is anchored on the outer doublet microtubules in position to regulate flagellar dynein. PMID:10858448

  3. The N-DRC forms a conserved biochemical complex that maintains outer doubletalignment and limits microtubule sliding in motile axonemes

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; VanderWaal, Kristyn; Perrone, Catherine A.; Mueller, Joshua; Fox, Laura; Sale, Winfield S.; Porter, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    The nexindynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) is proposed to coordinate dynein arm activity and interconnect doublet microtubules. Here we identify a conserved region in DRC4 critical for assembly of the N-DRC into the axoneme. At least 10 subunits associate with DRC4 to form a discrete complex distinct from other axonemal substructures. Transformation of drc4 mutants with epitope-tagged DRC4 rescues the motility defects and restores assembly of missing DRC subunits and associated inner-arm dyneins. Four new DRC subunits contain calcium-signaling motifs and/or AAA domains and are nearly ubiquitous in species with motile cilia. However, drc mutants are motile and maintain the 9 + 2 organization of the axoneme. To evaluate the function of the N-DRC, we analyzed ATP-induced reactivation of isolated axonemes. Rather than the reactivated bending observed with wild-type axonemes, ATP addition to drc-mutant axonemes resulted in splaying of doublets in the distal region, followed by oscillatory bending between pairs of doublets. Thus the N-DRC provides some but not all of the resistance to microtubule sliding and helps to maintain optimal alignment of doublets for productive flagellar motility. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that regulate motility and further highlight the importance of the proximal region of the axoneme in generating flagellar bending. PMID:23427265

  4. The N-DRC forms a conserved biochemical complex that maintains outer doublet alignment and limits microtubule sliding in motile axonemes.

    PubMed

    Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; Vanderwaal, Kristyn; Perrone, Catherine A; Mueller, Joshua; Fox, Laura; Sale, Winfield S; Porter, M E

    2013-04-01

    The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) is proposed to coordinate dynein arm activity and interconnect doublet microtubules. Here we identify a conserved region in DRC4 critical for assembly of the N-DRC into the axoneme. At least 10 subunits associate with DRC4 to form a discrete complex distinct from other axonemal substructures. Transformation of drc4 mutants with epitope-tagged DRC4 rescues the motility defects and restores assembly of missing DRC subunits and associated inner-arm dyneins. Four new DRC subunits contain calcium-signaling motifs and/or AAA domains and are nearly ubiquitous in species with motile cilia. However, drc mutants are motile and maintain the 9 + 2 organization of the axoneme. To evaluate the function of the N-DRC, we analyzed ATP-induced reactivation of isolated axonemes. Rather than the reactivated bending observed with wild-type axonemes, ATP addition to drc-mutant axonemes resulted in splaying of doublets in the distal region, followed by oscillatory bending between pairs of doublets. Thus the N-DRC provides some but not all of the resistance to microtubule sliding and helps to maintain optimal alignment of doublets for productive flagellar motility. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that regulate motility and further highlight the importance of the proximal region of the axoneme in generating flagellar bending. PMID:23427265

  5. α- and β-Tubulin Lattice of the Axonemal Microtubule Doublet and Binding Proteins Revealed by Single Particle Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Tomography.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Aditi; Obbineni, Jagan Mohan; Bui, Khanh Huy; Shibata, Keitaro; Toyoshima, Yoko Y; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Microtubule doublet (MTD) is the main skeleton of cilia/flagella. Many proteins, such as dyneins and radial spokes, bind to MTD, and generate or regulate force. While the structure of the reconstituted microtubule has been solved at atomic resolution, nature of the axonemal MTD is still unclear. There are a few hypotheses of the lattice arrangement of its α- and β-tubulins, but it has not been described how dyneins and radial spokes bind to MTD. In this study, we analyzed the three-dimensional structure of Tetrahymena MTD at ∼19 Å resolution by single particle cryo-electron microscopy. To identify α- and β-tubulins, we combined image analysis of MTD with specific kinesin decoration. This work reveals that α- and β-tubulins form a B-lattice arrangement in the entire MTD with a seam at the outer junction. We revealed the unique way in which inner arm dyneins, radial spokes, and proteins inside MTD bind and bridge protofilaments. PMID:26211611

  6. Fa1p is a 171 kDa protein essential for axonemal microtubule severing in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Finst, R J; Kim, P J; Griffis, E R; Quarmby, L M

    2000-06-01

    A key event in deflagellation or deciliation is the severing of the nine outer-doublet axonemal microtubules at a specific site in the flagellar transition zone. Previous genetic analysis revealed three genes that are essential for deflagellation in Chlamydomonas. We have now identified the first of these products, Fa1p, a protein required for Ca(2+)-dependent, axonemal microtubule severing. Genetic mapping and the availability of a tagged allele allowed us to physically map the gene to the centromere-proximal domain of the mating-type locus. We identified clones of Chlamydomonas genomic DNA that rescued the Ca(2+)-dependent axonemal microtubule severing defect of fa1 mutants. The FA1 cDNA, obtained by RT-PCR, encodes a novel protein of 171 kDa, which is predicted to contain an amino-terminal coiled-coil domain and three Ca(2+)/calmodulin binding domains. By western analysis and subcellular fractionation, the FA1 product is enriched in flagellar-basal body complexes. Based on these observations and previous studies, we hypothesize that a Ca(2+)-activated, Ca(2+)-binding protein binds Fa1p leading ultimately to the activation of axonemal microtubule severing. PMID:10806107

  7. Regulation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding by an axonemal kinase and phosphatase in Chlamydomonas flagella.

    PubMed

    Habermacher, G; Sale, W S

    1995-01-01

    The following is a summary of physiological and pharmacological studies of the regulation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding in Chlamydomonas flagella. The experimental basis for the study is described, and data indicating that an axonemal cAMP-dependent protein kinase can regulate inner arm dynein activity are reviewed. In addition, preliminary data are summarized indicating that an axonemal type 1 phosphatase can also regulate dynein-drive microtubule sliding velocity. It is predicted that the protein kinase, phosphatase, and an inner dynein arm component form a regulatory complex in the axoneme. PMID:8681389

  8. FAP20 is an inner junction protein of doublet microtubules essential for both the planar asymmetrical waveform and stability of flagella in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Haru-aki; Mathis, Garrison; Oda, Toshiyuki; Hirono, Masafumi; Richey, Elizabeth A; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Marshall, Wallace F; Kikkawa, Masahide; Qin, Hongmin

    2014-05-01

    The axoneme-the conserved core of eukaryotic cilia and flagella-contains highly specialized doublet microtubules (DMTs). A long-standing question is what protein(s) compose the junctions between two tubules in DMT. Here we identify a highly conserved flagellar-associated protein (FAP), FAP20, as an inner junction (IJ) component. The flagella of Chlamydomonas FAP20 mutants have normal length but beat with an abnormal symmetrical three-dimensional pattern. In addition, the mutant axonemes are liable to disintegrate during beating, implying that interdoublet connections may be weakened. Conventional electron microscopy shows that the mutant axonemes lack the IJ, and cryo-electron tomography combined with a structural labeling method reveals that the labeled FAP20 localizes at the IJ. The mutant axonemes also lack doublet-specific beak structures, which are localized in the proximal portion of the axoneme and may be involved in planar asymmetric flagellar bending. FAP20 itself, however, may not be a beak component, because uniform localization of FAP20 along the entire length of all nine DMTs is inconsistent with the beak's localization. FAP20 is the first confirmed component of the IJ. Our data also suggest that the IJ is important for both stabilizing the axoneme and scaffolding intra-B-tubular substructures required for a planar asymmetrical waveform. PMID:24574454

  9. FAP20 is an inner junction protein of doublet microtubules essential for both the planar asymmetrical waveform and stability of flagella in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Haru-aki; Mathis, Garrison; Oda, Toshiyuki; Hirono, Masafumi; Richey, Elizabeth A.; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Marshall, Wallace F.; Kikkawa, Masahide; Qin, Hongmin

    2014-01-01

    The axonemethe conserved core of eukaryotic cilia and flagellacontains highly specialized doublet microtubules (DMTs). A long-standing question is what protein(s) compose the junctions between two tubules in DMT. Here we identify a highly conserved flagellar-associated protein (FAP), FAP20, as an inner junction (IJ) component. The flagella of Chlamydomonas FAP20 mutants have normal length but beat with an abnormal symmetrical three-dimensional pattern. In addition, the mutant axonemes are liable to disintegrate during beating, implying that interdoublet connections may be weakened. Conventional electron microscopy shows that the mutant axonemes lack the IJ, and cryoelectron tomography combined with a structural labeling method reveals that the labeled FAP20 localizes at the IJ. The mutant axonemes also lack doublet-specific beak structures, which are localized in the proximal portion of the axoneme and may be involved in planar asymmetric flagellar bending. FAP20 itself, however, may not be a beak component, because uniform localization of FAP20 along the entire length of all nine DMTs is inconsistent with the beak's localization. FAP20 is the first confirmed component of the IJ. Our data also suggest that the IJ is important for both stabilizing the axoneme and scaffolding intraB-tubular substructures required for a planar asymmetrical waveform. PMID:24574454

  10. Mechanochemical aspects of axonemal dynein activity studied by in vitro microtubule translocation.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, T; Holwill, M E; Barkalow, K; Satir, P

    1995-12-01

    We have determined the relationship between microtubule length and translocation velocity from recordings of bovine brain microtubules translocating over a Paramecium 22S dynein substratum in an in vitro assay chamber. For comparison with untreated samples, the 22S dynein has been subjected to detergent and/or to pretreatments that induce phosphorylation of an associated 29 kDa light chain. Control and treated dyneins have been used at the same densities in the translocation assays. In any given condition, translocation velocity (v) shows an initial increase with microtubule length (L) and then reaches a plateau. This situation may be represented by a hyperbola of the general form v = aL/(L+b), which is formally analogous to the Briggs-Haldane relationship, which we have used to interpret our data. The results indicate that the maximum translocation velocity Vo(= a) is increased by pretreatment, whereas the length constant KL(= b), which corresponds to Km, does not change with pretreatment, implying that the mechanochemical properties of the pretreated dyneins differ from those of control dyneins. The conclusion that KL is constant for defined in vitro assays rules out the possibility that the velocity changes seen are caused by changes in geometry in the translocation assays or by the numbers of dyneins or dynein heads needed to produce maximal translocational velocity. From our analysis, we determine that f, the fraction of cycle time during which the dynein is in the force-generating state, is small--roughly 0.01, comparable to the f determined previously for heavy meromyosin. The practical limits of these mechanochemical changes imply that the maximum possible ciliary beat frequency is about 120 Hz, and that in the physiological range of 5-60 Hz, beat frequency could be controlled by varying the numbers of phosphorylated outer arm dyneins along an axonemal microtubule. PMID:8599664

  11. Insights into the Structure and Function of Ciliary and Flagellar Doublet Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Linck, Richard; Fu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianfeng; Ouch, Christna; Schefter, Alexandra; Steffen, Walter; Warren, Peter; Nicastro, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are conserved, motile, and sensory cell organelles involved in signal transduction and human disease. Their scaffold consists of a 9-fold array of remarkably stable doublet microtubules (DMTs), along which motor proteins transmit force for ciliary motility and intraflagellar transport. DMTs possess Ribbons of three to four hyper-stable protofilaments whose location, organization, and specialized functions have been elusive. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the distribution and structural arrangements of Ribbon proteins from sea urchin sperm flagella, using quantitative immunobiochemistry, proteomics, immuno-cryo-electron microscopy, and tomography. Isolated Ribbons contain acetylated ?-tubulin, ?-tubulin, conserved protein Rib45, >95% of the axonemal tektins, and >95% of the calcium-binding proteins, Rib74 and Rib85.5, whose human homologues are related to the cause of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. DMTs contain only one type of Ribbon, corresponding to protofilaments A11-12-13-1 of the A-tubule. Rib74 and Rib85.5 are associated with the Ribbon in the lumen of the A-tubule. Ribbons contain a single ?5-nm wide filament, composed of equimolar tektins A, B, and C, which interact with the nexin-dynein regulatory complex. A summary of findings is presented, and the functions of Ribbon proteins are discussed in terms of the assembly and stability of DMTs, ciliary motility, and other microtubule systems. PMID:24794867

  12. Space-Dependent Formation of Central Pair Microtubules and Their Interactions with Radial Spokes

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Yuki; Ariyoshi, Tetsuro; Noga, Akira; Kamiya, Ritsu; Hirono, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella contain nine outer doublet microtubules and a pair of central microtubules. The central pair of microtubules (CP) is important for cilia/flagella beating, as clearly shown by primary ciliary dyskinesia resulting from the loss of the CP. The CP is thought to regulate axonemal dyneins through interaction with radial spokes (RSs). However, the nature of the CP-RS interaction is poorly understood. Here we examine the appearance of CPs in the axonemes of a Chlamydomonas mutant, bld12, which produces axonemes with 8 to 11 outer-doublets. Most of its 8-doublet axonemes lack CPs. However, in the double mutant of bld12 and pf14, a mutant lacking the RS, most 8-doublet axonemes contain the CP. Thus formation of the CP apparently depends on the internal space limited by the outer doublets and RSs. In 10- or 11-doublet axonemes, only 35 RSs are attached to the CP and the doublet arrangement is distorted most likely because the RSs attached to the CP pull the outer doublets toward the axonemal center. The CP orientation in the axonemes varies in double mutants formed between bld12 and mutants lacking particular CP projections. The mutant bld12 thus provides the first direct and visual information about the CP-RS interaction, as well as about the mechanism of CP formation. PMID:25333940

  13. DYF-1 Is Required for Assembly of the Axoneme in Tetrahymena thermophila?

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Drashti; Wloga, Dorota; Sharma, Neeraj; Gaertig, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    In most cilia, the axoneme can be subdivided into three segments: proximal (the transition zone), middle (with outer doublet microtubules), and distal (with singlet extensions of outer doublet microtubules). How the functionally distinct segments of the axoneme are assembled and maintained is not well understood. DYF-1 is a highly conserved ciliary protein containing tetratricopeptide repeats. In Caenorhabditis elegans, DYF-1 is specifically needed for assembly of the distal segment (G. Ou, O. E. Blacque, J. J. Snow, M. R. Leroux, and J. M. Scholey. Nature. 436:583-587, 2005). We show that Tetrahymena cells lacking an ortholog of DYF-1, Dyf1p, can assemble only extremely short axoneme remnants that have structural defects of diverse natures, including the absence of central pair and outer doublet microtubules and incomplete or absent B tubules on the outer microtubules. Thus, in Tetrahymena, DYF-1 is needed for either assembly or stability of the entire axoneme. Our observations support the conserved function for DYF-1 in axoneme assembly or stability but also show that the consequences of loss of DYF-1 for axoneme segments are organism specific. PMID:19581442

  14. Self-Sustained Oscillatory Sliding Movement of Doublet Microtubules and Flagellar Bend Formation.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the basis for flagellar and ciliary movements is ATP-dependent sliding between adjacent doublet microtubules. However, the mechanism for converting microtubule sliding into flagellar and ciliary movements has long remained unresolved. The author has developed new sperm models that use bull spermatozoa divested of their plasma membrane and midpiece mitochondrial sheath by Triton X-100 and dithiothreitol. These models enable the observation of both the oscillatory sliding movement of activated doublet microtubules and flagellar bend formation in the presence of ATP. A long fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by synchronous sliding of the sperm flagella and a short fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by metachronal sliding exhibited spontaneous oscillatory movements and constructed a one beat cycle of flagellar bending by alternately actuating. The small sliding displacement generated by metachronal sliding formed helical bends, whereas the large displacement by synchronous sliding formed planar bends. Therefore, the resultant waveform is a half-funnel shape, which is similar to ciliary movements. PMID:26863204

  15. Self-Sustained Oscillatory Sliding Movement of Doublet Microtubules and Flagellar Bend Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ishijima, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the basis for flagellar and ciliary movements is ATP-dependent sliding between adjacent doublet microtubules. However, the mechanism for converting microtubule sliding into flagellar and ciliary movements has long remained unresolved. The author has developed new sperm models that use bull spermatozoa divested of their plasma membrane and midpiece mitochondrial sheath by Triton X-100 and dithiothreitol. These models enable the observation of both the oscillatory sliding movement of activated doublet microtubules and flagellar bend formation in the presence of ATP. A long fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by synchronous sliding of the sperm flagella and a short fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by metachronal sliding exhibited spontaneous oscillatory movements and constructed a one beat cycle of flagellar bending by alternately actuating. The small sliding displacement generated by metachronal sliding formed helical bends, whereas the large displacement by synchronous sliding formed planar bends. Therefore, the resultant waveform is a half-funnel shape, which is similar to ciliary movements. PMID:26863204

  16. Structural and functional reconstitution of inner dynein arms in Chlamydomonas flagellar axonemes.

    PubMed

    Smith, E F; Sale, W S

    1992-05-01

    The inner row of dynein arms contains three dynein subforms. Each is distinct in composition and location in flagellar axonemes. To begin investigating the specificity of inner dynein arm assembly, we assessed the capability of isolated inner arm dynein subforms to rebind to their appropriate positions on axonemal doublet microtubules by recombining them with either mutant or extracted axonemes missing some or all dyneins. Densitometry of Coomassie blue-stained polyacrylamide gels revealed that for each inner dynein arm subform, binding to axonemes was saturable and stoichiometric. Using structural markers of position and polarity, electron microscopy confirmed that subforms bound to the correct inner arm position. Inner arms did not bind to outer arm or inappropriate inner arm positions despite the availability of sites. These and previous observations implicate specialized tubulin isoforms or nontubulin proteins in designation of specific inner dynein arm binding sites. Further, microtubule sliding velocities were restored to dynein-depleted axonemes upon rebinding of the missing inner arm subtypes as evaluated by an ATP-induced microtubule sliding disintegration assay. Therefore, not only were the inner arm dynein subforms able to identify and bind to the correct location on doublet microtubules but they bound in a functionally active conformation. PMID:1533396

  17. Axonemal dynein light chain-1 locates at the microtubule-binding domain of the γ heavy chain.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Muneyoshi; Saito, Kei; Yanagisawa, Haru-Aki; Yagi, Toshiki; Kamiya, Ritsu; Yamaguchi, Shin; Yajima, Junichiro; Kushida, Yasuharu; Nakano, Kentaro; Numata, Osamu; Toyoshima, Yoko Y

    2015-11-15

    The outer arm dynein (OAD) complex is the main propulsive force generator for ciliary/flagellar beating. In Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena, the OAD complex comprises three heavy chains (α, β, and γ HCs) and >10 smaller subunits. Dynein light chain-1 (LC1) is an essential component of OAD. It is known to associate with the Chlamydomonas γ head domain, but its precise localization within the γ head and regulatory mechanism of the OAD complex remain unclear. Here Ni-NTA-nanogold labeling electron microscopy localized LC1 to the stalk tip of the γ head. Single-particle analysis detected an additional structure, most likely corresponding to LC1, near the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD), located at the stalk tip. Pull-down assays confirmed that LC1 bound specifically to the γ MTBD region. Together with observations that LC1 decreased the affinity of the γ MTBD for microtubules, we present a new model in which LC1 regulates OAD activity by modulating γ MTBD's affinity for the doublet microtubule. PMID:26399296

  18. Axonemal dynein light chain-1 locates at the microtubule-binding domain of the γ heavy chain

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Muneyoshi; Saito, Kei; Yanagisawa, Haru-aki; Yagi, Toshiki; Kamiya, Ritsu; Yamaguchi, Shin; Yajima, Junichiro; Kushida, Yasuharu; Nakano, Kentaro; Numata, Osamu; Toyoshima, Yoko Y.

    2015-01-01

    The outer arm dynein (OAD) complex is the main propulsive force generator for ciliary/flagellar beating. In Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena, the OAD complex comprises three heavy chains (α, β, and γ HCs) and >10 smaller subunits. Dynein light chain-1 (LC1) is an essential component of OAD. It is known to associate with the Chlamydomonas γ head domain, but its precise localization within the γ head and regulatory mechanism of the OAD complex remain unclear. Here Ni-NTA-nanogold labeling electron microscopy localized LC1 to the stalk tip of the γ head. Single-particle analysis detected an additional structure, most likely corresponding to LC1, near the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD), located at the stalk tip. Pull-down assays confirmed that LC1 bound specifically to the γ MTBD region. Together with observations that LC1 decreased the affinity of the γ MTBD for microtubules, we present a new model in which LC1 regulates OAD activity by modulating γ MTBD's affinity for the doublet microtubule. PMID:26399296

  19. A role for katanin-mediated axonemal severing during Chlamydomonas deflagellation.

    PubMed

    Lohret, T A; McNally, F J; Quarmby, L M

    1998-05-01

    Deflagellation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and other flagellated and ciliated cells, is a highly specific process that involves signal-induced severing of the outer doublet microtubules at a precise site in the transition region between the axoneme and basal body. Although the machinery of deflagellation is activated by Ca2+, the mechanism of microtubule severing is unknown. Severing of singlet microtubules has been observed in vitro to be catalyzed by katanin, a heterodimeric adenosine triphosphatase that can remove tubulin subunits from the walls of stable microtubules. We found that purified katanin induced an ATP-dependent severing of the Chlamydomonas axoneme. Using Western blot analysis and indirect immunofluorescence, we demonstrate that Chlamydomonas expresses a protein that is recognized by an anti-human katanin antibody and that this protein is localized, at least in part, to the basal body complex. Using an in vitro severing assay, we show that the protein(s) responsible for Ca2+-activated outer doublet severing purify with the flagellar-basal body complex. Furthermore, deflagellation of purified flagellar-basal body complexes is significantly blocked by the anti-katanin antibody. Taken together, these data suggest that a katanin-like mechanism may mediate the severing of the outer doublet microtubules during Chlamydomonas deflagellation. PMID:9571249

  20. Protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A are located in distinct positions in the Chlamydomonas flagellar axoneme.

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Fox, L; Colbran, R J; Sale, W S

    2000-01-01

    We postulated that microcystin-sensitive protein phosphatases are integral components of the Chlamydomonas flagellar axoneme, positioned to regulate inner arm dynein activity. To test this, we took a direct biochemical approach. Microcystin-Sepharose affinity purification revealed a prominent 35-kDa axonemal protein, predicted to be the catalytic subunit of type-1 protein phosphatase (PP1c). We cloned the Chlamydomonas PP1c and produced specific polyclonal peptide antibodies. Based on western blot analysis, the 35-kDa PP1c is anchored in the axoneme. Moreover, analysis of flagella and axonemes from mutant strains revealed that PP1c is primarily, but not exclusively, anchored in the central pair apparatus, associated with the C1 microtubule. Thus, PP1 is part of the central pair mechanism that controls flagellar motility. Two additional axonemal proteins of 62 and 37 kDa were also isolated using microcystin-Sepharose affinity. Based on direct peptide sequence and western blots, these proteins are the A- and C-subunits of type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A). The axonemal PP2A is not one of the previously identified components of the central pair apparatus, outer arm dynein, inner arm dynein, dynein regulatory complex or the radial spokes. We postulate PP2A is anchored on the doublet microtubules, possibly in position to directly control inner arm dynein activity. PMID:10591628

  1. Motor Regulation Results in Distal Forces that Bend Partially Disintegrated Chlamydomonas Axonemes into Circular Arcs

    PubMed Central

    Mukundan, V.; Sartori, P.; Geyer, V.F.; Jlicher, F.; Howard, J.

    2014-01-01

    The bending of cilia and flagella is driven by forces generated by dynein motor proteins. These forces slide adjacent microtubule doublets within the axoneme, the motile cytoskeletal structure. To create regular, oscillatory beating patterns, the activities of the axonemal dyneins must be coordinated both spatially and temporally. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses or strains, which build up within the moving axoneme, and somehow regulate dynein activity. During experimentation with axonemes subjected to mild proteolysis, we observed pairs of doublets associating with each other and forming bends with almost constant curvature. By modeling the statics of a pair of filaments, we show that the activity of the motors concentrates at the distal tips of the doublets. Furthermore, we show that this distribution of motor activity accords with models in which curvature, or curvature-induced normal forces, regulates the activity of the motors. These observations, together with our theoretical analysis, provide evidence that dynein activity can be regulated by curvature or normal forces, which may, therefore, play a role in coordinating the beating of cilia and flagella. PMID:24896122

  2. Cloning of Chlamydomonas p60 katanin and localization to the site of outer doublet severing during deflagellation.

    PubMed

    Lohret, T A; Zhao, L; Quarmby, L M

    1999-01-01

    Katanin, a heterodimeric microtubule-severing protein that localizes to sites of microtubule organization, can mediate in vitro the ATP-dependent disassembly of both taxol-stabilized microtubules and axonemal doublet microtubules. In the unicellular biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas, katanin has been implicated in deflagellation, a highly specific process that involves a Ca(2+)-signal transduction pathway starting at the plasma membrane and culminating in the severing of axonemal outer doublet microtubules and excision of both flagella from the cell body. Previously, we showed that the microtubule severing activity of deflagellation and katanin's 60 kD catalytic subunit (termed p60) purified with the flagellar basal body complex (FBBC). Additional evidence supporting the involvement of katanin in deflagellation came from the observation that an antibody against human p60 katanin significantly inhibited FBBC-associated microtubule-severing activity. Here we report the cloning of p60 katanin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Immunogold electron microscopy places Chlamydomonas p60 at several locations within the basal body apparatus and associated structures. Importantly, we find a dense accumulation of colloidal gold labeling the distal end of the flagellar transition zone, the site of outer doublet severing during deflagellation. These results suggest that, in addition to a potential involvement in the deflagellation pathway, katanin-mediated microtubule-severing may be associated with multiple processes in Chlamydomonas. PMID:10401578

  3. Late steps in cytoplasmic maturation of assembly-competent axonemal outer arm dynein in Chlamydomonas require interaction of ODA5 and ODA10 in a complex

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Anudariya B.; Mitchell, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are multisubunit enzymes that must be preassembled in the cytoplasm, transported into cilia by intraflagellar transport, and bound to specific sites on doublet microtubules, where their activity facilitates microtubule sliding-based motility. Outer dynein arms (ODAs) require assembly factors to assist their preassembly, transport, and attachment to cargo (specific doublet A-tubule sites). In Chlamydomonas, three assembly factorsODA5, ODA8, and ODA10show genetic interactions and have been proposed to interact in a complex, but we recently showed that flagellar ODA8 does not copurify with ODA5 or ODA10. Here we show that ODA5 and ODA10 depend on each other for stability and coexist in a complex in both cytoplasmic and flagellar extracts. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy reveal that ODA10 in flagella localizes strictly to a proximal region of doublet number 1, which completely lacks ODAs in Chlamydomonas. Studies of the in vitro binding of ODAs to axonemal doublets reveal a role for the ODA5/ODA10 assembly complex in cytoplasmic maturation of ODAs into a form that can bind to doublet microtubules. PMID:26310446

  4. Regulation of Chlamydomonas flagellar dynein by an axonemal protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Howard, D R; Habermacher, G; Glass, D B; Smith, E F; Sale, W S

    1994-12-01

    Genetic, biochemical, and structural data support a model in which axonemal radial spokes regulate dynein-driven microtubule sliding in Chlamydomonas flagella. However, the molecular mechanism by which dynein activity is regulated is unknown. We describe results from three different in vitro approaches to test the hypothesis that an axonemal protein kinase inhibits dynein in spoke-deficient axonemes from Chlamydomonas flagella. First, the velocity of dynein-driven microtubule sliding in spoke-deficient mutants (pf14, pf17) was increased to wild-type level after treatment with the kinase inhibitors HA-1004 or H-7 or by the specific peptide inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) PKI(6-22)amide or N alpha-acetyl-PKI(6-22)amide. In particular, the peptide inhibitors of cAPK were very potent, stimulating half-maximal velocity at 12-15 nM. In contrast, kinase inhibitors did not affect microtubule sliding in axonemes from wild-type cells. PKI treatment of axonemes from a double mutant missing both the radial spokes and the outer row of dynein arms (pf14pf28) also increased microtubule sliding to control (pf28) velocity. Second, addition of the type-II regulatory subunit of cAPK (RII) to spoke-deficient axonemes increased microtubule sliding to wild-type velocity. Addition of 10 microM cAMP to spokeless axonemes, reconstituted with RII, reversed the effect of RII. Third, our previous studies revealed that inner dynein arms from the Chlamydomonas mutants pf28 or pf14pf28 could be extracted in high salt buffer and subsequently reconstituted onto extracted axonemes restoring original microtubule sliding activity. Inner arm dyneins isolated from PKI-treated axonemes (mutant strain pf14pf28) generated fast microtubule sliding velocities when reconstituted onto both PKI-treated or control axonemes. In contrast, dynein from control axonemes generated slow microtubule sliding velocities on either PKI-treated or control axonemes. Together, the data indicate that an endogenous axonemal cAPK-type protein kinase inhibits dynein-driven microtubule sliding in spoke-deficient axonemes. The kinase is likely to reside in close association with its substrate(s), and the substrate targets are not exclusively localized to the central pair, radial spokes, dynein regulatory complex, or outer dynein arms. The results are consistent with a model in which the radial spokes regulate dynein activity through suppression of a cAMP-mediated mechanism. PMID:7798320

  5. Ubiquitin-proteasome system controls ciliogenesis at the initial step of axoneme extension

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Kiyono, Tohru; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Era, Saho; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that organize numerous key signals during developments and tissue homeostasis. Ciliary microtubule doublet, named axoneme, is grown directly from the distal end of mother centrioles through a multistep process upon cell cycle exit; however, the instructive signals that initiate these events are poorly understood. Here we show that ubiquitin-proteasome machinery removes trichoplein, a negative regulator of ciliogenesis, from mother centrioles and thereby causes Aurora-A inactivation, leading to ciliogenesis. Ciliogenesis is blocked if centriolar trichoplein is stabilized by treatment with proteasome inhibitors or by expression of non-ubiquitylatable trichoplein mutant (K50/57R). Started from two-stepped global E3 screening, we have identified KCTD17 as a substrate-adaptor for Cul3-RING E3 ligases (CRL3s) that polyubiquitylates trichoplein. Depletion of KCTD17 specifically arrests ciliogenesis at the initial step of axoneme extension through aberrant trichoplein-Aurora-A activity. Thus, CRL3-KCTD17 targets trichoplein to proteolysis to initiate the axoneme extension during ciliogenesis. PMID:25270598

  6. Translocation of vesicles from squid axoplasm on flagellar microtubules.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, S P; Allen, R D; Sloboda, R D

    Directed intracellular particle movement is a fundamental process characteristic of all cells. During fast axonal transport, membranous organelles move at rapid rates, from 1 to 5 micron s-1, in either the orthograde or retrograde direction along the neurone and can traverse distances as long as 1 m (for reviews, see refs 1-3). Recent studies indicate that this extreme example of intracellular motility can occur along single microtubules, but the molecules generating the motile force have not been identified or localized. It is not known whether the force-transducing 'motor' is associated with the moving particle or with the microtubule lattice. To distinguish between these hypotheses and to characterize the membrane-cytoskeletal interactions that occur during vesicle translocations, we have developed a reconstituted model for microtubule-based motility. We isolated axoplasmic vesicles from the giant axon of the squid Loligo pealei as described previously. The vesicles (35-475 nm in diameter) were then added to axonemes of Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa that served as a source of microtubules. Axonemes were used because the tubulin subunit lattice of the A-subfibre of a given outer doublet is the same as the subunit lattice of neuronal microtubules along which motility occurs. Moreover, all the microtubules of a single axoneme show the same structural polarity, indicating that the axoneme represents an oriented microtubule substrate. Here we demonstrate that vesicle motility is ATP-dependent, that it is not mediated by the flagellar force-transducing molecule dynein and that the direction of movement is not specified by microtubule polarity. PMID:2582264

  7. Morphological changes of wrasse sperm axoneme after their motility initiation observed with use of atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hideaki; Majima, Toshikazu; Takai, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Kazuo; Tomie, Toshihisa

    1995-03-01

    The sperm of bambooleaf wrasse, a marine teleost, are immotile when they are diluted in a solution isotonic to the seminal plasma, but they begin to swim when they are suspended in sea water. What changes arise in morphology of the sperm cell after the motility initiation? The semen collected from the abdomen of a matured wrasse was mixed with either thinned sea water or sea water. A drop of the same specimen was placed on a cleaned silicon wafer, respectively. After fixed chemically, they were rinsed with distilled water and dried naturally in room temperature. These samples were examined carefully with use of an atomic force microscopy. Although the axonemes of intact sperms were found to be crushed as if the axonemes were cut open along doublet microtubules. The motility initiated sperm was strong enough to resist the force caused by surface tension of water in the drying process and could maintain the structure of the axoneme. These experimental facts suggest that the binding characteristics in the structure of the axoneme after the initiation of the motility were clearly changed stronger that before.

  8. Bending, twisting and beating trunk robot bioinspired from the '3+0' axoneme.

    PubMed

    Cibert, Christian

    2013-06-01

    The axoneme is the skeleton and motor axis of flagella and cilia in eukaryotic organisms. Basically it consists of a series of longitudinal fibers (outer doublets of microtubules) that design a cylinder and whose sliding, due to the coordinated activities of dedicated molecular motors (the dynein arms), is converted into a bending because outer doublets pairs are stabilized by elastic links (the nexine molecules). In spite of these interesting mechanical properties, mechanical and robotics engineers have never considered this amazing molecular machinery as a model. The aim of this paper is to propose the robotic design and the kinematic modeling of the '3+0' axoneme that makes motile the flagellum of Diplauxis hatti, the simplest that exists. The model that we propose bends and twists and combines the two movements. It is able to propagate wave trains that could be involved in the development of biomimetic actuators of various mechanisms such as (sub)aquatic robotic propellers as well as robotic trunks. PMID:23579109

  9. Cooperative binding of the outer arm-docking complex underlies the regular arrangement of outer arm dynein in the axoneme

    PubMed Central

    Owa, Mikito; Furuta, Akane; Usukura, Jiro; Arisaka, Fumio; King, Stephen M.; Witman, George B.; Kamiya, Ritsu; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Outer arm dynein (OAD) in cilia and flagella is bound to the outer doublet microtubules every 24 nm. Periodic binding of OADs at specific sites is important for efficient cilia/flagella beating; however, the molecular mechanism that specifies OAD arrangement remains elusive. Studies using the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that the OAD-docking complex (ODA-DC), a heterotrimeric complex present at the OAD base, functions as the OAD docking site on the doublet. We find that the ODADC has an ellipsoidal shape ?24 nm in length. In mutant axonemes that lack OAD but retain the ODA-DC, ODA-DC molecules are aligned in an end-to-end manner along the outer doublets. When flagella of a mutant lacking ODA-DCs are supplied with ODA-DCs upon gamete fusion, ODA-DC molecules first bind to the mutant axonemes in the proximal region, and the occupied region gradually extends toward the tip, followed by binding of OADs. This and other results indicate that a cooperative association of the ODA-DC underlies its function as the OAD-docking site and is the determinant of the 24-nm periodicity. PMID:24979786

  10. Microtubule severing.

    PubMed

    Quarmby, L M; Lohret, T A

    1999-01-01

    The regulation of microtubule stability by severing of the polymer along its length is a newly appreciated and potentially important mechanism for controlling microtubule function. Microtubule severing occurs in living cells, but direct observation of this event is infrequent. The paucity of direct observations leave open to question the significance of regulated microtubule severing in the control of microtubule organization. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence suggest that microtubule severing is an important cellular activity. First, the ATP-dependent microtubule-severing activity of katanin is well documented. Katanin is found in most cell types and is enriched at MTOCs. Although it is possible that katanin does not sever microtubules in vivo, this seems unlikely. Second, a physiological event, deflagellation, has been shown to depend on microtubule severing. The deflagellation system of Chlamydomonas has provided a genetic approach to the problem of microtubule severing. The FA genes are essential for the regulated severing of axonemal microtubules during deflagellation, but whether these genes define new severing proteins or whether they are important for katanin activity remains to be determined. Microtubule severing is a relatively new area of investigation and there are still many more questions than answers. It is anticipated that the recent cloning of katanin and the introduction of a genetic model system will soon lead to significant breakthroughs in this problem. PMID:10340698

  11. Regulation of flagellar dynein by an axonemal type-1 phosphatase in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Habermacher, G; Sale, W S

    1996-07-01

    Physiological studies have demonstrated that flagellar radial spokes regulate inner arm dynein activity in Chlamydomonas and that an axonemal cAMP-dependent kinase inhibits dynein activity in radial spoke defective axonemes. These studies also suggested that an axonemal protein phosphatase is required for activation of flagellar dynein. We tested whether inhibitors of protein phosphatases would prevent activation of dynein by the kinase inhibitor PKI in Chlamydomonas axonemes lacking radial spokes. As predicted, preincubation of spoke defective axonemes (pf14 and pf17) with ATP gamma S maintained the slow dynein-driven microtubule sliding characteristic of paralyzed axonemes lacking spokes, and blocked activation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding by subsequent addition of PKI. Preincubation of spoke defective axonemes with the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid, microcystin-LR or inhibitor-2 also potently blocked PKI-induced activation of microtubule sliding velocity: the non-inhibitory okadaic acid analog, 1-norokadaone, did not. ATP gamma S or the phosphatase inhibitors blocked activation of dynein in a double mutant lacking the radial spokes and the outer dynein arms (pf14pf28). We concluded that the axoneme contains a type-1 phosphatase required for activation of inner arm dynein. We postulated that the radial spokes regulate dynein through the activity of the type-1 protein phosphatase. To test this, we performed in vitro reconstitution experiments using inner arm dynein from the double mutant pf14pf28 and dynein-depleted axonemes containing wild-type radial spokes (pf28). As described previously, microtubule sliding velocity was increased from approximately 2 microns/second to approximately 7 microns/second when inner arm dynein from pf14pf28 axonemes ws reconstituted with axonemes containing wild-type spokes. In contrast, pretreatment of inner arm dynein from pf14pf28 axonemes with ATP gamma S, or reconstitution in the presence of microcystin-LR, blocked increased velocity following reconstitution, despite the presence of wild-type radial spokes. We conclude that the radial spokes, through the activity of an axonemal type-1 phosphatase, activate inner arm dynein by dephosphorylation of a critical dynein component. Wild-type radial spokes also operate to inhibit the axonemal cAMP-dependent kinase, which would otherwise inhibit axonemal dynein and motility. PMID:8832412

  12. Intracellular axonemes within ciliated cells in the tracheal epithelium of domestic pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Radner, W; Stockinger, L

    1992-01-01

    Extended aggregates of intracellular axonemal derivatives can be seen within the apical cytoplasm of ciliated cells of apparently healthy domestic pigs. Such alterations were observed in 15 out of 20 animals. Complete (9 + 2) or incomplete (8 + 2 - 5 + 2) intracellular axonemes were found which sometimes arose from mature, irregularly arranged kinetosomes. In addition, bundles of single microtubules and microtubular pairs were found. In previous investigations on the ciliated epithelium of different mammals, intracellular axonemes were investigated only under pathological or experimental conditions. Our findings indicate that these alterations also occur in healthy animals. The extended aggregates of intracellular axonemal derivatives are more likely to be due to a failure of ciliary maturation than to a degradation of incorporated mature cilia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1452480

  13. ida4-1, ida4-2, and ida4-3 are intron splicing mutations affecting the locus encoding p28, a light chain of Chlamydomonas axonemal inner dynein arms.

    PubMed Central

    LeDizet, M; Piperno, G

    1995-01-01

    We recently determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding p28, a light chain of inner dynein arms of Chlamydomonas axonemes. Here, we show that p28 is the protein encoded by the IDA4 locus. p28, and the dynein heavy chains normally associated with it, are completely absent from the flagella and cell bodies of three allelic strains of ida4, named ida4-1, ida4-2, and ida4-3. We determined the nucleotide sequence of the three alleles of the p28 gene and found in each case a single nucleotide change, affecting the splice sites of the first, second, and fourth introns, respectively. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification of RNAs prepared from ida4 cells confirmed that these mutations prevent the correct splicing of the affected introns, thereby blocking the synthesis of full-length p28. These are the first intron splicing mutations described in Chlamydomonas and the first inner dynein arm mutations characterized at the molecular level. The absence in ida4 axonemes of the dynein heavy chains normally found in association with p28 suggests that p28 is necessary for stable assembly of a subset of inner dynein arms or for the binding of these arms to the microtubule doublets. Images PMID:7579690

  14. Diverse Roles of Axonemal Dyneins in Drosophila Auditory Neuron Function and Mechanical Amplification in Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Karak, Somdatta; Jacobs, Julie S.; Kittelmann, Maike; Spalthoff, Christian; Katana, Radoslaw; Sivan-Loukianova, Elena; Schon, Michael A.; Kernan, Maurice J.; Eberl, Daniel F.; Göpfert, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Much like vertebrate hair cells, the chordotonal sensory neurons that mediate hearing in Drosophila are motile and amplify the mechanical input of the ear. Because the neurons bear mechanosensory primary cilia whose microtubule axonemes display dynein arms, we hypothesized that their motility is powered by dyneins. Here, we describe two axonemal dynein proteins that are required for Drosophila auditory neuron function, localize to their primary cilia, and differently contribute to mechanical amplification in hearing. Promoter fusions revealed that the two axonemal dynein genes Dmdnah3 (=CG17150) and Dmdnai2 (=CG6053) are expressed in chordotonal neurons, including the auditory ones in the fly’s ear. Null alleles of both dyneins equally abolished electrical auditory neuron responses, yet whereas mutations in Dmdnah3 facilitated mechanical amplification, amplification was abolished by mutations in Dmdnai2. Epistasis analysis revealed that Dmdnah3 acts downstream of Nan-Iav channels in controlling the amplificatory gain. Dmdnai2, in addition to being required for amplification, was essential for outer dynein arms in auditory neuron cilia. This establishes diverse roles of axonemal dyneins in Drosophila auditory neuron function and links auditory neuron motility to primary cilia and axonemal dyneins. Mutant defects in sperm competition suggest that both dyneins also function in sperm motility. PMID:26608786

  15. Diverse Roles of Axonemal Dyneins in Drosophila Auditory Neuron Function and Mechanical Amplification in Hearing.

    PubMed

    Karak, Somdatta; Jacobs, Julie S; Kittelmann, Maike; Spalthoff, Christian; Katana, Radoslaw; Sivan-Loukianova, Elena; Schon, Michael A; Kernan, Maurice J; Eberl, Daniel F; Gpfert, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    Much like vertebrate hair cells, the chordotonal sensory neurons that mediate hearing in Drosophila are motile and amplify the mechanical input of the ear. Because the neurons bear mechanosensory primary cilia whose microtubule axonemes display dynein arms, we hypothesized that their motility is powered by dyneins. Here, we describe two axonemal dynein proteins that are required for Drosophila auditory neuron function, localize to their primary cilia, and differently contribute to mechanical amplification in hearing. Promoter fusions revealed that the two axonemal dynein genes Dmdnah3 (=CG17150) and Dmdnai2 (=CG6053) are expressed in chordotonal neurons, including the auditory ones in the fly's ear. Null alleles of both dyneins equally abolished electrical auditory neuron responses, yet whereas mutations in Dmdnah3 facilitated mechanical amplification, amplification was abolished by mutations in Dmdnai2. Epistasis analysis revealed that Dmdnah3 acts downstream of Nan-Iav channels in controlling the amplificatory gain. Dmdnai2, in addition to being required for amplification, was essential for outer dynein arms in auditory neuron cilia. This establishes diverse roles of axonemal dyneins in Drosophila auditory neuron function and links auditory neuron motility to primary cilia and axonemal dyneins. Mutant defects in sperm competition suggest that both dyneins also function in sperm motility. PMID:26608786

  16. Target molecules of calmodulin on microtubules of Tetrahymena cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano-Ohnishi, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshio )

    1988-09-01

    In the course of an attempt to isolate the calmodulin-binding proteins (CaMBPs) from cilia of Tetrahymena, it was found that some CaMBPs tend to interact with axonemal microtubules. The present study demonstrates this interaction by cosedimentation experiments using in vitro polymerized Tetrahymena axonemal microtubules and Tetrahymena CaMBPs purified from axonemes by calmodulin affinity column chromatography. Analysis by the ({sup 125}I)calmodulin overlay method showed that at least three CaMBPs (M{sub r} 69, 45, and 37 kDa) cosediment with microtubules. Furthermore, without any addition of exogenous CaMBPs, microtubules purified after three cycles of temperature-dependent polymerization and depolymerization included the above CaMBPs and additional CaMBPs which could not cosediment with microtubules. From the results, the authors have classified these microtubule-associated CaMBPs into two groups: (i) CaMBPs which interact with microtubules only during polymerization, and (ii) CaMBPs which interact not only with microtubules during polymerization, but also with polymerized microtubules. These results suggest that the microtubule-associated CaMBPs, especially those of the latter group, are located on the surface of ciliary microtubules, and may become the target molecules of calmodulin at Ca{sup 2+}-triggered ciliary reversal.

  17. Torque Generation by Axonemal Outer-Arm Dynein

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shin; Saito, Kei; Sutoh, Miki; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Toyoshima, Yoko Y; Yajima, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Outer-arm dynein is the main engine providing the motive force in cilia. Using three-dimensional tracking microscopy, we found that contrary to previous reports Tetrahymena ciliary three-headed outer-arm dynein (αβγ) as well as proteolytically generated two-headed (βγ) and one-headed (α) subparticles showed clockwise rotation of each sliding microtubule around its longitudinal axis in microtubule corkscrewing assays. By measuring the rotational pitch as a function of ATP concentration, we also found that the microtubule corkscrewing pitch is independent of ATP concentration, except at low ATP concentrations where the pitch generated by both three-headed αβγ and one-headed α exhibited significantly longer pitch. In contrast, the pitch driven by two-headed βγ did not display this sensitivity. In the assays on lawns containing mixtures of α and βγ at various ratios, the corkscrewing pitch increased dramatically in a nonlinear fashion as the ratio of α in the mixture increased. Even small proportions of α-subparticle could significantly increase the corkscrewing pitch of the mixture. Our data show that torque generation does not require the three-headed outer-arm dynein (αβγ) but is an intrinsic property of the subparticles of axonemal dyneins and also suggest that each subparticle may have distinct mechanical properties. PMID:25692592

  18. Torque generation by axonemal outer-arm dynein.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shin; Saito, Kei; Sutoh, Miki; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Toyoshima, Yoko Y; Yajima, Junichiro

    2015-02-17

    Outer-arm dynein is the main engine providing the motive force in cilia. Using three-dimensional tracking microscopy, we found that contrary to previous reports Tetrahymena ciliary three-headed outer-arm dynein (???) as well as proteolytically generated two-headed (??) and one-headed (?) subparticles showed clockwise rotation of each sliding microtubule around its longitudinal axis in microtubule corkscrewing assays. By measuring the rotational pitch as a function of ATP concentration, we also found that the microtubule corkscrewing pitch is independent of ATP concentration, except at low ATP concentrations where the pitch generated by both three-headed ??? and one-headed ? exhibited significantly longer pitch. In contrast, the pitch driven by two-headed ?? did not display this sensitivity. In the assays on lawns containing mixtures of ? and ?? at various ratios, the corkscrewing pitch increased dramatically in a nonlinear fashion as the ratio of ? in the mixture increased. Even small proportions of ?-subparticle could significantly increase the corkscrewing pitch of the mixture. Our data show that torque generation does not require the three-headed outer-arm dynein (???) but is an intrinsic property of the subparticles of axonemal dyneins and also suggest that each subparticle may have distinct mechanical properties. PMID:25692592

  19. An helicoidal structure surrounding the cilium axoneme: visualization by the monoclonal antibody CC-248.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Harris, G; Klotz, C; Bordes, N; Sandoz, D

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody CC-248 labels cilia differentially on Triton X-100 permeabilized ciliated epithelium of quail oviduct by indirect immunofluorescence. On isolated ciliated cells, a punctuated staining is seen at the distal region over the bend of cilia. Electron micrographs of immunoperoxidase and immunogold techniques showed that the punctuated fluorescence corresponds to a helical disposition of CC-248 antigenic sites. This labeling was arranged on the axonemal distal region either as a simple or a double helix externally disposed around the nine microtubular doublets. These results suggest the existence of a detergent insoluble structure in the ciliary matrix that might concern the ciliary skeleton, probably acting as an elastic recoil that keeps the structural integrity of the axoneme during bending. The cross-reactivity of CC-248 MAb with the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of ciliated and smooth muscle cells indicates that this structure might be related to the intermediate filament family. PMID:1912944

  20. Polarity and asymmetry in the arrangement of dynein and related structures in the Chlamydomonas axoneme

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Khanh Huy; Yagi, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Kamiya, Ritsu

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the molecular architecture of the flagellum is crucial to elucidate the bending mechanism produced by this complex organelle. The current known structure of the flagellum has not yet been fully correlated with the complex composition and localization of flagellar components. Using cryoelectron tomography and subtomogram averaging while distinguishing each one of the nine outer doublet microtubules, we systematically collected and reconstructed the three-dimensional structures in different regions of the Chlamydomonas flagellum. We visualized the radial and longitudinal differences in the flagellum. One doublet showed a distinct structure, whereas the other eight were similar but not identical to each other. In the proximal region, some dyneins were missing or replaced by minor dyneins, and outerinner arm dynein links were variable among different microtubule doublets. These findings shed light on the intricate organization of Chlamydomonas flagella, provide clues to the mechanism that produces asymmetric flagellar beating, and pose a new challenge for the functional study of the flagella. PMID:22945936

  1. A NIMA-Related Kinase Suppresses the Flagellar Instability Associated with the Loss of Multiple Axonemal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huawen; Zhang, Zhengyan; Guo, Suyang; Chen, Fan; Kessler, Jonathan M.; Wang, Yan Mei; Dutcher, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    CCDC39 and CCDC40 were first identified as causative mutations in primary ciliary dyskinesia patients; cilia from patients show disorganized microtubules, and they are missing both N-DRC and inner dynein arms proteins. In Chlamydomonas, we used immunoblots and microtubule sliding assays to show that mutants in CCDC40 (PF7) and CCDC39 (PF8) fail to assemble N-DRC, several inner dynein arms, tektin, and CCDC39. Enrichment screens for suppression of pf7; pf8 cells led to the isolation of five independent extragenic suppressors defined by four different mutations in a NIMA-related kinase, CNK11. These alleles partially rescue the flagellar length defect, but not the motility defect. The suppressor does not restore the missing N-DRC and inner dynein arm proteins. In addition, the cnk11 mutations partially suppress the short flagella phenotype of N-DRC and axonemal dynein mutants, but do not suppress the motility defects. The tpg1 mutation in TTLL9, a tubulin polyglutamylase, partially suppresses the length phenotype in the same axonemal dynein mutants. In contrast to cnk11, tpg1 does not suppress the short flagella phenotype of pf7. The polyglutamylated tubulin in the proximal region that remains in the tpg1 mutant is reduced further in the pf7; tpg1 double mutant by immunofluorescence. CCDC40, which is needed for docking multiple other axonemal complexes, is needed for tubulin polyglutamylation in the proximal end of the flagella. The CCDC39 and CCDC40 proteins are likely to be involved in recruiting another tubulin glutamylase(s) to the flagella. Another difference between cnk11-1 and tpg1 mutants is that cnk11-1 cells show a faster turnover rate of tubulin at the flagellar tip than in wild-type flagella and tpg1 flagella show a slower rate. The double mutant shows a turnover rate similar to tpg1, which suggests the faster turnover rate in cnk11-1 flagella requires polyglutamylation. Thus, we hypothesize that many short flagella mutants in Chlamydomonas have increased instability of axonemal microtubules. Both CNK11 and tubulin polyglutamylation play roles in regulating the stability of axonemal microtubules. PMID:26348919

  2. ?-Tubulin complex in Trypanosoma brucei: molecular composition, subunit interdependence and requirement for axonemal central pair protein assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-11-01

    ?-Tubulin complex constitutes a key component of the microtubule-organizing center and nucleates microtubule assembly. This complex differs in complexity in different organisms: the budding yeast contains the ?-tubulin small complex (?TuSC) composed of ?-tubulin, gamma-tubulin complex protein (GCP)2 and GCP3, whereas animals contain the ?-tubulin ring complex (?TuRC) composed of ?TuSC and three additional proteins, GCP4, GCP5 and GCP6. In Trypanosoma brucei, the composition of the ?-tubulin complex remains elusive, and it is not known whether it also regulates assembly of the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Here we report that the ?-tubulin complex in T.?brucei is composed of ?-tubulin and three GCP proteins, GCP2-GCP4, and is primarily localized in the basal body throughout the cell cycle. Depletion of GCP2 and GCP3, but not GCP4, disrupted the axonemal central pair microtubules, but not the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Furthermore, we showed that the ?TuSC is required for assembly of two central pair proteins and that ?TuSC subunits are mutually required for stability. Together, these results identified an unusual ?-tubulin complex in T.?brucei, uncovered an essential role of ?TuSC in central pair protein assembly, and demonstrated the interdependence of individual ?TuSC components for maintaining a stable complex. PMID:26224545

  3. Cellular Samurai: katanin and the severing of microtubules.

    PubMed

    Quarmby, L

    2000-08-01

    Recent biochemical studies of the AAA ATPase, katanin, provide a foundation for understanding how microtubules might be severed along their length. These in vitro studies are complemented by a series of recent reports of direct in vivo observation of microtubule breakage, which indicate that the in vitro phenomenon of catalysed microtubule severing is likely to be physiological. There is also new evidence that microtubule severing by katanin is important for the production of non-centrosomal microtubules in cells such as neurons and epithelial cells. Although it has been difficult to establish the role of katanin in mitosis, new genetic evidence indicates that a katanin-like protein, MEI-1, plays an essential role in meiosis in C. elegans. Finally, new proteins involved in the severing of axonemal microtubules have been discovered in the deflagellation system of Chlamydomonas. PMID:10910766

  4. Septins 2, 7 and 9 and MAP4 colocalize along the axoneme in the primary cilium and control ciliary length

    PubMed Central

    Ghossoub, Rania; Hu, Qicong; Failler, Marion; Rouyez, Marie-Christine; Spitzbarth, Benjamin; Mostowy, Serge; Wolfrum, Uwe; Saunier, Sophie; Cossart, Pascale; JamesNelson, W.; Benmerah, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Summary Septins are a large, evolutionarily conserved family of GTPases that form hetero-oligomers and interact with the actin-based cytoskeleton and microtubules. They are involved in scaffolding functions, and form diffusion barriers in budding yeast, the sperm flagellum and the base of primary cilia of kidney epithelial cells. We investigated the role of septins in the primary cilium of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells, and found that SEPT2 forms a 1:1:1 complex with SEPT7 and SEPT9 and that the three members of this complex colocalize along the length of the axoneme. Similar to observations in kidney epithelial cells, depletion of cilium-localized septins by siRNA-based approaches inhibited ciliogenesis. MAP4, which is a binding partner of SEPT2 and controls the accessibility of septins to microtubules, was also localized to the axoneme where it appeared to negatively regulate ciliary length. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the functions and regulation of septins and MAP4 in the organization of the primary cilium and microtubule-based activities in cells. PMID:23572511

  5. Asymmetric behavior of severed microtubule ends after ultraviolet-microbeam irradiation of individual microtubules in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.A.; Inoue, S.; Salmon, E.D.

    1989-03-01

    The molecular basis of microtubule dynamic instability is controversial, but is thought to be related to a GTP cap. A key prediction of the GTP cap model is that the proposed labile GDP-tubulin core will rapidly dissociate if the GTP-tubulin cap is lost. We have tested this prediction by using a UV microbeam to cut the ends from elongating microtubules. Phosphocellulose-purified tubulin was assembled onto the plus and minus ends of sea urchin flagellar axoneme fragments at 21-22 degrees C. The assembly dynamics of individual microtubules were recorded in real time using video microscopy. When the tip of an elongating plus end microtubule was cut off, the severed plus end microtubule always rapidly shortened back to the axoneme at the normal plus end rate. However, when the distal tip of an elongating minus end microtubule was cut off, no rapid shortening occurred. Instead, the severed minus end resumed elongation at the normal minus end rate. Our results show that some form of stabilizing cap, possibly a GTP cap, governs the transition (catastrophe) from elongation to rapid shortening at the plus end. At the minus end, a simple GTP cap is not sufficient to explain the observed behavior unless UV induces immediate recapping of minus, but not plus, ends. Another possibility is that a second step, perhaps a structural transformation, is required in addition to GTP cap loss for rapid shortening to occur. This transformation would be favored at plus, but not minus ends, to account for the asymmetric behavior of the ends.

  6. Turbidimetric studies on microtubule sliding using the stopped-flow-light-scattering method.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, S; Nakanishi, M; Yano, M; Shimizu, H

    1986-03-01

    The turbidity of axonemes during active sliding of microtubules was analysed using the stopped-flow-light-scattering method with high time resolution. Flagella of sea-urchin spermatozoa were demembranated and used after a brief treatment with trypsin. The turbidity of the suspension of flagellar axonemes during ATP-induced disintegration was measured and its time course fitted to a single exponential function which yielded the rate of disintegration, R(1/sec). R coincided well with the velocity of microtubule sliding, V(microM sec) as determined by cinematomicrographic analysis, i.e., R = 0.22 X V, r = 0.9973. It indicates that turbidimetry is a useful method with which to learn the sliding velocity of microtubules. From the dependency of R on temperature, Q10 of the sliding velocity was estimated to be 2.0-2.3 at 43-820 microM of MgATP. PMID:3943560

  7. Light microscopy morphological characteristics of the sperm flagellum may be related to axonemal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, V; Sigala, J; Ballot, C; Jumeau, F; Barbotin, A L; Duhamel, A; Rives, N; Rigot, J M; Escalier, D; Peers, M C

    2015-03-01

    Although electron microscopy provides a detailed analysis of ultrastructural abnormalities, this technique is not available in all laboratories. We sought to determine whether certain characteristics of the flagellum as assessed by light microscopy were related to axonemal abnormalities. Forty-one patients with an absence of outer dynein arms (type I), a lack of a central complex (type III) and an absence of peripheral doublets (type IV) were studied. Sperm morphology was scored according to David's modified classification. Flagella with an irregular thickness were classified as being of normal length, short or broken. There were correlations between missing outer dynein arms and abnormal, short or coiled flagellum. Type III patients showed the highest flagellar defects (a short (P = 0.0027) or an absent flagellum (P = 0.011)). Just over 68% of the irregular flagella were short in Type III patients, whereas this value was only 34.5% in type I and 26.4% in type IV (P = 0.002). There was a negative correlation between misassembly and spermatozoa of irregular flagella (r = -0.79; P = 0.019). It is concluded that light microscopy analysis of flagellum abnormalities may help provide a correct diagnosis, identify sperm abnormalities with fertility potentials and outcomes in assisted reproduction technologies and assess the genetic risk. PMID:24611953

  8. Basal body multipotency and axonemal remodelling are two pathways to a 9+0 flagellum

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, R. J.; Gluenz, E.; Gull, K.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cilia/flagella exhibit two characteristic ultrastructures reflecting two main functions; a 9+2 axoneme for motility and a 9+0 axoneme for sensation and signalling. Whether, and if so how, they interconvert is unclear. Here we analyse flagellum length, structure and molecular composition changes in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite Leishmania during the transformation of a life cycle stage with a 9+2 axoneme (the promastigote) to one with a 9+0 axoneme (the amastigote). We show 9+0 axonemes can be generated by two pathways: by de novo formation and by restructuring of existing 9+2 axonemes associated with decreased intraflagellar transport. Furthermore, pro-basal bodies formed under conditions conducive for 9+2 axoneme formation can form a 9+0 axoneme de novo. We conclude that pro-centrioles/pro-basal bodies are multipotent and not committed to form either a 9+2 or 9+0 axoneme. In an alternative pathway structures can also be removed from existing 9+2 axonemes to convert them to 9+0. PMID:26667778

  9. Basal body multipotency and axonemal remodelling are two pathways to a 9+0 flagellum.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R J; Gluenz, E; Gull, K

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cilia/flagella exhibit two characteristic ultrastructures reflecting two main functions; a 9+2 axoneme for motility and a 9+0 axoneme for sensation and signalling. Whether, and if so how, they interconvert is unclear. Here we analyse flagellum length, structure and molecular composition changes in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite Leishmania during the transformation of a life cycle stage with a 9+2 axoneme (the promastigote) to one with a 9+0 axoneme (the amastigote). We show 9+0 axonemes can be generated by two pathways: by de novo formation and by restructuring of existing 9+2 axonemes associated with decreased intraflagellar transport. Furthermore, pro-basal bodies formed under conditions conducive for 9+2 axoneme formation can form a 9+0 axoneme de novo. We conclude that pro-centrioles/pro-basal bodies are multipotent and not committed to form either a 9+2 or 9+0 axoneme. In an alternative pathway structures can also be removed from existing 9+2 axonemes to convert them to 9+0. PMID:26667778

  10. Sperm accessory microtubules suggest the placement of Diplura as the sister-group of Insecta s.s.

    PubMed

    Dallai, Romano; Mercati, David; Carapelli, Antonio; Nardi, Francesco; Machida, Ryuichiro; Sekiya, Kaoru; Frati, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Sperm ultrastructure and spermiogenesis of the dipluran Japygidae (Japyx solifugus, Metajapyx braueri and Occasjapyx japonicus) and Campodeidae (Campodea sp.) were studied with the aim of looking for potential characters for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods. Both Japygidae and Campodeidae share a common sperm axonemal model 9+9+2, provided with nine accessory microtubules. These microtubules, however, after their formation lose the usual position around the 9+2 and migrate between the two mitochondria. In Japygidae, four of these microtubules are very short and were observed beneath the nucleus after negative staining and serial sections. Accessory microtubules have 13 protofilaments in their tubular wall. Diplura have a sperm morphology which is very different from that of the remaining Entognatha (Protura+Collembola). On the basis of the present results, the presence of accessory microtubules suggests that Diplura are the sister-group of the Insecta s.s.. Moreover, Japygidae and Campodeidae differ with regards to the relative position of the sperm components, the former having the axoneme starting from beneath the nucleus (above which sits the short acrosome), while the latter having a long apical acrosome and a nucleus running parallel with the proximal part of the axoneme. The present study also allowed to redescribe the male genital system of Japyx. PMID:20728567

  11. Isolation of microtubule-based motor proteins by ATP release from paclitaxel-stabilized microtubules.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Roger D

    2015-02-01

    The ?-?-tubulin heterodimer is asymmetric, and when asymmetric subunits assemble in a head-to-tail fashion, they produce a polymer that is itself asymmetric. Microtubules are therefore polar polymers having a head (or plus) end and a tail (or minus) end. Both ends can be distinguished kinetically because they add and lose subunits at different rates. Because of this inherent asymmetry, translocation of a particle along a microtubule from the head to the tail is a different molecular event than is translocation from the minus to the plus end. Currently, two classes of microtubule-dependent motor proteins are recognized: Those that are plus-end-directed (i.e., kinesin-like) and those that are minus-end-directed (dynein-like). The kinesin family of proteins in humans contains at least 14 classes of kinesins, a grouping based on tertiary and quaternary structure considerations, as well as on enzymatic activity. The dyneins are organized into two groups: Axonemal dyneins and cytoplasmic dyneins. This protocol provides methods for the enrichment of kinesin or cytoplasmic dynein, based on the differential interactions of each type of motor protein with microtubules in the presence of different nucleotides. For a cleaner preparation of motor proteins, the protocol includes steps for the further separation of kinesin and dynein from one another by sucrose gradient centrifugation. PMID:25646500

  12. Micropatterning microtubules.

    PubMed

    Portran, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The following protocol describes a method to control the orientation and polarity of polymerizing microtubules (MTs). Reconstitution of specific geometries of dynamic MT networks is achieved using a ultraviolet (UV) micropatterning technique in combination with stabilized MT microseeds. The process is described in three main parts. First, the surface is passivated to avoid the non-specific absorption of proteins, using different polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based surface treatment. Second, specific adhesive surfaces (the micropatterns) are imprinted through a photomask using deep UVs. Lastly, MT microseeds are adhered to the micropatterns followed by MT polymerization. PMID:24484656

  13. Dark matter with two inert doublets plus one Higgs doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keus, Venus; King, Stephen F.; Moretti, Stefano; Sokolowska, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    Following the discovery of a Higgs boson, there has been renewed interest in the general 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM). A model with One Inert Doublet plus One Higgs Doublet (I(1+1)HDM), where one of the scalar doublets is "inert" (since it has no vacuum expectation value and does not couple to fermions) has an advantage over the 2HDM since it provides a good Dark Matter (DM) candidate, namely the lightest inert scalar. Motivated by the existence of three fermion families, here we consider a model with two scalar doublets plus one Higgs doublet (I(2+1)HDM), where the two scalar doublets are inert. The I(2+1)HDM has a richer phenomenology than either the I(1+1)HDM or the 2HDM. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density in the I(2+1)HDM with simplified couplings and address the possibility of constraining the model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct detection experiments.

  14. Microtubule dynamics and organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogterom, Marileen

    2000-03-01

    Microtubules are rigid biopolymers found in all higher order cells. They are a mayor part of the cytoskeleton, the network of protein polymers that gives the cell its shape and rigidity and allows for various forms of (intra)cellular motility. The intracellular spatial organization of the microtubule network is constantly changing as the microtubules adapt to their different functions. In part, this spatial organization depends on the assembly dynamics (including microtubule nucleation) and forces generated by the microtubules themselves. To understand these mechanisms, we study the physical aspects connected with the assembly, force generation and spatial organization of microtubules in simplified model systems, in the absence of other cellular components. We measure the forces generated by individual microtubules by making them grow against a microfabricated barrier. These experiments show that a single microtubule can generate at least several picoNewton of force, comparable to what is known for motor proteins. Theoretical modeling of force-generation by multi-protofilament polymers is used to predict force-velocity relations that can be compared to experimental data. We study the self-organization of microtubules by confining them to microfabricated chambers that mimic the geometry of living cells. The distribution of microtubule nucleation sites in these chambers is controlled to study its effect on the organization of the microtubule network. We find that so-called microtubule asters position themselves in response to forces generated by dynamic microtubules. Experiments aimed at measuring the forces acting on these asters using optical trapping techniques will be described.

