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Sample records for axonemal microtubule doublets

  1. Molecular architecture of axonemal microtubule doublets revealedby cryo-electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Haixin; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2006-05-22

    The axoneme, which forms the core of eukaryotic flagella and cilia, is one of the largest macromolecular machines with a structure that is largely conserved from protists to mammals. Microtubule doublets are structural components of axonemes containing a number of proteins besides tubulin, and are usually found in arrays of nine doublets arranged around two singlet microtubules. Coordinated sliding of adjacent doublets, which involves a host of other proteins in the axoneme, produces periodic beating movements of the axoneme. We have obtained a 3D density map of intact microtubule doublets using cryo-electron tomography and image averaging. Our map, with a resolution of about 3 nm, provides insights into locations of particular proteins within the doublets and the structural features of the doublets that define their mechanical properties. We identify likely candidates for several of these non-tubulin components of the doublets. This work offers novel insight on how tubulin protofilaments and accessory proteins attach together to form the doublets and provides a structural basis for understanding doublet function in axonemes.

  2. ?- and ?-Tubulin Lattice of the Axonemal Microtubule Doublet and Binding Proteins Revealed by Single Particle Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Tomography.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Aditi; Obbineni, Jagan Mohan; Bui, Khanh Huy; Shibata, Keitaro; Toyoshima, Yoko Y; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Microtubule doublet (MTD) is the main skeleton of cilia/flagella. Many proteins, such as dyneins and radial spokes, bind to MTD, and generate or regulate force. While the structure of the reconstituted microtubule has been solved at atomic resolution, nature of the axonemal MTD is still unclear. There are a few hypotheses of the lattice arrangement of its ?- and ?-tubulins, but it has not been described how dyneins and radial spokes bind to MTD. In this study, we analyzed the three-dimensional structure of Tetrahymena MTD at ?19 Å resolution by single particle cryo-electron microscopy. To identify ?- and ?-tubulins, we combined image analysis of MTD with specific kinesin decoration. This work reveals that ?- and ?-tubulins form a B-lattice arrangement in the entire MTD with a seam at the outer junction. We revealed the unique way in which inner arm dyneins, radial spokes, and proteins inside MTD bind and bridge protofilaments. PMID:26211611

  3. Microtubule-organizing centres and assembly of the double-spiral microtubule pattern in certain heliozoan axonemes.

    PubMed

    Jones, J C; Tucker, J B

    1981-08-01

    The double-spiral microtubule pattern is established by a self-linkage procedure when axopodial axonemes reassemble after cold treatment in multinucleate Echinosphaerium nucleofilum and mononucleate Actinophrys sol. Nuclei are related spatially to axoneme morphogenesis in both organisms but in rather different ways. Microtubules grow out in all directions from discrete clumps of dense material situated close to nuclei in E. nucleofilum as axonemal assembly begins. Each clump acts as a microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC) in so far as it is associated spatially with the assembly of microtubules for a single axoneme. The dense material spreads along the sides of a developing axoneme for several micrometers, where it probably promotes further microtubule assembly as the double-spiral pattern is established. Pattern is generated as microtubules that are randomly oriented to begin with become more closely juxtaposed and aligned with each other. There are indications that juxtaposition is brought about by the contractile action of a filamentous meshwork that interconnects the microtubules. Final positioning and alignment appears to be accomplished by a 'zippering' together of adjacent portions of microtubules that proceeds in both directions along the lengths of developing axonemes as self-linkage is effected. Considerable numbers of more or less radially oriented microtubules remain and project from the surface membrane of the single central nucleus during cold treatment of A. sol. Additional tubules assemble and become associated similarly with the nuclear envelope immediately after cold treatment. Initially these microtubules are not arranged in a double-spiral pattern, which is subsequently generated by procedures similar to those outlined above for E. nucleofilum. It is suggested that the surface of the nuclear envelope may act as an MTOC. PMID:7320069

  4. High speed sliding of axonemal microtubules produced by outer arm dynein.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Satir, Peter

    2005-02-01

    To study dynein arm activity at high temporal resolution, axonemal sliding was measured field by field for wild type and dynein arm mutants of Tetrahymena thermophila. For wt SB255 cells, when the rate of data acquisition was 60 fps, about 5x greater than previously published observations, sliding was observed to be discontinuous with very high velocity sliding (average 196 microm/sec) for a few msec (1 or 2 fields) followed by a pause of several fields. The sliding velocities measured were an order of magnitude greater than rates previously measured by video analysis. However, when the data were analyzed at 12 fps for the same axonemes, consistent with previous observations, sliding was linear as the axonemes extended several times their original length with an average velocity of approximately 10 microm/sec. The pauses or stops occurred at approximately 200 and 300% of the initial length, suggesting that dynein arms on one axonemal doublet were initially active to the limit of extension, and then the arms on the next doublet became activated. In contrast, in a mutant where OADs are missing, sliding observed at 60 fps was continuous and slow (5 microm/sec), as opposed to the discontinuous high-velocity sliding of SB255 and of the mutant at the permissive temperature where OADs are present. High-velocity step-wise sliding was also present in axonemes from an inner arm dynein mutant (KO6). These results indicate that the high-speed discontinuous pattern of sliding is produced by the mechanochemical activity of outer arm dynein. The rate of sliding is consistent with a low duty ratio of the outer arm dynein and with the operation of each arm along a doublet once per beat. PMID:15605357

  5. Beat regulation in twisted axonemes

    E-print Network

    Sartori, Pablo; Howard, Jonathon; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are hairlike organelles that propel cells through fluid. The active motion of the axoneme, the motile structure inside cilia and flagella, is powered by molecular motors of the dynein family. These motors generate forces and torques that slide and bend the microtubule doublets within the axoneme. To create regular waveforms the activities of the dyneins must be coordinated. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses due to radial, transverse, or sliding deformations, that build up within the moving axoneme. However, which particular component of the stress regulates the motors to produce the observed flagellar waveforms remains an open question. To address this question, we describe the axoneme as a three-dimensional bundle of filaments and characterize its mechanics. We show that regulation of the motors by radial and transverse stresses can lead to a coordinated flagellar motion only in the presence of twist. By comparison, regulation by shear stress is possible without twist...

  6. Mechanochemical aspects of axonemal dynein activity studied by in vitro microtubule translocation.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, T; Holwill, M E; Barkalow, K; Satir, P

    1995-12-01

    We have determined the relationship between microtubule length and translocation velocity from recordings of bovine brain microtubules translocating over a Paramecium 22S dynein substratum in an in vitro assay chamber. For comparison with untreated samples, the 22S dynein has been subjected to detergent and/or to pretreatments that induce phosphorylation of an associated 29 kDa light chain. Control and treated dyneins have been used at the same densities in the translocation assays. In any given condition, translocation velocity (v) shows an initial increase with microtubule length (L) and then reaches a plateau. This situation may be represented by a hyperbola of the general form v = aL/(L+b), which is formally analogous to the Briggs-Haldane relationship, which we have used to interpret our data. The results indicate that the maximum translocation velocity Vo(= a) is increased by pretreatment, whereas the length constant KL(= b), which corresponds to Km, does not change with pretreatment, implying that the mechanochemical properties of the pretreated dyneins differ from those of control dyneins. The conclusion that KL is constant for defined in vitro assays rules out the possibility that the velocity changes seen are caused by changes in geometry in the translocation assays or by the numbers of dyneins or dynein heads needed to produce maximal translocational velocity. From our analysis, we determine that f, the fraction of cycle time during which the dynein is in the force-generating state, is small--roughly 0.01, comparable to the f determined previously for heavy meromyosin. The practical limits of these mechanochemical changes imply that the maximum possible ciliary beat frequency is about 120 Hz, and that in the physiological range of 5-60 Hz, beat frequency could be controlled by varying the numbers of phosphorylated outer arm dyneins along an axonemal microtubule. PMID:8599664

  7. FAP20 is an inner junction protein of doublet microtubules essential for both the planar asymmetrical waveform and stability of flagella in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Haru-aki; Mathis, Garrison; Oda, Toshiyuki; Hirono, Masafumi; Richey, Elizabeth A; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Marshall, Wallace F; Kikkawa, Masahide; Qin, Hongmin

    2014-05-01

    The axoneme-the conserved core of eukaryotic cilia and flagella-contains highly specialized doublet microtubules (DMTs). A long-standing question is what protein(s) compose the junctions between two tubules in DMT. Here we identify a highly conserved flagellar-associated protein (FAP), FAP20, as an inner junction (IJ) component. The flagella of Chlamydomonas FAP20 mutants have normal length but beat with an abnormal symmetrical three-dimensional pattern. In addition, the mutant axonemes are liable to disintegrate during beating, implying that interdoublet connections may be weakened. Conventional electron microscopy shows that the mutant axonemes lack the IJ, and cryo-electron tomography combined with a structural labeling method reveals that the labeled FAP20 localizes at the IJ. The mutant axonemes also lack doublet-specific beak structures, which are localized in the proximal portion of the axoneme and may be involved in planar asymmetric flagellar bending. FAP20 itself, however, may not be a beak component, because uniform localization of FAP20 along the entire length of all nine DMTs is inconsistent with the beak's localization. FAP20 is the first confirmed component of the IJ. Our data also suggest that the IJ is important for both stabilizing the axoneme and scaffolding intra-B-tubular substructures required for a planar asymmetrical waveform. PMID:24574454

  8. Axonemal dynein light chain-1 locates at the microtubule-binding domain of the ? heavy chain.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Muneyoshi; Saito, Kei; Yanagisawa, Haru-Aki; Yagi, Toshiki; Kamiya, Ritsu; Yamaguchi, Shin; Yajima, Junichiro; Kushida, Yasuharu; Nakano, Kentaro; Numata, Osamu; Toyoshima, Yoko Y

    2015-11-15

    The outer arm dynein (OAD) complex is the main propulsive force generator for ciliary/flagellar beating. In Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena, the OAD complex comprises three heavy chains (?, ?, and ? HCs) and >10 smaller subunits. Dynein light chain-1 (LC1) is an essential component of OAD. It is known to associate with the Chlamydomonas ? head domain, but its precise localization within the ? head and regulatory mechanism of the OAD complex remain unclear. Here Ni-NTA-nanogold labeling electron microscopy localized LC1 to the stalk tip of the ? head. Single-particle analysis detected an additional structure, most likely corresponding to LC1, near the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD), located at the stalk tip. Pull-down assays confirmed that LC1 bound specifically to the ? MTBD region. Together with observations that LC1 decreased the affinity of the ? MTBD for microtubules, we present a new model in which LC1 regulates OAD activity by modulating ? MTBD's affinity for the doublet microtubule. PMID:26399296

  9. Beat regulation in twisted axonemes

    E-print Network

    Pablo Sartori; Veikko Geyer; Jonathon Howard; Frank Jülicher

    2015-11-24

    Cilia and flagella are hairlike organelles that propel cells through fluid. The active motion of the axoneme, the motile structure inside cilia and flagella, is powered by molecular motors of the dynein family. These motors generate forces and torques that slide and bend the microtubule doublets within the axoneme. To create regular waveforms the activities of the dyneins must be coordinated. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses due to radial, transverse, or sliding deformations, that build up within the moving axoneme. However, which particular component of the stress regulates the motors to produce the observed flagellar waveforms remains an open question. To address this question, we describe the axoneme as a three-dimensional bundle of filaments and characterize its mechanics. We show that regulation of the motors by radial and transverse stresses can lead to a coordinated flagellar motion only in the presence of twist. By comparison, regulation by shear stress is possible without twist. We calculate emergent beating patterns in twisted axonemes resulting from regulation by transverse stresses. The waveforms are similar to those observed in flagella of Chlamydomonas and sperm. Due to the twist, the waveform has non-planar components, which result in swimming trajectories such as twisted ribbons and helices that agree with observations.

  10. DYF-1 Is Required for Assembly of the Axoneme in Tetrahymena thermophila? †

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Drashti; Wloga, Dorota; Sharma, Neeraj; Gaertig, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    In most cilia, the axoneme can be subdivided into three segments: proximal (the transition zone), middle (with outer doublet microtubules), and distal (with singlet extensions of outer doublet microtubules). How the functionally distinct segments of the axoneme are assembled and maintained is not well understood. DYF-1 is a highly conserved ciliary protein containing tetratricopeptide repeats. In Caenorhabditis elegans, DYF-1 is specifically needed for assembly of the distal segment (G. Ou, O. E. Blacque, J. J. Snow, M. R. Leroux, and J. M. Scholey. Nature. 436:583-587, 2005). We show that Tetrahymena cells lacking an ortholog of DYF-1, Dyf1p, can assemble only extremely short axoneme remnants that have structural defects of diverse natures, including the absence of central pair and outer doublet microtubules and incomplete or absent B tubules on the outer microtubules. Thus, in Tetrahymena, DYF-1 is needed for either assembly or stability of the entire axoneme. Our observations support the conserved function for DYF-1 in axoneme assembly or stability but also show that the consequences of loss of DYF-1 for axoneme segments are organism specific. PMID:19581442

  11. Space-Dependent Formation of Central Pair Microtubules and Their Interactions with Radial Spokes

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Yuki; Ariyoshi, Tetsuro; Noga, Akira; Kamiya, Ritsu; Hirono, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella contain nine outer doublet microtubules and a pair of central microtubules. The central pair of microtubules (CP) is important for cilia/flagella beating, as clearly shown by primary ciliary dyskinesia resulting from the loss of the CP. The CP is thought to regulate axonemal dyneins through interaction with radial spokes (RSs). However, the nature of the CP-RS interaction is poorly understood. Here we examine the appearance of CPs in the axonemes of a Chlamydomonas mutant, bld12, which produces axonemes with 8 to 11 outer-doublets. Most of its 8-doublet axonemes lack CPs. However, in the double mutant of bld12 and pf14, a mutant lacking the RS, most 8-doublet axonemes contain the CP. Thus formation of the CP apparently depends on the internal space limited by the outer doublets and RSs. In 10- or 11-doublet axonemes, only 3–5 RSs are attached to the CP and the doublet arrangement is distorted most likely because the RSs attached to the CP pull the outer doublets toward the axonemal center. The CP orientation in the axonemes varies in double mutants formed between bld12 and mutants lacking particular CP projections. The mutant bld12 thus provides the first direct and visual information about the CP-RS interaction, as well as about the mechanism of CP formation. PMID:25333940

  12. Motor Regulation Results in Distal Forces that Bend Partially Disintegrated Chlamydomonas Axonemes into Circular Arcs

    PubMed Central

    Mukundan, V.; Sartori, P.; Geyer, V.F.; Jülicher, F.; Howard, J.

    2014-01-01

    The bending of cilia and flagella is driven by forces generated by dynein motor proteins. These forces slide adjacent microtubule doublets within the axoneme, the motile cytoskeletal structure. To create regular, oscillatory beating patterns, the activities of the axonemal dyneins must be coordinated both spatially and temporally. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses or strains, which build up within the moving axoneme, and somehow regulate dynein activity. During experimentation with axonemes subjected to mild proteolysis, we observed pairs of doublets associating with each other and forming bends with almost constant curvature. By modeling the statics of a pair of filaments, we show that the activity of the motors concentrates at the distal tips of the doublets. Furthermore, we show that this distribution of motor activity accords with models in which curvature, or curvature-induced normal forces, regulates the activity of the motors. These observations, together with our theoretical analysis, provide evidence that dynein activity can be regulated by curvature or normal forces, which may, therefore, play a role in coordinating the beating of cilia and flagella. PMID:24896122

  13. Functional studies of an evolutionarily conserved, cytochrome b5 domain protein reveal a specific role in axonemal organisation and the general phenomenon of post-division axonemal growth in trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Farr, Helen; Gull, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are highly conserved structures composed of a canonical 9+2 microtubule axoneme. Several recent proteomic studies of cilia and flagella have been published, including a proteome of the flagellum of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Comparing proteomes reveals many novel proteins that appear to be widely conserved in evolution. Amongst these, we found a previously uncharacterised protein which localised to the axoneme in T. brucei, and therefore named it Trypanosome Axonemal protein (TAX)-2. Ablation of the protein using RNA interference in the procyclic form of the parasite has no effect on growth but causes a reduction in motility. Using transmission electron microscopy, various structural defects were seen in some axonemes, most frequently with microtubule doublets missing from the 9+2 arrangement. RNAi knockdown of TAX-2 expression in the bloodstream form of the parasite caused defects in growth and cytokinesis, a further example of the effects caused by loss of flagellar function in bloodstream form T. brucei. In procyclic cells we used a new set of vectors to ablate protein expression in cells expressing a GFP:TAX-2 fusion protein, which enabled us to easily quantify protein reduction and visualise axonemes made before and after RNAi induction. This establishes a useful generic technique but also revealed a specific observation that the new flagellum on the daughter trypanosome continues growth after cytokinesis. Our results provide evidence for TAX-2 function within the axoneme, where we suggest that it is involved in processes linking the outer doublet microtubules and the central pair. PMID:19009637

  14. BALD-2: a mutation affecting the formation of doublet and triplet sets of microtubules in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, U W; StClair, H S

    1975-09-01

    The mutant strain bald-2 is unique among "flagellaless" strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii isolated to date, in that it possesses a mutant basal body: it is only capable of forming a ring of nine singlet microtubules, 180 nm in diameter, instead of the usual triplet basal body which is 225 nm in diameter. This singlet basal body lacks structural stability and the ability to associate with striated fiber material but retains two critical properties of basal bodies, namely, information specifying the length to which it should elongate and the ability to induce, albeit rarely, a flagellar transition region, a short, singlet-containing axoneme, and a specialized tunnel in the cell wall through which flagella normally emerge. The mutation seems to be specific for B- and C-microtubule synthesis or assembly since all other cytoplasmic sets of microtubules appear normal in numbers, orientation, and stability. PMID:1158970

  15. Late steps in cytoplasmic maturation of assembly-competent axonemal outer arm dynein in Chlamydomonas require interaction of ODA5 and ODA10 in a complex

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Anudariya B.; Mitchell, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are multisubunit enzymes that must be preassembled in the cytoplasm, transported into cilia by intraflagellar transport, and bound to specific sites on doublet microtubules, where their activity facilitates microtubule sliding-based motility. Outer dynein arms (ODAs) require assembly factors to assist their preassembly, transport, and attachment to cargo (specific doublet A-tubule sites). In Chlamydomonas, three assembly factors—ODA5, ODA8, and ODA10—show genetic interactions and have been proposed to interact in a complex, but we recently showed that flagellar ODA8 does not copurify with ODA5 or ODA10. Here we show that ODA5 and ODA10 depend on each other for stability and coexist in a complex in both cytoplasmic and flagellar extracts. Immunofluorescence and immuno–electron microscopy reveal that ODA10 in flagella localizes strictly to a proximal region of doublet number 1, which completely lacks ODAs in Chlamydomonas. Studies of the in vitro binding of ODAs to axonemal doublets reveal a role for the ODA5/ODA10 assembly complex in cytoplasmic maturation of ODAs into a form that can bind to doublet microtubules. PMID:26310446

  16. Ubiquitin-proteasome system controls ciliogenesis at the initial step of axoneme extension

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Kiyono, Tohru; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Era, Saho; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that organize numerous key signals during developments and tissue homeostasis. Ciliary microtubule doublet, named axoneme, is grown directly from the distal end of mother centrioles through a multistep process upon cell cycle exit; however, the instructive signals that initiate these events are poorly understood. Here we show that ubiquitin-proteasome machinery removes trichoplein, a negative regulator of ciliogenesis, from mother centrioles and thereby causes Aurora-A inactivation, leading to ciliogenesis. Ciliogenesis is blocked if centriolar trichoplein is stabilized by treatment with proteasome inhibitors or by expression of non-ubiquitylatable trichoplein mutant (K50/57R). Started from two-stepped global E3 screening, we have identified KCTD17 as a substrate-adaptor for Cul3-RING E3 ligases (CRL3s) that polyubiquitylates trichoplein. Depletion of KCTD17 specifically arrests ciliogenesis at the initial step of axoneme extension through aberrant trichoplein-Aurora-A activity. Thus, CRL3-KCTD17 targets trichoplein to proteolysis to initiate the axoneme extension during ciliogenesis. PMID:25270598

  17. Centrin-mediated microtubule severing during flagellar excision in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydomonas cells excise their flagella in response to a variety of experimental conditions (e.g., extremes of temperature or pH, alcohol or detergent treatment, and mechanical shear). Here, we show that flagellar excision is an active process whereby microtubules are severed at select sites within the transition zone. The transition zone is located between the flagellar axoneme and the basal body; it is characterized by a pair of central cylinders that have an H shape when viewed in longitudinal section. Both central cylinders are connected to the A tubule of each microtubule doublet of the transition zone by fibers (approximately 5 nm diam). When viewed in cross section, these fibers are seen to form a distinctive stellate pattern characteristic of the transition zone (Manton, I. 1964. J. R. Microsc. Soc. 82:279- 285; Ringo. D. L. 1967. J. Cell Biol. 33:543-571). We demonstrate that at the time of flagellar excision these fibers contract and displace the microtubule doublets of the axoneme inward. We believe that the resulting shear force and torsional load act to sever the axonemal microtubules immediately distal to the central cylinder. Structural alterations of the transition zone during flagellar excision occur both in living cells and detergent-extracted cell models, and are dependent on the presence of calcium (greater than or equal to 10(-6) M). Immunolocalization using monoclonal antibodies against the calcium- binding protein centrin demonstrate the presence of centrin in the fiber-based stellate structure of the transition zone of wild-type cells. Examination of the flagellar autotomy mutant, fa-1, which fails to excise its flagella (Lewin, R., and C. Burrascano. 1983. Experientia. 39:1397-1398), demonstrates that the fa-1 lacks the ability to completely contract the fibers of the stellate structure. We conclude that flagellar excision in Chlamydomonas involves microtubule severing that is mediated by the action of calcium-sensitive contractile fibers of the transition zone. These observations have led us to question whether microtubule severing may be a more general phenomenon than previously suspected and to suggest that microtubule severing may contribute to the dynamic behavior of cytoplasmic microtubules in other cells. PMID:2654141

  18. The flagellar beat of rat sperm is organized by the interaction of two functionally distinct populations of dynein bridges with a stable central axonemal partition.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, C B; Orlando, A; Kanous, K S

    1992-06-01

    Two distinct patterns of microtubular sliding were observed in rat sperm flagellar axonemes. The particular pattern of sliding was determined by the extraction conditions used to prepare the sperm for axoneme disintegration. Sperm prepared by incubating concentrated suspensions of Triton X-100-extracted sperm at pH 9.0 disintegrated by extruding the doublets and outer dense fibers numbered 4 through 7 in response to Mg-ATP. Sperm prepared by incubating motile Triton X-100-extracted models at 37 degrees C for 1 to 3 hours extruded doublets and outer dense fibers 9, 1 and 2. Axonemes disintegrated by both regimens tended to have doublets 3 and 8 (with their corresponding outer dense fibers), as well as the central pair, in place. In numerous instances, the 3-central-8 complex with outer dense fibers 3 and 8 could be found isolated in midpiece sections prepared from both methods. The 3-central-8 partition was also sometimes seen in isolation in cross-sections of the principal piece where it remained attached to the fibrous sheath. The flagellar remnant produced by extrusion of fibers 4 through 7 under high pH conditions was generally straight or randomly curved. In contrast, the flagellar remnant produced by extrusion of the 9-1-2 bundle of fibers was most often curved into a hook in the midpiece region. While the hook-like configuration was not Ca(2+)-dependent, it may be based on a related mechanism. The sliding of the 9-1-2 group of fibers is a consequence of dynein-tubulin sliding between the 2 and 3 doublets. This sliding pattern appears to be preferentially activated in the motile sperm models in EGTA, but seldom if ever produced sliding in the high-pH-extracted models. We conclude that the 3-central pair-8 complex and associated outer dense fibers form an I-beam-like partition that does not participate in sliding, but acts as a structural foundation for organizing a planar beat. In addition, it is clear that preferential activation of certain dynein arms can be evoked, depending on the treatment regimen employed. This shows definitively that the types of microtubule sliding in the two bend directions are not identical. PMID:1400632

  19. Diverse Roles of Axonemal Dyneins in Drosophila Auditory Neuron Function and Mechanical Amplification in Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Karak, Somdatta; Jacobs, Julie S.; Kittelmann, Maike; Spalthoff, Christian; Katana, Radoslaw; Sivan-Loukianova, Elena; Schon, Michael A.; Kernan, Maurice J.; Eberl, Daniel F.; Göpfert, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Much like vertebrate hair cells, the chordotonal sensory neurons that mediate hearing in Drosophila are motile and amplify the mechanical input of the ear. Because the neurons bear mechanosensory primary cilia whose microtubule axonemes display dynein arms, we hypothesized that their motility is powered by dyneins. Here, we describe two axonemal dynein proteins that are required for Drosophila auditory neuron function, localize to their primary cilia, and differently contribute to mechanical amplification in hearing. Promoter fusions revealed that the two axonemal dynein genes Dmdnah3 (=CG17150) and Dmdnai2 (=CG6053) are expressed in chordotonal neurons, including the auditory ones in the fly’s ear. Null alleles of both dyneins equally abolished electrical auditory neuron responses, yet whereas mutations in Dmdnah3 facilitated mechanical amplification, amplification was abolished by mutations in Dmdnai2. Epistasis analysis revealed that Dmdnah3 acts downstream of Nan-Iav channels in controlling the amplificatory gain. Dmdnai2, in addition to being required for amplification, was essential for outer dynein arms in auditory neuron cilia. This establishes diverse roles of axonemal dyneins in Drosophila auditory neuron function and links auditory neuron motility to primary cilia and axonemal dyneins. Mutant defects in sperm competition suggest that both dyneins also function in sperm motility. PMID:26608786

  20. Target molecules of calmodulin on microtubules of Tetrahymena cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano-Ohnishi, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshio )

    1988-09-01

    In the course of an attempt to isolate the calmodulin-binding proteins (CaMBPs) from cilia of Tetrahymena, it was found that some CaMBPs tend to interact with axonemal microtubules. The present study demonstrates this interaction by cosedimentation experiments using in vitro polymerized Tetrahymena axonemal microtubules and Tetrahymena CaMBPs purified from axonemes by calmodulin affinity column chromatography. Analysis by the ({sup 125}I)calmodulin overlay method showed that at least three CaMBPs (M{sub r} 69, 45, and 37 kDa) cosediment with microtubules. Furthermore, without any addition of exogenous CaMBPs, microtubules purified after three cycles of temperature-dependent polymerization and depolymerization included the above CaMBPs and additional CaMBPs which could not cosediment with microtubules. From the results, the authors have classified these microtubule-associated CaMBPs into two groups: (i) CaMBPs which interact with microtubules only during polymerization, and (ii) CaMBPs which interact not only with microtubules during polymerization, but also with polymerized microtubules. These results suggest that the microtubule-associated CaMBPs, especially those of the latter group, are located on the surface of ciliary microtubules, and may become the target molecules of calmodulin at Ca{sup 2+}-triggered ciliary reversal.

  1. Torque generation by axonemal outer-arm dynein.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shin; Saito, Kei; Sutoh, Miki; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Toyoshima, Yoko Y; Yajima, Junichiro

    2015-02-17

    Outer-arm dynein is the main engine providing the motive force in cilia. Using three-dimensional tracking microscopy, we found that contrary to previous reports Tetrahymena ciliary three-headed outer-arm dynein (???) as well as proteolytically generated two-headed (??) and one-headed (?) subparticles showed clockwise rotation of each sliding microtubule around its longitudinal axis in microtubule corkscrewing assays. By measuring the rotational pitch as a function of ATP concentration, we also found that the microtubule corkscrewing pitch is independent of ATP concentration, except at low ATP concentrations where the pitch generated by both three-headed ??? and one-headed ? exhibited significantly longer pitch. In contrast, the pitch driven by two-headed ?? did not display this sensitivity. In the assays on lawns containing mixtures of ? and ?? at various ratios, the corkscrewing pitch increased dramatically in a nonlinear fashion as the ratio of ? in the mixture increased. Even small proportions of ?-subparticle could significantly increase the corkscrewing pitch of the mixture. Our data show that torque generation does not require the three-headed outer-arm dynein (???) but is an intrinsic property of the subparticles of axonemal dyneins and also suggest that each subparticle may have distinct mechanical properties. PMID:25692592

  2. The contribution of ??-tubulin curvature to microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are dynamic polymers of ??-tubulin that form diverse cellular structures, such as the mitotic spindle for cell division, the backbone of neurons, and axonemes. To control the architecture of microtubule networks, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and motor proteins regulate microtubule growth, shrinkage, and the transitions between these states. Recent evidence shows that many MAPs exert their effects by selectively binding to distinct conformations of polymerized or unpolymerized ??-tubulin. The ability of ??-tubulin to adopt distinct conformations contributes to the intrinsic polymerization dynamics of microtubules. ??-Tubulin conformation is a fundamental property that MAPs monitor and control to build proper microtubule networks. PMID:25385183

  3. Cell,Vol.52, 459-469, February12, 1988,Copyright 1988by Cell Press Rotation and Translocation of Microtubules

    E-print Network

    Vale, Ronald D.

    ), and it appears by electron microscopy as a structure with three globular heads that are connected by stalks doublets is observed in trypsin- treated axonemes after ATP addition (Summers and Gib- bons, 1971

  4. Motor driven microtubule shape fluctuations - force from within the lattice

    E-print Network

    Herve Mohrbach; Igor M. Kulic

    2007-04-15

    We develop a general theory of microtubule (MT) deformations by molecular motors generating internal force doublets within the MT lattice. We describe two basic internal excitations, the S and V shape, and compare them with experimental observations from literature. We explain the special role of tubulin vacancies and the dramatic deformation amplifying effect observed for katanin acting at positions of defects. Experimentally observed shapes are used to determine the ratio of MT shear and stretch moduli ($\\approx 6\\times10^{-5}$) and to estimate the forces induced in the MT lattice by katanin (10's of pN). For many motors acting on a single MT we derive expressions for the end-to-end distance reduction and provide criteria for dominance of this new effect over thermal fluctuations. We conclude that molecular motors if acting cooperatively can ''animate'' MTs from within the lattice and induce slack even without cross-bridging to other structures, a scenario very much reminiscent of the motor driven axoneme.

  5. A NIMA-Related Kinase Suppresses the Flagellar Instability Associated with the Loss of Multiple Axonemal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huawen; Zhang, Zhengyan; Guo, Suyang; Chen, Fan; Kessler, Jonathan M.; Wang, Yan Mei; Dutcher, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    CCDC39 and CCDC40 were first identified as causative mutations in primary ciliary dyskinesia patients; cilia from patients show disorganized microtubules, and they are missing both N-DRC and inner dynein arms proteins. In Chlamydomonas, we used immunoblots and microtubule sliding assays to show that mutants in CCDC40 (PF7) and CCDC39 (PF8) fail to assemble N-DRC, several inner dynein arms, tektin, and CCDC39. Enrichment screens for suppression of pf7; pf8 cells led to the isolation of five independent extragenic suppressors defined by four different mutations in a NIMA-related kinase, CNK11. These alleles partially rescue the flagellar length defect, but not the motility defect. The suppressor does not restore the missing N-DRC and inner dynein arm proteins. In addition, the cnk11 mutations partially suppress the short flagella phenotype of N-DRC and axonemal dynein mutants, but do not suppress the motility defects. The tpg1 mutation in TTLL9, a tubulin polyglutamylase, partially suppresses the length phenotype in the same axonemal dynein mutants. In contrast to cnk11, tpg1 does not suppress the short flagella phenotype of pf7. The polyglutamylated tubulin in the proximal region that remains in the tpg1 mutant is reduced further in the pf7; tpg1 double mutant by immunofluorescence. CCDC40, which is needed for docking multiple other axonemal complexes, is needed for tubulin polyglutamylation in the proximal end of the flagella. The CCDC39 and CCDC40 proteins are likely to be involved in recruiting another tubulin glutamylase(s) to the flagella. Another difference between cnk11-1 and tpg1 mutants is that cnk11-1 cells show a faster turnover rate of tubulin at the flagellar tip than in wild-type flagella and tpg1 flagella show a slower rate. The double mutant shows a turnover rate similar to tpg1, which suggests the faster turnover rate in cnk11-1 flagella requires polyglutamylation. Thus, we hypothesize that many short flagella mutants in Chlamydomonas have increased instability of axonemal microtubules. Both CNK11 and tubulin polyglutamylation play roles in regulating the stability of axonemal microtubules. PMID:26348919

  6. Regulation of microtubule dynamics and nucleation during polarization in MDCK II cells

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    MDCK cells form a polarized epithelium when they reach confluence in tissue culture. We have previously shown that concomitantly with the establishment of intercellular junctions, centrioles separate and microtubules lose their radial organization (Bacallao, R., C. Antony, C. Dotti, E. Karsenti, E.H.K. Stelzer, and K. Simons. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:2817-2832. Buendia, B., M.H. Bre, G. Griffiths, and E. Karsenti. 1990. 110:1123-1136). In this work, we have examined the pattern of microtubule nucleation before and after the establishment of intercellular contacts. We analyzed the elongation rate and stability of microtubules in single and confluent cells. This was achieved by microinjection of Paramecium axonemal tubulin and detection of the newly incorporated subunits by an antibody directed specifically against the Paramecium axonemal tubulin. The determination of newly nucleated microtubule localization has been made possible by the use of advanced double-immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. We have shown that in single cells, newly nucleated microtubules originate from several sites concentrated in a region localized close to the nucleus and not from a single spot that could correspond to a pair of centrioles. In confluent cells, newly nucleated microtubules were still more dispersed. The microtubule elongation rate of individual microtubules was not different in single and confluent cells (4 microns/min). However, in confluent cells, the population of long lived microtubules was strongly increased. In single or subconfluent cells most microtubules showed a t1/2 of less than 30 min, whereas in confluent monolayers, a large population of microtubules had a t1/2 of greater than 2 h. These results, together with previous observations cited above, indicate that during the establishment of polarity in MDCK cells, microtubule reorganization involves both a relocalization of microtubule-nucleating activity and increased microtubule stabilization. PMID:2269664

  7. Asymmetric behavior of severed microtubule ends after ultraviolet-microbeam irradiation of individual microtubules in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.A.; Inoue, S.; Salmon, E.D.

    1989-03-01

    The molecular basis of microtubule dynamic instability is controversial, but is thought to be related to a GTP cap. A key prediction of the GTP cap model is that the proposed labile GDP-tubulin core will rapidly dissociate if the GTP-tubulin cap is lost. We have tested this prediction by using a UV microbeam to cut the ends from elongating microtubules. Phosphocellulose-purified tubulin was assembled onto the plus and minus ends of sea urchin flagellar axoneme fragments at 21-22 degrees C. The assembly dynamics of individual microtubules were recorded in real time using video microscopy. When the tip of an elongating plus end microtubule was cut off, the severed plus end microtubule always rapidly shortened back to the axoneme at the normal plus end rate. However, when the distal tip of an elongating minus end microtubule was cut off, no rapid shortening occurred. Instead, the severed minus end resumed elongation at the normal minus end rate. Our results show that some form of stabilizing cap, possibly a GTP cap, governs the transition (catastrophe) from elongation to rapid shortening at the plus end. At the minus end, a simple GTP cap is not sufficient to explain the observed behavior unless UV induces immediate recapping of minus, but not plus, ends. Another possibility is that a second step, perhaps a structural transformation, is required in addition to GTP cap loss for rapid shortening to occur. This transformation would be favored at plus, but not minus ends, to account for the asymmetric behavior of the ends.