  15. X-Ray Fiber Diffraction Recordings from Oriented Demembranated Chlamydomonas Flagellar Axonemes.

    PubMed

    Toba, Shiori; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Shinji; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2015-06-16

    The high homology of its axonemal components with humans and a large repertoire of axonemal mutants make Chlamydomonas a useful model system for experiments on the structure and function of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Using this organism, we explored the spatial arrangement of axonemal components under physiological conditions by small-angle x-ray fiber diffraction. Axonemes were oriented in physiological solution by continuous shear flow and exposed to intense and stable x rays generated in the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, BL45XU. We compared diffraction patterns from axonemes isolated from wild-type and mutant strains lacking the whole outer arm (oda1), radial spoke (pf14), central apparatus (pf18), or the ?-chain of the outer arm dynein (oda11). Diffraction of the axonemes showed a series of well-defined meridional/layer-line and equatorial reflections. Diffraction patterns from mutant axonemes exhibited a systematic loss/attenuation of meridional/layer-line reflections, making it possible to determine the origin of various reflections. The 1/24 and 1/12nm(-1) meridional reflections of oda1 and oda11 were much weaker than those of the wild-type, suggesting that the outer dynein arms are the main contributor to these reflections. The weaker 1/32 and 1/13.7nm(-1) meridional reflections from pf14 compared with the wild-type suggest that these reflections come mainly from the radial spokes. The limited contribution of the central pair apparatus to the diffraction patterns was confirmed by the similarity between the patterns of the wild-type and pf18. The equatorial reflections were complex, but a comparison with electron micrograph-based models allowed the density of each axonemal component to be estimated. Addition of ATP to rigor-state axonemes also resulted in subtle changes in equatorial intensity profiles, which could report nucleotide-dependent structural changes of the dynein arms. The first detailed description of axonemal reflections presented here serves as a landmark for further x-ray diffraction studies to monitor the action of constituent proteins in functional axonemes. PMID:26083924

  16. A Migrating Ciliary Gate Compartmentalizes the Site of Axoneme Assembly in Drosophila Spermatids

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Marcus L.; Ha, Andrew; Chadha, Abhishek; Clark, Nicole M.; Polyanovsky, Andrey; Cook, Boaz; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background In most cells, the cilium is formed within a compartment separated from the cytoplasm. Entry into the ciliary compartment is regulated by a specialized gate located at the base of the cilium in a region known as the transition zone. The transition zone is closely associated with multiple structures of the ciliary base including the centriole, axoneme, and ciliary membrane. However, the contribution of these structures to the ciliary gate remains unclear. Results Here, we report that in Drosophila spermatids, a conserved module of transition zone proteins mutated in Meckel-Gruber Syndrome (MKS) including Cep290, Mks1, B9d1, and B9d2 comprise a ciliary gate that continuously migrates away from the centriole to compartmentalize the growing axoneme tip. We show that Cep290 is essential for transition zone composition, compartmentalization of the axoneme tip, and axoneme integrity, and find that MKS proteins also delimit a centriole-independent compartment in mouse spermatids. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the ciliary gate can migrate away from the base of the cilium, thereby functioning independently of the centriole and of a static interaction with the axoneme to compartmentalize the site of axoneme assembly. PMID:25447994

  17. Targeting Toxoplasma Tubules: Tubulin, Microtubules, and Associated Proteins in a Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes serious opportunistic infections, birth defects, and blindness in humans. Microtubules are critically important components of diverse structures that are used throughout the Toxoplasma life cycle. As in other eukaryotes, spindle microtubules are required for chromosome segregation during replication. Additionally, a set of membrane-associated microtubules is essential for the elongated shape of invasive “zoites,” and motility follows a spiral trajectory that reflects the path of these microtubules. Toxoplasma zoites also construct an intricate, tubulin-based apical structure, termed the conoid, which is important for host cell invasion and associates with proteins typically found in the flagellar apparatus. Last, microgametes specifically construct a microtubule-containing flagellar axoneme in order to fertilize macrogametes, permitting genetic recombination. The specialized roles of these microtubule populations are mediated by distinct sets of associated proteins. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of tubulin, microtubule populations, and associated proteins in Toxoplasma; these components are used for both novel and broadly conserved processes that are essential for parasite survival. PMID:25380753

  18. Heterotrimeric kinesin-II is required for the assembly of motile 9+2 ciliary axonemes on sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Morris, R L; Scholey, J M

    1997-09-01

    Heterotrimeric kinesin-II is a plus end- directed microtubule (MT) motor protein consisting of distinct heterodimerized motor subunits associated with an accessory subunit. To probe the intracellular transport functions of kinesin-II, we microinjected fertilized sea urchin eggs with an anti-kinesin-II monoclonal antibody, and we observed a dramatic inhibition of ciliogenesis at the blastula stage characterized by the assembly of short, paralyzed, 9+0 ciliary axonemes that lack central pair MTs. Control embryos show no such defect and form swimming blastulae with normal, motile, 9+2 cilia that contain kinesin-II as detected by Western blotting. Injection of anti-kinesin-II into one blastomere of a two-cell embryo leads to the development of chimeric blastulae covered on one side with short, paralyzed cilia, and on the other with normal, beating cilia. We observed a unimodal length distribution of short cilia on anti-kinesin-II-injected embryos corresponding to the first mode of the trimodal distribution of ciliary lengths observed for control embryos. This short mode may represent a default ciliary assembly intermediate. We hypothesize that kinesin-II functions during ciliogenesis to deliver ciliary components that are required for elongation of the assembly intermediate and for formation of stable central pair MTs. Thus, kinesin-II plays a critical role in embryonic development by supporting the maturation of nascent cilia to generate long motile organelles capable of producing the propulsive forces required for swimming and feeding. PMID:9281580

  19. A 210 kDa protein is located in a membrane-microtubule linker at the distal end of mature and nascent basal bodies.

    PubMed

    Lechtreck, K F; Teltenktter, A; Grunow, A

    1999-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody raised against purified flagellar basal apparatuses from the green flagellate Spermatozopsis similis reacted with a protein of 210 kDa (p210) in western blots. The protein was partially cloned by immunoscreening of a cDNA library. The sequence encoded a novel protein rich in alanine (25%) and proline (20%), which contained regions similar to proteins of comparable amino acid composition such as extracellular matrix components or the membrane-cytoskeletal linker synapsin. Using a polyclonal antibody (anti-p210) raised against the C-terminal part of p210, it was shown that the protein was highly enriched in the basal apparatuses. Immunogold electron microscopy of isolated cytoskeletons or whole cells revealed that p210 was located in the flagellar transition region. The protein was part of the Y-shaped fibrous linkers between the doublet microtubules and the flagellar membrane, as indicated by statistical analysis of post-labeled sections using anti-centrin and anti-tubulin as controls. In premitotic cells p210 was located in a fibrous layer at the distal end of nascent basal bodies, which was perforated by the outgrowing axoneme. During deflagellation the protein remained at the basal body but we observed changes in its distribution, indicating that p210 partially moved to the tip of the basal body. p210 can be used as a marker to determine basal body position, orientation (parallel or antiparallel) and number in S. similis by indirect immunofluorescence. We suppose that p210 is involved in linking basal bodies to the plasma membrane, which is an important step during ciliogenesis. PMID:10318757

  20. Automation design of cemented doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Galina; Ivanova, Tatiana; Korotkova, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    Algorithm and software for cemented doublet synthesis by Slusarev's methodology are presented. Slusarev's methodology is based on lookup tables that allow calculating doublet radii by given value of third-order coma, spherical aberration and chromatic aberration by specific algorithm. This calculation is automated in this work. The input parameters for algorithm are desired values of third-order coma, spherical aberration and chromatic aberration of cemented doublet. The software looks up few pairs of optical glasses corresponding to specified value of chromatic aberration and then calculates radii of surfaces for each pair of glasses corresponding to specified third-order coma and spherical aberration. The resulted third-order aberrations and real aberrations on the edge of the pupil are calculated for obtained radiuses. Several doublets can be analyzed in result table and the chosen one can be imported into Zemax. The calculated cemented doublet parameters can be analyzed and optimized in optical system design software. The software allows to make the first step of optical system design fast and simple. It allows to design not only the system which is free of the third-order spherical aberration, coma and axial color, but obtain necessary value of aberration for compensation of aberrations in another part of optical system. Possibility to look up optical glasses automatically, what affects the chromatic aberration correction and aberration correction in general, is especially important. Examples of automatic calculation of cemented doublet and compensation of aberrations in another part of optical system are presented in the paper.

  1. FAP206 is a microtubule-docking adapter for ciliary radial spoke 2 and dynein c

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Krishna Kumar; Song, Kangkang; Alford, Lea M.; Sale, Winfield S.; Dymek, Erin E.; Smith, Elizabeth F.; Hennessey, Todd; Joachimiak, Ewa; Urbanska, Paulina; Wloga, Dorota; Dentler, William; Nicastro, Daniela; Gaertig, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Radial spokes are conserved macromolecular complexes that are essential for ciliary motility. A triplet of three radial spokes, RS1, RS2, and RS3, repeats every 96 nm along the doublet microtubules. Each spoke has a distinct base that docks to the doublet and is linked to different inner dynein arms. Little is known about the assembly and functions of individual radial spokes. A knockout of the conserved ciliary protein FAP206 in the ciliate Tetrahymena resulted in slow cell motility. Cryo–electron tomography showed that in the absence of FAP206, the 96-nm repeats lacked RS2 and dynein c. Occasionally, RS2 assembled but lacked both the front prong of its microtubule base and dynein c, whose tail is attached to the front prong. Overexpressed GFP-FAP206 decorated nonciliary microtubules in vivo. Thus FAP206 is likely part of the front prong and docks RS2 and dynein c to the microtubule. PMID:25540426

  2. FAP206 is a microtubule-docking adapter for ciliary radial spoke 2 and dynein c.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Krishna Kumar; Song, Kangkang; Alford, Lea M; Sale, Winfield S; Dymek, Erin E; Smith, Elizabeth F; Hennessey, Todd; Joachimiak, Ewa; Urbanska, Paulina; Wloga, Dorota; Dentler, William; Nicastro, Daniela; Gaertig, Jacek

    2015-02-15

    Radial spokes are conserved macromolecular complexes that are essential for ciliary motility. A triplet of three radial spokes, RS1, RS2, and RS3, repeats every 96 nm along the doublet microtubules. Each spoke has a distinct base that docks to the doublet and is linked to different inner dynein arms. Little is known about the assembly and functions of individual radial spokes. A knockout of the conserved ciliary protein FAP206 in the ciliate Tetrahymena resulted in slow cell motility. Cryo-electron tomography showed that in the absence of FAP206, the 96-nm repeats lacked RS2 and dynein c. Occasionally, RS2 assembled but lacked both the front prong of its microtubule base and dynein c, whose tail is attached to the front prong. Overexpressed GFP-FAP206 decorated nonciliary microtubules in vivo. Thus FAP206 is likely part of the front prong and docks RS2 and dynein c to the microtubule. PMID:25540426

  3. GAR22? regulates cell migration, sperm motility, and axoneme structure.

    PubMed

    Gamper, Ivonne; Fleck, David; Barlin, Meltem; Spehr, Marc; Sayad, Sara El; Kleine, Henning; Maxeiner, Sebastian; Schalla, Carmen; Aydin, Glcan; Hoss, Mareike; Litchfield, David W; Lscher, Bernhard; Zenke, Martin; Sechi, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    Spatiotemporal cytoskeleton remodeling is pivotal for cell adhesion and migration. Here we investigated the function of Gas2-related protein on chromosome 22 (GAR22?), a poorly characterized protein that interacts with actin and microtubules. Primary and immortalized GAR22?(-/-) Sertoli cells moved faster than wild-type cells. In addition, GAR22?(-/-) cells showed a more prominent focal adhesion turnover. GAR22? overexpression or its reexpression in GAR22?(-/-) cells reduced cell motility and focal adhesion turnover. GAR22?-actin interaction was stronger than GAR22?-microtubule interaction, resulting in GAR22? localization and dynamics that mirrored those of the actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, GAR22? interacted with the regulator of microtubule dynamics end-binding protein 1 (EB1) via a novel noncanonical amino acid sequence, and this GAR22?-EB1 interaction was required for the ability of GAR22? to modulate cell motility. We found that GAR22? is highly expressed in mouse testes, and its absence resulted in reduced spermatozoa generation, lower actin levels in testes, and impaired motility and ultrastructural disorganization of spermatozoa. Collectively our findings identify GAR22? as a novel regulator of cell adhesion and migration and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of diverse cytoskeleton-dependent processes. PMID:26564797

  4. Microtubule organization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dogterom, Marileen; Surrey, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Microtubules organize into a set of distinct patterns with the help of associated molecules that control nucleation, polymerization, crosslinking, and transport. These patterns, alone or in combination with each other, define the functional architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton in living cells. In vitro experiments of increasing complexity help understand, in combination with theoretical models, the basic mechanisms by which elementary microtubule patterns arise, how they are maintained, and how they position themselves with respect to the confining geometry of living cells. PMID:23287583

  5. Compressing the inert doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Morrissey, David E.; de la Puente, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    The inert doublet model relies on a discrete symmetry to prevent couplings of the new scalars to Standard Model fermions. This stabilizes the lightest inert state, which can then contribute to the observed dark matter density. In the presence of additional approximate symmetries, the resulting spectrum of exotic scalars can be compressed. Here, we study the phenomenological and cosmological implications of this scenario. We derive new limits on the compressed inert doublet model from LEP, and outline the prospects for exclusion and discovery of this model at dark matter experiments, the LHC, and future colliders.

  6. Compressing the Inert Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blinov, Nikita; Morrissey, David E.; de la Puente, Alejandro

    2015-10-29

    The Inert Doublet Model relies on a discrete symmetry to prevent couplings of the new scalars to Standard Model fermions. We found that this stabilizes the lightest inert state, which can then contribute to the observed dark matter density. In the presence of additional approximate symmetries, the resulting spectrum of exotic scalars can be compressed. Here, we study the phenomenological and cosmological implications of this scenario. Furthermore, we derive new limits on the compressed Inert Doublet Model from LEP, and outline the prospects for exclusion and discovery of this model at dark matter experiments, the LHC, and future colliders.

  7. Microtubules, Tubulins and Associated Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raxworthy, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews much of what is known about microtubules, which are biopolymers consisting predominantly of subunits of the globular protein, tubulin. Describes the functions of microtubules, their structure and assembly, microtube associated proteins, and microtubule-disrupting agents. (TW)

  8. Bug22 influences cilium morphology and the post-translational modification of ciliary microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Mendes Maia, Teresa; Gogendeau, Delphine; Pennetier, Carole; Janke, Carsten; Basto, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cilia and flagella are organelles essential for motility and sensing of environmental stimuli. Depending on the cell type, cilia acquire a defined set of functions and, accordingly, are built with an appropriate length and molecular composition. Several ciliary proteins display a high degree of conservation throughout evolution and mutations in ciliary genes are associated with various diseases such as ciliopathies and infertility. Here, we describe the role of the highly conserved ciliary protein, Bug22, in Drosophila. Previous studies in unicellular organisms have shown that Bug22 is required for proper cilia function, but its exact role in ciliogenesis has not been investigated yet. Null Bug22 mutant flies display cilia-associated phenotypes and nervous system defects. Furthermore, sperm differentiation is blocked at the individualization stage, due to impaired migration of the individualization machinery. Tubulin post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as polyglycylation, polyglutamylation or acetylation, are determinants of microtubule (MT) functions and stability in centrioles, cilia and neurons. We found defects in the timely incorporation of polyglycylation in sperm axonemal MTs of Bug22 mutants. In addition, we found that depletion of human Bug22 in RPE1 cells resulted in the appearance of longer cilia and reduced axonemal polyglutamylation. Our work identifies Bug22 as a protein that plays a conserved role in the regulation of PTMs of the ciliary axoneme. PMID:24414207

  9. An Essential Role for Katanin p80 and Microtubule Severing in Male Gamete Production

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Liza; Rhodes, Danielle; Smith, Stephanie J.; Merriner, D. Jo; Clark, Brett J.; Borg, Claire; Whittle, Belinda; O'Connor, Anne E.; Smith, Lee B.; McNally, Francis J.; de Kretser, David M.; Goodnow, Chris C.; Ormandy, Chris J.; Jamsai, Duangporn; O'Bryan, Moira K.

    2012-01-01

    Katanin is an evolutionarily conserved microtubule-severing complex implicated in multiple aspects of microtubule dynamics. Katanin consists of a p60 severing enzyme and a p80 regulatory subunit. The p80 subunit is thought to regulate complex targeting and severing activity, but its precise role remains elusive. In lower-order species, the katanin complex has been shown to modulate mitotic and female meiotic spindle dynamics and flagella development. The in vivo function of katanin p80 in mammals is unknown. Here we show that katanin p80 is essential for male fertility. Specifically, through an analysis of a mouse loss-of-function allele (the Taily line), we demonstrate that katanin p80, most likely in association with p60, has an essential role in male meiotic spindle assembly and dissolution and the removal of midbody microtubules and, thus, cytokinesis. Katanin p80 also controls the formation, function, and dissolution of a microtubule structure intimately involved in defining sperm head shaping and sperm tail formation, the manchette, and plays a role in the formation of axoneme microtubules. Perturbed katanin p80 function, as evidenced in the Taily mouse, results in male sterility characterized by decreased sperm production, sperm with abnormal head shape, and a virtual absence of progressive motility. Collectively these data demonstrate that katanin p80 serves an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in several aspects of male germ cell development. PMID:22654669

  10. Microtubule-severing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Roll-Mecak, Antonina; McNally, Francis J

    2010-02-01

    In 1993, an enzyme with an ATP-dependent microtubule-severing activity was purified from sea urchin eggs and named katanin, after the Japanese word for sword. Now we know that katanin, spastin, and fidgetin form a family of closely related microtubule-severing enzymes that is widely distributed in eukaryotes ranging from Tetrahymena and Chlamydomonas to humans. Here we review the diverse in vivo functions of these proteins and the recent significant advances in deciphering the biophysical mechanism of microtubule severing. PMID:19963362

  11. Regulation of ciliary motility: conserved protein kinases and phosphatases are targeted and anchored in the ciliary axoneme.

    PubMed

    Wirschell, Maureen; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Alford, Lea; Gokhale, Avanti; Gaillard, Anne; Sale, Winfield S

    2011-06-15

    Recent evidence has revealed that the dynein motors and highly conserved signaling proteins are localized within the ciliary 9+2 axoneme. One key mechanism for regulation of motility is phosphorylation. Here, we review diverse evidence, from multiple experimental organisms, that ciliary motility is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the dynein arms through kinases and phosphatases that are anchored immediately adjacent to their axonemal substrates. PMID:21513695

  12. Do prokaryotes contain microtubules?

    PubMed Central

    Bermudes, D; Hinkle, G; Margulis, L

    1994-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules are 24-nm-diameter tubular structures composed of a class of conserved proteins called tubulin. They are involved in numerous cell functions including ciliary motility, nerve cell elongation, pigment migration, centrosome formation, and chromosome movement. Although cytoplasmic tubules and fibers have been observed in bacteria, some with diameters similar to those of eukaryotes, no homologies to eukaryotic microtubules have been established. Certain groups of bacteria including azotobacters, cyanobacteria, enteric bacteria, and spirochetes have been frequently observed to possess microtubule-like structures, and others, including archaebacteria, have been shown to be sensitive to drugs that inhibit the polymerization of microtubules. Although little biochemical or molecular biological information is available, the differences observed among these prokaryotic structures suggest that their composition generally differs among themselves as well as from that of eukaryotes. We review the distribution of cytoplasmic tubules in prokaryotes, even though, in all cases, their functions remain unknown. At least some tend to occur in cells that are large, elongate, and motile, suggesting that they may be involved in cytoskeletal functions, intracellular motility, or transport activities comparable to those performed by eukaryotic microtubules. In Escherichia coli, the FtsZ protein is associated with the formation of a ring in the division zone between the newly forming offspring cells. Like tubulin, FtsZ is a GTPase and shares with tubulin a 7-amino-acid motif, making it a promising candidate in which to seek the origin of tubulins. Images PMID:7968920

  13. Do prokaryotes contain microtubules?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.; Hinkle, G.; Margulis, L.

    1994-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules are 24-nm-diameter tubular structures composed of a class of conserved proteins called tubulin. They are involved in numerous cell functions including ciliary motility, nerve cell elongation, pigment migration, centrosome formation, and chromosome movement. Although cytoplasmic tubules and fibers have been observed in bacteria, some with diameters similar to those of eukaryotes, no homologies to eukaryotic microtubules have been established. Certain groups of bacteria including azotobacters, cyanobacteria, enteric bacteria, and spirochetes have been frequently observed to possess microtubule-like structures, and others, including archaebacteria, have been shown to be sensitive to drugs that inhibit the polymerization of microtubules. Although little biochemical or molecular biological information is available, the differences observed among these prokaryotic structures suggest that their composition generally differs among themselves as well as from that of eukaryotes. We review the distribution of cytoplasmic tubules in prokaryotes, even though, in all cases, their functions remain unknown. At least some tend to occur in cells that are large, elongate, and motile, suggesting that they may be involved in cytoskeletal functions, intracellular motility, or transport activities comparable to those performed by eukaryotic microtubules. In Escherichia coli, the FtsZ protein is associated with the formation of a ring in the division zone between the newly forming offspring cells. Like tubulin, FtsZ is a GTPase and shares with tubulin a 7-amino-acid motif, making it a promising candidate in which to seek the origin of tubulins.

  14. Heterotrimeric kinesin-2 (KIF3) mediates transition zone and axoneme formation of mouse photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Wei, Yuxiao; Ronquillo, Cecinio C; Marc, Robert E; Yoder, Bradley K; Frederick, Jeanne M; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2015-05-15

    Anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) employing kinesin-2 molecular motors has been implicated in trafficking of photoreceptor outer segment proteins. We generated embryonic retina-specific (prefix "emb") and adult tamoxifen-induced (prefix "tam") deletions of KIF3a and IFT88 in adult mice to study photoreceptor ciliogenesis and protein trafficking. In (emb)Kif3a(-/-) and in (emb)Ift88(-/-) mice, basal bodies failed to extend transition zones (connecting cilia) with outer segments, and visual pigments mistrafficked. In contrast, (tam)Kif3a(-/-) and (tam)Ift88(-/-) photoreceptor axonemes disintegrated slowly post-induction, starting distally, but rhodopsin and cone pigments trafficked normally for more than 2 weeks, a time interval during which the outer segment is completely renewed. The results demonstrate that visual pigments transport to the retinal outer segment despite removal of KIF3 and IFT88, and KIF3-mediated anterograde IFT is responsible for photoreceptor transition zone and axoneme formation. PMID:25825494

  15. Particulate Matter in Cigarette Smoke Increases Ciliary Axoneme Beating Through Mechanical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Navarrette, Chelsea R.; Sisson, Joseph H.; Nance, Elizabeth; Allen-Gipson, Diane; Hanes, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The lung's ability to trap and clear foreign particles via the mucociliary elevator is an important mechanism for protecting the lung against respirable irritants and microorganisms. Although cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and particulate inhalation are known to alter mucociliary clearance, little is known about how CS and nanoparticles (NPs) modify cilia beating at the cytoskeletal infrastructure, or axonemal, level. Methods We used a cell-free model to introduce cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and NPs with variant size and surface chemistry to isolated axonemes and measured changes in ciliary motility. We hypothesized that CSE would alter cilia beating and that alterations in ciliary beat frequency (CBF) due to particulate matter would be size- and surface chemistry-dependent. Demembranated axonemes were isolated from ciliated bovine tracheas and exposed to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to initiate motility. CBF was measured in response to 5% CSE, CSE filtrate, and carboxyl-modified (COOH), sulphate (SO4)-modified (sulfonated), or PEG-coated polystyrene (PS) latex NPs ranging in size from 40?nm to 500?nm. Results CSE concentrations as low as 5% resulted in rapid, significant stimulation of CBF (p<0.05 vs. baseline control). Filtering CSE through a 0.2-?m filter attenuated this effect. Introduction of sulphate-modified PS beads ?300?nm in diameter resulted in a similar increase in CBF above baseline ATP levels. Uncharged, PEG-coated beads had no effect on CBF regardless of size. Similarly, COOH-coated particles less than 200?nm in diameter did not alter ciliary motility. However, COOH-coated PS particles larger than 300?nm increased CBF significantly and increased the number of motile points. Conclusions These data show that NPs, including those found in CSE, mechanically stimulate axonemes in a size- and surface chemistry-dependent manner. Alterations in ciliary motility due to physicochemical properties of NPs may be important for inhalational lung injury and efficient drug delivery of respirable particles. PMID:22280523

  16. Microtubule teardrop patterns

    PubMed Central

    Okeyoshi, Kosuke; Kawamura, Ryuzo; Yoshida, Ryo; Osada, Yoshihito

    2015-01-01

    Several strategies for controlling microtubule patterns are developed because of the rigidity determined from the molecular structure and the geometrical structure. In contrast to the patterns in co-operation with motor proteins or associated proteins, microtubules have a huge potential for patterns via their intrinsic flexural rigidity. We discover that a microtubule teardrop pattern emerges via self-assembly under hydrodynamic flow from the parallel bundles without motor proteins. In the growth process, the bundles ultimately bend according to the critical bending curvature. Such protein pattern formation utilizing the intrinsic flexural rigidity will provide broad understandings of self-assembly of rigid rods, not only in biomolecules, but also in supramolecules. PMID:25823414

  17. Time-Dependent Measure of a Nano-Scale Force-Pulse Driven by the Axonemal Dynein Motors in Individual Live Sperm Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M J; Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M W; Balhorn, R

    2009-04-23

    Nano-scale mechanical forces generated by motor proteins are crucial to normal cellular and organismal functioning. The ability to measure and exploit such forces would be important to developing motile biomimetic nanodevices powered by biological motors for Nanomedicine. Axonemal dynein motors positioned inside the sperm flagellum drive microtubule sliding giving rise to rhythmic beating of the flagellum. This force-generating action makes it possible for the sperm cell to move through viscous media. Here we report new nano-scale information on how the propulsive force is generated by the sperm flagellum and how this force varies over time. Single cell recordings reveal discrete {approx}50 ms pulses oscillating with amplitude 9.8 {+-} 2.6 nN independent of pulse frequency (3.5-19.5 Hz). The average work carried out by each cell is 4.6 x 10{sup -16} J per pulse, equivalent to the hydrolysis of {approx}5,500 ATP molecules. The mechanochemical coupling at each active dynein head is {approx}2.2 pN/ATP, and {approx}3.9 pN per dynein arm, in agreement with previously published values obtained using different methods.

  18. A model with two inert scalar doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, A. C. B.; Pleitez, V.

    2016-01-01

    We consider an extension of the standard model (SM) with three SU(2) scalar doublets and discrete S3 ?Z2 symmetries. The irreducible representation of S3 has a singlet and a doublet, and here we show that the singlet corresponds to the SM-like Higgs and the two additional SU(2) doublets forming a S3 doublet are inert. In general, in a three scalar doublet model, with or without S3 symmetry, the diagonalization of the mass matrices implies arbitrary unitary matrices. However, we show that in our model these matrices are of the tri-bimaximal type. We also analyzed the scalar mass spectra and the conditions for the scalar potential is bounded from below at the tree level. We also discuss some phenomenological consequences of the model.

  19. Singlet-Doublet Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Timothy; Kearney, John; Pierce, Aaron; Tucker-Smith, David; /Williams Coll.

    2012-02-15

    In light of recent data from direct detection experiments and the Large Hadron Collider, we explore models of dark matter in which an SU(2){sub L} doublet is mixed with a Standard Model singlet. We impose a thermal history. If the new particles are fermions, this model is already constrained due to null results from XENON100. We comment on remaining regions of parameter space and assess prospects for future discovery. We do the same for the model where the new particles are scalars, which at present is less constrained. Much of the remaining parameter space for both models will be probed by the next generation of direct detection experiments. For the fermion model, DeepCore may also play an important role.

  20. Dishevelled-1 Regulates Microtubule Stability

    PubMed Central

    Krylova, Olga; Messenger, Marcus J.; Salinas, Patricia C.

    2000-01-01

    Dishevelled has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate decisions, cell polarity, and neuronal function. However, the mechanism of Dishevelled action remains poorly understood. Here we examine the cellular localization and function of the mouse Dishevelled protein, DVL-1. Endogenous DVL-1 colocalizes with axonal microtubules and sediments with brain microtubules. Expression of DVL-1 protects stable microtubules from depolymerization by nocodazole in both dividing cells and differentiated neuroblastoma cells. Deletion analyses reveal that the PDZ domain, but not the DEP domain, of DVL-1 is required for microtubule stabilization. The microtubule stabilizing function of DVL-1 is mimicked by lithium-mediated inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) and blocked by expression of GSK-3?. These findings suggest that DVL-1, through GSK-3?, can regulate microtubule dynamics. This new function of DVL-1 in controlling microtubule stability may have important implications for Dishevelled proteins in regulating cell polarity. PMID:11018055

  1. Inert doublet model and LEP II limits

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstroem, Erik; Gustafsson, Michael; Edsjoe, Joakim

    2009-02-01

    The inert doublet model is a minimal extension of the standard model introducing an additional SU(2) doublet with new scalar particles that could be produced at accelerators. While there exists no LEP II analysis dedicated for these inert scalars, the absence of a signal within searches for supersymmetric neutralinos can be used to constrain the inert doublet model. This translation however requires some care because of the different properties of the inert scalars and the neutralinos. We investigate what restrictions an existing DELPHI Collaboration study of neutralino pair production can put on the inert scalars and discuss the result in connection with dark matter. We find that although an important part of the inert doublet model parameter space can be excluded by the LEP II data, the lightest inert particle still constitutes a valid dark matter candidate.

  2. Actinmicrotubule coordination at growing microtubule ends

    PubMed Central

    Lpez, Magdalena Preciado; Huber, Florian; Grigoriev, Ilya; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Akhmanova, Anna; Koenderink, Gijsje H.; Dogterom, Marileen

    2014-01-01

    To power dynamic processes in cells, the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons organize into complex structures. Although it is known that cytoskeletal coordination is vital for cell function, the mechanisms by which cross-linking proteins coordinate actin and microtubule activities remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unknown how the distinct mechanical properties of different actin architectures modulate the outcome of actinmicrotubule interactions. To address this question, we engineered the protein TipAct, which links growing microtubule ends via end-binding proteins to actin filaments. We show that growing microtubules can be captured and guided by stiff actin bundles, leading to global actinmicrotubule alignment. Conversely, growing microtubule ends can transport, stretch and bundle individual actin filaments, thereby globally defining actin filament organization. Our results provide a physical basis to understand actinmicrotubule cross-talk, and reveal that a simple cross-linker can enable a mechanical feedback between actin and microtubule organization that is relevant to diverse biological contexts. PMID:25159196

  3. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  4. The ciliary inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, is assembled in the cytoplasm and transported by IFT before axonemal docking.

    PubMed

    Viswanadha, Rasagnya; Hunter, Emily L; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Wirschell, Maureen; Alford, Lea M; Dutcher, Susan K; Sale, Winfield S

    2014-10-01

    To determine mechanisms of assembly of ciliary dyneins, we focused on the Chlamydomonas inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, also known as dynein f. I1 dynein assembles in the cytoplasm as a 20S complex similar to the 20S I1 dynein complex isolated from the axoneme. The intermediate chain subunit, IC140 (IDA7), and heavy chains (IDA1, IDA2) are required for 20S I1 dynein preassembly in the cytoplasm. Unlike I1 dynein derived from the axoneme, the cytoplasmic 20S I1 complex will not rebind I1-deficient axonemes in vitro. To test the hypothesis that I1 dynein is transported to the distal tip of the cilia for assembly in the axoneme, we performed cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons formed between wild-type and I1 dynein mutant cells. Rescue of I1 dynein assembly in mutant cilia occurred first at the distal tip and then proceeded toward the proximal axoneme. Notably, in contrast to other combinations, I1 dynein assembly was significantly delayed in dikaryons formed between ida7 and ida3. Furthermore, rescue of I1 dynein assembly required new protein synthesis in the ida7 ida3 dikaryons. On the basis of the additional observations, we postulate that IDA3 is required for 20S I1 dynein transport. Cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons using the conditional kinesin-2 mutant, fla10-1 revealed that transport of I1 dynein is dependent on kinesin-2 activity. Thus, I1 dynein complex assembly depends upon IFT for transport to the ciliary distal tip prior to docking in the axoneme. PMID:25252184

  5. Physical Modeling of Microtubules Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Pierre; Kervrann, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Microtubules (MT) are highly dynamic tubulin polymers that are involved in many cellular processes such as mitosis, intracellular cell organization and vesicular transport. Nevertheless, the modeling of cytoskeleton and MT dynamics based on physical properties is difficult to achieve. Using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we propose to model the rigidity of microtubules on a physical basis using forces, mass and acceleration. In addition, we link microtubules growth and shrinkage to the presence of molecules (e.g. GTP-tubulin) in the cytosol. The overall model enables linking cytosol to microtubules dynamics in a constant state space thus allowing usage of data assimilation techniques.

  6. Identification of a microtubule-based cytoplasmic motor in the nematode C. elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, R.J.; Porter, M.E.; Scholey, J.M.; McIntosh, J.R.

    1987-10-23

    C. elegans contains a microtubule binding protein that resembles both dynein and kinesin. This protein has a MgATPase activity and copurifies on both sucrose gradients and DEAE Sephadex columns with a polypeptide of Mr approximately 400 kd. The ATPase activity is 50% inhibited by 10 microM vanadate, 1 mM N-ethyl maleimide, or 5 mM AMP-PNP; it is enhanced 50% by 0.2% Triton. The 400 kd polypeptide is cleaved at a single site by ultraviolet light in the presence of ATP and vanadate. In these ways, the protein resembles dynein. The protein also promotes ATP-dependent translocation of microtubules or axonemes, plus ends trailing. This property is kinesin-like; however, the motility is blocked by 5 microM vanadate, 1 mM N-ethyl maleimide, 0.5 mM ATP-gamma-S, or by ATP-vanadate-UV cleavage of the 400 kd polypeptide, characteristics that differ from kinesin. We propose that this protein is a novel microtubule translocator.

  7. Proteins of the ciliary axoneme are found on cytoplasmic membrane vesicles during growth of cilia

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The cilium is a specialized extension of the cell where many specific proteins are admitted and retained, while many others are excluded or expelled. In order to maintain the organelle, the cell must possess mechanisms for the selective gating of protein entry, as well as for the targeted transport of proteins to the cilium from their sites of synthesis within the cell. We hypothesized that the cell employs cytoplasmic vesicles as vehicles not only for the transport of proteins destined for the ciliary membrane, but also for the transport of axonemal proteins to the cilium by means of peripheral association with vesicles. To test this hypothesis we employed two different experimental strategies: 1. the isolation and biochemical characterization of cytoplasmic vesicles that carry ciliary proteins; and 2. the in situ localization of ciliary proteins on cytoplasmic vesicle surfaces using gold labeling and electron microscopy. Our findings indicate that structural proteins destined for the ciliary axoneme are attached to the outer surfaces of cytoplasmic vesicles that carry integral ciliary membrane proteins during the process of ciliary growth. PMID:24814148

  8. Getting a Grip on Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Schaletzky, Julia; Rape, Michael

    2016-02-25

    Posttranslational modifications control microtubule behavior, yet assigning roles to particular signals was hampered by lack of defined in vitro systems. In this issue of Cell, Valenstein and Roll-Mecak establish a biochemical platform to interrogate consequences of microtubule polyglutamylation, thereby providing important insights into the specificity and quantitative nature of cellular information transfer. PMID:26919420

  9. Anomalous Flexural Behaviors of Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Zhou, Youhe; Gao, Huajian; Wang, Jizeng

    2012-01-01

    Apparent controversies exist on whether the persistence length of microtubules depends on its contour length. This issue is particularly challenging from a theoretical point of view due to the tubular structure and strongly anisotropic material property of microtubules. Here we adopt a higher order continuum orthotropic thin shell model to study the flexural behavior of microtubules. Our model overcomes some key limitations of a recent study based on a simplified anisotropic shell model and results in a closed-form solution for the contour-length-dependent persistence length of microtubules, with predictions in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. By studying the ratio between their contour and persistence lengths, we find that microtubules with length at ∼1.5 μm show the lowest flexural rigidity, whereas those with length at ∼15 μm show the highest flexural rigidity. This finding may provide an important theoretical basis for understanding the mechanical structure of mitotic spindles during cell division. Further analysis on the buckling of microtubules indicates that the critical buckling load becomes insensitive to the tube length for relatively short microtubules, in drastic contrast to the classical Euler buckling. These rich flexural behaviors of microtubules are of profound implication for many biological functions and biomimetic molecular devices. PMID:22768935

  10. CMF22 Is a Broadly Conserved Axonemal Protein and Is Required for Propulsive Motility in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Langousis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic flagellum (or cilium) is a broadly conserved organelle that provides motility for many pathogenic protozoa and is critical for normal development and physiology in humans. Therefore, defining core components of motile axonemes enhances understanding of eukaryotic biology and provides insight into mechanisms of inherited and infectious diseases in humans. In this study, we show that component of motile flagella 22 (CMF22) is tightly associated with the flagellar axoneme and is likely to have been present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. The CMF22 amino acid sequence contains predicted IQ and ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA) motifs that are conserved among CMF22 orthologues in diverse organisms, hinting at the importance of these domains in CMF22 function. Knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) and rescue with an RNAi-immune mRNA demonstrated that CMF22 is required for propulsive cell motility in Trypanosoma brucei. Loss of propulsive motility in CMF22-knockdown cells was due to altered flagellar beating patterns, rather than flagellar paralysis, indicating that CMF22 is essential for motility regulation and likely functions as a fundamental regulatory component of motile axonemes. CMF22 association with the axoneme is weakened in mutants that disrupt the nexin-dynein regulatory complex, suggesting potential interaction with this complex. Our results provide insight into the core machinery required for motility of eukaryotic flagella. PMID:23851336

  11. Higgs phenomenology in the stealth doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enberg, Rikard; Rathsman, Johan; Wouda, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    We analyze a model for the Higgs sector with two scalar doublets and a Z2 symmetry that is manifest in the Yukawa sector but broken in the potential. Thus, one of the doublets breaks the electroweak symmetry and has tree-level Yukawa couplings to fermions, whereas the other doublet has no vacuum expectation value and no tree-level couplings to fermions. Since the Z2 parity is broken the two doublets can mix, which leads to a distinct and novel phenomenology. This stealth doublet model can be seen as a generalization of the inert doublet model with a broken Z2 symmetry. We outline the model and present constraints from theory, electroweak precision tests, and collider searches, including the recent observation of a Higgs boson at the LHC. The charged scalar H± and the C P -odd scalar A couple to fermions at one-loop level. We compute the decays of H± and A and in particular the one-loop decays A →f f ¯ , H±→f f¯ ' , H±→W±Z and H±→W±γ . We also describe how to calculate and renormalize such processes in our model. We find that if one of H± or A is the lightest scalar, H±→W±γ or A →b b ¯ are typically their respective dominating decay channels. Otherwise, the dominating decays of H± and A are into a scalar and a vector. Due to the absence of tree-level fermion couplings for H± and A , we consider pair production and associated production with vector bosons and scalars at the LHC. If the parameter space of the model that favors H±→W±γ is realized in Nature, we estimate that there could be a considerable amount of such events in the present LHC data.

  12. Is the pentaquark doublet a hadronic molecule?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2015-09-01

    A recently announced discovery by LHCb of a doublet of overlapping pentaquark resonances poses a question of what can be the origin of this doublet structure. We attract attention to the fact that such degeneracy could naturally arise if constituent "baryon" and "meson" were in the colored, rather than colorless states. This is an appealing possibility, also because in such a case the pentaquark state would be no less "elementary" than the other hadrons, and would provide a chance for essentially new non-Abelian chemistry.

  13. Doublet Tracer Testing in Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J.S.; Johnson, S.E.; Horne, R.N.; Jackson, P.B.; Culver, G.G.

    1983-12-15

    A tracer test was carried out in a geothermal doublet system to study the injection behavior of a developed reservoir known to be fractured. The doublet produces about 320 gpm of 160 F water that is used for space heating and then injected; the wells are spaced 250 ft apart. Tracer breakthrough was observed in 2 hours and 45 minutes in the production well, indicating fracture flow. However, the tracer concentrations were low and indicated porous media flow; the tracers mixed with a reservoir volume much larger than a fracture.

  14. Microtubule-membrane interactions in cilia. II. Photochemical cross-linking of bridge structures and the identification of a membrane-associated dynein-like ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Dentler, W.L.; Pratt, M.M.; Stephens, R.E.

    1980-02-01

    Photochemical cross-linking of both tetrahymena and aequipecten ciliary membrane proteins with the lipophilic reagent 4,4'-dithiobisphenylazide links together a high molecular weight dynein-like ATPase, membrane tubulin, and at least two other proteins. Electron microscopy of detergent-extracted cilia reveals that the cross-linked complex remains attached to the outer-doublet microtubules by a microtubule-membrane bridge. Cleavage of the reagent's disulfide bond releases the bridge-membrane complex and the dynein-like membrane-associated ATPase. Photochemical cross-linking of ciliary membrane proteins in vivo results initially in the modification of ciliary beat and, eventually, in the cessation of ciliary movement. These results suggest that a dynein-like ATPase comprises the bridge which links the ciliary membrane to the outer-doublet microtubules and that this bridge is involved in the modulation of normal ciliary movement.

  15. The nphp-2 and arl-13 Genetic Modules Interact to Regulate Ciliogenesis and Ciliary Microtubule Patterning in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Warburton-Pitt, Simon R. F.; Silva, Malan; Nguyen, Ken C. Q.; Hall, David H.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based cellular organelles that mediate signal transduction. Cilia are organized into several structurally and functionally distinct compartments: the basal body, the transition zone (TZ), and the cilia shaft. In vertebrates, the cystoprotein Inversin localizes to a portion of the cilia shaft adjacent to the TZ, a region termed the “Inversin compartment” (InvC). The mechanisms that establish and maintain the InvC are unknown. In the roundworm C. elegans, the cilia shafts of amphid channel and phasmid sensory cilia are subdivided into two regions defined by different microtubule ultrastructure: a proximal doublet-based region adjacent to the TZ, and a distal singlet-based region. It has been suggested that C. elegans cilia also possess an InvC, similarly to mammalian primary cilia. Here we explored the biogenesis, structure, and composition of the C. elegans ciliary doublet region and InvC. We show that the InvC is conserved and distinct from the doublet region. nphp-2 (the C. elegans Inversin homolog) and the doublet region genes arl-13, klp-11, and unc-119 are redundantly required for ciliogenesis. InvC and doublet region genes can be sorted into two modules—nphp-2+klp-11 and arl-13+unc-119—which are both antagonized by the hdac-6 deacetylase. The genes of this network modulate the sizes of the NPHP-2 InvC and ARL-13 doublet region. Glutamylation, a tubulin post-translational modification, is not required for ciliary targeting of InvC and doublet region components; rather, glutamylation is modulated by nphp-2, arl-13, and unc-119. The ciliary targeting and restricted localization of NPHP-2, ARL-13, and UNC-119 does not require TZ-, doublet region, and InvC-associated genes. NPHP-2 does require its calcium binding EF hand domain for targeting to the InvC. We conclude that the C. elegans InvC is distinct from the doublet region, and that components in these two regions interact to regulate ciliogenesis via cilia placement, ciliary microtubule ultrastructure, and protein localization. PMID:25501555

  16. Chlamydomonas Axonemal Dynein Assembly Locus ODA8 Encodes a Conserved Flagellar Protein Needed for Cytoplasmic Maturation of Outer Dynein Arm Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Paurav B; Freshour, Judy R; Mitchell, David R

    2015-01-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii oda8 mutation blocks assembly of flagellar outer dynein arms (ODAs), and interacts genetically with ODA5 and ODA10, which encode axonemal proteins thought to aid dynein binding onto axonemal docking sites. We positionally cloned ODA8 and identified the gene product as the algal homolog of vertebrate LRRC56. Its flagellar localization depends on ODA5 and ODA10, consistent with genetic interaction studies, but phylogenomics suggests that LRRC56 homologs play a role in intraflagellar transport (IFT)-dependent assembly of outer row dynein arms, not axonemal docking. ODA8 distribution between cytoplasm and flagella is similar to that of IFT proteins and about half of flagellar ODA8 is in the soluble matrix fraction. Dynein extracted in vitro from wild type axonemes will rebind efficiently to oda8 mutant axonemes, without re-binding of ODA8, further supporting a role in dynein assembly or transport, not axonemal binding. Assays comparing preassembled ODA complexes from the cytoplasm of wild type and mutant strains show that dynein in oda8 mutant cytoplasm has not properly preassembled and cannot bind normally onto oda axonemes. We conclude that ODA8 plays an important role in formation and transport of mature dynein complexes during flagellar assembly. 2014 The Authors. Cytoskeleton Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25558044

  17. The alpha subunit of sea urchin sperm outer arm dynein mediates structural and rigor binding to microtubules.

    PubMed

    Moss, A G; Sale, W S; Fox, L A; Witman, G B

    1992-09-01

    Glass-adsorbed intact sea urchin outer arm dynein and its beta/IC1 subunit supports movement of microtubules, yet does not form a rigor complex upon depletion of ATP (16). We show here that rigor is a feature of the isolated intact outer arm, and that this property subfractionates with its alpha heavy chain. Intact dynein mediates the formation of ATP-sensitive microtubule bundles, as does the purified alpha heavy chain, indicating that both particles are capable of binding to microtubules in an ATP-sensitive manner. In contrast, the beta/IC1 subunit does not bundle microtubules. Bundles formed with intact dynein are composed of ribbon-like sheets of parallel microtubules that are separated by 54 nm (center-to-center) and display the same longitudinal repeat (24 nm) and cross-sectional geometry of dynein arms as do outer doublets in situ. Bundles formed by the alpha heavy chain are composed of microtubules with a center-to-center spacing of 43 nm and display infrequent, fine crossbridges. In contrast to the bridges formed by the intact arm, the links formed by the alpha subunit are irregularly spaced, suggesting that binding of the alpha heavy chain to the microtubules is not cooperative. Cosedimentation studies showed that: (a) some of the intact dynein binds in an ATP-dependent manner and some binds in an ATP-independent manner; (b) the beta/IC1 subunit does not cosediment with microtubules under any conditions; and (c) the alpha heavy chain cosediments with microtubules in the absence or presence of MgATP2-. These results suggest that the structural binding observed in the intact arm also is a property of its alpha heavy chain. We conclude that whereas force-generation is a function of the beta/IC1 subunit, both structural and ATP-sensitive (rigor) binding of the arm to the microtubule are mediated by the alpha subunit. PMID:1387406

  18. Teamwork in microtubule motors.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Roop; Rai, Arpan K; Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2013-11-01

    Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated by ensembles of motors in vivo at single-motor resolution. This has been possible for microtubule motor teams that transport intracellular organelles, revealing unexpected differences between collective and single-molecule function. Here we review how the biophysical properties of single motors, and differences therein, may translate into collective motor function during organelle transport and perhaps in other processes outside transport. PMID:23877011

  19. Immunolocalization of different tubulin epitopes in the spermatozoon of Bacillus rossius (Insecta, Phasmatodea).

    PubMed

    Taddei, A R; Gambellini, G; Fausto, A M; Baldacci, A; Mazzini, M

    2000-10-01

    The existence of distinct tubulins in microtubules forming the sperm axoneme has been demonstrated in various species, whereas little is known about the distribution of tubulin variants in insect spermatozoa. In the present study, a panel of specific antibodies has been used to investigate the presence and localization of tubulin isotypes and post-translationally modified tubulins in the spermatozoon of the stick insect Bacillus rossius. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold staining showed differences in labelling in the mature sperm and that the tubulin epitopes localized differentially in the axoneme. In particular, the tyrosinated alpha-tubulin mainly occurs on doublets. These results provide an insight into the molecular composition of the microtubules forming the sperm axoneme of B. rossius and suggest that the structural specificity could reflect distinct functional roles within axonemal microtubules. PMID:11297383

  20. Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Yasar, M. Selcuk; Ross, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some ``stable'' microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility. National Science Foundation Grant No: 0928540 to JLR.

  1. What Organizes the Molecular Ballet that Promotes the Movement of the Axoneme in Such a Way that its Molecular Machinery Seems to be a Whole?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibert, Christian

    2005-03-01

    The axonemal machinery constitutes a highly organized structure whose mechanisms seem to be very simple but whose regulation remains unknown. This apparent simplicity is reinforced by the fact that many models are able to perfectly mimic the axonemal wave trains that propagate along cilia and flagella. However nobody knows what are the actual mechanisms that coordinate the molecular ballet that exist during the beat. Here we present some theoretical elements that show that if the radial spokes are one of the main elements that promote axonemal regulation, they must be involved in a complex mechanism that makes the axoneme a discrete structure whose regulation could depend on local entropy that promotes the emergence of new molecular properties.

  2. An adaptive achromatic doublet design by double variable focus lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihui; Oku, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2014-09-01

    An adaptive chromatic doublet that designed by doublet variable focus lenses was proposed. Two lenses were in filled with different liquids, so that the lenses could perform low and high dispersion proprieties. The proposed doublet could performance a tunable focal length, and meanwhile its chromatic aberration could be corrected. Four available liquids candidates were proposed to fabricate two variable focus lenses that would be designed with liquid-membrane-liquid structure, so that they could realize a large aperture adaptive achromatic doublet. The improvement of the achromatic behaviors was confirmed that the chromatic focal shift range was 2.5% for the adaptive singlet and 0.05% for the adaptive doublet.

  3. Cortical microtubule rearrangements and cell wall patterning

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Plant cortical microtubules, which form a highly ordered array beneath the plasma membrane, play essential roles in determining cell shape and function by directing the arrangement of cellulosic and non-cellulosic compounds on the cell surface. Interphase transverse arrays of cortical microtubules self-organize through their dynamic instability and inter-microtubule interactions, and by branch-form microtubule nucleation and severing. Recent studies revealed that distinct spatial signals including ROP GTPase, cellular geometry, and mechanical stress regulate the behavior of cortical microtubules at the subcellular and supercellular levels, giving rise to dramatic rearrangements in the cortical microtubule array in response to internal and external cues. Increasing evidence indicates that negative regulators of microtubules also contribute to the rearrangement of the cortical microtubule array. In this review, I summarize recent insights into how the rearrangement of the cortical microtubule array leads to proper, flexible cell wall patterning. PMID:25904930

  4. Microtubules in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are highly conserved polar polymers that are key elements of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and are essential for various cell functions. αβ-tubulin, a heterodimer containing one structural GTP and one hydrolysable and exchangeable GTP, is the building block of MTs and is formed by the sequential action of several molecular chaperones. GTP hydrolysis in the MT lattice is mechanistically coupled with MT growth, thus giving MTs a metastable and dynamic nature. MTs adopt several distinct higher-order organizations that function in cell division and cell morphogenesis. Small molecular weight compounds that bind tubulin are used as herbicides and as research tools to investigate MT functions in plant cells. The de novo formation of MTs in cells requires conserved γ-tubulin-containing complexes and targeting/activating regulatory proteins that contribute to the geometry of MT arrays. Various MT regulators and tubulin modifications control the dynamics and organization of MTs throughout the cell cycle and in response to developmental and environmental cues. Signaling pathways that converge on the regulation of versatile MT functions are being characterized. PMID:26019693

  5. The ciliary transition zone functions in cell adhesion but is dispensable for axoneme assembly in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Schouteden, Clementine; Serwas, Daniel; Palfy, Mate

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are cellular projections that perform sensory and motile functions. A key ciliary subdomain is the transition zone, which lies between basal body and axoneme. Previous work in Caenorhabditis elegans identified two ciliopathy-associated protein complexes or modules that direct assembly of transition zone Y-links. Here, we identify C. elegans CEP290 as a component of a third module required to form an inner scaffolding structure called the central cylinder. Co-inhibition of all three modules completely disrupted transition zone structure. Surprisingly, axoneme assembly was only mildly perturbed. However, dendrite extension by retrograde migration was strongly impaired, revealing an unexpected role for the transition zone in cell adhesion. PMID:26124290

  6. The ciliary transition zone functions in cell adhesion but is dispensable for axoneme assembly in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Schouteden, Clementine; Serwas, Daniel; Palfy, Mate; Dammermann, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Cilia are cellular projections that perform sensory and motile functions. A key ciliary subdomain is the transition zone, which lies between basal body and axoneme. Previous work in Caenorhabditis elegans identified two ciliopathy-associated protein complexes or modules that direct assembly of transition zone Y-links. Here, we identify C. elegans CEP290 as a component of a third module required to form an inner scaffolding structure called the central cylinder. Co-inhibition of all three modules completely disrupted transition zone structure. Surprisingly, axoneme assembly was only mildly perturbed. However, dendrite extension by retrograde migration was strongly impaired, revealing an unexpected role for the transition zone in cell adhesion. PMID:26124290

  7. Doublet III beamline: as-built

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, C.R.; Holland, M.M.; Parker, J.W.; Gunn, J.; Resnick, L.

    1980-03-01

    In order to fully exploit Doublet III capabilities and to study new plasma physics regimes, a Neutral Beam Injector System has been constructed. Initially, a two beamline system will supply 7 MW of heat to the plasma. The system is currently being expanded to inject approx. 20 MW of power (6 beamlines). Each beamline is equipped with two Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory type rectangular ion sources with 10 cm x 40 cm extraction grids. These sources will accelerate hydrogen ions to 80 keV, with extracted beam currents in excess of 80 A per source expected. The first completed source is currently being tested and conditioned on the High Voltage Test Stand at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This paper pictorially reviews the as-built Doublet III neutral beamline with emphasis on component relation and configuration relative to spatial and source imposed design constraints.

  8. Doublet III: status and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    A synopsis is presented of the experimental results from the ohmic heating phase of Doublet III, with emphasis on the production of good target plasmas for the upcoming neutral beam injection phase. The program plan for the device over the life of the US-Japan cooperative program is discussed, as is the status of the preliminary investigation into replacing the present vacuum vessel by one better suited for ETF simulation.

  9. IC138 defines a subdomain at the base of the I1 dynein that regulates microtubule sliding and flagellar motility.

    PubMed

    Bower, Raqual; VanderWaal, Kristyn; O'Toole, Eileen; Fox, Laura; Perrone, Catherine; Mueller, Joshua; Wirschell, Maureen; Kamiya, R; Sale, Winfield S; Porter, Mary E

    2009-07-01

    To understand the mechanisms that regulate the assembly and activity of flagellar dyneins, we focused on the I1 inner arm dynein (dynein f) and a null allele, bop5-2, defective in the gene encoding the IC138 phosphoprotein subunit. I1 dynein assembles in bop5-2 axonemes but lacks at least four subunits: IC138, IC97, LC7b, and flagellar-associated protein (FAP) 120--defining a new I1 subcomplex. Electron microscopy and image averaging revealed a defect at the base of the I1 dynein, in between radial spoke 1 and the outer dynein arms. Microtubule sliding velocities also are reduced. Transformation with wild-type IC138 restores assembly of the IC138 subcomplex and rescues microtubule sliding. These observations suggest that the IC138 subcomplex is required to coordinate I1 motor activity. To further test this hypothesis, we analyzed microtubule sliding in radial spoke and double mutant strains. The results reveal an essential role for the IC138 subcomplex in the regulation of I1 activity by the radial spoke/phosphorylation pathway. PMID:19420135

  10. Computer-assisted image analysis of human cilia and Chlamydomonas flagella reveals both similarities and differences in axoneme structure

    PubMed Central

    OToole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.; Porter, Mary E.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, investigations from several different fields have revealed the critical role of cilia in human health and disease. Because of the highly conserved nature of the basic axonemal structure, many different model systems have proven useful for the study of ciliopathies, especially the unicellular, biflagellate green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Although the basic axonemal structure of cilia and flagella is highly conserved, these organelles often perform specialized functions unique to the cell or tissue in which they are found. These differences in function are likely reflected in differences in structural organization. In this work, we directly compare the structure of isolated axonemes from human cilia and Chlamydomonas flagella to identify similarities and differences that potentially play key roles in determining their functionality. Using transmission electron microscopy and 2D image averaging techniques, our analysis has confirmed the overall structural similarity between these two species, but also revealed clear differences in the structure of the outer dynein arms, the central pair projections, and the radial spokes. We also show how the application of 2D image averaging can clarify the underlying structural defects associated primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Overall, our results document the remarkable similarity between these two structures separated evolutionarily by over a billion years, while highlighting several significant differences, and demonstrate the potential of 2D image averaging to improve the diagnosis and understanding of PCD. PMID:22573610

  11. Microtubule defects & Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Fiona J.; Bennett, Craig L

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing the long term survival of neurons is their requirement to maintain efficient axonal transport over long distances. In humans as large, long-lived vertebrates, the machinery maintaining neuronal transport must remain efficient despite the slow accumulation of cell damage during aging. Mutations in genes encoding proteins which function in the transport system feature prominently in neurologic disorders. Genes known to cause such disorders and showing traditional Mendelian inheritance have been more readily identified. It has been more difficult, however, to isolate factors underlying the complex genetics contributing to the more common idiopathic forms of neurodegenerative disease. At the heart of neuronal transport is the rail network or scaffolding provided by neuron specific microtubules (MTs). The importance of MT dynamics and stability is underscored by the critical role tau protein plays in MT-associated stabilization versus the dysfunction seen in Alzheimers disease, frontotemporal dementia and other tauopathies. Another example of the requirement for tight regulation of MT dynamics is the need to maintain balanced levels of post-translational modification of key MT building-blocks such as ?-tubulin. Tubulins require extensive polyglutamylation at their carboxyl-terminus as part of a novel post-translational modification mechanism to signal MT growth versus destabilization. Dramatically, knock-out of a gene encoding a deglutamylation family member causes an extremely rapid cell death of Purkinje cells in the ataxic mouse model, pcd. This review will examine a range of neurodegenerative conditions where current molecular understanding points to defects in the stability of MTs and axonal transport to emphasize the central role of MTs in neuron survival. PMID:24563812

  12. DYX1C1 is required for axonemal dynein assembly and ciliary motility.

    PubMed

    Tarkar, Aarti; Loges, Niki T; Slagle, Christopher E; Francis, Richard; Dougherty, Gerard W; Tamayo, Joel V; Shook, Brett; Cantino, Marie; Schwartz, Daniel; Jahnke, Charlotte; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Raidt, Johanna; Pennekamp, Petra; Abouhamed, Marouan; Hjeij, Rim; Khler, Gabriele; Griese, Matthias; Li, You; Lemke, Kristi; Klena, Nikolas; Liu, Xiaoqin; Gabriel, George; Tobita, Kimimasa; Jaspers, Martine; Morgan, Lucy C; Shapiro, Adam J; Letteboer, Stef J F; Mans, Dorus A; Carson, Johnny L; Leigh, Margaret W; Wolf, Whitney E; Chen, Serafine; Lucas, Jane S; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Plagnol, Vincent; Schmidts, Miriam; Boldt, Karsten; Roepman, Ronald; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Lo, Cecilia W; Mitchison, Hannah M; Knowles, Michael R; Burdine, Rebecca D; Loturco, Joseph J; Omran, Heymut

    2013-09-01

    DYX1C1 has been associated with dyslexia and neuronal migration in the developing neocortex. Unexpectedly, we found that deleting exons 2-4 of Dyx1c1 in mice caused a phenotype resembling primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disorder characterized by chronic airway disease, laterality defects and male infertility. This phenotype was confirmed independently in mice with a Dyx1c1 c.T2A start-codon mutation recovered from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. Morpholinos targeting dyx1c1 in zebrafish also caused laterality and ciliary motility defects. In humans, we identified recessive loss-of-function DYX1C1 mutations in 12 individuals with PCD. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence analyses of DYX1C1-mutant motile cilia in mice and humans showed disruptions of outer and inner dynein arms (ODAs and IDAs, respectively). DYX1C1 localizes to the cytoplasm of respiratory epithelial cells, its interactome is enriched for molecular chaperones, and it interacts with the cytoplasmic ODA and IDA assembly factor DNAAF2 (KTU). Thus, we propose that DYX1C1 is a newly identified dynein axonemal assembly factor (DNAAF4). PMID:23872636

  13. Phylogeny and expression of axonemal and cytoplasmic dynein genes in sea urchins.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, B H; Asai, D J; Tang, W J; Hays, T S; Gibbons, I R

    1994-01-01

    Transcripts approximately 14.5 kilobases in length from 14 different genes that encode for dynein heavy chains have been identified in poly(A)+ RNA from sea urchin embryos. Analysis of the changes in level of these dynein transcripts in response to deciliation, together with their sequence relatedness, suggests that 11 or more of these genes encode dynein isoforms that participate in regeneration of external cilia on the embryo, whereas the single gene whose deduced sequence closely resembles that of cytoplasmic dynein in other organisms appears not to be involved in this regeneration. The four consensus motifs for phosphate binding found previously in the beta heavy chain of sea urchin dynein are present in all five additional isoforms for which extended sequences have been obtained, suggesting that these sites play a significant role in dynein function. Sequence analysis of a approximately 400 amino acid region encompassing the putative hydrolytic ATP-binding site shows that the dynein genes fall into at least six distinct classes. Most of these classes in sea urchin have a high degree of sequence identity with one of the dynein heavy chain genes identified in Drosophila, indicating that the radiation of the dynein gene family into the present classes occurred at an early stage in the evolution of eukaryotes. Evolutionary changes in cytoplasmic dynein have been more constrained than those in the axonemal dyneins. Images PMID:8186465

  14. DYX1C1 is required for axonemal dynein assembly and ciliary motility

    PubMed Central

    Tarkar, Aarti; Loges, Niki T.; Slagle, Christopher E.; Francis, Richard; Dougherty, Gerard W.; Tamayo, Joel V.; Shook, Brett; Cantino, Marie; Schwartz, Daniel; Jahnke, Charlotte; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Raidt, Johanna; Pennekamp, Petra; Abouhamed, Marouan; Hjeij, Rim; Khler, Gabriele; Griese, Matthias; Li, You; Lemke, Kristi; Klena, Nikolas; Liu, Xiaoqin; Gabriel, George; Tobita, Kimimasa; Jaspers, Martine; Morgan, Lucy C.; Shapiro, Adam J.; Letteboer, Stef J.F.; Mans, Dorus A.; Carson, Johnny L.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Wolf, Whitney E.; Chen, Serafine; Lucas, Jane S.; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Plagnol, Vincent; Schmidts, Miriam; Boldt, Karsten; Roepman, Ronald; Zariwala, Maimoona; Lo, Cecilia W.; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Knowles, Michael R.; Burdine, Rebecca D.; LoTurco, Joseph J.; Omran, Heymut

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dyx1c1 has been associated with dyslexia and neuronal migration in the developing neocortex. Unexpectedly, we found that deletion of Dyx1c1 exons 24 in mice caused a phenotype resembling primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic airway disease, laterality defects, and male infertility. This phenotype was confirmed independently in mice with a Dyx1c1c.T2A start codon mutation recovered from an ENU mutagenesis screen. Morpholinos targeting dyx1c1 in zebrafish also created laterality and ciliary motility defects. In humans, recessive loss-of-function DYX1C1 mutations were identified in twelve PCD individuals. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence analyses of DYX1C1-mutant motile cilia in mice and humans revealed disruptions of outer and inner dynein arms (ODA/IDA). DYX1C1 localizes to the cytoplasm of respiratory epithelial cells, its interactome is enriched for molecular chaperones, and it interacts with the cytoplasmic ODA/IDA assembly factor DNAAF2/KTU. Thus, we propose that DYX1C1 is a newly identified dynein axonemal assembly factor (DNAAF4). PMID:23872636

  15. Ktu/PF13 is required for cytoplasmic pre-assembly of axonemal dyneins

    PubMed Central

    Omran, Heymut; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Olbrich, Heike; Tsukahara, Tatsuya; Loges, Niki Tomas; Hagiwara, Haruo; Zhang, Qi; Leblond, Gerard; OToole, Eileen; Hara, Chikako; Mizuno, Hideaki; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Fliegauf, Manfred; Yagi, Toshiki; Koshida, Sumito; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Seithe, Horst; Reinhardt, Richard; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kamiya, Ritsu; Mitchell, David R.; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cilia/flagella are highly conserved organelles that play diverse roles in cell motility and sensing extracellular signals. Motility defects in cilia/flagella often result in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). However, the mechanisms underlying cilia formation and function, and in particular the cytoplasmic assembly of dyneins that power ciliary motility, are only poorly understood. Here we report a novel gene, kintoun (ktu), involved in this cytoplasmic process. This gene was first identified in a medaka mutant, and found to be mutated in PCD patients from two affected families as well as in the pf13 mutant of Chlamydomonas. In the absence of Ktu/PF13, both outer and inner dynein arms are missing or defective in the axoneme, leading to a loss of motility. Biochemical and immunohistochemical studies show that Ktu/PF13 is one of the long-sought proteins involved in pre-assembly of dynein arm complexes in the cytoplasm before intraflagellar transport loads them for the ciliary compartment. PMID:19052621

  16. Kinesin-5 is a microtubule polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yalei; Hancock, William O

    2015-01-01

    Kinesin-5 slides antiparallel microtubules during spindle assembly, and regulates the branching of growing axons. Besides the mechanical activities enabled by its tetrameric configuration, the specific motor properties of kinesin-5 that underlie its cellular function remain unclear. Here by engineering a stable kinesin-5 dimer and reconstituting microtubule dynamics in vitro, we demonstrate that kinesin-5 promotes microtubule polymerization by increasing the growth rate and decreasing the catastrophe frequency. Strikingly, microtubules growing in the presence of kinesin-5 have curved plus ends, suggesting that the motor stabilizes growing protofilaments. Single-molecule fluorescence experiments reveal that kinesin-5 remains bound to the plus ends of static microtubules for 7?s, and tracks growing microtubule plus ends in a manner dependent on its processivity. We propose that kinesin-5 pauses at microtubule plus ends and enhances polymerization by stabilizing longitudinal tubulintubulin interactions, and that these activities underlie the ability kinesin-5 to slide and stabilize microtubule bundles in cells. PMID:26437877

  17. Disruption of cytoplasmic microtubules by ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, G.B.; Perrino, B.A.; Chou, I.N. )

    1991-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of cultured human skin fibroblasts causes the disassembly of their microtubules. Using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we have now investigated whether damage to the microtubule precursor pool may contribute to the disruption of microtubules. Exposure to polychromatic UV radiation inhibits the reassembly of microtubules during cellular recovery from cold treatment. In addition, the ability of taxol to promote microtubule polymerization and bundling is inhibited in UV-irradiated cells. However, UV irradiation of taxol-pretreated cells or in situ detergent-extracted microtubules fails to disrupt the microtubule network. These data suggest that damage to dimeric tubulin, or another soluble factor(s) required for polymerization, contributes to the disassembly of microtubules in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.

  18. How Dynein Moves Along Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Bhabha, Gira; Johnson, Graham T; Schroeder, Courtney M; Vale, Ronald D

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein, a member of the AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) family of proteins, drives the processive movement of numerous intracellular cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Here, we summarize the structural and motile properties of dynein and highlight features that distinguish this motor from kinesin-1 and myosin V, two well-studied transport motors. Integrating information from recent crystal and cryoelectron microscopy structures, as well as high-resolution single-molecule studies, we also discuss models for how dynein biases its movement in one direction along a microtubule track, and present a movie that illustrates these principles. PMID:26678005

  19. Microtubule Severing Stymied by Free Tubulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer; Bailey, Megan

    2015-03-01

    Proper organization of the microtubule cytoskeletal network is required to perform many necessary cellular functions including mitosis, cell development, and cell motility. Network organization is achieved through filament remodeling by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that control microtubule dynamics. MAPs that stabilize are relatively well understood, while less is known about destabilizing MAPs, such as severing enzymes. Katanin, the first-discovered microtubule-severing enzyme, is a AAA + enzyme that oligomerizes into hexamers and uses ATP hydrolysis to sever microtubules. Using quantitative fluorescence imaging on reconstituted microtubule severing assays in vitro we investigate how katanin can regulate microtubule dynamics. Interestingly, we find microtubule dynamics inhibits katanin severing activity; dynamic microtubules are not severed. Using systematic experiments introducing free tubulin into the assays we find that free tubulin can compete for microtubule filaments for the katanin proteins. Our work indicates that katanin could function best on stabile microtubules or stabile regions of microtubules in cells in regions where free tubulin is sequesters, low, or depleted.

  20. A viscoelastic model for axonal microtubule rupture.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Amir; Manuchehrfar, Farid; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2015-05-01

    Axon is an important part of the neuronal cells and axonal microtubules are bundles in axons. In axons, microtubules are coated with microtubule-associated protein tau, a natively unfolded filamentous protein in the central nervous system. These proteins are responsible for cross-linking axonal microtubule bundles. Through complimentary dimerization with other tau proteins, bridges are formed between nearby microtubules creating bundles. Formation of bundles of microtubules causes their transverse reinforcement and has been shown to enhance their ability to bear compressive loads. Though microtubules are conventionally regarded as bearing compressive loads, in certain circumstances during traumatic brain injuries, they are placed in tension. In our model, microtubule bundles were formed from a large number of discrete masses. We employed Standard Linear Solid model (SLS), a viscoelastic model, to computationally simulate microtubules. In this study, we investigated the dynamic responses of two dimensional axonal microtubules under suddenly applied end forces by implementing discrete masses connected to their neighboring masses with a Standard Linear Solid unit. We also investigated the effect of the applied force rate and magnitude on the deformation of bundles. Under tension, a microtubule fiber may rupture as a result of a sudden force. Using the developed model, we could predict the critical regions of the axonal microtubule bundles in the presence of varying end forces. We finally analyzed the nature of microtubular failure under varying mechanical stresses. PMID:25835789

  1. Doublet-triplet fermionic dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedes, Athanasios; Karamitros, Dimitrios

    2014-06-01

    We extend the Standard Model (SM) by adding a pair of fermionic SU(2) doublets with opposite hypercharge and a fermionic SU(2) triplet with zero hypercharge. We impose a discrete Z2 symmetry that distinguishes the SM fermions from the new ones. Then, gauge invariance allows for two renormalizable Yukawa couplings between the new fermions and the SM Higgs field, as well as for direct masses for the doublet (MD) and the triplet (MT). After electroweak symmetry breaking, this model contains, in addition to SM particles, two charged Dirac fermions and a set of three neutral Majorana fermions, the lightest of which contributes to dark matter (DM). We consider a case where the lightest neutral fermion is an equal admixture of the two doublets with mass MD close to the Z-boson mass. This state remains stable under radiative corrections thanks to a custodial SU(2) symmetry and is consistent with the experimental data from oblique electroweak corrections. Moreover, the amplitudes relevant to spin-dependent or spin-independent nucleus-DM particle scattering cross sections both vanish at tree level. They arise at one loop at a level that may be observed in near future DM direct detection experiments. For Yukawa couplings comparable to the top quark, the DM particle relic abundance is consistent with observation, not relying on coannihilation or resonant effects, and has a mass at the electroweak scale. Furthermore, the heavier fermions decay to the DM particle and to electroweak gauge bosons making this model easily testable at the LHC. In the regime of interest, the charged fermions suppress the Higgs decays to diphotons by 45%-75% relative to SM prediction.

  2. Structure of potentials with N Higgs doublets

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, C. C.

    2007-09-01

    Extensions of the standard model with N Higgs doublets are simple extensions presenting a rich mathematical structure. An underlying Minkowski structure emerges from the study of both variable space and parameter space. The former can be completely parametrized in terms of two future lightlike Minkowski vectors with spatial parts forming an angle whose cosine is -(N-1){sup -1}. For the parameter space, the Minkowski parametrization enables one to impose sufficient conditions for bounded below potentials, characterize certain classes of local minima, and distinguish charge breaking vacua from neutral vacua. A particular class of neutral minima presents a degenerate mass spectrum for the physical charged Higgs bosons.

  3. Discrete and continuous symmetries in multi-Higgs-doublet models

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, P. M.; Silva, Joao P.

    2008-12-01

    We consider the Higgs sector of multi-Higgs-doublet models in the presence of simple symmetries relating the various fields. We construct basis-invariant observables which may in principle be used to detect these symmetries for any number of doublets. A categorization of the symmetries into classes is required, which we perform in detail for the case of two and three Higgs doublets.

  4. Tau Protein Diffuses along the Microtubule Lattice*

    PubMed Central

    Hinrichs, Maike H.; Jalal, Avesta; Brenner, Bernhard; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Kumar, Satish; Scholz, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Current models for the intracellular transport of Tau protein suggest motor protein-dependent co-transport with microtubule fragments and diffusion of Tau in the cytoplasm, whereas Tau is believed to be stationary while bound to microtubules and in equilibrium with free diffusion in the cytosol. Observations that members of the microtubule-dependent kinesin family show Brownian motion along microtubules led us to hypothesize that diffusion along microtubules could also be relevant in the case of Tau. We used single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to probe for diffusion of individual fluorescently labeled Tau molecules along microtubules. This allowed us to avoid the problem that microtubule-dependent diffusion could be masked by excess of labeled Tau in solution that might occur in in vivo overexpression experiments. We found that approximately half of the individually detected Tau molecules moved bidirectionally along microtubules over distances up to several micrometers. Diffusion parameters such as diffusion coefficient, interaction time, and scanned microtubule length did not change with Tau concentration. Tau binding and diffusion along the microtubule lattice, however, were sensitive to ionic strength and pH and drastically reduced upon enzymatic removal of the negatively charged C termini of tubulin. We propose one-dimensional Tau diffusion guided by the microtubule lattice as one possible additional mechanism for Tau distribution. By such one-dimensional microtubule lattice diffusion, Tau could be guided to both microtubule ends, i.e. the sites where Tau is needed during microtubule polymerization, independently of directed motor-dependent transport. This could be important in conditions where active transport along microtubules might be compromised. PMID:23019339

  5. The architecture of outer dynein arms in situ.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2007-05-18

    Outer dynein arms, the force generators for axonemal motion, form arrays on microtubule doublets in situ, although they are bouquet-like complexes with separated heads of multiple heavy chains when isolated in vitro. To understand how the three heavy chains are folded in the array, we reconstructed the detailed 3D structure of outer dynein arms of Chlamydomonas flagella in situ by electron cryo-tomography and single-particle averaging. The outer dynein arm binds to the A-microtubule through three interfaces on two adjacent protofilaments, two of which probably represent the docking complex. The three AAA rings of heavy chains, seen as stacked plates, are connected in a striking manner on microtubule doublets. The tail of the alpha-heavy chain, identified by analyzing the oda11 mutant, which lacks alpha-heavy chain, extends from the AAA ring tilted toward the tip of the axoneme and towards the inside of the axoneme at 50 degrees , suggesting a three-dimensional power stroke. The neighboring outer dynein arms are connected through two filamentous structures: one at the exterior of the axoneme and the other through the alpha-tail. Although the beta-tail seems to merge with the alpha-tail at the internal side of the axoneme, the gamma-tail is likely to extend at the exterior of the axoneme and join the AAA ring. This suggests that the fold and function of gamma-heavy chain are different from those of alpha and beta-chains. PMID:17391698

  6. Microtubule catastrophe from protofilament dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemseena, V.; Gopalakrishnan, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    The disappearance of the guanosine triphosphate- (GTP) tubulin cap is widely believed to be the forerunner event for the growth-shrinkage transition (catastrophe) in microtubule filaments in eukaryotic cells. We study a discrete version of a stochastic model of the GTP cap dynamics, originally proposed by Flyvbjerg, Holy, and Leibler [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.73.2372 73, 2372 (1994)]. Our model includes both spontaneous and vectorial hydrolysis, as well as dissociation of a nonhydrolyzed dimer from the filament after incorporation. In the first part of the paper, we apply this model to a single protofilament of a microtubule. A catastrophe transition is defined for each protofilament, similarly to the earlier one-dimensional models, the frequency of occurrence of which is then calculated under various conditions but without explicit assumption of steady-state conditions. Using a perturbative approach, we show that the leading asymptotic behavior of the protofilament catastrophe in the limit of large growth velocities is remarkably similar across different models. In the second part of the paper, we extend our analysis to the entire filament by making a conjecture that a minimum number of such transitions are required to occur for the onset of microtubule catastrophe. The frequency of microtubule catastrophe is then determined using numerical simulations and compared with analytical and semianalytical estimates made under steady-state and quasi-steady-state assumptions, respectively, for the protofilament dynamics. A few relevant experimental results are analyzed in detail and compared with predictions from the model. Our results indicate that loss of GTP cap in two to three protofilaments is necessary to trigger catastrophe in a microtubule.

  7. Chiral geometry in multiple chiral doublet bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhang; Qibo, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The chiral geometry of multiple chiral doublet bands with identical configuration is discussed for different triaxial deformation parameters γ in the particle rotor model with . The energy spectra, electromagnetic transition probabilities B(M1) and B(E2), angular momenta, and K-distributions are studied. It is demonstrated that the chirality still remains not only in the yrast and yrare bands, but also in the two higher excited bands when γ deviates from 30°. The chiral geometry relies significantly on γ, and the chiral geometry of the two higher excited partner bands is not as good as that of the yrast and yrare doublet bands. Supported by Plan Project of Beijing College Students’ Scientific Research and Entrepreneurial Action, Major State 973 Program of China (2013CB834400), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175002, 11335002, 11375015, 11461141002), National Fund for Fostering Talents of Basic Science (NFFTBS) (J1103206), Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20110001110087) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M580007)

  8. Improved solution for the cemented doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulc, Abraham

    1996-07-01

    A method is described that permits the calculation of a cemented doublet with a given spherical aberration and coma at the edge of the lens. In particular the aberrations can be set to zero. Given one glass, the equations reported in this paper permit the determination of a second matching glass that minimizes the spherochromatism and coma of the lens. This result is obtained by the introduction, into the third-order thin-lens formulas, the third-order values of the aberration coefficients, as derived from the equation developed by Mossotti which yields zero finite aberrations for the same lens with added thickness. After a brief historical introduction, the third-order equations are developed and tables for the color-correcting glasses and SI and SII (the Seidel third-order coefficients) are given for objects at infinity and at a magnification of -1, both for flint- and crown-leading cases. The paper closes with a table of corrected doublets. Clairaut-Mossotti equation.

  9. Improved solution for the cemented doublet.

    PubMed

    Szulc, A

    1996-07-01

    A method is described that permits the calculation of a cemented doublet with a given spherical aberration and coma at the edge of the lens. In particular the aberrations can be set to zero. Given one glass, the equations reported in this paper permit the determination of a second matching glass that minimizes the spherochromatism and coma of the lens. This result is obtained by the introduction, into the third-order thin-lens formulas, the third-order values of the aberration coefficients, as derived from the equation developed by Mossotti which yields zero finite aberrations for the same lens with added thickness. After a brief historical introduction, the third-order equations are developed and tables for the color-correcting glasses and SI and SII (the Seidel third-order coefficients) are given for objects at infinity and at a magnification of - 1, both for flint- and crown-leading cases. The paper closes with a table of corrected doublets. PMID:21102747

  10. Dynamics of oscillating erythrocyte doublets after electrofusion

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, M

    1999-01-01

    Erythrocytes were electrofused with multiple rectangular voltage pulses to show an oscillatory movement, divided into swell phases and pump events. During each swell phase, which lasted from 0.5 s to more than 180 s, the fused cells' (doublets') volume increased by colloid osmotic swelling, and the membrane area was expanded until rupture. Membrane rupture initiated the pump event, where the doublets' volume and membrane area decreased with an almost exponential time course and time constants between 2 ms and 8 ms. Simultaneously, a portion of cytosolic hemoglobin solution was ejected into extracellular space ("jet"). Pump event time constants and swell phase durations decreased with rising chamber temperature, indicating that both parts of the oscillatory movements were determined by physical properties of membrane and liquids. Relative volume change developments express a gradual loss of membrane elasticity during the oscillation, decreasing the elastic forces stored in the membrane. Evidence is given that the first rupture causes a weakening of the membrane at the rupture site. Heat treatment up to 45 degrees C had a negligible effect on swell times, pump time constants, and relative volume changes. A heat treatment of 50 degrees C prevented oscillatory movements. The rupture location accorded with theories of potential induced membrane electropermeabilization. PMID:10545360

  11. Microtubules, MAPs, and motor patterns.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Kasimira T; Ross, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Cells have an amazing ability to self-organize and rearrange their interiors. Such morphology changes are essential to cell development, division, and motility. The core of a cell's internal organization lies with the cytoskeleton made of both microtubule and actin filaments with their associated proteins and ATP-utilizing enzymes. Despite years of in vitro reconstitution experiments, we still do not fully understand how the cytoskeleton can self-organize. In an attempt to create a simple system of self-organization, we have used a simple filament-gliding assay to examine how kinesin-1-driven motion of microtubules can generate cell-like organization in the presence of excess filaments and antiparallel cross-linkers. PMID:25997340

  12. Microtubule Bundling and Shape Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needleman, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are hollow cylindrical polymers composed of heterodimers of the protein tubulin that align end-to-end in the MT wall, forming linear protofilaments that interact laterally. Placing MTs under osmotic pressure causes them to reversibly buckle to a noncircular shape and pack into rectangular bundles at a critical osmotic pressure; further increases in pressure continue to distort MTs elastically. At higher osmotic pressures stressing polymers may be forced into the MT lumen causing the MTs to revert to a circle cross-section and pack into hexagonal bundles. This SAXRD-osmotic stress study provides a probe of the inter-protofilament bond strength and gives insight into the mechanisms by which microtubule associated proteins and the cancer chemotherapeutic drug Taxol stabilize MTs. We present further measurements of the mechanical properties of MT walls, MT-MT interactions, and the entry of polymers into the microtubule lumen. Supported by NSF DMR- 0203755, NIH GM-59288 and NS-13560, and CTS-0103516. SSRL is supported by the U.S. DOE.

  13. A conserved flagella-associated protein in Chlamydomonas, FAP234, is essential for axonemal localization of tubulin polyglutamylase TTLL9

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Tomohiro; Yanagisawa, Haru-aki; Liu, Zhongmei; Shibuya, Rie; Hirono, Masafumi; Kamiya, Ritsu

    2014-01-01

    Tubulin undergoes various posttranslational modifications, including polyglutamylation, which is catalyzed by enzymes belonging to the tubulin tyrosine ligaselike protein (TTLL) family. A previously isolated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant, tpg1, carries a mutation in a gene encoding a homologue of mammalian TTLL9 and displays lowered motility because of decreased polyglutamylation of axonemal tubulin. Here we identify a novel tpg1-like mutant, tpg2, which carries a mutation in the gene encoding FAP234, a flagella-associated protein of unknown function. Immunoprecipitation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation experiments show that FAP234 and TTLL9 form a complex. The mutant tpg1 retains FAP234 in the cell body and flagellar matrix but lacks it in the axoneme. In contrast, tpg2 lacks both TTLL9 and FAP234 in all fractions. In fla10, a temperature-sensitive mutant deficient in intraflagellar transport (IFT), both TTLL9 and FAP234 are lost from the flagellum at nonpermissive temperatures. These and other results suggest that FAP234 functions in stabilization and IFT-dependent transport of TTLL9. Both TTLL9 and FAP234 are conserved in most ciliated organisms. We propose that they constitute a polyglutamylation complex specialized for regulation of ciliary motility. PMID:24196831

  14. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Barisic, Marin; Silva e Sousa, Ricardo; Tripathy, Suvranta K.; Magiera, Maria M.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Pereira, Ana L.; Janke, Carsten; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.; Maiato, Helder

    2015-01-01

    Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. CENP-E/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically towards the equator. Here we found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific post-translational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination. PMID:25908662

  15. Ectopic A-lattice seams destabilize microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Katsuki, Miho; Drummond, Douglas R.; Cross, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural microtubules typically include one A-lattice seam within an otherwise helically symmetric B-lattice tube. It is currently unclear how A-lattice seams influence microtubule dynamic instability. Here we find that including extra A-lattice seams in GMPCPP microtubules, structural analogues of the GTP caps of dynamic microtubules, destabilizes them, enhancing their median shrinkage rate by >20-fold. Dynamic microtubules nucleated by seeds containing extra A-lattice seams have growth rates similar to microtubules nucleated by B-lattice seeds, yet have increased catastrophe frequencies at both ends. Furthermore, binding B-lattice GDP microtubules to a rigor kinesin surface stabilizes them against shrinkage, whereas microtubules with extra A-lattice seams are stabilized only slightly. Our data suggest that introducing extra A-lattice seams into dynamic microtubules destabilizes them by destabilizing their GTP caps. On this basis, we propose that the single A-lattice seam of natural B-lattice MTs may act as a trigger point, and potentially a regulation point, for catastrophe. PMID:24463734

  16. Microtubule-targeting-dependent reorganization of filopodia.

    PubMed

    Schober, Joseph M; Komarova, Yulia A; Chaga, Oleg Y; Akhmanova, Anna; Borisy, Gary G

    2007-04-01

    Interaction between the microtubule system and actin cytoskeleton has emerged as a fundamental process required for spatial regulation of cell protrusion and retraction activities. In our current studies, analysis of digital fluorescence images revealed targeting of microtubules to filopodia in B16F1 melanoma cells and fibroblasts. We investigated the functional consequence of targeting on filopodia reorganization and examined mechanisms by which microtubules may be guided to, or interact with, filopodia. Live cell imaging studies show that targeting events in lamellipodia wings temporally correlated with filopodia turning toward the lamellipodium midline and with filopodia merging. Rapid uncoupling of targeting with nocodazole decreased filopodia merging events and increased filopodia density. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy identified microtubules near the ventral surface and upward movement of targeted filopodia. The role of adhesion sites and microtubule plus-end proteins in targeting was investigated. Correlation of adhesion sites with microtubule targeting to filopodia was not observed and depletion of microtubule plus-end proteins did not significantly alter targeting frequency. We propose that microtubules target filopodia, independent of focal adhesions and plus-end proteins, causing filopodia movement and microtubules regulate filopodia density in lamellipodia wings through filopodia merging events. PMID:17356063

  17. Tubulin Glutamylation Regulates Ciliary Motility by Altering Inner Dynein Arm Activity

    PubMed Central

    Suryavanshi, Swati; Edd, Bernard; Fox, Laura A.; Guerrero, Stella; Hard, Robert; Hennessey, Todd; Kabi, Amrita; Malison, David; Pennock, David; Sale, Winfield S.; Wloga, Dorota; Gaertig, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    SUMMMARY How microtubule-associated motor proteins are regulated is not well understood. A potential mechanism for spatial regulation of motor proteins is provided by post-translational modifications of tubulin subunits that form patterns on microtubules. Glutamylation is a conserved tubulin modification [1] that is enriched in axonemes. The enzymes responsible for this PTM, glutamic acid ligases (E-ligases), belong to a family of proteins with a tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL) homology domain (TTL-like or TTLL proteins) [2]. We show that in cilia of Tetrahymena, TTLL6 E-ligases generate glutamylation mainly on the B-tubule of outer doublet microtubules, the site of force production by ciliary dynein. Deletion of two TTLL6 paralogs caused severe deficiency in ciliary motility associated with abnormal waveform and reduced beat frequency. In isolated axonemes with a normal dynein arm composition, TTLL6 deficiency did not affect the rate of ATP-induced doublet microtubule sliding. Unexpectedly, the same TTLL6 deficiency increased the velocity of microtubule sliding in axonemes that also lack outer dynein arms, in which forces are generated by inner dynein arms. We conclude that tubulin glutamylation on the B-tubule inhibits the net force imposed on sliding doublet microtubules by inner dynein arms. PMID:20189389

  18. Tubulin glutamylation regulates ciliary motility by altering inner dynein arm activity.

    PubMed

    Suryavanshi, Swati; Edd, Bernard; Fox, Laura A; Guerrero, Stella; Hard, Robert; Hennessey, Todd; Kabi, Amrita; Malison, David; Pennock, David; Sale, Winfield S; Wloga, Dorota; Gaertig, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    How microtubule-associated motor proteins are regulated is not well understood. A potential mechanism for spatial regulation of motor proteins is provided by posttranslational modifications of tubulin subunits that form patterns on microtubules. Glutamylation is a conserved tubulin modification [1] that is enriched in axonemes. The enzymes responsible for this posttranslational modification, glutamic acid ligases (E-ligases), belong to a family of proteins with a tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL) homology domain (TTL-like or TTLL proteins) [2]. We show that in cilia of Tetrahymena, TTLL6 E-ligases generate glutamylation mainly on the B-tubule of outer doublet microtubules, the site of force production by ciliary dynein. Deletion of two TTLL6 paralogs caused severe deficiency in ciliary motility associated with abnormal waveform and reduced beat frequency. In isolated axonemes with a normal dynein arm composition, TTLL6 deficiency did not affect the rate of ATP-induced doublet microtubule sliding. Unexpectedly, the same TTLL6 deficiency increased the velocity of microtubule sliding in axonemes that also lack outer dynein arms, in which forces are generated by inner dynein arms. We conclude that tubulin glutamylation on the B-tubule inhibits the net force imposed on sliding doublet microtubules by inner dynein arms. PMID:20189389

  19. Doublet discharges in motoneurons of young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Christie, Anita; Kamen, Gary

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of motor unit doublet discharges in young and older individuals at different rates of increasing force. Participants included eight young (21.9 +/- 3.56 yr) and eight older (74.1 +/- 8.79 yr) individuals, with equal numbers of males and females in each group. Motor unit activity was recorded from the tibialis anterior during isometric dorsiflexion using a four-wire needle electrode. Subjects performed three ramp contractions from zero to 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force at each of three rates: 10, 30, and 50% MVC/s. Overall, the occurrence of doublets was significantly higher in the young than in the older individuals. However, neither group showed differences in the occurrence of doublets across the three rates of force production. Doublet firings were observed in 45.6 (young) and 35.1% (old) of motor units at 10% MVC/s; 48.6 (young) and 22.5% (old) of motor units at 30% MVC/s; and 48.4 (young) and 31.4% (old) at 50% MVC/s. The maximal firing rate was significantly higher and the force at which the motor units were recruited was significantly lower for those units that fired doublets than those that did not. The force at which doublets occurred ranged from 3.42 to 50% MVC in the young subjects and from 0 (force onset) to 50% MVC in the older subjects. The results of this study suggest that the occurrence of doublets is dependent on both motor unit firing rate and force level. The lower incidence of doublets in older individuals may be attributable to changes in the intrinsic properties of the motoneurons with aging, which appear to play a role in doublet discharges. PMID:16452261

  20. Inner core differential motion confirmed by earthquake waveform doublets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Song, Xiaodong; Li, Yingchun; Richards, Paul G; Sun, Xinlei; Waldhauser, Felix

    2005-08-26

    We analyzed 18 high-quality waveform doublets with time separations of up to 35 years in the South Sandwich Islands region, for which the seismic signals have traversed the inner core as PKP(DF). The doublets show a consistent temporal change of travel times at up to 58 stations in and near Alaska, and they show a dissimilarity of PKP(DF) coda. Using waveform doublets avoids artifacts of earthquake mislocations and contamination from small-scale heterogeneities. Our results confirm that Earth's inner core is rotating faster than the mantle and crust at about 0.3 degrees to 0.5 degrees per year. PMID:16123296

  1. Mapping the microtubule binding regions of calponin.

    PubMed

    Fattoum, Abdellatif; Roustan, Claude; Smyczynski, Cybelle; Der Terrossian, Elisabeth; Kassab, Ridha

    2003-02-11

    The smooth muscle basic calponin interacts with F-actin and inhibits the actomyosin ATPase in a calmodulin or phosphorylation modulated manner. It also binds in vitro to microtubules and its acidic isoform, present in nonmuscle cells, and co-localizes with microfilaments and microtubules in cultured neurons. To assess the physiological significance and the molecular basis of the calponin-microtubule interaction, we have first studied the solution binding of recombinant acidic calponin to microtubules using quantitative cosedimentation analyses. We have also characterized, for the first time, the ability of both calponin isoforms to induce the inhibition of the microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity of the cytoskeletal, kinesin-related nonclaret dysjunctional motor protein (ncd) and the abolition of this effect by calcium calmodulin. This property makes calponin a potent inhibitor of all filament-activated motor ATPases and, therefore, a potential regulatory factor of many motor-based biological events. By combining the enzymatic measurements of the ncd-microtubules system with various in vitro binding assays employing proteolytic, recombinant and synthetic fragments of basic calponin, we further unambiguously identified the interaction of microtubules at two distinct calponin sites. One is inhibitory and resides in the segment 145-182, which also binds F-actin and calmodulin. The other one is noninhibitory, specific for microtubules, and is located on the COOH-terminal repeat-containing region 183-292. Finally, quantitative fluorescence studies of the binding of basic calponin to the skeletal pyrenyl F-actin in the presence of microtubules did not reveal a noticeable competition between the two sets of filaments for calponin. This result implies that calponin undergoes a concomitant binding to both F-actin and microtubules by interaction at the former site with actin and at the second site with microtubules. Thus, in the living cells, calponin could potentially behave as a cross-linking protein between the two major cytoskeletal filaments. PMID:12564930

  2. Tubulin and microtubule associated proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Active oxygen species including superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are continuously being produced during respiration in cells, as well as during ionizing radiation or metabolism of various chemicals. Since these species are unstable and highly reactive, they are assumed to affect various biological phenomena such as mutation, cancer and aging. This book reviews the protection mechanisms that respiring organisms have evolved against these active oxygen species and the associated new genes mvrA and mvrB. This book presents a discussion of tubulin and microtubule associated proteins.

  3. Sperm flagella: comparative and phylogenetic perspectives of protein components.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kazuo

    2011-08-01

    Sperm motility is necessary for the transport of male DNA to eggs in species with both external and internal fertilization. Flagella comprise several proteins for generating and regulating motility. Central cytoskeletal structures called axonemes have been well conserved through evolution. In mammalian sperm flagella, two accessory structures (outer dense fiber and the fibrous sheath) surround the axoneme. The axonemal bend movement is based on the active sliding of axonemal doublet microtubules by the molecular motor dynein, which is divided into outer and inner arm dyneins according to positioning on the doublet microtubule. Outer and inner arm dyneins play different roles in the production and regulation of flagellar motility. Several regulatory mechanisms are known for both dyneins, which are important in motility activation and chemotaxis at fertilization. Although dynein itself has certain properties that contribute to the formation and propagation of flagellar bending, other axonemal structures-specifically, the radial spoke/central pair apparatus-have essential roles in the regulation of flagellar bending. Recent genetic and proteomic studies have explored several new components of axonemes and shed light on the generation and regulation of sperm motility during fertilization. PMID:21586547

  4. Dynein Light Chain 1 (LC8) Association Enhances Microtubule Stability and Promotes Microtubule Bundling*

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, Jayant; Kuchibhatla, Anuradha; Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Ray, Krishanu; Panda, Dulal

    2012-01-01

    Dynein light chain 1 (LC8), a highly conserved protein, is known to bind to a variety of different polypeptides. It functions as a dimer, which is inactivated through phosphorylation at the Ser-88 residue. A loss of LC8 function causes apoptosis in Drosophila embryos, and its overexpression induces malignant transformation of breast cancer cells. Here we show that LC8 binds to tubulin, promotes microtubule assembly, and induces the bundling of reconstituted microtubules in vitro. Furthermore, LC8 decorates microtubules both in Drosophila embryos and in HeLa cells, increases the microtubule stability, and promotes microtubule bundling in these cells. Microtubule stability influences a number of different cellular functions including mitosis and cell differentiation. The LC8 overexpression reduces the susceptibility of microtubules to cold and nocodazole-induced depolymerization in tissue-cultured cells and increases microtubule acetylation, suggesting that LC8 stabilizes microtubules. We also show that LC8 knockdown or transfection with inhibitory peptides destabilizes microtubules and inhibits bipolar spindle assembly in HeLa cells. In addition, LC8 knockdown leads to the mitotic block in HeLa cells. Furthermore, molecular docking analysis using the crystal structures of tubulin and LC8 dimer indicated that the latter may bind at ?-? tubulin junction in a protofilament at sites distinct from the kinesin and dynein binding sites. Together, we provide the first evidence of a novel microtubule-associated protein-like function of LC8 that could explain its reported roles in cellular metastasis and differentiation. PMID:23038268

  5. Low Scale Thermal Leptogenesis in Neutrinophilic Higgs Doublet Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, N.; Seto, O.

    2011-06-01

    It is well-known that leptogenesis in low energy scale is difficult in the conventional Type-I seesaw mechanism with hierarchical right-handed neutrino masses. We show that in a class of two Higgs doublet model, where one Higgs doublet generates masses of quarks and charged leptons whereas the other Higgs doublet with a tiny vacuum expectation value generates neutrino Dirac masses, large Yukawa couplings lead to a large enough CP asymmetry of the right-handed neutrino decay. Thermal leptogenesis suitably works at the low energy scale as keeping no enhancement of lepton number violating wash-out effects. We will also point out that thermal leptogenesis works well without confronting the gravitino problem in a supersymmetric neutrinophilic Higgs doublet model with gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. Neutralino dark matter and baryon asymmetry generation by thermal leptogenesis are easily compatible in our setup.

  6. Simple model for lambda-doublet propensities in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronikowski, Michael J.; Zare, Richard N.

    1990-01-01

    A simple geometric model is presented to account for lambda-doublet propensities in bimolecular reactions A + BC - AB + C. It applies to reactions in which AB is formed in a pi state, and in which the unpaired molecular orbital responsible for lambda-doubling arises from breaking the B-C bond. The lambda-doublet population ratio is predicted to be 2:1 provided that: (1) the motion of A in the transition state determines the plane of rotation of AB; (2) the unpaired pi orbital lying initially along the B-C bond may be resolved into a projection onto the AB plane of rotation and a projection perpendicular to this plane; (3) there is no preferred geometry for dissociation of ABC. The 2:1 lambda-doublet ratio is the 'unconstrained dynamics prior' lambda-doublet distribution for such reactions.

  7. The C IV doublet ratio intensity effect in symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalitsianos, A. G.; Fahey, M.; Kafatos, M.; Viotti, R.; Cassatella, A.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution UV spectra in the 1200-2000 wavelength range of the symbiotic variable R Aqr and its nebular jet were obtained in July 1987 with the IUE. The line profile structure of the C IV 1548, 1550 doublet in the jet indicates multicomponent velocity structure from an optically thin emitting gas. The C IV doublet profiles in the compact H II region engulfing the Mira and hot companion binary also suggest multicomponent structure with radial velocities up to about -100 km/s. The value of the doublet intensity ratio in the R Aqr H II region has been observed in other similar symbiotic stars, such as RX Pup. It is suggested that the anomalous behavior of the C IV doublet intensities may be useful for studying the spatial structure and temporal nature of winds in symbiotic stars.

  8. Movement of chromosomes with severed kinetochore microtubules.

    PubMed

    Forer, Arthur; Johansen, Kristen M; Johansen, Jrgen

    2015-05-01

    Experiments dating from 1966 and thereafter showed that anaphase chromosomes continued to move poleward after their kinetochore microtubules were severed by ultraviolet microbeam irradiation. These observations were initially met with scepticism as they contradicted the prevailing view that kinetochore fibre microtubules pulled chromosomes to the pole. However, recent experiments using visible light laser microbeam irradiations have corroborated these earlier experiments as anaphase chromosomes again were shown to move poleward after their kinetochore microtubules were severed. Thus, multiple independent studies using different techniques have shown that chromosomes can indeed move poleward without direct microtubule connections to the pole, with only a kinetochore 'stub' of microtubules. An issue not yet settled is: what propels the disconnected chromosome? There are two not necessarily mutually exclusive proposals in the literature: (1) chromosome movement is propelled by the kinetochore stub interacting with non-kinetochore microtubules and (2) chromosome movement is propelled by a spindle matrix acting on the stub. In this review, we summarise the data indicating that chromosomes can move with severed kinetochore microtubules and we discuss proposed mechanisms for chromosome movement with severed kinetochore microtubules. PMID:25576435

  9. Microtubule motors: moving forward on many fronts

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Microtubule motors drive the movement of many different cargoes in eukaryotic cells. A combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches has led to a better understanding of their mechanism of action and function and are also revealing that the microtubule track itself may have an important role to play in directing cargo movement within the cell. PMID:20948632

  10. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Aponurus laguncula (Digenea: Lecithasteridae), a parasite of Aluterus monoceros (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2010-03-01

    The mature spermatozoon of Aponurus laguncula, a parasite of the unicorn leatherjacket Aluterus monoceros, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses 2 axonemes of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, attachment zones, a nucleus, a mitochondrion, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and cortical microtubules. The major features are the presence of: 1) external ornamentation in the anterior part of the spermatozoon not associated with cortical microtubules; 2) one mitochondrion; and 3) cortical microtubules arranged as a single field in the ventral side. The maximum number of microtubules is in the nuclear region. The extremities of the axonemes are characterized by the disappearance of the central core and the presence of microtubule doublets or singlets. This study is the first undertaken with a member of the Lecithasteridae and exemplifies the sperm ultrastructure for the superfamily Hemiuroidea. PMID:19559102

  11. Constraints on the two-Higgs-doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Staal, Oscar

    2010-02-10

    The two-Higgs-doublet model provides a simple, yet interesting, generalization of the SM Higgs sector. We study the CP-conserving version of this model with general, flavor-diagonal, Yukawa couplings. Indirect constraints are obtained from flavor physics on the charged Higgs boson mass and couplings. The relation of these bounds to those for the more specialized two-Higgs-doublet model types with a Z{sub 2} symmetry is discussed.

  12. Statistical case for specifying tolerances of doublet lenses jointly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The interactions between errors in manufacturing are examined for ten double Gauss lens specifications drawn from U.S. patents. The particular focus is on center thickness and radius tolerances of doublet lenses in these specifications and on the possibility of specifying these tolerances jointly. A procedure for rapid identification of lenses whose performance would be improved by joint tolerance specification is described. Then benefits of specifying thickness and radius tolerances of doublet lenses jointly are demonstrated using Monte Carlo analysis.

  13. Preliminary results of noncircular plasma experiments in Doublet III

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkawa, T.

    1980-02-01

    Preliminary results of noncircular plasma experiments in Doublet III are reported. Shaping and discharge characteristics in doublet plasmas with high-Z limiters are described. Electron energy confinement and maximum plasma density are in agreement with standard circular tokamak empirical scaling laws. Chromium and molybdenum appear to be the dominant high-Z contaminants while carbon appears to dominate low-Z contaminants. High-Z impurity radiation does not appear to dominate the central power balance.

  14. Tubulin Bistability and Polymorphic Dynamics of Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrbach, Herv; Johner, Albert; Kuli?, Igor M.

    2010-12-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the GDP-tubulin dimer is a conformationally bistable moleculerapidly fluctuating between a discrete curved and a straight statewe develop a model for polymorphic dynamics of the microtubule lattice. We show that GDP-tubulin bistability consistently explains unusual dynamic fluctuations, the apparent length-stiffness relation of grafted taxol-stabilized microtubules, and the curved-helical appearance of microtubules in general. When clamped by one end the microtubules undergo an unusual zero energy motionin its effect reminiscent of a limited rotational hinge. We conclude that microtubules exist in highly cooperative energy-degenerate helical states and discuss possible implications in vivo.

  15. On complex, curved trajectories in microtubule gliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Mohrbach, Hervé; Kulić, Igor M.; Ziebert, Falko

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics of microtubules in gliding assays. These biofilaments are typically considered as purely semiflexible, hence their trajectories under the action of motors covering the substrate have been regarded so far as straight, modulo fluctuations. However, this is not always the case experimentally, where microtubules are known to move on large scale circles or spirals, or even display quite regular wavy trajectories and more complex dynamics. Incorporating recent experimental evidence for a (small) preferred curvature as well as the microtubules' well established lattice twist into a dynamic model for microtubule gliding, we could reproduce both types of trajectories. Interestingly, as a function of the microtubules' length we found length intervals of stable rings alternating with regions where wavy and more complex dynamics prevails. Finally, both types of dynamics (rings and waves) can be rationalized by considering simple limits of the full model.

  16. Active contraction of microtubule networks

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Peter J; Frthauer, Sebastian; Shelley, Michael J; Needleman, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by cytoskeletal assemblies. It remains unclear how cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins organize into cellular scale structures and how molecular properties of cytoskeletal components affect the large-scale behaviors of these systems. Here, we investigate the self-organization of stabilized microtubules in Xenopus oocyte extracts and find that they can form macroscopic networks that spontaneously contract. We propose that these contractions are driven by the clustering of microtubule minus ends by dynein. Based on this idea, we construct an active fluid theory of network contractions, which predicts a dependence of the timescale of contraction on initial network geometry, a development of density inhomogeneities during contraction, a constant final network density, and a strong influence of dynein inhibition on the rate of contraction, all in quantitative agreement with experiments. These results demonstrate that the motor-driven clustering of filament ends is a generic mechanism leading to contraction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10837.001 PMID:26701905

  17. Doublets and other allied well patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, W.E.

    1997-06-01

    Whenever a liquid is injected into an infinite reservoir containing liquid with the same flow properties, the equations of flow are well known. The pressures in such a system vary over time and distance (radius) in ways that depend on the formation and liquid flow properties. Such equations are well known--they form the basis for the voluminous well-testing literature in petroleum engineering and ground water hydrology. Suppose there are two wells--one an injector and one a producer--with identical rates. The behavior of this system can be calculated using superposition; which merely means that the results can be added independently of each other. When this is done, the remarkable result is that after a period of time there is a region that approaches steady state flow. Thereafter, the pressures and flow velocities in this region stay constant. The size of this region increases with time. This ``steady state`` characteristic can be used to solve a number of interesting and useful problems, both in heat transfer and in fluid flow. The heat transfer problems can be addressed because the equations are identical in form. A number of such problems are solved herein for doublet systems. In addition, concepts are presented to help solve other cases that flow logically from the problems solved herein. It is not necessary that only two wells be involved. It turns out that any time the total injection and production are equal, the system approaches steady state. This idea is also addressed in these notes. A number of useful multiwell cases are addressed to present the flavor of such solutions.

  18. Microtubule organization and microtubule-associated proteins in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have unique microtubule (MT) arrays, cortical MTs, preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and phragmoplast, in the processes of evolution. These MT arrays control the directions of cell division and expansion especially in plants and are essential for plant morphogenesis and developments. Organizations and functions of these MT arrays are accomplished by diverse MT-associated proteins (MAPs). This review introduces 10 of conserved MAPs in eukaryote such as ?-TuC, augmin, katanin, kinesin, EB1, CLASP, MOR1/MAP215, MAP65, TPX2, formin, and several plant-specific MAPs such as CSI1, SPR2, MAP70, WVD2/WDL, RIP/MIDD, SPR1, MAP18/PCaP, EDE1, and MAP190. Most of the studies cited in this review have been analyzed in the particular model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. The significant knowledge of A. thaliana is the important established base to understand MT organizations and functions in plants. PMID:25262237

  19. Microtubule organization by kinesin motors and microtubule crosslinking protein MAP65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, Joshua; Muthukumar, Amutha; Tan, Amanda; Crankshaw, Laura; Conway, Leslie; Ross, Jennifer L.

    2013-09-01

    Microtubules are rigid, proteinaceous filaments required to organize and rearrange the interior of cells. They organize space by two mechanisms, including acting as the tracks for long-distance cargo transporters, such as kinesin-1, and by forming a network that supports the shape of the cell. The microtubule network is composed of microtubules and a bevy of associated proteins and enzymes that self-organize using non-equilibrium dynamic processes. In order to address the effects of self-organization of microtubules, we have utilized the filament-gliding assay with kinesin-1 motors driving microtubule motion. To further enhance the complexity of the system and determine if new patterns are formed, we added the microtubule crosslinking protein MAP65-1. MAP65-1 is a microtubule-associated protein from plants that crosslinks antiparallel microtubules, similar to mammalian PRC1 and fission yeast Ase1. We find that MAP65 can slow and halt the velocity of microtubules in gliding assays, but when pre-formed microtubule bundles are added to gliding assays, kinesin-1 motors can pull apart the bundles and reconstitute cell-like protrusions.

  20. TCTP regulates spindle microtubule dynamics by stabilizing polar microtubules during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; You, Seung Yeop; Park, Yong Seok; Chang, Jong Wook; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Jeong Su

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic changes in spindle structure and function are essential for maintaining genomic integrity during the cell cycle. Spindle dynamics are highly dependent on several microtubule-associated proteins that coordinate the dynamic behavior of microtubules, including microtubule assembly, stability and organization. Here, we show that translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a novel microtubule-associated protein that regulates spindle dynamics during meiotic maturation. TCTP was expressed and widely distributed in the cytoplasm with strong enrichment at the spindle microtubules during meiosis. TCTP was found to be phosphorylated during meiotic maturation, and was exclusively localized to the spindle poles. Knockdown of TCTP impaired spindle organization without affecting chromosome alignment. These spindle defects were mostly due to the destabilization of the polar microtubules. However, the stability of kinetochore microtubules attached to chromosomes was not affected by TCTP knockdown. Overexpression of a nonphosphorylable mutant of TCTP disturbed meiotic maturation, stabilizing the spindle microtubules. In addition, Plk1 was decreased by TCTP knockdown. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TCTP is a microtubule-associating protein required to regulate spindle microtubule dynamics during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. PMID:26802898

  1. Cortical Dynein Controls Microtubule Dynamics to Generate Pulling Forces that Reliably Position Microtubule Asters

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Liedewij; Pavin, Nenad; Husson, Julien; Romet-Lemonne, Guillaume; van Duijn, Martijn; Lpez, Magdalena Preciado; Vale, Ronald D.; Jlicher, Frank; Reck-Peterson, Samara L.; Dogterom, Marileen

    2012-01-01

    Dynein-mediated pulling forces generated on dynamic microtubule ends at the cortex contribute to cellular positioning processes such as spindle positioning during embryonic cell division and centrosome positioning during fibroblast migration. The details of dyneins interaction with microtubule ends, and its consequences for positioning processes remain however unclear. We have reconstituted the cortical interaction between dynein and dynamic microtubule ends in an in vitro system using microfabricated barriers. We show that barrier-attached dynein captures microtubule ends, inhibits growth, and triggers microtubule catastrophes, thereby controlling microtubule length. The subsequent interaction with shrinking microtubule ends generates pulling forces up to several pN. By combining experiments in microchambers with a theoretical description of aster mechanics, we show that dynein-mediated pulling forces lead to the reliable centering of microtubule asters in simple confining geometries. Our results demonstrate the intrinsic ability of cortical microtubule-dynein interactions to regulate microtubule dynamics and drive positioning processes in living cells. PMID:22304918

  2. Significance of Cytoplasmic Microtubules in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Garancis, John C.; Komorowski, Richard A.; Bernhard, Gerson C.; Straumfjord, Jon V.

    1971-01-01

    Twenty-five renal and three skin biopsies from 14 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus with lupus nephritis were examined by electron microscope. Seventy-five renal biopsies from nonlupus cases consisting of 35 adults and 40 children were used for comparative study. Clusters of cytoplasmic microtubules, which have been referred to as virus-like particles, were observed in the endothelial cells of glomerular and peritubular capillaries in renal biopsies of all lupus cases. The clusters of microtubules were larger and more numerous in the initial biopsies with mild glomerular changes and in the second biopsies from two cases during a period of more severe relapse. Clusters of microtubules were fewer and smaller in renal biopsies with more advanced glomerular changes. Skin biopsies showed similar cytoplasmic inclusions in arterioles and capillaries. Cytoplasmic microtubules were also observed in 3 adults and 13 children of 75 patients who had no systemic lupus erythematosus. Although the formation of the cytoplasmic microtubules may be related to a virus infection, this suggestion cannot be confirmed from the morphologic findings of this study. Of additional interest is the evidence that these microtubules are not cytoplasmic changes secondary to corticosteroid therapy. It is concluded that the presence of many large clusters of cytoplasmic microtubules is specific for lupus nephritis, and it may be substantiated by similar findings in the skin. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4326633

  3. Microtubule dynamics in neuronal morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akira; Ando, Ryota; Sapir, Tamar; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are essential for neuronal morphogenesis in the developing brain. The MT cytoskeleton provides physical support to shape the fine structure of neuronal processes. MT-based motors play important roles in nucleokinesis, process formation and retraction. Regulation of MT stability downstream of extracellular cues is proposed to be critical for axonogenesis. Axons and dendrites exhibit different patterns of MT organization, underlying the divergent functions of these processes. Centrosomal positioning has drawn the attention of researchers because it is a major clue to understanding neuronal MT organization. In this review, we focus on how recent advances in live imaging have revealed the dynamics of MT organization and centrosome positioning during neural development. PMID:23864552

  4. Submembraneous microtubule cytoskeleton: regulation of microtubule assembly by heterotrimeric G proteins

    PubMed Central

    Roychowdhury, Sukla; Rasenick, Mark. M

    2009-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins participate in signal transduction by transferring signals from cell surface receptors to intracellular effector molecules. G proteins also interact with microtubules and participate in microtubule-dependent centrosome/chromosome movement during cell division, as well as neuronal differentiation. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical/functional interactions between G protein subunits (? and ??) and microtubules, and the molecular details emerging from these studies suggest that ? and ?? subunits of G proteins interact with tubulin/microtubules to regulate assembly/dynamics of microtubules, providing a novel mechanism for hormone or neurotransmitter induced rapid remodeling of cytoskeleton, regulation of mitotic spindle for centrosome/chromosome movements in cell division, and neuronal differentiation where structural plasticity mediated by microtubules is important for appropriate synaptic connections and signal transmission. PMID:18754776

  5. The microtubule catastrophe promoter Sentin delays stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes.

    PubMed

    G?uszek, A Agata; Cullen, C Fiona; Li, Wenjing; Battaglia, Rachel A; Radford, Sarah J; Costa, Mariana F; McKim, Kim S; Goshima, Gohta; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-21

    The critical step in meiosis is to attach homologous chromosomes to the opposite poles. In mouse oocytes, stable microtubule end-on attachments to kinetochores are not established until hours after spindle assembly, and phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins by Aurora B/C is responsible for the delay. Here we demonstrated that microtubule ends are actively prevented from stable attachment to kinetochores until well after spindle formation in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. We identified the microtubule catastrophe-promoting complex Sentin-EB1 as a major factor responsible for this delay. Without this activity, microtubule ends precociously form robust attachments to kinetochores in oocytes, leading to a high proportion of homologous kinetochores stably attached to the same pole. Therefore, regulation of microtubule ends provides an alternative novel mechanism to delay stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes. PMID:26668329

  6. A mechanism for reorientation of cortical microtubule arrays driven by microtubule severing.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Jelmer J; Nakamura, Masayoshi; Hibbel, Anneke; Shundyak, Kostya; Gutierrez, Ryan; Ketelaar, Tijs; Emons, Anne Mie C; Mulder, Bela M; Kirik, Viktor; Ehrhardt, David W

    2013-12-01

    Environmental and hormonal signals cause reorganization of microtubule arrays in higher plants, but the mechanisms driving these transitions have remained elusive. The organization of these arrays is required to direct morphogenesis. We discovered that microtubule severing by the protein katanin plays a crucial and unexpected role in the reorientation of cortical arrays, as triggered by blue light. Imaging and genetic experiments revealed that phototropin photoreceptors stimulate katanin-mediated severing specifically at microtubule intersections, leading to the generation of new microtubules at these locations. We show how this activity serves as the basis for a mechanism that amplifies microtubules orthogonal to the initial array, thereby driving array reorientation. Our observations show how severing is used constructively to build a new microtubule array. PMID:24200811

  7. Insights into Antiparallel Microtubule Crosslinking by PRC1, a Conserved Nonmotor Microtubule Binding Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Radhika; Wilson-Kubalek, Elizabeth M.; Arthur, Christopher P.; Bick, Matthew J.; Campbell, Elizabeth A.; Darst, Seth A.; Milligan, Ronald A.; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2010-09-03

    Formation of microtubule architectures, required for cell shape maintenance in yeast, directional cell expansion in plants and cytokinesis in eukaryotes, depends on antiparallel microtubule crosslinking by the conserved MAP65 protein family. Here, we combine structural and single molecule fluorescence methods to examine how PRC1, the human MAP65, crosslinks antiparallel microtubules. We find that PRC1's microtubule binding is mediated by a structured domain with a spectrin-fold and an unstructured Lys/Arg-rich domain. These two domains, at each end of a homodimer, are connected by a linkage that is flexible on single microtubules, but forms well-defined crossbridges between antiparallel filaments. Further, we show that PRC1 crosslinks are compliant and do not substantially resist filament sliding by motor proteins in vitro. Together, our data show how MAP65s, by combining structural flexibility and rigidity, tune microtubule associations to establish crosslinks that selectively mark antiparallel overlap in dynamic cytoskeletal networks.

  8. Imaging individual spindle microtubule dynamics in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Costa, Judite; Fu, Chuanhai; Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Tran, Phong T

    2013-01-01

    Microtubules exhibit dynamic instability, stochastically switching between infrequent phases of growth and shrinkage. In the cell, microtubule dynamic instability is further modulated by microtubule-associated proteins and motors, which are specifically tuned to cell cycle stages. For example, mitotic microtubules are more dynamic than interphase microtubules. The different parameters of microtubule dynamics can be measured from length versus time data, which are generally obtained from time-lapse acquisition using the optical microscope. The typical maximum resolution of the optical microscope is ~?/2 or ~300 nm. This scale represents a challenge for imaging fission yeast microtubule dynamics specifically during early mitosis, where the bipolar mitotic spindle contains many short dynamic microtubules of ~1-?m scale. Here, we present a novel method to image short fission yeast mitotic microtubules. The method uses the thermosensitive reversible kinesin-5 cut7.24(ts) to create monopolar spindles, where asters of individual mitotic microtubules are presented for imaging and subsequent analysis. PMID:23973085

  9. Tau co-organizes dynamic microtubule and actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Elie, Aurliane; Prezel, Elea; Gurin, Christophe; Denarier, Eric; Ramirez-Rios, Sacnicte; Serre, Laurence; Andrieux, Annie; Fourest-Lieuvin, Anne; Blanchoin, Laurent; Arnal, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The crosstalk between microtubules and actin is essential for cellular functions. However, mechanisms underlying the microtubule-actin organization by cross-linkers remain largely unexplored. Here, we report that tau, a neuronal microtubule-associated protein, binds to microtubules and actin simultaneously, promoting in vitro co-organization and coupled growth of both networks. By developing an original assay to visualize concomitant microtubule and actin assembly, we show that tau can induce guided polymerization of actin filaments along microtubule tracks and growth of single microtubules along actin filament bundles. Importantly, tau mediates microtubule-actin co-alignment without changing polymer growth properties. Mutagenesis studies further reveal that at least two of the four tau repeated motifs, primarily identified as tubulin-binding sites, are required to connect microtubules and actin. Tau thus represents a molecular linker between microtubule and actin networks, enabling a coordination of the two cytoskeletons that might be essential in various neuronal contexts. PMID:25944224

  10. Unique design of Doublet and Big Dee vacuum vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.

    1982-04-01

    The Doublet III tokamak now in its fourth year of operation at General Atomic Company, has its plasma contained in a kidney-shaped toroidal vacuum vessel, a configuration that presented unique design challenges. Most tokamak vacuum vessels are constructed of solid walled sections separated by either thin walled bellows (to increase the toroidal resistance) or by poloidal insulation breaks. Such control of the toroidal resistance is crucial in minimizing magnetic error fields in the plasma region caused by currents induced in the vessel by the changing fields. The Doublet III vessel is unique in its all-welded construction consisting of thin skins over a corrugated center. Such a construction results in a low cross sectional area of material to increase the toroidal resistance, while maintaining adequate strength. The design process for such a vessel is reviewed with a description of its design. In order to more closely address the design issues of next generation devices, plans are being formulated to modify Doublet III to a large Dee-shaped plasma facility. This would be accomplished by disassembling the device and replacing the Doublet vessel with a large Dee vessel. The design approach for the new vessel will be similar to that of the present vessel, but because of different operating requirements and experience gained in the operation of Doublet III and other large tokamaks, the specific design criteria are different. These differences and their implications are reviewed.

  11. CP violation conditions in N-Higgs-doublet potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, C. C.

    2006-08-01

    Conditions for CP violation in the scalar potential sector of general N-Higgs-doublet models are analyzed from a group theoretical perspective. For the simplest two-Higgs-doublet model potential, a minimum set of conditions for explicit and spontaneous CP violation is presented. The conditions can be given a clear geometrical interpretation in terms of quantities in the adjoint representation of the basis transformation group for the two doublets. Such conditions depend on CP-odd pseudoscalar invariants. When the potential is CP invariant, the explicit procedure to reach the real CP-basis and the explicit CP transformation can also be obtained. The procedure to find the real basis and the conditions for CP violation are then extended to general N-Higgs-doublet model potentials. The analysis becomes more involved and only a formal procedure to reach the real basis is found. Necessary conditions for CP invariance can still be formulated in terms of group invariants: the CP-odd generalized pseudoscalars. The problem can be completely solved for three Higgs-doublets.

  12. ?-Tubulin complexes in microtubule nucleation and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Berl R.; Paolillo, Vitoria; Zheng, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functions of ?-tubulin and, in particular, its role in microtubule nucleation since the publication of its discovery in 1989. The structure of ?-tubulin has been determined, and the components of ?-tubulin complexes have been identified. Significant progress in understanding the structure of the ?-tubulin ring complex and its components has led to a persuasive model for how these complexes nucleate microtubule assembly. At the same time, data have accumulated that ?-tubulin has important but less well understood functions that are not simply a consequence of its function in microtubule nucleation. These include roles in the regulation of plus-end microtubule dynamics, gene regulation, and mitotic and cell cycle regulation. Finally, evidence is emerging that ?-tubulin mutations or alterations of ?-tubulin expression play an important role in certain types of cancer and in other diseases. PMID:26316498

  13. ?-Tubulin complexes in microtubule nucleation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Berl R; Paolillo, Vitoria; Zheng, Yixian

    2015-09-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functions of ?-tubulin and, in particular, its role in microtubule nucleation since the publication of its discovery in 1989. The structure of ?-tubulin has been determined, and the components of ?-tubulin complexes have been identified. Significant progress in understanding the structure of the ?-tubulin ring complex and its components has led to a persuasive model for how these complexes nucleate microtubule assembly. At the same time, data have accumulated that ?-tubulin has important but less well understood functions that are not simply a consequence of its function in microtubule nucleation. These include roles in the regulation of plus-end microtubule dynamics, gene regulation, and mitotic and cell cycle regulation. Finally, evidence is emerging that ?-tubulin mutations or alterations of ?-tubulin expression play an important role in certain types of cancer and in other diseases. PMID:26316498

  14. Haemonchus contortus microtubules are cold resistant.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Shoaib; Prichard, Roger K

    2014-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is an important nematode of livestock that is present in most parts of the world. The life cycle comprises free living stages (egg, L1, L2 and L3 larvae), and parasitic stages (L4, adult and egg) in a ruminant. Microtubules are filamentous structures which are made from polymerization of ?- and ?-tubulin. In vitro polymerization of ?- and ?-tubulin can be achieved by increasing the temperature to 37C under certain conditions. As part of its normal functioning, in mammals, the microtubules can be depolymerized when the temperature is reduced to 0C. However, interestingly the microtubules of H. contortus are cold resistant i.e. they do not depolymerize at 0C. Moreover these microtubules did not depolymerize even in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2 or 50 ?M colchicine. These interesting findings may explain how larvae in the free living stages may survive cold temperatures over winter. PMID:24525483

  15. A protein factor essential for microtubule assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Weingarten, M D; Lockwood, A H; Hwo, S Y; Kirschner, M W

    1975-01-01

    A heat stable protein essentail for microtubule assembly has been isolated. This protein, which we designate tau (tau), is present in association with tubulin purified from porcine brain by repeated cycles of polymerization. Tau is separated from tubulin by ion exchange chromatography on phosphocellulose. In the absence of tau, tubulin exists entirely as a 6S dimer of two polypeptide chains (alpha and beta tubulin) with a molecular weight of 120,000, which will not assemble into microtubules in vitro. Addition of tau completely restores tubule-forming capacity. Under nonpolymerizing conditions, tau converts 6S dimers to 36S rings-structures which have been implicated as intermediates in tubule formation. Hence, tau appears to act on the 6S tubulin dimer, activating it for polymerization. The unique ability of tau to restore the normal features of in vitro microtubule assembly makes it likely that tau is a major regulator of microtubule formation in cells. Images PMID:1057175

  16. Modification of Doublet III to a large Dee facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.G.; Rawls, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    The Doublet III facility represents a unique opportunity to convert an existing device to a powerful test bed for FED design and operation issues. Such a conversion is made possible by virtue of the demountability of the devices toroidal field coils. Doublet III can be partially disassembled then reassembled with a large dee-shaped vacuum vessel and associated poloidal coils and structure. Doublet III presently possesses or is acquiring adequate auxiliary heating (14 MW of neutral beams and 2 MW of ECH), stored energy (3 GJ), and power conversion equipment (some added field shaping power equipment is required) to support large dee, reactor-level, plasma experiments. The only modifications required of the device are those directly caused by installing a larger vessel - the vessel itself (and its internal protection system); poloidal field coils that interfere with the larger vessel; and a support system for the new vessel and coils.

  17. Mobility of Taxol in Microtubule Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, J.

    2003-06-01

    Mobility of taxol inside microtubules was investigated using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on flow-aligned bundles. Bundles were made of microtubules with either GMPCPP or GTP at the exchangeable site on the tubulin dimer. Recovery times were sensitive to bundle thickness and packing, indicating that taxol molecules are able to move laterally through the bundle. The density of open binding sites along a microtubule was varied by controlling the concentration of taxol in solution for GMPCPP samples. With > 63% sites occupied, recovery times were independent of taxol concentration and, therefore, inversely proportional to the microscopic dissociation rate, k_{off}. It was found that 10*k_{off} (GMPCPP) ~ k_{off} (GTP), consistent with, but not fully accounting for, the difference in equilibrium constants for taxol on GMPCPP and GTP microtubules. With < 63% sites occupied, recovery times decreased as ~ [Tax]^{-1/5} for both types of microtubules. We conclude that the diffusion of taxol along the microtubule interior is hindered by rebinding events when open sites are within ~7 nm of each other.

  18. Harnessing microtubule dynamic instability for nanostructure assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Ann M.; Warrender, Christina E.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    2006-10-01

    Intracellular molecular machines synthesize molecules, tear apart others, transport materials, transform energy into different forms, and carry out a host of other coordinated processes. Many molecular processes have been shown to work outside of cells, and the idea of harnessing these molecular machines to build nanostructures is attractive. Two examples are microtubules and motor proteins, which aid cell movement, help determine cell shape and internal structure, and transport vesicles and organelles within the cell. These molecular machines work in a stochastic, noisy fashion: microtubules switch randomly between growing and shrinking in a process known as dynamic instability; motor protein movement along microtubules is randomly interrupted by the motor proteins falling off. A common strategy in attempting to gain control over these highly dynamic, stochastic processes is to eliminate some processes (e.g., work with stabilized microtubules) in order to focus on others (interaction of microtubules with motor proteins). In this paper, we illustrate a different strategy for building nanostructures, which, rather than attempting to control or eliminate some dynamic processes, uses them to advantage in building nanostructures. Specifically, using stochastic agent-based simulations, we show how the natural dynamic instability of microtubules can be harnessed in building nanostructures, and discuss strategies for ensuring that unreliable stochastic processes yield a robust outcome.

  19. Harnessing microtubule dynamic instability for nanostructure assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2004-06-01

    Intracellular molecular machines synthesize molecules, tear apart others, transport materials, transform energy into different forms, and carry out a host of other coordinated processes. Many molecular processes have been shown to work outside of cells, and the idea of harnessing these molecular machines to build nanostructures is attractive. Two examples are microtubules and motor proteins, which aid cell movement, help determine cell shape and internal structure, and transport vesicles and organelles within the cell. These molecular machines work in a stochastic, noisy fashion: microtubules switch randomly between growing and shrinking in a process known as dynamic instability; motor protein movement along microtubules is randomly interrupted by the motor proteins falling off. A common strategy in attempting to gain control over these highly dynamic, stochastic processes is to eliminate some processes (e.g., work with stabilized microtubules) in order to focus on others (interaction of microtubules with motor proteins). In this paper, we illustrate a different strategy for building nanostructures, which, rather than attempting to control or eliminate some dynamic processes, uses them to advantage in building nanostructures. Specifically, using stochastic agent-based simulations, we show how the natural dynamic instability of microtubules can be harnessed in building nanostructures, and discuss strategies for ensuring that 'unreliable' stochastic processes yield a robust outcome.

  20. A Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase Form Targets to Axonemes and Rescues Beat Regulation in Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Baumlin, Nathalie; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.; Fregien, Nevis

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary beating is important for effective mucociliary clearance. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates ciliary beating, and a roughly 50-kD sAC variant is expressed in axonemes. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells express multiple sAC splice variants: full-length sAC; variants with catalytic domain 1 (C1) deletions; and variants with partial C1. One variant, sACex5v2-ex12v2, contains two alternative splices creating new exons 5 (ex5v2) and 12 (ex12v2), encoding a roughly 45-kD protein. It is therefore similar in size to ciliary sAC. The variant increases in expression upon ciliogenesis during differentiation at the air–liquid interface. When expressed in NHBE cells, this variant was targeted to cilia. Exons 5v2–7 were important for ciliary targeting, whereas exons 2–4 prevented it. In vitro, cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2 (containing C1 and C2) was the only variant producing cAMP. Ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 was not catalytically active. Airway epithelial cells isolated from wild-type mice revealed sAC-dependent ciliary beat frequency (CBF) regulation, analogous to NHBE cells: CBF rescue from HCO3−/CO2–mediated intracellular acidification was sensitive to the sAC inhibitor, KH7. Compared with wild type, sAC C2 knockout (KO) mice revealed lower CBF baseline, and the HCO3−/CO2–mediated CBF decrease was not inhibited by KH7, confirming lack of functional sAC. Human sACex5v2-ex12v2 was targeted to cilia and sACex2-ex12v2 to the cytoplasm in these KO mice. Introduction of the ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 variant, but not the cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2, restored functional sAC activity in C2 KO mice. Thus, we show, for the first time, a mammalian axonemal targeting sequence that localizes a sAC variant to cilia to regulate CBF. PMID:24874272

  1. Phenomenology of models with more than two Higgs doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Yuval

    1994-09-01

    We study the most general Multi-Higgs-Doublet Model (MHDM) with Natural Flavor Conservation (NFC). The couplings of a charged scalar Hi to up quarks, down quarks and charged leptons depend on three new complex parameters, Xi, Yi, and Zi, respectively. We prove relations among these parameters. We carry out a comprehensive analysis of phenomenological constraints on the couplings of the lightest charged scalar: X, Y and Z. We find that the general MHDM may differ significantly from its minimal version, the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM).

  2. Two-Higgs-doublet models with Minimal Flavour Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2010-12-22

    The tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents in the two-Higgs-doublet models can be suppressed by protecting the breaking of either flavour or flavour-blind symmetries, but only the first choice, implemented by the application of the Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis, is stable under quantum corrections. Moreover, a two-Higgs-doublet model with Minimal Flavour Violation enriched with flavour-blind phases can explain the anomalies recently found in the {Delta}F = 2 transitions, namely the large CP-violating phase in B{sub s} mixing and the tension between {epsilon}{sub K} and S{sub {psi}KS}.

  3. The role of dynamic instability in microtubule organization

    PubMed Central

    Horio, Tetsuya; Murata, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are one of the three major cytoskeletal components in eukaryotic cells. Heterodimers composed of GTP-bound ?- and ?-tubulin molecules polymerize to form microtubule protofilaments, which associate laterally to form a hollow microtubule. Tubulin has GTPase activity and the GTP molecules associated with ?-tubulin molecules are hydrolyzed shortly after being incorporated into the polymerizing microtubules. GTP hydrolysis alters the conformation of the tubulin molecules and drives the dynamic behavior of microtubules. Periods of rapid microtubule polymerization alternate with periods of shrinkage in a process known as dynamic instability. In plants, dynamic instability plays a key role in determining the organization of microtubules into arrays, and these arrays vary throughout the cell cycle. In this review, we describe the mechanisms that regulate microtubule dynamics and underlie dynamic instability, and discuss how dynamic instability may shape microtubule organization in plant cells. PMID:25339962

  4. Microtubules Negatively Regulate Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic ? Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Hu, Ruiying; Brissova, Marcela; Stein, Roland W; Powers, Alvin C; Gu, Guoqiang; Kaverina, Irina

    2015-09-28

    For glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), insulin granules have to be localized close to the plasma membrane. The role of microtubule-dependent transport in granule positioning and GSIS has been debated. Here, we report that microtubules, counterintuitively, restrict granule availability for secretion. In ? cells, microtubules originate at the Golgi and form a dense non-radial meshwork. Non-directional transport along these microtubules limits granule dwelling at the cell periphery, restricting granule availability for secretion. High glucose destabilizes microtubules, decreasing their density; such local microtubule depolymerization is necessary for GSIS, likely because granule withdrawal from the cell periphery becomes inefficient. Consistently, microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole blocks granule withdrawal, increases their concentration at exocytic sites, and dramatically enhances GSIS in vitro and in mice. Furthermore, glucose-driven MT destabilization is balanced by new microtubule formation, which likely prevents over-secretion. Importantly, microtubule density is greater in dysfunctional ? cells of diabetic mice. PMID:26418295

  5. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses.

  6. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jrmie; Nachury, Maxence V; Blanchoin, Laurent; Thry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  7. Single file diffusion in microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Farrell, Spencer; Brown, Aidan

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a confined tubular geometry, such as luminal diffusion of proteins inside microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no effect on particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually-tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0 , tracked particles display super-diffusive effective exponents just after they enter the system and trends towards diffusive exponents at later times. Equivalently, if diffusive exponents are assumed the effective diffusivity is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times through a logarithmic factor logN , where N is the number of particles in the tube. When we number each particle from the first (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of the effective diffusivity for all n. Techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching, will exhibit single-file effects.