  8. Basal body multipotency and axonemal remodelling are two pathways to a 9+0 flagellum

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, R. J.; Gluenz, E.; Gull, K.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cilia/flagella exhibit two characteristic ultrastructures reflecting two main functions; a 9+2 axoneme for motility and a 9+0 axoneme for sensation and signalling. Whether, and if so how, they interconvert is unclear. Here we analyse flagellum length, structure and molecular composition changes in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite Leishmania during the transformation of a life cycle stage with a 9+2 axoneme (the promastigote) to one with a 9+0 axoneme (the amastigote). We show 9+0 axonemes can be generated by two pathways: by de novo formation and by restructuring of existing 9+2 axonemes associated with decreased intraflagellar transport. Furthermore, pro-basal bodies formed under conditions conducive for 9+2 axoneme formation can form a 9+0 axoneme de novo. We conclude that pro-centrioles/pro-basal bodies are multipotent and not committed to form either a 9+2 or 9+0 axoneme. In an alternative pathway structures can also be removed from existing 9+2 axonemes to convert them to 9+0. PMID:26667778

  9. Microtubule-membrane interactions in cilia. I. Isolation and characterization of ciliary membranes from Tetrahymena pyriformis

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Tetrahymena ciliary membranes were prepared by four different techniques, and their protein composition was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), electron microscopy, and two-dimensional thin-layer peptide mapping. Extraction of the isolated cilia by nonionic detergent solubilized the ciliary membranes but left the axonemal microtubules and dyneine arms intact, as determined by quantitative electron microscopy. The proteins solubilized by detergent included a major 55,000-dalton protein, 1-3 high molecular weight proteins that comigrated, on SDS-PAGE, with the axonemal dynein, as well as several other proteins of 45,000-50,000 daltons. Each of the major proteins contained a small amount of carbohydrate, as determined by PAS-staining; no PAS-positive material was detected in the detergent-extracted axonemes. The major 55,000- dalton protein has proteins quite similar to those of tubulin, based on SDS-PAGE using three different buffer systems as well as two- dimensional maps of tryptic peptides from the isolated 55,000-dalton protein. To determine whether this tubulin-like protein was associated with the membrane or whether it was an axonemal or matrix protein released by detergent treatment, three different methods to isolate ciliary membrane vesicles were developed. The protein composition of each of these differetn vesicle preparations was the same as that of the detergent-solubilized material. These results suggest that a major ciliary membrane protein has properties similar to those of tubulin. PMID:6445909

  10. Microtubules cut and run.

    PubMed

    Baas, Peter W; Karabay, Arzu; Qiang, Liang

    2005-10-01

    There is broad agreement that cells reconfigure their microtubules through rapid bouts of assembly and disassembly, as described by the mechanism known as dynamic instability. However, many cell types have complex patterns of microtubule organization that are not entirely explicable by dynamic instability. There is growing evidence that microtubules can be moved into new patterns of organization by forces generated by molecular motor proteins. Studies on several cell types support a model called 'cut and run' in which long microtubules are stationary, but relatively short microtubules are mobile. In this model, cells mobilize their microtubules by severing them into short pieces, using enzymes such as katanin and spastin that break the lattice of the microtubule polymer. After being reorganized, the short microtubules can once again elongate and lose their mobility. Microtubule severing is also crucial for a variation of 'cut and run' in which the severed microtubules are reorganized by means of treadmilling. PMID:16126385

  11. Targeting Toxoplasma Tubules: Tubulin, Microtubules, and Associated Proteins in a Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes serious opportunistic infections, birth defects, and blindness in humans. Microtubules are critically important components of diverse structures that are used throughout the Toxoplasma life cycle. As in other eukaryotes, spindle microtubules are required for chromosome segregation during replication. Additionally, a set of membrane-associated microtubules is essential for the elongated shape of invasive “zoites,” and motility follows a spiral trajectory that reflects the path of these microtubules. Toxoplasma zoites also construct an intricate, tubulin-based apical structure, termed the conoid, which is important for host cell invasion and associates with proteins typically found in the flagellar apparatus. Last, microgametes specifically construct a microtubule-containing flagellar axoneme in order to fertilize macrogametes, permitting genetic recombination. The specialized roles of these microtubule populations are mediated by distinct sets of associated proteins. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of tubulin, microtubule populations, and associated proteins in Toxoplasma; these components are used for both novel and broadly conserved processes that are essential for parasite survival. PMID:25380753

  12. Targeting Toxoplasma tubules: tubulin, microtubules, and associated proteins in a human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Morrissette, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes serious opportunistic infections, birth defects, and blindness in humans. Microtubules are critically important components of diverse structures that are used throughout the Toxoplasma life cycle. As in other eukaryotes, spindle microtubules are required for chromosome segregation during replication. Additionally, a set of membrane-associated microtubules is essential for the elongated shape of invasive "zoites," and motility follows a spiral trajectory that reflects the path of these microtubules. Toxoplasma zoites also construct an intricate, tubulin-based apical structure, termed the conoid, which is important for host cell invasion and associates with proteins typically found in the flagellar apparatus. Last, microgametes specifically construct a microtubule-containing flagellar axoneme in order to fertilize macrogametes, permitting genetic recombination. The specialized roles of these microtubule populations are mediated by distinct sets of associated proteins. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of tubulin, microtubule populations, and associated proteins in Toxoplasma; these components are used for both novel and broadly conserved processes that are essential for parasite survival. PMID:25380753

  13. Substructural analysis of the microtubule and its polymorphic forms.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K; Tilney, L G

    1975-06-30

    Microtubules are composed of 13 protofilaments which are aligned parallel to the long axis of the tubule, as can be seen in thin sections of material fixed in the presence of tannic acid. Evidence is presented based upon Markham rotations of the isolated flagellar axoneme that the bridges (spoke, nexin, dynein) must connect to certain specified protofilaments. By means of geometric considerations it is concluded that the bridges in a Centrohelida and Raphidiophrys also connect certain specified protofilaments. Two polymorphic forms of microtubules were also examined using tannic acid in the fixative, a 320 A tubule produced in Echinosphaerium by treatment with low temperature, and a vinblastine-induced microtubule crystal. In both forms, the arrangement of the subunits is not in the form of linear protofilaments. The vinblastine crystal in transverse section is made up of hexagonally packed tubules approximately 320 A in diameter. The wall of each tubule in turn is composed of two parallel protofilaments which spiral upwards, giving the appearance of a barber pole. The center-to-center separation of adjacent protofilaments is 180 A. We conclude that the tubulin heterodimer lies parallel to the axis of the protofilaments, exposing the colchicine binding site. PMID:50031

  14. FAP206 is a microtubule-docking adapter for ciliary radial spoke 2 and dynein c

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Krishna Kumar; Song, Kangkang; Alford, Lea M.; Sale, Winfield S.; Dymek, Erin E.; Smith, Elizabeth F.; Hennessey, Todd; Joachimiak, Ewa; Urbanska, Paulina; Wloga, Dorota; Dentler, William; Nicastro, Daniela; Gaertig, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Radial spokes are conserved macromolecular complexes that are essential for ciliary motility. A triplet of three radial spokes, RS1, RS2, and RS3, repeats every 96 nm along the doublet microtubules. Each spoke has a distinct base that docks to the doublet and is linked to different inner dynein arms. Little is known about the assembly and functions of individual radial spokes. A knockout of the conserved ciliary protein FAP206 in the ciliate Tetrahymena resulted in slow cell motility. Cryo–electron tomography showed that in the absence of FAP206, the 96-nm repeats lacked RS2 and dynein c. Occasionally, RS2 assembled but lacked both the front prong of its microtubule base and dynein c, whose tail is attached to the front prong. Overexpressed GFP-FAP206 decorated nonciliary microtubules in vivo. Thus FAP206 is likely part of the front prong and docks RS2 and dynein c to the microtubule. PMID:25540426

  15. FAP206 is a microtubule-docking adapter for ciliary radial spoke 2 and dynein c.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Krishna Kumar; Song, Kangkang; Alford, Lea M; Sale, Winfield S; Dymek, Erin E; Smith, Elizabeth F; Hennessey, Todd; Joachimiak, Ewa; Urbanska, Paulina; Wloga, Dorota; Dentler, William; Nicastro, Daniela; Gaertig, Jacek

    2015-02-15

    Radial spokes are conserved macromolecular complexes that are essential for ciliary motility. A triplet of three radial spokes, RS1, RS2, and RS3, repeats every 96 nm along the doublet microtubules. Each spoke has a distinct base that docks to the doublet and is linked to different inner dynein arms. Little is known about the assembly and functions of individual radial spokes. A knockout of the conserved ciliary protein FAP206 in the ciliate Tetrahymena resulted in slow cell motility. Cryo-electron tomography showed that in the absence of FAP206, the 96-nm repeats lacked RS2 and dynein c. Occasionally, RS2 assembled but lacked both the front prong of its microtubule base and dynein c, whose tail is attached to the front prong. Overexpressed GFP-FAP206 decorated nonciliary microtubules in vivo. Thus FAP206 is likely part of the front prong and docks RS2 and dynein c to the microtubule. PMID:25540426

  16. Microtubules, Tubulins and Associated Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raxworthy, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews much of what is known about microtubules, which are biopolymers consisting predominantly of subunits of the globular protein, tubulin. Describes the functions of microtubules, their structure and assembly, microtube associated proteins, and microtubule-disrupting agents. (TW)

  17. Dynamic curvature regulation accounts for the symmetric and asymmetric beats of Chlamydomonas flagella

    E-print Network

    Sartori, Pablo; Scholich, Andre; Jülicher, Frank; Howard, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are the molecular motors responsible for the beating of cilia and flagella. These motors generate sliding forces between adjacent microtubule doublets within the axoneme, the motile cytoskeletal structure inside the flagellum. To create regular, oscillatory beating patterns, the activities of the axonemal dyneins must be coordinated both spatially and temporally. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses or strains that build up within the moving axoneme, but it is not known which components of stress or strain are involved, nor how they feed back on the dyneins. To answer this question, we used isolated, reactivate axonemes of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas as a model system. We derived a theory for beat regulation in a two-dimensional model of the axoneme. We then tested the theory by measuring the beat waveforms of wild type axonemes, which have asymmetric beats, and mutant axonemes, in which the beat is nearly symmetric, using high-precision spatial and temporal imaging....

  18. Origins of Inert Higgs Doublets

    E-print Network

    Thomas W. Kephart; Tzu-Chiang Yuan

    2015-08-14

    We consider beyond the standard model embedding of inert Higgs doublet fields. We argue that inert Higgs doublets can arise naturally in grand unified theories where the necessary associated $Z_2$ symmetry can occur automatically. Several examples are discussed.

  19. Heterotrimeric kinesin-2 (KIF3) mediates transition zone and axoneme formation of mouse photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Wei, Yuxiao; Ronquillo, Cecinio C; Marc, Robert E; Yoder, Bradley K; Frederick, Jeanne M; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2015-05-15

    Anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) employing kinesin-2 molecular motors has been implicated in trafficking of photoreceptor outer segment proteins. We generated embryonic retina-specific (prefix "emb") and adult tamoxifen-induced (prefix "tam") deletions of KIF3a and IFT88 in adult mice to study photoreceptor ciliogenesis and protein trafficking. In (emb)Kif3a(-/-) and in (emb)Ift88(-/-) mice, basal bodies failed to extend transition zones (connecting cilia) with outer segments, and visual pigments mistrafficked. In contrast, (tam)Kif3a(-/-) and (tam)Ift88(-/-) photoreceptor axonemes disintegrated slowly post-induction, starting distally, but rhodopsin and cone pigments trafficked normally for more than 2 weeks, a time interval during which the outer segment is completely renewed. The results demonstrate that visual pigments transport to the retinal outer segment despite removal of KIF3 and IFT88, and KIF3-mediated anterograde IFT is responsible for photoreceptor transition zone and axoneme formation. PMID:25825494

  20. Time-Dependent Measure of a Nano-Scale Force-Pulse Driven by the Axonemal Dynein Motors in Individual Live Sperm Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M J; Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M W; Balhorn, R

    2009-04-23

    Nano-scale mechanical forces generated by motor proteins are crucial to normal cellular and organismal functioning. The ability to measure and exploit such forces would be important to developing motile biomimetic nanodevices powered by biological motors for Nanomedicine. Axonemal dynein motors positioned inside the sperm flagellum drive microtubule sliding giving rise to rhythmic beating of the flagellum. This force-generating action makes it possible for the sperm cell to move through viscous media. Here we report new nano-scale information on how the propulsive force is generated by the sperm flagellum and how this force varies over time. Single cell recordings reveal discrete {approx}50 ms pulses oscillating with amplitude 9.8 {+-} 2.6 nN independent of pulse frequency (3.5-19.5 Hz). The average work carried out by each cell is 4.6 x 10{sup -16} J per pulse, equivalent to the hydrolysis of {approx}5,500 ATP molecules. The mechanochemical coupling at each active dynein head is {approx}2.2 pN/ATP, and {approx}3.9 pN per dynein arm, in agreement with previously published values obtained using different methods.

  1. Particulate Matter in Cigarette Smoke Increases Ciliary Axoneme Beating Through Mechanical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Navarrette, Chelsea R.; Sisson, Joseph H.; Nance, Elizabeth; Allen-Gipson, Diane; Hanes, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The lung's ability to trap and clear foreign particles via the mucociliary elevator is an important mechanism for protecting the lung against respirable irritants and microorganisms. Although cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and particulate inhalation are known to alter mucociliary clearance, little is known about how CS and nanoparticles (NPs) modify cilia beating at the cytoskeletal infrastructure, or axonemal, level. Methods We used a cell-free model to introduce cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and NPs with variant size and surface chemistry to isolated axonemes and measured changes in ciliary motility. We hypothesized that CSE would alter cilia beating and that alterations in ciliary beat frequency (CBF) due to particulate matter would be size- and surface chemistry-dependent. Demembranated axonemes were isolated from ciliated bovine tracheas and exposed to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to initiate motility. CBF was measured in response to 5% CSE, CSE filtrate, and carboxyl-modified (COOH), sulphate (SO4)-modified (sulfonated), or PEG-coated polystyrene (PS) latex NPs ranging in size from 40?nm to 500?nm. Results CSE concentrations as low as 5% resulted in rapid, significant stimulation of CBF (p<0.05 vs. baseline control). Filtering CSE through a 0.2-?m filter attenuated this effect. Introduction of sulphate-modified PS beads ?300?nm in diameter resulted in a similar increase in CBF above baseline ATP levels. Uncharged, PEG-coated beads had no effect on CBF regardless of size. Similarly, COOH-coated particles less than 200?nm in diameter did not alter ciliary motility. However, COOH-coated PS particles larger than 300?nm increased CBF significantly and increased the number of motile points. Conclusions These data show that NPs, including those found in CSE, mechanically stimulate axonemes in a size- and surface chemistry-dependent manner. Alterations in ciliary motility due to physicochemical properties of NPs may be important for inhalational lung injury and efficient drug delivery of respirable particles. PMID:22280523

  2. Modeling oscillatory microtubule polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammele, Martin; Zimmermann, Walter

    2003-02-01

    Polymerization of microtubules is ubiquitous in biological cells and under certain conditions it becomes oscillatory in time. Here, simple reaction models are analyzed that capture such oscillations as well as the length distribution of microtubules. We assume reaction conditions that are stationary over many oscillation periods, and it is a Hopf bifurcation that leads to a persistent oscillatory microtubule polymerization in these models. Analytical expressions are derived for the threshold of the bifurcation and the oscillation frequency in terms of reaction rates, and typical trends of their parameter dependence are presented. Both, a catastrophe rate that depends on the density of guanosine triphosphate liganded tubulin dimers and a delay reaction, such as the depolymerization of shrinking microtubules or the decay of oligomers, support oscillations. For a tubulin dimer concentration below the threshold, oscillatory microtubule polymerization occurs transiently on the route to a stationary state, as shown by numerical solutions of the model equations. Close to threshold, a so-called amplitude equation is derived and it is shown that the bifurcation to microtubule oscillations is supercritical.

  3. Do prokaryotes contain microtubules?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.; Hinkle, G.; Margulis, L.

    1994-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules are 24-nm-diameter tubular structures composed of a class of conserved proteins called tubulin. They are involved in numerous cell functions including ciliary motility, nerve cell elongation, pigment migration, centrosome formation, and chromosome movement. Although cytoplasmic tubules and fibers have been observed in bacteria, some with diameters similar to those of eukaryotes, no homologies to eukaryotic microtubules have been established. Certain groups of bacteria including azotobacters, cyanobacteria, enteric bacteria, and spirochetes have been frequently observed to possess microtubule-like structures, and others, including archaebacteria, have been shown to be sensitive to drugs that inhibit the polymerization of microtubules. Although little biochemical or molecular biological information is available, the differences observed among these prokaryotic structures suggest that their composition generally differs among themselves as well as from that of eukaryotes. We review the distribution of cytoplasmic tubules in prokaryotes, even though, in all cases, their functions remain unknown. At least some tend to occur in cells that are large, elongate, and motile, suggesting that they may be involved in cytoskeletal functions, intracellular motility, or transport activities comparable to those performed by eukaryotic microtubules. In Escherichia coli, the FtsZ protein is associated with the formation of a ring in the division zone between the newly forming offspring cells. Like tubulin, FtsZ is a GTPase and shares with tubulin a 7-amino-acid motif, making it a promising candidate in which to seek the origin of tubulins.

  4. Do prokaryotes contain microtubules?

    PubMed Central

    Bermudes, D; Hinkle, G; Margulis, L

    1994-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules are 24-nm-diameter tubular structures composed of a class of conserved proteins called tubulin. They are involved in numerous cell functions including ciliary motility, nerve cell elongation, pigment migration, centrosome formation, and chromosome movement. Although cytoplasmic tubules and fibers have been observed in bacteria, some with diameters similar to those of eukaryotes, no homologies to eukaryotic microtubules have been established. Certain groups of bacteria including azotobacters, cyanobacteria, enteric bacteria, and spirochetes have been frequently observed to possess microtubule-like structures, and others, including archaebacteria, have been shown to be sensitive to drugs that inhibit the polymerization of microtubules. Although little biochemical or molecular biological information is available, the differences observed among these prokaryotic structures suggest that their composition generally differs among themselves as well as from that of eukaryotes. We review the distribution of cytoplasmic tubules in prokaryotes, even though, in all cases, their functions remain unknown. At least some tend to occur in cells that are large, elongate, and motile, suggesting that they may be involved in cytoskeletal functions, intracellular motility, or transport activities comparable to those performed by eukaryotic microtubules. In Escherichia coli, the FtsZ protein is associated with the formation of a ring in the division zone between the newly forming offspring cells. Like tubulin, FtsZ is a GTPase and shares with tubulin a 7-amino-acid motif, making it a promising candidate in which to seek the origin of tubulins. Images PMID:7968920

  5. The Ciliary Inner Dynein Arm, I1 dynein, is assembled in the Cytoplasm and Transported by IFT before Axonemal Docking

    PubMed Central

    Viswanadha, Rasagnya; Hunter, Emily L.; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Wirschell, Maureen; Alford, Lea M.; Dutcher, Susan K.; Sale, Winfield S.

    2014-01-01

    To determine mechanisms of assembly of ciliary dyneins, we focused on the Chlamydomonas inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, also known as dynein f. I1 dynein assembles in the cytoplasm as a 20S complex similar to the 20S I1 dynein complex isolated from the axoneme. The intermediate chain subunit, IC140 (IDA7), and heavy chains (IDA1, IDA2) are required for 20S I1 dynein preassembly in the cytoplasm. Unlike I1 dynein derived from the axoneme, the cytoplasmic 20S I1 complex will not rebind I1-deficient axonemes in vitro. To test the hypothesis that I1 dynein is transported to the distal tip of the cilia for assembly in the axoneme, we performed cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons formed between wild-type and I1 dynein mutant cells. Rescue of I1 dynein assembly in mutant cilia occurred first at the distal tip and then proceeded toward the proximal axoneme. Notably, in contrast to other combinations, I1 dynein assembly was significantly delayed in dikaryons formed between ida7 and ida3. Furthermore, rescue of I1 dynein assembly required new protein synthesis in the ida7 x ida3 dikaryons. Based on additional observations, we postulate that IDA3 is required for 20S I1 dynein transport. Cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons using the conditional kinesin-2 mutant, fla10-1 revealed that transport of I1 dynein is dependent on kinesin-2 activity. Thus, I1 dynein complex assembly depends upon IFT for transport to the ciliary distal tip prior to docking in the axoneme. PMID:25252184

  6. Building the Neuronal Microtubule Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Kapitein, Lukas C; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2015-08-01

    Microtubules are one of the major cytoskeletal components of neurons, essential for many fundamental cellular and developmental processes, such as neuronal migration, polarity, and differentiation. Microtubules have been regarded as critical structures for stable neuronal morphology because they serve as tracks for long-distance transport, provide dynamic and mechanical functions, and control local signaling events. Establishment and maintenance of the neuronal microtubule architecture requires tight control over different dynamic parameters, such as microtubule number, length, distribution, orientations, and bundling. Recent genetic studies have identified mutations in a wide variety of tubulin isotypes and microtubule-related proteins in many of the major neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we highlight the functions of the neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton, its architecture, and the way its organization and dynamics are shaped by microtubule-related proteins. PMID:26247859

  7. Actin–microtubule coordination at growing microtubule ends

    PubMed Central

    López, Magdalena Preciado; Huber, Florian; Grigoriev, Ilya; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Akhmanova, Anna; Koenderink, Gijsje H.; Dogterom, Marileen

    2014-01-01

    To power dynamic processes in cells, the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons organize into complex structures. Although it is known that cytoskeletal coordination is vital for cell function, the mechanisms by which cross-linking proteins coordinate actin and microtubule activities remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unknown how the distinct mechanical properties of different actin architectures modulate the outcome of actin–microtubule interactions. To address this question, we engineered the protein TipAct, which links growing microtubule ends via end-binding proteins to actin filaments. We show that growing microtubules can be captured and guided by stiff actin bundles, leading to global actin–microtubule alignment. Conversely, growing microtubule ends can transport, stretch and bundle individual actin filaments, thereby globally defining actin filament organization. Our results provide a physical basis to understand actin–microtubule cross-talk, and reveal that a simple cross-linker can enable a mechanical feedback between actin and microtubule organization that is relevant to diverse biological contexts. PMID:25159196

  8. Chlamydomonas Axonemal Dynein Assembly Locus ODA8 Encodes a Conserved Flagellar Protein Needed for Cytoplasmic Maturation of Outer Dynein Arm Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Paurav B; Freshour, Judy R; Mitchell, David R

    2015-01-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii oda8 mutation blocks assembly of flagellar outer dynein arms (ODAs), and interacts genetically with ODA5 and ODA10, which encode axonemal proteins thought to aid dynein binding onto axonemal docking sites. We positionally cloned ODA8 and identified the gene product as the algal homolog of vertebrate LRRC56. Its flagellar localization depends on ODA5 and ODA10, consistent with genetic interaction studies, but phylogenomics suggests that LRRC56 homologs play a role in intraflagellar transport (IFT)-dependent assembly of outer row dynein arms, not axonemal docking. ODA8 distribution between cytoplasm and flagella is similar to that of IFT proteins and about half of flagellar ODA8 is in the soluble matrix fraction. Dynein extracted in vitro from wild type axonemes will rebind efficiently to oda8 mutant axonemes, without re-binding of ODA8, further supporting a role in dynein assembly or transport, not axonemal binding. Assays comparing preassembled ODA complexes from the cytoplasm of wild type and mutant strains show that dynein in oda8 mutant cytoplasm has not properly preassembled and cannot bind normally onto oda axonemes. We conclude that ODA8 plays an important role in formation and transport of mature dynein complexes during flagellar assembly. © 2014 The Authors. Cytoskeleton Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25558044

  9. The microtubule transistor

    E-print Network

    H. C. Rosu

    2007-03-26

    I point out the similarity between the microtubule experiment reported by Priel et al [Biophys. J. 90, 4639 (2006)] and the ZnO nanowire experiment of Wang et al [Nanolett. 6, 2768 (2006)]. It is quite possible that MTs are similar to a piezoelectric field effect transistor for which the role of the control gate electrode is played by the piezo-induced electric field across the width of the MT walls and their elastic bending features

  10. Physical Modeling of Microtubules Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Pierre; Kervrann, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Microtubules (MT) are highly dynamic tubulin polymers that are involved in many cellular processes such as mitosis, intracellular cell organization and vesicular transport. Nevertheless, the modeling of cytoskeleton and MT dynamics based on physical properties is difficult to achieve. Using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we propose to model the rigidity of microtubules on a physical basis using forces, mass and acceleration. In addition, we link microtubules growth and shrinkage to the presence of molecules (e.g. GTP-tubulin) in the cytosol. The overall model enables linking cytosol to microtubules dynamics in a constant state space thus allowing usage of data assimilation techniques.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of kinetochore microtubule attachment

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Jens C. (Jens Christopher)

    2012-01-01

    To ensure equal chromosome segregation during mitosis, the macromolecular kinetochore must remain attached to depolymerizing microtubules, which drive poleward chromosome movement. Microtubules are highly dynamic structures ...

  12. Centrosomal components immunologically related to tektins from ciliary and flagellar microtubules.

    PubMed

    Steffen, W; Fajer, E A; Linck, R W

    1994-08-01

    Centrosomes are critical for the nucleation and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton during both interphase and cell division. Using antibodies raised against sea urchin sperm flagellar microtubule proteins, we characterize here the presence and behavior of certain components associated with centrosomes of the surf clam Spisula solidissima and cultured mammalian cells. A Sarkosyl detergent-resistant fraction of axonemal microtubules was isolated from sea urchin sperm flagella and used to produce monoclonal antibodies, 16 of which were specific- or cross-specific for the major polypeptides associated with this microtubule fraction: tektins A, B and C, acetylated alpha-tubulin, and 77 and 83 kDa polypeptides. By 2-D isoelectric focussing/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the tektins separate into several polypeptide spots. Identical spots were recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against a given tektin, indicating that the different polypeptide spots are isoforms or modified versions of the same protein. Four independently derived monoclonal anti-tektins were found to stain centrosomes of S. solidissima oocytes and CHO and HeLa cells, by immunofluorescence microscopy. In particular, the centrosome staining of one monoclonal antibody specific for tektin B (tekB3) was cell-cycle-dependent for CHO cells, i.e. staining was observed only from early prometaphase until late anaphase. By immuno-electron microscopy tekB3 specifically labeled material surrounding the centrosome, whereas a polyclonal anti-tektin B recognized centrioles as well as the centrosomal material throughout the cell cycle. Finally, by immunoblot analysis tekB3 stained polypeptides of 48-50 kDa in isolated spindles and centrosomes from CHO cells. PMID:7983171

  13. Equimolar heterodimers in microtubules

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Two equimolar beta chains can be resolved from sea urchin sperm flagellar and scallop gill ciliary tubulins, and from certain brain tubulins as well, using the Triton X-100-acid-urea polyacrylamide gel system commonly used for histone analysis. The beta chains are identified as such from their mobility on urea-free SDS PAGE, from amino acid composition, and from tryptic peptide distribution. Scallop beta chains have almost identical amino acid profiles but they differ by one tryptic peptide. Optimal conditions for beta chain resolution are very species-dependent, with some closely related species showing either maximal or no beta chain separation. In addition, beef brain tubulin on Triton X-100-acid-urea electrophoresis and scallop gill ciliary tubulin upon isoelectric focusing in the presence of SDS show two approximately equimolar alpha chains. These data, indicating equimolar amounts of two potentially different tubulin heterodimers from a variety of microtubule types, support a model for microtubule structure wherein protofilaments consist of alternating heterodimers of two kinds, generating a 16-nm (2-dimer) axial repeat. PMID:7202008

  14. DYX1C1 is required for axonemal dynein assembly and ciliary motility

    PubMed Central

    Tarkar, Aarti; Loges, Niki T.; Slagle, Christopher E.; Francis, Richard; Dougherty, Gerard W.; Tamayo, Joel V.; Shook, Brett; Cantino, Marie; Schwartz, Daniel; Jahnke, Charlotte; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Raidt, Johanna; Pennekamp, Petra; Abouhamed, Marouan; Hjeij, Rim; Köhler, Gabriele; Griese, Matthias; Li, You; Lemke, Kristi; Klena, Nikolas; Liu, Xiaoqin; Gabriel, George; Tobita, Kimimasa; Jaspers, Martine; Morgan, Lucy C.; Shapiro, Adam J.; Letteboer, Stef J.F.; Mans, Dorus A.; Carson, Johnny L.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Wolf, Whitney E.; Chen, Serafine; Lucas, Jane S.; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Plagnol, Vincent; Schmidts, Miriam; Boldt, Karsten; Roepman, Ronald; Zariwala, Maimoona; Lo, Cecilia W.; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Knowles, Michael R.; Burdine, Rebecca D.; LoTurco, Joseph J.; Omran, Heymut

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dyx1c1 has been associated with dyslexia and neuronal migration in the developing neocortex. Unexpectedly, we found that deletion of Dyx1c1 exons 2–4 in mice caused a phenotype resembling primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic airway disease, laterality defects, and male infertility. This phenotype was confirmed independently in mice with a Dyx1c1c.T2A start codon mutation recovered from an ENU mutagenesis screen. Morpholinos targeting dyx1c1 in zebrafish also created laterality and ciliary motility defects. In humans, recessive loss-of-function DYX1C1 mutations were identified in twelve PCD individuals. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence analyses of DYX1C1-mutant motile cilia in mice and humans revealed disruptions of outer and inner dynein arms (ODA/IDA). DYX1C1 localizes to the cytoplasm of respiratory epithelial cells, its interactome is enriched for molecular chaperones, and it interacts with the cytoplasmic ODA/IDA assembly factor DNAAF2/KTU. Thus, we propose that DYX1C1 is a newly identified dynein axonemal assembly factor (DNAAF4). PMID:23872636

  15. Microtubule-membrane interactions in cilia. II. Photochemical cross-linking of bridge structures and the identification of a membrane-associated dynein-like ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Dentler, W.L.; Pratt, M.M.; Stephens, R.E.

    1980-02-01

    Photochemical cross-linking of both tetrahymena and aequipecten ciliary membrane proteins with the lipophilic reagent 4,4'-dithiobisphenylazide links together a high molecular weight dynein-like ATPase, membrane tubulin, and at least two other proteins. Electron microscopy of detergent-extracted cilia reveals that the cross-linked complex remains attached to the outer-doublet microtubules by a microtubule-membrane bridge. Cleavage of the reagent's disulfide bond releases the bridge-membrane complex and the dynein-like membrane-associated ATPase. Photochemical cross-linking of ciliary membrane proteins in vivo results initially in the modification of ciliary beat and, eventually, in the cessation of ciliary movement. These results suggest that a dynein-like ATPase comprises the bridge which links the ciliary membrane to the outer-doublet microtubules and that this bridge is involved in the modulation of normal ciliary movement.

  16. Information Processing in Brain Microtubules

    E-print Network

    Jean Faber; Renato Portugal; Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

    2005-01-18

    Models of the mind are based on the possibility of computing in brain microtubules. From this point of view, information processing is the fundamental issue for understanding the brain mechanisms that produce consciousness. The cytoskeleton polymers could store and process information through their dynamic coupling mediated by mechanical energy. We analyze the problem of information transfer and storage in brain microtubules, considering them as a communication channel. We discuss the implications of assuming that consciousness is generated by the subneuronal process.

  17. Cortical microtubule rearrangements and cell wall patterning

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Plant cortical microtubules, which form a highly ordered array beneath the plasma membrane, play essential roles in determining cell shape and function by directing the arrangement of cellulosic and non-cellulosic compounds on the cell surface. Interphase transverse arrays of cortical microtubules self-organize through their dynamic instability and inter-microtubule interactions, and by branch-form microtubule nucleation and severing. Recent studies revealed that distinct spatial signals including ROP GTPase, cellular geometry, and mechanical stress regulate the behavior of cortical microtubules at the subcellular and supercellular levels, giving rise to dramatic rearrangements in the cortical microtubule array in response to internal and external cues. Increasing evidence indicates that negative regulators of microtubules also contribute to the rearrangement of the cortical microtubule array. In this review, I summarize recent insights into how the rearrangement of the cortical microtubule array leads to proper, flexible cell wall patterning. PMID:25904930

  18. The nphp-2 and arl-13 Genetic Modules Interact to Regulate Ciliogenesis and Ciliary Microtubule Patterning in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Warburton-Pitt, Simon R. F.; Silva, Malan; Nguyen, Ken C. Q.; Hall, David H.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based cellular organelles that mediate signal transduction. Cilia are organized into several structurally and functionally distinct compartments: the basal body, the transition zone (TZ), and the cilia shaft. In vertebrates, the cystoprotein Inversin localizes to a portion of the cilia shaft adjacent to the TZ, a region termed the “Inversin compartment” (InvC). The mechanisms that establish and maintain the InvC are unknown. In the roundworm C. elegans, the cilia shafts of amphid channel and phasmid sensory cilia are subdivided into two regions defined by different microtubule ultrastructure: a proximal doublet-based region adjacent to the TZ, and a distal singlet-based region. It has been suggested that C. elegans cilia also possess an InvC, similarly to mammalian primary cilia. Here we explored the biogenesis, structure, and composition of the C. elegans ciliary doublet region and InvC. We show that the InvC is conserved and distinct from the doublet region. nphp-2 (the C. elegans Inversin homolog) and the doublet region genes arl-13, klp-11, and unc-119 are redundantly required for ciliogenesis. InvC and doublet region genes can be sorted into two modules—nphp-2+klp-11 and arl-13+unc-119—which are both antagonized by the hdac-6 deacetylase. The genes of this network modulate the sizes of the NPHP-2 InvC and ARL-13 doublet region. Glutamylation, a tubulin post-translational modification, is not required for ciliary targeting of InvC and doublet region components; rather, glutamylation is modulated by nphp-2, arl-13, and unc-119. The ciliary targeting and restricted localization of NPHP-2, ARL-13, and UNC-119 does not require TZ-, doublet region, and InvC-associated genes. NPHP-2 does require its calcium binding EF hand domain for targeting to the InvC. We conclude that the C. elegans InvC is distinct from the doublet region, and that components in these two regions interact to regulate ciliogenesis via cilia placement, ciliary microtubule ultrastructure, and protein localization. PMID:25501555

  19. Microtubules in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are highly conserved polar polymers that are key elements of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and are essential for various cell functions. ??-tubulin, a heterodimer containing one structural GTP and one hydrolysable and exchangeable GTP, is the building block of MTs and is formed by the sequential action of several molecular chaperones. GTP hydrolysis in the MT lattice is mechanistically coupled with MT growth, thus giving MTs a metastable and dynamic nature. MTs adopt several distinct higher-order organizations that function in cell division and cell morphogenesis. Small molecular weight compounds that bind tubulin are used as herbicides and as research tools to investigate MT functions in plant cells. The de novo formation of MTs in cells requires conserved ?-tubulin-containing complexes and targeting/activating regulatory proteins that contribute to the geometry of MT arrays. Various MT regulators and tubulin modifications control the dynamics and organization of MTs throughout the cell cycle and in response to developmental and environmental cues. Signaling pathways that converge on the regulation of versatile MT functions are being characterized. PMID:26019693

  20. A quick molecular method for the simultaneous detection in spermatozoa of nuclear, acrosomal and axonemal structure by fluorescent microscopy.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, B; Gambera, L; Moretti, E; Piomboni, P

    1999-10-01

    Ejaculated spermatozoa from infertile men presenting to our laboratory for semen analysis were processed with a new molecular method which reveals simultaneously, in the same sperm cell, the status of the acrosome, by testing the hyaluronidase content, the texture of the nucleus, by checking the DNA strands breaks, and the structure of the axoneme, revealing the tubulin content. The presence of hyaluronidase and tubulin is essential for the sperm function, and the analysis of the DNA status reveals the eventual apoptotic process. Using this method in normal spermatozoa, the staining of the acrosomal hyaluronidase reveals, by yellow-green fluorescence, the shape of the acrosomal complex and its texture. At the same time, in the same sperm cell, the staining of the axonemal tubulin demonstrates, by a red labeling, the presence of the protein and therefore the consistence of the axonemal structure. Simultaneously, at the head level, the absence of red labeling from nuclear DNA indicates that the apoptotic process is not present. This protocol allows quantification of the frequency of the presence of normal or abnormal spermatozoa, by an easy scoring and calculation of the apoptotic sperm or of the sperm with generic defects at acrosomal or flagellar level. The percentage of normal spermatozoa evaluated by the triple staining method has been compared with the results of the PAP staining and of the ultrastructural analysis, statistically elaborated. Triple staining results more severe than the PAP method, but TEM analysis is the finest technique to detect sperm abnormality because it considers the entire panel of sperm defects. PMID:10685396

  1. Disruption of cytoplasmic microtubules by ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, G.B.; Perrino, B.A.; Chou, I.N. )

    1991-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of cultured human skin fibroblasts causes the disassembly of their microtubules. Using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we have now investigated whether damage to the microtubule precursor pool may contribute to the disruption of microtubules. Exposure to polychromatic UV radiation inhibits the reassembly of microtubules during cellular recovery from cold treatment. In addition, the ability of taxol to promote microtubule polymerization and bundling is inhibited in UV-irradiated cells. However, UV irradiation of taxol-pretreated cells or in situ detergent-extracted microtubules fails to disrupt the microtubule network. These data suggest that damage to dimeric tubulin, or another soluble factor(s) required for polymerization, contributes to the disassembly of microtubules in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.