  8. Generation of differentially modified microtubules using in vitro enzymatic approaches.

    PubMed

    Vemu, Annapurna; Garnham, Christopher P; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2014-01-01

    Tubulin, the building block of microtubules, is subject to chemically diverse and evolutionarily conserved post-translational modifications that mark microtubules for specific functions in the cell. Here we describe in vitro methods for generating homogenous acetylated, glutamylated, or tyrosinated tubulin and microtubules using recombinantly expressed and purified modification enzymes. The generation of differentially modified microtubules now enables a mechanistic dissection of the effects of tubulin post-translational modifications on the dynamics and mechanical properties of microtubules as well as the behavior of motors and microtubule-associated proteins. PMID:24630106

  9. Preparation of Segmented Microtubules to Study Motions Driven by the Disassembling Microtubule Ends

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vladimir A.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule depolymerization can provide force to transport different protein complexes and protein-coated beads in vitro. The underlying mechanisms are thought to play a vital role in the microtubule-dependent chromosome motions during cell division, but the relevant proteins and their exact roles are ill-defined. Thus, there is a growing need to develop assays with which to study such motility in vitro using purified components and defined biochemical milieu. Microtubules, however, are inherently unstable polymers; their switching between growth and shortening is stochastic and difficult to control. The protocols we describe here take advantage of the segmented microtubules that are made with the photoablatable stabilizing caps. Depolymerization of such segmented microtubules can be triggered with high temporal and spatial resolution, thereby assisting studies of motility at the disassembling microtubule ends. This technique can be used to carry out a quantitative analysis of the number of molecules in the fluorescently-labeled protein complexes, which move processively with dynamic microtubule ends. To optimize a signal-to-noise ratio in this and other quantitative fluorescent assays, coverslips should be treated to reduce nonspecific absorption of soluble fluorescently-labeled proteins. Detailed protocols are provided to take into account the unevenness of fluorescent illumination, and determine the intensity of a single fluorophore using equidistant Gaussian fit. Finally, we describe the use of segmented microtubules to study microtubule-dependent motions of the protein-coated microbeads, providing insights into the ability of different motor and nonmotor proteins to couple microtubule depolymerization to processive cargo motion. PMID:24686554

  10. The Rib43a protein is associated with forming the specialized protofilament ribbons of flagellar microtubules in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Norrander, J M; deCathelineau, A M; Brown, J A; Porter, M E; Linck, R W

    2000-01-01

    Ciliary and flagellar microtubules contain a specialized set of three protofilaments, termed ribbons, that are composed of tubulin and several associated proteins. Previous studies of sea urchin sperm flagella identified three of the ribbon proteins as tektins, which form coiled-coil filaments in doublet microtubules and which are associated with basal bodies and centrioles. To study the function of tektins and other ribbon proteins in the assembly of flagella and basal bodies, we have begun an analysis of ribbons from the unicellular biflagellate, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and report here the molecular characterization of the ribbon protein rib43a. Using antibodies against rib43a to screen an expression library, we recovered a full-length cDNA clone that encodes a 42,657-Da polypeptide. On Northern blots, the rib43a cDNA hybridized to a 1. 7-kb transcript, which was up-regulated upon deflagellation, consistent with a role for rib43a in flagellar assembly. The cDNA was used to isolate RIB43a, an approximately 4.6-kb genomic clone containing the complete rib43a coding region, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the RIB43a gene on linkage group III. Sequence analysis of the RIB43a gene indicates that the substantially coiled-coil rib43a protein shares a high degree of sequence identity with clones from Trypanosoma cruzi and Homo sapiens (genomic, normal fetal kidney, and endometrial and germ cell tumors) but little sequence similarity to other proteins including tektins. Affinity-purified antibodies against native and bacterially expressed rib43a stained both flagella and basal bodies by immunofluorescence microscopy and stained isolated flagellar ribbons by immuno-electron microscopy. The structure of rib43a and its association with the specialized protofilament ribbons and with basal bodies is relevant to the proposed role of ribbons in forming and stabilizing doublet and triplet microtubules and in organizing their three-dimensional structure. PMID:10637302

  11. Masses of a Fourth Generation with Two Higgs Doublets

    SciTech Connect

    Bellantoni, Leo; Erler, Jens; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Ramirez-Homs, Enrique; /Texas U., El Paso

    2012-05-01

    We use sampling techniques to find robust constraints on the masses of a possible fourth sequential fermion generation from electroweak oblique variables. We find that in the case of a light (115 GeV) Higgs from a single electroweak symmetry breaking doublet, inverted mass hierarchies are possible for both quarks and leptons, but a mass splitting more than MW in the quark sector is unlikely. We also find constraints in the case of a heavy (600 GeV) Higgs in a single doublet model. As recent data from the Large Hadron Collider hints at the existence of a resonance at 124.5 GeV and a single Higgs doublet at that mass is inconsistent with a fourth fermion generation, we examine a Type II two Higgs doublet model. In this model, there are ranges of parameter space where the Higgs sector can potentially counteract the effects of the fourth generation. Even so, we find that such scenarios produce qualitatively similar fermion mass distributions.

  12. (2 +1 )-dimensional wormhole from a doublet of scalar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2015-07-01

    We present a class of exact solutions in the framework of (2 +1 ) -dimensional Einstein gravity coupled minimally to a doublet of scalar fields. Our solution can be interpreted upon the tuning of parameters as an asymptotically flat wormhole as well as a particle model in 2 +1 dimensions.

  13. Dark matter with topological defects in the Inert Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Kirk, Russell; No, Jose Miguel; West, Stephen M.

    2015-05-26

    We examine the production of dark matter by decaying topological defects in the high mass region m{sub DM}≫m{sub W} of the Inert Doublet Model, extended with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry. The density of dark matter states (the neutral Higgs states of the inert doublet) is determined by the interplay of the freeze-out mechanism and the additional production of dark matter states from the decays of topological defects, in this case cosmic strings. These decays increase the predicted relic abundance compared to the standard freeze-out only case, and as a consequence the viable parameter space of the Inert Doublet Model can be widened substantially. In particular, for a given dark matter annihilation rate lower dark matter masses become viable. We investigate the allowed mass range taking into account constraints on the energy injection rate from the diffuse γ-ray background and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, together with constraints on the dark matter properties coming from direct and indirect detection limits. For the Inert Doublet Model high-mass region, an inert Higgs mass as low as ∼200 GeV is permitted. There is also an upper limit on string mass per unit length, and hence the symmetry breaking scale, from the relic abundance in this scenario. Depending on assumptions made about the string decays, the limits are in the range 10{sup 12} GeV to 10{sup 13} GeV.

  14. Ferritin associates with marginal band microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Infante, Anthony A.; Infante, Dzintra; Chan, M.-C.; How, P.-C.; Kutschera, Waltraud; Linhartova, Irena; Muellner, Ernst W.; Wiche, Gerhard; Propst, Friedrich . E-mail: friedrich.propst@univie.ac.at

    2007-05-01

    We characterized chicken erythrocyte and human platelet ferritin by biochemical studies and immunofluorescence. Erythrocyte ferritin was found to be a homopolymer of H-ferritin subunits, resistant to proteinase K digestion, heat stable, and contained iron. In mature chicken erythrocytes and human platelets, ferritin was localized at the marginal band, a ring-shaped peripheral microtubule bundle, and displayed properties of bona fide microtubule-associated proteins such as tau. Red blood cell ferritin association with the marginal band was confirmed by temperature-induced disassembly-reassembly of microtubules. During erythrocyte differentiation, ferritin co-localized with coalescing microtubules during marginal band formation. In addition, ferritin was found in the nuclei of mature erythrocytes, but was not detectable in those of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. These results suggest that ferritin has a function in marginal band formation and possibly in protection of the marginal band from damaging effects of reactive oxygen species by sequestering iron in the mature erythrocyte. Moreover, our data suggest that ferritin and syncolin, a previously identified erythrocyte microtubule-associated protein, are identical. Nuclear ferritin might contribute to transcriptional silencing or, alternatively, constitute a ferritin reservoir.

  15. "CLASPing" tungsten's effects on microtubules with "PINs".

    PubMed

    Adamakis, Ioannis Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P

    2015-10-01

    Tungsten, supplied as sodium tungstate, inhibits root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana, which has been attributed to a diminishing of PIN2 and PIN3 auxin efflux carriers. In this work, we sought to analyze the effect of tungsten on cortical microtubules and CLASP (Cytoplasmic Linker Associated Protein), which are also involved in the anisotropic cell expansion of root cells. Seedlings grown in a tungsten-free substrate for 4d and then transplanted into a tungsten-containing substrate exhibited randomly oriented microtubules in a time-dependent manner. While tungsten had no effect on roots treated for 3h, microtubule alignment was obviously affected in the transition and elongation zones after a 6, 12, 24, 48h tungsten treatment, at prolonged tungsten administrations and in seedlings grown directly in the presence of tungsten. This change in microtubule orientation may be associated with the reduction of CLASP protein expression induced by tungsten, as evidenced in experiments with plants expressing the CLASP-GFP protein. A possible mechanism, by which the coordinated functions of CLASP, PIN2 and microtubules are affected, as revealed by inhibited root growth, is discussed. PMID:26313814

  16. A study of microtubule dipole lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Shubhendu

    Microtubules are cytoskeletal protein polymers orchestrating a host of important cellular functions including, but not limited to, cell support, cell division, cell motility and cell transport. In this thesis, we construct a toy-model of the microtubule lattice composed of vector Ising spins representing tubulin molecules, the building block of microtubules. Nearest-neighbor and next-to-nearest neighbor interactions are considered within an anisotropic dielectric medium. As a consequence of the helical topology, we observe that certain spin orientations render the lattice frustrated with nearest neighbor ferroelectric and next-to-nearest neighbor antiferroelectric bonds. Under these conditions, the lattice displays the remarkable property of stabilizing certain spin patterns that are robust to thermal fluctuations. We model this behavior in the framework of a generalized Ising model known as the J1 - J2 model and theoretically determine the set of stable patterns. Employing Monte-Carlo methods, we demonstrate the stability of such patterns in the microtubule lattice at human physiological temperatures. This suggests a novel biological mechanism for storing information in living organisms, whereby the tubulin spin (dipole moment) states become information bits and information gets stored in microtubules in a way that is robust to thermal fluctuations.

  17. Swinging a sword: how microtubules search for their targets.

    PubMed

    Pavin, Nenad; Toli?-Nrrelykke, Iva M

    2014-09-01

    The cell interior is in constant movement, which is to a large extent determined by microtubules, thin and long filaments that permeate the cytoplasm. To move large objects, microtubules need to connect them to the site of their destination. For example, during cell division, microtubules connect chromosomes with the spindle poles via kinetochores, protein complexes on the chromosomes. A general question is how microtubules, while being bound to one structure, find the target that needs to be connected to this structure. Here we review the mechanisms of how microtubules search for kinetochores, with emphasis on the recently discovered microtubule feature to explore space by pivoting around the spindle pole. In addition to accelerating the search for kinetochores, pivoting helps the microtubules to search for cortical anchors, as well as to self-organize into parallel arrays and asters to target specific regions of the cell. Thus, microtubule pivoting constitutes a mechanism by which they locate targets in different cellular contexts. PMID:25136379

  18. Micropattern-Guided Assembly of Overlapping Pairs of Dynamic Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Fourniol, Franck J.; Li, Tai-De; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R. Dyche; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Surrey, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between antiparallel microtubules are essential for the organization of spindles in dividing cells. The ability to form immobilized antiparallel microtubule pairs in vitro, combined with the ability to image them via TIRF microscopy, permits detailed biochemical characterization of microtubule cross-linking proteins and their effects on microtubule dynamics. Here, we describe methods for chemical micropatterning of microtubule seeds on glass surfaces in configurations that specifically promote the formation of antiparallel microtubule overlaps in vitro. We demonstrate that this assay is especially well suited for reconstitution of minimal midzone overlaps stabilized by the antiparallel microtubule cross-linking protein PRC1 and its binding partners. The micropatterning method is suitable for use with a broad range of proteins, and the assay is generally applicable to any microtubule cross-linking protein. PMID:24630116

  19. Microtubules move the nucleus to quiescence.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Damien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is a cellular compartment that hosts several macro-molecular machines displaying a highly complex spatial organization. This tight architectural orchestration determines not only DNA replication and repair but also regulates gene expression. In budding yeast microtubules play a key role in structuring the nucleus since they condition the Rabl arrangement in G1 and chromosome partitioning during mitosis through their attachment to centromeres via the kinetochore proteins. Recently, we have shown that upon quiescence entry, intranuclear microtubules emanating from the spindle pole body elongate to form a highly stable bundle that spans the entire nucleus. Here, we examine some molecular mechanisms that may underlie the formation of this structure. As the intranuclear microtubule bundle causes a profound re-organization of the yeast nucleus and is required for cell survival during quiescence, we discuss the possibility that the assembly of such a structure participates in quiescence establishment. PMID:24637834

  20. Mechanisms of Taxol resistance related to microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Orr, George A; Verdier-Pinard, Pascal; McDaid, Hayley; Horwitz, Susan Band

    2014-01-01

    Since its approval by the FDA in 1992 for the treatment of ovarian cancer, the use of Taxol has dramatically increased. Although treatment with Taxol has led to improvement in the duration and quality of life for some cancer patients, the majority eventually develop progressive disease after initially responding to Taxol treatment. Drug resistance represents a major obstacle to improving the overall response and survival of cancer patients. This review focuses on mechanisms of Taxol resistance that occur directly at the microtubule, such as mutations, tubulin isotype selection and post-translational modifications, and also at the level of regulatory proteins. A review of tubulin structure, microtubule dynamics, the mechanism of action of Taxol and its binding site on the microtubule are included, so that the reader can evaluate Taxol resistance in context. PMID:14576838

  1. Microtubules viewed as molecular ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Tabony, James

    2006-10-01

    Populations of ants and other social insects self-organize and develop 'emergent' properties through stigmergy in which individual ants communicate with one another via chemical trails of pheromones that attract or repulse other ants. In this way, sophisticated properties and functions develop. Under appropriate conditions, in vitro microtubule preparations, initially comprised of only tubulin and GTP, behave in a similar manner. They self-organize and develop other higher-level emergent phenomena by a process where individual microtubules are coupled together by the chemical trails they produce by their own reactive growing and shrinking. This behaviour is described and compared with the behaviour of ant colonies. Viewing microtubules as populations of molecular ants may provide new insights as to how the cytoskeleton may spontaneously develop high-level functions. It is plausible that such processes occur during the early stages of embryogenesis and in cells. PMID:16968217

  2. [A functional flagella with a 6 + 0 pattern

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The male gamete of the Gregarine Lecudina tuzetae has been studied with transmission electron microscopy and microcinematography. It is characterized by a flagellar axoneme of 6 + 0 pattern, a reduction of the chondriome, and the abundance of storage polysaccharide or lipid bodies. The movements of the flagella are of the undulating type and they are performed in the three dimensions of space. They are very slow, with a cycle time of about 2s. The structure of the axoneme components are similar to those of flagella with a 9 + 2 pattern. Each doublet has overall dimensions of 350 x 220 A; the space between the adjacent doublets is about 160 A. The A subfiber bears arms like dynein arms. The diameter of the axoneme is about 1,000 A. The basal body consists of a cylinder of dense material 2,500 A long and 1,300- 1,400 A in diameter; a microtubule 200 A in diameter is present in the axis. This study shows that a 6 + 0 pattern can generate a flagellar movement. The mechanism of the flagellar movement of the male gamete of L. tuzetae does not require the presence of central microtubules and it would include molecular interactions of the dynein-tubulin type between the adjacent peripheric doublets. The slowness of the movements is discussed in terms of the axoneme's structure and its energy supply. Finally, the phylogenetic significance of this flagella is examined on the basis of the morphopoietic potentialities of the centriolar structures. PMID:169268

  3. Isolation and analysis of microtubule motor proteins.

    PubMed

    Saxton, W M

    1994-01-01

    Isolation of microtubule motor proteins is needed both for the discovery of new motors and for characterization of the products of motor-related genes. The sequences of motor-related genes cannot yet be used to predict the mechanochemical properties of the gene products. This was illustrated by the first kinesin-related gene product to be characterized. Protein expressed from the ncd gene moved toward the minus ends of microtubules (Walker et al., 1990; McDonald et al., 1990), while kinesin itself moves toward the plus ends. Until the relationship between mechanochemical function and amino acid sequence is more thoroughly understood, biochemical isolation and characterization of microtubule motor proteins will remain essential. Two approaches for getting useful quantities of microtubule motor proteins have been used: isolation from cytosol as described under Section II above and isolation from bacteria carrying cloned motor protein genes in expression vectors. Bacterial expression of functional microtubule motors has been successful to date in only a few cases (Yang et al., 1990; Walker et al., 1990, McDonald et al., 1990). Additional progress is expected with the expression of cloned genes from viral vectors in cultured eukaryotic cells, but broad success has not yet been reported. Biochemical isolation of motors from their natural cytosol has some distinct advantages. One can have confidence that a given motor will be folded properly and have normal post-translational modifications. In addition, if it exists in vivo as a heteromultimer, a microtubule motor isolated from its native cytosol will carry with it a normal complement of associated proteins. Studies of such associated proteins will be important in learning how motors accomplish their tasks in vivo. Drosophila cytosol should be a rich source of microtubule motors. Drosophila carry at least 11 and perhaps as many as 30 genes that are related to kinesin (Stewart et al., 1991; Endow and Hatsumi, 1991). The work of Tom Hays' lab indicates that Drosophila carry more than nine dynein related genes (Rasmussen et al., 1994). Relatively little effort to isolate the products of these genes from cytosol has been made. The only work that I am aware of has produced a kinesin-like microtubule motor (D.G. Cole, K.B. Sheehan, W.M. Saxton, and J.M. Scholey, in progress) that may be the Drosophila homolog of Xenopus eg5 (Sawin et al., 1992). This isolation was straightforward, and efforts to identify additional motors are almost assured of success. PMID:7707957

  4. Mmb1p binds mitochondria to dynamic microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chuanhai; Jain, Deeptee; Costa, Judite; Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Tran, Phong T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Mitochondria form a dynamics tubular network within the cell. Proper mitochondria movement and distribution are critical for their localized function in cell metabolism, growth, and survival. In mammalian cells, mechanisms of mitochondria positioning appear dependent on the microtubule cytoskeleton, with kinesin or dynein motors carrying mitochondria as cargos and distributing them throughout the microtubule network. Interestingly, the timescale of microtubule dynamics occurs in seconds, and the timescale of mitochondria distribution occurs in minutes. How does the cell couple these two time constants? Results Fission yeast also relies on microtubules for mitochondria distribution. We report here a new microtubule-dependent but motor-independent mechanism for proper mitochondria positioning in fission yeast. We identify the protein mmb1p, which binds to mitochondria and microtubules. Mmb1p attaches the tubular mitochondria to the microtubule lattice at multiple discrete interaction sites. Mmb1 deletion causes mitochondria to aggregate, with the long-term consequence of defective mitochondria distribution and cell death. Mmb1p decreases microtubule dynamicity. Conclusion Mmb1p is a new microtubule-mitochondria binding protein. We propose that mmb1p act to couple long-term mitochondria distribution to short-term microtubule dynamics by attenuating microtubule dynamics, thus enhancing the mitochondria-microtubule interaction time. PMID:21856157

  5. Extragenic bypass suppressors of mutations in the essential gene BLD2 promote assembly of basal bodies with abnormal microtubules in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Preble, A M; Giddings, T H; Dutcher, S K

    2001-01-01

    bld2-1 mutant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains assemble basal bodies with singlet microtubules; bld2-1 cells display flagellar assembly defects as well as positioning defects of the mitotic spindle and cleavage furrow. To further understand the role of the BLD2 gene, we have isolated three new bld2 alleles and three partially dominant extragenic suppressors, rgn1-1, rgn1-2, and rgn1-3. bld2 rgn1-1 strains have phenotypes intermediate between those of bld2 and wild-type strains with respect to flagellar number, microtubule rootlet organization, cleavage furrow positioning, and basal body structural phenotypes. Instead of the triplet microtubules of wild-type cells, bld2 rgn1-1 basal bodies have mixtures of no, singlet, doublet, and triplet microtubules. The bld2-4 allele was made by insertional mutagenesis and identified in a noncomplementation screen in a diploid strain. The bld2-4 allele has a lethal phenotype based on mitotic segregation in diploid strains and in haploid strains generated by meiotic recombination. The lethal phenotype in haploid strains is suppressed by rgn1-1; these suppressed strains have similar phenotypes to other bld2 rgn1-1 double mutants. It is likely that BLD2 is an essential gene that is needed for basal body assembly and function. PMID:11139500

  6. ATLAS diboson excesses from the stealth doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has reported excesses in diboson invariant mass searches of new resonances around 2 TeV, which might be a prediction of new physics around that mass range. We interpret these results in the context of a modified stealth doublet model where the extra Higgs doublet has a Yukawa interaction with the first generation quarks, and show that the heavy CP-even Higgs boson can naturally explain the excesses in the WW and ZZ channels with a small Yukawa coupling, ξ ∼ 0.15, and a tiny mixing angle with the SM Higgs boson, α ∼ 0.05. Furthermore, the model satisfies constraints from colliders and electroweak precision measurements.

  7. A search for close-mass lepton doublet

    SciTech Connect

    Riles, J.K.

    1989-04-01

    Described is a search for a heavy charged lepton with an associated neutrino of nearly the same mass, together known as a close-mass lepton doublet. The search is conducted in e/sup +/e/sup/minus// annihilation data taken with the Mark II detector at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. In order to suppress contamination from conventional two-photon reactions, the search applies a novel, radiative-tagging technique. Requiring the presence of an isolated, energetic photon allows exploration for lepton doublets with a mass splitting smaller than that previously accessible to experiment. No evidence for such a new lepton has been found, enabling limits to be placed on allowed mass combinations. Mass differences as low as 250-300 MeV are excluded for charged lepton masses up to 10 GeV. 78 refs., 64 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. A doublet microlens array for imaging micron-sized objects

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, A; Chronis, N

    2011-01-01

    We present a high-numerical aperture, doublet microlens array for imaging micron-sized objects. The proposed doublet architecture consists of glass microspheres trapped on a predefined array of silicon microholes and covered with a thin polymer layer. A standard silicon microfabrication process and a novel fluidic assembly technique were combined to obtain an array of 56 ?m diameter microlenses with a numerical aperture of ~0.5. Using such an array, we demonstrated brightfield and fluorescent image formation of objects directly on a CCD sensor without the use of intermediate lenses. The proposed technology is a significant advancement toward the unmet need of inexpensive, miniaturized optical modules which can be further integrated with lab-on-chip microfluidic devices and photonic chips for a variety of high-end imaging/detection applications. PMID:22003271

  9. Yukawa alignment in the two-Higgs-doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Pich, Antonio; Tuzon, Paula

    2009-11-01

    In multi-Higgs-doublet models the alignment in flavor space of the relevant Yukawa matrices guarantees the absence of tree-level flavor-changing couplings of the neutral scalar fields. We analyze the consequences of this condition within the two-Higgs-doublet model and show that it leads to a generic Yukawa structure which contains as particular cases all known specific implementations of the model based on Z{sub 2} symmetries. All possible freedom in the Yukawa sector gets parametrized in terms of three complex couplings {sigma}{sub f}. In spite of having flavor conservation in the neutral scalar couplings, the phases of these three parameters represent potential new sources of CP violation.

  10. Natural leptogenesis and neutrino masses with two Higgs doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jackson D.; Foot, Robert; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2015-08-01

    The minimal Type I seesaw model cannot explain the observed neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis without ceding naturalness. We show that this conclusion can be avoided by adding a second Higgs doublet with tan ? ?4 . The models considered naturally accommodate a standard model-like Higgs boson and predict TeV-scale scalar states and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with 103 GeV ?MN1?108 GeV .

  11. A simple description of doublet bands in mass around 100

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.

    2009-05-04

    The structure of doublet bands associated with neutron 0h{sub 11/2} and proton 0g{sub 9/2} orbital in the doubly-odd nuclei, {sup 98-104}Tc and {sup 100-106}Rh is studied theoretically using the quadrupole coupling model. The calculated energy levels and electromagnetic transitions are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The internal structure of the yrast states is discussed in terms of the QCM wave functions.

  12. Microtubule nucleating ?TuSC assembles structures with 13-fold microtubule-like symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Kollman, Justin M.; Polka, Jessica K.; Zelter, Alex; Davis, Trisha N.; Agard, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Microtubules are nucleated in vivo by ?-tubulin complexes. The 300 kDa ?-tubulin small complex (?TuSC), consisting of two molecules of ?-tubulin and one copy each of the accessory proteins Spc97p and Spc98p, is the conserved, essential core of the microtubule nucleating machinery1,2. In metazoa multiple ?TuSCs assemble with other proteins into ?-tubulin ring complexes (?TuRCs). The structure of ?TuRC suggested that it functions as a microtubule template25. Because each ?TuSC contains two molecules of ?-tubulin, it was assumed that the ?TuRC-specific proteins are required to organize ?TuSCs to match thirteen-fold microtubule symmetry. Here, we show that ?TuSC forms rings even in the absence of other ?TuRC components. The yeast adaptor protein Spc110p stabilizes the rings into extended filaments and is required for oligomer formation under physiological buffer conditions. The 8 cryo-EM reconstruction of the filament reveals thirteen ?-tubulins per turn, matching microtubule symmetry, with plus ends exposed for interaction with microtubules, implying that one turn of the filament constitutes a microtubule template. The domain structures of Spc97p and Spc98p suggest functions for conserved sequence motifs, with implications for the ?TuRC-specific proteins. The ?TuSC filaments nucleate microtubules at a low level, and the structure provides a strong hypothesis for how nucleation is regulated, converting this less active form to a potent nucleator. PMID:20631709

  13. Singlet-Doublet model: dark matter searches and LHC constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo; Mariotti, Alberto; Tziveloglou, Pantelis

    2015-10-01

    The Singlet-Doublet model of dark matter is a minimal extension of the Standard Model with dark matter that is a mixture of a singlet and a non-chiral pair of electroweak doublet fermions. The stability of dark matter is ensured by the typical parity symmetry, and, similar to a `Bino-Higgsino' system, the extra matter content improves gauge coupling unification. We revisit the experimental constraints on the Singlet-Doublet dark matter model, combining the most relevant bounds from direct (spin independent and spin dependent) and indirect searches. We show that such comprehensive analysis sets strong constraints on a large part of the 4-dimensional parameter space, closing the notorious `blind-spots' of spin independent direct searches. Our results emphasise the complementarity of direct and indirect searches in probing dark matter models in diverse mass scale regimes. We also discuss the LHC bounds on such scenario, which play a relevant role in the low mass region of the dark matter candidate.

  14. Kinetic theory for actively streaming microtubule suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matt; Betterton, Meredith; Shelley, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Suspensions of polar biopolymers mixed with molecular motor proteins can exhibit surprising out-of-equilibrium phenomena. In a recent experiment by Sanchez et al., microtubules are driven into collective motion by plus-end walking motor complexes. In experiments where the suspension is confined to a fluid-fluid interface, they find the emergence of distinctive large-scale flows characterized by persistent time-dependence and formation/annihilation of disclination singularities in the nematic order. Here we develop a first-principles kinetic theory to investigate the nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation observed in active microtubule suspensions. We model the active stresses generated by motile microtubules by taking into account the extensile stresses due to both the antiparallel and the parallel microtubule pairs. In a concentrated system, the resultant particle-pair stresses can induce hydrodynamic instabilities, and lead to a large-scale flows. When the suspension is confined to a liquid-liquid interface, we recover much of the dynamics observed in the experiments.

  15. Electrostatically Biased Binding of Kinesin to Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenjun; Alonso, Maria; Huber, Gary; Dlugosz, Maciej; McCammon, J. Andrew; Cross, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The minimum motor domain of kinesin-1 is a single head. Recent evidence suggests that such minimal motor domains generate force by a biased binding mechanism, in which they preferentially select binding sites on the microtubule that lie ahead in the progress direction of the motor. A specific molecular mechanism for biased binding has, however, so far been lacking. Here we use atomistic Brownian dynamics simulations combined with experimental mutagenesis to show that incoming kinesin heads undergo electrostatically guided diffusion-to-capture by microtubules, and that this produces directionally biased binding. Kinesin-1 heads are initially rotated by the electrostatic field so that their tubulin-binding sites face inwards, and then steered towards a plus-endwards binding site. In tethered kinesin dimers, this bias is amplified. A 3-residue sequence (RAK) in kinesin helix alpha-6 is predicted to be important for electrostatic guidance. Real-world mutagenesis of this sequence powerfully influences kinesin-driven microtubule sliding, with one mutant producing a 5-fold acceleration over wild type. We conclude that electrostatic interactions play an important role in the kinesin stepping mechanism, by biasing the diffusional association of kinesin with microtubules. PMID:22140358

  16. Vesicle deformation by microtubules: A phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Virginie; Cardoso, Olivier; Tabeling, Patrick

    1998-10-01

    The experimental investigation of vesicles deformed by the growth of encapsulated microtubules shows that the axisymmetric morphologies can be classified into ovals, lemons, φ, cherries, dumbbells, and pearls. A geometrical phase diagram is established. Numerical minimization of the elastic energy of the membrane reproduces satisfactorily well the observed morphologies and the corresponding phase diagram.

  17. Forces due to curving protofilaments in microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichare, Shirish; Jain, Ishutesh; Inamdar, Mandar M.; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2013-12-01

    Microtubules consist of 13 protofilaments arranged in the form of a cylinder. The protofilaments are composed of longitudinally attached tubulin dimers that can exist in either a less curved state [GTP-bound tubulin (T)] or a more curved state [GDP-bound tubulin (D)]. Hydrolysis of T into D leaves the straight and laterally attached protofilaments of the microtubule in a mechanically stressed state, thus leading to their unzipping. The elastic energy in the unzipping protofilaments can be harnessed by a force transducer such as the Dam1-kinetochore ring complex in order to exert pulling force on chromosomes during cell division. In the present paper we develop a simple continuum model to obtain this pulling force as a function of the mechanical properties of protofilaments and the size of the Dam1-kinetochore ring. We also extend this model to investigate the role played by the T subunits found at the plus end of the microtubule (the T cap) on the mechanical stability of microtubules.

  18. Microtubule Initiation from the Nuclear Surface Controls Cortical Microtubule Growth Polarity and Orientation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Chris; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear envelope in plant cells has long been known to be a microtubule organizing center (MTOC), but its influence on microtubule organization in the cell cortex has been unclear. Here we show that nuclear MTOC activity favors the formation of longitudinal cortical microtubule (CMT) arrays. We used green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged gamma tubulin-complex protein 2 (GCP2) to identify nuclear MTOC activity and GFP-tagged End-Binding Protein 1b (EB1b) to track microtubule growth directions. We found that microtubules initiate from nuclei and enter the cortex in two directions along the long axis of the cell, creating bipolar longitudinal CMT arrays. Such arrays were observed in all cell types showing nuclear MTOC activity, including root hairs, recently divided cells in root tips, and the leaf epidermis. In order to confirm the causal nature of nuclei in bipolar array formation, we displaced nuclei by centrifugation, which generated a corresponding shift in the bipolarity split point. We also found that bipolar CMT arrays were associated with bidirectional trafficking of vesicular components to cell ends. Together, these findings reveal a conserved function of plant nuclear MTOCs and centrosomes/spindle pole bodies in animals and fungi, wherein all structures serve to establish polarities in microtubule growth. PMID:25008974

  19. Loop formation of microtubules during gliding at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lynn; Tüzel, Erkan; Ross, Jennifer L.

    2011-09-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton, including the associated proteins, forms a complex network essential to multiple cellular processes. Microtubule-associated motor proteins, such as kinesin-1, travel on microtubules to transport membrane bound vesicles across the crowded cell. Other motors, such as cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-5, are used to organize the cytoskeleton during mitosis. In order to understand the self-organization processes of motors on microtubules, we performed filament-gliding assays with kinesin-1 motors bound to the cover glass with a high density of microtubules on the surface. To observe microtubule organization, 3% of the microtubules were fluorescently labeled to serve as tracers. We find that microtubules in these assays are not confined to two dimensions and can cross one other. This causes microtubules to align locally with a relatively short correlation length. At high density, this local alignment is enough to create 'intersections' of perpendicularly oriented groups of microtubules. These intersections create vortices that cause microtubules to form loops. We characterize the radius of curvature and time duration of the loops. These different behaviors give insight into how crowded conditions, such as those in the cell, might affect motor behavior and cytoskeleton organization.

  20. Dual Role for Microtubules in Regulating Cortical Contractility during Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Kausalya; Wadsworth, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Microtubules stimulate contractile ring formation in the equatorial cortex and simultaneously suppress contractility in the polar cortex; how they accomplish these differing activities is incompletely understood. We measured the behavior of GFP-actin in mammalian cells treated with nocodazole under conditions that either completely eliminate microtubules or selectively disassemble astral microtubules. Selective disassembly of astral microtubules resulted functional contractile rings that were wider than controls and had altered dynamic activity, as measured by FRAP. Complete microtubule disassembly or selective loss of astral microtubules resulted in wave-like contractile behavior of actin in the non-equatorial cortex and mislocalization of myosin II and Rho. FRAP experiments showed that both contractility and actin polymerization contributed to the wave-like behavior of actin. Wave-like, contractile behavior in anaphase cells was Rho-dependent. We conclude that dynamic astral microtubules function to suppress Rho activation in the nonequatorial cortex, limiting the contractile activity of the polar cortex. PMID:18559890

  1. Mechanism of microtubule array expansion in the cytokinetic phragmoplast

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Takashi; Sano, Toshio; Sasabe, Michiko; Nonaka, Shigenori; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Machida, Yasunori; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2013-01-01

    In land plants, the cell plate partitions the daughter cells at cytokinesis. The cell plate initially forms between daughter nuclei and expands centrifugally until reaching the plasma membrane. The centrifugal development of the cell plate is driven by the centrifugal expansion of the phragmoplast microtubule array, but the molecular mechanism underlying this expansion is unknown. Here, we show that the phragmoplast array comprises stable microtubule bundles and dynamic microtubules. We find that the dynamic microtubules are nucleated by ?-tubulin on stable bundles. The dynamic microtubules elongate at the plus ends and form new bundles preferentially at the leading edge of the phragmoplast. At the same time, they are moved away from the cell plate, maintaining a restricted distribution of minus ends. We propose that cycles of attachment of ?-tubulin complexes onto the microtubule bundles, microtubule nucleation and bundling, accompanied by minus-end-directed motility, drive the centrifugal development of the phragmoplast. PMID:23770826

  2. Effects of Tau on Flow-Aligned Microtubule Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer L.; Kuchnir Fygenson, D.

    2003-03-01

    Microtubules are cylindrical crystals of the protein tubulin with 17nm inner diameter and 25nm outer diameter. Recent structural studies suggest that the microtubule wall may be porous to small molecules. We have investigated the mobility of molecules in bundles of flow aligned microtubules. We find the spacing between the microtubules in the bundle is increased by the addition of tau, a microtubule associated protein. In the absence of tau, flow can be used to make tightly packed bundles of microtubules. Adding tau causes the tight bundles to swell and separate. We use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to quantify the mobility of a taxol, a small drug that binds to the microtubule interior.

  3. Measuring the Dynamic Parameters of MCF7 Cell Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, Carly; Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Microtubules are the key component of the cytoskeleton. They are intrinsically dynamic displaying dynamic instability in which they randomly switch between a phase of growing and shrinking, both in vitro and in vivo. This dynamic is specified by the following parameters: growing rate, shrinking rate, frequency of catastrophe, and frequency of rescue. In this work, we will present our primary results in which we measured the dynamic parameters of a single microtubule polymerized from MCF7 tubulin in vitro. The results are significant since the MCF7 microtubules are non-neural mammalian consisting of different beta tubulin isotypes in their structures as compared to neural mammalian microtubules, such as bovine brain. The unique dynamic parameters of individual MCF7 microtubules in vitro, which are reported for the first time, indicate that non-neural microtubules can be fundamentally different from neural microtubules.

  4. Cep70 regulates microtubule stability by interacting with HDAC6.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingjuan; Yao, Yanjun; Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Qinghai; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen

    2015-07-01

    Microtubules, highly dynamic components of the cytoskeleton, are involved in mitosis, cell migration and intracellular trafficking. Our previous work has shown that the centrosomal protein Cep70 regulates microtubule organization and mitotic spindle orientation in mammalian cells. However, it remains elusive whether Cep70 is implicated in microtubule stability. Here we demonstrate that Cep70 enhances microtubule resistance to cold or nocodazole treatment. Our data further show that Cep70 promotes microtubule stability by regulating tubulin acetylation, and plays an important role in stabilizing microtubules. Mechanistic studies reveal that Cep70 interacts and colocalizes with histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Cep70 promotes microtubule stability by interaction with HDAC6 and regulation of tubulin acetylation. PMID:26112604

  5. Microtubules search for chromosomes by pivoting around the spindle pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva

    2014-03-01

    During cell division, proper segregation of genetic material between the two daughter cells requires that the spindle microtubules attach to the chromosomes via kinetochores, protein complexes on the chromosome. The central question, how microtubules find kinetochores, is still under debate. We observed in fission yeast that kinetochores are captured by microtubules pivoting around the spindle pole body, instead of growing towards the kinetochores. By introducing a theoretical model, we show that the observed angular movement of microtubules is sufficient to explain the process of kinetochore capture. Our theory predicts that the speed of the capture process depends mainly on how fast microtubules pivot. We confirmed this prediction experimentally by speeding up and slowing down microtubule pivoting. Thus, microtubules explore space by pivoting, as they search for intracellular targets such as kinetochores.

  6. Partial Depletion of Gamma-Actin Suppresses Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Po'uha, Sela T; Honore, Stephane; Braguer, Diane; Kavallaris, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Actin and microtubule interactions are important for many cellular events, however these interactions are poorly described. Alterations in ?-actin are associated with diseases such as hearing loss and cancer. Functional investigations demonstrated that partial depletion of ?-actin affects cell polarity and induces resistance to microtubule-targeted agents. To determine whether ?-actin alterations directly affect microtubule dynamics, microtubule dynamic instability was analyzed in living cells following partial siRNA depletion of ?-actin. Partial depletion of ?-actin suppresses interphase microtubule dynamics by 17.5% due to a decrease in microtubule shortening rates and an increase in microtubule attenuation. ?-Actin partial depletion also increased distance-based microtubule catastrophe and rescue frequencies. In addition, knockdown of ?-actin delayed mitotic progression, partially blocking metaphaseanaphase transition and inhibiting cell proliferation. Interestingly, in the presence of paclitaxel, interphase microtubule dynamics were further suppressed by 24.4% in the ?-actin knockdown cells, which is comparable to 28.8% suppression observed in the control siRNA treated cells. Paclitaxel blocked metaphaseanaphase transition in both the ?-actin knockdown cells and the control siRNA cells. However, the extent of mitotic arrest was much higher in the control cells (28.4%), compared to the ?-actin depleted cells (8.5%). Therefore, suppression of microtubule dynamics by partial depletion of ?-actin is associated with marked delays in metaphase-anaphase transition and not mitotic arrest. This is the first demonstration that ?-actin can modulate microtubule dynamics by reducing the microtubule shortening rate, promoting paused/attenuated microtubules, and increasing transition frequencies suggesting a mechanistic link between ?-actin and microtubules. 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc PMID:23335583

  7. Phenomenology of the inert (2+1) and (4+2) Higgs doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keus, Venus; King, Stephen F.; Moretti, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    We make a phenomenological study of a model with two inert doublets plus one Higgs doublet [I(2+1)HDM] which is symmetric under a Z2 group, preserved after electroweak symmetry breaking by the vacuum alignment (0,0,v). This model may be regarded as an extension to the model with one inert doublet plus one Higgs doublet [I(1+1)HDM], by the addition of an extra inert scalar doublet. The neutral fields from the two inert doublets provide a viable dark matter (DM) candidate which is stabilized by the conserved Z2 symmetry. We study the new Higgs decay channels offered by the scalar fields from the extra doublets and their effect on the standard model Higgs couplings, including a new decay channel into (off-shell) photon(s) plus missing energy, which distinguishes the I(2+1)HDM from the I(1+1)HDM. Motivated by supersymmetry, which requires an even number of doublets, we then extend this model into a model with four inert doublets plus two Higgs doublets [I(4+2)HDM] and study the phenomenology of the model with the vacuum alignment (0,0,0,0,v ,v). This scenario offers a wealth of Higgs signals, the most distinctive ones being cascade decays of heavy Higgs states into inert ones. Finally, we also remark that the smoking-gun signature of all the considered models is represented by invisible Higgs decays into the lightest inert Higgs bosons responsible for DM.

  8. An assay to image neuronal microtubule dynamics in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kleele, Tatjana; Marinković, Petar; Williams, Philip R.; Stern, Sina; Weigand, Emily E.; Engerer, Peter; Naumann, Ronald; Hartmann, Jana; Karl, Rosa M.; Bradke, Frank; Bishop, Derron; Herms, Jochen; Konnerth, Arthur; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Godinho, Leanne; Misgeld, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics in neurons play critical roles in physiology, injury and disease and determine microtubule orientation, the cell biological correlate of neurite polarization. Several microtubule binding proteins, including end-binding protein 3 (EB3), specifically bind to the growing plus tip of microtubules. In the past, fluorescently tagged end-binding proteins have revealed microtubule dynamics in vitro and in non-mammalian model organisms. Here, we devise an imaging assay based on transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein-tagged EB3 to study microtubules in intact mammalian neurites. Our approach allows measurement of microtubule dynamics in vivo and ex vivo in peripheral nervous system and central nervous system neurites under physiological conditions and after exposure to microtubule-modifying drugs. We find an increase in dynamic microtubules after injury and in neurodegenerative disease states, before axons show morphological indications of degeneration or regrowth. Thus increased microtubule dynamics might serve as a general indicator of neurite remodelling in health and disease. PMID:25219969

  9. Neurodegeneration and microtubule dynamics: death by a thousand cuts

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Jyoti; Ratnakaran, Neena; Koushika, Sandhya P.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules form important cytoskeletal structures that play a role in establishing and maintaining neuronal polarity, regulating neuronal morphology, transporting cargo, and scaffolding signaling molecules to form signaling hubs. Within a neuronal cell, microtubules are found to have variable lengths and can be both stable and dynamic. Microtubule associated proteins, post-translational modifications of tubulin subunits, microtubule severing enzymes, and signaling molecules are all known to influence both stable and dynamic pools of microtubules. Microtubule dynamics, the process of interconversion between stable and dynamic pools, and the proportions of these two pools have the potential to influence a wide variety of cellular processes. Reduced microtubule stability has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and tauopathies like Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. Hyperstable microtubules, as seen in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP), also lead to neurodegeneration. Therefore, the ratio of stable and dynamic microtubules is likely to be important for neuronal function and perturbation in microtubule dynamics might contribute to disease progression. PMID:26441521

  10. Microtubules mediate mitochondrial distribution in fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, M P; Harata, D; Verde, F; Eddison, M; Toda, T; Nurse, P

    1996-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant, ban5-4, displays aberrant mitochondrial distribution. Incubation of this conditional-lethal mutant at the nonpermissive temperature led to aggregated mitochondria that were distributed asymmetrically within the cell. Development of this mitochondrial asymmetry but not mitochondrial aggregation required progression through the cell division cycle. Genetic analysis revealed that ban5-4 is an allele of atb2 encoding alpha 2-tubulin. Consistent with this finding, cells with the cold-sensitive nda3 mutation in beta-tubulin displayed aggregated and asymmetrically distributed mitochondria after incubation at lowered temperatures. These results indicate that microtubules mediate mitochondrial distribution in fission yeast and provide the first genetic evidence for the role of microtubules in mitochondrial movement. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8876193

  11. Centaurin-?? interacts with ?-tubulin and stabilizes microtubules.

    PubMed

    Zuccotti, Paola; Cartelli, Daniele; Stroppi, Michela; Pandini, Vittorio; Venturin, Marco; Aliverti, Alessandro; Battaglioli, Elena; Cappelletti, Graziella; Riva, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Centaurin-?? is a GTPase-activating protein for ARF (ARFGAP) showing a diffuse cytoplasmic localization capable to translocate to membrane, where it binds phosphatidylinositols. Taking into account that Centaurin-?? can localize in cytoplasm and that its cytoplasmatic function is not well defined, we searched for further interactors by yeast two-hybrid assay to investigate its biological function. We identified a further Centaurin-?? interacting protein, ?-Tubulin, by yeast two-hybrid assay. The interaction, involving the C-terminal region of ?-Tubulin, has been confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation experiments. After Centaurin-?? overexpression in HeLa cells and extraction of soluble (?? dimers) and insoluble (microtubules) fractions of Tubulin, we observed that Centaurin-?? mainly interacts with the polymerized Tubulin fraction, besides colocalizing with microtubules (MTs) in cytoplasm accordingly. Even following the depolimerizing Tubulin treatments Centaurin-?? remains mainly associated to nocodazole- and cold-resistant MTs. We found an increase of MT stability in transfected HeLa cells, evaluating as marker of stability the level of MT acetylation. In vitro assays using purified Centaurin-?? and tubulin confirmed that Centaurin-?? promotes tubulin assembly and increases microtubule stability. The biological effect of Centaurin-?? overexpression, assessed through the detection of an increased number of mitotic HeLa cells with bipolar spindles and with the correct number of centrosomes in both dividing and not dividing cells, is consistent with the Centaurin-?? role on MT stabilization. Centaurin-?? interacts with ?-Tubulin and it mainly associates to MTs, resistant to destabilizing agents, in vitro and in cell. We propose Centaurin-?? as a new microtubule-associated protein (MAP) increasing MT stability. PMID:23285209

  12. Dynamic Concentration of Motors in Microtubule Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndlec, Franois; Surrey, Thomas; Maggs, A. C.

    2001-04-01

    We present experimental and theoretical studies of the dynamics of molecular motors in microtubule arrays and asters. By solving a convection-diffusion equation we find that the density profile of motors in a two-dimensional aster is characterized by continuously varying exponents. Simulations are used to verify the assumptions of the continuum model. We observe the concentration profiles of kinesin moving in quasi-two-dimensional artificial asters by fluorescent microscopy and compare with our theoretical results.

  13. Linear negative dispersion with a gain doublet via optomechanical interactions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayi; Zhao, Chunnong; Ma, Yiqiu; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2015-05-15

    Optical cavities containing a negative dispersion medium have been proposed as a means of improving the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors through the creation of white-light signal recycling cavities. Here we demonstrate that negative dispersion can be realized using an optomechanical cavity pumped by a blue detuned doublet. We used an 85-mm cavity with an intracavity silicon nitride membrane. Tunable negative dispersion is demonstrated, with a phase derivative d?/df from -0.14??DegHz(-1) to -4.210(-3)??DegHz(-1). PMID:26393733

  14. Delta wing flutter based on doublet lattice method in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jew, H.

    1975-01-01

    The subsonic doublet-lattice method (DLM) aeroelastic analysis in NASTRAN was successfully applied to produce subsonic flutter boundary data in parameter space for a large delta wing configuration. Computed flow velocity and flutter frequency values as functions of air density ratio, flow Mach number, and reduced frequency are tabulated. The relevance and the meaning of the calculated results are discussed. Several input-deck problems encountered and overcome are cited with the hope that they may be helpful to NASTRAN Rigid Format 45 users.

  15. Zp scalar dark matter from multi-Higgs-doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. P.; Keus, V.

    2012-07-01

    In many models, stability of dark-matter particles is protected by a conserved Z2 quantum number. However, dark matter can be stabilized by other discrete symmetry groups, and examples of such models with custom-tailored field content have been proposed. Here, we show that electroweak symmetry-breaking models with N Higgs doublets can readily accommodate scalar dark matter candidates stabilized by groups Zp with any p?2N-1, leading to a variety of kinds of microscopic dynamics in the dark sector. We give examples in which semiannihilation or multiple semiannihilation processes are allowed or forbidden, which can be especially interesting in the case of asymmetric dark matter.

  16. The aluminum I autoionization doublet in the quiet solar spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heasley, J. N.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Mcallister, H. C.; Beerman, C.

    1981-01-01

    Observations are presented of the Al I autoionization doublet 1932 A and 1936 A in the quiet solar spectrum, obtained from the NRL slit spectrograph aboard Skylab and from the University of Hawaii Echelle Rocket Spectrograph. The observed profiles are compared with theoretical spectra computed for the Harvard Smithsonian Reference Atmosphere and the Vernazza, Avrett and Loeser (1976) solar models. It is found that nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium effects are important in the line-formation problem and the synthetic spectra are in good agreeement with the data.

  17. Self-organization of microtubules and motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndlec, F. J.; Surrey, T.; Maggs, A. C.; Leibler, S.

    1997-09-01

    Cellular structures are established and maintained through a dynamic interplay between assembly and regulatory processes. Self-organization of molecular components provides a variety of possible spatial structures: the regulatory machinery chooses the most appropriate to express a given cellular function. Here we study the extent and the characteristics of self-organization using microtubules and molecular motors as a model system. These components are known to participate in the formation of many cellular structures, such as the dynamic asters found in mitotic and meiotic spindles. Purified motors and microtubules have previously been observed to form asters in vitro. We have reproduced this result with a simple system consisting solely of multi-headed constructs of the motor protein kinesin and stabilized microtubules. We show that dynamic asters can also be obtained from a homogeneous solution of tubulin and motors. By varying the relative concentrations of the components, we obtain a variety of self-organized structures. Further, by studying this process in a constrained geometry of micro-fabricated glass chambers, we demonstrate that the same final structure can be reached through different assembly `pathways'.

  18. Microtubule Assembly Dynamics at the Nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Schek, Henry T.; Gardner, Melissa K.; Cheng, Jun; Odde, David J.; Hunt, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background: The labile nature of microtubules is critical for establishing cellular morphology and motility, yet the molecular basis of assembly remains unclear. Here we use optical tweezers to track microtubule polymerization against microfabricated barriers, permitting unprecedented spatial resolution. Results: We find that microtubules exhibit extensive nanometer-scale variability in growth rate, and often undergo shortening excursions, in some cases exceeding 5 tubulin layers, during periods of overall net growth. This result indicates that the GTP cap does not exist as a single layer as previously proposed. We also find that length increments (over 100 ms time intervals, N=16,762) are small, 0.81 +/? 6.60 nm (mean +/? s.d.), and very rarely exceed 16 nm (?two dimer lengths), indicating that assembly occurs almost exclusively via single subunit addition rather than via oligomers as was recently suggested. Finally, the assembly rate depends only weakly on load, with the average growth rate decreasing only 2-fold as the force increases 7-fold from 0.4 pN to 2.8 pN. Conclusions: The data are consistent with a mechanochemical model where a spatially extended GTP cap allows substantial shortening on the nanoscale, while still preventing complete catastrophe in most cases. PMID:17683936

  19. Role of Microtubules in Stress Granule Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chernov, Konstantin G.; Barbet, Aurlie; Hamon, Loic; Ovchinnikov, Lev P.; Curmi, Patrick A.; Pastr, David

    2009-01-01

    Following exposure to various stresses (arsenite, UV, hyperthermia, and hypoxia), mRNAs are assembled into large cytoplasmic bodies known as stress granules, in which mRNAs and associated proteins may be processed by specific enzymes for different purposes like transient storing, sorting, silencing, or other still unknown processes. To limit mRNA damage during stress, the assembly of micrometric granules has to be rapid, and, indeed, it takes only ?1020 min in living cells. However, such a rapid assembly breaks the rules of hindered diffusion in the cytoplasm, which states that large cytoplasmic bodies are almost immobile. In the present work, using HeLa cells and YB-1 protein as a stress granule marker, we studied three hypotheses to understand how cells overcome the limitation of hindered diffusion: shuttling of small messenger ribonucleoprotein particles from small to large stress granules, sliding of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles along microtubules, microtubule-mediated stirring of large stress granules. Our data favor the two last hypotheses and underline that microtubule dynamic instability favors the formation of micrometric stress granules. PMID:19843517

  20. Negative regulation of EB1 turnover at microtubule plus ends by interaction with microtubule-associated protein ATIP3

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Ferreira, Sylvie; Nehlig, Anne; Bouchet, Benjamin Pierre; Morel, Marina; Leconte, Ludovic; Serre, Laurence; Arnal, Isabelle; Braguer, Diane; Savina, Ariel; Honore, Stéphane; Nahmias, Clara

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of microtubule dynamics is critical to ensure essential cell functions. End binding protein 1 (EB1) is a master regulator of microtubule dynamics that autonomously binds an extended GTP/GDP-Pi structure at growing microtubule ends and recruits regulatory proteins at this location. However, negative regulation of EB1 association with growing microtubule ends remains poorly understood. We show here that microtubule-associated tumor suppressor ATIP3 interacts with EB1 through direct binding of a non-canonical proline-rich motif. Results indicate that ATIP3 does not localize at growing microtubule ends and that in situ ATIP3-EB1 molecular complexes are mostly detected in the cytosol. We present evidence that a minimal EB1-interacting sequence of ATIP3 is both necessary and sufficient to prevent EB1 accumulation at growing microtubule ends in living cells and that EB1-interaction is involved in reducing cell polarity. By fluorescence recovery of EB1-GFP after photobleaching, we show that ATIP3 silencing accelerates EB1 turnover at microtubule ends with no modification of EB1 diffusion in the cytosol. We propose a novel mechanism by which ATIP3-EB1 interaction indirectly reduces the kinetics of EB1 exchange on its recognition site, thereby accounting for negative regulation of microtubule dynamic instability. Our findings provide a unique example of decreased EB1 turnover at growing microtubule ends by cytosolic interaction with a tumor suppressor. PMID:26498358

  1. Negative regulation of EB1 turnover at microtubule plus ends by interaction with microtubule-associated protein ATIP3.

    PubMed

    Velot, Lauriane; Molina, Angie; Rodrigues-Ferreira, Sylvie; Nehlig, Anne; Bouchet, Benjamin Pierre; Morel, Marina; Leconte, Ludovic; Serre, Laurence; Arnal, Isabelle; Braguer, Diane; Savina, Ariel; Honore, Stéphane; Nahmias, Clara

    2015-12-22

    The regulation of microtubule dynamics is critical to ensure essential cell functions. End binding protein 1 (EB1) is a master regulator of microtubule dynamics that autonomously binds an extended GTP/GDP-Pi structure at growing microtubule ends and recruits regulatory proteins at this location. However, negative regulation of EB1 association with growing microtubule ends remains poorly understood. We show here that microtubule-associated tumor suppressor ATIP3 interacts with EB1 through direct binding of a non-canonical proline-rich motif. Results indicate that ATIP3 does not localize at growing microtubule ends and that in situ ATIP3-EB1 molecular complexes are mostly detected in the cytosol. We present evidence that a minimal EB1-interacting sequence of ATIP3 is both necessary and sufficient to prevent EB1 accumulation at growing microtubule ends in living cells and that EB1-interaction is involved in reducing cell polarity. By fluorescence recovery of EB1-GFP after photobleaching, we show that ATIP3 silencing accelerates EB1 turnover at microtubule ends with no modification of EB1 diffusion in the cytosol. We propose a novel mechanism by which ATIP3-EB1 interaction indirectly reduces the kinetics of EB1 exchange on its recognition site, thereby accounting for negative regulation of microtubule dynamic instability. Our findings provide a unique example of decreased EB1 turnover at growing microtubule ends by cytosolic interaction with a tumor suppressor. PMID:26498358

  2. Nearest-neighbor doublets in protein-coding regions of MS2 RNA. [coliphage virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    'Nearest neighbor' base pairs ('doublets') in the protein-coding regions of MS2 RNA have been tabulated with respect to their positions in the first two bases of amino acid codons, in the second two bases, or paired by contact between adjoining codons. Considerable variation is evident between numbers of doublets in each of these three possible positions, but the totals of each of the 16 doublets in the coding regions of the MS2 RNA molecule show much less variation. Compilations of doublets in nucleic acid strands have no predictive value for the amino acid composition of proteins coded by such strands.

  3. Dynamic properties of microtubules at steady state of polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.R.; Schilstra, M.J.; Bayley, P.M.

    1987-12-16

    Microtubules of tubulin dimer, polymerized in vitro to steady-state are shown to incorporate tubulin rapidly and extensively. The method involves adding (/sup 3/H)-GTP to microtubules at steady state, and analyzing for non-exchangeable (/sup 3/H)-GDP in the presence of a GTP regenerating system. The rate and extent of this exchange process is dependent on the length distribution of the microtubules, and is notably faster with sheared microtubules. We simulate all these features of the exchange kinetics, together with the length redistributions occurring at steady state of polymerization, using a simple model based on a limited number of kinetic parameters deriving from the measurements of microtubule dynamics by Horio and Hotani. The observed exchange kinetics thus provide a direct experimental criterion of dynamic instability of microtubules at steady state of polymerization.

  4. General theory for the mechanics of confined microtubule asters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rui; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen; Pavin, Nenad; Jlicher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In cells, dynamic microtubules organize into asters or spindles to assist positioning of organelles. Two types of forces are suggested to contribute to the positioning process: (i) microtubule-growth based pushing forces; and (ii) motor protein mediated pulling forces. In this paper, we present a general theory to account for aster positioning in a confinement of arbitrary shape. The theory takes account of microtubule nucleation, growth, catastrophe, slipping, as well as interaction with cortical force generators. We calculate microtubule distributions and forces acting on microtubule organizing centers in a sphere and in an ellipsoid. Positioning mechanisms based on both pushing forces and pulling forces can be distinguished in our theory for different parameter regimes or in different geometries. In addition, we investigate positioning of microtubule asters in the case of asymmetric distribution of motors. This analysis enables us to characterize situations relevant for Caenorrhabditis elegans embryos.

  5. Microtubules stabilize cell polarity by localizing rear signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wei-Hui; Wang, Yu-Li

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are known to play an important role in cell polarity; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Using cells migrating persistently on micropatterned strips, we found that depolymerization of microtubules caused cells to change from persistent to oscillatory migration. Mathematical modeling in the context of a local-excitationglobal-inhibition control mechanism indicated that this mechanism can account for microtubule-dependent oscillation, assuming that microtubules remove inhibitory signals from the front after a delayed generation. Experiments further supported model predictions that the period of oscillation positively correlates with cell length and that oscillation may be induced by inhibiting retrograde motors. We suggest that microtubules are required not for the generation but for the maintenance of cell polarity, by mediating the global distribution of inhibitory signals. Disassembly of microtubules induces cell oscillation by allowing inhibitory signals to accumulate at the front, which stops frontal protrusion and allows the polarity to reverse. PMID:25368191

  6. Ahead of the Curve: New Insights into Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ohi, Ryoma; Zanic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics are fundamental for many aspects of cell physiology, but their mechanistic underpinnings remain unclear despite 40 years of intense research. In recent years, the continued union of reconstitution biochemistry, structural biology, and modeling has yielded important discoveries that deepen our understanding of microtubule dynamics. These studies, which we review here, underscore the importance of GTP hydrolysis-induced changes in tubulin structure as microtubules assemble, and highlight the fact that each aspect of microtubule behavior is the output of complex, multi-step processes. Although this body of work moves us closer to appreciating the key features of microtubule biochemistry that drive dynamic instability, the divide between our understanding of microtubules in isolation versus within the cellular milieu remains vast. Bridging this gap will serve as fertile grounds of cytoskeleton-focused research for many years to come. PMID:26998244

  7. Fluorescent markers of the microtubule cytoskeleton in Zymoseptoria tritici

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, M.; Kilaru, S.; Latz, M.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton supports vital processes in fungal cells, including hyphal growth and mitosis. Consequently, it is a target for fungicides, such as benomyl. The use of fluorescent fusion proteins to illuminate microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins has led to a break-through in our understanding of their dynamics and function in fungal cells. Here, we introduce fluorescent markers to visualize microtubules and accessory proteins in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We fused enhanced green-fluorescent protein to ?-tubulin (ZtTub2), to ZtPeb1, a homologue of the mammalian plus-end binding protein EB1, and to ZtGrc1, a component of the minus-end located ?-tubulin ring complex, involved in the nucleation of microtubules. In vivo observation confirms the localization and dynamic behaviour of all three markers. These marker proteins are useful tools for understanding the organization and importance of the microtubule cytoskeleton in Z. tritici. PMID:25857261

  8. Fluorescent markers of the microtubule cytoskeleton in Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Schuster, M; Kilaru, S; Latz, M; Steinberg, G

    2015-06-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton supports vital processes in fungal cells, including hyphal growth and mitosis. Consequently, it is a target for fungicides, such as benomyl. The use of fluorescent fusion proteins to illuminate microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins has led to a break-through in our understanding of their dynamics and function in fungal cells. Here, we introduce fluorescent markers to visualize microtubules and accessory proteins in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We fused enhanced green-fluorescent protein to ?-tubulin (ZtTub2), to ZtPeb1, a homologue of the mammalian plus-end binding protein EB1, and to ZtGrc1, a component of the minus-end located ?-tubulin ring complex, involved in the nucleation of microtubules. In vivo observation confirms the localization and dynamic behaviour of all three markers. These marker proteins are useful tools for understanding the organization and importance of the microtubule cytoskeleton in Z. tritici. PMID:25857261

  9. Drugs That Target Dynamic Microtubules: A New Molecular Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Richard A.; Gernert, Kim M.; Nettles, James H.; Aneja, Ritu

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules have long been considered an ideal target for anticancer drugs because of the essential role they play in mitosis, forming the dynamic spindle apparatus. As such, there is a wide variety of compounds currently in clinical use and in development that act as antimitotic agents by altering microtubule dynamics. Although these diverse molecules are known to affect microtubule dynamics upon binding to one of the three established drug domains (taxane, vinca alkaloid, or colchicine site), the exact mechanism by which each drug works is still an area of intense speculation and research. In this study, we review the effects of microtubule-binding chemotherapeutic agents from a new perspective, considering how their mode of binding induces conformational changes and alters biological function relative to the molecular vectors of microtubule assembly or disassembly. These “biological vectors” can thus be used as a spatiotemporal context to describe molecular mechanisms by which microtubule-targeting drugs work. PMID:21381049

  10. Association of ribosomes with in vitro assembled microtubules.

    PubMed

    Suprenant, K A; Tempero, L B; Hammer, L E

    1989-01-01

    Microtubules were purified from unfertilized eggs of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, Lytechinus variegatus, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Numerous densely stained particles (24 x 26 nm) are associated with microtubules isolated from each of these sea urchins. The most striking aspect of this structure is an extended, slightly curved arm that appears to attach the particles to the microtubule. Morphologically similar particles are associated with microtubules of the isolated first cleavage mitotic apparatus. The particles are attached to the microtubules by ionic interactions and contain large amounts of extractable RNA. Based upon their size and density, RNA and protein composition, and sedimentation in sucrose gradients, the microtubule-associated particles are identified as ribosomes. PMID:2479489

  11. Dynamics of Antarctic fish microtubules at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, R.H.; Detrich, H.W. III )

    1989-06-13

    The tubulins of Antarctic fishes, purified from brain tissue and depleted of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), polymerized efficiently in vitro to yield microtubules at near-physiological and supraphysiological temperatures (5, 10, and 20{degree}C). The dynamics of the microtubules at these temperatures were examined through the use of labeled guanosine 5{prime}-triphosphate (GTP) as a marker for the incorporation, retention, and loss of tubulin dimers. Following attainment of a steady state in microtubule mass at 20{degree}C, the rate of incorporation of ({sup 3}H)GTP (i.e., tubulin dimers) during pulses of constant duration decreased asymptotically toward a constant, nonzero value as the interval prior to label addition to the microtubule solution increased. Concomitant with the decreasing rate of label incorporation, the average length of the microtubules increased, and the number concentration of microtubules decreased. Thus, redistribution of microtubule lengths appears to be responsible for the time-dependent decrease in the rate of tubulin uptake. At each temperature, most of the incorporated label was retained by the microtubules during a subsequent chase with excess unlabeled GTP. In contrast, when microtubules were assembled do novo in the presence of ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP at 5{degree}C and then exposed to a pulse of ({sup 3}H)GTP, the {sup 32}P label was lost over time during a subsequent chase with unlabeled GTP, whereas the {sup 3}H label was retained. Together, these results indicate that the microtubules of Antarctic fishes exhibit, at low temperatures, behaviors consistent both with subunit treadmilling and with dynamic instability and/or microtubule annealing.

  12. STIM1-directed reorganization of microtubules in activated mast cells.

    PubMed

    Hjkov, Zuzana; Bugajev, Viktor; Drberov, Eduarda; Vinopal, Stanislav; Drberov, Lubica; Jan?ek, Ji?; Drber, Petr; Drber, Pavel

    2011-01-15

    Activation of mast cells by aggregation of the high-affinity IgE receptors (Fc?RI) initiates signaling events leading to the release of inflammatory and allergic mediators stored in cytoplasmic granules. A key role in this process play changes in concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+) controlled by store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Although microtubules are also involved in the process leading to degranulation, the molecular mechanisms that control microtubule rearrangement during activation are largely unknown. In this study, we report that activation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) induced by Fc?RI aggregation or treatment with pervanadate or thapsigargin results in generation of protrusions containing microtubules (microtubule protrusions). Formation of these protrusions depended on the influx of extracellular Ca(2+). Changes in cytosolic Ca(2+)concentration also affected microtubule plus-end dynamics detected by microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1. Experiments with knockdown or reexpression of STIM1, the key regulator of SOCE, confirmed the important role of STIM1 in the formation of microtubule protrusions. Although STIM1 in activated cells formed puncta associated with microtubules in protrusions, relocation of STIM1 to a close proximity of cell membrane was independent of growing microtubules. In accordance with the inhibition of Ag-induced Ca(2+) response and decreased formation of microtubule protrusions in BMMCs with reduced STIM1, the cells also exhibited impaired chemotactic response to Ag. We propose that rearrangement of microtubules in activated mast cells depends on STIM1-induced SOCE, and that Ca(2+) plays an important role in the formation of microtubule protrusions in BMMCs. PMID:21160048

  13. Microtubules and cellulose biosynthesis: the emergence of new players.

    PubMed

    Li, Shundai; Lei, Lei; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Gu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules determine the orientation of newly formed cellulose microfibrils in expanding cells. There are many hypotheses regarding how the information is transduced across the plasma membrane from microtubules to cellulose microfibrils. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the co-alignment between microtubules and cellulose microfibrils were not revealed until the recent discovery of cellulose synthase interacting (CSI) proteins. Characterization of CSIs and additional cellulose synthase-associated proteins will greatly advance the knowledge of how cellulose microfibrils are organized. PMID:26476686

  14. The CTA aims at the Inert Doublet Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2016-02-01

    We show that the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) can realistically challenge the Inert Doublet Model, one of the simplest and best known models of dark matter. Specifically, the CTA may exclude its heavy regime up to dark matter masses of 800 GeV and probe a large fraction of the remaining viable parameter space at even higher masses. Two features of the Inert Doublet Model make it particularly suitable for CTA searches. First, the dark matter mass (in the heavy regime) must be larger than 500 GeV. Second, the dark matter annihilation cross section, σ v, is always larger than the thermal one, reaching values as high as 10‑25 cm3s‑1. This higher value of σv is the result of the unavoidable coannihilation effects that determine the relic density via thermal freeze-out in the early Universe. We find that with 100 hours of Galactic Center exposure, CTA's expected limit widely surpasses, even after the inclusion of systematic errors, current and projected bounds from Fermi-LAT and HESS on this model.