  2. Kinesin-5 is a microtubule polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yalei; Hancock, William O

    2015-01-01

    Kinesin-5 slides antiparallel microtubules during spindle assembly, and regulates the branching of growing axons. Besides the mechanical activities enabled by its tetrameric configuration, the specific motor properties of kinesin-5 that underlie its cellular function remain unclear. Here by engineering a stable kinesin-5 dimer and reconstituting microtubule dynamics in vitro, we demonstrate that kinesin-5 promotes microtubule polymerization by increasing the growth rate and decreasing the catastrophe frequency. Strikingly, microtubules growing in the presence of kinesin-5 have curved plus ends, suggesting that the motor stabilizes growing protofilaments. Single-molecule fluorescence experiments reveal that kinesin-5 remains bound to the plus ends of static microtubules for 7?s, and tracks growing microtubule plus ends in a manner dependent on its processivity. We propose that kinesin-5 pauses at microtubule plus ends and enhances polymerization by stabilizing longitudinal tubulin–tubulin interactions, and that these activities underlie the ability kinesin-5 to slide and stabilize microtubule bundles in cells. PMID:26437877

  3. Microtubule Severing Stymied by Free Tubulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer; Bailey, Megan

    2015-03-01

    Proper organization of the microtubule cytoskeletal network is required to perform many necessary cellular functions including mitosis, cell development, and cell motility. Network organization is achieved through filament remodeling by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that control microtubule dynamics. MAPs that stabilize are relatively well understood, while less is known about destabilizing MAPs, such as severing enzymes. Katanin, the first-discovered microtubule-severing enzyme, is a AAA + enzyme that oligomerizes into hexamers and uses ATP hydrolysis to sever microtubules. Using quantitative fluorescence imaging on reconstituted microtubule severing assays in vitro we investigate how katanin can regulate microtubule dynamics. Interestingly, we find microtubule dynamics inhibits katanin severing activity; dynamic microtubules are not severed. Using systematic experiments introducing free tubulin into the assays we find that free tubulin can compete for microtubule filaments for the katanin proteins. Our work indicates that katanin could function best on stabile microtubules or stabile regions of microtubules in cells in regions where free tubulin is sequesters, low, or depleted.

  4. Microtubule Motors in Microfluidics Maruti Uppalapati,

    E-print Network

    Hancock, William O.

    CHAPTER 1 3 Microtubule Motors in Microfluidics Maruti Uppalapati, 1 Ying-Ming Huang, 2 Shankar-mail: wohbio@engr.psu.edu 311 Abstract Kinesin motor proteins carry out a range of transport functions that successfully integrates microtubule-based transport. Key terms kinesin microtubule transport motor protein

  5. How Dynein Moves Along Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Bhabha, Gira; Johnson, Graham T; Schroeder, Courtney M; Vale, Ronald D

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein, a member of the AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) family of proteins, drives the processive movement of numerous intracellular cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Here, we summarize the structural and motile properties of dynein and highlight features that distinguish this motor from kinesin-1 and myosin V, two well-studied transport motors. Integrating information from recent crystal and cryoelectron microscopy structures, as well as high-resolution single-molecule studies, we also discuss models for how dynein biases its movement in one direction along a microtubule track, and present a movie that illustrates these principles. PMID:26678005

  6. Directed elongation model for microtubule GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Caplow, M; Reid, R

    1985-01-01

    We propose a role for GTP hydrolysis in microtubule assembly in which the GTPase reaction serves to stabilize tubulin subunits in the microtubule. The GTPase reaction in tubulin subunits containing GTP at microtubule ends is presumed to occur predominately in subunits at one of the interfaces between a cap of GTP-containing tubulin subunit and a core of GDP-containing tubulin subunit in the microtubule, resulting in elongation of the core. The proposed model interprets the effects of GDP on microtubule assembly, using a reaction scheme in which GDP-containing tubulin subunits are able to add to microtubule ends. The model can account for the GTP requirement for microtubule assembly, the GDP inhibition of the rate for microtubule elongation, and the fact that a metastable state exists after the enzymic conversion of GTP to GDP, with microtubules which are at steady state. To account for the fact that the microtubule assembly and disassembly rates are nonlinearly dependent upon the tubulin subunit concentration and for the effects of GDP-containing tubulin subunits on the kinetic properties of microtubules, our scheme includes nonproductive as well as productive binding of GTP- and GDP-containing tubulin subunits. We compare our model with an alternative scheme [Hill, T. L. & Carlier, M. F. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 7234-7238], which interprets the effects of GDP on microtubule assembly using a reaction scheme in which GDP is able to exchange with GTP in GTP-containing tubulin subunits in the microtubule and in which the principal GTPase occurs in GTP-containing tubulin subunits at the microtubule/solution interface. PMID:3858823

  7. Microtubule catastrophe from protofilament dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemseena, V.; Gopalakrishnan, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    The disappearance of the guanosine triphosphate- (GTP) tubulin cap is widely believed to be the forerunner event for the growth-shrinkage transition (“catastrophe”) in microtubule filaments in eukaryotic cells. We study a discrete version of a stochastic model of the GTP cap dynamics, originally proposed by Flyvbjerg, Holy, and Leibler [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.73.2372 73, 2372 (1994)]. Our model includes both spontaneous and vectorial hydrolysis, as well as dissociation of a nonhydrolyzed dimer from the filament after incorporation. In the first part of the paper, we apply this model to a single protofilament of a microtubule. A catastrophe transition is defined for each protofilament, similarly to the earlier one-dimensional models, the frequency of occurrence of which is then calculated under various conditions but without explicit assumption of steady-state conditions. Using a perturbative approach, we show that the leading asymptotic behavior of the protofilament catastrophe in the limit of large growth velocities is remarkably similar across different models. In the second part of the paper, we extend our analysis to the entire filament by making a conjecture that a minimum number of such transitions are required to occur for the onset of microtubule catastrophe. The frequency of microtubule catastrophe is then determined using numerical simulations and compared with analytical and semianalytical estimates made under steady-state and quasi-steady-state assumptions, respectively, for the protofilament dynamics. A few relevant experimental results are analyzed in detail and compared with predictions from the model. Our results indicate that loss of GTP cap in two to three protofilaments is necessary to trigger catastrophe in a microtubule.

  8. Microtubule catastrophe from protofilament dynamics

    E-print Network

    Jemseena V.; Manoj Gopalakrishnan

    2013-09-19

    The disappearance of the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-tubulin cap is widely believed to be the forerunner event for the growth-shrinkage transition (`catastrophe') in microtubule filaments in eukaryotic cells. We study a discrete version of a stochastic model of the GTP cap dynamics, originally proposed by Flyvbjerg, Holy and Leibler (Flyvbjerg, Holy and Leibler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2372, 1994). Our model includes both spontaneous and vectorial hydrolysis, as well as dissociation of a non-hydrolyzed dimer from the filament after incorporation. In the first part of the paper, we apply this model to a single protofilament of a microtubule. A catastrophe transition is defined for each protofilament, similar to the earlier one-dimensional models, the frequency of occurrence of which is then calculated under various conditions, but without explicit assumption of steady state conditions. Using a perturbative approach, we show that the leading asymptotic behavior of the protofilament catastrophe in the limit of large growth velocities is remarkably similar across different models. In the second part of the paper, we extend our analysis to the entire filament by making a conjecture that a minimum number of such transitions are required to occur for the onset of microtubule catastrophe. The frequency of microtubule catastrophe is then determined using numerical simulations, and compared with analytical/semi-analytical estimates made under steady state/quasi-steady state assumptions respectively for the protofilament dynamics. A few relevant experimental results are analyzed in detail, and compared with predictions from the model. Our results indicate that loss of GTP cap in 2-3 protofilaments is necessary to trigger catastrophe in a microtubule.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies specific for an acetylated form of alpha-tubulin recognize the antigen in cilia and flagella from a variety of organisms

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Seven monoclonal antibodies raised against tubulin from the axonemes of sea urchin sperm flagella recognize an acetylated form of alpha-tubulin present in the axoneme of a variety of organisms. The antigen was not detected among soluble, cytoplasmic alpha-tubulin isoforms from a variety of cells. The specificity of the antibodies was determined by in vitro acetylation of sea urchin and Chlamydomonas cytoplasmic tubulins in crude extracts. Of all the acetylated polypeptides in the extracts, only alpha-tubulin became antigenic. Among Chlamydomonas tubulin isoforms, the antibodies recognize only the axonemal alpha- tubulin isoform acetylated in vivo on the epsilon-amino group of lysine(s) (L'Hernault, S.W., and J.L. Rosenbaum, 1985, Biochemistry, 24:473-478). The antibodies do not recognize unmodified axonemal alpha- tubulin, unassembled alpha-tubulin present in a flagellar matrix-plus- membrane fraction, or soluble, cytoplasmic alpha-tubulin from Chlamydomonas cell bodies. The antigen was found in protein fractions that contained axonemal microtubules from a variety of sources, including cilia from sea urchin blastulae and Tetrahymena, sperm and testis from Drosophila, and human sperm. In contrast, the antigen was not detected in preparations of soluble, cytoplasmic tubulin, which would not have contained tubulin from stable microtubule arrays such as centrioles, from unfertilized sea urchin eggs, Drosophila embryos, and HeLa cells. Although the acetylated alpha-tubulin recognized by the antibodies is present in axonemes from a variety of sources and may be necessary for axoneme formation, it is not found exclusively in any one subset of morphologically distinct axonemal microtubules. The antigen was found in similar proportions in fractions from sea urchin sperm axonemes enriched for central pair or outer doublet B or outer doublet A microtubules. Therefore the acetylation of alpha-tubulin does not provide the mechanism that specifies the structure of any one class of axonemal microtubules. Preliminary evidence indicates that acetylated alpha-tubulin is not restricted to the axoneme. The antibodies described in this report may allow us to deduce the role of tubulin acetylation in the structure and function of microtubules in vivo. PMID:2415535

  10. Dynamic curvature regulation accounts for the symmetric and asymmetric beats of Chlamydomonas flagella

    E-print Network

    Pablo Sartori; Veikko Geyer; Andre Scholich; Frank Jülicher; Jonathon Howard

    2015-11-13

    Axonemal dyneins are the molecular motors responsible for the beating of cilia and flagella. These motors generate sliding forces between adjacent microtubule doublets within the axoneme, the motile cytoskeletal structure inside the flagellum. To create regular, oscillatory beating patterns, the activities of the axonemal dyneins must be coordinated both spatially and temporally. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses or strains that build up within the moving axoneme, but it is not known which components of stress or strain are involved, nor how they feed back on the dyneins. To answer this question, we used isolated, reactivate axonemes of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas as a model system. We derived a theory for beat regulation in a two-dimensional model of the axoneme. We then tested the theory by measuring the beat waveforms of wild type axonemes, which have asymmetric beats, and mutant axonemes, in which the beat is nearly symmetric, using high-precision spatial and temporal imaging. We found that regulation by sliding forces fails to account for the measured beat, due to the short lengths of Chlamydomonas cilia. We found that regulation by normal forces (which tend to separate adjacent doublets) cannot satisfactorily account for the symmetric waveforms of the mbo2 mutants. This is due to the model's failure to produce reciprocal inhibition across the axes of the symmetrically beating axonemes. Finally, we show that regulation by curvature accords with the measurements. Unexpectedly, we found that the phase of the curvature feedback indicates that the dyneins are regulated by the dynamic (i.e. time-varying) component of axonemal curvature, but not by the static one. We conclude that a high-pass filtered curvature signal is a good candidate for the signal that feeds back to coordinate motor activity in the axoneme.

  11. The effect of sodium tetradecyl sulfate on mobility and antigen detectability of microtubule proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, J L; Steffen, W

    1997-10-01

    Several factors been reported to influence the mobility of polypeptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) including the brand of SDS. Using microtubule proteins from axonemes of Lytechinus pictus and Spisula solidissima sperm and meiotic spindles of Spisula solidissima we demonstrate that the change in mobility was caused by sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), a major contaminant of many commercial SDS brands. We also examined the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and different SDS brands as a tool in extracting more information from immunoblot studies. Commercial SDS containing contaminants other than sodium tetradecyl sulfate reduced or eliminated the immunosignal from certain polypeptides and the loss of antigenicity could not even be recovered by immunoblot under "renaturing" conditions. It can thus be concluded that STS can be useful in separating and identifying comigrating polypeptides and in detecting additional immunobands in immunoblots. PMID:9420152

  12. Singlet-Doublet Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Timothy; Kearney, John; Pierce, Aaron; Tucker-Smith, David; /Williams Coll.

    2012-02-15

    In light of recent data from direct detection experiments and the Large Hadron Collider, we explore models of dark matter in which an SU(2){sub L} doublet is mixed with a Standard Model singlet. We impose a thermal history. If the new particles are fermions, this model is already constrained due to null results from XENON100. We comment on remaining regions of parameter space and assess prospects for future discovery. We do the same for the model where the new particles are scalars, which at present is less constrained. Much of the remaining parameter space for both models will be probed by the next generation of direct detection experiments. For the fermion model, DeepCore may also play an important role.

  13. +TIPs: SxIPping along microtubule ends

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Praveen; Wittmann, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    +TIPs are a heterogeneous class of proteins that specifically bind to growing microtubule ends. Because dynamic microtubules are essential for many intracellular processes, +TIPs likely play important roles in regulating microtubule dynamics and microtubule interactions with other intracellular structures. End-binding proteins (EBs) recognize a structural cap at growing microtubule ends, and have emerged as central adaptors that mediate microtubule plus-end-tracking of potentially all other +TIPs. The majority of these +TIPs bind EBs through a short hydrophobic SxIP sequence motif and surrounding electrostatic interactions. These recent discoveries have resulted in a rapid expansion of the number of possible +TIPs. In this review, we outline our current understanding of the molecular mechanism of plus-end-tracking and provide an overview of SxIP-recruited +TIPs. PMID:22748381

  14. Mitosis. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Marin; Silva e Sousa, Ricardo; Tripathy, Suvranta K; Magiera, Maria M; Zaytsev, Anatoly V; Pereira, Ana L; Janke, Carsten; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L; Maiato, Helder

    2015-05-15

    Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells, they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E)/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically toward the equator. We found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific posttranslational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules, and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination. PMID:25908662

  15. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Barisic, Marin; Silva e Sousa, Ricardo; Tripathy, Suvranta K.; Magiera, Maria M.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Pereira, Ana L.; Janke, Carsten; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.; Maiato, Helder

    2015-01-01

    Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. CENP-E/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically towards the equator. Here we found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific post-translational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination. PMID:25908662

  16. Tubulin Glutamylation Regulates Ciliary Motility by Altering Inner Dynein Arm Activity

    PubMed Central

    Suryavanshi, Swati; Eddé, Bernard; Fox, Laura A.; Guerrero, Stella; Hard, Robert; Hennessey, Todd; Kabi, Amrita; Malison, David; Pennock, David; Sale, Winfield S.; Wloga, Dorota; Gaertig, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    SUMMMARY How microtubule-associated motor proteins are regulated is not well understood. A potential mechanism for spatial regulation of motor proteins is provided by post-translational modifications of tubulin subunits that form patterns on microtubules. Glutamylation is a conserved tubulin modification [1] that is enriched in axonemes. The enzymes responsible for this PTM, glutamic acid ligases (E-ligases), belong to a family of proteins with a tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL) homology domain (TTL-like or TTLL proteins) [2]. We show that in cilia of Tetrahymena, TTLL6 E-ligases generate glutamylation mainly on the B-tubule of outer doublet microtubules, the site of force production by ciliary dynein. Deletion of two TTLL6 paralogs caused severe deficiency in ciliary motility associated with abnormal waveform and reduced beat frequency. In isolated axonemes with a normal dynein arm composition, TTLL6 deficiency did not affect the rate of ATP-induced doublet microtubule sliding. Unexpectedly, the same TTLL6 deficiency increased the velocity of microtubule sliding in axonemes that also lack outer dynein arms, in which forces are generated by inner dynein arms. We conclude that tubulin glutamylation on the B-tubule inhibits the net force imposed on sliding doublet microtubules by inner dynein arms. PMID:20189389

  17. The counterbend phenomenon in flagellar axonemes and cross-linked filament bundles

    PubMed Central

    Gadêlha, Hermes; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Goriely, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of flagellar counterbend in sea urchin sperm show that the mechanical induction of curvature in one part of a passive flagellum induces a compensatory countercurvature elsewhere. This apparent paradoxical effect cannot be explained using the standard elastic rod theory of Euler and Bernoulli, or even the more general Cosserat theory of rods. Here, we develop a geometrically exact mechanical model to describe the statics of microtubule bundles that is capable of predicting the curvature reversal events observed in eukaryotic flagella. This is achieved by allowing the interaction of deformations in different material directions, by accounting not only for structural bending, but also for the elastic forces originating from the internal cross-linking mechanics. Large-amplitude static configurations can be described analytically, and an excellent match between the model and the observed counterbend deformation was found. This allowed a simultaneous estimation of multiple sperm flagellum material parameters, namely the cross-linking sliding resistance, the bending stiffness, and the sperm head junction compliance ratio. We further show that small variations on the empirical conditions may induce discrepancies for the evaluation of the flagellar material quantities, so that caution is required when interpreting experiments. Finally, our analysis demonstrates that the counterbend emerges as a fundamental property of sliding resistance in cross-linked filamentous polymer bundles, which also suggests that cross-linking proteins may contribute to the regulation of the flagellar waveform in swimming sperm via counterbend mechanics. PMID:23824293

  18. Self-organization of a radial microtubule array by dynein-dependent nucleation of microtubules

    E-print Network

    Vorobjev, Ivan

    Self-organization of a radial microtubule array by dynein-dependent nucleation of microtubules Ivan at the cell center define the organization of the cytoplasm through interaction with microtubule motors bound to membrane organelles or chromosomes. It is generally assumed that the radial organization results from

  19. Temperature-dependent elasticity of microtubules.

    PubMed

    Kis, A; Kasas, S; Kulik, A J; Catsicas, S; Forró, L

    2008-06-17

    Central to the biological function of microtubules is their ability to modify their length which occurs by addition and removal of subunits at the ends of the polymer, both in vivo and in vitro. This dynamic behavior is strongly influenced by temperature. Here, we show that the lateral interaction between tubulin subunits forming microtubule is strongly temperature dependent. Microtubules deposited on prefabricated substrates were deformed in an atomic force microscope during imaging, in two different experimental geometries. Microtubules were modeled as anisotropic, with the Young's modulus corresponding to the resistance of protofilaments to stretching and the shear modulus describing the weak interaction between the protofilaments. Measurements involving radial compression of microtubules deposited on flat mica confirm that microtubule elasticity depends on the temperature. Bending measurements performed on microtubules deposited on lithographically fabricated substrates show that this temperature dependence is due to changing shear modulus, implying that the lateral interaction between the protofilaments is strongly determined by the temperature. These measurements are in good agreement with previously reported measurements of the disassembly rate of microtubules, demonstrating that the mechanical and dynamic properties of microtubules are closely related. PMID:18494514

  20. Sperm flagella: comparative and phylogenetic perspectives of protein components.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kazuo

    2011-08-01

    Sperm motility is necessary for the transport of male DNA to eggs in species with both external and internal fertilization. Flagella comprise several proteins for generating and regulating motility. Central cytoskeletal structures called axonemes have been well conserved through evolution. In mammalian sperm flagella, two accessory structures (outer dense fiber and the fibrous sheath) surround the axoneme. The axonemal bend movement is based on the active sliding of axonemal doublet microtubules by the molecular motor dynein, which is divided into outer and inner arm dyneins according to positioning on the doublet microtubule. Outer and inner arm dyneins play different roles in the production and regulation of flagellar motility. Several regulatory mechanisms are known for both dyneins, which are important in motility activation and chemotaxis at fertilization. Although dynein itself has certain properties that contribute to the formation and propagation of flagellar bending, other axonemal structures-specifically, the radial spoke/central pair apparatus-have essential roles in the regulation of flagellar bending. Recent genetic and proteomic studies have explored several new components of axonemes and shed light on the generation and regulation of sperm motility during fertilization. PMID:21586547

  1. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Aponurus laguncula (Digenea: Lecithasteridae), a parasite of Aluterus monoceros (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2010-03-01

    The mature spermatozoon of Aponurus laguncula, a parasite of the unicorn leatherjacket Aluterus monoceros, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses 2 axonemes of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, attachment zones, a nucleus, a mitochondrion, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and cortical microtubules. The major features are the presence of: 1) external ornamentation in the anterior part of the spermatozoon not associated with cortical microtubules; 2) one mitochondrion; and 3) cortical microtubules arranged as a single field in the ventral side. The maximum number of microtubules is in the nuclear region. The extremities of the axonemes are characterized by the disappearance of the central core and the presence of microtubule doublets or singlets. This study is the first undertaken with a member of the Lecithasteridae and exemplifies the sperm ultrastructure for the superfamily Hemiuroidea. PMID:19559102

  2. Singlet-doublet Dirac dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze a simple extension of the standard model where the dark matter particle is a Dirac fermion that is a mixture of a singlet and an S U (2 ) doublet. The model contains only four free parameters: the singlet and the doublet masses and two new Yukawa couplings. Direct detection bounds in this model are very strong and require the dark matter particle to be singletlike. As a result, its relic density has to be obtained via coannihilations with the doublet. We find that the dark matter mass should be below 750 GeV, the singlet-doublet mass difference cannot exceed 9%, and direct detection experiments offer the best chance to probe this scenario. Finally, we also show that this model can effectively arise in well-motivated extensions of the standard model.

  3. Inert doublet model and LEP II limits

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstroem, Erik; Gustafsson, Michael; Edsjoe, Joakim

    2009-02-01

    The inert doublet model is a minimal extension of the standard model introducing an additional SU(2) doublet with new scalar particles that could be produced at accelerators. While there exists no LEP II analysis dedicated for these inert scalars, the absence of a signal within searches for supersymmetric neutralinos can be used to constrain the inert doublet model. This translation however requires some care because of the different properties of the inert scalars and the neutralinos. We investigate what restrictions an existing DELPHI Collaboration study of neutralino pair production can put on the inert scalars and discuss the result in connection with dark matter. We find that although an important part of the inert doublet model parameter space can be excluded by the LEP II data, the lightest inert particle still constitutes a valid dark matter candidate.

  4. Microtubule segment stabilization by RASSF1A is required for proper microtubule dynamics and Golgi integrity

    PubMed Central

    Arnette, Christopher; Efimova, Nadia; Zhu, Xiaodong; Clark, Geoffrey J.; Kaverina, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor and microtubule-associated protein Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) has a major effect on many cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. RASSF1A expression is frequently silenced in cancer and is associated with increased metastasis. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that RASSF1A regulates microtubule organization and dynamics in interphase cells, as well as its effect on Golgi integrity and cell polarity. Our results show that RASSF1A uses a unique microtubule-binding pattern to promote site-specific microtubule rescues, and loss of RASSF1A leads to decreased microtubule stability. Furthermore, RASSF1A-associated stable microtubule segments are necessary to prevent Golgi fragmentation and dispersal in cancer cells and maintain a polarized cell front. These results indicate that RASSF1A is a key regulator in the fine tuning of microtubule dynamics in interphase cells and proper Golgi organization and cell polarity. PMID:24478455

  5. Brief Communications Microtubules in Dendritic Spine Development

    E-print Network

    Brief Communications Microtubules in Dendritic Spine Development Jiaping Gu,1 Bonnie L. Firestein,2 generallybelievedthatonlytheactincytoskeletonresidesindendriticspinesandcontrolsspinemorphologyandplasticity.Here,we report that microtubules (MTs) are present in spines and that shRNA knockdown of the MT plus-end-binding protein EB3 significantly reduces spine formation. Furthermore, stabilization

  6. Tubulin and microtubule associated proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Active oxygen species including superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are continuously being produced during respiration in cells, as well as during ionizing radiation or metabolism of various chemicals. Since these species are unstable and highly reactive, they are assumed to affect various biological phenomena such as mutation, cancer and aging. This book reviews the protection mechanisms that respiring organisms have evolved against these active oxygen species and the associated new genes mvrA and mvrB. This book presents a discussion of tubulin and microtubule associated proteins.

  7. A Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase Form Targets to Axonemes and Rescues Beat Regulation in Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Baumlin, Nathalie; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.; Fregien, Nevis

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary beating is important for effective mucociliary clearance. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates ciliary beating, and a roughly 50-kD sAC variant is expressed in axonemes. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells express multiple sAC splice variants: full-length sAC; variants with catalytic domain 1 (C1) deletions; and variants with partial C1. One variant, sACex5v2-ex12v2, contains two alternative splices creating new exons 5 (ex5v2) and 12 (ex12v2), encoding a roughly 45-kD protein. It is therefore similar in size to ciliary sAC. The variant increases in expression upon ciliogenesis during differentiation at the air–liquid interface. When expressed in NHBE cells, this variant was targeted to cilia. Exons 5v2–7 were important for ciliary targeting, whereas exons 2–4 prevented it. In vitro, cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2 (containing C1 and C2) was the only variant producing cAMP. Ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 was not catalytically active. Airway epithelial cells isolated from wild-type mice revealed sAC-dependent ciliary beat frequency (CBF) regulation, analogous to NHBE cells: CBF rescue from HCO3?/CO2–mediated intracellular acidification was sensitive to the sAC inhibitor, KH7. Compared with wild type, sAC C2 knockout (KO) mice revealed lower CBF baseline, and the HCO3?/CO2–mediated CBF decrease was not inhibited by KH7, confirming lack of functional sAC. Human sACex5v2-ex12v2 was targeted to cilia and sACex2-ex12v2 to the cytoplasm in these KO mice. Introduction of the ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 variant, but not the cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2, restored functional sAC activity in C2 KO mice. Thus, we show, for the first time, a mammalian axonemal targeting sequence that localizes a sAC variant to cilia to regulate CBF. PMID:24874272

  8. Microtubule organization by kinesin motors and microtubule crosslinking protein MAP65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, Joshua; Muthukumar, Amutha; Tan, Amanda; Crankshaw, Laura; Conway, Leslie; Ross, Jennifer L.

    2013-09-01

    Microtubules are rigid, proteinaceous filaments required to organize and rearrange the interior of cells. They organize space by two mechanisms, including acting as the tracks for long-distance cargo transporters, such as kinesin-1, and by forming a network that supports the shape of the cell. The microtubule network is composed of microtubules and a bevy of associated proteins and enzymes that self-organize using non-equilibrium dynamic processes. In order to address the effects of self-organization of microtubules, we have utilized the filament-gliding assay with kinesin-1 motors driving microtubule motion. To further enhance the complexity of the system and determine if new patterns are formed, we added the microtubule crosslinking protein MAP65-1. MAP65-1 is a microtubule-associated protein from plants that crosslinks antiparallel microtubules, similar to mammalian PRC1 and fission yeast Ase1. We find that MAP65 can slow and halt the velocity of microtubules in gliding assays, but when pre-formed microtubule bundles are added to gliding assays, kinesin-1 motors can pull apart the bundles and reconstitute cell-like protrusions.

  9. Reovirus Cell Entry Requires Functional Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Mainou, Bernardo A.; Zamora, Paula F.; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Dorset, Daniel C.; Kim, Kwang S.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian reovirus binds to cell-surface glycans and junctional adhesion molecule A and enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis in a process dependent on ?1 integrin. Within the endocytic compartment, reovirus undergoes stepwise disassembly, allowing release of the transcriptionally active viral core into the cytoplasm. To identify cellular mediators of reovirus infectivity, we screened a library of small-molecule inhibitors for the capacity to block virus-induced cytotoxicity. In this screen, reovirus-induced cell killing was dampened by several compounds known to impair microtubule dynamics. Microtubule inhibitors were assessed for blockade of various stages of the reovirus life cycle. While these drugs did not alter reovirus cell attachment or internalization, microtubule inhibitors diminished viral disassembly kinetics with a concomitant decrease in infectivity. Reovirus virions colocalize with microtubules and microtubule motor dynein 1 during cell entry, and depolymerization of microtubules results in intracellular aggregation of viral particles. These data indicate that functional microtubules are required for proper sorting of reovirus virions following internalization and point to a new drug target for pathogens that use the endocytic pathway to invade host cells. PMID:23820395

  10. Microtubule organization and microtubule-associated proteins in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have unique microtubule (MT) arrays, cortical MTs, preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and phragmoplast, in the processes of evolution. These MT arrays control the directions of cell division and expansion especially in plants and are essential for plant morphogenesis and developments. Organizations and functions of these MT arrays are accomplished by diverse MT-associated proteins (MAPs). This review introduces 10 of conserved MAPs in eukaryote such as ?-TuC, augmin, katanin, kinesin, EB1, CLASP, MOR1/MAP215, MAP65, TPX2, formin, and several plant-specific MAPs such as CSI1, SPR2, MAP70, WVD2/WDL, RIP/MIDD, SPR1, MAP18/PCaP, EDE1, and MAP190. Most of the studies cited in this review have been analyzed in the particular model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. The significant knowledge of A. thaliana is the important established base to understand MT organizations and functions in plants. PMID:25262237

  11. The microtubule catastrophe promoter Sentin delays stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes.

    PubMed

    G?uszek, A Agata; Cullen, C Fiona; Li, Wenjing; Battaglia, Rachel A; Radford, Sarah J; Costa, Mariana F; McKim, Kim S; Goshima, Gohta; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-21

    The critical step in meiosis is to attach homologous chromosomes to the opposite poles. In mouse oocytes, stable microtubule end-on attachments to kinetochores are not established until hours after spindle assembly, and phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins by Aurora B/C is responsible for the delay. Here we demonstrated that microtubule ends are actively prevented from stable attachment to kinetochores until well after spindle formation in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. We identified the microtubule catastrophe-promoting complex Sentin-EB1 as a major factor responsible for this delay. Without this activity, microtubule ends precociously form robust attachments to kinetochores in oocytes, leading to a high proportion of homologous kinetochores stably attached to the same pole. Therefore, regulation of microtubule ends provides an alternative novel mechanism to delay stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes. PMID:26668329

  12. Insights into Antiparallel Microtubule Crosslinking by PRC1, a Conserved Nonmotor Microtubule Binding Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Radhika; Wilson-Kubalek, Elizabeth M.; Arthur, Christopher P.; Bick, Matthew J.; Campbell, Elizabeth A.; Darst, Seth A.; Milligan, Ronald A.; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2010-09-03

    Formation of microtubule architectures, required for cell shape maintenance in yeast, directional cell expansion in plants and cytokinesis in eukaryotes, depends on antiparallel microtubule crosslinking by the conserved MAP65 protein family. Here, we combine structural and single molecule fluorescence methods to examine how PRC1, the human MAP65, crosslinks antiparallel microtubules. We find that PRC1's microtubule binding is mediated by a structured domain with a spectrin-fold and an unstructured Lys/Arg-rich domain. These two domains, at each end of a homodimer, are connected by a linkage that is flexible on single microtubules, but forms well-defined crossbridges between antiparallel filaments. Further, we show that PRC1 crosslinks are compliant and do not substantially resist filament sliding by motor proteins in vitro. Together, our data show how MAP65s, by combining structural flexibility and rigidity, tune microtubule associations to establish crosslinks that selectively mark antiparallel overlap in dynamic cytoskeletal networks.

  13. Release of intact microtubule-capping structures from Tetrahymena cilia

    E-print Network

    Suprenant, Kathy A.; Dentler, William L., Jr

    1988-12-01

    of Intact Microtubule-capping Structures from Tetrahymena Cilia Kathy A. Suprenant and Will iam L. Dentler Department ofPhysiology and Cell Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 Abstract. The distal ends of ciliary microtubules... the regulatory events that occur at the ends of microtubules, we have chosen to study the microtubule- capping structures of Tetrahymena cilia. In this study, we have examined the solubility and stability of the ciliary microtubule caps, and report hat...

  14. Is pentaquark doublet a hadronic molecule?

    E-print Network

    A. Mironov; A. Morozov

    2015-07-16

    A recently announced discovery by LHCb of a doublet of overlapping pentaquark resonances poses a question of what can be the origin of this doublet structure. We attract attention to the fact that such degeneracy could naturally arise if constituent "baryon" and "meson" were in the colored rather than colorless states. This is an appealing possibility, also because in such a case the pentaquark state would be no less "elementary" than the other hadrons, and would provide a chance for essentially new non-Abelian chemistry.

  15. MINI-REVIEW Engineering tubulin: microtubule functionalization

    E-print Network

    Hancock, William O.

    MINI-REVIEW Engineering tubulin: microtubule functionalization approaches for nanoscale device generally requires covalent attachment of biotin, fluorophores, or other biomolecules to tubulin enable, such as harnessing the utility of tubulin posttranslational modifications and the use of recom- binant tubulin

  16. ?-Tubulin complexes in microtubule nucleation and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Berl R.; Paolillo, Vitoria; Zheng, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functions of ?-tubulin and, in particular, its role in microtubule nucleation since the publication of its discovery in 1989. The structure of ?-tubulin has been determined, and the components of ?-tubulin complexes have been identified. Significant progress in understanding the structure of the ?-tubulin ring complex and its components has led to a persuasive model for how these complexes nucleate microtubule assembly. At the same time, data have accumulated that ?-tubulin has important but less well understood functions that are not simply a consequence of its function in microtubule nucleation. These include roles in the regulation of plus-end microtubule dynamics, gene regulation, and mitotic and cell cycle regulation. Finally, evidence is emerging that ?-tubulin mutations or alterations of ?-tubulin expression play an important role in certain types of cancer and in other diseases. PMID:26316498

  17. Haemonchus contortus microtubules are cold resistant.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Shoaib; Prichard, Roger K

    2014-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is an important nematode of livestock that is present in most parts of the world. The life cycle comprises free living stages (egg, L1, L2 and L3 larvae), and parasitic stages (L4, adult and egg) in a ruminant. Microtubules are filamentous structures which are made from polymerization of ?- and ?-tubulin. In vitro polymerization of ?- and ?-tubulin can be achieved by increasing the temperature to 37°C under certain conditions. As part of its normal functioning, in mammals, the microtubules can be depolymerized when the temperature is reduced to 0°C. However, interestingly the microtubules of H. contortus are cold resistant i.e. they do not depolymerize at 0°C. Moreover these microtubules did not depolymerize even in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2 or 50 ?M colchicine. These interesting findings may explain how larvae in the free living stages may survive cold temperatures over winter. PMID:24525483

  18. Microtubules Negatively Regulate Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic ? Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Hu, Ruiying; Brissova, Marcela; Stein, Roland W; Powers, Alvin C; Gu, Guoqiang; Kaverina, Irina

    2015-09-28

    For glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), insulin granules have to be localized close to the plasma membrane. The role of microtubule-dependent transport in granule positioning and GSIS has been debated. Here, we report that microtubules, counterintuitively, restrict granule availability for secretion. In ? cells, microtubules originate at the Golgi and form a dense non-radial meshwork. Non-directional transport along these microtubules limits granule dwelling at the cell periphery, restricting granule availability for secretion. High glucose destabilizes microtubules, decreasing their density; such local microtubule depolymerization is necessary for GSIS, likely because granule withdrawal from the cell periphery becomes inefficient. Consistently, microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole blocks granule withdrawal, increases their concentration at exocytic sites, and dramatically enhances GSIS in vitro and in mice. Furthermore, glucose-driven MT destabilization is balanced by new microtubule formation, which likely prevents over-secretion. Importantly, microtubule density is greater in dysfunctional ? cells of diabetic mice. PMID:26418295

  19. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses.