  15. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Cuha, V.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; DeLellis, G.; Dclais, Y.; DeSerio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Galkin, V. I.; Galkin, V. A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-07-01

    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic position sensitive detectors and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting ??rightleftharpoons?? oscillations in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions (''refreshing'') have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units (''ECC bricks''). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronically tagged penetrating muons. Further improvement of in-doublet film alignment was obtained by matching the pattern of low-energy electron tracks. The commissioning of the overall OPERA alignment procedure is in progress.

  16. Next-to-minimal two Higgs Doublet Model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Chien -Yi; Freid, Michael; Sher, Marc

    2014-04-07

    The simplest extension of the Two Higgs Doublet Model is the addition of a real scalar singlet, S. The effects of mixing between the singlet and the doublets can be manifested in two ways. It can modify the couplings of the 126 GeV Higgs boson, h, and it can lead to direct detection of the heavy Higgs at the LHC. In this paper, we show that in the type-I Model, for heavy Higgs masses in the 200-600 GeV range, the latter effect will be detected earlier than the former for most of parameter space. Should no such Higgs be discoveredmorein this mass range, then the upper limit on the mixing will be sufficiently strong such that there will be no significant effects on the couplings of the h for most of parameter space. Thus, the reverse is true in the type-II model, the limits from measurements of the couplings of the h will dominate over the limits from non-observation of the heavy Higgs.less

  17. Probing the inert doublet dark matter model with Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Gustafsson, Michael; Ibarra, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the annihilation signals of the inert dark matter doublet model in its high mass regime. Concretely, we study the prospects to observe gamma-ray signals of the model in current and projected Cherenkov telescopes taking into account the Sommerfeld effect and including the contribution to the spectrum from gamma-ray lines as well as from internal bremsstrahlung. We show that present observations of the galactic center by the H.E.S.S. instrument are able to exclude regions of the parameter space that give the correct dark matter relic abundance. In particular, models with the charged and the neutral components of the inert doublet nearly degenerate in mass have strong gamma-ray signals. Furthermore, for dark matter particle masses above 1 TeV, we find that the non-observation of the continuum of photons generated by the hadronization of the annihilation products typically give stronger constraints on the model parameters than the sharp spectral features associated to annihilation into monochromatic photons and the internal bremsstrahlung process. Lastly, we also analyze the interplay between indirect and direct detection searches for this model, concluding that the prospects for the former are more promising. In particular, we find that the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array will be able to probe a significant part of the high mass regime of the model.

  18. Next-to-minimal two Higgs Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien -Yi; Freid, Michael; Sher, Marc

    2014-04-07

    The simplest extension of the Two Higgs Doublet Model is the addition of a real scalar singlet, S. The effects of mixing between the singlet and the doublets can be manifested in two ways. It can modify the couplings of the 126 GeV Higgs boson, h, and it can lead to direct detection of the heavy Higgs at the LHC. In this paper, we show that in the type-I Model, for heavy Higgs masses in the 200-600 GeV range, the latter effect will be detected earlier than the former for most of parameter space. Should no such Higgs be discovered in this mass range, then the upper limit on the mixing will be sufficiently strong such that there will be no significant effects on the couplings of the h for most of parameter space. Thus, the reverse is true in the type-II model, the limits from measurements of the couplings of the h will dominate over the limits from non-observation of the heavy Higgs.

  19. Producing Conditional Mutants for Studying Plant Microtubule Function

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Cyr

    2009-09-29

    The cytoskeleton, and in particular its microtubule component, participates in several processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of microtubules into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. One of these, the cortical array, is notable for its role in directing the deposition of cellulose (the most prominent polymer in the biosphere). An understanding of how these arrays form, and the molecular interactions that contribute to their function, is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of how microtubules work, we have been working to characterize mutants in critical cytoskeletal genes. This characterization is being carried out at the subcellular level using vital microtubule gene constructs. In the last year of funding colleagues have discovered that gamma-tubulin complexes form along the lengths of cortical microtubules where they act to spawn new microtubules at a characteristic 40 deg angle. This finding complements nicely the finding from our lab (which was funded by the DOE) showing that microtubule encounters are angle dependent; high angles encounters results in catastrophic collisions while low angle encounters result in favorable zippering. The finding of a 40 deg spawn of new microtubules from extant microtubule, together with aforementioned rules of encounters, insures favorable co-alignment in the array. I was invited to write a New and Views essay on this topic and a PDF is attached (News and Views policy does not permit funding acknowledgments and so I was not allowed to acknowledge support from the DOE).

  20. Force-generation and dynamic instability of microtubule bundles

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Liedewij; Husson, Julien; Munteanu, E. Laura; Kerssemakers, Jacob W. J.; Dogterom, Marileen

    2008-01-01

    Individual dynamic microtubules can generate pushing or pulling forces when their growing or shrinking ends are in contact with cellular objects such as the cortex or chromosomes. These microtubules can operate in parallel bundles, for example when interacting with mitotic chromosomes. Here, we investigate the force-generating capabilities of a bundle of growing microtubules and study the effect that force has on the cooperative dynamics of such a bundle. We used an optical tweezers setup to study microtubule bundles growing against a microfabricated rigid barrier in vitro. We show that multiple microtubules can generate a pushing force that increases linearly with the number of microtubules present. In addition, the bundle can cooperatively switch to a shrinking state, due to a force-induced coupling of the dynamic instability of single microtubules. In the presence of GMPCPP, bundle catastrophes no longer occur, and high bundle forces are reached more effectively. We reproduce the observed behavior with a simple simulation of microtubule bundle dynamics that takes into account previously measured force effects on single microtubules. Using this simulation, we also show that a constant compressive force on a growing bundle leads to oscillations in bundle length that are of potential relevance for chromosome oscillations observed in living cells. PMID:18577596

  1. Microtubule Elasticity: Connecting All-Atom Simulations with Continuum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sept, David; Mackintosh, Fred C.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of microtubules have been extensively studied using a wide range of biophysical techniques, seeking to understand the mechanics of these cylindrical polymers. Here we develop a method for connecting all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with continuum mechanics and show how this can be applied to understand microtubule mechanics. Our coarse-graining technique applied to the microscopic simulation system yields consistent predictions for the Youngs modulus and persistence length of microtubules, while clearly demonstrating how binding of the drug Taxol decreases the stiffness of microtubules. The techniques we develop should be widely applicable to other macromolecular systems.

  2. Theoretical Description of Microtubule Dynamics in Fission Yeast During Interphase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oei, Yung-Chin; Jimnez-Dalmaroni, Andrea; Vilfan, Andrej; Duke, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Fission yeast (S. pombe) is a unicellular organism with a characteristic cylindrical shape. Cell growth during interphase is strongly influenced by microtubule self-organization - a process that has been experimentally well characterised. The microtubules are organized in 3 to 4 bundles, called ``interphase microtubule assemblies'' (IMAs). Each IMA is composed of several microtubules, arranged with their dynamic ``plus'' ends facing the cell tips and their ``minus'' ends overlapping at the cell middle. Although the main protein factors involved in interphase microtubule organization have been identified, an understanding of how their collective interaction with microtubules leads to the organization and structures observed in vivo is lacking. We present a physical model of microtubule dynamics that aims to provide a quantitative description of the self-organization process. First, we solve equations for the microtubule length distribution in steady-state, taking into account the way that a limited tubulin pool affects the nucleation, growth and shrinkage of microtubules. Then we incorporate passive and active crosslinkers (the bundling factor Ase1 and molecular motor Klp2) and investigate the formation of IMA structures. Analytical results are complemented by a 3D stochastic simulation.

  3. Deceivingly dynamic: Learning-dependent changes in stathmin and microtubules.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shusaku; Shumyatsky, Gleb P

    2015-10-01

    Microtubules, one of the major cytoskeletal structures, were previously considered stable and only indirectly involved in synaptic structure and function in mature neurons. However, recent evidence demonstrates that microtubules are dynamic and have an important role in synaptic structure, synaptic plasticity, and memory. In particular, learning induces changes in microtubule turnover and stability, and pharmacological manipulation of microtubule dynamics alters synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. These learning-induced changes in microtubules are controlled by the phosphoprotein stathmin, whose only known cellular activity is to negatively regulate microtubule formation. During the first eight hours following learning, changes in the phosphorylation of stathmin go through two phases causing biphasic shifts in microtubules stability/instability. These shifts, in turn, regulate memory formation by controlling in the second phase synaptic transport of the GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors. Improper regulation of stathmin and microtubule dynamics has been observed in aged animals and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Thus, recent work on stathmin and microtubules has identified new molecular players in the early stages of memory encoding. PMID:26211874

  4. Molecular motors are stymied by microtubule lattice defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramlich, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The microtubule surface provides the tracks that molecular motors use to transport cargo throughout the cell. Much like any surface lattice, the microtubule surface may have surface defects such as dislocations or step edges caused by missing tubulin dimers or shifts in the number of protofilaments, respectively. It is an open question as to how microtubule lattice defects affect molecular motors walking along microtubule surfaces. We used the kinesin-1 motor that walks along a single protofilament and has a short step size of only 8 nm to test how lattice defects affect transport. We created microtubule lattice defects by end-to-end annealing microtubules with different protofilament numbers and differential fluorescence labeling, creating a transition in microtubule radius at the annealed site that is directly visualizable. Surprisingly, we observed that kinesin-1 motors are significantly inhibited by protofilament shift defects. GFP-tagged kinesin-1 motors detach at the defect site during at least 70% of encounters with the defect. We find end-to-end annealed microtubules without the additional change in protofilament number at the defect site inhibit at least 50% of kinesin-1 motors at the defect, suggesting that the process of end-to-end annealing creates defects within the lattice. Our results imply that defects within the microtubule lattice can inhibit motility, and must be corrected. Our work sheds light on the biological importance of removing and correcting lattice defects, an activity known to occur by multiple methods in cells.

  5. The conserved mitotic kinase polo is regulated by phosphorylation and has preferred microtubule-associated substrates in Drosophila embryo extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, A A; Glover, D M; Sunkel, C E

    1996-01-01

    The Drosophila gene polo encodes a protein kinase required for progression through mitosis. Wild-type polo protein migrates as a tight doublet of 67 kDa which is converted to a single band by phosphatase treatment, which also inactivates the kinase. We have determined putative polo substrates in a cell-free system derived from mutant embryos. Exogenous polo protein kinase phosphorylates proteins of sizes 220 kDa, 85 kDa and 54 kDa, to a greater extent when added to extracts of polo(1)-derived embryos compared with extracts of wild-type embryos, which in both cases have been subject to mild heat treatment to inactivate endogenous kinases. Proteins of the same size are predominantly phosphorylated by the endogenous kinases present in wild-type extracts, and are either not phosphorylated or are poorly phosphorylated in extracts of polo(1)-derived embryos. We show that a specific monoclonal antibody to beta-tubulin precipitates the phosphorylated 54 kDa protein together with an associated 85 kDa protein also phosphorylated by polo protein kinase. Moreover polo binds to an 85 kDa protein which is enriched in microtubule preparations. We discuss the extent to which these in vitro phosphorylation results reflect the effects of mutations in polo on microtubule behaviour during the mitotic cycle. Images PMID:8890161

  6. The dynein regulatory complex is the nexin link and a major regulatory node in cilia and flagella

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, Thomas; Raytchev, Milen; Krell, Jeremy; Porter, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are highly conserved microtubule (MT)-based organelles with motile and sensory functions, and ciliary defects have been linked to several human diseases. The 9 + 2 structure of motile axonemes contains nine MT doublets interconnected by nexin links, which surround a central pair of singlet MTs. Motility is generated by the orchestrated activity of thousands of dynein motors, which drive interdoublet sliding. A key regulator of motor activity is the dynein regulatory complex (DRC), but detailed structural information is lacking. Using cryoelectron tomography of wild-type and mutant axonemes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we visualized the DRC in situ at molecular resolution. We present the three-dimensional structure of the DRC, including a model for its subunit organization and intermolecular connections that establish the DRC as a major regulatory node. We further demonstrate that the DRC is the nexin link, which is thought to be critical for the generation of axonemal bending. PMID:20008568

  7. The microtubule plus-end tracking protein ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN1 promotes microtubule catastrophe in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eng, Ryan Christopher; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2014-08-01

    Microtubule dynamics are critically important for plant cell development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN1 (ARK1) plays a key role in root hair tip growth by promoting microtubule catastrophe events. This destabilizing activity appears to maintain adequate free tubulin concentrations in order to permit rapid microtubule growth, which in turn is correlated with uniform tip growth. Microtubules in ark1-1 root hairs exhibited reduced catastrophe frequency and slower growth velocities, both of which were restored by low concentrations of the microtubule-destabilizing drug oryzalin. An ARK1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein expressed under its endogenous promoter localized to growing microtubule plus ends and rescued the ark1-1 root hair phenotype. Transient overexpression of ARK1-RFP (red fluorescent protein) increased microtubule catastrophe frequency. ARK1-fusion protein constructs lacking the N-terminal motor domain still labeled microtubules, suggesting the existence of a second microtubule binding domain at the C terminus of ARK1. ARK1-GFP was broadly expressed in seedlings, but mutant phenotypes were restricted to root hairs, indicating that ARK1's function is redundant in cells other than those forming root hairs. PMID:25159991

  8. The Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Protein ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN1 Promotes Microtubule Catastrophe in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Ryan Christopher; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics are critically important for plant cell development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN1 (ARK1) plays a key role in root hair tip growth by promoting microtubule catastrophe events. This destabilizing activity appears to maintain adequate free tubulin concentrations in order to permit rapid microtubule growth, which in turn is correlated with uniform tip growth. Microtubules in ark1-1 root hairs exhibited reduced catastrophe frequency and slower growth velocities, both of which were restored by low concentrations of the microtubule-destabilizing drug oryzalin. An ARK1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein expressed under its endogenous promoter localized to growing microtubule plus ends and rescued the ark1-1 root hair phenotype. Transient overexpression of ARK1-RFP (red fluorescent protein) increased microtubule catastrophe frequency. ARK1-fusion protein constructs lacking the N-terminal motor domain still labeled microtubules, suggesting the existence of a second microtubule binding domain at the C terminus of ARK1. ARK1-GFP was broadly expressed in seedlings, but mutant phenotypes were restricted to root hairs, indicating that ARK1s function is redundant in cells other than those forming root hairs. PMID:25159991

  9. Microtubules in the formation and development of the primary mesenchyme in Arbacia punctulata. I. The distribution of microtubules.

    PubMed

    Gibbins, J R; Tilney, L G; Porter, K R

    1969-04-01

    Prior to gastrulation, the microtubules in the presumptive primary mesenchyme cells appear to diverge from points (satellites) in close association with the basal body of the cilium; from here most of the microtubules extend basally down the lateral margins of the cell. As these cells begin their migration into the blastocoel, they lose their cilia and adopt a spherical form. At the center of these newly formed mesenchyme cells is a centriole on which the microtubules directly converge and from which they radiate in all directions. Later these same cells develop slender pseudopodia containing large numbers of microtubules; the pseudopodia come into contact and fuse to form a "cable" of cytoplasm. Microtubules are now distributed parallel to the long axis of the cable and parallel to the stalks which connect the cell bodies of the mesenchyme cells to the cable. Microtubules are no longer connected to the centrioles in the cell bodies. On the basis of these observations we suggest that microtubules are a morphological expression of a framework which opeartes to shape cells. Since at each stage in the developmental sequence microtubules appear to originate (or insert) on different sites in the cytoplasm, the possibility is discussed that these sites may ultimately control the distribution of the microtubules and thus the developmental sequence of form changes. PMID:5775786

  10. Doublet Production in the Development of Medieval and Modern Spanish: New Approaches to Phonolexical Duplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Darren W.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers new approaches to an old and well-known problem in the study of the development of Romance varieties: duplicate lexis or doublets. Traditional analyses of duplication are narrow in scope both in what qualifies as a doublet (the popular/learned opposition has dominated, to the exclusion of other pairs) and in channels of…

  11. A renormalizable supersymmetric SO(10) model with natural doublet-triplet splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Kang; Zhang, Da-Xin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a renormalizable supersymmetric SO(10) model where the doublet-triplet splitting problem is solved using the Dimopoulos-Wilczek mechanism. An unwanted coupling is forbidden through a filter sector. To suppress proton decay without spoiling gauge coupling unification, there is a problem in the weak doublets which requires further improvements.

  12. Loss-of-function mutations in LRRC6, a gene essential for proper axonemal assembly of inner and outer dynein arms, cause primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Kott, Esther; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Copin, Bruno; Legendre, Marie; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence; Montantin, Guy; Jeanson, Ludovic; Tamalet, Aline; Papon, Jean-Franois; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Rives, Nathalie; Mitchell, Valrie; de Blic, Jacques; Coste, Andr; Clement, Annick; Escalier, Denise; Tour, Aminata; Escudier, Estelle; Amselem, Serge

    2012-11-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a group of autosomal-recessive disorders resulting from cilia and sperm-flagella defects, which lead to respiratory infections and male infertility. Most implicated genes encode structural proteins that participate in the composition of axonemal components, such as dynein arms (DAs), that are essential for ciliary and flagellar movements; they explain the pathology in fewer than half of the affected individuals. We undertook this study to further understand the pathogenesis of PCD due to the absence of both DAs. We identified, via homozygosity mapping, an early frameshift in LRRC6, a gene that encodes a leucine-rich-repeat (LRR)-containing protein. Subsequent analyses of this gene mainly expressed in testis and respiratory cells identified biallelic mutations in several independent individuals. The situs inversus observed in two of them supports a key role for LRRC6 in embryonic nodal cilia. Study of native LRRC6 in airway epithelial cells revealed that it localizes to the cytoplasm and within cilia, whereas it is absent from cells with loss-of-function mutations, in which DA protein markers are also missing. These results are consistent with the transmission-electron-microscopy data showing the absence of both DAs in cilia or flagella from individuals with LRRC6 mutations. In spite of structural and functional similarities between LRRC6 and DNAAF1, another LRR-containing protein involved in the same PCD phenotype, the two proteins are not redundant. The evolutionarily conserved LRRC6, therefore, emerges as an additional player in DA assembly, a process that is essential for proper axoneme building and that appears to be much more complex than was previously thought. PMID:23122589

  13. Loss-of-Function Mutations in LRRC6, a Gene Essential for Proper Axonemal Assembly of Inner and Outer Dynein Arms, Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Kott, Esther; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Copin, Bruno; Legendre, Marie; Dastot-LeMoal, Florence; Montantin, Guy; Jeanson, Ludovic; Tamalet, Aline; Papon, Jean-Franois; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Rives, Nathalie; Mitchell, Valrie; deBlic, Jacques; Coste, Andr; Clement, Annick; Escalier, Denise; Tour, Aminata; Escudier, Estelle; Amselem, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a group of autosomal-recessive disorders resulting from cilia and sperm-flagella defects, which lead to respiratory infections and male infertility. Most implicated genes encode structural proteins that participate in the composition of axonemal components, such as dynein arms (DAs), that are essential for ciliary and flagellar movements; they explain the pathology in fewer than half of the affected individuals. We undertook this study to further understand the pathogenesis of PCD due to the absence of both DAs. We identified, via homozygosity mapping, an early frameshift in LRRC6, a gene that encodes a leucine-rich-repeat (LRR)-containing protein. Subsequent analyses of this gene mainly expressed in testis and respiratory cells identified biallelic mutations in several independent individuals. The situs inversus observed in two of them supports a key role for LRRC6 in embryonic nodal cilia. Study of native LRRC6 in airway epithelial cells revealed that it localizes to the cytoplasm and within cilia, whereas it is absent from cells with loss-of-function mutations, in which DA protein markers are also missing. These results are consistent with the transmission-electron-microscopy data showing the absence of both DAs in cilia or flagella from individuals with LRRC6 mutations. In spite of structural and functional similarities between LRRC6 and DNAAF1, another LRR-containing protein involved in the same PCD phenotype, the two proteins are not redundant. The evolutionarily conserved LRRC6, therefore, emerges as an additional player in DA assembly, a process that is essential for proper axoneme building and that appears to be much more complex than was previously thought. PMID:23122589

  14. The Y chromosomal fertility factor Threads in Drosophila hydei harbors a functional gene encoding an axonemal dynein beta heavy chain protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kurek, R; Reugels, A M; Glätzer, K H; Bünemann, H

    1998-01-01

    To understand the contradiction between megabase-sized lampbrush loops and putative protein encoding genes both associated with the loci of Y chromosomal fertility genes of Drosophila on the molecular level, we used PCR-mediated cloning to identify and isolate the cDNA sequence of the Y chromosomal Drosophila hydei gene DhDhc7(Y). Alignment of the sequences of the putative protein DhDhc7(Y) and the outer arm dynein beta heavy chain protein DYH2 of Tripneustes gratilla shows homology over the entire length of the protein chains. Therefore the proteins can be assumed to fulfill orthologous functions within the sperm tail axonemes of both species. Functional dynein beta heavy chain molecules, however, are necessary for the assembly and attachment of outer dynein arms within the sperm tail axoneme. Localization of DhDhc7(Y) to the fertility factor Threads, comprising at least 5.1 Mb of transcriptionally active repetitive DNA, results from an infertile Threads- mutant where large clusters of Threads specifically transcribed satellites and parts of DhDhc7(Y) encoding sequences are missing simultaneously. Consequently, the complete lack of the outer dynein arms in Threads- males most probably causes sperm immotility and hence infertility of the fly. Moreover, preliminary sequence analysis and several other features support the hypothesis that DhDhc7(Y) on the lampbrush loops Threads in D. hydei and Dhc-Yh3 on the lampbrush loops kl-5 in Drosophila melanogaster on the heterochromatic Y chromosome of both species might indeed code for orthologous dynein beta heavy chain proteins. PMID:9649526

  15. Building the Microtubule Cytoskeleton Piece by Piece.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Aco, Ray; Petry, Sabine

    2015-07-10

    The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton gives cells their shape, organizes the cellular interior, and segregates chromosomes. These functions rely on the precise arrangement of MTs, which is achieved by the coordinated action of MT-associated proteins (MAPs). We highlight the first and most important examples of how different MAP activities are combined in vitro to create an ensemble function that exceeds the simple addition of their individual activities, and how the Xenopus laevis egg extract system has been utilized as a powerful intermediate between cellular and purified systems to uncover the design principles of self-organized MT networks in the cell. PMID:25957410

  16. Self-organization of microtubules and motors.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at San Diego

    2006-01-01

    Here we introduce a model for spatio-temporal self-organization of an ensemble of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting from a generic stochastic model of inelastic polar rods with an anisotropic interaction kernel we derive a set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. At large enough mean density of rods and concentration of motors, the model describes orientational instability. We demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and (for large density and/or kernel anisotropy) asters seen in recent experiments. The corresponding phase diagram of vortexasters transitions is in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  17. Self-assembly of microtubules and motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor; Tsimring, Lev

    2005-03-01

    We derive a model describing spatio-temporal assembly of an array of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting from a stochastic model of inelastic polar rods with a generic anisotropic interaction kernel we obtain a set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. At large enough mean density of rods and concentration of motors, the model describes orientational instability. We demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and (for large density and/or kernel anisotropy) asters seen in recent experiments.

  18. Phenomenology of baryogenesis from lepton-doublet mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Bjrn; Izaguirre, Ignacio

    2015-07-01

    Mixing lepton doublets of the Standard Model can lead to lepton flavour asymmetries in the Early Universe. We present a diagrammatic representation of this recently identified source of CP violation and elaborate in detail on the correlations between the lepton flavours at different temperatures. For a model where two sterile right-handed neutrinos generate the light neutrino masses through the see-saw mechanism, the lower bound on reheat temperatures in accordance with the observed baryon asymmetry turns out to be ? 1.2 109 GeV. With three right-handed neutrinos, substantially smaller values are viable. This requires however a tuning of the Yukawa couplings, such that there are cancellations between the individual contributions to the masses of the light neutrinos.

  19. Active doublet method for measuring small changes in physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Peter M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fehler, Michael C. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Paul A. (Santa Fe, NM); Phillips, W. Scott (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Small changes in material properties of a work piece are detected by measuring small changes in elastic wave velocity and attenuation within a work piece. Active, repeatable source generate coda wave responses from a work piece, where the coda wave responses are temporally displaced. By analyzing progressive relative phase and amplitude changes between the coda wave responses as a function of elapsed time, accurate determinations of velocity and attenuation changes are made. Thus, a small change in velocity occurring within a sample region during the time periods between excitation origin times (herein called "doublets") will produce a relative delay that changes with elapsed time over some portion of the scattered waves. This trend of changing delay is easier to detect than an isolated delay based on a single arrival and provides a direct measure of elastic wave velocity changes arising from changed material properties of the work piece.

  20. Strong Electron Correlation in Photoionization of Spin-Orbit Doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernsheva, L. V.; Mnason, S. T.; Msezane, A. Z.; Radojevic, V.

    2002-05-01

    A new and explicitly many-body aspect of the "leveraging" of the spin-orbit interaction is demonstrated, spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling, which can significantly alter the photoionization cross section of a spin-orbit doublet. As an example, using a modified version of the Spin-Polarized Random-Phase-Approximation with Exchange methodology, a recently observed structure in the photoionization of Xe 3d(A. Kivimaki et al, Phys. Rev. A 63), 012716 (2000) has been explained both qualitatively and quantitatively. The structure is entirely due to this new spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling effect, which should be a general feature of inner-shell photoionization. This work was supported by NSF, NASA, DOE and ISTC.

  1. Unitarity bound in the most general two Higgs doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Yagyu, Kei

    2015-12-01

    We investigate unitarity bounds in the most general two Higgs doublet model without a discrete Z2 symmetry nor CP conservation. S-wave amplitudes for two-body elastic scatterings of Nambu-Goldstone bosons and physical Higgs bosons are calculated at high energies for all possible initial and final states (14 neutral, 8 singly-charged and 3 doubly-charged states). We obtain analytic formulae for the block-diagonalized scattering matrix by the classification of the two body scattering states using the conserved quantum numbers at high energies. Imposing the condition of perturbative unitarity to the eigenvalues of the scattering matrix, constraints on the model parameters can be obtained. We apply our results to constrain the mass range of the next-to-lightest Higgs state in the model.

  2. Warm dark matter in two Higgs doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Chakdar, Shreyashi; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2015-04-01

    We show that a neutral scalar field, σ , of two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the Standard Model incorporating the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses can be identified as a consistent warm dark matter candidate with a mass of order keV. The relic density of σ is correctly reproduced by virtue of the late decay of a right-handed neutrino N participating in the seesaw mechanism. Constraints from cosmology determine the mass and lifetime of N to be MN≈25 GeV - 20 TeV and τN≈(1 0-4-1 ) sec . These models can also explain the 3.5 keV X-ray anomaly in the extragalactic spectrum that has been recently reported in terms of the decay σ →γ γ . Future tests of these models at colliders and in astrophysical settings are outlined.

  3. Superheavy-quarkonium decays with two Higgs doublets

    SciTech Connect

    Eboli, O.J.P.; Natale, A.A.; Sima-tildeo, F.R.A.

    1989-05-01

    We study the decay modes of a S-wave superheavy quarkonium, formed by a possible fourth-generation quark in two-Higgs-doublet models. Because of the enhancement of Yukawa couplings and longitudinal weak bosons the main decays of these superheavy states will be into neutral scalar bosons H/sub i//sup 0/H/sub j//sup 0/ and a charged scalar plus a W boson. If the H/sup minus-or-plus/W/sup +- / channel is open for the psi(1/sup --/) superheavy quarkonium it will provide a quite clean signal for a charged Higgs boson. The decay of the pseudoscalar quarkonium eta(0/sup -+/) into a Z boson and one of the scalars will also be present in a large amount.

  4. Thermodynamics of dense hadronic matter in a parity doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Chihiro; Mishustin, Igor

    2010-09-15

    We study thermodynamics of nuclear matter in a two-flavored parity doublet model within the mean-field approximation. Parameters of the model are chosen to reproduce correctly the properties of the nuclear ground state. The model predicts two phase transitions in nuclear matter, a liquid-gas phase transition at normal nuclear density and a chiral transition at higher density. At finite temperature the pion decay constant exhibits a considerable reduction at intermediate values of chemical potential, which is traced back to the presence of the liquid-gas transition, and approaches zero at higher chemical potential associated with the chiral symmetry restoration. A 'transition' from meson-rich to baryon-rich matter is also discussed.

  5. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blinov, Nikita; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim

    2015-07-21

    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  6. Search for multiple chiral doublets in rhodium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, J.; Sagawa, H.; Zhang, S. Q.; Yao, J. M.; Zhang, Y.; Meng, J.

    2008-02-15

    The deformation in rhodium isotopes is investigated using adiabatic and configuration-fixed constrained triaxial relativistic mean field (RMF) approaches. The triaxial deformations are found in the ground states of {sup 102,104,106,108,110}Rh, which is consistent with triaxial Skyrme Hartree-Fock calculations. Several minima with triaxial deformation in {sup 104,106,108,110}Rh are obtained by the configuration-fixed constrained calculations. The corresponding configurations are characterized by the quantum numbers |nljm> obtained by transforming wave functions from a Cartesian basis to a spherical basis. The possible existence of multiple chiral doublets (M{chi}D) is demonstrated in {sup 104,106,108,110}Rh isotopes, based on different particle-hole configurations and triaxial deformations.

  7. Theory and phenomenology of two-Higgs-doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Ferreira, P. M.; Lavoura, L.; Rebelo, M. N.; Sher, Marc; Silva, João P.

    2012-07-01

    We discuss theoretical and phenomenological aspects of two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the Standard Model. In general, these extensions have scalar mediated flavour changing neutral currents which are strongly constrained by experiment. Various strategies are discussed to control these flavour changing scalar currents and their phenomenological consequences are analysed. In particular, scenarios with natural flavour conservation are investigated, including the so-called type I and type II models as well as lepton-specific and inert models. Type III models are then discussed, where scalar flavour changing neutral currents are present at tree level, but are suppressed by either a specific ansatz for the Yukawa couplings or by the introduction of family symmetries leading to a natural suppression mechanism. We also consider the phenomenology of charged scalars in these models. Next we turn to the role of symmetries in the scalar sector. We discuss the six symmetry-constrained scalar potentials and their extension into the fermion sector. The vacuum structure of the scalar potential is analysed, including a study of the vacuum stability conditions on the potential and the renormalization-group improvement of these conditions is also presented. The stability of the tree level minimum of the scalar potential in connection with electric charge conservation and its behaviour under CP is analysed. The question of CP violation is addressed in detail, including the cases of explicit CP violation and spontaneous CP violation. We present a detailed study of weak basis invariants which are odd under CP. These invariants allow for the possibility of studying the CP properties of any two-Higgs-doublet model in an arbitrary Higgs basis. A careful study of spontaneous CP violation is presented, including an analysis of the conditions which have to be satisfied in order for a vacuum to violate CP. We present minimal models of CP violation where the vacuum phase is sufficient to generate a complex CKM matrix, which is at present a requirement for any realistic model of spontaneous CP violation.

  8. Microtubule distribution in gravitropic protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.; Hartmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    Tip cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic (grow upward). They possess a unique longitudinal zonation: (1) a tip group of amylochloroplasts in the apical dome, (2) a plastid-free zone, (3) a zone of significant plastid sedimentation, and (4) a zone of mostly non-sedimenting plastids. Immunofluorescence of vertical cells showed microtubules distributed throughout the cytoplasm in a mostly axial orientation extending through all zones. Optical sectioning revealed a close spatial association between microtubules and plastids. A majority (two thirds) of protonemata gravistimulated for > 20 min had a higher density of microtubules near the lower flank compared to the upper flank in the plastid-free zone. This apparent enrichment of microtubules occurred just proximal to sedimented plastids and near the part of the tip that presumably elongates more to produce curvature. Fewer than 5% of gravistimulated protonemata had an enrichment in microtubules near the upper flank, whereas 14% of vertical protonemata were enriched near one of the side walls. Oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM) disrupted microtubules, gravitropism, and normal tip growth and zonation, but did not prevent plastid sedimentation. We hypothesize that a microtubule redistribution plays a role in gravitropism in this protonema. This appears to be the first report of an effect of gravity on microtubule distribution in plants.

  9. A new directionality tool for assessing microtubule pattern alterations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhua; Ralston, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    The cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin and intermediate filaments) has a cell type-specific spatial organization that is essential and reflects cell health. We are interested in understanding how changes in the organization of microtubules contribute to muscle diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The grid-like immunofluorescence microtubule pattern of fast-twitch muscle fibers lends itself well to visual assessment. The more complicated pattern of other fibers does not. Furthermore, visual assessment is not quantitative. Therefore we have developed a robust software program for detecting and quantitating microtubule directionality. Such a tool was necessary because existing methods focus mainly on local image features and are not well suited for microtubules. Our tool, TeDT, is based on the Haralick texture method and takes into account both local and global features with more weight on the latter. The results are expressed in a graphic form responsive to subtle variations in microtubule distribution, while a numerical score allows quantitation of directionality. Furthermore, the results are not affected by imaging conditions or post-imaging procedures. TeDT successfully assesses test images and microtubules in fast-twitch fibers of wild-type and mdx mice (a model for DMD); TeDT also identifies and quantitates microtubule directionality in slow-twitch fibers, in the fibers of young animals, and in other mouse models which could not be assessed visually. TeDT might also contribute to directionality assessments of other cytoskeletal components. PMID:24497496

  10. Cytoplasmic dynein: tension generation on microtubules and the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Nandini; Wu, Jun; Dickinson, Richard B; Lele, Tanmay P

    2013-03-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule dependent motor protein that is central to vesicle transport, cell division and organelle positioning. Recent studies suggest that dynein can generate significant pulling forces on intracellular structures as it motors along microtubules. In this review, we discuss how dynein-generated pulling forces position the nucleus and the centrosome. PMID:23646068

  11. Molecular and Mechanical Causes of Microtubule Catastrophe and Aging.

    PubMed

    Zakharov, Pavel; Gudimchuk, Nikita; Voevodin, Vladimir; Tikhonravov, Alexander; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L

    2015-12-15

    Tubulin polymers, microtubules, can switch abruptly from the assembly to shortening. These infrequent transitions, termed "catastrophes", affect numerous cellular processes but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We approached this complex stochastic system using advanced coarse-grained molecular dynamics modeling of tubulin-tubulin interactions. Unlike in previous simplified models of dynamic microtubules, the catastrophes in this model arise owing to fluctuations in the composition and conformation of a growing microtubule tip, most notably in the number of protofilament curls. In our model, dynamic evolution of the stochastic microtubule tip configurations over a long timescale, known as the system's "aging", gives rise to the nonexponential distribution of microtubule lifetimes, consistent with experiment. We show that aging takes place in the absence of visible changes in the microtubule wall or tip, as this complex molecular-mechanical system evolves slowly and asymptotically toward the steady-state level of the catastrophe-promoting configurations. This new, to our knowledge, theoretical basis will assist detailed mechanistic investigations of the mechanisms of action of different microtubule-binding proteins and drugs, thereby enabling accurate control over the microtubule dynamics to treat various pathologies. PMID:26682815

  12. Microtubule-severing enzymes at the cutting edge

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, David J.; Ross, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    ATP-dependent severing of microtubules was first reported in Xenopus laevis egg extracts in 1991. Two years later this observation led to the purification of the first known microtubule-severing enzyme, katanin. Katanin homologs have now been identified throughout the animal kingdom and in plants. Moreover, members of two closely related enzyme subfamilies, spastin and fidgetin, have been found to sever microtubules and might act alongside katanins in some contexts (Roll-Mecak and McNally, 2010; Yu et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2007). Over the past few years, it has become clear that microtubule-severing enzymes contribute to a wide range of cellular activities including mitosis and meiosis, morphogenesis, cilia biogenesis and disassembly, and migration. Thus, this group of enzymes is revealing itself to be among the most important of the microtubule regulators. This Commentary focuses on our growing understanding of how microtubule-severing enzymes contribute to the organization and dynamics of diverse microtubule arrays, as well as the structural and biophysical characteristics that afford them the unique capacity to catalyze the removal of tubulin from the interior microtubule lattice. Our goal is to provide a broader perspective, focusing on a limited number of particularly informative, representative and/or timely findings. PMID:22595526

  13. Leading at the Front: How EB Proteins Regulate Microtubule Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Taviare

    2012-02-01

    Microtubules are the most rigid of the cytoskeletal filaments, they provide the cell's scaffolding, form the byways on which motor proteins transport intracellular cargo and reorganize to form the mitotic spindle when the cell needs to divide. These biopolymers are composed of alpha and beta tubulin monomers that create hollow cylindrical nanotubes with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 17 nm. At steady state concentrations, microtubules undergo a process known as dynamic instability. During dynamic instability the length of individual microtubules is changing as the filament alternates between periods of growth to shrinkage (catastrophe) and shrinkage to growth (rescue). This process can be enhanced or diminished with the addition of microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). MAPs are microtubule binding proteins that stabilize, destabilize, or nucleate microtubules. We will discuss the effects of the stabilizing end-binding proteins (EB1, EB2 and EB3), on microtubule dynamics observed in vitro. The EBs are a unique family of MAPs known to tip track and enhance microtubule growth by stabilizing the ends. This is a different mechanism than those employed by structural MAPs such as tau or MAP4.

  14. Two Drosophila beta tubulin isoforms are not functionally equivalent

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We have tested the functional capacity of different beta tubulin isoforms in vivo by expressing beta 3-tubulin either in place of or in addition to beta 2-tubulin in the male germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. The testes-specific isoform, beta 2, is conserved relative to major metazoan beta tubulins, while the developmentally regulated isoform, beta 3, is considerably divergent in sequence. beta 3-tubulin is normally expressed in discrete subsets of cells at specific times during development, but is not expressed in the male germ line. beta 2-Tubulin is normally expressed only in the postmitotic germ cells of the testis, and is required for all microtubule-based functions in these cells. The normal functions of beta 2-tubulin include assembly of meiotic spindles, axonemes, and at least two classes of cytoplasmic microtubules, including those associated with the differentiating mitochondrial derivatives. A hybrid gene was constructed in which 5' sequences from the beta 2 gene were joined to protein coding and 3' sequences of the beta 3 gene. Drosophila transformed with the hybrid gene express beta 3-tubulin in the postmitotic male germ cells. When expressed in the absence of the normal testis isoform, beta 3-tubulin supports assembly of one class of functional cytoplasmic microtubules. In such males the microtubules associated with the membranes of the mitochondrial derivatives are assembled and normal mitochondrial derivative elongation occurs, but axoneme assembly and other microtubule-mediated processes, including meiosis and nuclear shaping, do not occur. These data show that beta 3 tubulin can support only a subset of the multiple functions normally performed by beta 2, and also suggest that the microtubules associated with the mitochondrial derivatives mediate their elongation. When beta 3 is coexpressed in the male germ line with beta 2, at any level, spindles and all classes of cytoplasmic microtubules are assembled and function normally. However, when beta 3-tubulin exceeds 20% of the total testis beta tubulin pool, it acts in a dominant way to disrupt normal axoneme assembly. In the axonemes assembled in such males, the doublet tubules acquire some of the morphological characteristics of the singlet microtubules of the central pair and accessory tubules. These data therefore unambiguously demonstrate that the Drosophila beta tubulin isoforms beta 2 and beta 3 are not equivalent in intrinsic functional capacity, and furthermore show that assembly of the doublet tubules of the axoneme imposes different constraints on beta tubulin function than does assembly of singlet microtubules. PMID:2118141

  15. Assembly and positioning of microtubule asters in microfabricated chambers.

    PubMed

    Holy, T E; Dogterom, M; Yurke, B; Leibler, S

    1997-06-10

    Intracellular organization depends on a variety of molecular assembly processes; while some of these have been studied in simplified cell-free systems, others depend on the confined geometry of cells and cannot be reconstructed using bulk techniques. To study the latter processes in vitro, we fabricated microscopic chambers that simulate the closed environment of cells. We used these chambers to study the positioning of microtubule asters. Microtubule assembly alone, without the action of molecular motors, is sufficient to position asters. Asters with short microtubules move toward the position expected from symmetry; however, once the microtubules become long enough to buckle, symmetry is broken. Calculations and experiments show that the bending-energy landscape has multiple minima. Microtubule dynamic instability modifies the landscape over time and allows asters to explore otherwise inaccessible configurations. PMID:9177199

  16. Target Finding Mechanism of Microtubules in a Confined Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra

    2007-03-01

    Discovery of a non-equilibrium dynamic of microtubules, called dynamic instability, raised this question: is stochastic polymerization dynamic of microtubules an advantage in the process of finding a chromosome as a target? Previous studies showed that compared to usual reversible polymerization, dynamic instability of microtubules with decreasing length distribution reduced the time required to find a target by several order of magnitude [1]. Dynamic Equations for growing and shrinking microtubules in a confined geometry is theoretically modeled by Govinden and Spillman [2]. This work calculates the target finding time for microtubules with exponentially increasing length distribution in a confined geometry. The efficiency of target finding mechanism based upon different dynamical parameters is discussed. [1] Holy TE, Leibler S. 1994, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5682. [2] Govindan B, Spillman W. 2004, Phys. Rev. E 70, 032901.

  17. Kinetic model for colchicine inhibition of microtubule assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sternlicht, H.; Ringel, I.; Szasz, J.

    1980-10-01

    Colchicine is a potent drug used to probe microtubule dependent processes. We have recently shown that substoichiometric concentrations of colchicine-tubulin complex (CD), a 1:1 tight binding complex of drug with tubulin, copolymerizes with tubulin to form microtubule copolymers. The affinity of the microtubule ends for tublin decreased as the CD mole fraction in the microtubule increased. Mole fraction ratios as small as 1 CD to approx. 50 to 100 tubulins in the copolymers were accompanied by a significant change in binding affinities and polymerization rates. We have further extended our investigation of the CD-tubulin copolymerization reaction. A kinetic model was derived which relates the composition of the microtubule copolymer to the composition of the reaction mixture. This model allowed a predictive correlation to be made between copolymer composition and the extent of assembly inhibition.

  18. Assembly and Positioning of Microtubule Asters in Microfabricated Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holy, Timothy E.; Dogterom, Marileen; Yurke, Bernard; Leibler, Stanislas

    1997-06-01

    Intracellular organization depends on a variety of molecular assembly processes; while some of these have been studied in simplified cell-free systems, others depend on the confined geometry of cells and cannot be reconstructed using bulk techniques. To study the latter processes in vitro, we fabricated microscopic chambers that simulate the closed environment of cells. We used these chambers to study the positioning of microtubule asters. Microtubule assembly alone, without the action of molecular motors, is sufficient to position asters. Asters with short microtubules move toward the position expected from symmetry; however, once the microtubules become long enough to buckle, symmetry is broken. Calculations and experiments show that the bending-energy landscape has multiple minima. Microtubule dynamic instability modifies the landscape over time and allows asters to explore otherwise inaccessible configurations.

  19. Structural basis for microtubule binding and release by dynein

    PubMed Central

    Zou, S.; Huang, J.; Reck-Peterson, S. L.; Leschziner, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based motor required for intracellular transport and cell division. Its movement involves coupling cycles of track binding and release with cycles of force-generating nucleotide hydrolysis. How this is accomplished given the ~25 nm separating dyneins track- and nucleotide-binding sites is not understood. Here, we present a sub-nanometer-resolution structure of dyneins microtubule-binding domain bound to microtubules by cryo-electron microscopy that was used to generate a pseudo-atomic model of the complex with molecular dynamics. We identified large rearrangements triggered by track binding and specific interactions, confirmed by mutagenesis and single molecule motility assays, which tune dyneins affinity for microtubules. Our results provide a molecular model for how dyneins binding to microtubules is communicated to the rest of the motor. PMID:22997337

  20. Reconstituting the kinetochoremicrotubule interface: what, why, and how.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Bungo; Biggins, Sue

    2012-06-01

    The kinetochore is the proteinaceous complex that governs the movement of duplicated chromosomes by interacting with spindle microtubules during mitosis and meiosis. Faithful chromosome segregation requires that kinetochores form robust load-bearing attachments to the tips of dynamic spindle microtubules, correct microtubule attachment errors, and delay the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes have made proper attachments. To understand how this macromolecular machine operates to segregate duplicated chromosomes with exquisite accuracy, it is critical to reconstitute and study kinetochoremicrotubule interactions in vitro using defined components. Here, we review the current status of reconstitution as well as recent progress in understanding the microtubule-binding functions of kinetochores in vivo. PMID:22289864

  1. Simulation of Second Harmonic Generation from Heterogeneous Microtubule Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowitz, Noah; Yu, Che-Hang; Needleman, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Second harmonic generation imaging is a coherent nonlinear microscopy with contrast arising from certain asymmetric endogenous structures in cells, including spindle microtubules. As a second-order nonlinear optical process, SHG requires a noncentrosymmetric macromolecular organization to generate signal, so it can be used as a measure of microtubule polarity within spindles or other microtubule structures. We developed a simulation of SHG microscopy accounting for 3-dimensional orientation and circularly polarized excitation in order to quantify the dependence of SHG signal on microtubule density, spacing, polarity, and rotational order. SHG can be used to assess spindle polarity in living cells using simultaneous ratio imaging with two-photon excited fluorescence from labeled tubulin. The results from simulation are used to quantify microtubule polarity from SHG and TPEF images of spindles in the one-cell C. elegans embryo and Xenopus oocyte extract.

  2. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulinβ and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells. PMID:26039484

  3. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulinβ and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells. PMID:26039484

  4. Tensile stress stimulates microtubule outgrowth in living cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaverina, Irina; Krylyshkina, Olga; Beningo, Karen; Anderson, Kurt; Wang, Yu-Li; Small, J. Victor

    2002-01-01

    Cell motility is driven by the sum of asymmetric traction forces exerted on the substrate through adhesion foci that interface with the actin cytoskeleton. Establishment of this asymmetry involves microtubules, which exert a destabilising effect on adhesion foci via targeting events. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a mechano-sensing mechanism that signals microtubule polymerisation and guidance of the microtubules towards adhesion sites under increased stress. Stress was applied either by manipulating the body of cells moving on glass with a microneedle or by stretching a flexible substrate that cells were migrating on. We propose a model for this mechano-sensing phenomenon whereby microtubule polymerisation is stimulated and guided through the interaction of a microtubule tip complex with actin filaments under tension.

  5. Yeast proteins associated with microtubules in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, G; Louie, K A; Botstein, D

    1992-01-01

    Conditions were established for the self-assembly of milligram amounts of purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae tubulin. Microtubules assembled with pure yeast tubulin were not stabilized by taxol; hybrid microtubules containing substoichiometric amounts of bovine tubulin were stabilized. Yeast microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) were identified on affinity matrices made from hybrid and all-bovine microtubules. About 25 yeast MAPs were isolated. The amino-terminal sequences of several of these were determined: three were known metabolic enzymes, two were GTP-binding proteins (including the product of the SAR1 gene), and three were novel proteins not found in sequence databases. Affinity-purified antisera were generated against synthetic peptides corresponding to two of the apparently novel proteins (38 and 50 kDa). Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that both these proteins colocalize with intra- and extranuclear microtubules in vivo. Images PMID:1348005

  6. Intrinsically disordered tubulin tails: complex tuners of microtubule functions?

    PubMed

    Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are essential cellular polymers assembled from tubulin heterodimers. The tubulin dimer consists of a compact folded globular core and intrinsically disordered C-terminal tails. The tubulin tails form a lawn of densely grafted, negatively charged, flexible peptides on the exterior of the microtubule, potentially akin to brush polymers in the field of synthetic materials. These tails are hotspots for conserved, chemically complex posttranslational modifications that have the potential to act in a combinatorial fashion to regulate microtubule polymer dynamics and interactions with microtubule effectors, giving rise to a "tubulin code". In this review, I summarize our current knowledge of the enzymes that generate the astonishing tubulin chemical diversity observed in cells and describe recent advances in deciphering the roles of tubulin C-terminal tails and their posttranslational modifications in regulating the activity of molecular motors and microtubule associated proteins. Lastly, I outline the promises, challenges and potential pitfalls of deciphering the tubulin code. PMID:25307498

  7. Ubiquitin is a component of the microtubule network.

    PubMed Central

    Murti, K G; Smith, H T; Fried, V A

    1988-01-01

    Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to study the intracellular localization of ubiquitin. Baby hamster kidney cells (BHK cells) and several other cell lines were probed with a well characterized monoclonal antibody to ubiquitin. The antibody stained a complex cellular structure that we identified as the microtubule network. The anti-ubiquitin antibody bound to the microtubule network at all stages of the cell cycle, and we showed that the apparent association of ubiquitin with the microtubule network is not an artifact of crosslinking of free ubiquitin to the cell structure. Immunoblot procedures demonstrated that tubulin itself was not ubiquitinated. We propose that ubiquitin and/or ubiquitin-protein conjugates are associated with those networks as a new class of microtubule-associated protein. The targeting of ubiquitin to specific sites within the cell by its association with the microtubule network may regulate some of the functions of ubiquitin. Images PMID:2834729

  8. Anisotropic Elastic Network Modeling of Entire Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Deriu, Marco A.; Soncini, Monica; Orsi, Mario; Patel, Mishal; Essex, Jonathan W.; Montevecchi, Franco M.; Redaelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Microtubules are supramolecular structures that make up the cytoskeleton and strongly affect the mechanical properties of the cell. Within the cytoskeleton filaments, the microtubule (MT) exhibits by far the highest bending stiffness. Bending stiffness depends on the mechanical properties and intermolecular interactions of the tubulin dimers (the MT building blocks). Computational molecular modeling has the potential for obtaining quantitative insights into this area. However, to our knowledge, standard molecular modeling techniques, such as molecular dynamics (MD) and normal mode analysis (NMA), are not yet able to simulate large molecular structures like the MTs; in fact, their possibilities are normally limited to much smaller protein complexes. In this work, we developed a multiscale approach by merging the modeling contribution from MD and NMA. In particular, MD simulations were used to refine the molecular conformation and arrangement of the tubulin dimers inside the MT lattice. Subsequently, NMA was used to investigate the vibrational properties of MTs modeled as an elastic network. The coarse-grain model here developed can describe systems of hundreds of interacting tubulin monomers (corresponding to up to 1,000,000 atoms). In particular, we were able to simulate coarse-grain models of entire MTs, with lengths up to 350 nm. A quantitative mechanical investigation was performed; from the bending and stretching modes, we estimated MT macroscopic properties such as bending stiffness, Young modulus, and persistence length, thus allowing a direct comparison with experimental data. PMID:20923653

  9. Branching microtubule nucleation in Xenopus egg extracts mediated by augmin and TPX2

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Sabine; Groen, Aaron C.; Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The microtubules that comprise mitotic spindles in animal cells are nucleated at centrosomes and by spindle assembly factors that are activated in the vicinity of chromatin. Indirect evidence also has suggested that microtubules might be nucleated from pre-existing microtubules throughout the spindle, but this process has not been observed directly. Here, we demonstrate microtubule nucleation from the sides of existing microtubules in meiotic Xenopus egg extracts. Daughter microtubules grow at a low branch angle and with the same polarity as mother filaments. Branching microtubule nucleation requires gamma-tubulin and augmin and is stimulated by GTP-bound Ran and its effector TPX2, factors previously implicated in chromatin-stimulated nucleation. Because of the rapid amplification of microtubule numbers and the preservation of microtubule polarity, microtubule-dependent microtubule nucleation is well suited for spindle assembly and maintenance. PMID:23415226

  10. Ubiquitin editing enzyme UCH L1 and microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bheda, Anjali; Gullapalli, Anuradha; Caplow, Michael; Pagano, Joseph S.; Shackelford, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are essential components of the cytoskeleton and are involved in many aspects of cell responses including cell division, migration, and intracellular signal transduction. Among other factors, post-translational modifications play a significant role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin-editing enzyme UCH L1, abundant expression of which is normally restricted to brain tissue, is also a part of the microtubule network in a variety of transformed cells. Moreover, during mitosis, endogenous UCH L1 is expressed and tightly associated with the mitotic spindle through all stages of M phase, suggesting that UCH L1 is involved in regulation of microtubule dynamics. Indeed, addition of recombinant UCH L1 to the reaction of tubulin polymerization in vitro had an inhibitory effect on microtubule formation. Unexpectedly, western blot analysis of tubulin fractions after polymerization revealed the presence of a specific ?50 kDa band of UCH L1 (not the normal ?25 kDa) in association with microtubules, but not with free tubulin. In addition, we show that along with 25 kDa UCH L1, endogenous high molecular weight UCH L1 complexes exist in cells, and that levels of 50 kDa UCH L1 complexes are increasing in cells during mitosis. Finally, we provide evidence that ubiquitination is involved in tubulin polymerization: the presence of ubiquitin during polymerization in vitro by itself inhibited microtubule formation and enhanced the inhibitory effect of added UCH L1. the inhibitory effects of UCH L1 correlate with an increase in ubiquitination of microtubule components. Since besides being a deubiquitinating enzyme, UCH L1 as a dimer has also been shown to exhibit ubiquitin ligase activity, we discuss the possibility that the ?50 kDa UCH L1 observed is a dimer which prevents microtubule formation through ubiquitination of tubulins and/or microtubule-associated proteins. PMID:20160478

  11. Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Ian A.; Rane, Parag S.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838

  12. Dynamics and Organization of Cortical Microtubules as Revealed by Superresolution Structured Illumination Microscopy1[W

    PubMed Central

    Komis, George; Mistrik, Martin; Šamajová, Olga; Doskočilová, Anna; Ovečka, Miroslav; Illés, Peter; Bartek, Jiri; Šamaj, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Plants employ acentrosomal mechanisms to organize cortical microtubule arrays essential for cell growth and differentiation. Using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) adopted for the optimal documentation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyl epidermal cells, dynamic cortical microtubules labeled with green fluorescent protein fused to the microtubule-binding domain of the mammalian microtubule-associated protein MAP4 and with green fluorescent protein-fused to the alpha tubulin6 were comparatively recorded in wild-type Arabidopsis plants and in the mitogen-activated protein kinase mutant mpk4 possessing the former microtubule marker. The mpk4 mutant exhibits extensive microtubule bundling, due to increased abundance and reduced phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein MAP65-1, thus providing a very useful genetic tool to record intrabundle microtubule dynamics at the subdiffraction level. SIM imaging revealed nano-sized defects in microtubule bundling, spatially resolved microtubule branching and release, and finally allowed the quantification of individual microtubules within cortical bundles. Time-lapse SIM imaging allowed the visualization of subdiffraction, short-lived excursions of the microtubule plus end, and dynamic instability behavior of both ends during free, intrabundle, or microtubule-templated microtubule growth and shrinkage. Finally, short, rigid, and nondynamic microtubule bundles in the mpk4 mutant were observed to glide along the parent microtubule in a tip-wise manner. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential of SIM for superresolution time-lapse imaging of plant cells, showing unprecedented details accompanying microtubule dynamic organization. PMID:24686112

  13. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis (Reptilia: Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Gribbins, Kevin M; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Siegel, Dustin S; Venable, Katherine J; Hester, Georgia L; Elsey, Ruth M

    2011-11-01

    This study details the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. American Alligator spermatozoa are filiform and slightly curved. The acrosome is tapered at its anterior end and surrounded by the acrosome vesicle and an underlying subacrosomal cone, which rests just cephalic to the nuclear rostrum. One endonuclear canal extends from the subacrosomal cone through the rostral nucleus and deep into the nuclear body. The neck region separates the nucleus and midpiece and houses the proximal centriole and pericentriolar material. The distal centriole extends through the midpiece and has 9 × 3 sets of peripheral microtubules with a central doublet pair within the axoneme that is surrounded by a dense sheath. The midpiece is composed of seven to nine rings of mitochondria, which have combinations of concentrically and septate cristae. The principal piece has a dense fibrous sheath that surrounds an axoneme with a 9 + 2 microtubule arrangement. The sheath becomes significantly reduced in size caudally within the principal piece and is completely missing from the endpiece. Dense peripheral fibers, especially those associated with microtubule doublets 3 and 8, penetrate into the anterior portion of the principal piece axoneme. The data reported here hypothesize that sperm morphology is highly conserved in Crocodylia; however, specific morphological differences can exist between species. PMID:21688296

  14. Oxaliplatin-Based Doublets Versus Cisplatin or Carboplatin-Based Doublets in the First-Line Treatment of Advanced Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Xiao, Jing; Yang, Yifan; Cao, Bangwei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The efficacy and toxicity of oxaliplatin-based versus carboplatin/cisplatin-based doublets in patients with previously untreated nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been compared. We searched published randomized controlled trials of oxaliplatin-based or carboplatin/cisplatin-based medications for NSCLC. A fixed effect model was used to analyze outcomes which were expressed as the hazard ratio for overall survival (OS) and time-to-progression (TTP), relative risk, overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), 1-year survival, and the odds ratios for toxicity were pooled. Eight studies involving 1047 patients were included. ORR tended to favor carboplatin/cisplatin but the effect was not significantly different compared with oxaliplatin doublets (P?=?0.05). The effects of OS, TTP, DCR, and 1-year survival between the 2 regimens were comparable. Oxaliplatin doublets caused less grade 3/4 leukocytopenia and neutropenia. Grades 3 to 4 nonhematological toxicities and grades 3 to 4 hematological toxicities showed little difference between oxaliplatin doublets and carboplatin/cisplatin doublets. Meta-analysis shows that the efficacy of oxaliplatin doublets is similar to that of other currently used platinum doublets. The lack of significant differences in the statistic analysis does not preclude genuine differences in clinical efficacy, because higher diversities between the studies covered differences between the 2 groups in each study. Oxaliplatin combined with a third-generation agent should be considered for use as alternative chemotherapy in patients who cannot tolerate conventional platinum-based regimens because the toxicity profile is much more favorable. PMID:26166081

  15. Dynamics and length distribution of microtubules under force and confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelinski, Bjrn; Mller, Nina; Kierfeld, Jan

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the microtubule polymerization dynamics with catastrophe and rescue events for three different confinement scenarios, which mimic typical cellular environments: (i) The microtubule is confined by rigid and fixed walls, (ii) it grows under constant force, and (iii) it grows against an elastic obstacle with a linearly increasing force. We use realistic catastrophe models and analyze the microtubule dynamics, the resulting microtubule length distributions, and force generation by stochastic and mean field calculations; in addition, we perform stochastic simulations. Freely growing microtubules exhibit a phase of bounded growth with finite microtubule length and a phase of unbounded growth. The main results for the three confinement scenarios are as follows: (i) In confinement by fixed rigid walls, we find exponentially decreasing or increasing stationary microtubule length distributions instead of bounded or unbounded phases, respectively. We introduce a realistic model for wall-induced catastrophes and investigate the behavior of the average length as a function of microtubule growth parameters. (ii) Under a constant force, the boundary between bounded and unbounded growth is shifted to higher tubulin concentrations and rescue rates. The critical force fc for the transition from unbounded to bounded growth increases logarithmically with tubulin concentration and the rescue rate, and it is smaller than the stall force. (iii) For microtubule growth against an elastic obstacle, the microtubule length and polymerization force can be regulated by microtubule growth parameters. For zero rescue rate, we find that the average polymerization force depends logarithmically on the tubulin concentration and is always smaller than the stall force in the absence of catastrophes and rescues. For a nonzero rescue rate, we find a sharply peaked steady-state length distribution, which is tightly controlled by microtubule growth parameters. The corresponding average microtubule length self-organizes such that the average polymerization force equals the critical force fc for the transition from unbounded to bounded growth. We also investigate the force dynamics if growth parameters are perturbed in dilution experiments. Finally, we show the robustness of our results against changes of catastrophe models and load distribution factors.

  16. Protein-Protein Interactions between Intermediate Chains and the Docking Complex of Chlamydomonas Flagellar Outer Arm Dynein

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Takahiro; Owa, Mikito; King, Stephen M.; Kamiya, Ritsu; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Outer arm dynein (OAD) is bound to specific loci on outer-doublet-microtubules by interactions at two sites: via intermediate chain 1 (IC1) and the outer dynein arm docking complex (ODA-DC). Studies using Chlamydomonas mutants have suggested that the individual sites have rather weak affinities for microtubules, and therefore strong OAD attachment to microtubules is achieved by their cooperation. To test this idea, we examined interactions between IC1, IC2 (another intermediate chain) and ODA-DC using recombinant proteins. Recombinant IC1 and IC2 were found to form a 1:1 complex, and this complex associated with ODA-DC in vitro. Binding of IC1 to mutant axonemes revealed that there are specific binding sites for IC1. From these data, we propose a novel model of OAD-outer doublet association. PMID:23747306

  17. MTR120/KIAA1383, a novel microtubule-associated protein, promotes microtubule stability and ensures cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ka-wing; Leung, Justin Wai-chung; Li, Yujing; Wang, Wenqi; Feng, Lin; Ma, Wenbin; Liu, Dan; Songyang, Zhou; Chen, Junjie

    2013-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are the major constituent of the mitotic apparatus. Deregulation of MT dynamics leads to chromosome missegregation, cytokinesis failure and improper inheritance of genetic materials. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of KIAA1383/MTR120 (microtubule regulator 120 kDa) as a novel MT-associated protein. We found that MTR120 localizes to stabilized MTs during interphase and to the mitotic apparatus during mitosis. MTR120 overexpression results in MT bundling and acetylation. In vitro, purified MTR120 protein binds to and bundles preassembled MTs. Moreover, depletion of MTR120 by RNA interference leads to cytokinesis failure and polyploidy. These phenotypes can be rescued by wild-type MTR120 but not by the MT non-binding mutant of MTR120. Together, these data suggest that MTR120 is a novel MT-associated protein that directly stabilizes MTs and hence ensures the fidelity of cell division. PMID:23264731

  18. Centlein, a novel microtubule-associated protein stabilizing microtubules and involved in neurite formation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhenli; Yin, Huilong; Wang, Pan; Gao, Juntao; Yuan, Li

    2016-04-01

    We have previously reported that the centriolar protein centlein functions as a molecular link between C-Nap1 and Cep68 to maintain centrosome cohesion [1]. In this study, we identified centlein as a novel microtubule-associated protein (MAP), directly binding to purified microtubules (MTs) via its longest coiled-coil domain. Overexpression of centlein caused profound nocodazole- and cold-resistant MT bundles, which also relied on its MT-binding domain. siRNA-mediated centlein depletion resulted in a significant reduction in tubulin acetylation level and overall fluorescence intensity of cytoplasmic MT acetylation. Centlein was further characterized in neurons. We found that centlein overexpression inhibited neurite formation in retinoic acid (RA)-induced SH-SY5Y and N2a cells. Taken together, we propose that centlein is involved in MT stability and neuritogenesis in vivo. PMID:26915804

  19. Depletion force induced collective motion of microtubules driven by kinesin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Mahmot, Bulbul; Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Farhana, Tamanna Ishrat; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Sada, Kazuki; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Collective motion is a fascinating example of coordinated behavior of self-propelled objects, which is often associated with the formation of large scale patterns. Nowadays, the in vitro gliding assay is being considered a model system to experimentally investigate various aspects of group behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. In the in vitro gliding assay, cytoskeletal filaments F-actin or microtubules are driven by the surface immobilized associated biomolecular motors myosin or dynein respectively. Although the F-actin/myosin or microtubule/dynein system was found to be promising in understanding the collective motion and pattern formation by self-propelled objects, the most widely used biomolecular motor system microtubule/kinesin could not be successfully employed so far in this regard. Failure in exhibiting collective motion by kinesin driven microtubules is attributed to the intrinsic properties of kinesin, which was speculated to affect the behavior of individual gliding microtubules and mutual interactions among them. In this work, for the first time, we have demonstrated the collective motion of kinesin driven microtubules by regulating the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules, by employing a depletion force among them. Proper regulation of the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules through the employment of the depletion force was found to allow the exhibition of collective motion and stream pattern formation by the microtubules. This work offers a universal means for demonstrating the collective motion using the in vitro gliding assay of biomolecular motor systems and will help obtain a meticulous understanding of the fascinating coordinated behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects.Collective motion is a fascinating example of coordinated behavior of self-propelled objects, which is often associated with the formation of large scale patterns. Nowadays, the in vitro gliding assay is being considered a model system to experimentally investigate various aspects of group behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. In the in vitro gliding assay, cytoskeletal filaments F-actin or microtubules are driven by the surface immobilized associated biomolecular motors myosin or dynein respectively. Although the F-actin/myosin or microtubule/dynein system was found to be promising in understanding the collective motion and pattern formation by self-propelled objects, the most widely used biomolecular motor system microtubule/kinesin could not be successfully employed so far in this regard. Failure in exhibiting collective motion by kinesin driven microtubules is attributed to the intrinsic properties of kinesin, which was speculated to affect the behavior of individual gliding microtubules and mutual interactions among them. In this work, for the first time, we have demonstrated the collective motion of kinesin driven microtubules by regulating the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules, by employing a depletion force among them. Proper regulation of the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules through the employment of the depletion force was found to allow the exhibition of collective motion and stream pattern formation by the microtubules. This work offers a universal means for demonstrating the collective motion using the in vitro gliding assay of biomolecular motor systems and will help obtain a meticulous understanding of the fascinating coordinated behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02213d

  20. Does usnic acid affect microtubules in human cancer cells?

    PubMed

    O'Neill, M A; Mayer, M; Murray, K E; Rolim-Santos, H M L; Santos-Magalhes, N S; Thompson, A M; Appleyard, V C L

    2010-08-01

    Usnic acid, a lichen metabolite, is known to exert antimitotic and antiproliferative activities against normal and malignant human cells. Many chemotherapy agents exert their activities by blocking cell cycle progression, inducing cell death through apoptosis. Microtubules, protein structure involved in the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis, serve as chemotherapeutical targets due to their key role in cellular division as well as apoptosis. The aim of this work was to investigate whether usnic acid affects the formation and/or stabilisation of microtubules by visualising microtubules and determining mitotic indices after treatment. The breast cancer cell line MCF7 and the lung cancer cell line H1299 were treated with usnic acid 29 microM for 24 hours and two positive controls: vincristine (which prevents the formation of microtubules) or taxol (which stabilizes microtubules). Treatment of MCF7 and H1299 cells with usnic acid did not result in any morphological changes in microtubules or increase in the mitotic index. These results suggest that the antineoplastic activity of usnic acid is not related to alterations in the formation and/or stabilisation of microtubules. PMID:20379653

  1. An Improved Quantitative Analysis Method for Plant Cortical Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

  2. Theoretical analysis of microtubule dynamics at all times.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2014-12-01

    Microtubules are biopolymers consisting of tubulin dimer subunits. As a major component of cytoskeleton they are essential for supporting most important cellular processes such as cell division, signaling, intracellular transport and cell locomotion. The hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) molecules attached to each tubulin subunit supports the nonequilibrium nature of microtubule dynamics. One of the most spectacular properties of microtubules is their dynamic instability when their growth from continuous attachment of tubulin dimers stochastically alternates with periods of shrinking. Despite the critical importance of this process to all cellular activities, its mechanism remains not fully understood. We investigated theoretically microtubule dynamics at all times by analyzing explicitly temporal evolution of various length clusters of unhydrolyzed subunits. It is found that the dynamic behavior of microtubules depends strongly on initial conditions. Our theoretical findings provide a microscopic explanation for recent experiments which found that the frequency of catastrophes increases with the lifetime of microtubules. It is argued that most growing microtubule configurations cannot transit in one step into a shrinking state, leading to a complex overall temporal behavior. Theoretical calculations combined with Monte Carlo computer simulations are also directly compared with experimental observations, and good agreement is found. PMID:25390471

  3. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  4. Microtubules in the Cerebral Cortex: Role in Memory and Consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Nancy J.

    This chapter raises the question whether synaptic connections in the cerebral cortex are adequate in accounting for higher cognition, especially cognition involving multimodal processing. A recent and novel approach to brain mechanics is outlined, one that involves microtubules and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2). In addition to effects on the neuronal membrane, neurotransmitters exert actions on microtubules. These neurotransmitter effects alter the MAP2 phosphorylation state and rates of microtubule polymerization and transport. It is argued that these processes are important to the physical basis of memory and consciousness. In support of this argument, MAP2 is degraded with learning in discrete cortical modules. How this relates to synaptic change related to learning is unknown. The specific proposal is advanced that learning alters microtubules in the subsynaptic zone lying beneath the synapse, and that this forms the physical basis of long-term memory storage because microtubule networks determine the synapse strength by directing contacts with actin filaments and transport of synaptic proteins. It is argued that this is more probable than memory-related physical storage in the synapse itself. Comparisons to consciousness are made and it is concluded that there is a link between microtubules, memory and consciousness.

  5. Centrosomal nucleolin is required for microtubule network organization

    PubMed Central

    Gaume, Xavier; Tassin, Anne-Marie; Ugrinova, Iva; Mongelard, Fabien; Monier, Karine; Bouvet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Nucleolin is a pleiotropic protein involved in a variety of cellular processes. Although multipolar spindle formation has been observed after nucleolin depletion, the roles of nucleolin in centrosome regulation and functions have not been addressed. Here we report using immunofluorescence and biochemically purified centrosomes that nucleolin co-localized only with one of the centrioles during interphase which was further identified as the mature centriole. Upon nucleolin depletion, cells exhibited an amplification of immature centriole markers surrounded by irregular pericentrin staining; these structures were exempt from maturation markers and unable to nucleate microtubules. Furthermore, the microtubule network was disorganized in these cells, exhibiting frequent non-centrosomal microtubules. At the mature centriole a reduced kinetics in the centrosomal microtubule nucleation phase was observed in live silenced cells, as well as a perturbation of microtubule anchoring. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that nucleolin belongs to protein complexes containing 2 key centrosomal proteins, γ-tubulin and ninein, involved in microtubule nucleation and anchoring steps. Altogether, our study uncovered a new role for nucleolin in restricting microtubule nucleation and anchoring at centrosomes in interphase cells. PMID:25590348

  6. Group-theoretic restrictions on generation of CP-violation in multi-Higgs-doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Ivanov, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    It has been known since decades that imposing a symmetry group G on the scalar sector of multi-Higgs-doublet models has consequences for CP -violation. In all examples of two- and three-Higgs-doublet models equipped with symmetries, one observes the following intriguing property: if G prevents explicit CP -violation (CPV), at least in the neutral Higgs sector, then it also prevents spontaneous CPV, and if G allows explicit CPV, then it allows for spontaneous CPV. One is led to conjecture that this is a general phenomenon. In this paper, we prove this conjecture for any rephasing symmetry group G and any number of doublets.

  7. 2HDMC two-Higgs-doublet model calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, David; Rathsman, Johan; Stl, Oscar

    2010-04-01

    We describe version 1.0.6 of the public C++ code 2HDMC, which can be used to perform calculations in a general, CP-conserving, two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). The program features simple conversion between different parametrizations of the 2HDM potential, a flexible Yukawa sector specification with choices of different Z-symmetries or more general couplings, a decay library including all two-body and some three-body decay modes for the Higgs bosons, and the possibility to calculate observables of interest for constraining the 2HDM parameter space, as well as theoretical constraints from positivity and unitarity. The latest version of the 2HDMC code and full documentation is available from: http://www.isv.uu.se/thep/MC/2HDMC. New version program summaryProgram title: 2HDMC Catalogue identifier: AEFI_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFI_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 110 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 92 731 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any computer running Linux Operating system: Linux RAM: 5 Mb Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEFI_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2010) 189 Classification: 11.1 External routines: GNU Scientific Library ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Determining properties of the potential, calculation of mass spectrum, couplings, decay widths, oblique parameters, muon g-2, and collider constraints in a general two-Higgs-doublet model. Solution method: From arbitrary potential and Yukawa sector, tree-level relations are used to determine Higgs masses and couplings. Decay widths are calculated at leading order, including FCNC decays when applicable. Decays to off-shell vector bosons are obtained by numerical integration. Observables are computed (analytically or numerically) as function of the input parameters. Reasons for new version: Improved calculation of the oblique parameters. Summary of revisions: The computation of the oblique parameters has been improved to give reliable results in the case of degenerate masses for the Higgs bosons. Another issue in the oblique parameter calculation, affecting the numerical values of S, U, V, and X (independently of the Higgs boson masses), has been corrected. Restrictions: CP-violation is not treated. Running time: Less than 0.1 s on a standard PC.

  8. Depletion force induced collective motion of microtubules driven by kinesin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Mahmot, Bulbul; Kabir, Arif Md Rashedul; Farhana, Tamanna Ishrat; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Sada, Kazuki; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2015-10-29

    Collective motion is a fascinating example of coordinated behavior of self-propelled objects, which is often associated with the formation of large scale patterns. Nowadays, the in vitro gliding assay is being considered a model system to experimentally investigate various aspects of group behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. In the in vitro gliding assay, cytoskeletal filaments F-actin or microtubules are driven by the surface immobilized associated biomolecular motors myosin or dynein respectively. Although the F-actin/myosin or microtubule/dynein system was found to be promising in understanding the collective motion and pattern formation by self-propelled objects, the most widely used biomolecular motor system microtubule/kinesin could not be successfully employed so far in this regard. Failure in exhibiting collective motion by kinesin driven microtubules is attributed to the intrinsic properties of kinesin, which was speculated to affect the behavior of individual gliding microtubules and mutual interactions among them. In this work, for the first time, we have demonstrated the collective motion of kinesin driven microtubules by regulating the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules, by employing a depletion force among them. Proper regulation of the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules through the employment of the depletion force was found to allow the exhibition of collective motion and stream pattern formation by the microtubules. This work offers a universal means for demonstrating the collective motion using the in vitro gliding assay of biomolecular motor systems and will help obtain a meticulous understanding of the fascinating coordinated behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. PMID:26260025

  9. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Hedrick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of microtubules A longitudinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravkovi?, S.; Satari?, M. V.; Zekovi?, S.

    2013-05-01

    In the present letter we describe a model of nonlinear dynamics of microtubules (MTs) assuming a single longitudinal degree of freedom per tubulin dimer. This is a longitudinal displacement of a dimer at a certain position with respect to the neighbouring one. A nonlinear partial differential equation, describing dimer's dynamics within MT, is solved both analytically and numerically. It is shown that such a nonlinear model can lead to the existence of kink solitons moving along the MTs. The internal electrical field strength is calculated using two procedures and a perfect agreement between the results is demonstrated. This enabled the estimation of the total energy, kink velocity and kink width. To simplify the calculation of the total energy we stated and proved a useful auxiliary theorem.

  11. Tau Induces Cooperative Taxol Binding to Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer; Santangelo, Christian; Victoria, Makrides; Fygenson, Deborah

    2004-03-01

    Taxol and tau are two ligands which stabilize the microtubule (MT) lattice. Taxol is an anti-mitotic drug that binds ? tubulin in the MT interior. Tau is a MT-associated protein that binds both ? and ? tubulin on the MT exterior. Both taxol and tau reduce MT dynamics and promote tubulin polymerization. Tau alone also acts as a buttress to bundle, stiffen, and space MTs. A structural study recently suggested that taxol and tau may interact by binding to the same site. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we find that tau induces taxol to bind MTs cooperatively depending on the tau concentration. We develop a model that correctly fits the data in the absence of tau and yields a measure of taxol cooperativity when tau is present.

  12. Diffusion of dextran inside microtubule sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodan, Camelia

    2005-03-01

    Microtubules (Mts) are the bones of the cell. Their exterior has been extensively studied but little is known about their interior. We have studied the diffusion of fluorescein labeled dextran in the presence of GDP Mts and taxol stabilized GDP Mts. The diffusion coefficient, D, of different size dextran (10 kD, 40 kD, 70 kD, 500 kD) was measured using fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP). If dextran was present during the assembling of Mts, D was smaller then free diffusion coefficient. When dextran was added after the assembling, D was the same as the free diffusion coefficient. For taxol stabilized Mts (0.90 fill ratio), D was also found the same as the free diffusion coefficient .

  13. Crowding of Molecular Motors Determines Microtubule Depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Louis; Melbinger, Anna; Frey, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    The assembly and disassembly dynamics of microtubules (MTs) is tightly controlled by MT-associated proteins. Here, we investigate how plus-end-directed depolymerases of the kinesin-8 family regulate MT depolymerization dynamics. Using an individual-based model, we reproduce experimental findings. Moreover, crowding is identified as the key regulatory mechanism of depolymerization dynamics. Our analysis reveals two qualitatively distinct regimes. For motor densities above a particular threshold, a macroscopic traffic jam emerges at the plus-end and the MT dynamics become independent of the motor concentration. Below this threshold, microscopic traffic jams at the tip arise that cancel out the effect of the depolymerization kinetics such that the depolymerization speed is solely determined by the motor density. Because this density changes over the MT length, length-dependent regulation is possible. Remarkably, motor cooperativity affects only the end-residence time of depolymerases and not the depolymerization speed. PMID:22067158

  14. Torsional elastic deformations of microtubules within continuous sheet model.

    PubMed

    Che?miniak, P; Dixon, J M; Tuszy?ski, J A

    2010-02-01

    This paper develops a rigorous analysis of the microtubule elastic deformations in terms of the torsional degrees of freedom using the helix-based cylindrical structure of this biopolymer. Methods of differential geometry and the theory of elasticity are employed in our analysis. We find equilibrium conditions and constitutive equations in the linear regime. We estimate the value of torsional rigidity for microtubules based on their structure and some experimentally known elastic properties. The paper concludes with the derivation of a bulk modulus formula for a microtubule in solution. Both the entropy change and the fluctuation of the twist angle are obtained. PMID:20221665

  15. Equilibrium studies of a fluorescent paclitaxel derivative binding to microtubules.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Edsall, R; Jagtap, P G; Kingston, D G; Bane, S

    2000-01-25

    A fluorescent derivative of paclitaxel, 3'-N-m-aminobenzamido-3'-N-debenzamidopaclitaxel (N-AB-PT), has been prepared in order to probe paclitaxel-microtubule interactions. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to quantitatively assess the association of N-AB-PT with microtubules. N-AB-PT was found equipotent with paclitaxel in promoting microtubule polymerization. Paclitaxel and N-AB-PT underwent rapid exchange with each other on microtubules assembled from GTP-, GDP-, and GMPCPP-tubulin. The equilibrium binding parameters for N-AB-PT to microtubules assembled from GTP-tubulin were derived through fluorescence titration. N-AB-PT bound to two types of sites on microtubules (K(d1) = 61 +/- 7.0 nM and K(d2) = 3.3 +/- 0.54 microM). The stoichiometry of each site was less than one ligand per tubulin dimer in the microtubule (n(1) = 0.81 +/- 0.03 and n(2) = 0.44 +/- 0.02). The binding experiments were repeated after exchanging the GTP for GDP or for GMPCPP. It was found that N-AB-PT bound to a single site on microtubules assembled from GDP-tubulin with a dissociation constant of 2.5 +/- 0.29 microM, and that N-AB-PT bound to a single site on microtubules assembled from GMPCPP-tubulin with a dissociation constant of 15 +/- 4.0 nM. It therefore appears that microtubules contain two types of binding sites for paclitaxel and that the binding site affinity for paclitaxel depends on the nucleotide content of tubulin. It has been established that paclitaxel binding does not inhibit GTP hydrolysis and microtubules assembled from GTP-tubulin in the presence of paclitaxel contain almost exclusively GDP at the E-site. We propose that although all the subunits of the microtubule at steady state are the same "GDP-tubulin-paclitaxel", they are formed through two paths: paclitaxel binding to a tubulin subunit before its E-site GTP hydrolysis is of high affinity, and paclitaxel binding to a tubulin subunit containing hydrolyzed GDP at its E-site is of low affinity. PMID:10642187

  16. Microtubule attachment and spindle assembly checkpoint signaling at the kinetochore

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Emily A.; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, chromosome segregation during cell division is facilitated by the kinetochore, an assembly of proteins built on centromeric DNA. The kinetochore attaches chromosomes to spindle microtubules, modulates the stability of these attachments, and relays microtubule-binding status to the spindle assembly checkpoint, a cell cycle surveillance pathway that delays chromosome segregation in response to unattached kinetochores. Here, we discuss recent results that guide current thinking on how each of these kinetochore-centered processes is achieved, and how their integration ensures faithful chromosome segregation, focusing on the essential roles of kinase-phosphatase signaling and the microtubule-binding KMN protein network. PMID:23258294

  17. Kinesin-8 Motors Improve Nuclear Centering by Promoting Microtubule Catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glun?i?, Matko; Maghelli, Nicola; Krull, Alexander; Krsti?, Vladimir; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Pavin, Nenad; Toli?, Iva M.

    2015-02-01

    In fission yeast, microtubules push against the cell edge, thereby positioning the nucleus in the cell center. Kinesin-8 motors regulate microtubule catastrophe; however, their role in nuclear positioning is not known. Here we develop a physical model that describes how kinesin-8 motors affect nuclear centering by promoting a microtubule catastrophe. Our model predicts the improved centering of the nucleus in the presence of motors, which we confirmed experimentally in living cells. The model also predicts a characteristic time for the recentering of a displaced nucleus, which is supported by our experiments where we displaced the nucleus using optical tweezers.

  18. Analysis of microtubules in isolated axoplasm from the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuyu; Brady, Scott T

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical specialization of cellular microtubules has emerged as a primary mechanism in specifying microtubule dynamics and function. However, study of specific subcellular populations of cytoplasmic microtubules has been limited, particularly in the nervous system. The complexity of nervous tissue makes it difficult to distinguish neuronal microtubules from glial microtubules, and axonal microtubules from dendritic and cell body microtubules. The problem is further compounded by the finding that a large fraction of neuronal tubulin is lost during standard preparations of brain tubulin, and this population of stable microtubules is enriched in axons. Here, we consider a unique biological model that provides a unique opportunity to study axonal microtubules both in situ and in vitro: isolated axoplasm from the squid giant axon. The axoplasm model represents a powerful system for addressing fundamental questions of microtubule structure and function in the axon. PMID:23973070

  19. The Spectraplakin Short Stop Is an Actin–Microtubule Cross-Linker That Contributes to Organization of the Microtubule Network

    PubMed Central

    Applewhite, Derek A.; Grode, Kyle D.; Keller, Darby; Zadeh, Alireza; Slep, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of actin and microtubules are coordinated in a variety of cellular and morphogenetic processes; however, little is known about the molecules mediating this cytoskeletal cross-talk. We are studying Short stop (Shot), the sole Drosophila spectraplakin, as a model actin–microtubule cross-linking protein. Spectraplakins are an ancient family of giant cytoskeletal proteins that are essential for a diverse set of cellular functions; yet, we know little about the dynamics of spectraplakins and how they bridge actin filaments and microtubules. In this study we describe the intracellular dynamics of Shot and a structure–function analysis of its role as a cytoskeletal cross-linker. We find that Shot interacts with microtubules using two different mechanisms. In the cell interior, Shot binds growing plus ends through an interaction with EB1. In the cell periphery, Shot associates with the microtubule lattice via its GAS2 domain, and this pool of Shot is actively engaged as a cross-linker via its NH2-terminal actin-binding calponin homology domains. This cross-linking maintains microtubule organization by resisting forces that produce lateral microtubule movements in the cytoplasm. Our results provide the first description of the dynamics of these important proteins and provide key insight about how they function during cytoskeletal cross-talk. PMID:20335501

  20. Scalar potential of two-Higgs doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indrani; Kundu, Anirban

    2015-11-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) potential. At the tree level, the potential may accommodate more than one minima, one of them being the electroweak (EW) minimum where the Universe lives. The parameter space allowed after the data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) came in almost excludes those cases where the EW vacuum is shallower than the second minimum. We extend the analysis by including terms in the 2HDM potential that break the Z2 symmetry of the potential by dimension-4 operators and show that the conclusions remain unchanged. Furthermore, a one-loop analysis of the potential is performed for both cases, namely, where the Z2 symmetry of the potential is broken by dimension-2 or dimension-4 operators. For quantitative analysis, we show our results for the type II 2HDM, qualitative results remaining the same for other 2HDMs. We find that the nature of the vacua from the tree-level analysis does not change; the EW vacuum still remains deeper.

  1. Muon g - 2 in the aligned two Higgs doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Kang, Sin Kyu; Sayre, Joshua

    2016-02-01

    We study the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model with the aligned Yukawa sector (A2HDM) in light of the observed excess measured in the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We take into account the existing theoretical and experimental constraints with up-to-date values and demonstrate that a phenomenologically interesting region of parameter space exists. With a detailed parameter scan, we show a much larger region of viable parameter space in this model beyond the limiting case Type X 2HDM as obtained before. It features the existence of light scalar states with masses 3 GeV ≲ m H ≲ 50 GeV, or 10 GeV ≲ m A ≲ 130 GeV, with enhanced couplings to tau leptons. The charged Higgs boson is typically heavier, with 200 GeV ≲ m H + ≲ 630 GeV. The surviving parameter space is forced into the CP-conserving limit by EDM constraints. Some Standard Model observables may be significantly modified, including a possible new decay mode of the SMlike Higgs boson to four taus. We comment on future measurements and direct searches for those effects at the LHC as tests of the model.

  2. Emission spectrum of core-excited Li doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juregui, Roco; Bunge, Carlos F.

    1981-04-01

    Configuration-interaction calculations have been carried out for the core-excited 2Do bound states of neutral Li. The levels 1s2p 3P 3d, 1s2p 3P 4d and 1s2p 1P 3d are estimated to lie 524 235.5(3.0), 530 306.1(3.0), and 532 058.8(4.5) cm-1 above the ground state, respectively. Using additional theoretical and experimental data for core-excited Li levels and calculated oscillator strengths, we have developed a consistent scheme for the decay of Li** doublets which explains the main features of this spectrum. Two previously observed lines ?=2846 and 3661 correspond to transitions between 2Do and 2P bound states, in agreement with an earlier assignment. Three other lines ?=2640, 3144, and 4590 result from bound states 2Do and 2P decaying into 2D and 2Po core-excited states which undergo rapid autoionization, in agreement with the prominent linewidths exhibited experimentally. Possible spin-forbidden electric-dipole transitions are discussed.

  3. Doublets and wavelets: anisotropic changes measured at Mt. Vesuvius.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F.; Gargiulo, G.; Zaccarelli, L.; Del Pezzo, E.

    2009-04-01

    Shear-wave splitting is the elastic-equivalent of the well known phenomenon of optical birefringence. A shear wave propagating through an anisotropic solid splits into two S-waves that travel with different velocities and with different directions of polarization, generating two observables: TD that is the time delay between the two split S waves, and LSPD that is the polarization direction of the faster S wave. In the upper crust this phenomenon has been interpreted to occur in zones of fluid-filled cracks, microcracks or preferentially oriented pore spaces. The time evolution of anisotropic distribution of microcracks due to a differential stress, according to the nonlinear anisotropic poroelasticity (APE ) model, is explained by the fluid migration along pressure gradients between neighbouring microcracks and pores. In this framework the shear wave splitting parameters are indicators of the state of stress in the upper crust. We obtained shear wave splitting measurements for local earthquakes occurred before the largest earthquake (M= 3.6 occurred October 9th, 1999 ) recorded at MT. Vesuvius after the last eruption ( March 1944). The arrival times of split shear waves and the polarization directions were detected by using the wavelet transform of a three-component signal. In order to avoid any spatial effects on the time behaviour of the parameters, we perfomed the analysis for a selected a dataset of doublets. Short term (of the order of the days) variation of both TD and LSPD parameters are retrieved before the occurence of the M=3. 6 event.

  4. Lee-Wick extension of the two-Higgs doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Aria R.; Sher, Marc; Thrasher, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Lee-Wick Standard Model is a highly constrained model which solves the gauge hierarchy problem at the expense of including states with negative norm. It appears to be macroscopically causal and consistent. This model is extended by considering the two-Higgs doublet extension of the Lee-Wick model. Rewriting the Lagrangian using auxiliary fields introduces two additional doublets of Lee-Wick partners. The model is highly constrained, with only one or two additional parameters beyond that of the usual two-Higgs doublet model, and yet there are four doublets. Mass relations are established by diagonalizing the mass matrices and further constraints are established by studying results from B ?? ? , neutral B -meson mixing, and B ?Xs? . The prospects of detecting evidence for this model at the LHC are discussed.

  5. The Sodium Doublets as Youth Indicators for Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, J. E.; Fielding, D.; Lepine, S.; Rice, E.; Tomasino, R.; Simon, M.; Shara, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the use of the Na I doublets at 5890 and 5896 (the Fraunhofer D lines) and 8183 and 8195 as gravity indicators for stars of late K and M spectral type. As is well known, the equivalent widths (EWs) of these doublets increase with photospheric log(g). We show that the EWs of members of the ? Pictoris moving group (BPMG) (age 10-20 Myr) lie between the EWs of giants and main sequence stars based on the analysis of approx. 200 spectra collected with the MDM 1.3-meter McGraw-Hill telescope and the SMARTS 1.5-meter telescope. We find the Na D lines are useful age indicators for low mass BPMG candidates earlier than M2 and the 8200 doublet becomes useful for stars later than M4. The EWs of the Na doublets may therefore be used to establish low gravity, hence youth, among low mass stars in general.

  6. Radiative neutrino masses in the singlet-doublet fermion dark matter model with scalar singlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Diego; Rivera, Andrs; Snchez-Pelez, Marta; Zapata, Oscar; Tangarife, Walter

    2015-07-01

    When the singlet-doublet fermion dark matter model is extended with additional Z2-odd real singlet scalars, neutrino masses and mixings can be generated at the one-loop level. In this work, we discuss the salient features arising from the combination of the two resulting simplified dark matter models. When the lightest Z2-odd particle is a scalar singlet, Br (? ?e ? ) could be measurable provided that the singlet-doublet fermion mixing is small enough. In this scenario, the new decay channels of vector-like fermions into scalars can also generate interesting leptonic plus missing transverse energy signals at the LHC. On the other hand, in the case of doublet-like fermion dark matter, scalar coannihilations lead to an increase in the relic density which allows one to lower the bound of doublet-like fermion dark matter.

  7. Multiple chiral doublet candidate nucleus {sup 105}Rh in a relativistic mean-field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian; Zhang, S. Q.; Meng, J.

    2011-03-15

    Following the reports of two pairs of chiral doublet bands observed in {sup 105}Rh, the adiabatic and configuration-fixed constrained triaxial relativistic mean-field calculations are performed to investigate their triaxial deformations with the corresponding configuration and the possible multiple chiral doublet (M{chi}D) phenomenon. The existence of the M{chi}D phenomenon in {sup 105}Rh is highly expected.

  8. Stability of the normal vacuum in multi-Higgs-doublet models

    SciTech Connect

    Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Santos, R.; Silva, Joao P.

    2006-10-15

    We show that the vacuum structure of a generic multi-Higgs-doublet model shares several important features with the vacuum structure of the two and three Higgs-doublet model. In particular, one can still define the usual charge breaking, spontaneous CP breaking, and normal (charge and CP preserving) stationary points. We analyze the possibility of charge or spontaneous CP breaking by studying the relative depth of the potential in each of the possible stationary points.

  9. Modulation of microtubule shape in vitro by high molecular weight microtubule associated proteins MAP1A, MAP1B, and MAP2.

    PubMed

    Pedrotti, B; Francolini, M; Cotelli, F; Islam, K

    1996-04-15

    The effect of microtubule associated proteins on microtubule shape has been investigated in reconstitution experiments using purified tubulin and purified MAP1A, MAP1B, and MAP2. Microtubules assembled in the presence of these MAPs were fixed with 0.1% glutaraldehyde and, after negative staining, were examined by electron microscopy. The results show that MAP1A microtubules were generally short and "straight' while those assembled with MAP1B were longer and "bendy'. MAP2 microtubules showed both types of morphologies even though straight microtubules were more abundant. These data suggest that MAPs may modulate not only microtubule dynamics but also microtubule shape which may be important in their spatial distribution and/or role in specific neuronal areas. PMID:8612812

  10. Dynamics of an Idealized Model of Microtubule Growth and Catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Antal, T.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.; Mailman, M.; Chakraborty, B.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a simple dynamical model of a microtubule that evolves by attachment of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) tubulin to its end, irreversible conversion of GTP to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) tubulin by hydrolysis, and detachment of GDP at the end of a microtubule. As a function of rates of these processes, the microtubule can grow steadily or its length can fluctuate wildly. In the regime where detachment can be neglected, we find exact expressions for the tubule and GTP cap length distributions, as well as power-law length distributions of GTP and GDP islands. In the opposite limit of instantaneous detachment, we find the time between catastrophes, where the microtubule shrinks to zero length, and determine the size distribution of avalanches (sequence of consecutive GDP detachment events). We obtain the phase diagram for general rates and verify our predictions by numerical simulations. PMID:17995026

  11. Multiscale Polar Theory of Microtubule and Motor-Protein Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins are building blocks of self-organized subcellular biological structures such as the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. These same ingredients can form new "bioactive" liquid-crystalline fluids that are intrinsically out of equilibrium and which display complex flows and defect dynamics. It is not yet well understood how microscopic activity, which involves polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, yields such larger-scale dynamical structures. In our multiscale theory, Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubule ensembles driven by cross-linking motors allow us to study microscopic organization and stresses. Polarity sorting and cross-link relaxation emerge as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. On larger length scales, our continuum Doi-Onsager theory captures the hydrodynamic flows generated by polarity-dependent active stresses. The results connect local polar structure to flow structures and defect dynamics.

  12. Crosstalk between microtubule attachment complexes ensures accurate chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Cheerambathur, Dhanya K; Gassmann, Reto; Cook, Brian; Oegema, Karen; Desai, Arshad

    2013-12-01

    The microtubule-based mitotic spindle segregates chromosomes during cell division. During chromosome segregation, the centromeric regions of chromosomes build kinetochores that establish end-coupled attachments to spindle microtubules. Here, we used the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo as a model system to examine the crosstalk between two kinetochore protein complexes implicated in temporally distinct stages of attachment formation. The kinetochore dynein module, which mediates initial lateral microtubule capture, inhibited microtubule binding by the Ndc80 complex, which ultimately forms the end-coupled attachments that segregate chromosomes. The kinetochore dynein module directly regulated Ndc80, independently of phosphorylation by Aurora B kinase, and this regulation was required for accurate segregation. Thus, the conversion from initial dynein-mediated, lateral attachments to correctly oriented, Ndc80-mediated end-coupled attachments is actively controlled. PMID:24231804

  13. Motion observation and SPR measurements of kinesin motility on microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, A.; Oliveira, D.; Kim, K.; Liao, A. L.; Umetsu, M.; Adschiri, T.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2012-02-01

    Motor proteins convert chemical energy directly into mechanical work with high efficiency (50%). One of these proteins, kinesin, is used in the cell to transport organelles. It ``walks'' along biopolymer tracks called microtubules and, depending on the type, can reach speeds of a few micrometers per second. Kinesin can carry intracellular cargo over long distances against several piconewtons of loads and is barely limited by the cargo size. Motion of streptavidin-coated quantum dots carried by kinesin on microtubules will be presented. We have expressed biotinylated Kinesin-1 using Escherichia coli. Attachment to quantum dots was performed using the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin. Microtubules, labeled with rhodamine, allow visualization by fluorescence microscopy. The measured speed of our kinesin fits well with results found in the literature. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) measurements allow the identification and strength evaluation of bonding. Using this technique, we will present results on the binding between our expressed kinesin and microtubule.

  14. Cortical microtubules in sweet clover columella cells developed in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Electron micrographs of columella cells from sweet clover seedlings grown and fixed in microgravity revealed longitudinal and cross sectioned cortical microtubules. This is the first report demonstrating the presence and stability of this network in plants in microgravity.

  15. Centrosomin represses dendrite branching by orienting microtubule nucleation.

    PubMed

    Yalgin, Cagri; Ebrahimi, Saman; Delandre, Caroline; Yoong, Li Foong; Akimoto, Saori; Tran, Heidi; Amikura, Reiko; Spokony, Rebecca; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; White, Kevin P; Moore, Adrian W

    2015-10-01

    Neuronal dendrite branching is fundamental for building nervous systems. Branch formation is genetically encoded by transcriptional programs to create dendrite arbor morphological diversity for complex neuronal functions. In Drosophila sensory neurons, the transcription factor Abrupt represses branching via an unknown effector pathway. Targeted screening for branching-control effectors identified Centrosomin, the primary centrosome-associated protein for mitotic spindle maturation. Centrosomin repressed dendrite branch formation and was used by Abrupt to simplify arbor branching. Live imaging revealed that Centrosomin localized to the Golgi cis face and that it recruited microtubule nucleation to Golgi outposts for net retrograde microtubule polymerization away from nascent dendrite branches. Removal of Centrosomin enabled the engagement of wee Augmin activity to promote anterograde microtubule growth into the nascent branches, leading to increased branching. The findings reveal that polarized targeting of Centrosomin to Golgi outposts during elaboration of the dendrite arbor creates a local system for guiding microtubule polymerization. PMID:26322925

  16. Mechanism and Dynamics of Breakage of Fluorescent Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglian; Xu, Chunhua; Liu, Chunxiang; Qu, E.; Yuan, Ming; Li, Zhaolin; Cheng, Bingying; Zhang, Daozhong

    2006-01-01

    The breakage of fluorescence-labeled microtubules under irradiation of excitation light is found in our experiments. Its mechanism is studied. The results indicate that free radicals are the main reason for the photosensitive breakage. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the microtubules are probed with a dual-optical tweezers system. It is found that the fluorescence-labeled microtubules are much easier to extend compared with those without fluorescence. Such microtubules can be extended by 30%, and the force for breaking them up is only several piconewtons. In addition, we find that the breakup of the protofilaments is not simultaneous but step-by-step, which further confirms that the interaction between protofilaments is fairly weak. PMID:16387782

  17. Mechanical Models of Microtubule Bundle Collapse in Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendek, Austin; Singh, Rajiv; Cox, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Amyloid-beta aggregates initiate Alzheimer's disease, and downstream trigger degradation of tau proteins that act as microtubule bundle stabilizers and mechanical spacers. Currently it is unclear which of tau cutting by proteases, tau phosphorylation, or tau aggregation are responsible for cytoskeleton degradation., We construct a percolation simulation of the microtubule bundle using a molecular spring model for the taus and including depletion force attraction between microtubules and membrane/actin cytoskeletal surface tension. The simulation uses a fictive molecular dynamics to model the motion of the individual microtubules within the bundle as a result of random tau removal, and calculates the elastic modulus of the bundle as the tau concentration falls. We link the tau removal steps to kinetic tau steps in various models of tau degradation. Supported by US NSF Grant DMR 1207624

  18. Properties of microtubule bundles induced by Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Marijke; Engelborghs, Yves

    1991-05-01

    The binding of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; E.C. 1.2.1.12) to microtubules causes the microtubules to assemble into large bundles. This bundling can be considered as a further step in the assembly of supramolecular structures. The rate of bundle formation, after addition of GAPDH to preformed microtubules, is not dependent on the GAPDH concentration and reflects bundling kinetics. Bundle disassembly can be studied by the addition of 1 mM adenosine 5'-(?, -imidotri-phosphate) (AMPPNP) to bundled microtubules, and is extremely fast. Bundling reduces the rate of association of tubulin dimers to microtubules, as well as the dissocation from the microtubles. Both rates are reduced to the same extent. This is in agreement with the fact that the critical concentration of tubulin is practically not influenced by the binding of the enzyme. Adding microtubule associated proteins (at I=0.1 M) does not appreciably influence the affinity for GAPDH, but reduces bundle formation possibly for sterical reasons.

  19. Elastic Response, Buckling, and Instability of Microtubules under Radial Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, Iwan A. T.; Carrasco, Carolina; de Pablo, Pedro J.; MacKintosh, Frederick C.; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the mechanical properties of single microtubules by lateral indentation with the tip of an atomic force microscope. Indentations up to ?3.6 nm, i.e., 15% of the microtubule diameter, resulted in an approximately linear elastic response, and indentations were reversible without hysteresis. At an indentation force of around 0.3 nN we observed an instability corresponding to an ?1-nm indentation step in the taxol-stabilized microtubules, which could be due to partial or complete rupture of a relatively small number of lateral or axial tubulin-tubulin bonds. These indentations were reversible with hysteresis when the tip was retracted and no trace of damage was observed in subsequent high-resolution images. Higher forces caused substantial damage to the microtubules, which either led to depolymerization or, occasionally, to slowly reannealing holes in the microtubule wall. We modeled the experimental results using finite-element methods and find that the simple assumption of a homogeneous isotropic material, albeit structured with the characteristic protofilament corrugations, is sufficient to explain the linear elastic response of microtubules. PMID:16731557

  20. Modulation of host microtubule dynamics by pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Girish K.; Splitter, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is a vulnerable target of many microbial pathogens during the course of infection. Rearrangements of host cytoskeleton benefit microbes in various stages of their infection cycle such as invasion, motility, and persistence. Bacterial pathogens deliver a number of effector proteins into host cells for modulating the dynamics of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Alteration of the actin cytoskeleton is generally achieved by bacterial effectors that target the small GTPases of the host. Modulation of microtubule dynamics involves direct interaction of effector proteins with the subunits of microtubules or recruiting cellular proteins that affect microtubule dynamics. This review will discuss effector proteins from animal and human bacterial pathogens that either destabilize or stabilize host micro-tubules to advance the infectious process. A compilation of these research findings will provide an overview of known and unknown strategies used by various bacterial effectors to modulate the host microtubule dynamics. The present review will undoubtedly help direct future research to determine the mechanisms of action of many bacterial effector proteins and contribute to understanding the survival strategies of diverse adherent and invasive bacterial pathogens. PMID:23585820

  1. Direct interaction of microtubule- and actin-based transport motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J. D.; Brady, S. T.; Richards, B. W.; Stenolen, D.; Resau, J. H.; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    The microtubule network is thought to be used for long-range transport of cellular components in animal cells whereas the actin network is proposed to be used for short-range transport, although the mechanism(s) by which this transport is coordinated is poorly understood. For example, in sea urchins long-range Ca2+-regulated transport of exocytotic vesicles requires a microtubule-based motor, whereas an actin-based motor is used for short-range transport. In neurons, microtubule-based kinesin motor proteins are used for long-range vesicular transport but microtubules do not extend into the neuronal termini, where actin filaments form the cytoskeletal framework, and kinesins are rapidly degraded upon their arrival in neuronal termini, indicating that vesicles may have to be transferred from microtubules to actin tracks to reach their final destination. Here we show that an actin-based vesicle-transport motor, MyoVA, can interact directly with a microtubule-based transport motor, KhcU. As would be expected if these complexes were functional, they also contain kinesin light chains and the localization of MyoVA and KhcU overlaps in the cell. These results indicate that cellular transport is, in part, coordinated through the direct interaction of different motor molecules.

  2. Elastic response, buckling, and instability of microtubules under radial indentation.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Iwan A T; Carrasco, Carolina; de Pablo, Pedro J; MacKintosh, Frederick C; Schmidt, Christoph F

    2006-08-15

    We tested the mechanical properties of single microtubules by lateral indentation with the tip of an atomic force microscope. Indentations up to approximately 3.6 nm, i.e., 15% of the microtubule diameter, resulted in an approximately linear elastic response, and indentations were reversible without hysteresis. At an indentation force of around 0.3 nN we observed an instability corresponding to an approximately 1-nm indentation step in the taxol-stabilized microtubules, which could be due to partial or complete rupture of a relatively small number of lateral or axial tubulin-tubulin bonds. These indentations were reversible with hysteresis when the tip was retracted and no trace of damage was observed in subsequent high-resolution images. Higher forces caused substantial damage to the microtubules, which either led to depolymerization or, occasionally, to slowly reannealing holes in the microtubule wall. We modeled the experimental results using finite-element methods and find that the simple assumption of a homogeneous isotropic material, albeit structured with the characteristic protofilament corrugations, is sufficient to explain the linear elastic response of microtubules. PMID:16731557

  3. Dynein prevents erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Marin; Maiato, Helder

    2015-11-01

    Equal distribution of the genetic material during cell division relies on efficient congression of chromosomes to the metaphase plate. Prior to their alignment, the Dynein motor recruited to kinetochores transports a fraction of laterally-attached chromosomes along microtubules toward the spindle poles. By doing that, Dynein not only contributes to chromosome movements, but also prevents premature stabilization of end-on kinetochore-microtubule attachments. This is achieved by 2 parallel mechanisms: 1) Dynein-mediated poleward movement of chromosomes counteracts opposite polar-ejection forces (PEFs) on chromosome arms by the microtubule plus-end-directed motors chromokinesins. Otherwise, they could stabilize erroneous syntelic kinetochore-microtubule attachments and lead to the random ejection of chromosomes away from the spindle poles; and 2) By transporting chromosomes to the spindle poles, Dynein brings the former to the zone of highest Aurora A kinase activity, further destabilizing kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Thus, Dynein plays an important role in keeping chromosome segregation error-free by preventing premature stabilization of kinetochore-microtubule attachments near the spindle poles. PMID:26397382

  4. Lateral microtubule bundles promote chromosome alignment during acentrosomal oocyte meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Sarah M.; Villeneuve, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Although centrosomes serve to organize microtubules in most cell types, oocyte spindles form and mediate meiotic chromosome segregation in their absence. Here, we use high-resolution imaging of both bipolar and experimentally-generated monopolar spindles in C. elegans to reveal a surprising organization of microtubules and chromosomes within acentrosomal structures. We find that homologous chromosome pairs (bivalents) are surrounded by microtubule bundles running along their sides, whereas microtubule density is extremely low at chromosome ends despite a concentration of kinetochore proteins on those regions. Further, we find that the chromokinesin KLP-19 is targeted to a ring around the center of each bivalent and provides a polar ejection force required for congression. Together, these observations create a new picture of chromosome/microtubule association in acentrosomal spindles and reveal a mechanism by which metaphase alignment can be achieved utilizing this organization. Specifically, we propose that: 1) Ensheathment by lateral microtubule bundles places spatial constraints on the chromosomes, thereby promoting biorientation, and 2) Localized motors mediate movement along these bundles, thereby promoting alignment. PMID:19525937

  5. Passive athermalization of doublets in 8-13 micron waveband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    Passive athermalization of lenses has become a key-technology for automotive and other outdoor applications using modern uncooled 25, 17 and 12 micron pixel pitch bolometer arrays. Typical pixel counts for thermal imaging are 384x288 (qVGA), 640x480 (VGA), and 1024x768 (XGA). Two lens arrangements (called Doublets) represent a cost effective way to satisfy resolution requirements of these detectors with F-numbers 1.4 or faster. Thermal drift of index of refraction and the geometrical changes (in lenses and housing) versus temperature defocus the initial image plane from the detector plane. The passive athermalization restricts this drop of spatial resolution in a wide temperature range (typically -40°C…+80°C) to an acceptable value without any additional external refocus. In particular, lenses with long focal lengths and high apertures claim athermalization. A careful choice of lens and housing materials and a sophistical dimensioning lead to three different principles of passivation: The Passive Mechanical Athermalization (PMA) shifts the complete lens cell, the Passive Optical and Mechanical Athermalization (POMA) shifts only one lens inside the housing, the Passive Optical Athermalization (POA) works without any mechanism. All three principles will be demonstrated for a typical narrow-field lens (HFOV about 12°) with high aperture (aperture based F-number 1.3) for the actual uncooled reference detector (17micron VGA). Six design examples using different combinations of lens materials show the impact on spatial lens resolution, on overall length, and on weight. First order relations are discussed. They give some hints for optimization solutions. Pros and cons of different passive athermalization principles are evaluated in regards of housing design, availability of materials and costing. Examples with a convergent GASIR®1-lens in front distinguish by best resolution, short overall length, and lowest weight.

  6. Regulation of kinesin-transport by microtubule age and polymerization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Liang, Winnie; King, Stephen; Faysal, K.

    2015-03-01

    Microtubules are fundamental biopolymers in cells, formed via self-assembly (``polymerization'') of tubulin dimers. Microtubule polymerization conditions have been shown to alter the presence of defects in microtubule lattices, including point defects (missing tubulin dimers) and line defects (protofilament disruption). Potential impact of these lattice defects on molecular motor-based transport is not yet understood. Here we investigate the impact of microtubule polymerization conditions on multiple-kinesin transport, using single-molecule-type optical trapping experiments. We find that kinesin-based cargoes pause preferentially at specific locations along individual microtubules, and that the pause frequency and duration is strongly dependent on microtubule age and polymerization condition. Within each polymerization condition and for fresh microtubules, we also observe significant variations in multiple-kinesin travel distances, depending on which microtubules the motors travel along. Taken together, our study suggests an important role of microtubule lattice defect in regulating intracellular transport.

  7. Tau stabilizes microtubules by binding at the interface between tubulin heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Kadavath, Harindranath; Hofele, Romina V; Biernat, Jacek; Kumar, Satish; Tepper, Katharina; Urlaub, Henning; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2015-06-16

    The structure, dynamic behavior, and spatial organization of microtubules are regulated by microtubule-associated proteins. An important microtubule-associated protein is the protein Tau, because its microtubule interaction is impaired in the course of Alzheimer's disease and several other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that Tau binds to microtubules by using small groups of evolutionary conserved residues. The binding sites are formed by residues that are essential for the pathological aggregation of Tau, suggesting competition between physiological interaction and pathogenic misfolding. Tau residues in between the microtubule-binding sites remain flexible when Tau is bound to microtubules in agreement with a highly dynamic nature of the Tau-microtubule interaction. By binding at the interface between tubulin heterodimers, Tau uses a conserved mechanism of microtubule polymerization and, thus, regulation of axonal stability and cell morphology. PMID:26034266

  8. The dual specificity phosphatase Cdc14B bundles and stabilizes microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Plumley, Hyekyung; Liu, Yie; Gomez, Marla V; Wang, Yisong

    2005-01-01

    The Cdc14 dual-specificity phosphatases regulate key events in the eukaryotic cell cycle. However, little is known about the function of mammalian CDC14B family members. Here, we demonstrate that subcellular localization of CDC14B protein is cell cycle regulated. CDC14B can bind, bundle, and stabilize microtubules in vitro independently of its catalytic activity. Basic amino acid residues within the nucleolar targeting domain are important for both retaining CDC14B in the nucleolus and preventing microtubule bundling. Overexpression of CDC14B resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic CDC14B and microtubule bundles in interphase cells. These microtubule bundles were resistant to microtubule depolymerization reagents and enriched in acetylated -tubulin. Expression of cytoplasmic forms of CDC14B impaired microtubule nucleation from the microtubule organization center. CDC14B is thus a novel microtubule-bundling and -stabilizing protein, whose regulated subcellular localization may help modulate spindle and microtubule dynamics in mitosis.

  9. Structural basis for microtubule recognition by the human kinetochore Ska complex

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Maria Alba; Medina, Bethan; Santamaria, Anna; Zou, Juan; Plasberg-Hill, Carla; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Jayachandran, Uma; Redli, Patrick Marc; Rappsilber, Juri; Nigg, Erich A.; Jeyaprakash, A. Arockia

    2014-01-01

    The ability of kinetochores (KTs) to maintain stable attachments to dynamic microtubule structures (straight during microtubule polymerization and curved during microtubule depolymerization) is an essential requirement for accurate chromosome segregation. Here we show that the kinetochore-associated Ska complex interacts with tubulin monomers via the carboxy-terminal winged-helix domain of Ska1, providing the structural basis for the ability to bind both straight and curved microtubule structures. This contrasts with the Ndc80 complex, which binds straight microtubules by recognizing the dimeric interface of tubulin. The Ska1 microtubule-binding domain interacts with tubulins using multiple contact sites that allow the Ska complex to bind microtubules in multiple modes. Disrupting either the flexibility or the tubulin contact sites of the Ska1 microtubule-binding domain perturbs normal mitotic progression, explaining the critical role of the Ska complex in maintaining a firm grip on dynamic microtubules. PMID:24413531

  10. Xenopus TACC1 is a microtubule plus-end tracking protein that can regulate microtubule dynamics during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Lucaj, Christopher M; Evans, Matthew F; Nwagbara, Belinda U; Ebbert, Patrick T; Baker, Charlie C; Volk, Joseph G; Francl, Andrew F; Ruvolo, Sean P; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2015-05-01

    Microtubule plus-end dynamics are regulated by a family of proteins called plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs). We recently demonstrated that the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) domain family member, TACC3, can function as a +TIP to regulate microtubule dynamics in Xenopus laevis embryonic cells. Although it has been previously reported that TACC3 is the only TACC family member that exists in Xenopus, our examination of its genome determined that Xenopus, like all other vertebrates, contains three TACC family members. Here, we investigate the localization and function of Xenopus TACC1, the founding member of the TACC family. We demonstrate that it can act as a +TIP to regulate microtubule dynamics, and that the conserved C-terminal TACC domain is required for its localization to plus-ends. We also show that, in Xenopus embryonic mesenchymal cells, TACC1 and TACC3 are each required for maintaining normal microtubule growth speed but exhibit some functional redundancy in the regulation of microtubule growth lifetime. Given the conservation of TACC1 in Xenopus and other vertebrates, we propose that Xenopus laevis is a useful system to investigate unexplored cell biological functions of TACC1 and other TACC family members in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. PMID:26012630

  11. Xenopus TACC1 is a Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Protein that can Regulate Microtubule Dynamics During Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Lucaj, Christopher M.; Evans, Matthew F.; Nwagbara, Belinda U.; Ebbert, Patrick T.; Baker, Charlie C.; Volk, Joseph G.; Francl, Andrew F.; Ruvolo, Sean P.; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule plus-end dynamics are regulated by a family of proteins called plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs). We recently demonstrated that the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) domain family member, TACC3, can function as a +TIP to regulate microtubule dynamics in Xenopus laevis embryonic cells. Although it has been previously reported that TACC3 is the only TACC family member that exists in Xenopus, our examination of its genome determined that Xenopus, like all other vertebrates, contains three TACC family members. Here, we investigate the localization and function of Xenopus TACC1, the founding member of the TACC family. We demonstrate that it can act as a +TIP to regulate microtubule dynamics, and that the conserved C-terminal TACC domain is required for its localization to plus-ends. We also show that, in Xenopus embryonic mesenchymal cells, TACC1 and TACC3 are each required for maintaining normal microtubule growth speed but exhibit some functional redundancy in the regulation of microtubule growth lifetime. Given the conservation of TACC1 in Xenopus and other vertebrates, we propose that Xenopus laevis is a useful system to investigate unexplored cell biological functions of TACC1 and other TACC family members in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. PMID:26012630

  12. Association between microtubules and Golgi vesicles isolated from rat parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Coffe, G; Raymond, M N

    1990-01-01

    We report an isolation procedure of trans-Golgi vesicles (GVs) from rat parotid glands. Various organelle markers were used, particularly galactosyl transferase as a trans-Golgi marker, to test the purity of the GV fraction. A quantitative in vitro binding assay between microtubules and GVs is described. The vesicles were incubated with taxol-induced microtubules, layered between 50% and 43% sucrose cushions and subjected to centrifugation. Unlike free microtubules which were sedimented, the GV-bound microtubules co-migrated upward with GVs. Quantification of these bound microtubules was carried out by densitometric scanning of Coomassie blue-stained gels. The association between microtubules and GVs followed a saturation curve, with a plateau value of 20 micrograms of microtubule protein bound to 500 micrograms of GV fraction. The half-saturation of the GV sites was obtained with a microtubule concentration of 20 micrograms/ml. Electron microscopy of negatively stained re-floated material showed numerous microtubule-vesicle complexes. Coating of microtubules with an excess of brain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) abolished binding. In the absence of exogenous microtubules, we showed that the GV fraction was already interacting with a class of endogenous rat parotid microtubules. This class of colcemid and cold-stable microtubules represents 10-20% of the total tubulin content of the parotid cell. PMID:1983303

  13. Lessons from in vitro reconstitution analyses of plant microtubule-associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Plant microtubules, composed of tubulin GTPase, are irreplaceable cellular components that regulate the directions of cell expansion and cell division, chromosome segregation and cell plate formation. To accomplish these functions, plant cells organize microtubule structures by regulating microtubule dynamics. Each microtubule localizes to the proper position with repeated growth and shortening. Although it is possible to reconstitute microtubule dynamics with pure tubulin solution in vitro, many microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) govern microtubule dynamics in cells. In plants, major MAPs are identified as microtubule stabilizers (CLASP and MAP65 etc.), microtubule destabilizers (kinesin-13, katanin, MAP18 and MDP25), and microtubule dynamics promoters (EB1, MAP215, MOR1, MAP200, SPR2). Mutant analyses with forward and reverse genetics have shown the importance of microtubules and individual MAPs in plants. However, it is difficult to understand how each MAP regulates microtubule dynamics, such as growth and shortening, through mutant analyses. In vitro reconstitution analyses with individual purified MAPs and tubulin are powerful tools to reveal how each MAP regulates microtubule dynamics at the molecular level. In this review, I summarize the results of in vitro reconstitution analyses and introduce current models of how each MAP regulates microtubule dynamic instability. PMID:25202315

  14. On the Significance of Microtubule Flexural Behavior in Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative description of cell mechanics has challenged biological scientists for the past two decades. Various structural models have been attempted to analyze the structure of the cytoskeleton. One important aspect that has been largely ignored in all these modeling approaches is related to the flexural and buckling behavior of microtubular filaments. The objective of this paper is to explore the influence of this flexural and buckling behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics. In vitro the microtubules are observed to buckle in the first mode, reminiscent of a free, simply-supported beam. In vivo images of microtubules, however, indicate that the buckling mostly occurs in higher modes. This buckling mode switch takes place mostly because of the lateral support of microtubules via their connections to actin and intermediate filaments. These lateral loads are exerted throughout the microtubule length and yield a considerable bending behavior that, unless properly accounted for, would produce erroneous results in the modeling and analysis of the cytoskeletal mechanics. One of the promising attempts towards mechanical modeling of the cytoskeleton is the tensegrity model, which simplifies the complex network of cytoskeletal filaments into a combination merely of tension-bearing actin filaments and compression-bearing microtubules. Interestingly, this discrete model can qualitatively explain many experimental observations in cell mechanics. However, evidence suggests that the simplicity of this model may undermine the accuracy of its predictions, given the model's underlying assumption that every single member bears solely either tensile or compressive behavior, i.e. neglecting the flexural behavior of the microtubule filaments. We invoke an anisotropic continuum model for microtubules and compare the bending energy stored in a single microtubule with its axial strain energy at the verge of buckling. Our results suggest that the bending energy can exceed the axial energy of microtubules by 40 folds. A modification to tensegrity model is, therefore, proved necessary in order to take into account the flexural response of microtubules. The concept of bendo-tensegrity is proposed as a modification to contemporary cytoskeletal tensegrity models. PMID:21998675

  15. Quantum computation in brain microtubules: Decoherence and biological feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, S.; Hameroff, S. R.; Tuszyński, J. A.

    2002-06-01

    The Penrose-Hameroff orchestrated objective reduction (orch. OR) model assigns a cognitive role to quantum computations in microtubules within the neurons of the brain. Despite an apparently ``warm, wet, and noisy'' intracellular milieu, the proposal suggests that microtubules avoid environmental decoherence long enough to reach threshold for ``self-collapse'' (objective reduction) by a quantum gravity mechanism put forth by Penrose. The model has been criticized as regards the issue of environmental decoherence, and a recent report by Tegmark finds that microtubules can maintain quantum coherence for only 10-13 s, far too short to be neurophysiologically relevant. Here, we critically examine the decoherence mechanisms likely to dominate in a biological setting and find that (1) Tegmark's commentary is not aimed at an existing model in the literature but rather at a hybrid that replaces the superposed protein conformations of the orch. OR theory with a soliton in superposition along the microtubule; (2) recalculation after correcting for differences between the model on which Tegmark bases his calculations and the orch. OR model (superposition separation, charge vs dipole, dielectric constant) lengthens the decoherence time to 10-5-10-4 s (3) decoherence times on this order invalidate the assumptions of the derivation and determine the approximation regime considered by Tegmark to be inappropriate to the orch. OR superposition; (4) Tegmark's formulation yields decoherence times that increase with temperature contrary to well-established physical intuitions and the observed behavior of quantum coherent states; (5) incoherent metabolic energy supplied to the collective dynamics ordering water in the vicinity of microtubules at a rate exceeding that of decoherence can counter decoherence effects (in the same way that lasers avoid decoherence at room temperature); (6) microtubules are surrounded by a Debye layer of counterions, which can screen thermal fluctuations, and by an actin gel that might enhance the ordering of water in bundles of microtubules, further increasing the decoherence-free zone by an order of magnitude and, if the dependence on the distance between environmental ion and superposed state is accurately reflected in Tegmark's calculation, extending decoherence times by three orders of magnitude; (7) topological quantum computation in microtubules may be error correcting, resistant to decoherence; and (8) the decohering effect of radiative scatterers on microtubule quantum states is negligible. These considerations bring microtubule decoherence into a regime in which quantum gravity could interact with neurophysiology.

  16. Centrioles to basal bodies in the spermiogenesis of Mastotermes darwiniensis (Insecta, Isoptera).

    PubMed

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano; Mercati, David; Hertel, Horst; Dallai, Romano

    2009-05-01

    In addition to their role in centrosome organization, the centrioles have another distinct function as basal bodies for the formation of cilia and flagella. Centriole duplication has been reported to require two alternate assembly pathways: template or de novo. Since spermiogenesis in the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis lead to the formation of multiflagellate sperm, this process represents a useful model system in which to follow basal body formation and flagella assembly. We present evidence of a possible de novo pathway for basal body formation in the differentiating germ cell. This cell also contains typical centrosomal proteins, such as centrosomin, pericentrin-like protein, gamma-tubulin, that undergo redistribution as spermatid differentiation proceeds. The spermatid centrioles are long structures formed by nine doublet rather than triplet microtubules provided with short projections extending towards the surrounding cytoplasm and with links between doublets. The sperm basal bodies are aligned in parallel beneath the nucleus. They consist of long regions close to the nucleus showing nine doublets in a cartwheel array devoid of any projections; on the contrary, the short region close to the plasma membrane, where the sperm flagella emerge, is characterized by projections similar to those observed in the centrioles linking the basal body to the plasma membrane. It is hypothesized that this appearance is in connection with the centriole elongation and further with the flagellar axonemal organization. Microtubule doublets of sperm flagellar axonemes are provided with outer dynein arms, while inner arms are rarely visible. PMID:19306353

  17. Automatic tip selection for microtubule dynamics quantification.

    PubMed

    Malav, Mario O; Zhao, Xuran; Kong, Koon Yin; Marcus, Adam I; Wang, May D

    2010-01-01

    Microtubule (MT) dynamics quantification includes modeling of elongation, rapid shortening, and pauses. It indicates the effect of the cancer treatment drug paclitaxel because the drug causes MTs to bundle, which will in turn inhibit successful mitosis of cancerous cells. Thus, automatic MT dynamics analysis has been researched intensely because it allows for faster evaluation of potential cancer treatments and better understanding of drug effects on a cell. However, most current literatures still use manual initialization. In this work, we propose an automatic initialization algorithm that selects isolated and active tips for tracking. We use a Gaussian match filter to enhance the MT structures, and a novel technique called Pixel Nucleus Analysis (PNA) for isolated MT tip detection. To find dynamic tips, we applied a masked FFT in the temporal domain followed by K-means clustering. To evaluate the selected tips, we used a low level tip linking algorithm, and show the results of applying the algorithm to a model image and five MCF-7 breast cancer cell line images captured using fluorescent confocal microscopy. Finally, we compare tip selection criteria with existing automatic selection algorithms. We conclude that the proposed analysis is an effective technique based on three criteria which include outer region selection, separation, and MT dynamics. PMID:21096591

  18. Microtubule-templated biomimetic mineralization of lepidocrocite.

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Headley, Thomas Jeffrey; Tissot, Ralph George, Jr.; Boal, Andrew Kiskadden

    2003-08-01

    Protein microtubules (MTs) 25 nm in diameter and tens of micrometers long have been used as templates for the biomimetic mineralization of FeOOH. Exposure of MTs to anaerobic aqueous solutions of Fe{sup 2+} buffered to neutral pH followed by aerial oxidation leads to the formation of iron oxide coated MTs. The iron oxide layer was found to grow via a two-step process: initially formed 10-30 nm thick coatings were found to be amorphous in structure and comprised of several iron-containing species. Further growth resulted in MTs coated with highly crystalline layers of lepidocrocite with a controllable thickness of up to 125 nm. On the micrometer size scale, these coated MTs were observed to form large, irregular bundles containing hundreds of individually coated MTs. Iron oxide grew selectively on the MT surface, a result of the highly charged MT surface that provided an interface favorable for iron oxide nucleation. This result illustrates that MTs can be used as scaffolds for the in-situ production of high-aspect-ratio inorganic nanowires.

  19. Coordination of opposite-polarity microtubule motors

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Steven P.; Welte, Michael A.; Block, Steven M.; Wieschaus, Eric F.

    2002-01-01

    Many cargoes move bidirectionally, frequently reversing course between plus- and minus-end microtubule travel. For such cargoes, the extent and importance of interactions between the opposite-polarity motors is unknown. In this paper we test whether opposite-polarity motors on lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos are coordinated and avoid interfering with each other's activity, or whether they engage in a tug of war. To this end we impaired the minus-end transport machinery using dynein and dynactin mutations, and then investigated whether plus-end motion was improved or disrupted. We observe a surprisingly severe impairment of plus-end motion due to these alterations of minus-end motor activity. These observations are consistent with a coordination hypothesis, but cannot be easily explained with a tug of war model. Our measurements indicate that dynactin plays a crucial role in the coordination of plus- and minus-enddirected motors. Specifically, we propose that dynactin enables dynein to participate efficiently in bidirectional transport, increasing its ability to stay on during minus-end motion and keeping it off during plus-end motion. PMID:11854311

  20. Reconstitution of microtubule-dependent organelle transport.

    PubMed

    Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Dubey, Alok Kumar; Rai, Priyanka; Mallik, Roop

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule (MT)-based motor proteins transport many cellular factors to their functionally relevant locations within cells, and defects in transport are linked to human disease. Understanding the mechanism and regulation of this transport process in living cells is difficult because of the complex in vivo environment and limited means to manipulate the system. On the other hand, in vitro motility assays using purified motors attached to beads does not recapitulate the full complexity of cargo transport in vivo. Assaying motility of organelles in cell extracts is therefore attractive, as natural cargoes are being examined, but in an environment that is more amenable to manipulation. Here, we describe the purification and in vitro MT-based motility of phagosomes from Dictyostelium and lipid droplets from rat liver. These assays have the potential to address diverse questions related to endosome/phagosome maturation, fatty acid regulation, and could also serve as a starting point for reconstituting the motility of other types of organelles. PMID:24630110

  1. Association of TCTP with Centrosome and Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Jaglarz, Mariusz K.; Bazile, Franck; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Polanski, Zbigniew; Chesnel, Franck; Borsuk, Ewa; Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z.

    2012-01-01

    Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein (TCTP) associates with microtubules (MT), however, the details of this association are unknown. Here we analyze the relationship of TCTP with MTs and centrosomes in Xenopus laevis and mammalian cells using immunofluorescence, tagged TCTP expression and immunoelectron microscopy. We show that TCTP associates both with MTs and centrosomes at spindle poles when detected by species-specific antibodies and by Myc-XlTCTP expression in Xenopus and mammalian cells. However, when the antibodies against XlTCTP were used in mammalian cells, TCTP was detected exclusively in the centrosomes. These results suggest that a distinct pool of TCTP may be specific for, and associate with, the centrosomes. Double labelling for TCTP and ?-tubulin with immuno-gold electron microscopy in Xenopus laevis oogonia shows localization of TCTP at the periphery of the ?-tubulin-containing pericentriolar material (PCM) enveloping the centriole. TCTP localizes in the close vicinity of, but not directly on the MTs in Xenopus ovary suggesting that this association requires unidentified linker proteins. Thus, we show for the first time: (1) the association of TCTP with centrosomes, (2) peripheral localization of TCTP in relation to the centriole and the ?-tubulin-containing PCM within the centrosome, and (3) the indirect association of TCTP with MTs. PMID:22655198

  2. Dynamical Length-Regulation of Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbinger, Anna; Reese, Louis; Frey, Erwin

    2012-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are vital constituents of the cytoskeleton. These stiff filaments are not only needed for mechanical support. They also fulfill highly dynamic tasks. For instance MTs build the mitotic spindle, which pulls the doubled set of chromosomes apart during mitosis. Hence, a well-regulated and adjustable MT length is essential for cell division. Extending a recently introduced model [1], we here study length-regulation of MTs. Thereby we account for both spontaneous polymerization and depolymerization triggered by motor proteins. In contrast to the polymerization rate, the effective depolymerization rate depends on the presence of molecular motors at the tip and thereby on crowding effects which in turn depend on the MT length. We show that these antagonistic effects result in a well-defined MT length. Stochastic simulations and analytic calculations reveal the exact regimes where regulation is feasible. Furthermore, the adjusted MT length and the ensuing strength of fluctuations are analyzed. Taken together, we make quantitative predictions which can be tested experimentally. These results should help to obtain deeper insights in the microscopic mechanisms underlying length-regulation. [4pt] [1] L.Reese, A.Melbinger, E.Frey, Biophys. J., 101, 9, 2190 (2011)

  3. Kinesin-2 and Apc function at dendrite branch points to resolve microtubule collisions.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Alexis T; Lanz, Michael C; Goetschius, Daniel J; Hancock, William O; Rolls, Melissa M

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila neurons, kinesin-2, EB1 and Apc are required to maintain minus-end-out dendrite microtubule polarity, and we previously proposed they steer microtubules at branch points. Motor-mediated steering of microtubule plus ends could be accomplished in two ways: 1) by linking a growing microtubule tip to the side of an adjacent microtubule as it navigates the branch point (bundling), or 2) by directing a growing microtubule after a collision with a stable microtubule (collision resolution). Using live imaging to distinguish between these two mechanisms, we found that reduction of kinesin-2 did not alter the number of microtubules that grew along the edge of the branch points where stable microtubules are found. However, reduction of kinesin-2 or Apc did affect the number of microtubules that slowed down or depolymerized as they encountered the side of the branch opposite to the entry point. These results are consistent with kinesin-2 functioning with Apc to resolve collisions. However, they do not pinpoint stable microtubules as the collision partner as stable microtubules are typically very close to the membrane. To determine whether growing microtubules were steered along stable ones after a collision, we analyzed the behavior of growing microtubules at dendrite crossroads where stable microtubules run through the middle of the branch point. In control neurons, microtubules turned in the middle of the crossroads. However, when kinesin-2 was reduced some microtubules grew straight through the branch point and failed to turn. We propose that kinesin-2 functions to steer growing microtubules along stable ones following collisions. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26785384

  4. Role of microtubules in the contractile dysfunction of hypertrophied myocardium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zile, M. R.; Koide, M.; Sato, H.; Ishiguro, Y.; Conrad, C. H.; Buckley, J. M.; Morgan, J. P.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the ameliorative effects of microtubule depolymerization on cellular contractile dysfunction in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy apply at the tissue level. BACKGROUND: A selective and persistent increase in microtubule density causes decreased contractile function of cardiocytes from cats with hypertrophy produced by chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overloading. Microtubule depolymerization by colchicine normalizes contractility in these isolated cardiocytes. However, whether these changes in cellular function might contribute to changes in function at the more highly integrated and complex cardiac tissue level was unknown. METHODS: Accordingly, RV papillary muscles were isolated from 25 cats with RV pressure overload hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) for 4 weeks and 25 control cats. Contractile state was measured using physiologically sequenced contractions before and 90 min after treatment with 10(-5) mol/liter colchicine. RESULTS: The PAB significantly increased RV systolic pressure and the RV weight/body weight ratio in PAB; it significantly decreased developed tension from 59+/-3 mN/mm2 in control to 25+/-4 mN/mm2 in PAB, shortening extent from 0.21+/-0.01 muscle lengths (ML) in control to 0.12+/-0.01 ML in PAB, and shortening rate from 1.12+/-0.07 ML/s in control to 0.55+/-0.03 ML/s in PAB. Indirect immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed that PAB muscles had a selective increase in microtubule density and that colchicine caused complete microtubule depolymerization in both control and PAB papillary muscles. Microtubule depolymerization normalized myocardial contractility in papillary muscles of PAB cats but did not alter contractility in control muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Excess microtubule density, therefore, is equally important to both cellular and to myocardial contractile dysfunction caused by chronic, severe pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy.