  20. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules-which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport-can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  1. Harnessing microtubule dynamic instability for nanostructure assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2004-06-01

    Intracellular molecular machines synthesize molecules, tear apart others, transport materials, transform energy into different forms, and carry out a host of other coordinated processes. Many molecular processes have been shown to work outside of cells, and the idea of harnessing these molecular machines to build nanostructures is attractive. Two examples are microtubules and motor proteins, which aid cell movement, help determine cell shape and internal structure, and transport vesicles and organelles within the cell. These molecular machines work in a stochastic, noisy fashion: microtubules switch randomly between growing and shrinking in a process known as dynamic instability; motor protein movement along microtubules is randomly interrupted by the motor proteins falling off. A common strategy in attempting to gain control over these highly dynamic, stochastic processes is to eliminate some processes (e.g., work with stabilized microtubules) in order to focus on others (interaction of microtubules with motor proteins). In this paper, we illustrate a different strategy for building nanostructures, which, rather than attempting to control or eliminate some dynamic processes, uses them to advantage in building nanostructures. Specifically, using stochastic agent-based simulations, we show how the natural dynamic instability of microtubules can be harnessed in building nanostructures, and discuss strategies for ensuring that 'unreliable' stochastic processes yield a robust outcome.

  2. Mobility of Taxol in Microtubule Bundles

    E-print Network

    Jennifer L. Ross; D. Kuchnir Fygenson

    2003-09-17

    Mobility of taxol inside microtubules was investigated using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on flow-aligned bundles. Bundles were made of microtubules with either GMPCPP or GTP at the exchangeable site on the tubulin dimer. Recovery times were sensitive to bundle thickness and packing, indicating that taxol molecules are able to move laterally through the bundle. The density of open binding sites along a microtubule was varied by controlling the concentration of taxol in solution for GMPCPP samples. With > 63% sites occupied, recovery times were independent of taxol concentration and, therefore, inversely proportional to the microscopic dissociation rate, k_{off}. It was found that 10*k_{off} (GMPCPP) ~ k_{off} (GTP), consistent with, but not fully accounting for, the difference in equilibrium constants for taxol on GMPCPP and GTP microtubules. With < 63% sites occupied, recovery times decreased as ~ [Tax]^{-1/5} for both types of microtubules. We conclude that the diffusion of taxol along the microtubule interior is hindered by rebinding events when open sites are within ~7 nm of each other.

  3. Identification of novel microtubule-binding proteins by taxol-mediated microtubule stabilization and mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Xianfei; Liu, Zhu; He, Qianqian; Qin, Juan; Liu, Ningning; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Dengwen; Zhou, Jun; Shui, Wenqing; Liu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule-binding proteins (MBPs) are structurally and functionally diverse regulators of microtubule-mediated cellular processes. Alteration of MBPs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases, including cancer. MBPs can stabilize or destabilize microtubules or move along microtubules to transport various cargoes. In addition, MBPs can control microtubule dynamics through direct interaction with microtubules or coordination with other proteins. To better understand microtubule structure and function, it is necessary to identify additional MBPs. In this study, we isolated microtubules and MBPs from mammalian cells by a taxol-based method and then profiled a panel of MBPs by mass spectrometry. We discovered a number of previously uncharacterized MBPs, including several membrane-associated proteins and proteins involved in post-translational modifications, in addition to several structural components. These results support the notion that microtubules have a wide range of functions and may undergo more exquisite regulation than previously recognized. PMID:26445615

  4. Stabilization of microtubules due to microtubule-associated proteins: A simple model

    E-print Network

    Bindu S. Govindan; William B. Spillman, Jr.

    2003-12-05

    A theoretical model of stabilization of a microtubule assembly due to microtubule-associated-proteins(MAP) is presented. MAPs are assumed to bind to the microtubule filaments, thus preventing their disintegration following hydrolysis and enhancing further polymerization. Using mean-field rate equations and explicit numerical simulations, we show that the density of MAP (number of MAP per tubulin in the microtubule) has to exceed a critical value $\\rho_{c}$ to stabilize the structure against de-polymerization. At lower densities $\\rho \\rho_{c}$ the average length increases linearly with time and the microtubules ultimately extend to the cell boundary. Using experimentally measured values of various parameters, the critical ratio of MAP to tubulin required for unlimited growth is seen to be of the order of 1:100 or even smaller.

  5. An adaptive achromatic doublet design by double variable focus lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihui; Oku, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2014-09-01

    An adaptive chromatic doublet that designed by doublet variable focus lenses was proposed. Two lenses were in filled with different liquids, so that the lenses could perform low and high dispersion proprieties. The proposed doublet could performance a tunable focal length, and meanwhile its chromatic aberration could be corrected. Four available liquids candidates were proposed to fabricate two variable focus lenses that would be designed with liquid-membrane-liquid structure, so that they could realize a large aperture adaptive achromatic doublet. The improvement of the achromatic behaviors was confirmed that the chromatic focal shift range was 2.5% for the adaptive singlet and 0.05% for the adaptive doublet.

  6. Micropattern-Guided Assembly of Overlapping Pairs of Dynamic Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Fourniol, Franck J.; Li, Tai-De; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R. Dyche; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Surrey, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between antiparallel microtubules are essential for the organization of spindles in dividing cells. The ability to form immobilized antiparallel microtubule pairs in vitro, combined with the ability to image them via TIRF microscopy, permits detailed biochemical characterization of microtubule cross-linking proteins and their effects on microtubule dynamics. Here, we describe methods for chemical micropatterning of microtubule seeds on glass surfaces in configurations that specifically promote the formation of antiparallel microtubule overlaps in vitro. We demonstrate that this assay is especially well suited for reconstitution of minimal midzone overlaps stabilized by the antiparallel microtubule cross-linking protein PRC1 and its binding partners. The micropatterning method is suitable for use with a broad range of proteins, and the assay is generally applicable to any microtubule cross-linking protein. PMID:24630116

  7. Force fluctuations and polymerization dynamics of intracellular microtubules

    E-print Network

    including cell division, migration, and intracellular transport. Microtubules are very rigid and form, in cultured animal cells, bending is suppressed by the surrounding elastic cytoskeleton, and even large cell divi- sion, migration, and transport. Microtubules exhibit highly dynamic growth behavior

  8. A study of microtubule dipole lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Shubhendu

    Microtubules are cytoskeletal protein polymers orchestrating a host of important cellular functions including, but not limited to, cell support, cell division, cell motility and cell transport. In this thesis, we construct a toy-model of the microtubule lattice composed of vector Ising spins representing tubulin molecules, the building block of microtubules. Nearest-neighbor and next-to-nearest neighbor interactions are considered within an anisotropic dielectric medium. As a consequence of the helical topology, we observe that certain spin orientations render the lattice frustrated with nearest neighbor ferroelectric and next-to-nearest neighbor antiferroelectric bonds. Under these conditions, the lattice displays the remarkable property of stabilizing certain spin patterns that are robust to thermal fluctuations. We model this behavior in the framework of a generalized Ising model known as the J1 - J2 model and theoretically determine the set of stable patterns. Employing Monte-Carlo methods, we demonstrate the stability of such patterns in the microtubule lattice at human physiological temperatures. This suggests a novel biological mechanism for storing information in living organisms, whereby the tubulin spin (dipole moment) states become information bits and information gets stored in microtubules in a way that is robust to thermal fluctuations.

  9. Motor function in interpolar microtubules during metaphase

    E-print Network

    J. M. Deutsch; Ian P. Lewis

    2013-07-22

    We analyze experimental observations of microtubules undergoing small fluctuations about a "balance point" when mixed in solution of two different kinesin motor proteins, KLP61F and Ncd. It has been proposed that the microtubule movement is due to stochastic variations in the densities of the two species of motor proteins. We test this hypothesis here by showing how it maps onto a one-dimensional random walk in a random environment. Our estimate of the amplitude of the fluctuations agrees with experimental observations. We point out that there is an initial transient in the position of the microtubule where it will typically move of order its own length. We compare the physics of this gliding assay to a recent theory of the role of antagonistic motors on restricting interpolar microtubule sliding of a cell's mitotic spindle during prometaphase. It is concluded that randomly positioned antagonistic motors can restrict relative movement of microtubules, however they do so imperfectly. A variation in motor concentrations is also analyzed and shown to lead to greater control of spindle length.

  10. [A functional flagella with a 6 + 0 pattern

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The male gamete of the Gregarine Lecudina tuzetae has been studied with transmission electron microscopy and microcinematography. It is characterized by a flagellar axoneme of 6 + 0 pattern, a reduction of the chondriome, and the abundance of storage polysaccharide or lipid bodies. The movements of the flagella are of the undulating type and they are performed in the three dimensions of space. They are very slow, with a cycle time of about 2s. The structure of the axoneme components are similar to those of flagella with a 9 + 2 pattern. Each doublet has overall dimensions of 350 x 220 A; the space between the adjacent doublets is about 160 A. The A subfiber bears arms like dynein arms. The diameter of the axoneme is about 1,000 A. The basal body consists of a cylinder of dense material 2,500 A long and 1,300- 1,400 A in diameter; a microtubule 200 A in diameter is present in the axis. This study shows that a 6 + 0 pattern can generate a flagellar movement. The mechanism of the flagellar movement of the male gamete of L. tuzetae does not require the presence of central microtubules and it would include molecular interactions of the dynein-tubulin type between the adjacent peripheric doublets. The slowness of the movements is discussed in terms of the axoneme's structure and its energy supply. Finally, the phylogenetic significance of this flagella is examined on the basis of the morphopoietic potentialities of the centriolar structures. PMID:169268

  11. Baryogenesis from mixing of lepton doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that the mixing of lepton doublets of the Standard Model can yield sizable contributions to the lepton asymmetry, that is generated through the decays of right-handed neutrinos at finite temperature in the early Universe. When calculating the flavour-mixing correlations, we account for the effects of Yukawa as well as of gauge interactions. We compare the freeze-out asymmetry from lepton-doublet mixing to the standard contributions from the mixing and direct decays of right-handed neutrinos. The asymmetry from lepton mixing is considerably large when the mass ratio between the right-handed neutrinos is of order of a few, while it becomes Maxwell-suppressed for larger hierarchies. For an intermediate range between the case of degenerate right-handed neutrinos (resonant leptogenesis) and the hierarchical case, lepton mixing can yield the main contribution to the lepton asymmetry.

  12. Doublet III beamline: as-built

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, C.R.; Holland, M.M.; Parker, J.W.; Gunn, J.; Resnick, L.

    1980-03-01

    In order to fully exploit Doublet III capabilities and to study new plasma physics regimes, a Neutral Beam Injector System has been constructed. Initially, a two beamline system will supply 7 MW of heat to the plasma. The system is currently being expanded to inject approx. 20 MW of power (6 beamlines). Each beamline is equipped with two Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory type rectangular ion sources with 10 cm x 40 cm extraction grids. These sources will accelerate hydrogen ions to 80 keV, with extracted beam currents in excess of 80 A per source expected. The first completed source is currently being tested and conditioned on the High Voltage Test Stand at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This paper pictorially reviews the as-built Doublet III neutral beamline with emphasis on component relation and configuration relative to spatial and source imposed design constraints.

  13. Dark Matter from the Inert Doublet Model

    E-print Network

    Laura Lopez Honorez

    2007-06-01

    The Inert Doublet Model is an extension of the Standard Model including one extra ``Inert scalar doublet'' and an exact $Z_2$ symmetry. The ``Inert scalar'' provides a new candidate for dark matter. We present a systematic analysis of the dark matter abundance assuming the standard freeze-out mechanism and investigate the potentialities for direct and gamma indirect detection. We show that the dark matter candidate saturates the WMAP dark matter density in two rather separate mass ranges, one between 40 and 80 GeV, the other one over 400 GeV. We also show that the model should be within the range of future experiments, like GLAST and EDELWEISS II or ZEPLIN.

  14. Fourth Generations with an Inert Doublet Higgs

    E-print Network

    Efunwande Osoba

    2012-06-28

    We explore an extension of the fourth generation model with multi-Higgs doublets and three fermion singlets. The Standard Model neutrinos acquire mass radiatively at one loop level while the fourth generation neutrinos acquire a heavy tree-level mass. The model also contains several Dark Matter candidate whose stability is guaranteed by a $Z_2$ discrete symmetry. The possibility of CP violation in the scalar sector is also briefly discussed.

  15. Ethanol impairs microtubule formation via interactions at a microtubule associated protein-sensitive site

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine J.; Butler, Tracy R.; Prendergast, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged ethanol abuse has been associated with brain injury caused by impaired synaptogenesis, cellular migration, neurogenesis, and cell signaling, all of which require proper microtubule functioning. However, the means by which ethanol may impair microtubule formation or function and the role that microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) have in mediating such effects are not clear. In the present studies, purified MAP-deficient (2 mg/mL) and MAP-rich (pre-conjugated; 1 mg/mL) bovine ?/? tubulin dimer were allowed to polymerize at 37 °C, forming microtubules in the presence or absence of ethanol (25–500 mM). Microtubule formation was assessed in a 96-well format using a turbidity assay, with absorption measured at 340 nm for 45 min. Additional studies co-exposed ?/? tubulin dimers to 50 mM ethanol and purified MAPs (0.1 mg/mL) for 45 min. Polymerization of MAP-deficient tubulin was significantly decreased (at 15–45 min of polymerization) during exposure to ethanol (> 25 mM). In contrast, ethanol exposure did not alter polymerization of ?/? tubulin dimers pre-conjugated to MAPs, at any concentration. Concurrent exposure of MAP-deficient tubulin with purified MAPs and ethanol resulted in significant and time-dependent decreases in tubulin polymerization, with recovery from inhibition at later time points. The present results suggest that ethanol disrupts MAP-independent microtubule formation and MAP-dependent microtubule formation via direct actions at a MAP-sensitive microtubule residue, indicating that disruption of neuronal microtubule formation and function may contribute to the neurodegenerative effects of binge-like ethanol intake. PMID:24055335

  16. Polyribosome targeting to microtubules: enrichment of specific mRNAs in a reconstituted microtubule preparation from sea urchin embryos

    E-print Network

    Hamill, Danielle R.; Davis, J.; Drawbridge, J.; Suprenant, Kathy A.

    1994-11-15

    were coated with a thin layer of vacuum-evaporated carbon. After ionizing the surface by glow discharging, the grids were inverted on top of a 50-#1 mierotubule suspension for 2 rain. The grids were gently rinsed three times with distilled water... to microtubules, total RNA was prepared from two- cell embryo extracts and from purified microtubules. Cow sidering the amount of time that a microtubule preparation takes and the elevated temperatures required for the assem- bly of microtubules...

  17. Neuronal microtubules: when the MAP is the roadblock.

    PubMed

    Baas, Peter W; Qiang, Liang

    2005-04-01

    Recent studies shed new light on a potential cascade of events by which neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's lead to axonal degeneration. In this model, the pathology starts with an elevation in microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) such as tau. This renders the microtubules less accessible to motor proteins, which impairs their capacity to sustain anterograde axonal transport of proteins and organelles. In response, the neuron hyperphosphorylates tau so that it dissociates from the microtubules. Unfortunately, the hyperphosphorylated tau forms abnormal filaments that are deleterious to the axon, and the tau-depleted microtubules become highly sensitive to microtubule-severing proteins such as katanin. PMID:15817373

  18. Loop formation of microtubules during gliding at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lynn; Tüzel, Erkan; Ross, Jennifer L.

    2011-09-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton, including the associated proteins, forms a complex network essential to multiple cellular processes. Microtubule-associated motor proteins, such as kinesin-1, travel on microtubules to transport membrane bound vesicles across the crowded cell. Other motors, such as cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-5, are used to organize the cytoskeleton during mitosis. In order to understand the self-organization processes of motors on microtubules, we performed filament-gliding assays with kinesin-1 motors bound to the cover glass with a high density of microtubules on the surface. To observe microtubule organization, 3% of the microtubules were fluorescently labeled to serve as tracers. We find that microtubules in these assays are not confined to two dimensions and can cross one other. This causes microtubules to align locally with a relatively short correlation length. At high density, this local alignment is enough to create 'intersections' of perpendicularly oriented groups of microtubules. These intersections create vortices that cause microtubules to form loops. We characterize the radius of curvature and time duration of the loops. These different behaviors give insight into how crowded conditions, such as those in the cell, might affect motor behavior and cytoskeleton organization.

  19. Tau protects microtubules in the axon from severing by katanin.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Liang; Yu, Wenqian; Andreadis, Athena; Luo, Minhua; Baas, Peter W

    2006-03-22

    Microtubules in the axon are more resistant to severing by katanin than microtubules elsewhere in the neuron. We have hypothesized that this is because of the presence of tau on axonal microtubules. When katanin is overexpressed in fibroblasts, the microtubules are severed into short pieces, but this phenomenon is suppressed by the coexpression of tau. Protection against severing is also afforded by microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), which has a tau-like microtubule-binding domain, but not by MAP1b, which has a different microtubule-binding domain. The microtubule-binding domain of tau is required for the protection, but within itself, provides less protection than the entire molecule. When tau (but not MAP2 or MAP1b) is experimentally depleted from neurons, the microtubules in the axon lose their characteristic resistance to katanin. These results, which validate our hypothesis, also suggest a potential explanation for why axonal microtubules deteriorate in neuropathies involving the dissociation of tau from the microtubules. PMID:16554463

  20. Loop formation of microtubules during gliding at high density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lynn; Tüzel, Erkan; Ross, Jennifer L

    2011-09-21

    The microtubule cytoskeleton, including the associated proteins, forms a complex network essential to multiple cellular processes. Microtubule-associated motor proteins, such as kinesin-1, travel on microtubules to transport membrane bound vesicles across the crowded cell. Other motors, such as cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-5, are used to organize the cytoskeleton during mitosis. In order to understand the self-organization processes of motors on microtubules, we performed filament-gliding assays with kinesin-1 motors bound to the cover glass with a high density of microtubules on the surface. To observe microtubule organization, 3% of the microtubules were fluorescently labeled to serve as tracers. We find that microtubules in these assays are not confined to two dimensions and can cross one other. This causes microtubules to align locally with a relatively short correlation length. At high density, this local alignment is enough to create 'intersections' of perpendicularly oriented groups of microtubules. These intersections create vortices that cause microtubules to form loops. We characterize the radius of curvature and time duration of the loops. These different behaviors give insight into how crowded conditions, such as those in the cell, might affect motor behavior and cytoskeleton organization. PMID:21862840

  1. Measuring the Dynamic Parameters of MCF7 Cell Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, Carly; Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Microtubules are the key component of the cytoskeleton. They are intrinsically dynamic displaying dynamic instability in which they randomly switch between a phase of growing and shrinking, both in vitro and in vivo. This dynamic is specified by the following parameters: growing rate, shrinking rate, frequency of catastrophe, and frequency of rescue. In this work, we will present our primary results in which we measured the dynamic parameters of a single microtubule polymerized from MCF7 tubulin in vitro. The results are significant since the MCF7 microtubules are non-neural mammalian consisting of different beta tubulin isotypes in their structures as compared to neural mammalian microtubules, such as bovine brain. The unique dynamic parameters of individual MCF7 microtubules in vitro, which are reported for the first time, indicate that non-neural microtubules can be fundamentally different from neural microtubules.

  2. Shaping of interphase chromosomes by the microtubule network.

    PubMed

    Maizels, Yael; Gerlitz, Gabi

    2015-09-01

    It is well established that microtubule dynamics play a major role in chromosome condensation and localization during mitosis. During interphase, however, it is assumed that the metazoan nuclear envelope presents a physical barrier, which inhibits interaction between the microtubules located in the cytoplasm and the chromatin fibers located in the nucleus. In recent years, it has become apparent that microtubule dynamics alter chromatin structure and function during interphase as well. Microtubule motor proteins transport several transcription factors and exogenous DNA (such as plasmid DNA) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Various soluble microtubule components are able to translocate into the nucleus, where they bind various chromatin elements leading to transcriptional alterations. In addition, microtubules may apply force on the nuclear envelope, which is transmitted into the nucleus, leading to changes in chromatin structure. Thus, microtubule dynamics during interphase may affect chromatin spatial organization, as well as transcription, replication and repair. PMID:26040675

  3. Cep70 regulates microtubule stability by interacting with HDAC6.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingjuan; Yao, Yanjun; Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Qinghai; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen

    2015-07-01

    Microtubules, highly dynamic components of the cytoskeleton, are involved in mitosis, cell migration and intracellular trafficking. Our previous work has shown that the centrosomal protein Cep70 regulates microtubule organization and mitotic spindle orientation in mammalian cells. However, it remains elusive whether Cep70 is implicated in microtubule stability. Here we demonstrate that Cep70 enhances microtubule resistance to cold or nocodazole treatment. Our data further show that Cep70 promotes microtubule stability by regulating tubulin acetylation, and plays an important role in stabilizing microtubules. Mechanistic studies reveal that Cep70 interacts and colocalizes with histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Cep70 promotes microtubule stability by interaction with HDAC6 and regulation of tubulin acetylation. PMID:26112604

  4. The role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport

    E-print Network

    KuliÄ?, Igor M; Kim, Hwajin; Kural, Comert; Blehm, Benjamin; Selvin, Paul R; Nelson, Philip C; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2008-01-01

    We study the role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport in Drosophila S2 cells and show that EGFP-tagged peroxisomes in cells serve as sensitive probes of motor induced, noisy cytoskeletal motions. Multiple peroxisomes move in unison over large time windows and show correlations with microtubule tip positions, indicating rapid microtubule fluctuations in the longitudinal direction. We report the first high-resolution measurement of longitudinal microtubule fluctuations performed by tracing such pairs of co-moving peroxisomes. The resulting picture shows that motor-dependent longitudinal microtubule oscillations contribute significantly to cargo movement along microtubules. Thus, contrary to the conventional view, organelle transport cannot be described solely in terms of cargo movement along stationary microtubule tracks, but instead includes a strong contribution from the movement of the tracks.

  5. The role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport

    E-print Network

    Igor M. Kuli?; André E. X. Brown; Hwajin Kim; Comert Kural; Benjamin Blehm; Paul R. Selvin; Philip C. Nelson; Vladimir I. Gelfand

    2008-08-12

    We study the role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport in Drosophila S2 cells and show that EGFP-tagged peroxisomes in cells serve as sensitive probes of motor induced, noisy cytoskeletal motions. Multiple peroxisomes move in unison over large time windows and show correlations with microtubule tip positions, indicating rapid microtubule fluctuations in the longitudinal direction. We report the first high-resolution measurement of longitudinal microtubule fluctuations performed by tracing such pairs of co-moving peroxisomes. The resulting picture shows that motor-dependent longitudinal microtubule oscillations contribute significantly to cargo movement along microtubules. Thus, contrary to the conventional view, organelle transport cannot be described solely in terms of cargo movement along stationary microtubule tracks, but instead includes a strong contribution from the movement of the tracks.

  6. Extragenic bypass suppressors of mutations in the essential gene BLD2 promote assembly of basal bodies with abnormal microtubules in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Preble, A M; Giddings, T H; Dutcher, S K

    2001-01-01

    bld2-1 mutant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains assemble basal bodies with singlet microtubules; bld2-1 cells display flagellar assembly defects as well as positioning defects of the mitotic spindle and cleavage furrow. To further understand the role of the BLD2 gene, we have isolated three new bld2 alleles and three partially dominant extragenic suppressors, rgn1-1, rgn1-2, and rgn1-3. bld2 rgn1-1 strains have phenotypes intermediate between those of bld2 and wild-type strains with respect to flagellar number, microtubule rootlet organization, cleavage furrow positioning, and basal body structural phenotypes. Instead of the triplet microtubules of wild-type cells, bld2 rgn1-1 basal bodies have mixtures of no, singlet, doublet, and triplet microtubules. The bld2-4 allele was made by insertional mutagenesis and identified in a noncomplementation screen in a diploid strain. The bld2-4 allele has a lethal phenotype based on mitotic segregation in diploid strains and in haploid strains generated by meiotic recombination. The lethal phenotype in haploid strains is suppressed by rgn1-1; these suppressed strains have similar phenotypes to other bld2 rgn1-1 double mutants. It is likely that BLD2 is an essential gene that is needed for basal body assembly and function. PMID:11139500

  7. Kinetic theory for actively streaming microtubule suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matt; Betterton, Meredith; Shelley, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Suspensions of polar biopolymers mixed with molecular motor proteins can exhibit surprising out-of-equilibrium phenomena. In a recent experiment by Sanchez et al., microtubules are driven into collective motion by plus-end walking motor complexes. In experiments where the suspension is confined to a fluid-fluid interface, they find the emergence of distinctive large-scale flows characterized by persistent time-dependence and formation/annihilation of disclination singularities in the nematic order. Here we develop a first-principles kinetic theory to investigate the nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation observed in active microtubule suspensions. We model the active stresses generated by motile microtubules by taking into account the extensile stresses due to both the antiparallel and the parallel microtubule pairs. In a concentrated system, the resultant particle-pair stresses can induce hydrodynamic instabilities, and lead to a large-scale flows. When the suspension is confined to a liquid-liquid interface, we recover much of the dynamics observed in the experiments.

  8. Forces due to curving protofilaments in microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichare, Shirish; Jain, Ishutesh; Inamdar, Mandar M.; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2013-12-01

    Microtubules consist of 13 protofilaments arranged in the form of a cylinder. The protofilaments are composed of longitudinally attached tubulin dimers that can exist in either a less curved state [GTP-bound tubulin (T)] or a more curved state [GDP-bound tubulin (D)]. Hydrolysis of T into D leaves the straight and laterally attached protofilaments of the microtubule in a mechanically stressed state, thus leading to their unzipping. The elastic energy in the unzipping protofilaments can be harnessed by a force transducer such as the Dam1-kinetochore ring complex in order to exert pulling force on chromosomes during cell division. In the present paper we develop a simple continuum model to obtain this pulling force as a function of the mechanical properties of protofilaments and the size of the Dam1-kinetochore ring. We also extend this model to investigate the role played by the T subunits found at the plus end of the microtubule (the T cap) on the mechanical stability of microtubules.

  9. Electrostatically Biased Binding of Kinesin to Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenjun; Alonso, Maria; Huber, Gary; Dlugosz, Maciej; McCammon, J. Andrew; Cross, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The minimum motor domain of kinesin-1 is a single head. Recent evidence suggests that such minimal motor domains generate force by a biased binding mechanism, in which they preferentially select binding sites on the microtubule that lie ahead in the progress direction of the motor. A specific molecular mechanism for biased binding has, however, so far been lacking. Here we use atomistic Brownian dynamics simulations combined with experimental mutagenesis to show that incoming kinesin heads undergo electrostatically guided diffusion-to-capture by microtubules, and that this produces directionally biased binding. Kinesin-1 heads are initially rotated by the electrostatic field so that their tubulin-binding sites face inwards, and then steered towards a plus-endwards binding site. In tethered kinesin dimers, this bias is amplified. A 3-residue sequence (RAK) in kinesin helix alpha-6 is predicted to be important for electrostatic guidance. Real-world mutagenesis of this sequence powerfully influences kinesin-driven microtubule sliding, with one mutant producing a 5-fold acceleration over wild type. We conclude that electrostatic interactions play an important role in the kinesin stepping mechanism, by biasing the diffusional association of kinesin with microtubules. PMID:22140358

  10. Track Switching and Crossing by Microtubule Motors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer; Wallace, Karen; Shuman, Henry; Holzbaur, Erika; Goldman, Yale

    2006-03-01

    Cytoskeletal filaments in cells form a network of crossing tracks for motor proteins carrying vesicular and protein cargoes. The ability to pass through, switch, or dissociate at such intersections is relevant to the motor's ability to effectively navigate in the cell and deliver goods to the appropriate location. We have formed an in vitro system of crossed microtubules to study the outcome of kinesin motors and dynein-dynactin complexes when they encounter an intersection. Microtubules were flowed into the sample chamber from two orthogonal directions and aligned with the flow direction when they attached to glass cover slips via biotin-streptavidin. The first flow direction defined the microtubules closest to the glass surface. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we visualized single GFP-kinesin motors and dynein-dynactin-GFP complexes during processive motility at 1 mM ATP. Both dynein and kinesin can switch microtubules, pass by an intersection, or dissociate. Using optical trapping, we placed 1 ?m polymer beads decorated with multiple motors to simulate a large cargo encountering an intersection at 1 mM ATP. Beads are more likely to pause at the intersection at high motor number and can pass and switch as the motor concentration is titrated down. The differences between kinesin and dynein could inform of the ability of these motors to navigate the cell, both separately and in coordination. Supported by NIH grant AR51174.

  11. Microtubule and Intermediate Filament Patterns around the

    E-print Network

    Vorobjev, Ivan

    4 Microtubule and Intermediate Filament Patterns around the Centrosome in Interphase Cells I. B of the Centrosome III. Centrosome and Intermediate Filaments A. Intermediate Filament Foci in the Centrosome B. Effect of Ultracentrifugation of Living Cells on Their Intermediate Filament System: Identification

  12. Doublet-Triplet Fermionic Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    Athanasios Dedes; Dimitrios Karamitros

    2015-06-23

    We extend the Standard Model (SM) by adding a pair of fermionic SU(2)-doublets with opposite hypercharge and a fermionic SU(2)-triplet with zero hypercharge. We impose a discrete Z_2-symmetry that distinguishes the SM fermions from the new ones. Then, gauge invariance allows for two renormalizable Yukawa couplings between the new fermions and the SM Higgs field, as well as for direct masses for the doublet (M_D) and the triplet (M_T). After electroweak symmetry breaking, this model contains, in addition to SM particles, two charged Dirac fermions and a set of three neutral Majorana fermions, the lightest of which contributes to Dark Matter (DM). We consider a case where the lightest neutral fermion is an equal admixture of the two doublets with mass M_D close to the Z-boson mass. This state remains stable under radiative corrections thanks to a custodial SU(2)-symmetry and is consistent with the experimental data from oblique electroweak corrections. Moreover, the amplitudes relevant to spin-dependent or independent nucleus-DM particle scattering cross section both vanish at tree level. They arise at one loop at a level that may be observed in near future DM direct detection experiments. For Yukawa couplings comparable to the top-quark, the DM particle relic abundance is consistent with observation, not relying on co-annihilation or resonant effects and has a mass at the electroweak scale. Furthermore, the heavier fermions decay to the DM particle and to electroweak gauge bosons making this model easily testable at the LHC. In the regime of interest, the charged fermions suppress the Higgs decays to diphoton by 45-75 % relative to SM prediction.

  13. Partial Depletion of Gamma-Actin Suppresses Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Po'uha, Sela T; Honore, Stephane; Braguer, Diane; Kavallaris, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Actin and microtubule interactions are important for many cellular events, however these interactions are poorly described. Alterations in ?-actin are associated with diseases such as hearing loss and cancer. Functional investigations demonstrated that partial depletion of ?-actin affects cell polarity and induces resistance to microtubule-targeted agents. To determine whether ?-actin alterations directly affect microtubule dynamics, microtubule dynamic instability was analyzed in living cells following partial siRNA depletion of ?-actin. Partial depletion of ?-actin suppresses interphase microtubule dynamics by 17.5% due to a decrease in microtubule shortening rates and an increase in microtubule attenuation. ?-Actin partial depletion also increased distance-based microtubule catastrophe and rescue frequencies. In addition, knockdown of ?-actin delayed mitotic progression, partially blocking metaphase–anaphase transition and inhibiting cell proliferation. Interestingly, in the presence of paclitaxel, interphase microtubule dynamics were further suppressed by 24.4% in the ?-actin knockdown cells, which is comparable to 28.8% suppression observed in the control siRNA treated cells. Paclitaxel blocked metaphase–anaphase transition in both the ?-actin knockdown cells and the control siRNA cells. However, the extent of mitotic arrest was much higher in the control cells (28.4%), compared to the ?-actin depleted cells (8.5%). Therefore, suppression of microtubule dynamics by partial depletion of ?-actin is associated with marked delays in metaphase-anaphase transition and not mitotic arrest. This is the first demonstration that ?-actin can modulate microtubule dynamics by reducing the microtubule shortening rate, promoting paused/attenuated microtubules, and increasing transition frequencies suggesting a mechanistic link between ?-actin and microtubules. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc PMID:23335583

  14. Natural Two-Higgs-Doublet Model

    E-print Network

    Grzadkowski, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    We show that the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) constrained by the two-loop-order requirement of cancellation of quadratic divergences is consistent with the existing experimental constraints. The model allows to ameliorate the little hierarchy problem by suppressing the quadratic corrections to scalar masses and lifting the mass of the lightest Higgs boson. A strong source of CP violation emerges from the scalar potential. The cutoff originating from the naturality arguments is shifted from 0.6 TeV in the Standard Model to >6 TeV in the 2HDM, depending on the mass of the lightest scalar.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Radial Spoke Head Protein of Sea Urchin Sperm Axonemes: Involvement of the Protein in the Regulation of Sperm Motility

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Denis; White, Daniel; Garin, Jérome; Cosson, Jacky; Huitorel, Philippe; Zingg, Hans; Cibert, Christian; Gagnon, Claude

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against axonemal proteins of sea urchin spermatozoa have been used to study regulatory mechanisms involved in flagellar motility. Here, we report that one of these antibodies, monoclonal antibody D-316, has an unusual perturbating effect on the motility of sea urchin sperm models; it does not affect the beat frequency, the amplitude of beating or the percentage of motile sperm models, but instead promotes a marked transformation of the flagellar beating pattern which changes from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional type of movement. On immunoblots of axonemal proteins separated by SDS-PAGE, D-316 recognized a single polypeptide of 90 kDa. This protein was purified following its extraction by exposure of axonemes to a brief heat treatment at 40°C. The protein copurified and coimmunoprecipitated with proteins of 43 and 34 kDa, suggesting that it exists as a complex in its native form. Using D-316 as a probe, a full-length cDNA clone encoding the 90-kDa protein was obtained from a sea urchin cDNA library. The sequence predicts a highly acidic (pI = 4.0) protein of 552 amino acids with a mass of 62,720 Da (p63). Comparison with protein sequences in databases indicated that the protein is related to radial spoke proteins 4 and 6 (RSP4 and RSP6) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which share 37% and 25% similarity, respectively, with p63. However, the sea urchin protein possesses structural features distinct from RSP4 and RSP6, such as the presence of three major acidic stretches which contains 25, 17, and 12 aspartate and glutamate residues of 34-, 22-, and 14-amino acid long stretches, respectively, that are predicted to form ?-helical coiled-coil secondary structures. These results suggest a major role for p63 in the maintenance of a planar form of sperm flagellar beating and provide new tools to study the function of radial spoke heads in more evolved species. PMID:9450971

  16. Inert Higgs doublet extension of the NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyae, Bumseok

    2014-04-01

    We introduce one pair of inert Higgs doublets {Hd,Hu} and singlets {Nc,N}, and consider their couplings with the Higgs doublets of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), W ?yNNchuHd+yN'NhdHu. We assign extra U(1)Z' gauge charges only to the extra vectorlike superfields, and so all the MSSM superfields remain neutral under the new U(1)Z'. They can be an extension of the "? term," W ??Shuhd in the next-to MSSM (NMSSM). Because of the U(1)Z', the maximally allowed low energy value of yN can be lifted up to 0.85, avoiding a Landau pole (LP) below the grand unification scale. Such colorless vectorlike superfields remarkably enhance the radiative MSSM Higgs mass particularly for large tan? through the yN term and the corresponding holomorphic soft term. As a result, the lower bound of ? and the upper bound of tan? can be relaxed to disappear from the restricted parameter space of the original NMSSM, 0.6?? ?0.7 and 1

  17. The Microtubule Regulatory Protein Stathmin Is Required to Maintain the Integrity of Axonal Microtubules in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Jason E.; Lytle, Nikki K.; Zuniga, Alfredo; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Axonal transport, a form of long-distance, bi-directional intracellular transport that occurs between the cell body and synaptic terminal, is critical in maintaining the function and viability of neurons. We have identified a requirement for the stathmin (stai) gene in the maintenance of axonal microtubules and regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila. The stai gene encodes a cytosolic phosphoprotein that regulates microtubule dynamics by partitioning tubulin dimers between pools of soluble tubulin and polymerized microtubules, and by directly binding to microtubules and promoting depolymerization. Analysis of stai function in Drosophila, which has a single stai gene, circumvents potential complications with studies performed in vertebrate systems in which mutant phenotypes may be compensated by genetic redundancy of other members of the stai gene family. This has allowed us to identify an essential function for stai in the maintenance of the integrity of axonal microtubules. In addition to the severe disruption in the abundance and architecture of microtubules in the axons of stai mutant Drosophila, we also observe additional neurological phenotypes associated with loss of stai function including a posterior paralysis and tail-flip phenotype in third instar larvae, aberrant accumulation of transported membranous organelles in stai deficient axons, a progressive bang-sensitive response to mechanical stimulation reminiscent of the class of Drosophila mutants used to model human epileptic seizures, and a reduced adult lifespan. Reductions in the levels of Kinesin-1, the primary anterograde motor in axonal transport, enhance these phenotypes. Collectively, our results indicate that stai has an important role in neuronal function, likely through the maintenance of microtubule integrity in the axons of nerves of the peripheral nervous system necessary to support and sustain long-distance axonal transport. PMID:23840848

  18. INF1 Is a Novel Microtubule-associated Formin

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kevin G.; Thurston, Susan F.; Copeland, Sarah; Smallwood, Chelsea

    2008-01-01

    Formin proteins, characterized by the presence of conserved formin homology (FH) domains, play important roles in cytoskeletal regulation via their abilities to nucleate actin filament formation and to interact with multiple other proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation. The C-terminal FH2 domain of formins is key for actin filament interactions and has been implicated in playing a role in interactions with microtubules. Inverted formin 1 (INF1) is unusual among the formin family in having the conserved FH1 and FH2 domains in its N-terminal half, with its C-terminal half being composed of a unique polypeptide sequence. In this study, we have examined a potential role for INF1 in regulating microtubule structure. INF1 associates discretely with microtubules, and this association is dependent on a novel C-terminal microtubule-binding domain. INF1 expressed in fibroblast cells induced actin stress fiber formation, coalignment of microtubules with actin filaments, and the formation of bundled, acetylated microtubules. Endogenous INF1 showed an association with acetylated microtubules, and knockdown of INF1 resulted in decreased levels of acetylated microtubules. Our data suggests a role for INF1 in microtubule modification and potentially in coordinating microtubule and F-actin structure. PMID:18815276

  19. Obstructions Inhibit Long-range Motor Motility in Microtubule Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramlich, M. W.

    2015-03-01

    Efficient cellular transport along the cytoskeletal network is essential for cell growth and maintenance. Everything from microtubules to plasma membrane components are transported along the cytoskeletal network. Long-range transport is accomplished by molecular motors carrying cargo along a microtubule network. Recently, the role of the microtubule bundle geometry has begun to be explored. Microtubules bundle together in order to efficiently direct transport. Consequently, bundled microtubules introduce a new set of parameters which affect cellular transport, such as bundle spacing or microtubule polarity. Even previously tested parameters need to be re-considered, such as the role of obstructions. In this talk I will focus on the relationship between obstructions and microtubule polarity, and their affects on long-range transport. Microtubule polarity varies from completely uniform, with all plus-ends pointing in the same direction, to completely random. I will quantitatively show how obstructions inhibit long-range motor motility in any bundle, regardless of the distribution of microtubule polarity within the bundle. However, inhibition of long-range transport is greater in mixed polarity bundles. This result has implications for how cells use microtubule polarity to accommodate obstructions in order to efficiently direct transport.

  20. An assay to image neuronal microtubule dynamics in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kleele, Tatjana; Marinkovi?, Petar; Williams, Philip R.; Stern, Sina; Weigand, Emily E.; Engerer, Peter; Naumann, Ronald; Hartmann, Jana; Karl, Rosa M.; Bradke, Frank; Bishop, Derron; Herms, Jochen; Konnerth, Arthur; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Godinho, Leanne; Misgeld, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics in neurons play critical roles in physiology, injury and disease and determine microtubule orientation, the cell biological correlate of neurite polarization. Several microtubule binding proteins, including end-binding protein 3 (EB3), specifically bind to the growing plus tip of microtubules. In the past, fluorescently tagged end-binding proteins have revealed microtubule dynamics in vitro and in non-mammalian model organisms. Here, we devise an imaging assay based on transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein-tagged EB3 to study microtubules in intact mammalian neurites. Our approach allows measurement of microtubule dynamics in vivo and ex vivo in peripheral nervous system and central nervous system neurites under physiological conditions and after exposure to microtubule-modifying drugs. We find an increase in dynamic microtubules after injury and in neurodegenerative disease states, before axons show morphological indications of degeneration or regrowth. Thus increased microtubule dynamics might serve as a general indicator of neurite remodelling in health and disease. PMID:25219969

  1. Neurodegeneration and microtubule dynamics: death by a thousand cuts

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Jyoti; Ratnakaran, Neena; Koushika, Sandhya P.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules form important cytoskeletal structures that play a role in establishing and maintaining neuronal polarity, regulating neuronal morphology, transporting cargo, and scaffolding signaling molecules to form signaling hubs. Within a neuronal cell, microtubules are found to have variable lengths and can be both stable and dynamic. Microtubule associated proteins, post-translational modifications of tubulin subunits, microtubule severing enzymes, and signaling molecules are all known to influence both stable and dynamic pools of microtubules. Microtubule dynamics, the process of interconversion between stable and dynamic pools, and the proportions of these two pools have the potential to influence a wide variety of cellular processes. Reduced microtubule stability has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and tauopathies like Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. Hyperstable microtubules, as seen in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP), also lead to neurodegeneration. Therefore, the ratio of stable and dynamic microtubules is likely to be important for neuronal function and perturbation in microtubule dynamics might contribute to disease progression. PMID:26441521

  2. Proto-Algic V: Doublets and Their Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the reconstruction of doublets in the Proto-Algic Indian language. These doublets suggest dialect mixing before the breakup of Proto-Algic society, with frequent elements commonly manifesting the prestige-dialect innovations. An extensive Proto-Algic vocabulary is included. Two appendixes explain new or significantly revised…

  3. Dinitroaniline herbicide resistance and the microtubule cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Anthony; Hussey

    1999-03-01

    Dinitroaniline herbicides have been used for pre-emergence weed control for the past 25 years in cotton, soybean, wheat and oilseed crops. Considering their long persistence and extensive use, resistance to dinitroanilines is fairly rare. However, the most widespread dinitroaniline-resistant weeds, the highly resistant (R) and the intermediate (I) biotypes of the invasive goosegrass Eleusine indica, are now infesting more than 1000 cotton fields in the southern states of the USA. The molecular basis of this resistance has been identified, and found to be a point mutation in a major microtubule cytoskeletal protein, alpha-tubulin. These studies have served both to explain the establishment of resistance and to reveal fundamental properties of tubulin gene expression and microtubule structure. PMID:10322543

  4. Motor protein accumulation on antiparallel microtubule overlaps

    E-print Network

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would na\\"ively expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center ...

  5. Microtubules stabilize cell polarity by localizing rear signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wei-Hui; Wang, Yu-Li

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are known to play an important role in cell polarity; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Using cells migrating persistently on micropatterned strips, we found that depolymerization of microtubules caused cells to change from persistent to oscillatory migration. Mathematical modeling in the context of a local-excitation–global-inhibition control mechanism indicated that this mechanism can account for microtubule-dependent oscillation, assuming that microtubules remove inhibitory signals from the front after a delayed generation. Experiments further supported model predictions that the period of oscillation positively correlates with cell length and that oscillation may be induced by inhibiting retrograde motors. We suggest that microtubules are required not for the generation but for the maintenance of cell polarity, by mediating the global distribution of inhibitory signals. Disassembly of microtubules induces cell oscillation by allowing inhibitory signals to accumulate at the front, which stops frontal protrusion and allows the polarity to reverse. PMID:25368191

  6. Dynamic properties of microtubules at steady state of polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.R.; Schilstra, M.J.; Bayley, P.M.

    1987-12-16

    Microtubules of tubulin dimer, polymerized in vitro to steady-state are shown to incorporate tubulin rapidly and extensively. The method involves adding (/sup 3/H)-GTP to microtubules at steady state, and analyzing for non-exchangeable (/sup 3/H)-GDP in the presence of a GTP regenerating system. The rate and extent of this exchange process is dependent on the length distribution of the microtubules, and is notably faster with sheared microtubules. We simulate all these features of the exchange kinetics, together with the length redistributions occurring at steady state of polymerization, using a simple model based on a limited number of kinetic parameters deriving from the measurements of microtubule dynamics by Horio and Hotani. The observed exchange kinetics thus provide a direct experimental criterion of dynamic instability of microtubules at steady state of polymerization.

  7. Fluorescent markers of the microtubule cytoskeleton in Zymoseptoria tritici

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, M.; Kilaru, S.; Latz, M.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton supports vital processes in fungal cells, including hyphal growth and mitosis. Consequently, it is a target for fungicides, such as benomyl. The use of fluorescent fusion proteins to illuminate microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins has led to a break-through in our understanding of their dynamics and function in fungal cells. Here, we introduce fluorescent markers to visualize microtubules and accessory proteins in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We fused enhanced green-fluorescent protein to ?-tubulin (ZtTub2), to ZtPeb1, a homologue of the mammalian plus-end binding protein EB1, and to ZtGrc1, a component of the minus-end located ?-tubulin ring complex, involved in the nucleation of microtubules. In vivo observation confirms the localization and dynamic behaviour of all three markers. These marker proteins are useful tools for understanding the organization and importance of the microtubule cytoskeleton in Z. tritici. PMID:25857261

  8. Dynamic instability of microtubules: effect of catastrophe-suppressing drugs

    E-print Network

    Pankaj Kumar Mishra; Ambarish Kunwar; Sutapa Mukherji; Debashish Chowdhury

    2007-02-21

    Microtubules are stiff filamentary proteins that constitute an important component of the cytoskeleton of cells. These are known to exhibit a dynamic instability. A steadily growing microtubule can suddenly start depolymerizing very rapidly; this phenomenon is known as ``catastrophe''. However, often a shrinking microtubule is ``rescued'' and starts polymerizing again. Here we develope a model for the polymerization-depolymerization dynamics of microtubules in the presence of {\\it catastrophe-suppressing drugs}. Solving the dynamical equations in the steady-state, we derive exact analytical expressions for the length distributions of the microtubules tipped with drug-bound tubulin subunits as well as those of the microtubules, in the growing and shrinking phases, tipped with drug-free pure tubulin subunits. We also examine the stability of the steady-state solutions.

  9. Fluorescent markers of the microtubule cytoskeleton in Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Schuster, M; Kilaru, S; Latz, M; Steinberg, G

    2015-06-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton supports vital processes in fungal cells, including hyphal growth and mitosis. Consequently, it is a target for fungicides, such as benomyl. The use of fluorescent fusion proteins to illuminate microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins has led to a break-through in our understanding of their dynamics and function in fungal cells. Here, we introduce fluorescent markers to visualize microtubules and accessory proteins in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We fused enhanced green-fluorescent protein to ?-tubulin (ZtTub2), to ZtPeb1, a homologue of the mammalian plus-end binding protein EB1, and to ZtGrc1, a component of the minus-end located ?-tubulin ring complex, involved in the nucleation of microtubules. In vivo observation confirms the localization and dynamic behaviour of all three markers. These marker proteins are useful tools for understanding the organization and importance of the microtubule cytoskeleton in Z. tritici. PMID:25857261

  10. General theory for the mechanics of confined microtubule asters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rui; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In cells, dynamic microtubules organize into asters or spindles to assist positioning of organelles. Two types of forces are suggested to contribute to the positioning process: (i) microtubule-growth based pushing forces; and (ii) motor protein mediated pulling forces. In this paper, we present a general theory to account for aster positioning in a confinement of arbitrary shape. The theory takes account of microtubule nucleation, growth, catastrophe, slipping, as well as interaction with cortical force generators. We calculate microtubule distributions and forces acting on microtubule organizing centers in a sphere and in an ellipsoid. Positioning mechanisms based on both pushing forces and pulling forces can be distinguished in our theory for different parameter regimes or in different geometries. In addition, we investigate positioning of microtubule asters in the case of asymmetric distribution of motors. This analysis enables us to characterize situations relevant for Caenorrhabditis elegans embryos.

  11. Drugs That Target Dynamic Microtubules: A New Molecular Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Richard A.; Gernert, Kim M.; Nettles, James H.; Aneja, Ritu

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules have long been considered an ideal target for anticancer drugs because of the essential role they play in mitosis, forming the dynamic spindle apparatus. As such, there is a wide variety of compounds currently in clinical use and in development that act as antimitotic agents by altering microtubule dynamics. Although these diverse molecules are known to affect microtubule dynamics upon binding to one of the three established drug domains (taxane, vinca alkaloid, or colchicine site), the exact mechanism by which each drug works is still an area of intense speculation and research. In this study, we review the effects of microtubule-binding chemotherapeutic agents from a new perspective, considering how their mode of binding induces conformational changes and alters biological function relative to the molecular vectors of microtubule assembly or disassembly. These “biological vectors” can thus be used as a spatiotemporal context to describe molecular mechanisms by which microtubule-targeting drugs work. PMID:21381049

  12. The dynein regulatory complex is the nexin link and a major regulatory node in cilia and flagella

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, Thomas; Raytchev, Milen; Krell, Jeremy; Porter, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are highly conserved microtubule (MT)-based organelles with motile and sensory functions, and ciliary defects have been linked to several human diseases. The 9 + 2 structure of motile axonemes contains nine MT doublets interconnected by nexin links, which surround a central pair of singlet MTs. Motility is generated by the orchestrated activity of thousands of dynein motors, which drive interdoublet sliding. A key regulator of motor activity is the dynein regulatory complex (DRC), but detailed structural information is lacking. Using cryoelectron tomography of wild-type and mutant axonemes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we visualized the DRC in situ at molecular resolution. We present the three-dimensional structure of the DRC, including a model for its subunit organization and intermolecular connections that establish the DRC as a major regulatory node. We further demonstrate that the DRC is the nexin link, which is thought to be critical for the generation of axonemal bending. PMID:20008568

  13. Identification of cell cycle-regulated Drosophila microtubule-associated proteins using quantitative mass spectrometry 

    E-print Network

    Syred, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The microtubule network is the central framework in multiple cellular processes. The microtubule array undergoes dramatic changes as cells progress through the cell cycle. In mitosis the interphase microtubule array is ...

  14. Negative Stain Electron Microscopy of Microtubules Negative staining is a rapid, qualitative method for analyzing

    E-print Network

    Mitchison, Tim

    Negative Stain Electron Microscopy of Microtubules Negative staining is a rapid, qualitative method of microtubules into flat sheets are common. Cryo-electron microscopy, where microtubules are flash frozen

  15. The Human Kinetochore Ska1 Complex Facilitates Microtubule Depolymerization-Coupled Motility

    E-print Network

    Cheeseman, Iain McPherson

    Mitotic chromosome segregation requires that kinetochores attach to microtubule polymers and harness microtubule dynamics to drive chromosome movement. In budding yeast, the Dam1 complex couples kinetochores with microtubule ...

  16. Microtubules and cellulose biosynthesis: the emergence of new players.

    PubMed

    Li, Shundai; Lei, Lei; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Gu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules determine the orientation of newly formed cellulose microfibrils in expanding cells. There are many hypotheses regarding how the information is transduced across the plasma membrane from microtubules to cellulose microfibrils. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the co-alignment between microtubules and cellulose microfibrils were not revealed until the recent discovery of cellulose synthase interacting (CSI) proteins. Characterization of CSIs and additional cellulose synthase-associated proteins will greatly advance the knowledge of how cellulose microfibrils are organized. PMID:26476686

  17. Dimer model for Tau proteins bound in microtubule bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Natalie; Kluber, Alexander; Hayre, N. Robert; Singh, Rajiv; Cox, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The microtubule associated protein tau is important in nucleating and maintaining microtubule spacing and structure in neuronal axons. Modification of tau is implicated as a later stage process in Alzheimer's disease, but little is known about the structure of tau in microtubule bundles. We present preliminary work on a proposed model for tau dimers in microtubule bundles (dimers are the minimal units since there is one microtubule binding domain per tau). First, a model of tau monomer was created and its characteristics explored using implicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation. Multiple simulations yield a partially collapsed form with separate positively/negatively charged clumps, but which are a factor of two smaller than required by observed microtubule spacing. We argue that this will elongate in dimer form to lower electrostatic energy at a cost of entropic ``spring'' energy. We will present preliminary results on steered molecular dynamics runs on tau dimers to estimate the actual force constant. The microtubule associated protein tau is important in nucleating and maintaining microtubule spacing and structure in neuronal axons. Modification of tau is implicated as a later stage process in Alzheimer's disease, but little is known about the structure of tau in microtubule bundles. We present preliminary work on a proposed model for tau dimers in microtubule bundles (dimers are the minimal units since there is one microtubule binding domain per tau). First, a model of tau monomer was created and its characteristics explored using implicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation. Multiple simulations yield a partially collapsed form with separate positively/negatively charged clumps, but which are a factor of two smaller than required by observed microtubule spacing. We argue that this will elongate in dimer form to lower electrostatic energy at a cost of entropic ``spring'' energy. We will present preliminary results on steered molecular dynamics runs on tau dimers to estimate the actual force constant. Supported by US NSF Grant DMR 1207624.

  18. Dynamics of Antarctic fish microtubules at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, R.H.; Detrich, H.W. III )

    1989-06-13

    The tubulins of Antarctic fishes, purified from brain tissue and depleted of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), polymerized efficiently in vitro to yield microtubules at near-physiological and supraphysiological temperatures (5, 10, and 20{degree}C). The dynamics of the microtubules at these temperatures were examined through the use of labeled guanosine 5{prime}-triphosphate (GTP) as a marker for the incorporation, retention, and loss of tubulin dimers. Following attainment of a steady state in microtubule mass at 20{degree}C, the rate of incorporation of ({sup 3}H)GTP (i.e., tubulin dimers) during pulses of constant duration decreased asymptotically toward a constant, nonzero value as the interval prior to label addition to the microtubule solution increased. Concomitant with the decreasing rate of label incorporation, the average length of the microtubules increased, and the number concentration of microtubules decreased. Thus, redistribution of microtubule lengths appears to be responsible for the time-dependent decrease in the rate of tubulin uptake. At each temperature, most of the incorporated label was retained by the microtubules during a subsequent chase with excess unlabeled GTP. In contrast, when microtubules were assembled do novo in the presence of ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP at 5{degree}C and then exposed to a pulse of ({sup 3}H)GTP, the {sup 32}P label was lost over time during a subsequent chase with unlabeled GTP, whereas the {sup 3}H label was retained. Together, these results indicate that the microtubules of Antarctic fishes exhibit, at low temperatures, behaviors consistent both with subunit treadmilling and with dynamic instability and/or microtubule annealing.

  19. Structural organization of the kinetochore-microtubule interface

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, Jennifer; Musacchio, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Successful mitosis depends on the stable, yet regulated attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. The kinetochore, a large macromolecular structure assembled at sites of centromeric heterochromatin, is responsible for generating and regulating these essential attachments. Over the last several years, concerted experimental efforts have brought the structural view of the kinetochore-microtubule interface more clearly into focus. Here, we review important recent advancements and discuss several unresolved questions regarding how kinetochores dynamically bridge mitotic chromosomes to spindle microtubules. PMID:22154944

  20. Motor protein accumulation on antiparallel microtubule overlaps

    E-print Network

    Hui-Shun Kuan; M. D. Betterton

    2015-09-24

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would na\\"ively expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center motor density depends on total overlap length, motor speed, and motor switching rate. The size of the crowded boundary layer near the overlap ends is also dependent on the overlap length and switching rate in addition to the motor speed and bulk concentration. The antiparallel microtubule overlap geometry may offer a novel mechanism for biological regulation of protein concentration and consequent activity.

  1. Microtubule organization by kinesin motors and microtubule crosslinking protein MAP65 This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Ross, Jennifer

    Microtubule organization by kinesin motors and microtubule crosslinking protein MAP65 This article organization by kinesin motors and microtubule crosslinking protein MAP65 Joshua Pringle1, Amutha Muthukumar1 the filament-gliding assay with kinesin-1 motors driving microtubule motion. To further enhance the complexity

  2. Dynamics and length distribution of microtubules under force and confinement

    E-print Network

    Björn Zelinski; Nina Müller; Jan Kierfeld

    2012-12-14

    We investigate the microtubule polymerization dynamics with catastrophe and rescue events for three different confinement scenarios, which mimic typical cellular environments: (i) The microtubule is confined by rigid and fixed walls, (ii) it grows under constant force, and (iii) it grows against an elastic obstacle with a linearly increasing force. We use realistic catastrophe models and analyze the microtubule dynamics, the resulting microtubule length distributions, and force generation by stochastic and mean field calculations; in addition, we perform stochastic simulations. We also investigate the force dynamics if growth parameters are perturbed in dilution experiments. Finally, we show the robustness of our results against changes of catastrophe models and load distribution factors.

  3. Deceivingly dynamic: Learning-dependent changes in stathmin and microtubules.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shusaku; Shumyatsky, Gleb P

    2015-10-01

    Microtubules, one of the major cytoskeletal structures, were previously considered stable and only indirectly involved in synaptic structure and function in mature neurons. However, recent evidence demonstrates that microtubules are dynamic and have an important role in synaptic structure, synaptic plasticity, and memory. In particular, learning induces changes in microtubule turnover and stability, and pharmacological manipulation of microtubule dynamics alters synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. These learning-induced changes in microtubules are controlled by the phosphoprotein stathmin, whose only known cellular activity is to negatively regulate microtubule formation. During the first eight hours following learning, changes in the phosphorylation of stathmin go through two phases causing biphasic shifts in microtubules stability/instability. These shifts, in turn, regulate memory formation by controlling in the second phase synaptic transport of the GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors. Improper regulation of stathmin and microtubule dynamics has been observed in aged animals and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Thus, recent work on stathmin and microtubules has identified new molecular players in the early stages of memory encoding. PMID:26211874

  4. Molecular motors are stymied by microtubule lattice defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramlich, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The microtubule surface provides the tracks that molecular motors use to transport cargo throughout the cell. Much like any surface lattice, the microtubule surface may have surface defects such as dislocations or step edges caused by missing tubulin dimers or shifts in the number of protofilaments, respectively. It is an open question as to how microtubule lattice defects affect molecular motors walking along microtubule surfaces. We used the kinesin-1 motor that walks along a single protofilament and has a short step size of only 8 nm to test how lattice defects affect transport. We created microtubule lattice defects by end-to-end annealing microtubules with different protofilament numbers and differential fluorescence labeling, creating a transition in microtubule radius at the annealed site that is directly visualizable. Surprisingly, we observed that kinesin-1 motors are significantly inhibited by protofilament shift defects. GFP-tagged kinesin-1 motors detach at the defect site during at least 70% of encounters with the defect. We find end-to-end annealed microtubules without the additional change in protofilament number at the defect site inhibit at least 50% of kinesin-1 motors at the defect, suggesting that the process of end-to-end annealing creates defects within the lattice. Our results imply that defects within the microtubule lattice can inhibit motility, and must be corrected. Our work sheds light on the biological importance of removing and correcting lattice defects, an activity known to occur by multiple methods in cells.

  5. Producing Conditional Mutants for Studying Plant Microtubule Function

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Cyr

    2009-09-29

    The cytoskeleton, and in particular its microtubule component, participates in several processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of microtubules into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. One of these, the cortical array, is notable for its role in directing the deposition of cellulose (the most prominent polymer in the biosphere). An understanding of how these arrays form, and the molecular interactions that contribute to their function, is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of how microtubules work, we have been working to characterize mutants in critical cytoskeletal genes. This characterization is being carried out at the subcellular level using vital microtubule gene constructs. In the last year of funding colleagues have discovered that gamma-tubulin complexes form along the lengths of cortical microtubules where they act to spawn new microtubules at a characteristic 40 deg angle. This finding complements nicely the finding from our lab (which was funded by the DOE) showing that microtubule encounters are angle dependent; high angles encounters results in catastrophic collisions while low angle encounters result in favorable zippering. The finding of a 40 deg spawn of new microtubules from extant microtubule, together with aforementioned rules of encounters, insures favorable co-alignment in the array. I was invited to write a New and Views essay on this topic and a PDF is attached (News and Views policy does not permit funding acknowledgments and so I was not allowed to acknowledge support from the DOE).

  6. Two Drosophila beta tubulin isoforms are not functionally equivalent

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We have tested the functional capacity of different beta tubulin isoforms in vivo by expressing beta 3-tubulin either in place of or in addition to beta 2-tubulin in the male germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. The testes-specific isoform, beta 2, is conserved relative to major metazoan beta tubulins, while the developmentally regulated isoform, beta 3, is considerably divergent in sequence. beta 3-tubulin is normally expressed in discrete subsets of cells at specific times during development, but is not expressed in the male germ line. beta 2-Tubulin is normally expressed only in the postmitotic germ cells of the testis, and is required for all microtubule-based functions in these cells. The normal functions of beta 2-tubulin include assembly of meiotic spindles, axonemes, and at least two classes of cytoplasmic microtubules, including those associated with the differentiating mitochondrial derivatives. A hybrid gene was constructed in which 5' sequences from the beta 2 gene were joined to protein coding and 3' sequences of the beta 3 gene. Drosophila transformed with the hybrid gene express beta 3-tubulin in the postmitotic male germ cells. When expressed in the absence of the normal testis isoform, beta 3-tubulin supports assembly of one class of functional cytoplasmic microtubules. In such males the microtubules associated with the membranes of the mitochondrial derivatives are assembled and normal mitochondrial derivative elongation occurs, but axoneme assembly and other microtubule-mediated processes, including meiosis and nuclear shaping, do not occur. These data show that beta 3 tubulin can support only a subset of the multiple functions normally performed by beta 2, and also suggest that the microtubules associated with the mitochondrial derivatives mediate their elongation. When beta 3 is coexpressed in the male germ line with beta 2, at any level, spindles and all classes of cytoplasmic microtubules are assembled and function normally. However, when beta 3-tubulin exceeds 20% of the total testis beta tubulin pool, it acts in a dominant way to disrupt normal axoneme assembly. In the axonemes assembled in such males, the doublet tubules acquire some of the morphological characteristics of the singlet microtubules of the central pair and accessory tubules. These data therefore unambiguously demonstrate that the Drosophila beta tubulin isoforms beta 2 and beta 3 are not equivalent in intrinsic functional capacity, and furthermore show that assembly of the doublet tubules of the axoneme imposes different constraints on beta tubulin function than does assembly of singlet microtubules. PMID:2118141

  7. CSAP localizes to polyglutamylated microtubules and promotes proper cilia function and zebrafish development

    E-print Network

    Backer, Chelsea B.

    The diverse populations of microtubule polymers in cells are functionally distinguished by different posttranslational modifications, including polyglutamylation. Polyglutamylation is enriched on subsets of microtubules ...

  8. The Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Protein ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN1 Promotes Microtubule Catastrophe in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Ryan Christopher; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics are critically important for plant cell development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN1 (ARK1) plays a key role in root hair tip growth by promoting microtubule catastrophe events. This destabilizing activity appears to maintain adequate free tubulin concentrations in order to permit rapid microtubule growth, which in turn is correlated with uniform tip growth. Microtubules in ark1-1 root hairs exhibited reduced catastrophe frequency and slower growth velocities, both of which were restored by low concentrations of the microtubule-destabilizing drug oryzalin. An ARK1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein expressed under its endogenous promoter localized to growing microtubule plus ends and rescued the ark1-1 root hair phenotype. Transient overexpression of ARK1-RFP (red fluorescent protein) increased microtubule catastrophe frequency. ARK1-fusion protein constructs lacking the N-terminal motor domain still labeled microtubules, suggesting the existence of a second microtubule binding domain at the C terminus of ARK1. ARK1-GFP was broadly expressed in seedlings, but mutant phenotypes were restricted to root hairs, indicating that ARK1’s function is redundant in cells other than those forming root hairs. PMID:25159991

  9. Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein SB401 from Solanum berthaultii regulates its effect on microtubules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-Quan; Jin, Lifeng; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jiejie; Huang, Shuli; Yuan, Ming

    2009-03-01

    We reported previously that the protein SB401 from Solanum berthaultii binds to and bundles both microtubules and F-actin. In the current study, we investigated the regulation of SB401 activity by its phosphorylation. Our experimental results showed that the phosphorylation of SB401 by casein kinase II (CKII) downregulates the activities of SB401, namely the bundling of microtubules and enhancement of the polymerization of tubulin. However, phosphorylation of SB401 had no observable effect on its bundling of F-actin. Further investigation using extract of potato pollen indicated that a CKII-like kinase may exist in potato pollen. Antibodies against CKII alpha recognized specifically a major band from the pollen extract and the pollen extract was able to phosphorylate the SB401 protein in vitro. The CKII-like kinase showed a similar ability to downregulate the bundling of microtubules. Our experiments demonstrated that phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of SB401 activity. We propose that this phosphorylation may regulate the effects of SB401 on microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:19261066

  10. EMAP, an echinoderm microtubule-associated protein found in microtubule-ribosome complexes

    E-print Network

    Suprenant, Kathy A.; Hake, S.; McKee, J.; Dean, K.

    1993-02-01

    The major non-tubulin polypeptide found associated with microtubules purified from unfertilized sea urchin eggs by cycles of pH-dependent assembly has a M(r) of 77,000. The 77,000 M(r) polypeptide is heat- and acid-labile, and is antigenically...

  11. Mathematics and biophysics of cortical microtubules in plants

    E-print Network

    Allard, Jun

    Mathematics and biophysics of cortical microtubules in plants by Jun Allard A THESIS SUBMITTED;Abstract Microtubules confined to the two-dimensional cortex of elongating plant cells must form a parallel membrane-anchor densities in different plants, including Arabidopsis cells and Tobacco cells. ii #12;Table

  12. Molecular and Mechanical Causes of Microtubule Catastrophe and Aging.

    PubMed

    Zakharov, Pavel; Gudimchuk, Nikita; Voevodin, Vladimir; Tikhonravov, Alexander; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L

    2015-12-15

    Tubulin polymers, microtubules, can switch abruptly from the assembly to shortening. These infrequent transitions, termed "catastrophes", affect numerous cellular processes but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We approached this complex stochastic system using advanced coarse-grained molecular dynamics modeling of tubulin-tubulin interactions. Unlike in previous simplified models of dynamic microtubules, the catastrophes in this model arise owing to fluctuations in the composition and conformation of a growing microtubule tip, most notably in the number of protofilament curls. In our model, dynamic evolution of the stochastic microtubule tip configurations over a long timescale, known as the system's "aging", gives rise to the nonexponential distribution of microtubule lifetimes, consistent with experiment. We show that aging takes place in the absence of visible changes in the microtubule wall or tip, as this complex molecular-mechanical system evolves slowly and asymptotically toward the steady-state level of the catastrophe-promoting configurations. This new, to our knowledge, theoretical basis will assist detailed mechanistic investigations of the mechanisms of action of different microtubule-binding proteins and drugs, thereby enabling accurate control over the microtubule dynamics to treat various pathologies. PMID:26682815

  13. Leading at the Front: How EB Proteins Regulate Microtubule Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Taviare

    2012-02-01

    Microtubules are the most rigid of the cytoskeletal filaments, they provide the cell's scaffolding, form the byways on which motor proteins transport intracellular cargo and reorganize to form the mitotic spindle when the cell needs to divide. These biopolymers are composed of alpha and beta tubulin monomers that create hollow cylindrical nanotubes with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 17 nm. At steady state concentrations, microtubules undergo a process known as dynamic instability. During dynamic instability the length of individual microtubules is changing as the filament alternates between periods of growth to shrinkage (catastrophe) and shrinkage to growth (rescue). This process can be enhanced or diminished with the addition of microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). MAPs are microtubule binding proteins that stabilize, destabilize, or nucleate microtubules. We will discuss the effects of the stabilizing end-binding proteins (EB1, EB2 and EB3), on microtubule dynamics observed in vitro. The EBs are a unique family of MAPs known to tip track and enhance microtubule growth by stabilizing the ends. This is a different mechanism than those employed by structural MAPs such as tau or MAP4.

  14. Microtubule distribution in gravitropic protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.; Hartmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    Tip cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic (grow upward). They possess a unique longitudinal zonation: (1) a tip group of amylochloroplasts in the apical dome, (2) a plastid-free zone, (3) a zone of significant plastid sedimentation, and (4) a zone of mostly non-sedimenting plastids. Immunofluorescence of vertical cells showed microtubules distributed throughout the cytoplasm in a mostly axial orientation extending through all zones. Optical sectioning revealed a close spatial association between microtubules and plastids. A majority (two thirds) of protonemata gravistimulated for > 20 min had a higher density of microtubules near the lower flank compared to the upper flank in the plastid-free zone. This apparent enrichment of microtubules occurred just proximal to sedimented plastids and near the part of the tip that presumably elongates more to produce curvature. Fewer than 5% of gravistimulated protonemata had an enrichment in microtubules near the upper flank, whereas 14% of vertical protonemata were enriched near one of the side walls. Oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM) disrupted microtubules, gravitropism, and normal tip growth and zonation, but did not prevent plastid sedimentation. We hypothesize that a microtubule redistribution plays a role in gravitropism in this protonema. This appears to be the first report of an effect of gravity on microtubule distribution in plants.

  15. Dynamics and Organization of Cortical Microtubules as Revealed by Superresolution Structured Illumination Microscopy1[W

    PubMed Central

    Komis, George; Mistrik, Martin; Šamajová, Olga; Dosko?ilová, Anna; Ove?ka, Miroslav; Illés, Peter; Bartek, Jiri; Šamaj, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Plants employ acentrosomal mechanisms to organize cortical microtubule arrays essential for cell growth and differentiation. Using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) adopted for the optimal documentation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyl epidermal cells, dynamic cortical microtubules labeled with green fluorescent protein fused to the microtubule-binding domain of the mammalian microtubule-associated protein MAP4 and with green fluorescent protein-fused to the alpha tubulin6 were comparatively recorded in wild-type Arabidopsis plants and in the mitogen-activated protein kinase mutant mpk4 possessing the former microtubule marker. The mpk4 mutant exhibits extensive microtubule bundling, due to increased abundance and reduced phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein MAP65-1, thus providing a very useful genetic tool to record intrabundle microtubule dynamics at the subdiffraction level. SIM imaging revealed nano-sized defects in microtubule bundling, spatially resolved microtubule branching and release, and finally allowed the quantification of individual microtubules within cortical bundles. Time-lapse SIM imaging allowed the visualization of subdiffraction, short-lived excursions of the microtubule plus end, and dynamic instability behavior of both ends during free, intrabundle, or microtubule-templated microtubule growth and shrinkage. Finally, short, rigid, and nondynamic microtubule bundles in the mpk4 mutant were observed to glide along the parent microtubule in a tip-wise manner. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential of SIM for superresolution time-lapse imaging of plant cells, showing unprecedented details accompanying microtubule dynamic organization. PMID:24686112

  16. Simple model for lambda-doublet propensities in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronikowski, Michael J.; Zare, Richard N.