  5. Hsc70 Rapidly Engages Tau after Microtubule Destabilization*

    PubMed Central

    Jinwal, Umesh K.; O'Leary, John C.; Borysov, Sergiy I.; Jones, Jeffrey R.; Li, Qingyou; Koren, John; Abisambra, Jose F.; Vestal, Grant D.; Lawson, Lisa Y.; Johnson, Amelia G.; Blair, Laura J.; Jin, Ying; Miyata, Yoshinari; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Dickey, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a crucial role in regulating the dynamic stability of microtubules during neuronal development and synaptic transmission. In a group of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, conformational changes in Tau are associated with the initial stages of disease pathology. Folding of Tau into the MC1 conformation, where the amino acids at residues 79 interact with residues 312342, is one of the earliest pathological alterations of Tau in Alzheimer disease. The mechanism of this conformational change in Tau and the subsequent effect on function and association to microtubules is largely unknown. Recent work by our group and others suggests that members of the Hsp70 family play a significant role in Tau regulation. Our new findings suggest that heat shock cognate (Hsc) 70 facilitates Tau-mediated microtubule polymerization. The association of Hsc70 with Tau was rapidly enhanced following treatment with microtubule-destabilizing agents. The fate of Tau released from the microtubule was found to be dependent on ATPase activity of Hsc70. Microtubule destabilization also rapidly increased the MC1 folded conformation of Tau. An in vitro assay suggests that Hsc70 facilitates formation of MC1 Tau. However, in a hyperphosphorylating environment, the formation of MC1 was abrogated, but Hsc70 binding to Tau was enhanced. Thus, under normal circumstances, MC1 formation may be a protective conformation facilitated by Hsc70. However, in a diseased environment, Hsc70 may preserve Tau in a more unstructured state, perhaps facilitating its pathogenicity. PMID:20308058

  6. Oscillatory Fluid Flow Influences Primary Cilia and Microtubule Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Espinha, Lina C.; Hoey, David A.; Fernandes, Paulo R.; Rodrigues, Hlder C.; Jacobs, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Many tissues are sensitive to mechanical stimuli; however, the mechanotransduction mechanism used by cells remains unknown in many cases. The primary cilium is a solitary, immotile microtubule-based extension present on nearly every mammalian cell which extends from the basal body. The cilium is a mechanosensitive organelle and has been shown to transduce fluid flow-induced shear stress in tissues such as the kidney and bone. The majority of microtubules assemble from the mother centriole (basal body), contributing significantly to the anchoring of the primary cilium. Several studies have attempted to quantify the number of microtubules emanating from the basal body and the results vary depending on the cell type. It has also been shown that cellular response to shear stress depends on microtubular integrity. This study hypothesizes that changing the microtubule attachment of primary cilia in response to a mechanical stimulus could change primary cilia mechanics and, possibly, mechanosensitivity. Oscillatory fluid flow was applied to two different cell types and the microtubule attachment to the ciliary base was quantified. For the first time, an increase in microtubules around primary cilia both with time and shear rate in response to oscillatory fluid flow stimulation was demonstrated. Moreover, it is presented that the primary cilium is required for this loading-induced cellular response. This study has demonstrated a new role for the cilium in regulating alterations in the cytoplasmic microtubule network in response to mechanical stimulation, and therefore provides a new insight into how cilia may regulate its mechanics and thus the cells mechanosensitivity. PMID:25044764

  7. Interaction of chicken gizzard smooth muscle calponin with brain microtubules.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Hiromori, T; Hamamoto, M; Suzuki, T

    1997-08-01

    Calponin, a major actin-, tropomyosin-, and calmodulin-binding protein in smooth muscle, interacted with tubulin, a main constituent of microtubules, in a concentration-dependent fashion in vitro. The apparent K(d) value of calponin to tubulin was calculated to be 5.2 microM with 2 mol of calponin maximally bound per 1 mol of tubulin. At low ionic strength, tubulin bound to calponin immobilized on Sepharose 4B, and the bound protein was released at about 270 mM NaCl. Chemical cross-linking experiments showed that a 1:1 molar covalent complex of calponin and tubulin was produced. The amount of calponin bound to microtubules decreased with increasing ionic strength or Ca2+ concentration. The addition of calmodulin or S100 to the mixture of calponin and microtubule proteins caused the removal of calponin from microtubules in the presence of Ca2+, but not in the presence of EGTA. Calponin-related proteins including tropomyosin, SM22, and caldesmon had little effect on the calponin binding to microtubules, whereas MAP2 inhibited the binding. Interestingly, there was little, if any, effect of mycalolide B-treated actin on the binding of calponin to microtubules. Furthermore, only about 20% of calponin-F-actin interaction was inhibited in the presence of an excess amount of tubulin (4 mol per mol of calponin), indicating that tubulin binds to calponin at a different site from that of actin. Compared with MAP2, calponin had little effect on microtubule polymerization. PMID:9378712

  8. Automated Stitching of Microtubule Centerlines across Serial Electron Tomograms

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Britta; Tranfield, Erin M.; Höög, Johanna L.; Baum, Daniel; Antony, Claude; Hyman, Tony; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Prohaska, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Tracing microtubule centerlines in serial section electron tomography requires microtubules to be stitched across sections, that is lines from different sections need to be aligned, endpoints need to be matched at section boundaries to establish a correspondence between neighboring sections, and corresponding lines need to be connected across multiple sections. We present computational methods for these tasks: 1) An initial alignment is computed using a distance compatibility graph. 2) A fine alignment is then computed with a probabilistic variant of the iterative closest points algorithm, which we extended to handle the orientation of lines by introducing a periodic random variable to the probabilistic formulation. 3) Endpoint correspondence is established by formulating a matching problem in terms of a Markov random field and computing the best matching with belief propagation. Belief propagation is not generally guaranteed to converge to a minimum. We show how convergence can be achieved, nonetheless, with minimal manual input. In addition to stitching microtubule centerlines, the correspondence is also applied to transform and merge the electron tomograms. We applied the proposed methods to samples from the mitotic spindle in C. elegans, the meiotic spindle in X. laevis, and sub-pellicular microtubule arrays in T. brucei. The methods were able to stitch microtubules across section boundaries in good agreement with experts' opinions for the spindle samples. Results, however, were not satisfactory for the microtubule arrays. For certain experiments, such as an analysis of the spindle, the proposed methods can replace manual expert tracing and thus enable the analysis of microtubules over long distances with reasonable manual effort. PMID:25438148

  9. Intracellular pH shift leads to microtubule assembly and microtubule-mediated motility during sea urchin fertilization: correlations between elevated intracellular pH and microtubule activity and depressed intracellular pH and microtubule disassembly.

    PubMed

    Schatten, G; Bestor, T; Balczon, R; Henson, J; Schatten, H

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of the microtubule-mediated motions within eggs during fertilization was investigated in relation to the shift in intracellular pH (pHi) that occurs during the ionic sequence of egg activation in the sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus and Arbacia punctulata. Microtubule assembly during formation of the sperm aster and mitotic apparatus was detected by anti-tubulin immunofluorescence microscopy, and the microtubule-mediated migrations of the sperm and egg nuclei were studied with time-lapse video differential interference contrast microscopy. Manipulations of intracellular pH were verified by fluorimetric analyses of cytoplasmic fluorescein incorporated as fluorescein diacetate. The ionic sequence of egg activation was manipulated i) to block the pHi shift at fertilization or reduce the pHi of fertilized eggs to unfertilized values, ii) to elevate artificially the pHi of unfertilized eggs to fertilized values, and iii) to elevate artificially or permit the normal pHi shift in fertilized eggs in which the pHi shift at fertilization was previously prevented. Fertilized eggs in which the pHi shift was suppressed did not assemble microtubules or undergo the normal microtubule-mediated motions. In fertilized eggs in which the pHi was reduced to unfertilized levels after the assembly of the sperm aster, no motions were detected. If the intracellular pH was later permitted to rise, normal motile events leading to division and development occurred, delayed by the time during which the pH elevation was blocked. Microtubule-mediated events occurred in eggs in which the intracellular pH was elevated, even in unfertilized eggs in which the pH was artificially increased. These results indicate that the formation and normal functioning of the egg microtubules is initiated, either directly or indirectly, by the shift in intracellular pH that occurs during fertilization. PMID:4038941

  10. Organization of microtubule assemblies in Dictyostelium syncytia depends on the microtubule crosslinker, Ase1.

    PubMed

    Tikhonenko, Irina; Irizarry, Karen; Khodjakov, Alexey; Koonce, Michael P

    2016-02-01

    It has long been known that the interphase microtubule (MT) array is a key cellular scaffold that provides structural support and directs organelle trafficking in eukaryotic cells. Although in animal cells, a combination of centrosome nucleating properties and polymer dynamics at the distal microtubule ends is generally sufficient to establish a radial, polar array of MTs, little is known about how effector proteins (motors and crosslinkers) are coordinated to produce the diversity of interphase MT array morphologies found in nature. This diversity is particularly important in multinucleated environments where multiple MT arrays must coexist and function. We initiate here a study to address the higher ordered coordination of multiple, independent MT arrays in a common cytoplasm. Deletion of a MT crosslinker of the MAP65/Ase1/PRC1 family disrupts the spatial integrity of multiple arrays in Dictyostelium discoideum, reducing the distance between centrosomes and increasing the intermingling of MTs with opposite polarity. This result, coupled with previous dynein disruptions suggest a robust mechanism by which interphase MT arrays can utilize motors and crosslinkers to sense their position and minimize overlap in a common cytoplasm. PMID:26298292

  11. Inert doublet dark matter with an additional scalar singlet and 125 GeV Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta Banik, Amit; Majumdar, Debasish

    2014-11-01

    In this work we consider a model for particle dark matter where an extra inert Higgs doublet and an additional scalar singlet is added to the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian. The dark matter candidate is obtained from only the inert doublet. The stability of this one component dark matter is ensured by imposing a symmetry on this additional inert doublet. The additional singlet scalar has a vacuum expectation value (VEV) and mixes with the Standard Model Higgs doublet, resulting in two CP even scalars and . We treat one of these scalars, , to be consistent with the SM Higgs-like boson of mass around 125 GeV reported by the LHC experiment. These two CP even scalars contribute to the annihilation cross section of this inert doublet dark matter, resulting in a larger dark matter mass region that satisfies the observed relic density. We also investigate the and processes and compared these with LHC results. This is also used to constrain the dark matter parameter space in the present model. We find that the dark matter candidate in the mass region 60-80 GeV ( GeV, mass of ) satisfies the recent bound from LUX direct detection experiment.

  12. Buckling behavior of individual and bundled microtubules.

    PubMed

    Soheilypour, Mohammad; Peyro, Mohaddeseh; Peter, Stephen J; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2015-04-01

    As the major structural constituent of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs) serve a variety of biological functions that range from facilitating organelle transport to maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cell. Neuronal MTs exhibit a distinct configuration, hexagonally packed bundles of MT filaments, interconnected by MT-associated protein (MAP) tau. Building on our previous work on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension, this study is focused on exploring the compression scenarios. Intracellular MTs carry a large fraction of the compressive loads sensed by the cell and therefore, like any other column-like structure, are prone to substantial bending and buckling. Various biological activities, e.g., actomyosin contractility and many pathological conditions are driven or followed by bending, looping, and buckling of MT filaments. The coarse-grained model previously developed in our lab has been used to study the mechanical behavior of individual and bundled invivo MT filaments under uniaxial compression. Both configurations show tip-localized, decaying, and short-wavelength buckling. This behavior highlights the role of the surrounding cytoplasm and MAP tau on MT buckling behavior, which allows MT filaments to bear much larger compressive forces. It is observed that MAP tau interconnections improve this effect by a factor of two. The enhanced ability of MT bundles to damp buckling waves relative to individual MT filaments, may be interpreted as a self-defense mechanism because it helps axonal MTs to endure harsher environments while maintaining their function. The results indicate that MT filaments in a bundle do not buckle simultaneously implying that the applied stress is not equally shared among the MT filaments, that is a consequence of the nonuniform distribution of MAP tau proteins along the bundle length. Furthermore, from a pathological perspective, it is observed that axonal MT bundles are more vulnerable to failure in compression than tension. PMID:25863063

  13. Cell prestress. II. Contribution of microtubules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Mijailovich, Srboljub M.; Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Ning; Ingber, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The tensegrity model hypothesizes that cytoskeleton-based microtubules (MTs) carry compression as they balance a portion of cell contractile stress. To test this hypothesis, we used traction force microscopy to measure traction at the interface of adhering human airway smooth muscle cells and a flexible polyacrylamide gel substrate. The prediction is that if MTs balance a portion of contractile stress, then, upon their disruption, the portion of stress balanced by MTs would shift to the substrate, thereby causing an increase in traction. Measurements were done first in maximally activated cells (10 microM histamine) and then again after MTs had been disrupted (1 microM colchicine). We found that after disruption of MTs, traction increased on average by approximately 13%. Because in activated cells colchicine induced neither an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) nor an increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation as shown previously, we concluded that the observed increase in traction was a result of load shift from MTs to the substrate. In addition, energy stored in the flexible substrate was calculated as work done by traction on the deformation of the substrate. This result was then utilized in an energetic analysis. We assumed that cytoskeleton-based MTs are slender elastic rods supported laterally by intermediate filaments and that MTs buckle as the cell contracts. Using the post-buckling equilibrium theory of Euler struts, we found that energy stored during buckling of MTs was quantitatively consistent with the measured increase in substrate energy after disruption of MTs. This is further evidence supporting the idea that MTs are intracellular compression-bearing elements.

  14. Microtubule guidance tested through controlled cell geometry.

    PubMed

    Huda, Sabil; Soh, Siowling; Pilans, Didzis; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Kim, Jiwon; Wilk, Gary; Borisy, Gary G; Kandere-Grzybowska, Kristiana; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2012-12-01

    In moving cells dynamic microtubules (MTs) target and disassemble substrate adhesion sites (focal adhesions; FAs) in a process that enables the cell to detach from the substrate and propel itself forward. The short-range interactions between FAs and MT plus ends have been observed in several experimental systems, but the spatial overlap of these structures within the cell has precluded analysis of the putative long-range mechanisms by which MTs growing through the cell body reach FAs in the periphery of the cell. In the work described here cell geometry was controlled to remove the spatial overlap of cellular structures thus allowing for unambiguous observation of MT guidance. Specifically, micropatterning of living cells was combined with high-resolution in-cell imaging and gene product depletion by means of RNA interference to study the long-range MT guidance in quantitative detail. Cells were confined on adhesive triangular microislands that determined cell shape and ensured that FAs localized exclusively at the vertices of the triangular cells. It is shown that initial MT nucleation at the centrosome is random in direction, while the alignment of MT trajectories with the targets (i.e. FAs at vertices) increases with an increasing distance from the centrosome, indicating that MT growth is a non-random, guided process. The guided MT growth is dependent on the presence of FAs at the vertices. The depletion of either myosin IIA or myosin IIB results in depletion of F-actin bundles and spatially unguided MT growth. Taken together our findings provide quantitative evidence of a role for long-range MT guidance in MT targeting of FAs. PMID:22992457

  15. Microtubule guidance tested through controlled cell geometry

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Sabil; Soh, Siowling; Pilans, Didzis; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Kim, Jiwon; Wilk, Gary; Borisy, Gary G.; Kandere-Grzybowska, Kristiana; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In moving cells dynamic microtubules (MTs) target and disassemble substrate adhesion sites (focal adhesions; FAs) in a process that enables the cell to detach from the substrate and propel itself forward. The short-range interactions between FAs and MT plus ends have been observed in several experimental systems, but the spatial overlap of these structures within the cell has precluded analysis of the putative long-range mechanisms by which MTs growing through the cell body reach FAs in the periphery of the cell. In the work described here cell geometry was controlled to remove the spatial overlap of cellular structures thus allowing for unambiguous observation of MT guidance. Specifically, micropatterning of living cells was combined with high-resolution in-cell imaging and gene product depletion by means of RNA interference to study the long-range MT guidance in quantitative detail. Cells were confined on adhesive triangular microislands that determined cell shape and ensured that FAs localized exclusively at the vertices of the triangular cells. It is shown that initial MT nucleation at the centrosome is random in direction, while the alignment of MT trajectories with the targets (i.e. FAs at vertices) increases with an increasing distance from the centrosome, indicating that MT growth is a non-random, guided process. The guided MT growth is dependent on the presence of FAs at the vertices. The depletion of either myosin IIA or myosin IIB results in depletion of F-actin bundles and spatially unguided MT growth. Taken together our findings provide quantitative evidence of a role for long-range MT guidance in MT targeting of FAs. PMID:22992457

  16. Tao-1 is a negative regulator of microtubule plus-end growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Rohn, Jennifer L.; Picone, Remigio; Kunda, Patricia; Baum, Buzz

    2010-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics are dominated by events at microtubule plus ends as they switch between discrete phases of growth and shrinkage. Through their ability to generate force and direct polar cell transport, microtubules help to organise global cell shape and polarity. Conversely, because plus-end binding proteins render the dynamic instability of individual microtubules sensitive to the local intracellular environment, cyto-architecture also affects the overall distribution of microtubules. Despite the importance of plus-end regulation for understanding microtubule cytoskeletal organisation and dynamics, little is known about the signalling mechanisms that trigger changes in their behaviour in space and time. Here, we identify a microtubule-associated kinase, Drosophila Tao-1, as an important regulator of microtubule stability, plus-end dynamics and cell shape. Active Tao-1 kinase leads to the destabilisation of microtubules. Conversely, when Tao-1 function is compromised, rates of cortical-induced microtubule catastrophe are reduced and microtubules contacting the actin cortex continue to elongate, leading to the formation of long microtubule-based protrusions. These data reveal a role for Tao-1 in controlling the dynamic interplay between microtubule plus ends and the actin cortex in the regulation of cell form. PMID:20647372

  17. Distinct roles for antiparallel microtubule pairing and overlap during early spindle assembly

    PubMed Central

    Nazarova, Elena; O'Toole, Eileen; Kaitna, Susi; Francois, Paul; Winey, Mark; Vogel, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    During spindle assembly, microtubules may attach to kinetochores or pair to form antiparallel pairs or interpolar microtubules, which span the two spindle poles and contribute to mitotic pole separation and chromosome segregation. Events in the specification of the interpolar microtubules are poorly understood. Using three-dimensional electron tomography and analysis of spindle dynamical behavior in living cells, we investigated the process of spindle assembly. Unexpectedly, we found that the phosphorylation state of an evolutionarily conserved Cdk1 site (S360) in ?-tubulin is correlated with the number and organization of interpolar microtubules. Mimicking S360 phosphorylation (S360D) results in bipolar spindles with a normal number of microtubules but lacking interpolar microtubules. Inhibiting S360 phosphorylation (S360A) results in spindles with interpolar microtubules and high-angle, antiparallel microtubule pairs. The latter are also detected in wild-type spindles <1 ?m in length, suggesting that high-angle microtubule pairing represents an intermediate step in interpolar microtubule formation. Correlation of spindle architecture with dynamical behavior suggests that microtubule pairing is sufficient to separate the spindle poles, whereas interpolar microtubules maintain the velocity of pole displacement during early spindle assembly. Our findings suggest that the number of interpolar microtubules formed during spindle assembly is controlled in part through activities at the spindle poles. PMID:23966467

  18. Transcription factor NF-?B associates with microtubules and stimulates apoptosis in response to suppression of microtubule dynamics in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ankit; Kapoor, Sonia; Singh, Shalini; Chatterji, Biswa Prasun; Panda, Dulal

    2015-02-01

    NF-?B, a master regulator of several signaling cascades, is known to be actively transported in the nucleus in response to various stimuli. Here, we found that NF-?B is associated with polymeric tubulin and co-localized with microtubules in MCF-7 cells. Using TN16, a known microtubule targeting agent, we found that microtubule dynamics plays a critical role in NF-?B-microtubule interaction. Treatment of cells with low concentrations of TN16 (25 and 50 nM) that suppressed microtubule dynamics without visibly affecting microtubule organization enhanced the association of NF-?B with microtubules and facilitated nuclear translocation of NF-?B. Colchicine and vinblastine also produced similar nuclear translocation of NF-?B. Further, nuclear import of NF-?B activated apoptotic pathway in the cells that were blocked in mitosis by TN16 treatment suggesting that NF-?B acts as a pro-apoptotic protein in response to the suppression of microtubule dynamics. Interestingly, in the presence of high concentrations of TN16 that extensively disrupted the microtubule network, though there was an increase in the apoptotic cell death, the interaction of NF-?B with microtubules and its nuclear import were significantly reduced. Under these conditions, we detected an increase in the level of phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of ERK, a MAP kinase, suggesting that the induction of apoptosis was caused by ERK signaling. The results indicate that the interaction of NF-?B with microtubules, its nuclear accumulation and subsequent gene transcription are critically dependent on microtubule dynamics. The data suggest a correlation between the functional status of microtubules and different apoptotic mechanisms invoked in response to microtubule inhibitors. PMID:25536174

  19. Direct incorporation of GDP into microtubules without GTP hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.M.; Hamel, E.

    1987-05-01

    Tubulin bearing (8-/sup 14/C)GDP in the exchangeable nucleotide binding site was prepared, and its polymerization was examined with microtubule-associated proteins containing minimal nucleoside diphosphate kinase and nonspecific phosphatase contamination. Although microtubule assembly required GTP, significant incorporation of tubulin-bound GDP into microtubules without exchange of the radiolabeled GDP for GTP was observed under reaction conditions which favored an increased proportion of tubulin x GDP relative to tubulin x GTP. These were low GTP concentrations, low Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations, high tubulin concentrations, and exogenous GDP in the reaction mixture. The minimum tubulin x GTP:tubulin x GDP ratio required for microtubule assembly was determined to establish the relative importance of the two tubulin species in the initiation of assembly and was found to be about 2:1. In addition, the relative efficiency with which tubulin x GTP and tubulin x GDP were incorporated into microtubules was determined. They found that tubulin x GDP was incorporated into polymer about half as efficiently as tubulin x GTP.

  20. Quantitative analysis of tau-microtubule interaction using FRET.

    PubMed

    Di Maïo, Isabelle L; Barbier, Pascale; Allegro, Diane; Brault, Cédric; Peyrot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between the microtubule associated protein, tau and the microtubules is investigated. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay was used to determine the distance separating tau to the microtubule wall, as well as the binding parameters of the interaction. By using microtubules stabilized with Flutax-2 as donor and tau labeled with rhodamine as acceptor, a donor-to-acceptor distance of 54 ± 1 Å was found. A molecular model is proposed in which Flutax-2 is directly accessible to tau-rhodamine molecules for energy transfer. By titration, we calculated the stoichiometric dissociation constant to be equal to 1.0 ± 0.5 µM. The influence of the C-terminal tails of αβ-tubulin on the tau-microtubule interaction is presented once a procedure to form homogeneous solution of cleaved tubulin has been determined. The results indicate that the C-terminal tails of α- and β-tubulin by electrostatic effects and of recruitment seem to be involved in the binding mechanism of tau. PMID:25196605

  1. Self-organized pattern formation in motor-microtubule mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankararaman, Sumithra; Menon, Gautam I.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.

    2004-09-01

    We model the stable self-organized patterns obtained in the nonequilibrium steady states of mixtures of molecular motors and microtubules. In experiments [Ndlec , Nature (London) 389, 305 (1997); Surrey , Science 292, 1167 (2001)] performed in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry, microtubules are oriented by complexes of motor proteins. This interaction yields a variety of patterns, including arrangements of asters, vortices, and disordered configurations. We model this system via a two-dimensional vector field describing the local coarse-grained microtubule orientation and two scalar density fields associated to molecular motors. These scalar fields describe motors which either attach to and move along microtubules or diffuse freely within the solvent. Transitions between single aster, spiral, and vortex states are obtained as a consequence of confinement, as parameters in our model are varied. For systems in which the effects of confinement can be neglected, we present a map of nonequilibrium steady states, which includes arrangements of asters and vortices separately as well as aster-vortex mixtures and fully disordered states. We calculate the steady state distribution of bound and free motors in aster and vortex configurations of microtubules and compare these to our simulation results, providing qualitative arguments for the stability of different patterns in various regimes of parameter space. We study the role of crowding or saturation effects on the density profiles of motors in asters, discussing the role of such effects in stabilizing single asters. We also comment on the implications of our results for experiments.

  2. Random Hydrolysis Controls the Dynamic Instability of Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Padinhateeri, Ranjith; Kolomeisky, AnatolyB.; Lacoste, David

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering mechanisms that control the dynamics of microtubules is fundamental for our understanding of multiple cellular processes such as chromosome separation and cell motility. Building on previous theoretical work on the dynamic instability of microtubules, we propose here a stochastic model that includes all relevant biochemical processes that affect the dynamics of microtubule plus-end, namely, the binding of GTP-bound monomers, unbinding of GTP- and GDP-bound monomers, and hydrolysis of GTP monomers. The inclusion of dissociation processes, present in our approach but absent from many previous studies, is essential to guarantee the thermodynamic consistency of the model. Our theoretical method allows us to compute all dynamic properties of microtubules explicitly. Using experimentally determined rates, it is found that the cap size is ?3.6 layers, an estimate that is compatible with several experimental observations. In the end, our model provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic instability of microtubules that includes not only the statistics of catastrophes but also the statistics of rescues. PMID:22455910

  3. Microtubules contribute to maintain nucleus shape in epithelial cell monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Dominique; Andrzejewski, Lukasz; Pelling, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tissue strains can result in significant nuclear deformations and may regulate gene expression. However, the precise role of the cytoskeleton in regulating nuclear mechanics remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the nuclear deformability of Madin-Darky canine kidney cells (MDCK) under various stretching conditions to clarify the role of the microtubules and actin network on the mechanical behavior of the nucleus. METHODS: A custom-built cell-stretching device allowing for real time imaging of MDCK nuclei was used. Cells were seeded on a silicone membrane coated with rat-tail collagen I. A nuclear stain, Hoechst-33342, was used to image nuclei during stretching. We exposed cells to a compressive and non-compressive stretching strain field of 25%. Nocodazole and cytochalasin-D were used to depolymerize the microtubules and actin network. RESULTS: Nuclei in control cells stretched more along their minor axis than major axis with a deformation of 5% and 2% respectively. This anisotropy vanished completely in microtubule-deprived cells and these cells showed a very high nuclear deformability along the minor axis when exposed to a compressive stretching strain field. CONCLUSIONS: The microtubules drive the anisotropic deformability of MDCK nuclei in a monolayer and maintain nuclear shape when exposed to compressive strain. Such intrinsic mechanical behavior indicates that microtubules are essential to maintain nuclear shape and may prevent down regulation of gene expression.

  4. Molecular crowding creates traffic jams of kinesin motors on microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Ccile; Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Varga, Vladimr; Helbing, Dirk; Diez, Stefan; Howard, Jonathon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the crowdedness of the interior of cells, microtubule-based motor proteins are able to deliver cargoes rapidly and reliably throughout the cytoplasm. We hypothesize that motor proteins may be adapted to operate in crowded environments by having molecular properties that prevent them from forming traffic jams. To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted high-density traffic of purified kinesin-8 motor protein, a highly processive motor with long end-residency time, along microtubules in a total internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy assay. We found that traffic jams, characterized by an abrupt increase in the density of motors with an associated abrupt decrease in motor speed, form even in the absence of other obstructing proteins. To determine the molecular properties that lead to jamming, we altered the concentration of motors, their processivity, and their rate of dissociation from microtubule ends. Traffic jams occurred when the motor density exceeded a critical value (density-induced jams) or when motor dissociation from the microtubule ends was so slow that it resulted in a pileup (bottleneck-induced jams). Through comparison of our experimental results with theoretical models and stochastic simulations, we characterized in detail under which conditions density- and bottleneck-induced traffic jams form or do not form. Our results indicate that transport kinesins, such as kinesin-1, may be evolutionarily adapted to avoid the formation of traffic jams by moving only with moderate processivity and dissociating rapidly from microtubule ends. PMID:22431622

  5. Diffusive Movement of Processive Kinesin-1 on Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailong; Ali, M. Yusuf; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Warshaw, David M.; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The processive motor kinesin-1 moves unidirectionally toward the plus end of microtubules. This process can be visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy of kinesin bound to a carboxylated Quantum dot (Qdot), which acts both as cargo and label. Surprisingly, when kinesin is bound to an anti-HIS Qdot, it shows diffusive movement on microtubules, which decreased in favor of processive runs with increasing salt concentration. This observation implies that kinesin movement on microtubules is governed by its conformation, as it is well-established that kinesin undergoes a salt-dependent transition from a folded (inactive) to an extended (active) molecule. A truncated kinesin lacking the last 75 amino acids (kinesin-?C) showed both processive and diffusive movement on microtubules. The extent of each behavior depends on the relative amounts of ADP and ATP, with purely diffusive movement occurring in ADP alone. Taken together, these data imply that folded kinesin.ADP can exist in a state that diffuses along the microtubule lattice without expending energy. This mechanism may facilitate the ability of kinesin to pick up cargo, and/or allow the kinesin/cargo complex to stay bound after encountering obstacles. PMID:19682327

  6. The feasibility of coherent energy transfer in microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Craddock, Travis John Adrian; Friesen, Douglas; Mane, Jonathan; Hameroff, Stuart; Tuszynski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    It was once purported that biological systems were far too ‘warm and wet’ to support quantum phenomena mainly owing to thermal effects disrupting quantum coherence. However, recent experimental results and theoretical analyses have shown that thermal energy may assist, rather than disrupt, quantum coherent transport, especially in the ‘dry’ hydrophobic interiors of biomolecules. Specifically, evidence has been accumulating for the necessary involvement of quantum coherent energy transfer between uniquely arranged chromophores in light harvesting photosynthetic complexes. The ‘tubulin’ subunit proteins, which comprise microtubules, also possess a distinct architecture of chromophores, namely aromatic amino acids, including tryptophan. The geometry and dipolar properties of these aromatics are similar to those found in photosynthetic units indicating that tubulin may support coherent energy transfer. Tubulin aggregated into microtubule geometric lattices may support such energy transfer, which could be important for biological signalling and communication essential to living processes. Here, we perform a computational investigation of energy transfer between chromophoric amino acids in tubulin via dipole excitations coupled to the surrounding thermal environment. We present the spatial structure and energetic properties of the tryptophan residues in the microtubule constituent protein tubulin. Plausibility arguments for the conditions favouring a quantum mechanism of signal propagation along a microtubule are provided. Overall, we find that coherent energy transfer in tubulin and microtubules is biologically feasible. PMID:25232047

  7. Changes in Neurofilament and Microtubule Distribution following Focal Axon Compression

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Adam J.; Hogan, James D.; Rajbhandari, Labchan; Shrestha, Shiva; Venkatesan, Arun; Ramesh, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of cytoskeletal derangements have been described in the setting of traumatic axonal injury (TAI), little is known of early structural changes that may serve to initiate a cascade of further axonal degeneration. Recent work by the authors has examined conformational changes in cytoskeletal constituents of neuronal axons undergoing traumatic axonal injury (TAI) following focal compression through confocal imaging data taken in vitro and in situ. The present study uses electron microscopy to understand and quantify in vitro alterations in the ultrastructural composition of microtubules and neurofilaments within neuronal axons of rats following focal compression. Standard transmission electron microscopy processing methods are used to identify microtubules, while neurofilament identification is performed using antibody labeling through gold nanoparticles. The number, density, and spacing of microtubules and neurofilaments are quantified for specimens in sham Control and Crushed groups with fixation at <1min following load. Our results indicate that the axon caliber dependency known to exist for microtubule and neurofilament metrics extends to axons undergoing TAI, with the exception of neurofilament spacing, which appears to remain constant across all Crushed axon diameters. Confidence interval comparisons between Control and Crushed cytoskeletal measures suggests early changes in the neurofilament spatial distributions within axons undergoing TAI may precede microtubule changes in response to applied loads. This may serve as a trigger for further secondary damage to the axon, representing a key insight into the temporal aspects of cytoskeletal degeneration at the component level, and suggests the rapid removal of neurofilament sidearms as one possible mechanism. PMID:26111004

  8. Katanin's severing activity favors bundling of cortical microtubules in plants.

    PubMed

    Stoppin-Mellet, Virginie; Gaillard, Jrmie; Vantard, Marylin

    2006-06-01

    Higher plant cells exhibit interphase microtubule arrays specific to plants, which are essential for their developmental program. These cortical microtubules (CMT) consist of a population of highly dynamic microtubules that are usually organized into bundles in the cortex of the cells. The organization of CMT is intimately linked to the acquisition of specialized functions, and subsequentchanges in their distribution affect their properties. The mechanisms underlying the formation and the distribution of CMT are still unclear, and little is known about the proteins that are involved in this phenomenon. Here we investigated the putative role of katanin, the only known plant microtubule-severing protein, in the organization of CMT. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines that overexpress katanin under the control of an ethanol-inducible promoter. In response to an induced overexpression of katanin, CMT organized into numerous and thick bundles, which ultimately depolymerized. From the analyses of CMT patterns together with recent data on CMT dynamics, we propose that, in interphase cells, katanin's main activity is to free CMT, generating motile microtubules that incorporate into bundles. PMID:16805733

  9. Tubulin tyrosine nitration regulates microtubule organization in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Yaroslav B.; Krasylenko, Yuliya A.; Demchuk, Oleh M.; Yemets, Alla I.

    2013-01-01

    During last years, selective tyrosine nitration of plant proteins gains importance as well-recognized pathway of direct nitric oxide (NO) signal transduction. Plant microtubules are one of the intracellular signaling targets for NO, however, the molecular mechanisms of NO signal transduction with the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins remain to be elucidated. Since biochemical evidence of plant α-tubulin tyrosine nitration has been obtained recently, potential role of this posttranslational modification in regulation of microtubules organization in plant cell is estimated in current paper. It was shown that 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NO2-Tyr) induced partially reversible Arabidopsis primary root growth inhibition, alterations of root hairs morphology and organization of microtubules in root cells. It was also revealed that 3-NO2-Tyr intensively decorates such highly dynamic microtubular arrays as preprophase bands, mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells under physiological conditions. Moreover, 3D models of the mitotic kinesin-8 complexes with the tail of detyrosinated, tyrosinated and tyrosine nitrated α-tubulin (on C-terminal Tyr 450 residue) from Arabidopsis were reconstructed in silico to investigate the potential influence of tubulin nitrotyrosination on the molecular dynamics of α-tubulin and kinesin-8 interaction. Generally, presented data suggest that plant α-tubulin tyrosine nitration can be considered as its common posttranslational modification, the direct mechanism of NO signal transduction with the participation of microtubules under physiological conditions and one of the hallmarks of the increased microtubule dynamics. PMID:24421781

  10. Single molecule studies reveal new mechanisms for microtubule severing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer; Diaz-Valencia, Juan Daniel; Morelli, Margaret; Zhang, Dong; Sharp, David

    2011-03-01

    Microtubule-severing enzymes are hexameric complexes made from monomeric enzyme subunits that remove tubulin dimers from the microtubule lattice. Severing proteins are known to remodel the cytoskeleton during interphase and mitosis, and are required in proper axon morphology and mammalian bone and cartilage development. We have performed the first single molecule imaging to determine where and how severing enzymes act to cut microtubules. We have focused on the original member of the group, katanin, and the newest member, fidgetin to compare their biophysical activities in vitro. We find that, as expected, severing proteins localize to areas of activity. Interestingly, the association is very brief: they do not stay bound nor do they bind cooperatively at active sites. The association duration changes with the nucleotide content, implying that the state in the catalytic cycle dictates binding affinity with the microtubule. We also discovered that, at lower concentrations, both katanin and fidgetin can depolymerize taxol-stabilized microtubules by removing terminal dimers. These studies reveal the physical regulation schemes to control severing activity in cells, and ultimately regulate cytoskeletal architecture. This work is supported by the March of Dimes Grant #5-FY09-46.

  11. Functional analysis of the microtubule-interacting transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Judith A.; Plant, Joshua J.; Ohsumi, Toshiro K.; Borowsky, Mark; Blower, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    RNA localization is an important mechanism for achieving precise control of posttranscriptional gene expression. Previously, we demonstrated that a subset of cellular mRNAs copurify with mitotic microtubules in egg extracts of Xenopus laevis. Due to limited genomic sequence information available for X. laevis, we used RNA-seq to comprehensively identify the microtubule-interacting transcriptome of the related frog Xenopus tropicalis. We identified ∼450 mRNAs that showed significant enrichment on microtubules (MT-RNAs). In addition, we demonstrated that the MT-RNAs incenp, xrhamm, and tpx2 associate with spindle microtubules in vivo. MT-RNAs are enriched with transcripts associated with cell division, spindle formation, and chromosome function, demonstrating an overrepresentation of genes involved in mitotic regulation. To test whether uncharacterized MT-RNAs have a functional role in mitosis, we performed RNA interference and discovered that several MT-RNAs are required for normal spindle pole organization and γ-tubulin distribution. Together, these data demonstrate that microtubule association is one mechanism for compartmentalizing functionally related mRNAs within the nucleocytoplasmic space of mitotic cells and suggest that MT-RNAs are likely to contribute to spindle-localized mitotic translation. PMID:21937723

  12. Microtubule guiding in a multi-walled carbon nanotube circuit.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Aurélien; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Sen, Mustafa; Kim, Kyongwan; Nakazawa, Hikaru; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Kumagai, Izumi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu; Teizer, Winfried

    2015-08-01

    In nanotechnological devices, mass transport can be initiated by pressure driven flow, diffusion or by employing molecular motors. As the scale decreases, molecular motors can be helpful as they are not limited by increased viscous resistance. Moreover, molecular motors can move against diffusion gradients and are naturally fitted for nanoscale transportation. Among motor proteins, kinesin has particular potential for lab-on-a-chip applications. It can be used for sorting, concentrating or as a mechanical sensor. When bound to a surface, kinesin motors propel microtubules in random directions, depending on their landing orientation. In order to circumvent this complication, the microtubule motion should be confined or guided. To this end, dielectrophoretically aligned multi-walled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can be employed as nanotracks. In order to control more precisely the spatial repartition of the MWCNTs, a screening method has been implemented and tested. Polygonal patterns have been fabricated with the aim of studying the guiding and the microtubule displacement between MWCNT segments. Microtubules are observed to transfer between MWCNT segments, a prerequisite for the guiding of microtubules in MWCNT circuit-based biodevices. The effect of the MWCNT organization (crenellated or hexagonal) on the MT travel distance has been investigated as well. PMID:26162482

  13. Comparison of ciliature microtubule organelles in three hypotrichous ciliate species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yisong; Shi, Lei; Gu, Fukang

    2010-05-01

    We examined the structure and spatial organization of ciliature base-associated microtubules (BAM) in three hypotrichous ciliates ( Stylonychia mytilus, Pseudourostyla cristata, Euplotes woodruffi) in fluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that BAM, including the anterior (ALM), posterior longitudinal microtubule (PLM) and the transverse microtubule (TM) bands, are composed of tubulin. The respective microtubular bands have cytoplasmic polarization patterns that are significantly asymmetric. The BAM of the midventral files in P. cristata appear cord-shaped compared with the ALM bands of transverse cirri in both S. mytilus and E. woodruffi, which extend to the left anterior side of the cell before converging. The TM bands of the left marginal cirri (MC) in S. mytilus extend to the right side of the cell, while those of the right MC bands extend to the left. Our observations suggest that BAM traits are common in hypotrichous ciliates even though different species possess different microtubule arrangements related to the conserved cirral morphogenetic patterns in the respective species. The differing development of BAM in the three ciliate suggests that the microtubules may be conserved in different hypotrichs. We have also demonstrated that the BAM, which appear polar and asymmetric, are localized in specific cytoskeletal positions and extend in different orientations within the cortex to connect with other ciliature-associated structures and, thus, strengthen the cortex. These BAM features indicate that they are directly associated with cell motion.

  14. A Novel Dynein Light Intermediate Chain Colocalizes with the Retrograde Motor for Intraflagellar Transport at Sites of Axoneme Assembly in Chlamydomonas and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Catherine A.; Tritschler, Douglas; Taulman, Patrick; Bower, Raqual; Yoder, Bradley K.; Porter, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    The assembly of cilia and flagella depends on bidirectional intraflagellar transport (IFT). Anterograde IFT is driven by kinesin II, whereas retrograde IFT requires cytoplasmic dynein 1b (cDHC1b). Little is known about how cDHC1b interacts with its cargoes or how it is regulated. Recent work identified a novel dynein light intermediate chain (D2LIC) that colocalized with the mammalian cDHC1b homolog DHC2 in the centrosomal region of cultured cells. To see whether the LIC might play a role in IFT, we characterized the gene encoding the Chlamydomonas homolog of D2LIC and found its expression is up-regulated in response to deflagellation. We show that the LIC subunit copurifies with cDHC1b during flagellar isolation, dynein extraction, sucrose density centrifugation, and immunoprecipitation. Immunocytochemistry reveals that the LIC colocalizes with cDHC1b in the basal body region and along the length of flagella in wild-type cells. Localization of the complex is altered in a collection of retrograde IFT and length control mutants, which suggests that the affected gene products directly or indirectly regulate cDHC1b activity. The mammalian DHC2 and D2LIC also colocalize in the apical cytoplasm and axonemes of ciliated epithelia in the lung, brain, and efferent duct. These studies, together with the identification of an LIC mutation, xbx-1(ok279), which disrupts retrograde IFT in Caenorhabditis elegans, indicate that the novel LIC is a component of the cDHC1b/DHC2 retrograde IFT motor in a variety of organisms. PMID:12802074

  15. A novel dynein light intermediate chain colocalizes with the retrograde motor for intraflagellar transport at sites of axoneme assembly in chlamydomonas and Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Catherine A; Tritschler, Douglas; Taulman, Patrick; Bower, Raqual; Yoder, Bradley K; Porter, Mary E

    2003-05-01

    The assembly of cilia and flagella depends on bidirectional intraflagellar transport (IFT). Anterograde IFT is driven by kinesin II, whereas retrograde IFT requires cytoplasmic dynein 1b (cDHC1b). Little is known about how cDHC1b interacts with its cargoes or how it is regulated. Recent work identified a novel dynein light intermediate chain (D2LIC) that colocalized with the mammalian cDHC1b homolog DHC2 in the centrosomal region of cultured cells. To see whether the LIC might play a role in IFT, we characterized the gene encoding the Chlamydomonas homolog of D2LIC and found its expression is up-regulated in response to deflagellation. We show that the LIC subunit copurifies with cDHC1b during flagellar isolation, dynein extraction, sucrose density centrifugation, and immunoprecipitation. Immunocytochemistry reveals that the LIC colocalizes with cDHC1b in the basal body region and along the length of flagella in wild-type cells. Localization of the complex is altered in a collection of retrograde IFT and length control mutants, which suggests that the affected gene products directly or indirectly regulate cDHC1b activity. The mammalian DHC2 and D2LIC also colocalize in the apical cytoplasm and axonemes of ciliated epithelia in the lung, brain, and efferent duct. These studies, together with the identification of an LIC mutation, xbx-1(ok279), which disrupts retrograde IFT in Caenorhabditis elegans, indicate that the novel LIC is a component of the cDHC1b/DHC2 retrograde IFT motor in a variety of organisms. PMID:12802074

  16. Critical Assessment of TD-DFT for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: I. Doublet-Doublet Transitions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-01-12

    A benchmark set of 11 small radicals is set up to assess the performance of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for the excited states of open-shell systems. Both the unrestricted (U-TD-DFT) and spin-adapted (X-TD-DFT) formulations of TD-DFT are considered. For comparison, the well-established EOM-CCSD (equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) is also used. In total, 111 low-lying singly excited doublet states are accessed by all the three approaches. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as the benchmark, it is found that both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD perform well for those states dominated by singlet-coupled single excitations (SCSE) from closed-shell to open-shell, open-shell to vacant-shell, or closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals. However, for those states dominated by triplet-coupled single excitations (TCSE) from closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals, both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD fail miserably due to severe spin contaminations. In contrast, X-TD-DFT provides balanced descriptions of both SCSE and TCSE. As far as the functional dependence is concerned, it is found that, when the Hartree-Fock ground state does not suffer from the instability problem, both global hybrid (GH) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals perform grossly better than pure density functionals, especially for Rydberg and charge-transfer excitations. However, if the Hartree-Fock ground state is instable or nearly instable, GH and RSH tend to underestimate severely the excitation energies. The SAOP (statistically averaging of model orbital potentials) performs more uniformly than any other density functionals, although it generally overestimates the excitation energies of valence excitations. Not surprisingly, both EOM-CCSD and adiabatic TD-DFT are incapable of describing excited states with substantial double excitation characters. PMID:26672389

  17. Particle optics of quadrupole doublet magnets in Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source ring employs doublet quadrupoles and dipole correctors in its straight sections. The electromagnetic quadrupoles have a large aperture, small aspect ratio, and relatively short iron-to-iron distance. The corrector is even closer to one of the quads. There have been concerns on the magnetic fringe field and interference in the doublet magnets and their assemblies. We have performed 3D computing simulations to study magnetic field distributions in the doublet magnets. Further, we have analyzed the particle optics based on the z-dependent focusing functions of the quads. The effect of the magnetic fringe field and interference, including the third-order aberrations, on the particle motion are investigated. The lens parameters and the first-order hard edge models are derived and compared with the parameters used in the ring lattice calculations.

  18. On the viability of minimal neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, P. A. N.; Perez, Y. F.; Sumensari, O.; Tabrizi, Z.; Funchal, R. Zukanovich

    2015-12-01

    We study the constraints that electroweak precision data can impose, after the discovery of the Higgs boson by the LHC, on neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet models which comprise one extra SU(2) U(1) doublet and a new symmetry, namely a spontaneously broken {Z}_2 or a softly broken global U(1). In these models the extra Higgs doublet, via its very small vacuum expectation value, is the sole responsible for neutrino masses. We find that the model with a {Z}_2 symmetry is basically ruled out by electroweak precision data, even if the model is slightly extended to include extra right-handed neutrinos, due to the presence of a very light scalar. While the other model is still perfectly viable, the parameter space is considerably constrained by current data, specially by the T parameter. In particular, the new charged and neutral scalars must have very similar masses.

  19. Physiological consequences of doublet discharges on motoneuronal firing and motor unit force.

    PubMed

    Mrwczy?ski, W?odzimierz; Celichowski, Jan; Raikova, Rositsa; Krutki, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The double discharges are observed at the onset of contractions of mammalian motor units (MUs), especially during their recruitment to strong or fast movements. Doublets lead to MU force increase and improve ability of muscles to maintain high force during prolonged contractions. In this review we discuss an ability to produce doublets by fast and slow motoneurons (MNs), their influence on the course of action potential afterhyperpolarization (AHP) as well as its role in modulation of the initial stage of the firing pattern of MNs. In conclusion, a generation of doublets is an important strategy of motor control, responsible for fitting the motoneuronal firing rate to the optimal for MUs at the start of their contraction, necessary for increment of muscle force. PMID:25805972

  20. Comparative analysis of doublets versus single-layer diffractive optical elements in eyepiece or magnifier design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmakci, Ozan; Rolland, Jannick

    2007-11-01

    We quantify the impact of eye clearance requirement on the performance of eyepieces utilizing doublets versus diffractive optical elements on aspheric substrates. In this study, the doublets were designed to be cemented on-axis elements. Specifically, four different values of eye clearance were implemented: 17, 20, 23, and 26 mm. For each value, axial and lateral color, spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, field curvature, and distortion were compared. Each system under comparison was optimized for the same focal length, a 9 mm exit pupil, photopic wavelengths (513-608 nm), and a 40 full field of view. We demonstrate that the single-layer diffractive optical element supports an eye clearance value of approximately 80% of the effective focal length, while the doublet drops below desired specifications at approximately 65% of the effective focal length.

  1. Two Higgs doublets with fourth-generation fermions: Models for TeV-scale compositeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Shalom, Shaouly; Nandi, Soumitra; Soni, Amarjit

    2011-09-01

    We construct a class of two Higgs doublets models with a 4th sequential generation of fermions that may effectively accommodate the low-energy characteristics and phenomenology of a dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scenario which is triggered by the condensates of the 4th family fermions. In particular, we single out the heavy quarks by coupling the heavier Higgs doublet (?h) which possesses a much larger VEV only to them while the lighter doublet (??) couples only to the light fermions. We study the constraints on these models from precision electroweak data as well as from flavor data. We also discuss some distinct new features that have direct consequences on the production and decays of the 4th family quarks and leptons in high-energy colliders;, in particular, the conventional search strategies for t' and b' may need to be significantly revised.

  2. Quantum spin ices and topological phases from dipolar-octupolar doublets on the pyrochlore lattice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Chen, Gang; Hermele, Michael

    2014-04-25

    We consider a class of d- and f-electron systems in which dipolar-octupolar Kramers doublets arise on the sites of the pyrochlore lattice. For such doublets, two components of the pseudospin transform like a magnetic dipole, while the other transforms like a component of the magnetic octupole tensor. Based on a symmetry analysis, we construct and study models of dipolar-octupolar doublets in itinerant and localized limits. In both limits, the resulting models are of surprisingly simple form. In the itinerant limit, we find topological insulating behavior. In the localized limit, the most general nearest-neighbor spin model is the XYZ model. We show that this XYZ model exhibits two distinct quantum spin ice (QSI) phases, that we dub dipolar QSI, and octupolar QSI. We conclude with a discussion of potential relevance to real material systems. PMID:24815666

  3. CYLD Regulates Noscapine Activity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia via a Microtubule-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunfan; Ran, Jie; Sun, Lei; Sun, Xiaodong; Luo, Youguang; Yan, Bing; Tala; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine is an orally administrable drug used worldwide for cough suppression and has recently been demonstrated to disrupt microtubule dynamics and possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating noscapine activity remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a microtubule-associated tumor suppressor protein, modulates the activity of noscapine both in cell lines and in primary cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy reveal that CYLD increases the ability of noscapine to induce mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Examination of cellular microtubules as well as in vitro assembled microtubules shows that CYLD enhances the effect of noscapine on microtubule polymerization. Microtubule cosedimentation and fluorescence titration assays further reveal that CYLD interacts with microtubule outer surface and promotes noscapine binding to microtubules. These findings thus demonstrate CYLD as a critical regulator of noscapine activity and have important implications for ALL treatment. PMID:25897332

  4. CYLD Regulates Noscapine Activity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia via a Microtubule-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunfan; Ran, Jie; Sun, Lei; Sun, Xiaodong; Luo, Youguang; Yan, Bing; Tala; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine is an orally administrable drug used worldwide for cough suppression and has recently been demonstrated to disrupt microtubule dynamics and possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating noscapine activity remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a microtubule-associated tumor suppressor protein, modulates the activity of noscapine both in cell lines and in primary cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy reveal that CYLD increases the ability of noscapine to induce mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Examination of cellular microtubules as well as in vitro assembled microtubules shows that CYLD enhances the effect of noscapine on microtubule polymerization. Microtubule cosedimentation and fluorescence titration assays further reveal that CYLD interacts with microtubule outer surface and promotes noscapine binding to microtubules. These findings thus demonstrate CYLD as a critical regulator of noscapine activity and have important implications for ALL treatment. PMID:25897332

  5. Analysis of Dictyostelium TACC reveals differential interactions with CP224 and unusual dynamics of Dictyostelium microtubules.

    PubMed

    Samereier, Matthias; Baumann, Otto; Meyer, Irene; Gräf, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    We have localized TACC to the microtubule-nucleating centrosomal corona and to microtubule plus ends. Using RNAi we proved that Dictyostelium TACC promotes microtubule growth during interphase and mitosis. For the first time we show in vivo that both TACC and XMAP215 family proteins can be differentially localized to microtubule plus ends during interphase and mitosis and that TACC is mainly required for recruitment of an XMAP215-family protein to interphase microtubule plus ends but not for recruitment to centrosomes and kinetochores. Moreover, we have now a marker to study dynamics and behavior of microtubule plus ends in living Dictyostelium cells. In a combination of live cell imaging of microtubule plus ends and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments of GFP-α-tubulin cells we show that Dictyostelium microtubules are dynamic only in the cell periphery, while they remain stable at the centrosome, which also appears to harbor a dynamic pool of tubulin dimers. PMID:20658257

  6. Electric field-induced reversible trapping of microtubules along metallic glass microwire electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyongwan; Sikora, Aurlien; Nakayama, Koji S.; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Hwang, Wonmuk; Teizer, Winfried

    2015-04-01

    Microtubules are among bio-polymers providing vital functions in dynamic cellular processes. Artificial organization of these bio-polymers is a requirement for transferring their native functions into device applications. Using electrophoresis, we achieve an accumulation of microtubules along a metallic glass (Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20) microwire in solution. According to an estimate based on migration velocities of microtubules approaching the wire, the electrophoretic mobility of microtubules is around 10-12 m2/Vs. This value is four orders of magnitude smaller than the typical mobility reported previously. Fluorescence microscopy at the individual-microtubule level shows microtubules aligning along the wire axis during the electric field-induced migration. Casein-treated electrodes are effective to reversibly release trapped microtubules upon removal of the external field. An additional result is the condensation of secondary filamentous structures from oriented microtubules.

  7. An array of nuclear microtubules reorganizes the budding yeast nucleus during quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Damien; Courtout, Fabien; Salin, Bndicte; Ceschin, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network. In dividing cells, its complex architecture not only influences cell shape and movement but is also crucial for chromosome segregation. Curiously, nothing is known about the behavior of this cellular machinery in quiescent cells. Here we show that, upon quiescence entry, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae microtubule cytoskeleton is drastically remodeled. Indeed, while cytoplasmic microtubules vanish, the spindle pole body (SPB) assembles a long and stable monopolar array of nuclear microtubules that spans the entire nucleus. Consequently, the nucleolus is displaced. Kinetochores remain attached to microtubule tips but lose SPB clustering and distribute along the microtubule array, leading to a large reorganization of the nucleus. When cells exit quiescence, the nuclear microtubule array slowly depolymerizes and, by pulling attached centromeres back to the SPB, allows the recovery of a typical Rabl-like configuration. Finally, mutants that do not assemble a nuclear array of microtubules are impaired for both quiescence survival and exit. PMID:24247429

  8. Molecular basis for age-dependent microtubule acetylation by tubulin acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Szyk, Agnieszka; Deaconescu, Alexandra M; Spector, Jeffrey; Goodman, Benjamin; Valenstein, Max L; Ziolkowska, Natasza E; Kormendi, Vasilisa; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2014-06-01

    Acetylation of ?-tubulin Lys40 by tubulin acetyltransferase (TAT) is the only known posttranslational modification in the microtubule lumen. It marks stable microtubules and is required for polarity establishment and directional migration. Here, we elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings for TAT activity and its preference for microtubules with slow turnover. 1.35 TAT cocrystal structures with bisubstrate analogs constrain TAT action to the microtubule lumen and reveal Lys40 engaged in a suboptimal active site. Assays with diverse tubulin polymers show that TAT is stimulated by microtubule interprotofilament contacts. Unexpectedly, despite the confined intraluminal location of Lys40, TAT efficiently scans the microtubule bidirectionally and acetylates stochastically without preference for ends. First-principles modeling and single-molecule measurements demonstrate that TAT catalytic activity, not constrained luminal diffusion, is rate limiting for acetylation. Thus, because of its preference for microtubules over free tubulin and its modest catalytic rate, TAT can function as a slow clock for microtubule lifetimes. PMID:24906155

  9. Waves of actin and microtubule polymerization drive microtubule-based transport and neurite growth before single axon formation

    PubMed Central

    Winans, Amy M; Collins, Sean R; Meyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Many developing neurons transition through a multi-polar state with many competing neurites before assuming a unipolar state with one axon and multiple dendrites. Hallmarks of the multi-polar state are large fluctuations in microtubule-based transport into and outgrowth of different neurites, although what drives these fluctuations remains elusive. We show that actin waves, which stochastically migrate from the cell body towards neurite tips, direct microtubule-based transport during the multi-polar state. Our data argue for a mechanical control system whereby actin waves transiently widen the neurite shaft to allow increased microtubule polymerization to direct Kinesin-based transport and create bursts of neurite extension. Actin waves also require microtubule polymerization, arguing that positive feedback links these two components. We propose that actin waves create large stochastic fluctuations in microtubule-based transport and neurite outgrowth, promoting competition between neurites as they explore the environment until sufficient external cues can direct one to become the axon. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12387.001 PMID:26836307

  10. LGN Directs Interphase Endothelial Cell Behavior via the Microtubule Network

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Catherine E.; Kushner, Erich J.; Du, Quansheng; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenic sprouts require coordination of endothelial cell (EC) behaviors as they extend and branch. Microtubules influence behaviors such as cell migration and cell-cell interactions via regulated growth and shrinkage. Here we investigated the role of the mitotic polarity protein LGN in EC behaviors and sprouting angiogenesis. Surprisingly, reduced levels of LGN did not affect oriented division of EC within a sprout, but knockdown perturbed overall sprouting. At the cell level, LGN knockdown compromised cell-cell adhesion and migration. EC with reduced LGN levels also showed enhanced growth and stabilization of microtubules that correlated with perturbed migration. These results fit a model whereby LGN influences interphase microtubule dynamics in endothelial cells to regulate migration, cell adhesion, and sprout extension, and reveal a novel non-mitotic role for LGN in sprouting angiogenesis. PMID:26398908

  11. Detyrosinated microtubules modulate mechanotransduction in heart and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jaclyn P.; Robison, Patrick; Shi, Guoli; Bogush, Alexey I.; Kempema, Aaron M.; Hexum, Joseph K.; Becerra, Natalia; Harki, Daniel A.; Martin, Stuart S.; Raiteri, Roberto; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Ward, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    In striated muscle, X-ROS is the mechanotransduction pathway by which mechanical stress transduced by the microtubule network elicits reactive oxygen species. X-ROS tunes Ca2+ signalling in healthy muscle, but in diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), microtubule alterations drive elevated X-ROS, disrupting Ca2+ homeostasis and impairing function. Here we show that detyrosination, a post-translational modification of α-tubulin, influences X-ROS signalling, contraction speed and cytoskeletal mechanics. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, the pharmacological reduction of detyrosination in vitro ablates aberrant X-ROS and Ca2+ signalling, and in vivo it protects against hallmarks of DMD, including workload-induced arrhythmias and contraction-induced injury in skeletal muscle. We conclude that detyrosinated microtubules increase cytoskeletal stiffness and mechanotransduction in striated muscle and that targeting this post-translational modification may have broad therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophies. PMID:26446751

  12. Microtubule Dynamics in Neuronal Development, Plasticity, and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Penazzi, Lorne; Bakota, Lidia; Brandt, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are the basic information-processing units of the nervous system. In fulfilling their task, they establish a structural polarity with an axon that can be over a meter long and dendrites with a complex arbor, which can harbor ten-thousands of spines. Microtubules and their associated proteins play important roles during the development of neuronal morphology, the plasticity of neurons, and neurodegenerative processes. They are dynamic structures, which can quickly adapt to changes in the environment and establish a structural scaffold with high local variations in composition and stability. This review presents a comprehensive overview about the role of microtubules and their dynamic behavior during the formation and maturation of processes and spines in the healthy brain, during aging and under neurodegenerative conditions. The review ends with a discussion of microtubule-targeted therapies as a perspective for the supportive treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26811287

  13. Acentrosomal Microtubule Assembly in Mitosis: The Where, When, and How.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Sylvain; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    In mitosis the cell assembles the bipolar spindle, a microtubule (MT)-based apparatus that segregates the duplicated chromosomes into two daughter cells. Most animal cells enter mitosis with duplicated centrosomes that provide an active source of dynamic MTs. However, it is now established that spindle assembly relies on the nucleation of acentrosomal MTs occurring around the chromosomes after nuclear envelope breakdown, and on pre-existing microtubules. Where chromosome-dependent MT nucleation occurs, when MT amplification takes place and how the two pathways function are still key questions that generate some controversies. We reconcile the data and present an integrated model accounting for acentrosomal microtubule assembly in the dividing cell. PMID:26475655

  14. Identification and Biological Activities of New Taccalonolide Microtubule Stabilizers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jiangnan; Risinger, April L.; Fest, Gary A.; Jackson, Evelyn M.; Helms, Gregory; Polin, Lisa A.; Mooberry, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The taccalonolides are a unique class of microtubule stabilizers that do not bind directly to tubulin. Three new taccalonolides, Z, AA and AB, along with two known compounds, taccalonolides R and T, were isolated from Tacca chantrieri and Tacca integrifolia. Taccalonolide structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR methods. The biological activities of the new taccalonolides, as well as taccalonolides A, B, E, N, R and T, were evaluated. All nine taccalonolides display microtubule stabilizing activity, but profound differences in antiproliferative potencies were noted, with IC50 values ranging from the low nanomolar range for taccalonolide AA (32 nM) to the low micromolar range for taccalonolide R (13 M). These studies demonstrate that diverse taccalonolides possess microtubule stabilizing properties and that significant structure-activity relationships exist. In vivo antitumor evaluations of taccalonolides A, E and N show that each of these molecules has in vivo antitumor activity. PMID:21800839

  15. Detyrosinated microtubules modulate mechanotransduction in heart and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jaclyn P; Robison, Patrick; Shi, Guoli; Bogush, Alexey I; Kempema, Aaron M; Hexum, Joseph K; Becerra, Natalia; Harki, Daniel A; Martin, Stuart S; Raiteri, Roberto; Prosser, Benjamin L; Ward, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    In striated muscle, X-ROS is the mechanotransduction pathway by which mechanical stress transduced by the microtubule network elicits reactive oxygen species. X-ROS tunes Ca(2+) signalling in healthy muscle, but in diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), microtubule alterations drive elevated X-ROS, disrupting Ca(2+) homeostasis and impairing function. Here we show that detyrosination, a post-translational modification of ?-tubulin, influences X-ROS signalling, contraction speed and cytoskeletal mechanics. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, the pharmacological reduction of detyrosination in vitro ablates aberrant X-ROS and Ca(2+) signalling, and in vivo it protects against hallmarks of DMD, including workload-induced arrhythmias and contraction-induced injury in skeletal muscle. We conclude that detyrosinated microtubules increase cytoskeletal stiffness and mechanotransduction in striated muscle and that targeting this post-translational modification may have broad therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophies. PMID:26446751

  16. Isolation of microtubules by assembly/disassembly methods.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule-isolation procedures described here are based on the ability of the investigator to control the dimer-polymer distribution of tubulin by varying the temperature of the extract. In general, the extract is warmed to induce microtubule assembly, the polymer is collected by centrifugation, cooled to induce disassembly, clarified by centrifugation, and then warmed again to produce polymer. As long as the GTP supply is sufficient, the microtubules that result can be taken through numerous rounds of this in vitro assembly and disassembly reaction. Many microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) associate with microtubules assembled in vitro. Some reagents can skew the equilibrium of assembly and disassembly toward formation of polymer. The inclusion of glycerol, for instance, promotes microtubule assembly by disrupting the hydration shell around the tubulin dimers. The result is a greater yield of tubulin per gram of starting material. However, the ratio of MAPs to tubulin is slightly lower, presumably because the glycerol also decreases the binding of MAPs to tubulin. Two methods are described here: The first uses buffer lacking assembly-promoting components, and the second uses buffer containing glycerol. These procedures are most efficient with vertebrate brain tissue, where the soluble protein can be up to 15%-20% tubulin. The first produces satisfactory yields when using chick or pig brain; the second is recommended for calf or cow brain. The second procedure may also be useful for studies of nonneuronal tissues where the relative concentration of tubulin per gram of wet weight is considerably lower than that of brain. PMID:25561620

  17. Microtubule and Actin Interplay Drive Intracellular c-Src Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Arnette, Christopher; Frye, Keyada; Kaverina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Src is involved in a variety of signaling processes. Therefore, c-Src spatiotemporal localization is critical for interaction with downstream targets. However, the mechanisms regulating this localization have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown that c-Src trafficking is a microtubule-dependent process that facilitates c-Src turnover in neuronal growth cones. As such, microtubule depolymerization lead to the inhibition of c-Src recycling. Alternatively, c-Src trafficking was also shown to be regulated by RhoB-dependent actin polymerization. Our results show that c-Src vesicles primarily exhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking; however, microtubule depolymerization does not inhibit vesicle movement. Instead, vesicular movement becomes both faster and less directional. This movement was associated with actin polymerization directly at c-Src vesicle membranes. Interestingly, it has been shown previously that c-Src delivery is an actin polymerization-dependent process that relies on small GTPase RhoB at c-Src vesicles. In agreement with this finding, microtubule depolymerization induced significant activation of RhoB, together with actin comet tail formation. These effects occurred downstream of GTP-exchange factor, GEF-H1, which was released from depolymerizing MTs. Accordingly, GEF-H1 activity was necessary for actin comet tail formation at the Src vesicles. Our results indicate that regulation of c-Src trafficking requires both microtubules and actin polymerization, and that GEF-H1 coordinates c-Src trafficking, acting as a molecular switch between these two mechanisms. PMID:26866809

  18. Microtubule and Actin Interplay Drive Intracellular c-Src Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Arnette, Christopher; Frye, Keyada; Kaverina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Src is involved in a variety of signaling processes. Therefore, c-Src spatiotemporal localization is critical for interaction with downstream targets. However, the mechanisms regulating this localization have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown that c-Src trafficking is a microtubule-dependent process that facilitates c-Src turnover in neuronal growth cones. As such, microtubule depolymerization lead to the inhibition of c-Src recycling. Alternatively, c-Src trafficking was also shown to be regulated by RhoB-dependent actin polymerization. Our results show that c-Src vesicles primarily exhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking; however, microtubule depolymerization does not inhibit vesicle movement. Instead, vesicular movement becomes both faster and less directional. This movement was associated with actin polymerization directly at c-Src vesicle membranes. Interestingly, it has been shown previously that c-Src delivery is an actin polymerization-dependent process that relies on small GTPase RhoB at c-Src vesicles. In agreement with this finding, microtubule depolymerization induced significant activation of RhoB, together with actin comet tail formation. These effects occurred downstream of GTP-exchange factor, GEF-H1, which was released from depolymerizing MTs. Accordingly, GEF-H1 activity was necessary for actin comet tail formation at the Src vesicles. Our results indicate that regulation of c-Src trafficking requires both microtubules and actin polymerization, and that GEF-H1 coordinates c-Src trafficking, acting as a molecular switch between these two mechanisms. PMID:26866809

  19. S. pombe Kinesins-8 Promote Both Nucleation and Catastrophe of Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Erent, Muriel; Drummond, Douglas R.; Cross, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The kinesins-8 were originally thought to be microtubule depolymerases, but are now emerging as more versatile catalysts of microtubule dynamics. We show here that S. pombe Klp5-436 and Klp6-440 are non-processive plus-end-directed motors whose in vitro velocities on S. pombe microtubules at 7 and 23 nm s−1 are too slow to keep pace with the growing tips of dynamic interphase microtubules in living S. pombe. In vitro, Klp5 and 6 dimers exhibit a hitherto-undescribed combination of strong enhancement of microtubule nucleation with no effect on growth rate or catastrophe frequency. By contrast in vivo, both Klp5 and Klp6 promote microtubule catastrophe at cell ends whilst Klp6 also increases the number of interphase microtubule arrays (IMAs). Our data support a model in which Klp5/6 bind tightly to free tubulin heterodimers, strongly promoting the nucleation of new microtubules, and then continue to land as a tubulin-motor complex on the tips of growing microtubules, with the motors then dissociating after a few seconds residence on the lattice. In vivo, we predict that only at cell ends, when growing microtubule tips become lodged and their growth slows down, will Klp5/6 motor activity succeed in tracking growing microtubule tips. This mechanism would allow Klp5/6 to detect the arrival of microtubule tips at cells ends and to amplify the intrinsic tendency for microtubules to catastrophise in compression at cell ends. Our evidence identifies Klp5 and 6 as spatial regulators of microtubule dynamics that enhance both microtubule nucleation at the cell centre and microtubule catastrophe at the cell ends. PMID:22363481

  20. Structural basis of the Inv compartment and ciliary abnormalities in Inv/nphp2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takuma; Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Yokoyama, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium is a hair like structure protruding from most mammalian cells. The basic design of the primary cilium consists of a nine microtubule doublet structure (the axoneme). The Inv compartment, a distinct proximal segment of the ciliary body, is defined as the region in which the Inv protein is localized. Inv gene is a responsible gene for human nephronophthisis type2 (NPHP2). Here, we show that renal cilia have a short proximal microtubule doublet region and a long distal microtubule singlet region. The length of the Inv compartment was similar to that of the microtubule doublet region, suggesting a possibility that the doublet region is the structural basis of the Inv compartment. Respiratory cilia of inv mouse mutants had ciliary rootlet malformation and showed reduced ciliary beating frequency and ciliary beating angle, which may explain recurrent bronchitis in NPHP2 patients. In multiciliated tracheal cells, most Inv proteins were retained in the basal body and did not accumulate in the Inv compartment. These results suggest that the machinery to transport and retain Inv in cilia is different between renal and tracheal cilia and that Inv may function in the basal body of tracheal cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26615802

  1. TACC3 is a microtubule plus end-tracking protein that promotes axon elongation and also regulates microtubule plus end dynamics in multiple embryonic cell types.