    1990-01-01

    A simple geometric model is presented to account for lambda-doublet propensities in bimolecular reactions A + BC - AB + C. It applies to reactions in which AB is formed in a pi state, and in which the unpaired molecular orbital responsible for lambda-doubling arises from breaking the B-C bond. The lambda-doublet population ratio is predicted to be 2:1 provided that: (1) the motion of A in the transition state determines the plane of rotation of AB; (2) the unpaired pi orbital lying initially along the B-C bond may be resolved into a projection onto the AB plane of rotation and a projection perpendicular to this plane; (3) there is no preferred geometry for dissociation of ABC. The 2:1 lambda-doublet ratio is the 'unconstrained dynamics prior' lambda-doublet distribution for such reactions.

  17. Statistical case for specifying tolerances of doublet lenses jointly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The interactions between errors in manufacturing are examined for ten double Gauss lens specifications drawn from U.S. patents. The particular focus is on center thickness and radius tolerances of doublet lenses in these specifications and on the possibility of specifying these tolerances jointly. A procedure for rapid identification of lenses whose performance would be improved by joint tolerance specification is described. Then benefits of specifying thickness and radius tolerances of doublet lenses jointly are demonstrated using Monte Carlo analysis.

  18. Building the Microtubule Cytoskeleton Piece by Piece.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Aco, Ray; Petry, Sabine

    2015-07-10

    The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton gives cells their shape, organizes the cellular interior, and segregates chromosomes. These functions rely on the precise arrangement of MTs, which is achieved by the coordinated action of MT-associated proteins (MAPs). We highlight the first and most important examples of how different MAP activities are combined in vitro to create an ensemble function that exceeds the simple addition of their individual activities, and how the Xenopus laevis egg extract system has been utilized as a powerful intermediate between cellular and purified systems to uncover the design principles of self-organized MT networks in the cell. PMID:25957410

  19. Structural basis for microtubule binding and release by dynein

    PubMed Central

    Zou, S.; Huang, J.; Reck-Peterson, S. L.; Leschziner, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based motor required for intracellular transport and cell division. Its movement involves coupling cycles of track binding and release with cycles of force-generating nucleotide hydrolysis. How this is accomplished given the ~25 nm separating dynein’s track- and nucleotide-binding sites is not understood. Here, we present a sub-nanometer-resolution structure of dynein’s microtubule-binding domain bound to microtubules by cryo-electron microscopy that was used to generate a pseudo-atomic model of the complex with molecular dynamics. We identified large rearrangements triggered by track binding and specific interactions, confirmed by mutagenesis and single molecule motility assays, which tune dynein’s affinity for microtubules. Our results provide a molecular model for how dynein’s binding to microtubules is communicated to the rest of the motor. PMID:22997337

  20. Tensile stress stimulates microtubule outgrowth in living cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaverina, Irina; Krylyshkina, Olga; Beningo, Karen; Anderson, Kurt; Wang, Yu-Li; Small, J. Victor

    2002-01-01

    Cell motility is driven by the sum of asymmetric traction forces exerted on the substrate through adhesion foci that interface with the actin cytoskeleton. Establishment of this asymmetry involves microtubules, which exert a destabilising effect on adhesion foci via targeting events. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a mechano-sensing mechanism that signals microtubule polymerisation and guidance of the microtubules towards adhesion sites under increased stress. Stress was applied either by manipulating the body of cells moving on glass with a microneedle or by stretching a flexible substrate that cells were migrating on. We propose a model for this mechano-sensing phenomenon whereby microtubule polymerisation is stimulated and guided through the interaction of a microtubule tip complex with actin filaments under tension.

  1. Kinetic model for colchicine inhibition of microtubule assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sternlicht, H.; Ringel, I.; Szasz, J.

    1980-10-01

    Colchicine is a potent drug used to probe microtubule dependent processes. We have recently shown that substoichiometric concentrations of colchicine-tubulin complex (CD), a 1:1 tight binding complex of drug with tubulin, copolymerizes with tubulin to form microtubule copolymers. The affinity of the microtubule ends for tublin decreased as the CD mole fraction in the microtubule increased. Mole fraction ratios as small as 1 CD to approx. 50 to 100 tubulins in the copolymers were accompanied by a significant change in binding affinities and polymerization rates. We have further extended our investigation of the CD-tubulin copolymerization reaction. A kinetic model was derived which relates the composition of the microtubule copolymer to the composition of the reaction mixture. This model allowed a predictive correlation to be made between copolymer composition and the extent of assembly inhibition.

  2. Simulation of Second Harmonic Generation from Heterogeneous Microtubule Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowitz, Noah; Yu, Che-Hang; Needleman, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Second harmonic generation imaging is a coherent nonlinear microscopy with contrast arising from certain asymmetric endogenous structures in cells, including spindle microtubules. As a second-order nonlinear optical process, SHG requires a noncentrosymmetric macromolecular organization to generate signal, so it can be used as a measure of microtubule polarity within spindles or other microtubule structures. We developed a simulation of SHG microscopy accounting for 3-dimensional orientation and circularly polarized excitation in order to quantify the dependence of SHG signal on microtubule density, spacing, polarity, and rotational order. SHG can be used to assess spindle polarity in living cells using simultaneous ratio imaging with two-photon excited fluorescence from labeled tubulin. The results from simulation are used to quantify microtubule polarity from SHG and TPEF images of spindles in the one-cell C. elegans embryo and Xenopus oocyte extract.

  3. Measuring Microtubule Polarity in Spindles with Second-Harmonic Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Che-Hang; Langowitz, Noah; Wu, Hai-Yin; Farhadifar, Reza; Brugues, Jan; Yoo, Tae Yeon; Needleman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The spatial organization of microtubule polarity, and the interplay between microtubule polarity and protein localization, is thought to be crucial for spindle assembly, anaphase, and cytokinesis, but these phenomena remain poorly understood, in part due to the difficulty of measuring microtubule polarity in spindles. We develop and implement a method to nonperturbatively and quantitatively measure microtubule polarity throughout spindles using a combination of second-harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence. We validate this method using computer simulations and by comparison to structural data on spindles obtained from electron tomography and laser ablation. This method should provide a powerful tool for studying spindle organization and function, and may be applicable for investigating microtubule polarity in other systems. PMID:24739157

  4. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulin? and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells. PMID:26039484

  5. Self-assembly of artificial microtubules

    E-print Network

    Shengfeng Cheng; Ankush Aggarwal; Mark J. Stevens

    2012-01-10

    Understanding the complex self-assembly of biomacromolecules is a major outstanding question. Microtubules are one example of a biopolymer that possesses characteristics quite distinct from standard synthetic polymers that are derived from its hierarchical structure. In order to understand how to design and build artificial polymers that possess features similar to those of microtubules, we have initially studied the self-assembly of model monomers into a tubule geometry. Our model monomer has a wedge shape with lateral and vertical binding sites that are designed to form tubules. We used molecular dynamics simulations to study the assembly process for a range of binding site interaction strengths. In addition to determining the optimal regime for obtaining tubules, we have calculated a diagram of the structures that form over a wide range of interaction strengths. Unexpectedly, we find that the helical tubules form, even though the monomer geometry is designed for nonhelical tubules. We present the detailed dynamics of the tubule self-assembly process and show that the interaction strengths must be in a limited range to allow rearrangement within clusters. We extended previous theoretical methods to treat our system and to calculate the boundaries between different structures in the diagram.

  6. Dynamics and length distribution of microtubules under force and confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelinski, Björn; Müller, Nina; Kierfeld, Jan

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the microtubule polymerization dynamics with catastrophe and rescue events for three different confinement scenarios, which mimic typical cellular environments: (i) The microtubule is confined by rigid and fixed walls, (ii) it grows under constant force, and (iii) it grows against an elastic obstacle with a linearly increasing force. We use realistic catastrophe models and analyze the microtubule dynamics, the resulting microtubule length distributions, and force generation by stochastic and mean field calculations; in addition, we perform stochastic simulations. Freely growing microtubules exhibit a phase of bounded growth with finite microtubule length and a phase of unbounded growth. The main results for the three confinement scenarios are as follows: (i) In confinement by fixed rigid walls, we find exponentially decreasing or increasing stationary microtubule length distributions instead of bounded or unbounded phases, respectively. We introduce a realistic model for wall-induced catastrophes and investigate the behavior of the average length as a function of microtubule growth parameters. (ii) Under a constant force, the boundary between bounded and unbounded growth is shifted to higher tubulin concentrations and rescue rates. The critical force fc for the transition from unbounded to bounded growth increases logarithmically with tubulin concentration and the rescue rate, and it is smaller than the stall force. (iii) For microtubule growth against an elastic obstacle, the microtubule length and polymerization force can be regulated by microtubule growth parameters. For zero rescue rate, we find that the average polymerization force depends logarithmically on the tubulin concentration and is always smaller than the stall force in the absence of catastrophes and rescues. For a nonzero rescue rate, we find a sharply peaked steady-state length distribution, which is tightly controlled by microtubule growth parameters. The corresponding average microtubule length self-organizes such that the average polymerization force equals the critical force fc for the transition from unbounded to bounded growth. We also investigate the force dynamics if growth parameters are perturbed in dilution experiments. Finally, we show the robustness of our results against changes of catastrophe models and load distribution factors.

  7. Depletion force induced collective motion of microtubules driven by kinesin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Mahmot, Bulbul; Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Farhana, Tamanna Ishrat; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Sada, Kazuki; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Collective motion is a fascinating example of coordinated behavior of self-propelled objects, which is often associated with the formation of large scale patterns. Nowadays, the in vitro gliding assay is being considered a model system to experimentally investigate various aspects of group behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. In the in vitro gliding assay, cytoskeletal filaments F-actin or microtubules are driven by the surface immobilized associated biomolecular motors myosin or dynein respectively. Although the F-actin/myosin or microtubule/dynein system was found to be promising in understanding the collective motion and pattern formation by self-propelled objects, the most widely used biomolecular motor system microtubule/kinesin could not be successfully employed so far in this regard. Failure in exhibiting collective motion by kinesin driven microtubules is attributed to the intrinsic properties of kinesin, which was speculated to affect the behavior of individual gliding microtubules and mutual interactions among them. In this work, for the first time, we have demonstrated the collective motion of kinesin driven microtubules by regulating the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules, by employing a depletion force among them. Proper regulation of the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules through the employment of the depletion force was found to allow the exhibition of collective motion and stream pattern formation by the microtubules. This work offers a universal means for demonstrating the collective motion using the in vitro gliding assay of biomolecular motor systems and will help obtain a meticulous understanding of the fascinating coordinated behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects.Collective motion is a fascinating example of coordinated behavior of self-propelled objects, which is often associated with the formation of large scale patterns. Nowadays, the in vitro gliding assay is being considered a model system to experimentally investigate various aspects of group behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. In the in vitro gliding assay, cytoskeletal filaments F-actin or microtubules are driven by the surface immobilized associated biomolecular motors myosin or dynein respectively. Although the F-actin/myosin or microtubule/dynein system was found to be promising in understanding the collective motion and pattern formation by self-propelled objects, the most widely used biomolecular motor system microtubule/kinesin could not be successfully employed so far in this regard. Failure in exhibiting collective motion by kinesin driven microtubules is attributed to the intrinsic properties of kinesin, which was speculated to affect the behavior of individual gliding microtubules and mutual interactions among them. In this work, for the first time, we have demonstrated the collective motion of kinesin driven microtubules by regulating the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules, by employing a depletion force among them. Proper regulation of the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules through the employment of the depletion force was found to allow the exhibition of collective motion and stream pattern formation by the microtubules. This work offers a universal means for demonstrating the collective motion using the in vitro gliding assay of biomolecular motor systems and will help obtain a meticulous understanding of the fascinating coordinated behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02213d

  8. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule/motor protein assemblies

    E-print Network

    Tong Gao; Robert Blackwell; Matthew A. Glaser; M. D. Betterton; Michael J. Shelley

    2015-10-07

    Microtubules and motor proteins self organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by ATP-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield such larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  9. Theoretical analysis of microtubule dynamics at all times.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2014-12-01

    Microtubules are biopolymers consisting of tubulin dimer subunits. As a major component of cytoskeleton they are essential for supporting most important cellular processes such as cell division, signaling, intracellular transport and cell locomotion. The hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) molecules attached to each tubulin subunit supports the nonequilibrium nature of microtubule dynamics. One of the most spectacular properties of microtubules is their dynamic instability when their growth from continuous attachment of tubulin dimers stochastically alternates with periods of shrinking. Despite the critical importance of this process to all cellular activities, its mechanism remains not fully understood. We investigated theoretically microtubule dynamics at all times by analyzing explicitly temporal evolution of various length clusters of unhydrolyzed subunits. It is found that the dynamic behavior of microtubules depends strongly on initial conditions. Our theoretical findings provide a microscopic explanation for recent experiments which found that the frequency of catastrophes increases with the lifetime of microtubules. It is argued that most growing microtubule configurations cannot transit in one step into a shrinking state, leading to a complex overall temporal behavior. Theoretical calculations combined with Monte Carlo computer simulations are also directly compared with experimental observations, and good agreement is found. PMID:25390471

  10. An Improved Quantitative Analysis Method for Plant Cortical Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

  11. Model of ionic currents through microtubule nanopores and the lumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Holly; Rezania, Vahid; Priel, Avner; Carpenter, Eric; Noskov, Sergei Y.; Tuszynski, Jack A.

    2010-05-01

    It has been suggested that microtubules and other cytoskeletal filaments may act as electrical transmission lines. An electrical circuit model of the microtubule is constructed incorporating features of its cylindrical structure with nanopores in its walls. This model is used to study how ionic conductance along the lumen is affected by flux through the nanopores, both with and without an external potential applied across its two ends. Based on the results of Brownian dynamics simulations, the nanopores were found to have asymmetric inner and outer conductances, manifested as nonlinear IV curves. Our simulations indicate that a combination of this asymmetry and an internal voltage source arising from the motion of the C -terminal tails causes cations to be pumped across the microtubule wall and propagate in both directions down the microtubule through the lumen, returning to the bulk solution through its open ends. This effect is demonstrated to add directly to the longitudinal current through the lumen resulting from an external voltage source applied across the two ends of the microtubule. The predicted persistent currents directed through the microtubule wall and along the lumen could be significant in directing the dissipation of weak, endogenous potential gradients toward one end of the microtubule within the cellular environment.

  12. Regulation of microtubule severing by katanin subunits during neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenqian; Solowska, Joanna M; Qiang, Liang; Karabay, Arzu; Baird, Douglas; Baas, Peter W

    2005-06-01

    Katanin, the microtubule-severing protein, consists of a subunit termed P60 that breaks the lattice of the microtubule and another subunit termed P80, the functions of which are not well understood. Data presented here show that the ratio of P60 to P80 varies markedly in different tissues, at different phases of development, and regionally within the neuron. P80 is more concentrated in the cell body and less variable during development, whereas P60 often shows concentrations in the distal tips of processes as well as dramatic spikes in expression at certain developmental stages. Overexpression of P60 at various stages in the differentiation of cultured hippocampal neurons results in substantial loss of microtubule mass and a diminution in total process length. In comparison, overexpression of P80, which is thought to augment the severing of microtubules by P60, results in a milder loss of microtubule mass and diminution in process length. At the developmental stage corresponding to axogenesis, overexpression of P60 decreases the total number of processes extended by the neuron, whereas overexpression of P80 produces the opposite result, suggesting that the effects on neuronal morphology are dependent on the degree of microtubule severing and loss of polymer. The microtubules that occupy the axon are notably more resistant to depolymerization in response to excess P60 or P80 than microtubules elsewhere in the neuron, suggesting that regional differences in the susceptibility of microtubules to severing proteins may be a critical factor in the generation and maintenance of neuronal polarity. PMID:15944385

  13. Regulation of Microtubule Severing by Katanin Subunits during Neuronal Development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenqian; Solowska, Joanna M.; Qiang, Liang; Karabay, Arzu; Baird, Douglas; Baas, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Katanin, the microtubule-severing protein, consists of a subunit termed P60 that breaks the lattice of the microtubule and another subunit termed P80, the functions of which are not well understood. Data presented here show that the ratio of P60 to P80 varies markedly in different tissues, at different phases of development, and regionally within the neuron. P80 is more concentrated in the cell body and less variable during development, whereas P60 often shows concentrations in the distal tips of processes as well as dramatic spikes in expression at certain developmental stages. Overexpression of P60 at various stages in the differentiation of cultured hippocampal neurons results in substantial loss of microtubule mass and a diminution in total process length. In comparison, overexpression of P80, which is thought to augment the severing of microtubules by P60, results in a milder loss of microtubule mass and diminution in process length. At the developmental stage corresponding to axogenesis, overexpression of P60 decreases the total number of processes extended by the neuron, whereas overexpression of P80 produces the opposite result, suggesting that the effects on neuronal morphology are dependent on the degree of microtubule severing and loss of polymer. The microtubules that occupy the axon are notably more resistant to depolymerization in response to excess P60 or P80 than microtubules elsewhere in the neuron, suggesting that regional differences in the susceptibility of microtubules to severing proteins may be a critical factor in the generation and maintenance of neuronal polarity. PMID:15944385

  14. Depletion force induced collective motion of microtubules driven by kinesin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Mahmot, Bulbul; Kabir, Arif Md Rashedul; Farhana, Tamanna Ishrat; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Sada, Kazuki; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2015-10-29

    Collective motion is a fascinating example of coordinated behavior of self-propelled objects, which is often associated with the formation of large scale patterns. Nowadays, the in vitro gliding assay is being considered a model system to experimentally investigate various aspects of group behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. In the in vitro gliding assay, cytoskeletal filaments F-actin or microtubules are driven by the surface immobilized associated biomolecular motors myosin or dynein respectively. Although the F-actin/myosin or microtubule/dynein system was found to be promising in understanding the collective motion and pattern formation by self-propelled objects, the most widely used biomolecular motor system microtubule/kinesin could not be successfully employed so far in this regard. Failure in exhibiting collective motion by kinesin driven microtubules is attributed to the intrinsic properties of kinesin, which was speculated to affect the behavior of individual gliding microtubules and mutual interactions among them. In this work, for the first time, we have demonstrated the collective motion of kinesin driven microtubules by regulating the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules, by employing a depletion force among them. Proper regulation of the mutual interaction among the gliding microtubules through the employment of the depletion force was found to allow the exhibition of collective motion and stream pattern formation by the microtubules. This work offers a universal means for demonstrating the collective motion using the in vitro gliding assay of biomolecular motor systems and will help obtain a meticulous understanding of the fascinating coordinated behavior and pattern formation by self-propelled objects. PMID:26260025

  15. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Hedrick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  16. The microtubule-binding protein Cep170 promotes the targeting of the kinesin-13 depolymerase Kif2b to the mitotic spindle

    E-print Network

    Welburn, Julie P. I.

    Microtubule dynamics are essential throughout mitosis to ensure correct chromosome segregation. Microtubule depolymerization is controlled in part by microtubule depolymerases, including the kinesin-13 family of proteins. ...

  17. Microtubule Dynamics and Oscillating State for Mitotic Spindle

    E-print Network

    Safura Rashid-Shomali; Ali Najafi

    2010-05-18

    We present a physical mechanism that can cause the mitotic spindle to oscillate. The driving force for this mechanism emerges from the polymerization of astral microtubules interacting with the cell cortex. We show that Brownian ratchet model for growing microtubules reaching the cell cortex, mediate an effective mass to the spindle body and therefore force it to oscillate. We compare the predictions of this mechanism with the previous mechanisms which were based on the effects of motor proteins. Finally we combine the effects of microtubules polymerization and motor proteins, and present the detailed phase diagram for possible oscillating states.

  18. Microtubule attachment and spindle assembly checkpoint signaling at the kinetochore

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Emily A.; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, chromosome segregation during cell division is facilitated by the kinetochore, an assembly of proteins built on centromeric DNA. The kinetochore attaches chromosomes to spindle microtubules, modulates the stability of these attachments, and relays microtubule-binding status to the spindle assembly checkpoint, a cell cycle surveillance pathway that delays chromosome segregation in response to unattached kinetochores. Here, we discuss recent results that guide current thinking on how each of these kinetochore-centered processes is achieved, and how their integration ensures faithful chromosome segregation, focusing on the essential roles of kinase-phosphatase signaling and the microtubule-binding KMN protein network. PMID:23258294

  19. Kinesin-8 Motors Improve Nuclear Centering by Promoting Microtubule Catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glun?i?, Matko; Maghelli, Nicola; Krull, Alexander; Krsti?, Vladimir; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Pavin, Nenad; Toli?, Iva M.

    2015-02-01

    In fission yeast, microtubules push against the cell edge, thereby positioning the nucleus in the cell center. Kinesin-8 motors regulate microtubule catastrophe; however, their role in nuclear positioning is not known. Here we develop a physical model that describes how kinesin-8 motors affect nuclear centering by promoting a microtubule catastrophe. Our model predicts the improved centering of the nucleus in the presence of motors, which we confirmed experimentally in living cells. The model also predicts a characteristic time for the recentering of a displaced nucleus, which is supported by our experiments where we displaced the nucleus using optical tweezers.

  20. The Spectraplakin Short Stop Is an Actin–Microtubule Cross-Linker That Contributes to Organization of the Microtubule Network

    PubMed Central

    Applewhite, Derek A.; Grode, Kyle D.; Keller, Darby; Zadeh, Alireza; Slep, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of actin and microtubules are coordinated in a variety of cellular and morphogenetic processes; however, little is known about the molecules mediating this cytoskeletal cross-talk. We are studying Short stop (Shot), the sole Drosophila spectraplakin, as a model actin–microtubule cross-linking protein. Spectraplakins are an ancient family of giant cytoskeletal proteins that are essential for a diverse set of cellular functions; yet, we know little about the dynamics of spectraplakins and how they bridge actin filaments and microtubules. In this study we describe the intracellular dynamics of Shot and a structure–function analysis of its role as a cytoskeletal cross-linker. We find that Shot interacts with microtubules using two different mechanisms. In the cell interior, Shot binds growing plus ends through an interaction with EB1. In the cell periphery, Shot associates with the microtubule lattice via its GAS2 domain, and this pool of Shot is actively engaged as a cross-linker via its NH2-terminal actin-binding calponin homology domains. This cross-linking maintains microtubule organization by resisting forces that produce lateral microtubule movements in the cytoplasm. Our results provide the first description of the dynamics of these important proteins and provide key insight about how they function during cytoskeletal cross-talk. PMID:20335501

  1. Modulation of microtubule shape in vitro by high molecular weight microtubule associated proteins MAP1A, MAP1B, and MAP2.

    PubMed

    Pedrotti, B; Francolini, M; Cotelli, F; Islam, K

    1996-04-15

    The effect of microtubule associated proteins on microtubule shape has been investigated in reconstitution experiments using purified tubulin and purified MAP1A, MAP1B, and MAP2. Microtubules assembled in the presence of these MAPs were fixed with 0.1% glutaraldehyde and, after negative staining, were examined by electron microscopy. The results show that MAP1A microtubules were generally short and "straight' while those assembled with MAP1B were longer and "bendy'. MAP2 microtubules showed both types of morphologies even though straight microtubules were more abundant. These data suggest that MAPs may modulate not only microtubule dynamics but also microtubule shape which may be important in their spatial distribution and/or role in specific neuronal areas. PMID:8612812

  2. Flagellar elongation and shortening in Chlamydomonas. III. structures attached to the tips of flagellar microtubules and their relationship to the directionality of flagellar microtubule assembly

    E-print Network

    Dentler, William L., Jr; Rosenbaum, J. L.

    1977-09-01

    Two structures on the distal ends of Chlamydomonas flagellar microtubules are described. One of these, the central microbutule cap, attaches the distal ends of the central pair microtubules to the tip of the flagellar membrane. In addition...

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of microtubules —A longitudinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravkovi?, S.; Satari?, M. V.; Zekovi?, S.

    2013-05-01

    In the present letter we describe a model of nonlinear dynamics of microtubules (MTs) assuming a single longitudinal degree of freedom per tubulin dimer. This is a longitudinal displacement of a dimer at a certain position with respect to the neighbouring one. A nonlinear partial differential equation, describing dimer's dynamics within MT, is solved both analytically and numerically. It is shown that such a nonlinear model can lead to the existence of kink solitons moving along the MTs. The internal electrical field strength is calculated using two procedures and a perfect agreement between the results is demonstrated. This enabled the estimation of the total energy, kink velocity and kink width. To simplify the calculation of the total energy we stated and proved a useful auxiliary theorem.

  4. Crowding of Molecular Motors Determines Microtubule Depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Louis; Melbinger, Anna; Frey, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    The assembly and disassembly dynamics of microtubules (MTs) is tightly controlled by MT-associated proteins. Here, we investigate how plus-end-directed depolymerases of the kinesin-8 family regulate MT depolymerization dynamics. Using an individual-based model, we reproduce experimental findings. Moreover, crowding is identified as the key regulatory mechanism of depolymerization dynamics. Our analysis reveals two qualitatively distinct regimes. For motor densities above a particular threshold, a macroscopic traffic jam emerges at the plus-end and the MT dynamics become independent of the motor concentration. Below this threshold, microscopic traffic jams at the tip arise that cancel out the effect of the depolymerization kinetics such that the depolymerization speed is solely determined by the motor density. Because this density changes over the MT length, length-dependent regulation is possible. Remarkably, motor cooperativity affects only the end-residence time of depolymerases and not the depolymerization speed. PMID:22067158

  5. Torsional behavior of axonal microtubule bundles.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Carole; Soheilypour, Mohammad; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2015-07-21

    Axonal microtubule (MT) bundles crosslinked by microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau are responsible for vital biological functions such as maintaining mechanical integrity and shape of the axon as well as facilitating axonal transport. Breaking and twisting of MTs have been previously observed in damaged undulated axons. Such breaking and twisting of MTs is suggested to cause axonal swellings that lead to axonal degeneration, which is known as "diffuse axonal injury". In particular, overstretching and torsion of axons can potentially damage the axonal cytoskeleton. Following our previous studies on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension and compression, this work seeks to characterize the mechanical behavior of MT bundles under pure torsion as well as a combination of torsional and tensile loads using a coarse-grained computational model. In the case of pure torsion, a competition between MAP tau tensile and MT bending energies is observed. After three turns, a transition occurs in the mechanical behavior of the bundle that is characterized by its diameter shrinkage. Furthermore, crosslink spacing is shown to considerably influence the mechanical response, with larger MAP tau spacing resulting in a higher rate of turns. Therefore, MAP tau crosslinking of MT filaments protects the bundle from excessive deformation. Simultaneous application of torsion and tension on MT bundles is shown to accelerate bundle failure, compared to pure tension experiments. MAP tau proteins fail in clusters of 10-100 elements located at the discontinuities or the ends of MT filaments. This failure occurs in a stepwise fashion, implying gradual accumulation of elastic tensile energy in crosslinks followed by rupture. Failure of large groups of interconnecting MAP tau proteins leads to detachment of MT filaments from the bundle near discontinuities. This study highlights the importance of torsional loading in axonal damage after traumatic brain injury. PMID:26200859

  6. Multiscale Polar Theory of Microtubule and Motor-Protein Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins are building blocks of self-organized subcellular biological structures such as the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. These same ingredients can form new "bioactive" liquid-crystalline fluids that are intrinsically out of equilibrium and which display complex flows and defect dynamics. It is not yet well understood how microscopic activity, which involves polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, yields such larger-scale dynamical structures. In our multiscale theory, Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubule ensembles driven by cross-linking motors allow us to study microscopic organization and stresses. Polarity sorting and cross-link relaxation emerge as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. On larger length scales, our continuum Doi-Onsager theory captures the hydrodynamic flows generated by polarity-dependent active stresses. The results connect local polar structure to flow structures and defect dynamics.

  7. High-Resolution Microtubule Structures Reveal the Structural Transitions

    E-print Network

    Baker, David

    Baker,3 and Eva Nogales2,4,* 1Biophysics Graduate Program, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley- mational cycle accompanying tubulin polymerization, nucleotide hydrolysis, and microtubule depolymerization anticancer drugs, as well as facilitating the development of novel agents. Dynamic instability

  8. Multiscale polar theory of microtubule and motor-protein assemblies

    E-print Network

    Tong Gao; Robert Blackwell; Matthew A. Glaser; M. D. Betterton; Michael J. Shelley

    2015-01-27

    Microtubules and motor proteins are building blocks of self-organized subcellular biological structures such as the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. These same ingredients can form new "bioactive" liquid-crystalline fluids that are intrinsically out of equilibrium and which display complex flows and defect dynamics. It is not yet well understood how microscopic activity, which involves polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, yields such larger scale dynamical structures. In our multiscale theory, Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubule ensembles driven by crosslinking motors allow us to study microscopic organization and stresses. Polarity sorting and crosslink relaxation emerge as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. On larger length scales, our continuum Doi-Onsager theory captures the hydrodynamic flows generated by polarity-dependent active stresses. The results connect local polar structure to flow structures and defect dynamics.

  9. Nek4 Status Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Microtubule Poisons

    E-print Network

    Doles, Jason D.

    Microtubule poisons are widely used in cancer treatment, but the factors determining the relative efficacy of different drugs in this class remain obscure. In this study, we identified the NIMA kinase Nek4 in a genetic ...

  10. Cortical microtubules in sweet clover columella cells developed in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Electron micrographs of columella cells from sweet clover seedlings grown and fixed in microgravity revealed longitudinal and cross sectioned cortical microtubules. This is the first report demonstrating the presence and stability of this network in plants in microgravity.

  11. Mechanical Models of Microtubule Bundle Collapse in Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendek, Austin; Singh, Rajiv; Cox, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Amyloid-beta aggregates initiate Alzheimer's disease, and downstream trigger degradation of tau proteins that act as microtubule bundle stabilizers and mechanical spacers. Currently it is unclear which of tau cutting by proteases, tau phosphorylation, or tau aggregation are responsible for cytoskeleton degradation., We construct a percolation simulation of the microtubule bundle using a molecular spring model for the taus and including depletion force attraction between microtubules and membrane/actin cytoskeletal surface tension. The simulation uses a fictive molecular dynamics to model the motion of the individual microtubules within the bundle as a result of random tau removal, and calculates the elastic modulus of the bundle as the tau concentration falls. We link the tau removal steps to kinetic tau steps in various models of tau degradation. Supported by US NSF Grant DMR 1207624

  12. Motion observation and SPR measurements of kinesin motility on microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, A.; Oliveira, D.; Kim, K.; Liao, A. L.; Umetsu, M.; Adschiri, T.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2012-02-01

    Motor proteins convert chemical energy directly into mechanical work with high efficiency (˜50%). One of these proteins, kinesin, is used in the cell to transport organelles. It ``walks'' along biopolymer tracks called microtubules and, depending on the type, can reach speeds of a few micrometers per second. Kinesin can carry intracellular cargo over long distances against several piconewtons of loads and is barely limited by the cargo size. Motion of streptavidin-coated quantum dots carried by kinesin on microtubules will be presented. We have expressed biotinylated Kinesin-1 using Escherichia coli. Attachment to quantum dots was performed using the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin. Microtubules, labeled with rhodamine, allow visualization by fluorescence microscopy. The measured speed of our kinesin fits well with results found in the literature. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) measurements allow the identification and strength evaluation of bonding. Using this technique, we will present results on the binding between our expressed kinesin and microtubule.

  13. Random Hydrolysis Controls the Dynamic Instability of Microtubules Ranjith Padinhateeri,

    E-print Network

    Random Hydrolysis Controls the Dynamic Instability of Microtubules Ranjith Padinhateeri, * Anatoly; Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas; and § Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie The hydrolysis. Despite decades of experimental work in this field, the precise mechanism of hydrolysis

  14. Nucleation and Transport Organize Microtubules in Metaphase Spindles

    E-print Network

    Needleman, Daniel

    to study the metaphase spindle in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and found that microtu- bules are shortest to determine the validity of these models. Microtubules in spindles are too dense to resolve with light

  15. Isolation of Microtubule Protein from Cultured Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Olmsted, J. B.; Carlson, K.; Klebe, R.; Ruddle, F.; Rosenbaum, Joel

    1970-01-01

    The addition of vinblastine to high-speed supernatants derived from homogenates of cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells results in the formation of a precipitate which has been characterized as microtubule protein by the following criteria: colchicine-binding activity, molecular weight, amino acid composition, and electrophoretic mobility. The method therefore permits the rapid isolation of microtubule protein from crude supernatants of neuroblastoma cells. Images PMID:5263744

  16. Singlet Dark Matter in Type II Two Higgs Doublet Model

    E-print Network

    Yi Cai; Tong Li

    2013-08-24

    Inspired by the dark matter searches in the low mass region, we study the Type II two Higgs doublet model with a light gauge singlet WIMP stabilized by a Z_2 symmetry. The real singlet is required to only couple to the non-Standard Model Higgs. We investigate singlet candidates with different spins as well as isospin violating effect. The parameter space favored by LHC data in two Higgs doublet model and hadronic uncertainties in WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering are also taken into account. We find only the scalar singlet in the isospin conserving case leads to a major overlap with the region of interests of most direct detection experiments.

  17. Two-Higgs-doublet models with Minimal Flavour Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2010-12-22

    The tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents in the two-Higgs-doublet models can be suppressed by protecting the breaking of either flavour or flavour-blind symmetries, but only the first choice, implemented by the application of the Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis, is stable under quantum corrections. Moreover, a two-Higgs-doublet model with Minimal Flavour Violation enriched with flavour-blind phases can explain the anomalies recently found in the {Delta}F = 2 transitions, namely the large CP-violating phase in B{sub s} mixing and the tension between {epsilon}{sub K} and S{sub {psi}KS}.

  18. Neutral minima in two-Higgs doublet models

    E-print Network

    A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; R. Santos

    2007-02-09

    We study the neutral minima of two-Higgs doublet models, showing that these potentials can have at least two such minima with different depths. We analyse the phenomenology of these minima for the several types of two-Higgs doublet potentials, where CP is explicitly broken, spontaneously broken or preserved. We discover that it is possible to have a neutral minimum in these potentials where the masses of the known particles have their standard values, with another deeper minimum where those same particles acquire different masses.

  19. Towards systematic exploration of multi-Higgs-doublet models

    E-print Network

    I. P. Ivanov

    2015-04-24

    Conservative bSM models with rich scalar sector, such as multi-Higgs-doublet models, can easily accommodate the SM-like properties of the 125 GeV scalar observed at the LHC. Possessing a variety of bSM signals, they are worth investigating in fuller detail. Systematic study of these models is hampered by the highly multi-dimensional parameter space and by mathematical challenges. I outline some directions along which multi-Higgs-doublet models in the vicinity of a large discrete symmetry can be systematically explored.

  20. Regulation of kinesin-transport by microtubule age and polymerization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Liang, Winnie; King, Stephen; Faysal, K.

    2015-03-01

    Microtubules are fundamental biopolymers in cells, formed via self-assembly (``polymerization'') of tubulin dimers. Microtubule polymerization conditions have been shown to alter the presence of defects in microtubule lattices, including point defects (missing tubulin dimers) and line defects (protofilament disruption). Potential impact of these lattice defects on molecular motor-based transport is not yet understood. Here we investigate the impact of microtubule polymerization conditions on multiple-kinesin transport, using single-molecule-type optical trapping experiments. We find that kinesin-based cargoes pause preferentially at specific locations along individual microtubules, and that the pause frequency and duration is strongly dependent on microtubule age and polymerization condition. Within each polymerization condition and for fresh microtubules, we also observe significant variations in multiple-kinesin travel distances, depending on which microtubules the motors travel along. Taken together, our study suggests an important role of microtubule lattice defect in regulating intracellular transport.