    PubMed

    Nwagbara, Belinda U; Faris, Anna E; Bearce, Elizabeth A; Erdogan, Burcu; Ebbert, Patrick T; Evans, Matthew F; Rutherford, Erin L; Enzenbacher, Tiffany B; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2014-11-01

    Microtubule plus end dynamics are regulated by a conserved family of proteins called plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs). It is unclear how various +TIPs interact with each other and with plus ends to control microtubule behavior. The centrosome-associated protein TACC3, a member of the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) domain family, has been implicated in regulating several aspects of microtubule dynamics. However, TACC3 has not been shown to function as a +TIP in vertebrates. Here we show that TACC3 promotes axon outgrowth and regulates microtubule dynamics by increasing microtubule plus end velocities in vivo. We also demonstrate that TACC3 acts as a +TIP in multiple embryonic cell types and that this requires the conserved C-terminal TACC domain. Using high-resolution live-imaging data on tagged +TIPs, we show that TACC3 localizes to the extreme microtubule plus end, where it lies distal to the microtubule polymerization marker EB1 and directly overlaps with the microtubule polymerase XMAP215. TACC3 also plays a role in regulating XMAP215 stability and localizing XMAP215 to microtubule plus ends. Taken together, our results implicate TACC3 as a +TIP that functions with XMAP215 to regulate microtubule plus end dynamics. PMID:25187649

  2. Theoretical study of positive-parity doublet bands in {sup 124}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S. Y.; Qi, B.; Sun, D. P.

    2010-08-15

    Positive-parity doublet bands in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 124}Cs have been studied by using the two quasiparticles plus a triaxial rotor model. The energy spectra and electromagnetic properties are calculated and compared with the available experimental results. Good agreement is obtained in the present calculation. The chiral geometry and its evolution with angular momentum for doublet bands in {sup 124}Cs is also exhibited and discussed based on the analysis of the expectation values and the probability distributions of the angular momentum.

  3. Operator-generated command language for computer control of Doublet III

    SciTech Connect

    Drobnis, D.; Petersen, P.

    1982-02-01

    The Control System for Doublet III consists of a medium-sized minicomputer system, with several keyboards and color alphanumeric CRTs for interactive operator interface to a large distributed CAMAC I/O system. Under normal operating conditions, however, all of the sequential and decision-making operations necessary to prepare each tokamak shot are performed directly by the computer, executing a set of Procedures coded in a convenient command language. Most of these Procedures have been developed by the Doublet III operators themselves, and are maintained, altered, and augmented as required without programmer attention. In effect, the Procedures have become a high-level tokamak Command Language.

  4. Mass bounds for baryogenesis from particle decays and the inert doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Racker, J.

    2014-03-01

    In models for thermal baryogenesis from particle decays, the mass of the decaying particle is typically many orders of magnitude above the TeV scale. We will discuss different ways to lower the energy scale of baryogenesis and present the corresponding lower bounds on the particle's mass. This is done specifically for the inert doublet model with heavy Majorana neutrinos and then we indicate how to extrapolate the results to other scenarios. We also revisit the question of whether or not dark matter, neutrino masses, and the cosmic baryon asymmetry can be explained simultaneously at low energies in the inert doublet model.

  5. Three Extra Mirror or Sequential Families: Case for a Heavy Higgs Boson and Inert Doublet

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Homero; Melfo, Alejandra; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran

    2011-05-13

    We study the possibility of the existence of extra fermion families and an extra Higgs doublet. We find that requiring the extra Higgs doublet to be inert leaves space for three extra families, allowing for mirror fermion families and a dark matter candidate at the same time. The emerging scenario is very predictive: It consists of a standard model Higgs boson, with a mass above 400 GeV, heavy new quarks between 340 and 500 GeV, light extra neutral leptons, and an inert scalar with a mass below M{sub Z}.

  6. Conceptual design summary for modifying Doublet III to a large dee-shaped configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.G.; Gallix, R.; Luxon, J.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Puhn, F.A.; Rock, P.J.; Wesley, J.C.

    1983-05-01

    The Doublet III tokamak is to be reconfigured by replacing its indented (doublet) vacuum vessel with a larger one of a dee-shaped cross section. This change will permit significantly larger elongated plasmas than is presently possible and will allow higher plasma current (up to 5 MA) and anticipated longer confinement time. Reactor relevant values of stable beta and plasma pressure are predicted. This modification, while resulting in a significant change in capability, utilizes most of the existing coils, structure, systems and facility.

  7. The engine of microtubule dynamics comes into focus.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, T J

    2014-05-22

    In this issue, Alushin et al. report high-resolution structures of three states of the microtubule lattice: GTP-bound, which is stable to depolymerization; unstable GDP-bound; and stable Taxol and GDP-bound. By comparing these structures at near-atomic resolution, they are able to propose a detailed model for how GTP hydrolysis destabilizes the microtubule and thus powers dynamic instability and chromosome movement. Destabilization of cytoskeleton filaments by nucleotide hydrolysis is an important general principle in cell dynamics, and this work represents a major step forward on a problem with a long history. PMID:24855939

  8. Physical aspects of the assembly and function of microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holy, Timothy Eric

    Living cells contain polymers called microtubules. Microtubules are used to control cell shape, to generate force for movement, to transport vesicles, and to separate chromosomes during cell division. Microtubule polymerization is governed by a unique, energy-consuming phenomenon called dynamic instability, which leads to large fluctuations in length. This dissertation reports on physical studies (theory and experiment) of microtubules and their roles in living cells. To understand dynamic instability we need to know its mechanism and its function. Experiments on dynamic instability have led to a seeming contradiction as to its mechanism. By introducing a phenomenological model that unites the existing data, we show that this contradiction can be resolved. The model describes the stochastic dynamics of a stabilizing cap which promotes growth, but whose loss leads to disassembly. The theory matches experiments over time scales from seconds to minutes. We address the biological role of dynamic instability, also from a theoretical standpoint. We show that these large length fluctuations are useful: they lead to a rapid search of intracellular space. This search may be an essential step in organizing the cell interior, forging connections between widely-separated components. We show that dynamic instability speeds a search by several orders of magnitude. We also find that the parameters which govern dynamic instability appear to be chosen by the cell so as to minimize the search time. This thesis also reports experiments showing that microtubule polymerization may generate forces for movement and organization. Archetypal movements in living cells (e.g., the movement of the sperm nucleus from the periphery to the center of the egg) were reconstructed in an artificial system. The components of our system are purified proteins and two specially-designed materials: latex beads coated so as to nucleate microtubules, and microscopic chambers fabricated to mimic the confined geometry of cells. With this system, we showed that microtubule growth alone moves beads to the center of chambers. However, once microtubules grow long enough to buckle, the center is de-stabilized and the underlying symmetry is broken. Dynamic instability allows the aster to explore a complex bending-energy landscape.

  9. Microtubule amplification in the assembly of mitotic spindle and the maturation of kinetochore fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Fang, Kayleen; Fang, Guowei

    2009-05-01

    Efficient assembly of a mitotic spindle and stable attachment of microtubules (k-fibers) to kinetochores are essential for the high fidelity of chromosome segregation. Both spindle assembly and k-fiber formation require robust nucleation and polymerization of microtubules mediated by the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC). It has been well established that centrosomes and chromatin are the two centers for microtubule nucleation. We recently demonstrate a third mechanism for microtubule nucleation and polymerization, in which the existing microtubules in the spindle act as templates to promote the formation of new microtubules. We showed that a novel spindle-associated protein, FAM29A, plays a critical role in this microtubule-dependent microtubule amplification. FAM29A associates with spindle microtubules and directly interacts with and recruits NEDD1, the targeting subunit of gammaTuRC. Spindle-associated gammaTuRC then promotes microtubule nucleation required for spindle assembly and k-fiber formation. This novel microtubule amplification pathway provides a powerful mechanism to control the local cytoskeleton structures independent of centrosomes and chromatin. We speculate that microtubule amplification not only functions in mitosis, but may also act in other physiological processes to re-enforce existing cytoskeleton structures. PMID:19641730

  10. Recovery of Microtubules on the Blepharoplast of Ceratopteris Spermatogenous Cells after Oryzalin Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most land plants have ill-defined microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs), consisting of sites on the nuclear envelope or even along microtubules. In contrast, spermatogenous cells of the pteridophyte Ceratopteris richardii have a well-defined MTOC, the blepharoplast, which organizes microtubules th...

  11. Actin-Dependent and -Independent Functions of Cortical Microtubules in the Differentiation of Arabidopsis Leaf Trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sambade, Adrian; Findlay, Kim; Schffner, Anton R; Lloyd, Clive W; Buschmann, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana tortifola2 carries a point mutation in ?-tubulin 4 and shows aberrant cortical microtubule dynamics. The microtubule defect of tortifolia2 leads to overbranching and right-handed helical growth in the single-celled leaf trichomes. Here, we use tortifolia2 to further our understanding of microtubules in plant cell differentiation. Trichomes at the branching stage show an apical ring of cortical microtubules, and our analyses support that this ring is involved in marking the prospective branch site. tortifolia2 showed ectopic microtubule bundles at this stage, consistent with a function for microtubules in selecting new branch sites. Overbranching of tortifolia2 required the C-terminal binding protein/brefeldin A-ADP ribosylated substrate protein ANGUSTIFOLIA1, and our results indicate that the angustifolia1 mutant is hypersensitive to alterations in microtubule dynamics. To analyze whether actin and microtubules cooperate in the trichome cell expansion process, we generated double mutants of tortifolia2 with distorted1, a mutant that is defective in the actin-related ARP2/3 complex. The double mutant trichomes showed a complete loss of growth anisotropy, suggesting a genetic interaction of actin and microtubules. Green fluorescent protein labeling of F-actin or microtubules in tortifolia2 distorted1 double mutants indicated that F-actin enhances microtubule dynamics and enables reorientation. Together, our results suggest actin-dependent and -independent functions of cortical microtubules in trichome differentiation. PMID:24714762

  12. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, R.M. ); Wilson, L. ); Purich, D.L. )

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  13. Interplay between kinesin-1 and cortical dynein during axonal outgrowth and microtubule organization in Drosophila neurons

    PubMed Central

    del Castillo, Urko; Winding, Michael; Lu, Wen; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how microtubule motors organize microtubules in Drosophila neurons. We showed that, during the initial stages of axon outgrowth, microtubules display mixed polarity and minus-end-out microtubules push the tip of the axon, consistent with kinesin-1 driving outgrowth by sliding antiparallel microtubules. At later stages, the microtubule orientation in the axon switches from mixed to uniform polarity with plus-end-out. Dynein knockdown prevents this rearrangement and results in microtubules of mixed orientation in axons and accumulation of microtubule minus-ends at axon tips. Microtubule reorganization requires recruitment of dynein to the actin cortex, as actin depolymerization phenocopies dynein depletion, and direct recruitment of dynein to the membrane bypasses the actin requirement. Our results show that cortical dynein slides minus-end-out microtubules from the axon, generating uniform microtubule arrays. We speculate that differences in microtubule orientation between axons and dendrites could be dictated by differential activity of cortical dynein. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10140.001 PMID:26615019

  14. Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoa in Digeneans of the genus Lecithochirium Lhe, 1901 (Digenea, Hemiuridae), parasites of fishes: comparative study of L. microstomum and L. musculus

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Sne, Aminata; Tkach, Vasyl V.; B, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first ultrastructural data of spermatozoa in the genus Lecithochirium. The spermatozoa of L. microstomum (from Trichiurus lepturus in Senegal) and L. musculus (from Anguilla anguilla in Corsica) exhibit the general pattern described in the great majority of the Digenea, namely two axonemes with the 9+1 pattern typical of the Trepaxonemata, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. Spermatozoa of L. microstomum and L. musculus have some specific features such as the presence of a reduced number of cortical microtubules arranged on only one side of the spermatozoon, the lack of spine-like bodies and expansion of the plasma membrane. The external ornamentation of the plasma membrane entirely covers the anterior extremity of the spermatozoa. The ultrastructure of the posterior extremity of the spermatozoa corresponds to the pattern previously described in the Hemiuridae, characterized by only singlets of the second axoneme. A particularity of these spermatozoa is the organization of the microtubule doublets of the second axoneme around the nucleus in the posterior part of the spermatozoon. PMID:25275216

  15. Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoa in Digeneans of the genus Lecithochirium Lhe, 1901 (Digenea, Hemiuridae), parasites of fishes: comparative study of L. microstomum and L. musculus.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Sne, Aminata; Tkach, Vasyl V; B, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first ultrastructural data of spermatozoa in the genus Lecithochirium. The spermatozoa of L. microstomum (from Trichiurus lepturus in Senegal) and L. musculus (from Anguilla anguilla in Corsica) exhibit the general pattern described in the great majority of the Digenea, namely two axonemes with the 9 + "1" pattern typical of the Trepaxonemata, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. Spermatozoa of L. microstomum and L. musculus have some specific features such as the presence of a reduced number of cortical microtubules arranged on only one side of the spermatozoon, the lack of spine-like bodies and expansion of the plasma membrane. The external ornamentation of the plasma membrane entirely covers the anterior extremity of the spermatozoa. The ultrastructure of the posterior extremity of the spermatozoa corresponds to the pattern previously described in the Hemiuridae, characterized by only singlets of the second axoneme. A particularity of these spermatozoa is the organization of the microtubule doublets of the second axoneme around the nucleus in the posterior part of the spermatozoon. PMID:25275216

  16. Microtubules accelerate the kinase activity of Aurora-B by a reduction in dimensionality.

    PubMed

    Noujaim, Michael; Bechstedt, Susanne; Wieczorek, Michal; Brouhard, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    Aurora-B is the kinase subunit of the Chromosome Passenger Complex (CPC), a key regulator of mitotic progression that corrects improper kinetochore attachments and establishes the spindle midzone. Recent work has demonstrated that the CPC is a microtubule-associated protein complex and that microtubules are able to activate the CPC by contributing to Aurora-B auto-phosphorylation in trans. Aurora-B activation is thought to occur when the local concentration of Aurora-B is high, as occurs when Aurora-B is enriched at centromeres. It is not clear, however, whether distributed binding to large structures such as microtubules would increase the local concentration of Aurora-B. Here we show that microtubules accelerate the kinase activity of Aurora-B by a "reduction in dimensionality." We find that microtubules increase the kinase activity of Aurora-B toward microtubule-associated substrates while reducing the phosphorylation levels of substrates not associated to microtubules. Using the single molecule assay for microtubule-associated proteins, we show that a minimal CPC construct binds to microtubules and diffuses in a one-dimensional (1D) random walk. The binding of Aurora-B to microtubules is salt-dependent and requires the C-terminal tails of tubulin, indicating that the interaction is electrostatic. We show that the rate of Aurora-B auto-activation is faster with increasing concentrations of microtubules. Finally, we demonstrate that microtubules lose their ability to stimulate Aurora-B when their C-terminal tails are removed by proteolysis. We propose a model in which microtubules act as scaffolds for the enzymatic activity of Aurora-B. The scaffolding activity of microtubules enables rapid Aurora-B activation and efficient phosphorylation of microtubule-associated substrates. PMID:24498282

  17. Microtubules Accelerate the Kinase Activity of Aurora-B by a Reduction in Dimensionality

    PubMed Central

    Noujaim, Michael; Bechstedt, Susanne; Wieczorek, Michal; Brouhard, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Aurora-B is the kinase subunit of the Chromosome Passenger Complex (CPC), a key regulator of mitotic progression that corrects improper kinetochore attachments and establishes the spindle midzone. Recent work has demonstrated that the CPC is a microtubule-associated protein complex and that microtubules are able to activate the CPC by contributing to Aurora-B auto-phosphorylation in trans. Aurora-B activation is thought to occur when the local concentration of Aurora-B is high, as occurs when Aurora-B is enriched at centromeres. It is not clear, however, whether distributed binding to large structures such as microtubules would increase the local concentration of Aurora-B. Here we show that microtubules accelerate the kinase activity of Aurora-B by a reduction in dimensionality. We find that microtubules increase the kinase activity of Aurora-B toward microtubule-associated substrates while reducing the phosphorylation levels of substrates not associated to microtubules. Using the single molecule assay for microtubule-associated proteins, we show that a minimal CPC construct binds to microtubules and diffuses in a one-dimensional (1D) random walk. The binding of Aurora-B to microtubules is salt-dependent and requires the C-terminal tails of tubulin, indicating that the interaction is electrostatic. We show that the rate of Aurora-B auto-activation is faster with increasing concentrations of microtubules. Finally, we demonstrate that microtubules lose their ability to stimulate Aurora-B when their C-terminal tails are removed by proteolysis. We propose a model in which microtubules act as scaffolds for the enzymatic activity of Aurora-B. The scaffolding activity of microtubules enables rapid Aurora-B activation and efficient phosphorylation of microtubule-associated substrates. PMID:24498282

  18. Direct modulation of microtubule stability contributes to anthracene general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Daniel J; Weiser, Brian P; Psonis, John; Liao, Zhengzheng; Taratula, Olena; Fiamengo, Ashley; Wang, Xiaozhao; Sugasawa, Keizo; Smith, Amos B; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Dmochowski, Ivan J

    2013-04-10

    Recently, we identified 1-aminoanthracene as a fluorescent general anesthetic. To investigate the mechanism of action, a photoactive analogue, 1-azidoanthracene, was synthesized. Administration of 1-azidoanthracene to albino stage 40-47 tadpoles was found to immobilize animals upon near-UV irradiation of the forebrain region. The immobilization was often reversible, but it was characterized by a longer duration consistent with covalent attachment of the ligand to functionally important targets. IEF/SDS-PAGE examination of irradiated tadpole brain homogenate revealed labeled protein, identified by mass spectrometry as β-tubulin. In vitro assays with aminoanthracene-cross-linked tubulin indicated inhibition of microtubule polymerization, similar to colchicine. Tandem mass spectrometry confirmed anthracene binding near the colchicine site. Stage 40-47 tadpoles were also incubated 1 h with microtubule stabilizing agents, epothilone D or discodermolide, followed by dosing with 1-aminoanthracene. The effective concentration of 1-aminoanthracene required to immobilize the tadpoles was significantly increased in the presence of either microtubule stabilizing agent. Epothilone D similarly mitigated the effects of a clinical neurosteroid general anesthetic, allopregnanolone, believed to occupy the colchicine site in tubulin. We conclude that neuronal microtubules are "on-pathway" targets for anthracene general anesthetics and may also represent functional targets for some neurosteroid general anesthetics. PMID:23484901

  19. Prion protein inhibits microtubule assembly by inducing tubulin oligomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Nieznanski, Krzysztof . E-mail: k.nieznanski@nencki.gov.pl; Podlubnaya, Zoya A.; Nieznanska, Hanna

    2006-10-13

    A growing body of evidence points to an association of prion protein (PrP) with microtubular cytoskeleton. Recently, direct binding of PrP to tubulin has also been found. In this work, using standard light scattering measurements, sedimentation experiments, and electron microscopy, we show for First time the effect of a direct interaction between these proteins on tubulin polymerization. We demonstrate that full-length recombinant PrP induces a rapid increase in the turbidity of tubulin diluted below the critical concentration for microtubule assembly. This effect requires magnesium ions and is weakened by NaCl. Moreover, the PrP-induced light scattering structures of tubulin are cold-stable. In preparations of diluted tubulin incubated with PrP, electron microscopy revealed the presence of {approx}50 nm disc-shaped structures not reported so far. These unique tubulin oligomers may form large aggregates. The effect of PrP is more pronounced under the conditions promoting microtubule formation. In these tubulin samples, PrP induces formation of the above oligomers associated with short protofilaments and sheets of protofilaments into aggregates. Noticeably, this is accompanied by a significant reduction of the number and length of microtubules. Hence, we postulate that prion protein may act as an inhibitor of microtubule assembly by inducing formation of stable tubulin oligomers.

  20. Dictyoceratidan poisons: Defined mark on microtubule-tubulin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gnanambal K, Mary Elizabeth; Lakshmipathy, Shailaja Vommi

    2016-03-01

    Tubulin/microtubule assembly and disassembly is characterized as one of the chief processes during cell growth and division. Hence drugs those perturb these process are considered to be effective in killing fast multiplying cancer cells. There is a collection of natural compounds which disturb microtubule/tubulin dis/assemblage and there have been a lot of efforts concerted in the marine realm too, to surveying such killer molecules. Close to half the natural compounds shooting out from marine invertebrates are generally with no traceable definite mechanisms of action though may be tough anti-cancerous hits at nanogram levels, hence fatefully those discoveries conclude therein without a capacity of translation from laboratory to pharmacy. Astoundingly at least 50% of natural compounds which have definite mechanisms of action causing disorders in tubulin/microtubule kinetics have an isolation history from sponges belonging to the Phylum: Porifera. Poriferans have always been a wonder worker to treat cancers with a choice of, yet precise targets on cancerous tissues. There is a specific order: Dictyoceratida within this Phylum which has contributed to yielding at least 50% of effective compounds possessing this unique mechanism of action mentioned above. However, not much notice is driven to Dictyoceratidans alongside the order: Demospongiae thus dictating the need to know its select microtubule/tubulin irritants since the unearthing of avarol in the year 1974 till date. Hence this review selectively pinpoints all the compounds, noteworthy derivatives and analogs stemming from order: Dictyoceratida focusing on the past, present and future. PMID:26874035

  1. Auxin inhibits expansion rate independently of cortical microtubules.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Tobias I

    2015-08-01

    A recent publication announces that auxin inhibits expansion by a mechanism based on the orientation of cortical microtubules. This is a textbook-revising claim, but as I argue here, a claim that is supported by neither the authors' data nor previous research, and is contradicted by a simple experiment. PMID:26044741

  2. BIM1 Encodes a Microtubule-binding Protein in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Katja; Richards, Kristy; Botstein, David

    1997-01-01

    A previously uncharacterized yeast gene (YER016w) that we have named BIM1 (binding to microtubules) was obtained from a two-hybrid screen of a yeast cDNA library using as bait the entire coding sequence of TUB1 (encoding α-tubulin). Deletion of BIM1 results in a strong bilateral karyogamy defect, hypersensitivity to benomyl, and aberrant spindle behavior, all phenotypes associated with mutations affecting microtubules in yeast, and inviability at extreme temperatures (i.e., ≥37°C or ≤14°C). Overexpression of BIM1 in wild-type cells is lethal. A fusion of Bim1p with green fluorescent protein that complements the bim1Δ phenotypes allows visualization in vivo of both intranuclear spindles and extranuclear microtubules in otherwise wild-type cells. A bim1 deletion displays synthetic lethality with deletion alleles of bik1, num1, and bub3 as well as a limited subset of tub1 conditional-lethal alleles. A systematic study of 51 tub1 alleles suggests a correlation between specific failure to interact with Bim1p in the two-hybrid assay and synthetic lethality with the bim1Δ allele. The sequence of BIM1 shows substantial similarity to sequences from organisms across the evolutionary spectrum. One of the human homologues, EB1, has been reported previously as binding APC, itself a microtubule-binding protein and the product of a gene implicated in the etiology of human colon cancer. PMID:9398684

  3. Fission Yeast Scp3 Potentially Maintains Microtubule Orientation through Bundling

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules play important roles in organelle transport, the maintenance of cell polarity and chromosome segregation and generally form bundles during these processes. The fission yeast gene scp3+ was identified as a multicopy suppressor of the cps3-81 mutant, which is hypersensitive to isopropyl N-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC), a poison that induces abnormal multipolar spindle formation in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated the function of Scp3 along with the effect of CIPC in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Microscopic observation revealed that treatment with CIPC, cps3-81 mutation and scp3+ gene deletion disturbed the orientation of microtubules in interphase cells. Overexpression of scp3+ suppressed the abnormal orientation of microtubules by promoting bundling. Functional analysis suggested that Scp3 functions independently from Ase1, a protein largely required for the bundling of the mitotic spindle. A strain lacking the ase1+ gene was more sensitive to CIPC, with the drug affecting the integrity of the mitotic spindle, indicating that CIPC has a mitotic target that has a role redundant with Ase1. These results suggested that multiple systems are independently involved to ensure microtubule orientation by bundling in fission yeast. PMID:25767875

  4. Microtubules and Their Role in Cellular Stress in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Amelia L.; Kavallaris, Maria; McCarroll, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are highly dynamic structures, which consist of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers, and are involved in cell movement, intracellular trafficking, and mitosis. In the context of cancer, the tubulin family of proteins is recognized as the target of the tubulin-binding chemotherapeutics, which suppress the dynamics of the mitotic spindle to cause mitotic arrest and cell death. Importantly, changes in microtubule stability and the expression of different tubulin isotypes as well as altered post-translational modifications have been reported for a range of cancers. These changes have been correlated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in solid and hematological cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations have remained poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins may play a role in a range of cellular stress responses, thus conferring survival advantage to cancer cells. This review will focus on the importance of the microtubule–protein network in regulating critical cellular processes in response to stress. Understanding the role of microtubules in this context may offer novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24995158

  5. The 3M complex maintains microtubule and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Sinnott, Becky; Cappell, Kathryn M.; Yu, Yanbao; Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.; Chen, Xian; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Whitehurst, Angelique W.; Xiong, Yue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not 3M patients-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in similar defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage as loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development. PMID:24793695

  6. Spaceflight alters microtubules and increases apoptosis in human lymphocytes (Jurkat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Reynolds, J. L.; Cubano, L. A.; Hatton, J. P.; Lawless, B. D.; Piepmeier, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    Alteration in cytoskeletal organization appears to underlie mechanisms of gravity sensitivity in space-flown cells. Human T lymphoblastoid cells (Jurkat) were flown on the Space Shuttle to test the hypothesis that growth responsiveness is associated with microtubule anomalies and mediated by apoptosis. Cell growth was stimulated in microgravity by increasing serum concentration. After 4 and 48 h, cells filtered from medium were fixed with formalin. Post-flight, confocal microscopy revealed diffuse, shortened microtubules extending from poorly defined microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). In comparable ground controls, discrete microtubule filaments radiated from organized MTOCs and branched toward the cell membrane. At 4 h, 30% of flown, compared to 17% of ground, cells showed DNA condensation characteristic of apoptosis. Time-dependent increase of the apoptosis-associated Fas/ APO-1 protein in static flown, but not the in-flight 1 g centrifuged or ground controls, confirmed microgravity-associated apoptosis. By 48 h, ground cultures had increased by 40%. Flown populations did not increase, though some cells were cycling and actively metabolizing glucose. We conclude that cytoskeletal alteration, growth retardation, and metabolic changes in space-flown lymphocytes are concomitant with increased apoptosis and time-dependent elevation of Fas/APO-1 protein. We suggest that reduced growth response in lymphocytes during spaceflight is linked to apoptosis.

  7. Controlled Ablation of Microtubules Using a Picosecond Laser

    PubMed Central

    Botvinick, E. L.; Venugopalan, V.; Shah, J. V.; Liaw, L. H.; Berns, M. W.

    2004-01-01

    The use of focused high-intensity light sources for ablative perturbation has been an important technique for cell biological and developmental studies. In targeting subcellular structures many studies have to deal with the inability to target, with certainty, an organelle or large macromolecular complex. Here we demonstrate the ability to selectively target microtubule-based structures with a laser microbeam through the use of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) variants of green fluorescent protein fusions of tubule. Potorous tridactylus (PTK2) cell lines were generated that stably express EYFP and ECFP tagged to the ?-subunit of tubulin. Using microtubule fluorescence as a guide, cells were irradiated with picosecond laser pulses at discrete microtubule sites in the cytoplasm and the mitotic spindle. Correlative thin-section transmission electron micrographs of cells fixed one second after irradiation demonstrated that the nature of the ultrastructural damage appeared to be different between the EYFP and the ECFP constructs suggesting different photon interaction mechanisms. We conclude that focal disruption of single cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules can be precisely controlled by combining laser microbeam irradiation with different fluorescent fusion constructs. The possible photon interaction mechanisms are discussed in detail. PMID:15454403

  8. Doublecortin (DCX) mediates endocytosis of neurofascin independently of microtubule binding.

    PubMed

    Yap, Chan Choo; Vakulenko, Max; Kruczek, Kamil; Motamedi, Bashir; Digilio, Laura; Liu, Judy S; Winckler, Bettina

    2012-05-30

    Doublecortin on X chromosome (DCX) is one of two major genetic loci underlying human lissencephaly, a neurodevelopmental disorder with defects in neuronal migration and axon outgrowth. DCX is a microtubule-binding protein, and much work has focused on its microtubule-associated functions. DCX has other reported binding partners, including the cell adhesion molecule neurofascin, but the functional significance of the DCX-neurofascin interaction is not understood. Neurofascin localizes strongly to the axon initial segment in mature neurons, where it plays a role in assembling and maintaining other axon initial segment components. During development, neurofascin likely plays additional roles in axon guidance and in GABAergic synaptogenesis. We show here that DCX can modulate the surface distribution of neurofascin in developing cultured rat neurons and thereby the relative extent of accumulation between the axon initial segment and soma and dendrites. Mechanistically, DCX acts via increasing endocytosis of neurofascin from soma and dendrites. Surprisingly, DCX increases neurofascin endocytosis apparently independently of its microtubule-binding activity. We additionally show that the patient allele DCXG253D still binds microtubules but is deficient in promoting neurofascin endocytosis. We propose that DCX acts as an endocytic adaptor for neurofascin to fine-tune its surface distribution during neuronal development. PMID:22649224

  9. BMP signaling and microtubule organization regulate synaptic strength.

    PubMed

    Ball, R W; Peled, E S; Guerrero, G; Isacoff, E Y

    2015-04-16

    The strength of synaptic transmission between a neuron and multiple postsynaptic partners can vary considerably. We have studied synaptic heterogeneity using the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), which contains multiple synaptic connections of varying strengths between a motor axon and muscle fiber. In larval NMJs, there is a gradient of synaptic transmission from weak proximal to strong distal boutons. We imaged synaptic transmission with the postsynaptically targeted fluorescent calcium sensor SynapCam, to investigate the molecular pathways that determine synaptic strength and set up this gradient. We discovered that mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway disrupt production of strong distal boutons. We find that strong connections contain unbundled microtubules in the boutons, suggesting a role for microtubule organization in transmission strength. The spastin mutation, which disorganizes microtubules, disrupted the transmission gradient, supporting this interpretation. We propose that the BMP pathway, shown previously to function in the homeostatic regulation of synaptic growth, also boosts synaptic transmission in a spatially selective manner that depends on the microtubule system. PMID:25681521

  10. Measurement of isospin mixing between the 1 + doublet in 12C using pion inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.; Boudrie, R. L.; Piffaretti, J.; Cottingame, W. B.; Braithwaite, W. J.; Greene, S. J.; Harvey, C. J.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Moore, C. Fred; Seestrom-Morris, S. J.

    1981-03-01

    Pion inelastic scattering has been used to extract the off-diagonal charge dependent matrix element, H01, between the J? = 1 + doublet of states at 12.71 (T = 0) and 15.11 (T = 1) MeVin12C. The reported measurements yield a value, H01 = 148 29 keV, in good agreement with recent electromagnetic measurements.

  11. Influence of dense quantum plasmas on fine-structure splitting of Lyman doublets of hydrogenic systems

    SciTech Connect

    De, Madhab Ray, Debasis

    2015-05-15

    Relativistic calculations are performed to study the effects of oscillatory quantum plasma screening on the fine-structure splitting between the components of Lyman-α and β line doublets of atomic hydrogen and hydrgen-like argon ion within dense quantum plasmas, where the effective two-body (electron–nucleus) interaction is modeled by the Shukla–Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential. The numerical solutions of the radial Dirac equation for the quantum plasma-embedded atomic systems reveal that the oscillatory quantum screening effect suppresses the doublet (energy) splitting substantially and the suppression becomes more prominent at large quantum wave number k{sub q}. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, much larger amount of suppression is noticed at larger values of k{sub q}, and the corresponding results represent the screening effect of an exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction. The Z{sup 4} scaling of the Lyman doublet splitting in low-Z hydrogen isoelectronic series of ions in free space is violated in dense quantum plasma environments. The relativistic data for the doublet splitting in the zero screening (k{sub q} = 0) case are in very good agreement with the NIST reference data, with slight discrepancies (∼0.2%) arising from the neglect of the quantum electrodynamic effects.

  12. Influence of dense quantum plasmas on fine-structure splitting of Lyman doublets of hydrogenic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Madhab; Ray, Debasis

    2015-05-01

    Relativistic calculations are performed to study the effects of oscillatory quantum plasma screening on the fine-structure splitting between the components of Lyman-? and ? line doublets of atomic hydrogen and hydrgen-like argon ion within dense quantum plasmas, where the effective two-body (electron-nucleus) interaction is modeled by the Shukla-Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential. The numerical solutions of the radial Dirac equation for the quantum plasma-embedded atomic systems reveal that the oscillatory quantum screening effect suppresses the doublet (energy) splitting substantially and the suppression becomes more prominent at large quantum wave number kq. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, much larger amount of suppression is noticed at larger values of kq, and the corresponding results represent the screening effect of an exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction. The Z4 scaling of the Lyman doublet splitting in low-Z hydrogen isoelectronic series of ions in free space is violated in dense quantum plasma environments. The relativistic data for the doublet splitting in the zero screening (kq = 0) case are in very good agreement with the NIST reference data, with slight discrepancies (0.2%) arising from the neglect of the quantum electrodynamic effects.

  13. THE Na 8200 Angstrom-Sign DOUBLET AS AN AGE INDICATOR IN LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal; Lepine, Sebastien; Rice, Emily; Fielding, Drummond; Tomasino, Rachael E-mail: schlieder@mpia-hd.mpg.de E-mail: erice@amnh.org E-mail: tomas1r@cmich.edu

    2012-05-15

    We investigate the use of the gravity sensitive neutral sodium (Na I) doublet at 8183 Angstrom-Sign and 8195 Angstrom-Sign (Na 8200 Angstrom-Sign doublet) as an age indicator for M dwarfs. We measured the Na doublet equivalent width (EW) in giants, old dwarfs, young dwarfs, and candidate members of the {beta} Pic moving group using medium-resolution spectra. Our Na 8200 A doublet EW analysis shows that the feature is useful as an approximate age indicator in M-type dwarfs with (V - K{sub s}) {>=} 5.0, reliably distinguishing stars older and younger than 100 Myr. A simple derivation of the dependence of the Na EW on temperature and gravity supports the observational results. An analysis of the effects of metallicity shows that this youth indicator is best used on samples with similar metallicity. The age estimation technique presented here becomes useful in a mass regime where traditional youth indicators are increasingly less reliable, is applicable to other alkali lines, and will help identify new low-mass members in other young clusters and associations.

  14. Advances in the Design of the SuperB Final Doublet

    SciTech Connect

    Paoloni, E.; Carmignani, N.; Pilo, F.; Bettoni, S.; Fabbricatore, P.; Farinon, S.; Musenich, R.; Bosi, F.; Biagini, M.E.; Raimondi, P.; Sullivan, M.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    SuperB is an asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) peak with a design peak luminosity of 10{sup 36} Hz/cm{sup 2} to be built in Italy in the very near future. The design luminosity is almost a factor hundred higher than that of the present generation comparable facilities. To get the design luminosity a novel collision scheme, the so called 'large Piwinski angle with crab waist', has been designed. The scheme requires a short focus final doublet to reduce the vertical beta function down to {beta}*{sub y} = 0.2mm at the interaction point (IP). The final doublet will be composed by a set of permanent and superconducting (SC) quadrupoles. The SC quadrupole doublets QD0/QF1 will be placed as close to the IP as possible. This layout is critical because the space available for the doublets is very small. An advanced design of the quadrupole has been developed, based on the so-called helical coil concept. The paper discusses the design concept, the construction and the results of test of a model of the superconducting quadrupole based on NbTi technology. Future developments are also presented.

  15. Furrow microtubules and localized exocytosis in cleaving Xenopus laevis embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilchik, Michael V.; Bedrick, Steven D.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Ray, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    In dividing Xenopus eggs, furrowing is accompanied by expansion of a new domain of plasma membrane in the cleavage plane. The source of the new membrane is known to include a store of oogenetically produced exocytotic vesicles, but the site where their exocytosis occurs has not been described. Previous work revealed a V-shaped array of microtubule bundles at the base of advancing furrows. Cold shock or exposure to nocodazole halted expansion of the new membrane domain, which suggests that these microtubules are involved in the localized exocytosis. In the present report, scanning electron microscopy revealed collections of pits or craters, up to approximately 1.5 micro m in diameter. These pits are evidently fusion pores at sites of recent exocytosis, clustered in the immediate vicinity of the deepening furrow base and therefore near the furrow microtubules. Confocal microscopy near the furrow base of live embryos labeled with the membrane dye FM1-43 captured time-lapse sequences of individual exocytotic events in which irregular patches of approximately 20 micro m(2) of unlabeled membrane abruptly displaced pre-existing FM1-43-labeled surface. In some cases, stable fusion pores, approximately 2 micro m in diameter, were seen at the surface for up to several minutes before suddenly delivering patches of unlabeled membrane. To test whether the presence of furrow microtubule bundles near the surface plays a role in directing or concentrating this localized exocytosis, membrane expansion was examined in embryos exposed to D(2)O to induce formation of microtubule monasters randomly under the surface. D(2)O treatment resulted in a rapid, uniform expansion of the egg surface via random, ectopic exocytosis of vesicles. This D(2)O-induced membrane expansion was completely blocked with nocodazole, indicating that the ectopic exocytosis was microtubule-dependent. Results indicate that exocytotic vesicles are present throughout the egg subcortex, and that the presence of microtubules near the surface is sufficient to mobilize them for exocytosis at the end of the cell cycle.

  16. Tubulin-G protein interactions involve microtubule polymerization domains

    SciTech Connect

    Nan Wang; Rasenick, M.M. )

    1991-11-12

    It has been suggested that elements of the cytoskeleton contribute to the signal transduction process and that they do so in association with one or more members of the signal-transducing G protein family. Relatively high-affinity binding between dimeric tubulin and the {alpha} subunits of G{sub s} and G{sub i1} has also been reported. Tubulin molecules, which exist in solution as {alpha}{beta} dimers, have binding domains for microtubule-associated proteins as well as for other tubulin dimers. This study represents an attempt to ascertain whether the association between G proteins and tubulin occurs at one of these sites. Removal of the binding site for MAP2 and tau from tubulin by subtilisin proteolysis did not influence the association of tubulin with G protein, as demonstrated in overlay studies with ({sup 125}I)tubulin. However, ring structures formed from subtilisin-treated tubulin were incapable of effecting such inhibition. Stable G protein-tubulin complexes were formed, and these were separated from free tubulin by Octyl-Sepharose chromatography. Using this methodology, it was demonstrated that assembled microtubules bound G protein quite weakly compared with tubulin dimers. The {alpha} subunit of G{sub i1} and, to a lesser extent, that of G{sub o} were demonstrated to inhibit microtubule polymerization. In aggregate, these data suggest that dimeric tubulin binds to the {alpha} subunits of G protein at the sites where it binds to other tubulin dimers during microtubule polymerization. Interaction with signal-transducing G proteins, thus, might represent a role for tubulin dimers which is independent of microtubule formation.

  17. Tryprostatin A, a specific and novel inhibitor of microtubule assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Usui, T; Kondoh, M; Cui, C B; Mayumi, T; Osada, H

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the cell cycle inhibition mechanism and primary target of tryprostatin A (TPS-A) purified from Aspergillus fumigatus. TPS-A inhibited cell cycle progression of asynchronously cultured 3Y1 cells in the M phase in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, TPS-B (the demethoxy analogue of TPS-A) showed cell-cycle non-specific inhibition on cell growth even though it inhibited cell growth at lower concentrations than TPS-A. TPS-A treatment induced the reversible disruption of the cytoplasmic microtubules of 3Y1 cells as observed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy in the range of concentrations that specifically inhibited M-phase progression. TPS-A inhibited the assembly in vitro of microtubules purified from bovine brains (40% inhibition at 250 microM); however, there was little or no effect on the self-assembly of purified tubulin when polymerization was induced by glutamate even at 250 microM TPS-A. TPS-A did not inhibit assembly promoted by taxol or by digestion of the C-terminal domain of tubulin. However, TPS-A blocked the tubulin assembly induced by inducers interacting with the C-terminal domain, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), tau and poly-(l-lysine). These results indicate that TPS-A is a novel inhibitor of MAP-dependent microtubule assembly and, through the disruption of the microtubule spindle, specifically inhibits cell cycle progression at the M phase. PMID:9677311

  18. Force fluctuations and polymerization dynamics of intracellular microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brangwynne, Clifford

    2008-03-01

    Microtubules are dynamic biopolymers within the cytoskeleton of living cells. They play a central role in many biological processes including cell division, migration, and cargo transport. Microtubules are significantly more rigid than other cytoskeletal biopolymers, such as actin filaments, and are insensitive to thermal fluctuations on cellular length scales. However, we show that intracellular microtubules exhibit bending amplitudes with a surprisingly thermal-like wavevector dependence, but with an apparent persistence length about 100 times smaller than that measured in vitro. By studying the time-dependent bending fluctuations of individual filaments, we find that the thermal-like bends are fluctuating significantly only on short length scales, while they are frozen-in on longer length scales [1], reminiscent of non-ergodic behavior seen in systems far from equilibrium. Long wavelength bends are suppressed by the surrounding elastic cytoskeleton, which confines bending to short length scales on the order of a few microns [2]. These short wavelength bending fluctuations naturally cause fluctuations in the orientation of the microtubule tip. Tip fluctuations result in a persistent random walk trajectory of microtubule growth, but with a small non-equilibrium persistence length, explaining the origin of quenched thermal-like bends. These results suggest that intracellular motor activity has a highly fluctuating character that dominates over thermal fluctuations, with important consequences for fundamental biological processes. [1] CP Brangwynne, FC MacKintosh, DA Weitz, PNAS, 104:16128 (2007). [2] CP Brangwynne, FC MacKintosh, S Kumar, NA Geisse, J Talbot, L. Mahadevan, KK Parker, DE Ingber, DA Weitz, JCB, 173:733 (2006).

  19. Taxol, a microtubule stabilizer, prevents ischemic ventricular arrhythmias in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junjie; Cao, Huaming; Liang, Dandan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Yi; Li, Jun; Yan, Biao; Peng, Luying; Zhou, Zhaonian; Chen, Yi-Han

    2011-05-01

    Microtubule integrity is important in cardio-protection, and microtubule disruption has been implicated in the response to ischemia in cardiac myocytes. However, the effects of Taxol, a common microtubule stabilizer, are still unknown in ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. The arrhythmia model was established in isolated rat hearts by regional ischemia, and myocardial infarction model by ischemia/reperfusion. Microtubule structure was immunohistochemically measured. The potential mechanisms were studied by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS), activities of oxidative enzymes, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ](i) ) and Ca(2+) transients by using fluorometric determination, spectrophotometric assays and Fura-2-AM and Fluo-3-AM, respectively. The expression and activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) was also examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and pyruvate/Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coupled reaction. Our data showed that Taxol (0.1, 0.3 and 1 ?M) effectively reduced the number of ventricular premature beats and the incidence and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The infarct size was also significantly reduced by Taxol (1 ?M). At the same time, Taxol preserved the microtubule structure, increased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and III, reduced ROS levels, decreased the rise in [Ca(2+)](i) and preserved the amplitude and decay times of Ca(2+) transients during ischemia. In addition, SERCA2a activity was preserved by Taxol during ischemia. In summary, Taxol prevents ischemic ventricular arrhythmias likely through ameliorating abnormal calcium homeostasis and decreasing the level of ROS. This study presents evidence that Taxol may be a potential novel therapy for ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:20561109

  20. A novel isoform of MAP4 organises the paraxial microtubule array required for muscle cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mogessie, Binyam; Roth, Daniel; Rahil, Zainab; Straube, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton is critical for muscle cell differentiation and undergoes reorganisation into an array of paraxial microtubules, which serves as template for contractile sarcomere formation. In this study, we identify a previously uncharacterised isoform of microtubule-associated protein MAP4, oMAP4, as a microtubule organising factor that is crucial for myogenesis. We show that oMAP4 is expressed upon muscle cell differentiation and is the only MAP4 isoform essential for normal progression of the myogenic differentiation programme. Depletion of oMAP4 impairs cell elongation and cell-cell fusion. Most notably, oMAP4 is required for paraxial microtubule organisation in muscle cells and prevents dynein- and kinesin-driven microtubule-microtubule sliding. Purified oMAP4 aligns dynamic microtubules into antiparallel bundles that withstand motor forces in vitro. We propose a model in which the cooperation of dynein-mediated microtubule transport and oMAP4-mediated zippering of microtubules drives formation of a paraxial microtubule array that provides critical support for the polarisation and elongation of myotubes. PMID:25898002

  1. Contribution of microtubule growth polarity and flux to spindle assembly and functioning in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Vischer, Norbert; Gadella, Theodorus W J

    2006-08-01

    The spindle occupies a central position in cell division as it builds up the chromosome-separating machine. Here we analysed the dynamics of spindle formation in acentrosomal plant cells by visualizing microtubules labelled with GFP-EB1, GFP-MAP4 and GFP-alpha-tubulin and chromosomes marked by the vital dye SYTO82. During prophase, few microtubules penetrate the nuclear area, followed by nuclear envelope disintegration. During prometaphase, microtubules invading the nuclear space develop a spindle axis from few bipolar microtubule bundles, which is followed by spindle assembly. Using a novel quantitative kymograph analysis based on Fourier transformation, we measured the microtubule growth trajectories of the entire dynamic metaphase spindle. Microtubules initiating from spindle poles either pass through the metaphase plate to form interpolar microtubule bundles or grow until they reach chromosomes. We also noticed a minor fraction of microtubules growing away from the chromosomes. Microtubules grow at 10 microm/minute both at the spindle equator and at the spindle poles. Photobleached marks created on metaphase and anaphase spindles revealed a poleward tubulin flux. During anaphase, the velocity of tubulin flux (2 microm/minute) equals the speed of chromatid-separation. With these findings we identified spatially coordinated microtubule growth dynamics and microtubule flux-based chromosome-separation as important facets of plant spindle operation. PMID:16868032

  2. Self protein-protein interactions are involved in TPPP/p25 mediated microtubule bundling

    PubMed Central

    DeBonis, Salvatore; Neumann, Emmanuelle; Skoufias, Dimitrios A.

    2015-01-01

    TPPP/p25 is a microtubule-associated protein, detected in protein inclusions associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Deletion analysis data show that TPPP/p25 has two microtubule binding sites, both located in intrinsically disordered domains, one at the N-terminal and the other in the C-terminal domain. In copolymerization assays the full-length protein exhibits microtubule stimulation and bundling activity. In contrast, at the same ratio relative to tubulin, truncated forms of TPPP/p25 exhibit either lower or no microtubule stimulation and no bundling activity, suggesting a cooperative phenomenon which is enhanced by the presence of the two binding sites. The binding characteristics of the N- and C-terminally truncated proteins to taxol-stabilized microtubules are similar to the full-length protein. However, the C-terminally truncated TPPP/p25 shows a lower Bmax for microtubule binding, suggesting that it may bind to a site of tubulin that is masked in microtubules. Bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays in cells expressing combinations of various TPPP/p25 fragments, but not that of the central folded domain, resulted in the generation of a fluorescence signal colocalized with perinuclear microtubule bundles insensitive to microtubule inhibitors. The data suggest that the central folded domain of TPPP/p25 following binding to microtubules can drive s homotypic protein-protein interactions leading to bundled microtubules. PMID:26289831

  3. Effects of kinesin-5 inhibition on dendritic architecture and microtubule organization

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Olga I.; Sharma, Vandana; Gonzlez-Billault, Christian; Baas, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Kinesin-5 is a slow homotetrameric motor protein best known for its essential role in the mitotic spindle, where it limits the rate at which faster motors can move microtubules. In neurons, experimental suppression of kinesin-5 causes the axon to grow faster by increasing the mobility of microtubules in the axonal shaft and the invasion of microtubules into the growth cone. Does kinesin-5 act differently in dendrites, given that they have a population of minus enddistal microtubules not present in axons? Using rodent primary neurons in culture, we found that inhibition of kinesin-5 during various windows of time produces changes in dendritic morphology and microtubule organization. Specifically, dendrites became shorter and thinner and contained a greater proportion of minus enddistal microtubules, suggesting that kinesin-5 acting normally restrains the number of minus enddistal microtubules that are transported into dendrites. Additional data indicate that, in neurons, CDK5 is the kinase responsible for phosphorylating kinesin-5 at Thr-926, which is important for kinesin-5 to associate with microtubules. We also found that kinesin-5 associates preferentially with microtubules rich in tyrosinated tubulin. This is consistent with an observed accumulation of kinesin-5 on dendritic microtubules, as they are known to be less detyrosinated than axonal microtubules. PMID:25355946

  4. The kinetochore-bound Ska1 complex tracks depolymerizing microtubules and binds to curved protofilaments

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jens C.; Arthanari, Haribabu; Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Dashkevich, Natalia M.; Wilson-Kubalek, Elizabeth M.; Monnier, Nilah; Markus, Michelle; Oberer, Monika; Milligan, Ron A.; Bathe, Mark; Wagner, Gerhard; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.; Cheeseman, Iain M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary To ensure equal chromosome segregation during mitosis, the macromolecular kinetochore must remain attached to depolymerizing microtubules, which drive chromosome movements. How kinetochores associate with depolymerizing microtubules, which undergo dramatic structural changes forming curved protofilaments, has yet to be defined in vertebrates. Here, we demonstrate that the conserved kinetochore-localized Ska1 complex tracks with depolymerizing microtubule ends and associates with both the microtubule lattice and curved protofilaments. In contrast, the Ndc80 complex, a central player in the kinetochore-microtubule interface, binds only to the straight microtubule lattice and lacks tracking activity. We demonstrate that the Ska1 complex imparts its tracking capability to the Ndc80 complex. Finally, we present a structure of the Ska1 microtubule binding domain that reveals its interaction with microtubules and its regulation by Aurora B. This work defines an integrated kinetochore-microtubule interface formed by the Ska1 and Ndc80 complexes that associates with depolymerizing microtubules, potentially by interacting with curved microtubule protofilaments. PMID:23085020

  5. Doublet Versus Single Agent as Second-Line Treatment for Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Ma, Bing; Huang, Xiao-Tian; Li, Yan-Song; Wang, Yu; Liu, Zhou-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the efficacy and safety of doublet versus single agent as second-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify relevant RCTs. All clinical studies were independently identified by 2 authors for inclusion. Demographic data, treatment regimens, objective response rate (ORR), and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were extracted and analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 2.0). Ten RCTs involving 1698 pretreated AGC patients were ultimately identified. The pooled results demonstrated that doublet combination therapy as second-line treatment for AGC significantly improved OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–0.97, P = 0.011), PFS (HR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.87, P < 0.001), and ORR (relative risk [RR] 1.57, 95% CI: 1.27–1.95, P < 0.001). Sub-group analysis according to treatment regimens also showed that targeted agent plus chemotherapy significantly improve OS, PFS, and ORR. However, no significant survival benefits had been observed in doublet cytotoxic chemotherapy when compared with single cytotoxic agent. Additionally, more incidences of grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression toxicities, diarrhea, and fatigue were observed in doublet combination groups, while equivalent frequencies of grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia and nausea were found between the 2 groups. In comparison with single cytotoxic agent alone, the addition of targeted agent to mono-chemotherapy as salvage treatment for pretreated AGC patients provide substantial survival benefits, while no significant survival benefits were observed in doublet cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. PMID:26937908

  6. Purified Kinesin Promotes Vesicle Motility and Induces Active Sliding Between Microtubules In vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, Raul; McNiven, Mark A.; Albanesi, Joseph P.; Murphy, Douglas B.; Kachar, Bechara

    1991-08-01

    We examined the ability of kinesin to support the movement of adrenal medullary chromaffin granules on microtubules in a defined in vitro system. We found that kinesin and ATP are all that is required to support efficient (33% vesicle motility) and rapid (0.4-0.6 ? m/s) translocation of secretory granule membranes on microtubules in the presence of a low-salt motility buffer. Kinesin also induced the formation of microtubule asters in this buffer, with the plus ends of microtubules located at the center of each aster. This observation indicates that kinesin is capable of promoting active sliding between microtubules toward their respective plus ends, a movement analogous to that of anaphase b in the mitotic spindle. The fact that vesicle translocation, microtubule sliding, and microtubule-dependent kinesin ATPase activities are all enhanced in low-salt buffer establishes a functional parallel between this translocator and other motility ATPases, myosin, and dynein.

  7. Modulation of the dynamic instability of tubulin assembly by the microtubule-associated protein tau.

    PubMed Central

    Drechsel, D N; Hyman, A A; Cobb, M H; Kirschner, M W

    1992-01-01

    Microtubule-associated proteins (MAP), such as tau, modulate the extent and rate of microtubule assembly and play an essential role in morphogenetic processes, such as axonal growth. We have examined the mechanism by which tau affects microtubule polymerization by examining the kinetics of microtubule assembly and disassembly through direct observation of microtubules using dark-field microscopy. Tau increases the rate of polymerization, decreases the rate of transit into the shrinking phase (catastrophe), and inhibits the rate of depolymerization. Tau strongly suppresses the catastrophe rate, and its ability to do so is independent of its ability to increase the elongation rate. Thus, tau generates a partially stable but still dynamic state in microtubules. This state is perturbed by phosphorylation by MAP2 kinase, which affects all three activities by lowering the affinity of tau for the microtubule lattice. Images PMID:1421571

  8. Metallic Glass Wire Based Localization of Kinesin/Microtubule Bio-molecular Motility System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Sikora, A.; Yaginuma, S.; Nakayama, K. S.; Nakazawa, H.; Umetsu, M.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2014-03-01

    We report electrophoretic accumulation of microtubules along metallic glass (Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20) wires free-standing in solution. Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal filaments. Kinesin is a cytoskeletal motor protein. Functions of these bio-molecules are central to various dynamic cellular processes. Functional artificial organization of bio-molecules is a prerequisite for transferring their native functions into device applications. Fluorescence microscopy at the individual-microtubule level reveals microtubules aligning along the wire axis during the electrophoretic migration. Casein-treated electrodes are effective for releasing trapped microtubules upon removal of the external field. Furthermore, we demonstrate gliding motion of microtubules on kinesin-treated metallic glass wires. The reversible manner in the local adsorption of microtubules, the flexibility of wire electrodes, and the compatibility between the wire electrode and the bio-molecules are beneficial for spatio-temporal manipulation of the motility machinery in 3 dimensions.

  9. Modeling the effects of drug binding on the dynamic instability of microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinow, Peter; Rezania, Vahid; Lopus, Manu; Jordan, Mary Ann; Tuszy?ski, Jack A.

    2011-10-01

    We propose a stochastic model that accounts for the growth, catastrophe and rescue processes of steady-state microtubules assembled from MAP-free tubulin in the possible presence of a microtubule-associated drug. As an example of the latter, we both experimentally and theoretically study the perturbation of microtubule dynamic instability by S-methyl-D-DM1, a synthetic derivative of the microtubule-targeted agent maytansine and a potential anticancer agent. Our model predicts that among the drugs that act locally at the microtubule tip, primary inhibition of the loss of GDP tubulin results in stronger damping of microtubule dynamics than inhibition of GTP tubulin addition. On the other hand, drugs whose action occurs in the interior of the microtubule need to be present in much higher concentrations to have visible effects.

  10. Dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A central question in plant cell development is how the cell wall determines directional cell expansion and therefore the final shape of the cell. As the major load-bearing component of the cell wall, cellulose microfibrils are laid down transversely to the axis of elongation, thus forming a spring-like structure that reinforces the cell laterally and while favoring longitudinal expansion in most growing cells. Mounting evidence suggests that cortical microtubules organize the deposition of cellulose microfibrils, but the precise molecular mechanisms linking microtubules to cellulose organization have remained unclear until the recent discovery of cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 , a linker protein between the cortical microtubules and the cellulose biosynthesizing machinery. In this review, we will focus on the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules, in particular, we will discuss microtubule arrangement and cell wall architecture, the linkage between cellulose synthase complexes and microtubules, and the feedback mechanisms between cell wall and microtubules. PMID:24659994

  11. Cell edges accumulate gamma tubulin complex components and nucleate microtubules following cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Chris; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules emanate from distinct organizing centers in fungal and animal cells. In plant cells, by contrast, microtubules initiate from dispersed sites in the cell cortex, where they then self-organize into parallel arrays. Previous ultrastructural evidence suggested that cell edges participate in microtubule nucleation but so far there has been no direct evidence for this. Here we use live imaging to show that components of the gamma tubulin nucleation complex (GCP2 and GCP3) localize at distinct sites along the outer periclinal edge of newly formed crosswalls, and that microtubules grow predominantly away from these edges. These data confirm a role for cell edges in microtubule nucleation, and suggest that an asymmetric distribution of microtubule nucleation factors contributes to cortical microtubule organization in plants, in a manner more similar to other kingdoms than previously thought. PMID:22110647

  12. Dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A central question in plant cell development is how the cell wall determines directional cell expansion and therefore the final shape of the cell. As the major load-bearing component of the cell wall, cellulose microfibrils are laid down transversely to the axis of elongation, thus forming a spring-like structure that reinforces the cell laterally and while favoring longitudinal expansion in most growing cells. Mounting evidence suggests that cortical microtubules organize the deposition of cellulose microfibrils, but the precise molecular mechanisms linking microtubules to cellulose organization have remained unclear until the recent discovery of cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 , a linker protein between the cortical microtubules and the cellulose biosynthesizing machinery. In this review, we will focus on the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules, in particular, we will discuss microtubule arrangement and cell wall architecture, the linkage between cellulose synthase complexes and microtubules, and the feedback mechanisms between cell wall and microtubules. PMID:24659994

  13. Purified kinesin promotes vesicle motility and induces active sliding between microtubules in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, R; McNiven, M A; Albanesi, J P; Murphy, D B; Kachar, B

    1991-01-01

    We examined the ability of kinesin to support the movement of adrenal medullary chromaffin granules on microtubules in a defined in vitro system. We found that kinesin and ATP are all that is required to support efficient (33% vesicle motility) and rapid (0.4-0.6 micron/s) translocation of secretory granule membranes on microtubules in the presence of a low-salt motility buffer. Kinesin also induced the formation of microtubule asters in this buffer, with the plus ends of microtubules located at the center of each aster. This observation indicates that kinesin is capable of promoting active sliding between microtubules toward their respective plus ends, a movement analogous to that of anaphase b in the mitotic spindle. The fact that vesicle translocation, microtubule sliding, and microtubule-dependent kinesin ATPase activities are all enhanced in low-salt buffer establishes a functional parallel between this translocator and other motility ATPases, myosin, and dynein. Images PMID:1830666

  14. Synergy between Multiple Microtubule-Generating Pathways Confers Robustness to Centrosome-Driven Mitotic Spindle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Daniel; Metz, Jeremy; Pellacani, Claudia; Wakefield, JamesG.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mitotic spindle is defined by its organized, bipolar mass of microtubules, which drive chromosome alignment and segregation. Although different cells have been shown to use different molecular pathways to generate the microtubules required for spindle formation, how these pathways are coordinated within a single cell is poorly understood. We have tested the limits within which the Drosophila embryonic spindle forms, disrupting the inherent temporal control that overlays mitotic microtubule generation, interfering with the molecular mechanism that generates new microtubules from preexisting ones, and disrupting the spatial relationship between microtubule nucleation and the usually dominant centrosome. Our work uncovers the possible routes to spindle formation in embryos and establishes the central role of Augmin in all microtubule-generating pathways. It also demonstrates that the contributions of each pathway to spindle formation are integrated, highlighting the remarkable flexibility with which cells can respond to perturbations that limit their capacity to generate microtubules. PMID:24389063

  15. Xenopus TACC3/maskin is not required for microtubule stability but is required for anchoring microtubules at the centrosome.

    PubMed

    Albee, Alison J; Wiese, Christiane

    2008-08-01

    Members of the transforming acidic coiled coil (TACC) protein family are emerging as important mitotic spindle assembly proteins in a variety of organisms. The molecular details of how TACC proteins function are unknown, but TACC proteins have been proposed to recruit microtubule-stabilizing proteins of the tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) family to the centrosome and to facilitate their loading onto newly emerging microtubules. Using Xenopus egg extracts and in vitro assays, we show that the Xenopus TACC protein maskin is required for centrosome function beyond recruiting the Xenopus TOG protein XMAP215. The conserved C-terminal TACC domain of maskin is both necessary and sufficient to restore centrosome function in maskin-depleted extracts, and we provide evidence that the N terminus of maskin inhibits the function of the TACC domain. Time-lapse video microscopy reveals that microtubule dynamics in Xenopus egg extracts are unaffected by maskin depletion. Our results provide direct experimental evidence of a role for maskin in centrosome function and suggest that maskin is required for microtubule anchoring at the centrosome. PMID:18508920

  16. Abnormal microtubule packing in processes of SF9 cells expressing the FTDP-17 V337M tau mutation.

    PubMed

    Frappier, T; Liang, N S; Brown, K; Leung, C L; Lynch, T; Liem, R K; Shelanski, M L

    1999-07-23

    Mutations in the gene for the microtubule associated protein, tau have been identified for fronto-temporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). In vitro data have shown that FTDP-17 mutant tau proteins have a reduced ability to bind microtubules and to promote microtubule assembly. Using the baculovirus system we have examined the effect of the V337M mutation on the organization of the microtubules at the ultrastructural level. Our results show that the organization of the microtubules is disrupted in the presence of V337M tau with greater distances between the microtubules and fewer microtubules per process. PMID:10437785

  17. The splitting and oscillator strengths for the 2S/2/S-2p/2/P/0/ doublet in lithium-like sulfur. [during Skylab observed solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, D. J.; Forester, J. P.; Elston, S. B.; Griffin, P. M.; Peterson, R. S.; Thoe, R. S.; Vane, C. R.; Sellin, I. A.; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1977-01-01

    The beam-foil technique has been used to study the 2S(2)S-2p(2)P(0) doublet in S XIV. The results confirm the doublet splitting measured aboard Skylab during solar flare events. In addition, the oscillator strengths for the resonance transitions comprising this doublet have been measured and found to agree well with recent relativistic f-value calculations.

  18. Strategies for diminishing katanin-based loss of microtubules in tauopathic neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, Haruka; Baas, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly stated that microtubules gradually disintegrate as tau becomes dissociated from them in tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease. However, there has been no compelling evidence to date that such disintegration is due to depolymerization of microtubules from their ends. In recent studies, we have shown that neurons contain sufficient levels of the microtubule-severing protein termed katanin to completely break down the axonal microtubule array if not somehow attenuated. The presence of tau on axonal microtubules renders them notably less sensitive to katanin, prompting us to posit that microtubule disintegration in tauopathies may result from elevated severing of the microtubules as they lose tau. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate here that pathogenic tau mutants that bind less strongly to microtubules than wild-type tau provide correspondingly less protection against katanin-based severing. Using cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we pursued two potential therapies for fortifying axonal microtubules against excess severing by katanin, under conditions of tau depletion. We found that either deacetylating the microtubules via overexpression of HDAC6 or treating the neurons with NAP, a microtubule-interacting neuroprotective peptide, resulted in notable protection of the microtubules against katanin-based loss. In both cases, we found that these treatments also diminished the characteristic increase in axonal branching that normally accompanies tau depletion, an effect that is also known to be directly related to the severing of microtubules. These observations may be useful in developing therapeutic regimes for preserving microtubules against loss in the axons of patients suffering from tauopathies. PMID:21118899

  19. Regulation of microtubule-based microtubule nucleation by mammalian polo-like kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Johmura, Yoshikazu; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Park, Jung-Eun; Yu, Li-Rong; Zhou, Ming; Bang, Jeong K; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Veenstra, Timothy D; Erikson, Raymond L; Lee, Kyung S

    2011-07-12

    Bipolar spindle formation is pivotal for accurate segregation of mitotic chromosomes during cell division. A growing body of evidence suggests that, in addition to centrosome- and chromatin-based microtubule (MT) nucleation, MT-based MT nucleation plays an important role for proper bipolar spindle formation in various eukaryotic organisms. Although a recently discovered Augmin complex appears to play a central role in this event, how Augmin is regulated remains unknown. Here we provide evidence that a mammalian polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) localizes to mitotic spindles and promotes MT-based MT nucleation by directly regulating Augmin. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that Cdc2-dependent phosphorylation on a ?-tubulin ring complex (?-TuRC) recruitment protein, Nedd1/GCP-WD, at the previously uncharacterized S460 residue induces the Nedd1-Plk1 interaction. This step appeared to be critical to allow Plk1 to phosphorylate the Hice1 subunit of the Augmin complex to promote the Augmin-MT interaction and MT-based MT nucleation from within the spindle. Loss of either the Nedd1 S460 function or the Plk1-dependent Hice1 phosphorylation impaired both the Augmin-MT interaction and ?-tubulin recruitment to the spindles, thus resulting in improper bipolar spindle formation that ultimately leads to mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death. Thus, via the formation of the Nedd1-Plk1 complex and subsequent Augmin phosphorylation, Plk1 regulates spindle MT-based MT nucleation to accomplish normal bipolar spindle formation and mitotic progression. PMID:21690413

  20. Augmin-dependent microtubule nucleation at microtubule walls in the spindle

    PubMed Central

    OToole, Eileen; Kita, Shigeo; Osumi, Masako; Usukura, Jiro; McIntosh, J. Richard

    2013-01-01

    The formation of a functional spindle requires microtubule (MT) nucleation from within the spindle, which depends on augmin. How augmin contributes to MT formation and organization is not known because augmin-dependent MTs have never been specifically visualized. In this paper, we identify augmin-dependent MTs and their connections to other MTs by electron tomography and 3D modeling. In metaphase spindles of human cells, the minus ends of MTs were located both around the centriole and in the body of the spindle. When augmin was knocked down, the latter population of MTs was significantly reduced. In control cells, we identified connections between the wall of one MT and the minus end of a neighboring MT. Interestingly, the connected MTs were nearly parallel, unlike other examples of endwall connections between cytoskeletal polymers. Our observations support the concept of augmin-dependent MT nucleation at the walls of existing spindle MTs. Furthermore, they suggest a mechanism for maintaining polarized MT organization, even when noncentrosomal MT initiation is widespread. PMID:23816620