  1. The dual specificity phosphatase Cdc14B bundles and stabilizes microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Plumley, Hyekyung; Liu, Yie; Gomez, Marla V; Wang, Yisong

    2005-01-01

    The Cdc14 dual-specificity phosphatases regulate key events in the eukaryotic cell cycle. However, little is known about the function of mammalian CDC14B family members. Here, we demonstrate that subcellular localization of CDC14B protein is cell cycle regulated. CDC14B can bind, bundle, and stabilize microtubules in vitro independently of its catalytic activity. Basic amino acid residues within the nucleolar targeting domain are important for both retaining CDC14B in the nucleolus and preventing microtubule bundling. Overexpression of CDC14B resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic CDC14B and microtubule bundles in interphase cells. These microtubule bundles were resistant to microtubule depolymerization reagents and enriched in acetylated -tubulin. Expression of cytoplasmic forms of CDC14B impaired microtubule nucleation from the microtubule organization center. CDC14B is thus a novel microtubule-bundling and -stabilizing protein, whose regulated subcellular localization may help modulate spindle and microtubule dynamics in mitosis.

  2. Structural basis for microtubule recognition by the human kinetochore Ska complex

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Maria Alba; Medina, Bethan; Santamaria, Anna; Zou, Juan; Plasberg-Hill, Carla; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Jayachandran, Uma; Redli, Patrick Marc; Rappsilber, Juri; Nigg, Erich A.; Jeyaprakash, A. Arockia

    2014-01-01

    The ability of kinetochores (KTs) to maintain stable attachments to dynamic microtubule structures (‘straight’ during microtubule polymerization and ‘curved’ during microtubule depolymerization) is an essential requirement for accurate chromosome segregation. Here we show that the kinetochore-associated Ska complex interacts with tubulin monomers via the carboxy-terminal winged-helix domain of Ska1, providing the structural basis for the ability to bind both straight and curved microtubule structures. This contrasts with the Ndc80 complex, which binds straight microtubules by recognizing the dimeric interface of tubulin. The Ska1 microtubule-binding domain interacts with tubulins using multiple contact sites that allow the Ska complex to bind microtubules in multiple modes. Disrupting either the flexibility or the tubulin contact sites of the Ska1 microtubule-binding domain perturbs normal mitotic progression, explaining the critical role of the Ska complex in maintaining a firm grip on dynamic microtubules. PMID:24413531

  3. Direct interaction of microtubule- and actin-based transport motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J. D.; Brady, S. T.; Richards, B. W.; Stenolen, D.; Resau, J. H.; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    The microtubule network is thought to be used for long-range transport of cellular components in animal cells whereas the actin network is proposed to be used for short-range transport, although the mechanism(s) by which this transport is coordinated is poorly understood. For example, in sea urchins long-range Ca2+-regulated transport of exocytotic vesicles requires a microtubule-based motor, whereas an actin-based motor is used for short-range transport. In neurons, microtubule-based kinesin motor proteins are used for long-range vesicular transport but microtubules do not extend into the neuronal termini, where actin filaments form the cytoskeletal framework, and kinesins are rapidly degraded upon their arrival in neuronal termini, indicating that vesicles may have to be transferred from microtubules to actin tracks to reach their final destination. Here we show that an actin-based vesicle-transport motor, MyoVA, can interact directly with a microtubule-based transport motor, KhcU. As would be expected if these complexes were functional, they also contain kinesin light chains and the localization of MyoVA and KhcU overlaps in the cell. These results indicate that cellular transport is, in part, coordinated through the direct interaction of different motor molecules.

  4. Dynein prevents erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Marin; Maiato, Helder

    2015-11-01

    Equal distribution of the genetic material during cell division relies on efficient congression of chromosomes to the metaphase plate. Prior to their alignment, the Dynein motor recruited to kinetochores transports a fraction of laterally-attached chromosomes along microtubules toward the spindle poles. By doing that, Dynein not only contributes to chromosome movements, but also prevents premature stabilization of end-on kinetochore-microtubule attachments. This is achieved by 2 parallel mechanisms: 1) Dynein-mediated poleward movement of chromosomes counteracts opposite polar-ejection forces (PEFs) on chromosome arms by the microtubule plus-end-directed motors chromokinesins. Otherwise, they could stabilize erroneous syntelic kinetochore-microtubule attachments and lead to the random ejection of chromosomes away from the spindle poles; and 2) By transporting chromosomes to the spindle poles, Dynein brings the former to the zone of highest Aurora A kinase activity, further destabilizing kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Thus, Dynein plays an important role in keeping chromosome segregation error-free by preventing premature stabilization of kinetochore-microtubule attachments near the spindle poles. PMID:26397382

  5. Lessons from in vitro reconstitution analyses of plant microtubule-associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Plant microtubules, composed of tubulin GTPase, are irreplaceable cellular components that regulate the directions of cell expansion and cell division, chromosome segregation and cell plate formation. To accomplish these functions, plant cells organize microtubule structures by regulating microtubule dynamics. Each microtubule localizes to the proper position with repeated growth and shortening. Although it is possible to reconstitute microtubule dynamics with pure tubulin solution in vitro, many microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) govern microtubule dynamics in cells. In plants, major MAPs are identified as microtubule stabilizers (CLASP and MAP65 etc.), microtubule destabilizers (kinesin-13, katanin, MAP18 and MDP25), and microtubule dynamics promoters (EB1, MAP215, MOR1, MAP200, SPR2). Mutant analyses with forward and reverse genetics have shown the importance of microtubules and individual MAPs in plants. However, it is difficult to understand how each MAP regulates microtubule dynamics, such as growth and shortening, through mutant analyses. In vitro reconstitution analyses with individual purified MAPs and tubulin are powerful tools to reveal how each MAP regulates microtubule dynamics at the molecular level. In this review, I summarize the results of in vitro reconstitution analyses and introduce current models of how each MAP regulates microtubule dynamic instability. PMID:25202315

  6. Fast Microtubule Dynamics in Meiotic Spindles Measured by Single Imaging: Evidence that the Spindle Environment does not Stabilize Microtubules

    E-print Network

    Mirny, Leonid A.

    Metaphase spindles are steady-state ensembles of microtubules that turn over rapidly and slide poleward in some systems. Since the discovery of dynamic instability in the mid-1980s, models for spindle morphogenesis have ...

  7. Xenopus TACC1 is a Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Protein that can Regulate Microtubule Dynamics During Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Lucaj, Christopher M.; Evans, Matthew F.; Nwagbara, Belinda U.; Ebbert, Patrick T.; Baker, Charlie C.; Volk, Joseph G.; Francl, Andrew F.; Ruvolo, Sean P.; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule plus-end dynamics are regulated by a family of proteins called plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs). We recently demonstrated that the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) domain family member, TACC3, can function as a +TIP to regulate microtubule dynamics in Xenopus laevis embryonic cells. Although it has been previously reported that TACC3 is the only TACC family member that exists in Xenopus, our examination of its genome determined that Xenopus, like all other vertebrates, contains three TACC family members. Here, we investigate the localization and function of Xenopus TACC1, the founding member of the TACC family. We demonstrate that it can act as a +TIP to regulate microtubule dynamics, and that the conserved C-terminal TACC domain is required for its localization to plus-ends. We also show that, in Xenopus embryonic mesenchymal cells, TACC1 and TACC3 are each required for maintaining normal microtubule growth speed but exhibit some functional redundancy in the regulation of microtubule growth lifetime. Given the conservation of TACC1 in Xenopus and other vertebrates, we propose that Xenopus laevis is a useful system to investigate unexplored cell biological functions of TACC1 and other TACC family members in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. PMID:26012630

  8. Quantum computation in brain microtubules: Decoherence and biological feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, S.; Hameroff, S. R.; Tuszy?ski, J. A.

    2002-06-01

    The Penrose-Hameroff orchestrated objective reduction (orch. OR) model assigns a cognitive role to quantum computations in microtubules within the neurons of the brain. Despite an apparently ``warm, wet, and noisy'' intracellular milieu, the proposal suggests that microtubules avoid environmental decoherence long enough to reach threshold for ``self-collapse'' (objective reduction) by a quantum gravity mechanism put forth by Penrose. The model has been criticized as regards the issue of environmental decoherence, and a recent report by Tegmark finds that microtubules can maintain quantum coherence for only 10-13 s, far too short to be neurophysiologically relevant. Here, we critically examine the decoherence mechanisms likely to dominate in a biological setting and find that (1) Tegmark's commentary is not aimed at an existing model in the literature but rather at a hybrid that replaces the superposed protein conformations of the orch. OR theory with a soliton in superposition along the microtubule; (2) recalculation after correcting for differences between the model on which Tegmark bases his calculations and the orch. OR model (superposition separation, charge vs dipole, dielectric constant) lengthens the decoherence time to 10-5-10-4 s (3) decoherence times on this order invalidate the assumptions of the derivation and determine the approximation regime considered by Tegmark to be inappropriate to the orch. OR superposition; (4) Tegmark's formulation yields decoherence times that increase with temperature contrary to well-established physical intuitions and the observed behavior of quantum coherent states; (5) incoherent metabolic energy supplied to the collective dynamics ordering water in the vicinity of microtubules at a rate exceeding that of decoherence can counter decoherence effects (in the same way that lasers avoid decoherence at room temperature); (6) microtubules are surrounded by a Debye layer of counterions, which can screen thermal fluctuations, and by an actin gel that might enhance the ordering of water in bundles of microtubules, further increasing the decoherence-free zone by an order of magnitude and, if the dependence on the distance between environmental ion and superposed state is accurately reflected in Tegmark's calculation, extending decoherence times by three orders of magnitude; (7) topological quantum computation in microtubules may be error correcting, resistant to decoherence; and (8) the decohering effect of radiative scatterers on microtubule quantum states is negligible. These considerations bring microtubule decoherence into a regime in which quantum gravity could interact with neurophysiology.

  9. On the Significance of Microtubule Flexural Behavior in Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative description of cell mechanics has challenged biological scientists for the past two decades. Various structural models have been attempted to analyze the structure of the cytoskeleton. One important aspect that has been largely ignored in all these modeling approaches is related to the flexural and buckling behavior of microtubular filaments. The objective of this paper is to explore the influence of this flexural and buckling behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics. In vitro the microtubules are observed to buckle in the first mode, reminiscent of a free, simply-supported beam. In vivo images of microtubules, however, indicate that the buckling mostly occurs in higher modes. This buckling mode switch takes place mostly because of the lateral support of microtubules via their connections to actin and intermediate filaments. These lateral loads are exerted throughout the microtubule length and yield a considerable bending behavior that, unless properly accounted for, would produce erroneous results in the modeling and analysis of the cytoskeletal mechanics. One of the promising attempts towards mechanical modeling of the cytoskeleton is the tensegrity model, which simplifies the complex network of cytoskeletal filaments into a combination merely of tension-bearing actin filaments and compression-bearing microtubules. Interestingly, this discrete model can qualitatively explain many experimental observations in cell mechanics. However, evidence suggests that the simplicity of this model may undermine the accuracy of its predictions, given the model's underlying assumption that “every single member bears solely either tensile or compressive behavior,” i.e. neglecting the flexural behavior of the microtubule filaments. We invoke an anisotropic continuum model for microtubules and compare the bending energy stored in a single microtubule with its axial strain energy at the verge of buckling. Our results suggest that the bending energy can exceed the axial energy of microtubules by 40 folds. A modification to tensegrity model is, therefore, proved necessary in order to take into account the flexural response of microtubules. The concept of “bendo-tensegrity” is proposed as a modification to contemporary cytoskeletal tensegrity models. PMID:21998675

  10. Dark Matter with Topological Defects in the Inert Doublet Model

    E-print Network

    Mark Hindmarsh; Russell Kirk; Jose Miguel No; Stephen M. West

    2015-07-29

    We examine the production of dark matter by decaying topological defects in the high mass region $m_{\\mathrm{DM}} \\gg m_W$ of the Inert Doublet Model, extended with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry. The density of dark matter states (the neutral Higgs states of the inert doublet) is determined by the interplay of the freeze-out mechanism and the additional production of dark matter states from the decays of topological defects, in this case cosmic strings. These decays increase the predicted relic abundance compared to the standard freeze-out only case, and as a consequence the viable parameter space of the Inert Doublet Model can be widened substantially. In particular, for a given dark matter annihilation rate lower dark matter masses become viable. We investigate the allowed mass range taking into account constraints on the energy injection rate from the diffuse $\\gamma$-ray background and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, together with constraints on the dark matter properties coming from direct and indirect detection limits. For the Inert Doublet Model high-mass region, an inert Higgs mass as low as $\\sim 200$ GeV is permitted. There is also an upper limit on string mass per unit length, and hence the symmetry breaking scale, from the relic abundance in this scenario. Depending on assumptions made about the string decays, the limits are in the range $10^{12}$ GeV to $10^{13}$ GeV.

  11. CP violation conditions in N-Higgs-doublet potentials

    E-print Network

    C. C. Nishi

    2007-10-26

    Conditions for CP violation in the scalar potential sector of general N-Higgs-doublet models (NHDMs) are analyzed from a group theoretical perspective. For the simplest two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) potential, a minimum set of conditions for explicit and spontaneous CP violation is presented. The conditions can be given a clear geometrical interpretation in terms of quantities in the adjoint representation of the basis transformation group for the two doublets. Such conditions depend on CP-odd pseudoscalar invariants. When the potential is CP invariant, the explicit procedure to reach the real CP-basis and the explicit CP transformation can also be obtained. The procedure to find the real basis and the conditions for CP violation are then extended to general NHDM potentials. The analysis becomes more involved and only a formal procedure to reach the real basis is found. Necessary conditions for CP invariance can still be formulated in terms of group invariants: the CP-odd generalized pseudoscalars. The problem can be completely solved for three Higgs-doublets.

  12. Probing the Goldstone equivalence theorem in Heavy Weak Doublet Decays

    E-print Network

    Bhaskar Dutta; Yu Gao; David Sanford; Joel W. Walker

    2015-09-04

    This paper investigates the decays from heavy higgsino-like weak-doublets into Z, h bosons and missing particles. When pair-produced at the LHC, the subsequent Z, h to 2l, 2b decays in the doublet decay cascade can yield 4l, 2l 2b, and 4b + MET + jets final states. Mutual observation of any two of these channels would provide information on the the associated doublets' decay branching fractions into a Z or h, thereby probing the Goldstone equivalence relation, shedding additional light on the Higgs sector of beyond the Standard Model theories, and facilitating the discrimination of various contending models, in turn. We compare the Z/h decay ratio expected in the Minimal Supersymmetric model, the Next-to Minimal Supersymmetric model and a minimal singlet-doublet dark matter model. Additionally, we conduct a full Monte Carlo analysis of the prospects for detecting the targeted final states during 14 TeV running of the LHC in the context of a representative NMSSM benchmark model.

  13. Probing the Goldstone equivalence theorem in Heavy Weak Doublet Decays

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Sanford, David; Walker, Joel W

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the decays from heavy higgsino-like weak-doublets into Z, h bosons and missing particles. When pair-produced at the LHC, the subsequent Z, h to 2l, 2b decays in the doublet decay cascade can yield 4l, 2l 2b, and 4b + MET + jets final states. Mutual observation of any two of these channels would provide information on the the associated doublets' decay branching fractions into a Z or h, thereby probing the Goldstone equivalence relation, shedding additional light on the Higgs sector of beyond the Standard Model theories, and facilitating the discrimination of various contending models, in turn. We compare the Z/h decay ratio expected in the Minimal Supersymmetric model, the Next-to Minimal Supersymmetric model and a minimal singlet-doublet dark matter model. Additionally, we conduct a full Monte Carlo analysis of the prospects for detecting the targeted final states during 14 TeV running of the LHC in the context of a representative NMSSM benchmark model.

  14. (2 +1 )-dimensional wormhole from a doublet of scalar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2015-07-01

    We present a class of exact solutions in the framework of (2 +1 ) -dimensional Einstein gravity coupled minimally to a doublet of scalar fields. Our solution can be interpreted upon the tuning of parameters as an asymptotically flat wormhole as well as a particle model in 2 +1 dimensions.

  15. Origin and phenomenology of weak-doublet spin-1 bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhov, M. V.; Dvali, Gia

    2011-09-01

    We study phenomenological consequences of the Standard Model extension by the new spin-1 fields with the internal quantum numbers of the electroweak Higgs doublets. We show, that there are at least three different classes of theories, all motivated by the hierarchy problem, which predict appearance of such vector weak-doublets not far from the weak scale. The common feature for all the models is the existence of an SU(3)W gauge extension of the weak SU(2)W group, which is broken down to the latter at some energy scale around TeV. The Higgs doublet then emerges as either a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of a global remnant of SU(3)W, or as a symmetry partner of the true eaten-up Goldstone boson. In the third class, the Higgs is a scalar component of a high-dimensional SU(3)W gauge field. The common phenomenological feature of these theories is the existence of the electroweak doublet vectors (Z,W), which in contrast to well-known Z and W bosons posses only anomalous (magnetic moment type) couplings with ordinary light fermions. This fact leads to some unique signatures for their detection at the hadron colliders.

  16. Tektins as structural determinants in basal bodies.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R E; Lemieux, N A

    1998-01-01

    Tektins, present as three equimolar 47-55 kDa protein components, form highly insoluble protofilaments that are integral to the junctional region of outer doublet microtubules in cilia and flagella. To identify and quantify tektins in other compound microtubules such as centrioles or basal bodies, a rabbit antiserum was raised against tektin filaments isolated from Spisula solidissima (surf clam) sperm flagellar outer doublets and affinity-purified with nitrocellulose blot strips of tektins resolved by SDS- or SDS-urea-PAGE. These antibodies recognized analogous tektins in axonemes of organisms ranging from ctenophores to higher vertebrates. Quantitative immunoblotting established that outer doublet tektins occur in a 1:17 weight ratio to tubulin. Cilia and basal apparatuses were prepared from scallop gill epithelial cells; cilia and deciliated cells were prepared from rabbit trachea. Tektins were detected by immunoblotting in basal body-enriched preparations while tektins were localized to individual basal bodies by immunofluorescence. Supported by greater fluorescence in basal bodies than in adjacent axonemes in tracheal cells, analysis of basal apparatuses demonstrated both a proportionately greater ratio of tektin to tubulin (approximately 1:13) and two distinct solubility classes of tektins, consistent with tektins comprising the B-C junction of triplets in addition to the A-B junction as in doublets. PMID:9712267

  17. Oscillatory Fluid Flow Influences Primary Cilia and Microtubule Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Espinha, Lina C.; Hoey, David A.; Fernandes, Paulo R.; Rodrigues, Hélder C.; Jacobs, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Many tissues are sensitive to mechanical stimuli; however, the mechanotransduction mechanism used by cells remains unknown in many cases. The primary cilium is a solitary, immotile microtubule-based extension present on nearly every mammalian cell which extends from the basal body. The cilium is a mechanosensitive organelle and has been shown to transduce fluid flow-induced shear stress in tissues such as the kidney and bone. The majority of microtubules assemble from the mother centriole (basal body), contributing significantly to the anchoring of the primary cilium. Several studies have attempted to quantify the number of microtubules emanating from the basal body and the results vary depending on the cell type. It has also been shown that cellular response to shear stress depends on microtubular integrity. This study hypothesizes that changing the microtubule attachment of primary cilia in response to a mechanical stimulus could change primary cilia mechanics and, possibly, mechanosensitivity. Oscillatory fluid flow was applied to two different cell types and the microtubule attachment to the ciliary base was quantified. For the first time, an increase in microtubules around primary cilia both with time and shear rate in response to oscillatory fluid flow stimulation was demonstrated. Moreover, it is presented that the primary cilium is required for this loading-induced cellular response. This study has demonstrated a new role for the cilium in regulating alterations in the cytoplasmic microtubule network in response to mechanical stimulation, and therefore provides a new insight into how cilia may regulate its mechanics and thus the cells mechanosensitivity. PMID:25044764

  18. Role of microtubules in the contractile dysfunction of hypertrophied myocardium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zile, M. R.; Koide, M.; Sato, H.; Ishiguro, Y.; Conrad, C. H.; Buckley, J. M.; Morgan, J. P.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the ameliorative effects of microtubule depolymerization on cellular contractile dysfunction in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy apply at the tissue level. BACKGROUND: A selective and persistent increase in microtubule density causes decreased contractile function of cardiocytes from cats with hypertrophy produced by chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overloading. Microtubule depolymerization by colchicine normalizes contractility in these isolated cardiocytes. However, whether these changes in cellular function might contribute to changes in function at the more highly integrated and complex cardiac tissue level was unknown. METHODS: Accordingly, RV papillary muscles were isolated from 25 cats with RV pressure overload hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) for 4 weeks and 25 control cats. Contractile state was measured using physiologically sequenced contractions before and 90 min after treatment with 10(-5) mol/liter colchicine. RESULTS: The PAB significantly increased RV systolic pressure and the RV weight/body weight ratio in PAB; it significantly decreased developed tension from 59+/-3 mN/mm2 in control to 25+/-4 mN/mm2 in PAB, shortening extent from 0.21+/-0.01 muscle lengths (ML) in control to 0.12+/-0.01 ML in PAB, and shortening rate from 1.12+/-0.07 ML/s in control to 0.55+/-0.03 ML/s in PAB. Indirect immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed that PAB muscles had a selective increase in microtubule density and that colchicine caused complete microtubule depolymerization in both control and PAB papillary muscles. Microtubule depolymerization normalized myocardial contractility in papillary muscles of PAB cats but did not alter contractility in control muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Excess microtubule density, therefore, is equally important to both cellular and to myocardial contractile dysfunction caused by chronic, severe pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. Automated Stitching of Microtubule Centerlines across Serial Electron Tomograms

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Britta; Tranfield, Erin M.; Höög, Johanna L.; Baum, Daniel; Antony, Claude; Hyman, Tony; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Prohaska, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Tracing microtubule centerlines in serial section electron tomography requires microtubules to be stitched across sections, that is lines from different sections need to be aligned, endpoints need to be matched at section boundaries to establish a correspondence between neighboring sections, and corresponding lines need to be connected across multiple sections. We present computational methods for these tasks: 1) An initial alignment is computed using a distance compatibility graph. 2) A fine alignment is then computed with a probabilistic variant of the iterative closest points algorithm, which we extended to handle the orientation of lines by introducing a periodic random variable to the probabilistic formulation. 3) Endpoint correspondence is established by formulating a matching problem in terms of a Markov random field and computing the best matching with belief propagation. Belief propagation is not generally guaranteed to converge to a minimum. We show how convergence can be achieved, nonetheless, with minimal manual input. In addition to stitching microtubule centerlines, the correspondence is also applied to transform and merge the electron tomograms. We applied the proposed methods to samples from the mitotic spindle in C. elegans, the meiotic spindle in X. laevis, and sub-pellicular microtubule arrays in T. brucei. The methods were able to stitch microtubules across section boundaries in good agreement with experts' opinions for the spindle samples. Results, however, were not satisfactory for the microtubule arrays. For certain experiments, such as an analysis of the spindle, the proposed methods can replace manual expert tracing and thus enable the analysis of microtubules over long distances with reasonable manual effort. PMID:25438148

  20. Hypertonic stress promotes autophagy and microtubule-dependent autophagosomal clusters

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paula; Ernandez, Thomas; Roth, Isabelle; Qiao, Xiaomu; Strebel, Déborah; Bouley, Richard; Charollais, Anne; Ramadori, Pierluigi; Foti, Michelangelo; Meda, Paolo; Féraille, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Hasler, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Osmotic homeostasis is fundamental for most cells, which face recurrent alterations of environmental osmolality that challenge cell viability. Protein damage is a consequence of hypertonic stress, but whether autophagy contributes to the osmoprotective response is unknown. Here, we investigated the possible implications of autophagy and microtubule organization on the response to hypertonic stress. We show that hypertonicity rapidly induced long-lived protein degradation, LC3-II generation and Ptdlns3K-dependent formation of LC3- and ATG12-positive puncta. Lysosomotropic agents chloroquine and bafilomycin A1, but not nutrient deprivation or rapamycin treatment, further increased LC3-II generation, as well as ATG12-positive puncta, indicating that hypertonic stress increases autophagic flux. Autophagy induction upon hypertonic stress enhanced cell survival since cell death was increased by ATG12 siRNA-mediated knockdown and reduced by rapamycin. We additionally showed that hypertonicity induces fast reorganization of microtubule networks, which is associated with strong reorganization of microtubules at centrosomes and fragmentation of Golgi ribbons. Microtubule remodeling was associated with pericentrosomal clustering of ATG12-positive autolysosomes that colocalized with SQSTM1/p62 and ubiquitin, indicating that autophagy induced by hypertonic stress is at least partly selective. Efficient autophagy by hypertonic stress required microtubule remodeling and was DYNC/dynein-dependent as autophagosome clustering was enhanced by paclitaxel-induced microtubule stabilization and was reduced by nocodazole-induced tubulin depolymerization as well as chemical (EHNA) or genetic [DCTN2/dynactin 2 (p50) overexpression] interference of DYNC activity. The data document a general and hitherto overlooked mechanism, where autophagy and microtubule remodeling play prominent roles in the osmoprotective response. PMID:23380587

  1. Distinct roles for antiparallel microtubule pairing and overlap during early spindle assembly

    PubMed Central

    Nazarova, Elena; O'Toole, Eileen; Kaitna, Susi; Francois, Paul; Winey, Mark; Vogel, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    During spindle assembly, microtubules may attach to kinetochores or pair to form antiparallel pairs or interpolar microtubules, which span the two spindle poles and contribute to mitotic pole separation and chromosome segregation. Events in the specification of the interpolar microtubules are poorly understood. Using three-dimensional electron tomography and analysis of spindle dynamical behavior in living cells, we investigated the process of spindle assembly. Unexpectedly, we found that the phosphorylation state of an evolutionarily conserved Cdk1 site (S360) in ?-tubulin is correlated with the number and organization of interpolar microtubules. Mimicking S360 phosphorylation (S360D) results in bipolar spindles with a normal number of microtubules but lacking interpolar microtubules. Inhibiting S360 phosphorylation (S360A) results in spindles with interpolar microtubules and high-angle, antiparallel microtubule pairs. The latter are also detected in wild-type spindles <1 ?m in length, suggesting that high-angle microtubule pairing represents an intermediate step in interpolar microtubule formation. Correlation of spindle architecture with dynamical behavior suggests that microtubule pairing is sufficient to separate the spindle poles, whereas interpolar microtubules maintain the velocity of pole displacement during early spindle assembly. Our findings suggest that the number of interpolar microtubules formed during spindle assembly is controlled in part through activities at the spindle poles. PMID:23966467

  2. Tao-1 is a negative regulator of microtubule plus-end growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Rohn, Jennifer L.; Picone, Remigio; Kunda, Patricia; Baum, Buzz

    2010-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics are dominated by events at microtubule plus ends as they switch between discrete phases of growth and shrinkage. Through their ability to generate force and direct polar cell transport, microtubules help to organise global cell shape and polarity. Conversely, because plus-end binding proteins render the dynamic instability of individual microtubules sensitive to the local intracellular environment, cyto-architecture also affects the overall distribution of microtubules. Despite the importance of plus-end regulation for understanding microtubule cytoskeletal organisation and dynamics, little is known about the signalling mechanisms that trigger changes in their behaviour in space and time. Here, we identify a microtubule-associated kinase, Drosophila Tao-1, as an important regulator of microtubule stability, plus-end dynamics and cell shape. Active Tao-1 kinase leads to the destabilisation of microtubules. Conversely, when Tao-1 function is compromised, rates of cortical-induced microtubule catastrophe are reduced and microtubules contacting the actin cortex continue to elongate, leading to the formation of long microtubule-based protrusions. These data reveal a role for Tao-1 in controlling the dynamic interplay between microtubule plus ends and the actin cortex in the regulation of cell form. PMID:20647372

  3. Zonula occludin toxin, a microtubule binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Le; Lu, Rui-Liang; DiPierro, MariaRosaria; Fasano, Alessio

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interaction of Zot with microtubule. METHODS: Zot affinity column was applied to purify Zot-binding protein(s) from crude intestinal cell lysates. After incubation at room temperature, the column was washed and the proteins bound to the Zot affinity column we re eluted by step gradient with NaCl (0.3-0.5 mol·L-1). The fractions were subjected to 6.0%-15.0% (w/v) gradient SDS-PAGE and then transferred to PVDF membrane for N-terminal sequencing. Purified Zot and tau protein were blotted by using anti-Zot or anti-tau antibodies. Finally, purified Zot was tested in an in vitro tubulin binding assay. RESULTS: Fractions from Zot affinity column yielded two protein bands with a Mr of 60 kU and 45 kU respectively. The N-terminal sequence of the 60 kU band resulted identical to ?-tubulin. Zot also cross-reacts with anti-tau antibodies. In the in vitro tubulin binding assay, Zot co-precipitate with Mt, further suggesting that Zot possesses tubulin-b inding properties. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that Zot regulates the permeability of intestinal tight junctions by binding to intracellular Mt, with the subsequent activation of the intracellular signaling leading to the permeabilization of intercellular tight junctions. PMID:11819591

  4. Microtubule-templated biomimetic mineralization of lepidocrocite.

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Headley, Thomas Jeffrey; Tissot, Ralph George, Jr.; Boal, Andrew Kiskadden

    2003-08-01

    Protein microtubules (MTs) 25 nm in diameter and tens of micrometers long have been used as templates for the biomimetic mineralization of FeOOH. Exposure of MTs to anaerobic aqueous solutions of Fe{sup 2+} buffered to neutral pH followed by aerial oxidation leads to the formation of iron oxide coated MTs. The iron oxide layer was found to grow via a two-step process: initially formed 10-30 nm thick coatings were found to be amorphous in structure and comprised of several iron-containing species. Further growth resulted in MTs coated with highly crystalline layers of lepidocrocite with a controllable thickness of up to 125 nm. On the micrometer size scale, these coated MTs were observed to form large, irregular bundles containing hundreds of individually coated MTs. Iron oxide grew selectively on the MT surface, a result of the highly charged MT surface that provided an interface favorable for iron oxide nucleation. This result illustrates that MTs can be used as scaffolds for the in-situ production of high-aspect-ratio inorganic nanowires.

  5. Microtubules: The neuronic system of the neurons?

    E-print Network

    N. E. Mavromatos; D. V. Nanopoulos

    1997-01-31

    In this talk we review recent work on integrable models for Microtubule (MT) networks, subneural paracrystalline cytosceletal structures, which seem to play a fundamental role in the neurons. We cast here the complicated MT dynamics in the form of a 1+1-dimensional non-critical string theory, which can be formulated in terms of (dual) Dirichlet branes, according to modern perspectives. We suggest that the MTs are the microsites in the brain, for the emergence of stable, macroscopic quantum coherent states, identifiable with the ``preconscious states''. Quantum space-time effects, as described by non-critical string theory, trigger then an ``organized collapse'' of the coherent states down to a specific or ``conscious state''. The whole process we estimate to take O(1 sec), in excellent agreement with a plethora of experimental/observational findings. The complete integrability of the stringy model for MT proves sufficient in providing a satisfactory solution to memory coding and capacity. Such features might turn out to be important for a model of the brain as a quantum computer.

  6. Coordination of opposite-polarity microtubule motors

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Steven P.; Welte, Michael A.; Block, Steven M.; Wieschaus, Eric F.

    2002-01-01

    Many cargoes move bidirectionally, frequently reversing course between plus- and minus-end microtubule travel. For such cargoes, the extent and importance of interactions between the opposite-polarity motors is unknown. In this paper we test whether opposite-polarity motors on lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos are coordinated and avoid interfering with each other's activity, or whether they engage in a tug of war. To this end we impaired the minus-end transport machinery using dynein and dynactin mutations, and then investigated whether plus-end motion was improved or disrupted. We observe a surprisingly severe impairment of plus-end motion due to these alterations of minus-end motor activity. These observations are consistent with a coordination hypothesis, but cannot be easily explained with a tug of war model. Our measurements indicate that dynactin plays a crucial role in the coordination of plus- and minus-end–directed motors. Specifically, we propose that dynactin enables dynein to participate efficiently in bidirectional transport, increasing its ability to stay “on” during minus-end motion and keeping it “off” during plus-end motion. PMID:11854311

  7. Dynamical Length-Regulation of Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbinger, Anna; Reese, Louis; Frey, Erwin

    2012-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are vital constituents of the cytoskeleton. These stiff filaments are not only needed for mechanical support. They also fulfill highly dynamic tasks. For instance MTs build the mitotic spindle, which pulls the doubled set of chromosomes apart during mitosis. Hence, a well-regulated and adjustable MT length is essential for cell division. Extending a recently introduced model [1], we here study length-regulation of MTs. Thereby we account for both spontaneous polymerization and depolymerization triggered by motor proteins. In contrast to the polymerization rate, the effective depolymerization rate depends on the presence of molecular motors at the tip and thereby on crowding effects which in turn depend on the MT length. We show that these antagonistic effects result in a well-defined MT length. Stochastic simulations and analytic calculations reveal the exact regimes where regulation is feasible. Furthermore, the adjusted MT length and the ensuing strength of fluctuations are analyzed. Taken together, we make quantitative predictions which can be tested experimentally. These results should help to obtain deeper insights in the microscopic mechanisms underlying length-regulation. [4pt] [1] L.Reese, A.Melbinger, E.Frey, Biophys. J., 101, 9, 2190 (2011)

  8. An array of nuclear microtubules reorganizes the budding yeast nucleus during quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Damien; Courtout, Fabien; Salin, Bénédicte; Ceschin, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network. In dividing cells, its complex architecture not only influences cell shape and movement but is also crucial for chromosome segregation. Curiously, nothing is known about the behavior of this cellular machinery in quiescent cells. Here we show that, upon quiescence entry, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae microtubule cytoskeleton is drastically remodeled. Indeed, while cytoplasmic microtubules vanish, the spindle pole body (SPB) assembles a long and stable monopolar array of nuclear microtubules that spans the entire nucleus. Consequently, the nucleolus is displaced. Kinetochores remain attached to microtubule tips but lose SPB clustering and distribute along the microtubule array, leading to a large reorganization of the nucleus. When cells exit quiescence, the nuclear microtubule array slowly depolymerizes and, by pulling attached centromeres back to the SPB, allows the recovery of a typical Rabl-like configuration. Finally, mutants that do not assemble a nuclear array of microtubules are impaired for both quiescence survival and exit. PMID:24247429

  9. Enhanced Mechanical Stability of Microtubules Polymerized with a Slowly Hydrolyzable Nucleotide Analogue

    E-print Network

    Smith, Marc L.

    Enhanced Mechanical Stability of Microtubules Polymerized with a Slowly Hydrolyzable Nucleotide of microtubules polymerized using guanylyl-R- -methylene diphosphonate (GMPCPP), a slowly hydrolyzable analogue- ing hydrolyzed GTP are intrinsically unstable, hindering direct in vitro studies of their mechanical

  10. Attachment of the cap to the central microtubules of tetrahymena cilia

    E-print Network

    Dentler, William L., Jr

    1984-03-01

    with cytoplasmic microtubules, electron-dense material has been found between the plasma membrane and the ends of microtubules associated with Tetrahymena contractile vacuoles (Allen & Wolf, 1979; Scott & Hufnagel, 1983) and with secretory cells in planarians (Dent...

  11. CYLD Regulates Noscapine Activity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia via a Microtubule-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunfan; Ran, Jie; Sun, Lei; Sun, Xiaodong; Luo, Youguang; Yan, Bing; Tala; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine is an orally administrable drug used worldwide for cough suppression and has recently been demonstrated to disrupt microtubule dynamics and possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating noscapine activity remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a microtubule-associated tumor suppressor protein, modulates the activity of noscapine both in cell lines and in primary cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy reveal that CYLD increases the ability of noscapine to induce mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Examination of cellular microtubules as well as in vitro assembled microtubules shows that CYLD enhances the effect of noscapine on microtubule polymerization. Microtubule cosedimentation and fluorescence titration assays further reveal that CYLD interacts with microtubule outer surface and promotes noscapine binding to microtubules. These findings thus demonstrate CYLD as a critical regulator of noscapine activity and have important implications for ALL treatment. PMID:25897332

  12. CYLD Regulates Noscapine Activity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia via a Microtubule-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunfan; Ran, Jie; Sun, Lei; Sun, Xiaodong; Luo, Youguang; Yan, Bing; Tala; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine is an orally administrable drug used worldwide for cough suppression and has recently been demonstrated to disrupt microtubule dynamics and possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating noscapine activity remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a microtubule-associated tumor suppressor protein, modulates the activity of noscapine both in cell lines and in primary cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy reveal that CYLD increases the ability of noscapine to induce mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Examination of cellular microtubules as well as in vitro assembled microtubules shows that CYLD enhances the effect of noscapine on microtubule polymerization. Microtubule cosedimentation and fluorescence titration assays further reveal that CYLD interacts with microtubule outer surface and promotes noscapine binding to microtubules. These findings thus demonstrate CYLD as a critical regulator of noscapine activity and have important implications for ALL treatment. PMID:25897332

  13. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and the organization of actin filaments in vitro

    E-print Network

    Sattilaro, R. F.; Dentler, William L., Jr; LeCluyse, E. L.

    1981-08-01

    When purified muscle actin was mixed with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) prepared from brain microtubules assembled in vitro, actin filaments were organized into discrete bundles, 26 nm in diameter. MAP-2 was the principal protein necessary...

  14. Microtubule-Induced Pins/Gai Cortical Polarity in Drosophila Neuroblasts

    E-print Network

    Doe, Chris

    cortical polarity in yeast, but few ex- amples are known in metazoans. We show that astral microtubules-size asymmetry, and distinct sibling fates. Khc-73 localizes to astral microtubule plus ends, and Dlg/Khc-73

  15. Effects of anti-Alzheimer drugs on phosphorylation and assembly of microtubules from brain microtubular proteins.

    PubMed

    Shevtsov, P N; Shevtsova, E F; Burbaeva, G Sh; Bachurin, S O

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effects of anti-Alzheimer drugs (tacrine, amiridine, and memantine) on phosphorylation of tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins isolated from rat brain, evaluated the capacity of these proteins to polymerize into microtubules after addition of study pharmacological agents, and analyzed the structure of generated microtubules. It was shown that test substances impair assembly of microtubules to a different extent. Dose-dependent effects of these agents on phosphorylation of tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins were observed. Triazolam (not approved for clinical use as anti-Alzheimer drug) in the same concentrations was used as the reference substance in the same tests. It was observed that this substance even in minimal concentration induced the most pronounced changes in microtubule structure. A direct correlation between the capacity of the test substances to modulate tubulin phosphorylation and to impair microtubule structure was found: the more the substance inhibited tubulin phosphorylation, the more it disordered microtubule structure. PMID:24824692

  16. Tubulin tyrosine nitration regulates microtubule organization in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Yaroslav B.; Krasylenko, Yuliya A.; Demchuk, Oleh M.; Yemets, Alla I.

    2013-01-01

    During last years, selective tyrosine nitration of plant proteins gains importance as well-recognized pathway of direct nitric oxide (NO) signal transduction. Plant microtubules are one of the intracellular signaling targets for NO, however, the molecular mechanisms of NO signal transduction with the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins remain to be elucidated. Since biochemical evidence of plant ?-tubulin tyrosine nitration has been obtained recently, potential role of this posttranslational modification in regulation of microtubules organization in plant cell is estimated in current paper. It was shown that 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NO2-Tyr) induced partially reversible Arabidopsis primary root growth inhibition, alterations of root hairs morphology and organization of microtubules in root cells. It was also revealed that 3-NO2-Tyr intensively decorates such highly dynamic microtubular arrays as preprophase bands, mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells under physiological conditions. Moreover, 3D models of the mitotic kinesin-8 complexes with the tail of detyrosinated, tyrosinated and tyrosine nitrated ?-tubulin (on C-terminal Tyr 450 residue) from Arabidopsis were reconstructed in silico to investigate the potential influence of tubulin nitrotyrosination on the molecular dynamics of ?-tubulin and kinesin-8 interaction. Generally, presented data suggest that plant ?-tubulin tyrosine nitration can be considered as its common posttranslational modification, the direct mechanism of NO signal transduction with the participation of microtubules under physiological conditions and one of the hallmarks of the increased microtubule dynamics. PMID:24421781

  17. Microtubules and Their Role in Cellular Stress in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Amelia L.; Kavallaris, Maria; McCarroll, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are highly dynamic structures, which consist of ?- and ?-tubulin heterodimers, and are involved in cell movement, intracellular trafficking, and mitosis. In the context of cancer, the tubulin family of proteins is recognized as the target of the tubulin-binding chemotherapeutics, which suppress the dynamics of the mitotic spindle to cause mitotic arrest and cell death. Importantly, changes in microtubule stability and the expression of different tubulin isotypes as well as altered post-translational modifications have been reported for a range of cancers. These changes have been correlated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in solid and hematological cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations have remained poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins may play a role in a range of cellular stress responses, thus conferring survival advantage to cancer cells. This review will focus on the importance of the microtubule–protein network in regulating critical cellular processes in response to stress. Understanding the role of microtubules in this context may offer novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24995158

  18. Direct incorporation of GDP into microtubules without GTP hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.M.; Hamel, E.

    1987-05-01

    Tubulin bearing (8-/sup 14/C)GDP in the exchangeable nucleotide binding site was prepared, and its polymerization was examined with microtubule-associated proteins containing minimal nucleoside diphosphate kinase and nonspecific phosphatase contamination. Although microtubule assembly required GTP, significant incorporation of tubulin-bound GDP into microtubules without exchange of the radiolabeled GDP for GTP was observed under reaction conditions which favored an increased proportion of tubulin x GDP relative to tubulin x GTP. These were low GTP concentrations, low Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations, high tubulin concentrations, and exogenous GDP in the reaction mixture. The minimum tubulin x GTP:tubulin x GDP ratio required for microtubule assembly was determined to establish the relative importance of the two tubulin species in the initiation of assembly and was found to be about 2:1. In addition, the relative efficiency with which tubulin x GTP and tubulin x GDP were incorporated into microtubules was determined. They found that tubulin x GDP was incorporated into polymer about half as efficiently as tubulin x GTP.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Tau-Microtubule Interaction Using FRET

    PubMed Central

    Di Maïo, Isabelle L.; Barbier, Pascale; Allegro, Diane; Brault, Cédric; Peyrot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between the microtubule associated protein, tau and the microtubules is investigated. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay was used to determine the distance separating tau to the microtubule wall, as well as the binding parameters of the interaction. By using microtubules stabilized with Flutax-2 as donor and tau labeled with rhodamine as acceptor, a donor-to-acceptor distance of 54 ± 1 Å was found. A molecular model is proposed in which Flutax-2 is directly accessible to tau-rhodamine molecules for energy transfer. By titration, we calculated the stoichiometric dissociation constant to be equal to 1.0 ± 0.5 µM. The influence of the C-terminal tails of ??-tubulin on the tau-microtubule interaction is presented once a procedure to form homogeneous solution of cleaved tubulin has been determined. The results indicate that the C-terminal tails of ?- and ?-tubulin by electrostatic effects and of recruitment seem to be involved in the binding mechanism of tau. PMID:25196605

  20. Molecular crowding creates traffic jams of kinesin motors on microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Cécile; Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Varga, Vladimír; Helbing, Dirk; Diez, Stefan; Howard, Jonathon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the crowdedness of the interior of cells, microtubule-based motor proteins are able to deliver cargoes rapidly and reliably throughout the cytoplasm. We hypothesize that motor proteins may be adapted to operate in crowded environments by having molecular properties that prevent them from forming traffic jams. To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted high-density traffic of purified kinesin-8 motor protein, a highly processive motor with long end-residency time, along microtubules in a total internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy assay. We found that traffic jams, characterized by an abrupt increase in the density of motors with an associated abrupt decrease in motor speed, form even in the absence of other obstructing proteins. To determine the molecular properties that lead to jamming, we altered the concentration of motors, their processivity, and their rate of dissociation from microtubule ends. Traffic jams occurred when the motor density exceeded a critical value (density-induced jams) or when motor dissociation from the microtubule ends was so slow that it resulted in a pileup (bottleneck-induced jams). Through comparison of our experimental results with theoretical models and stochastic simulations, we characterized in detail under which conditions density- and bottleneck-induced traffic jams form or do not form. Our results indicate that transport kinesins, such as kinesin-1, may be evolutionarily adapted to avoid the formation of traffic jams by moving only with moderate processivity and dissociating rapidly from microtubule ends. PMID:22431622

  1. Changes in Neurofilament and Microtubule Distribution following Focal Axon Compression

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Adam J.; Hogan, James D.; Rajbhandari, Labchan; Shrestha, Shiva; Venkatesan, Arun; Ramesh, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of cytoskeletal derangements have been described in the setting of traumatic axonal injury (TAI), little is known of early structural changes that may serve to initiate a cascade of further axonal degeneration. Recent work by the authors has examined conformational changes in cytoskeletal constituents of neuronal axons undergoing traumatic axonal injury (TAI) following focal compression through confocal imaging data taken in vitro and in situ. The present study uses electron microscopy to understand and quantify in vitro alterations in the ultrastructural composition of microtubules and neurofilaments within neuronal axons of rats following focal compression. Standard transmission electron microscopy processing methods are used to identify microtubules, while neurofilament identification is performed using antibody labeling through gold nanoparticles. The number, density, and spacing of microtubules and neurofilaments are quantified for specimens in sham Control and Crushed groups with fixation at <1min following load. Our results indicate that the axon caliber dependency known to exist for microtubule and neurofilament metrics extends to axons undergoing TAI, with the exception of neurofilament spacing, which appears to remain constant across all Crushed axon diameters. Confidence interval comparisons between Control and Crushed cytoskeletal measures suggests early changes in the neurofilament spatial distributions within axons undergoing TAI may precede microtubule changes in response to applied loads. This may serve as a trigger for further secondary damage to the axon, representing a key insight into the temporal aspects of cytoskeletal degeneration at the component level, and suggests the rapid removal of neurofilament sidearms as one possible mechanism. PMID:26111004

  2. Single molecule studies reveal new mechanisms for microtubule severing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer; Diaz-Valencia, Juan Daniel; Morelli, Margaret; Zhang, Dong; Sharp, David

    2011-03-01

    Microtubule-severing enzymes are hexameric complexes made from monomeric enzyme subunits that remove tubulin dimers from the microtubule lattice. Severing proteins are known to remodel the cytoskeleton during interphase and mitosis, and are required in proper axon morphology and mammalian bone and cartilage development. We have performed the first single molecule imaging to determine where and how severing enzymes act to cut microtubules. We have focused on the original member of the group, katanin, and the newest member, fidgetin to compare their biophysical activities in vitro. We find that, as expected, severing proteins localize to areas of activity. Interestingly, the association is very brief: they do not stay bound nor do they bind cooperatively at active sites. The association duration changes with the nucleotide content, implying that the state in the catalytic cycle dictates binding affinity with the microtubule. We also discovered that, at lower concentrations, both katanin and fidgetin can depolymerize taxol-stabilized microtubules by removing terminal dimers. These studies reveal the physical regulation schemes to control severing activity in cells, and ultimately regulate cytoskeletal architecture. This work is supported by the March of Dimes Grant #5-FY09-46.

  3. The feasibility of coherent energy transfer in microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Craddock, Travis John Adrian; Friesen, Douglas; Mane, Jonathan; Hameroff, Stuart; Tuszynski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    It was once purported that biological systems were far too ‘warm and wet’ to support quantum phenomena mainly owing to thermal effects disrupting quantum coherence. However, recent experimental results and theoretical analyses have shown that thermal energy may assist, rather than disrupt, quantum coherent transport, especially in the ‘dry’ hydrophobic interiors of biomolecules. Specifically, evidence has been accumulating for the necessary involvement of quantum coherent energy transfer between uniquely arranged chromophores in light harvesting photosynthetic complexes. The ‘tubulin’ subunit proteins, which comprise microtubules, also possess a distinct architecture of chromophores, namely aromatic amino acids, including tryptophan. The geometry and dipolar properties of these aromatics are similar to those found in photosynthetic units indicating that tubulin may support coherent energy transfer. Tubulin aggregated into microtubule geometric lattices may support such energy transfer, which could be important for biological signalling and communication essential to living processes. Here, we perform a computational investigation of energy transfer between chromophoric amino acids in tubulin via dipole excitations coupled to the surrounding thermal environment. We present the spatial structure and energetic properties of the tryptophan residues in the microtubule constituent protein tubulin. Plausibility arguments for the conditions favouring a quantum mechanism of signal propagation along a microtubule are provided. Overall, we find that coherent energy transfer in tubulin and microtubules is biologically feasible. PMID:25232047

  4. Comparison of ciliature microtubule organelles in three hypotrichous ciliate species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yisong; Shi, Lei; Gu, Fukang

    2010-05-01

    We examined the structure and spatial organization of ciliature base-associated microtubules (BAM) in three hypotrichous ciliates ( Stylonychia mytilus, Pseudourostyla cristata, Euplotes woodruffi) in fluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that BAM, including the anterior (ALM), posterior longitudinal microtubule (PLM) and the transverse microtubule (TM) bands, are composed of tubulin. The respective microtubular bands have cytoplasmic polarization patterns that are significantly asymmetric. The BAM of the midventral files in P. cristata appear cord-shaped compared with the ALM bands of transverse cirri in both S. mytilus and E. woodruffi, which extend to the left anterior side of the cell before converging. The TM bands of the left marginal cirri (MC) in S. mytilus extend to the right side of the cell, while those of the right MC bands extend to the left. Our observations suggest that BAM traits are common in hypotrichous ciliates even though different species possess different microtubule arrangements related to the conserved cirral morphogenetic patterns in the respective species. The differing development of BAM in the three ciliate suggests that the microtubules may be conserved in different hypotrichs. We have also demonstrated that the BAM, which appear polar and asymmetric, are localized in specific cytoskeletal positions and extend in different orientations within the cortex to connect with other ciliature-associated structures and, thus, strengthen the cortex. These BAM features indicate that they are directly associated with cell motion.

  5. TACC3 is a microtubule plus end–tracking protein that promotes axon elongation and also regulates microtubule plus end dynamics in multiple embryonic cell types

    PubMed Central

    Nwagbara, Belinda U.; Faris, Anna E.; Bearce, Elizabeth A.; Erdogan, Burcu; Ebbert, Patrick T.; Evans, Matthew F.; Rutherford, Erin L.; Enzenbacher, Tiffany B.; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule plus end dynamics are regulated by a conserved family of proteins called plus end–tracking proteins (+TIPs). It is unclear how various +TIPs interact with each other and with plus ends to control microtubule behavior. The centrosome-associated protein TACC3, a member of the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) domain family, has been implicated in regulating several aspects of microtubule dynamics. However, TACC3 has not been shown to function as a +TIP in vertebrates. Here we show that TACC3 promotes axon outgrowth and regulates microtubule dynamics by increasing microtubule plus end velocities in vivo. We also demonstrate that TACC3 acts as a +TIP in multiple embryonic cell types and that this requires the conserved C-terminal TACC domain. Using high-resolution live-imaging data on tagged +TIPs, we show that TACC3 localizes to the extreme microtubule plus end, where it lies distal to the microtubule polymerization marker EB1 and directly overlaps with the microtubule polymerase XMAP215. TACC3 also plays a role in regulating XMAP215 stability and localizing XMAP215 to microtubule plus ends. Taken together, our results implicate TACC3 as a +TIP that functions with XMAP215 to regulate microtubule plus end dynamics. PMID:25187649

  6. Biomolecular motor modulates mechanical property of microtubule.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Arif Md Rashedul; Inoue, Daisuke; Hamano, Yoshimi; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Sada, Kazuki; Kakugo, Akira

    2014-05-12

    The microtubule (MT) is the stiffest cytoskeletal filamentous protein that takes part in a wide range of cellular activities where its mechanical property plays a crucially significant role. How a single biological entity plays multiple roles in cell has been a mystery for long time. Over the recent years, it has been known that modulation of the mechanical property of MT by different cellular agents is the key to performing manifold in vivo activities by MT. Studying the mechanical property of MT thus has been a prerequisite in understanding how MT plays such diversified in vivo roles. However, the anisotropic structure of MT has been an impediment in obtaining a precise description of the mechanical property of MT along its longitudinal and lateral directions that requires employment of distinct experimental approach and has not been demonstrated yet. In this work, we have developed an experimental system that enabled us to investigate the effect of tensile stress on MT. By using our newly developed system, (1) we have determined the Young's modulus of MT considering its deformation under applied tensile stress and (2) a new role of MT associated motor protein kinesin in modulating the mechanical property of MT was revealed for the first time. Decrease in Young's modulus of MT with the increase in interaction with kinesin suggests that kinesin has a softening effect on MT and thereby can modulate the rigidity of MT. This work will be an aid in understanding the modulation of mechanical property of MTs by MT associated proteins and might also help obtain a clear insight of the endurance and mechanical instability of MTs under applied stress. PMID:24697688

  7. Microtubule guidance tested through controlled cell geometry

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Sabil; Soh, Siowling; Pilans, Didzis; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Kim, Jiwon; Wilk, Gary; Borisy, Gary G.; Kandere-Grzybowska, Kristiana; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In moving cells dynamic microtubules (MTs) target and disassemble substrate adhesion sites (focal adhesions; FAs) in a process that enables the cell to detach from the substrate and propel itself forward. The short-range interactions between FAs and MT plus ends have been observed in several experimental systems, but the spatial overlap of these structures within the cell has precluded analysis of the putative long-range mechanisms by which MTs growing through the cell body reach FAs in the periphery of the cell. In the work described here cell geometry was controlled to remove the spatial overlap of cellular structures thus allowing for unambiguous observation of MT guidance. Specifically, micropatterning of living cells was combined with high-resolution in-cell imaging and gene product depletion by means of RNA interference to study the long-range MT guidance in quantitative detail. Cells were confined on adhesive triangular microislands that determined cell shape and ensured that FAs localized exclusively at the vertices of the triangular cells. It is shown that initial MT nucleation at the centrosome is random in direction, while the alignment of MT trajectories with the targets (i.e. FAs at vertices) increases with an increasing distance from the centrosome, indicating that MT growth is a non-random, guided process. The guided MT growth is dependent on the presence of FAs at the vertices. The depletion of either myosin IIA or myosin IIB results in depletion of F-actin bundles and spatially unguided MT growth. Taken together our findings provide quantitative evidence of a role for long-range MT guidance in MT targeting of FAs. PMID:22992457

  8. Cell prestress. II. Contribution of microtubules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Mijailovich, Srboljub M.; Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Ning; Ingber, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The tensegrity model hypothesizes that cytoskeleton-based microtubules (MTs) carry compression as they balance a portion of cell contractile stress. To test this hypothesis, we used traction force microscopy to measure traction at the interface of adhering human airway smooth muscle cells and a flexible polyacrylamide gel substrate. The prediction is that if MTs balance a portion of contractile stress, then, upon their disruption, the portion of stress balanced by MTs would shift to the substrate, thereby causing an increase in traction. Measurements were done first in maximally activated cells (10 microM histamine) and then again after MTs had been disrupted (1 microM colchicine). We found that after disruption of MTs, traction increased on average by approximately 13%. Because in activated cells colchicine induced neither an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) nor an increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation as shown previously, we concluded that the observed increase in traction was a result of load shift from MTs to the substrate. In addition, energy stored in the flexible substrate was calculated as work done by traction on the deformation of the substrate. This result was then utilized in an energetic analysis. We assumed that cytoskeleton-based MTs are slender elastic rods supported laterally by intermediate filaments and that MTs buckle as the cell contracts. Using the post-buckling equilibrium theory of Euler struts, we found that energy stored during buckling of MTs was quantitatively consistent with the measured increase in substrate energy after disruption of MTs. This is further evidence supporting the idea that MTs are intracellular compression-bearing elements.

  9. Fast Microtubule Dynamics in Meiotic Spindles Measured by Single Molecule Imaging: Evidence That the Spindle Environment Does Not Stabilize Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Aaron; Ohi, Ryoma; Maresca, Tom; Mirny, Leonid; Mitchison, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Metaphase spindles are steady-state ensembles of microtubules that turn over rapidly and slide poleward in some systems. Since the discovery of dynamic instability in the mid-1980s, models for spindle morphogenesis have proposed that microtubules are stabilized by the spindle environment. We used single molecule imaging to measure tubulin turnover in spindles, and nonspindle assemblies, in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We observed many events where tubulin molecules spend only a few seconds in polymer and thus are difficult to reconcile with standard models of polymerization dynamics. Our data can be quantitatively explained by a simple, phenomenological model—with only one adjustable parameter—in which the growing and shrinking of microtubule ends is approximated as a biased random walk. Microtubule turnover kinetics did not vary with position in the spindle and were the same in spindles and nonspindle ensembles nucleated by Tetrahymena pellicles. These results argue that the high density of microtubules in spindles compared with bulk cytoplasm is caused by local enhancement of nucleation and not by local stabilization. It follows that the key to understanding spindle morphogenesis will be to elucidate how nucleation is spatially controlled. PMID:19940016

  10. The Importance of Lattice Defects in Katanin-Mediated Microtubule Severing in Vitro

    E-print Network

    Gross, Steven

    The Importance of Lattice Defects in Katanin-Mediated Microtubule Severing in Vitro Liza J. Davis the microtubule lattice. Although its microtubule severing activity is likely important for fundamental processes including mitosis and axonal outgrowth, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. To better understand

  11. Insights into microtubule nucleation from the crystal structure of human g-tubulin

    E-print Network

    Stearns, Tim

    Insights into microtubule nucleation from the crystal structure of human g-tubulin Hector Aldaz1 *, Luke M. Rice1 *, Tim Stearns2 & David A. Agard1 Microtubules are hollow polymers of ab-tubulin. Initiation of new microtubules in vivo requires g-tubulin, organized as an oligomer within the 2.2-MDa g-tubulin

  12. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, R.M. ); Wilson, L. ); Purich, D.L. )

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  13. Recovery of Microtubules on the Blepharoplast of Ceratopteris Spermatogenous Cells after Oryzalin Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most land plants have ill-defined microtubule-organizing centers (MTOC’s), consisting of sites on the nuclear envelope or even along microtubules. In contrast, spermatogenous cells of the pteridophyte Ceratopteris richardii have a well-defined MTOC, the blepharoplast, which organizes microtubules th...

  14. LGN Directs Interphase Endothelial Cell Behavior via the Microtubule Network

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Catherine E.; Kushner, Erich J.; Du, Quansheng; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenic sprouts require coordination of endothelial cell (EC) behaviors as they extend and branch. Microtubules influence behaviors such as cell migration and cell-cell interactions via regulated growth and shrinkage. Here we investigated the role of the mitotic polarity protein LGN in EC behaviors and sprouting angiogenesis. Surprisingly, reduced levels of LGN did not affect oriented division of EC within a sprout, but knockdown perturbed overall sprouting. At the cell level, LGN knockdown compromised cell-cell adhesion and migration. EC with reduced LGN levels also showed enhanced growth and stabilization of microtubules that correlated with perturbed migration. These results fit a model whereby LGN influences interphase microtubule dynamics in endothelial cells to regulate migration, cell adhesion, and sprout extension, and reveal a novel non-mitotic role for LGN in sprouting angiogenesis. PMID:26398908

  15. Detyrosinated microtubules modulate mechanotransduction in heart and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jaclyn P; Robison, Patrick; Shi, Guoli; Bogush, Alexey I; Kempema, Aaron M; Hexum, Joseph K; Becerra, Natalia; Harki, Daniel A; Martin, Stuart S; Raiteri, Roberto; Prosser, Benjamin L; Ward, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    In striated muscle, X-ROS is the mechanotransduction pathway by which mechanical stress transduced by the microtubule network elicits reactive oxygen species. X-ROS tunes Ca(2+) signalling in healthy muscle, but in diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), microtubule alterations drive elevated X-ROS, disrupting Ca(2+) homeostasis and impairing function. Here we show that detyrosination, a post-translational modification of ?-tubulin, influences X-ROS signalling, contraction speed and cytoskeletal mechanics. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, the pharmacological reduction of detyrosination in vitro ablates aberrant X-ROS and Ca(2+) signalling, and in vivo it protects against hallmarks of DMD, including workload-induced arrhythmias and contraction-induced injury in skeletal muscle. We conclude that detyrosinated microtubules increase cytoskeletal stiffness and mechanotransduction in striated muscle and that targeting this post-translational modification may have broad therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophies. PMID:26446751

  16. Effects of microtubule mechanics on hydrolysis and catastrophes

    E-print Network

    Müller, Nina

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a model for microtubule mechanics containing lateral bonds between dimers in neighboring protofilaments, bending rigidity of dimers, and repulsive interactions between protofilaments modeling steric constraints to investigate the influence of mechanical forces on hydrolysis and catastrophes. We use the allosteric dimer model, where tubulin dimers are characterized by an equilibrium bending angle, which changes from $0^\\circ$ to $22^\\circ$ by hydrolysis of a dimer. This also affects the lateral interaction and bending energies and, thus, the mechanical equilibrium state of the microtubule. As hydrolysis gives rise to conformational changes in dimers, mechanical forces also influence the hydrolysis rates by mechanical energy changes modulating the hydrolysis rate. The interaction via the microtubule mechanics then gives rise to correlation effects in the hydrolysis dynamics, which have not been taken into account before. Assuming a dominant influence of mechanical energies on hydrolysis rates, we i...

  17. Detyrosinated microtubules modulate mechanotransduction in heart and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jaclyn P.; Robison, Patrick; Shi, Guoli; Bogush, Alexey I.; Kempema, Aaron M.; Hexum, Joseph K.; Becerra, Natalia; Harki, Daniel A.; Martin, Stuart S.; Raiteri, Roberto; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Ward, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    In striated muscle, X-ROS is the mechanotransduction pathway by which mechanical stress transduced by the microtubule network elicits reactive oxygen species. X-ROS tunes Ca2+ signalling in healthy muscle, but in diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), microtubule alterations drive elevated X-ROS, disrupting Ca2+ homeostasis and impairing function. Here we show that detyrosination, a post-translational modification of ?-tubulin, influences X-ROS signalling, contraction speed and cytoskeletal mechanics. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, the pharmacological reduction of detyrosination in vitro ablates aberrant X-ROS and Ca2+ signalling, and in vivo it protects against hallmarks of DMD, including workload-induced arrhythmias and contraction-induced injury in skeletal muscle. We conclude that detyrosinated microtubules increase cytoskeletal stiffness and mechanotransduction in striated muscle and that targeting this post-translational modification may have broad therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophies. PMID:26446751

  18. Isolation of microtubules by assembly/disassembly methods.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule-isolation procedures described here are based on the ability of the investigator to control the dimer-polymer distribution of tubulin by varying the temperature of the extract. In general, the extract is warmed to induce microtubule assembly, the polymer is collected by centrifugation, cooled to induce disassembly, clarified by centrifugation, and then warmed again to produce polymer. As long as the GTP supply is sufficient, the microtubules that result can be taken through numerous rounds of this in vitro assembly and disassembly reaction. Many microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) associate with microtubules assembled in vitro. Some reagents can skew the equilibrium of assembly and disassembly toward formation of polymer. The inclusion of glycerol, for instance, promotes microtubule assembly by disrupting the hydration shell around the tubulin dimers. The result is a greater yield of tubulin per gram of starting material. However, the ratio of MAPs to tubulin is slightly lower, presumably because the glycerol also decreases the binding of MAPs to tubulin. Two methods are described here: The first uses buffer lacking assembly-promoting components, and the second uses buffer containing glycerol. These procedures are most efficient with vertebrate brain tissue, where the soluble protein can be up to 15%-20% tubulin. The first produces satisfactory yields when using chick or pig brain; the second is recommended for calf or cow brain. The second procedure may also be useful for studies of nonneuronal tissues where the relative concentration of tubulin per gram of wet weight is considerably lower than that of brain. PMID:25561620

  19. Two-Higgs doublet models confront the naturalness problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indrani; Kundu, Anirban

    2014-12-01

    The conjecture that some unknown symmetry is responsible for keeping the Higgs boson light at 125 GeV does not hold for the Standard Model, where the coefficient of the quadratic divergence of Higgs boson self-energy is far from zero. We show that such a cancellation can be achieved in two-Higgs doublet models, by virtue of which all the scalars remain at the electroweak scale and the naturalness problem is avoided. We explore the consequences of such cancellations in different two-Higgs doublet models with no flavor-changing neutral current, and show that the parameter space becomes tightly constrained; in particular, the ratio of two vacuum expectation values, tan ? , no longer remains a free parameter but turns out to be a function of the quartic couplings.

  20. Type-II seesaw model with two-Higgs doublets

    E-print Network

    Takaaki Nomura

    2015-04-27

    A study of searching for doubly charged Higgs $(\\delta^{\\pm\\pm})$ is performed in two-Higgs-doublet extension of the type-II seesaw model. We find that a significant mixing effect between singly charged Higgs of Higgs doublet and of triplet is arisen from the scalar potential. The mixing leads to new production processes and decay patterns of doubly charged Higgs. With luminosity of 40 fb$^{-1}$ and collision energy of 13 TeV at the LHC, we show that $\\delta^{\\pm\\pm}$ with mass below $330$ GeV could be observed at the $5\\sigma$ level. Moreover, for the luminosity of 300 fb$^{-1}$, the observed mass of $\\delta^{\\pm\\pm}$ could reach up to 450 GeV.

  1. Yukawa alignment in the two-Higgs-doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Pich, Antonio; Tuzon, Paula

    2009-11-01

    In multi-Higgs-doublet models the alignment in flavor space of the relevant Yukawa matrices guarantees the absence of tree-level flavor-changing couplings of the neutral scalar fields. We analyze the consequences of this condition within the two-Higgs-doublet model and show that it leads to a generic Yukawa structure which contains as particular cases all known specific implementations of the model based on Z{sub 2} symmetries. All possible freedom in the Yukawa sector gets parametrized in terms of three complex couplings {sigma}{sub f}. In spite of having flavor conservation in the neutral scalar couplings, the phases of these three parameters represent potential new sources of CP violation.

  2. A search for close-mass lepton doublet

    SciTech Connect

    Riles, J.K.

    1989-04-01

    Described is a search for a heavy charged lepton with an associated neutrino of nearly the same mass, together known as a close-mass lepton doublet. The search is conducted in e/sup +/e/sup/minus// annihilation data taken with the Mark II detector at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. In order to suppress contamination from conventional two-photon reactions, the search applies a novel, radiative-tagging technique. Requiring the presence of an isolated, energetic photon allows exploration for lepton doublets with a mass splitting smaller than that previously accessible to experiment. No evidence for such a new lepton has been found, enabling limits to be placed on allowed mass combinations. Mass differences as low as 250-300 MeV are excluded for charged lepton masses up to 10 GeV. 78 refs., 64 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Microtubule self-organization is gravity-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Papaseit, Cyril; Pochon, Nathalie; Tabony, James

    2000-01-01

    Although weightlessness is known to affect living cells, the manner by which this occurs is unknown. Some reaction-diffusion processes have been theoretically predicted as being gravity-dependent. Microtubules, a major constituent of the cellular cytoskeleton, self-organize in vitro by way of reaction-diffusion processes. To investigate how self-organization depends on gravity, microtubules were assembled under low gravity conditions produced during space flight. Contrary to the samples formed on an in-flight 1 × g centrifuge, the samples prepared in microgravity showed almost no self-organization and were locally disordered. PMID:10880562

  4. Non-equilibrium microtubule fluctuations in a model cytoskeleton

    E-print Network

    C. P. Brangwynne; G. H. Koenderink; F. C. MacKintosh; D. A. Weitz

    2007-09-19

    Biological activity gives rise to non-equilibrium fluctuations in the cytoplasm of cells; however, there are few methods to directly measure these fluctuations. Using a reconstituted actin cytoskeleton, we show that the bending dynamics of embedded microtubules can be used to probe local stress fluctuations. We add myosin motors that drive the network out of equilibrium, resulting in an increased amplitude and modified time-dependence of microtubule bending fluctuations. We show that this behavior results from step-like forces on the order of 10 pN driven by collective motor dynamics.

  5. The Triplet Genetic Code had a Doublet Predecessor

    E-print Network

    Apoorva Patel

    2004-10-28

    Information theoretic analysis of genetic languages indicates that the naturally occurring 20 amino acids and the triplet genetic code arose by duplication of 10 amino acids of class-II and a doublet genetic code having codons NNY and anticodons $\\overleftarrow{\\rm GNN}$. Evidence for this scenario is presented based on the properties of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, amino acids and nucleotide bases.

  6. A simple description of doublet bands in mass around 100

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.

    2009-05-04

    The structure of doublet bands associated with neutron 0h{sub 11/2} and proton 0g{sub 9/2} orbital in the doubly-odd nuclei, {sup 98-104}Tc and {sup 100-106}Rh is studied theoretically using the quadrupole coupling model. The calculated energy levels and electromagnetic transitions are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The internal structure of the yrast states is discussed in terms of the QCM wave functions.

  7. Natural leptogenesis and neutrino masses with two Higgs doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jackson D.; Foot, Robert; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2015-08-01

    The minimal Type I seesaw model cannot explain the observed neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis without ceding naturalness. We show that this conclusion can be avoided by adding a second Higgs doublet with tan ? ?4 . The models considered naturally accommodate a standard model-like Higgs boson and predict TeV-scale scalar states and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with 103 GeV ?MN1?108 GeV .

  8. Singlet-Doublet Model: Dark matter searches and LHC constraints

    E-print Network

    Lorenzo Calibbi; Alberto Mariotti; Pantelis Tziveloglou

    2015-09-14

    The Singlet-Doublet model of dark matter is a minimal extension of the Standard Model with dark matter that is a mixture of a singlet and a non-chiral pair of electroweak doublet fermions. The stability of dark matter is ensured by the typical parity symmetry, and, similar to a "Bino-Higgsino" system, the extra matter content improves gauge coupling unification. We revisit the experimental constraints on the Singlet-Doublet dark matter model, combining the most relevant bounds from direct (spin independent and spin dependent) and indirect searches. We show that such comprehensive analysis sets strong constraints on a large part of the 4-dimensional parameter space, closing the notorious "blind-spots" of spin independent direct searches. Our results emphasise the complementarity of direct and indirect searches in probing dark matter models in diverse mass scale regimes. We also discuss the LHC bounds on such scenario, which play a relevant role in the low mass region of the dark matter candidate.

  9. Singlet-Doublet model: dark matter searches and LHC constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo; Mariotti, Alberto; Tziveloglou, Pantelis

    2015-10-01

    The Singlet-Doublet model of dark matter is a minimal extension of the Standard Model with dark matter that is a mixture of a singlet and a non-chiral pair of electroweak doublet fermions. The stability of dark matter is ensured by the typical parity symmetry, and, similar to a `Bino-Higgsino' system, the extra matter content improves gauge coupling unification. We revisit the experimental constraints on the Singlet-Doublet dark matter model, combining the most relevant bounds from direct (spin independent and spin dependent) and indirect searches. We show that such comprehensive analysis sets strong constraints on a large part of the 4-dimensional parameter space, closing the notorious `blind-spots' of spin independent direct searches. Our results emphasise the complementarity of direct and indirect searches in probing dark matter models in diverse mass scale regimes. We also discuss the LHC bounds on such scenario, which play a relevant role in the low mass region of the dark matter candidate.

  10. Two-Higgs-Doublet Type-II Seesaw Model

    E-print Network

    Chuan-Hung Chen; Takaaki Nomura

    2014-10-02

    Motivated by the new observed scalar boson of 126 GeV at ATLAS and CMS, various phenomena in two-Higgs-doublet model (THDM) are investigated broadly in the literature. For considering the model that possesses a solution to the massive neutrinos, we study the simplest extension of conventional type-II seesaw model to two Higgs doublets. We find that the new interactions in the scalar potential cause the sizable mixture of charged Higgses in triplet and doublet. As a result, we have a completely different decay pattern for doubly charged Higgs ($\\delta^{\\pm\\pm}$), even the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of Higgs triplet is at GeV level, which is limited by the precision measurement for $\\rho$-parameter. For illustrating the new characters of the model, we study the influence of new interactions on the new open channels $\\delta^{++}\\to ( H^+_1 W^{+^{(*)}}, H^+_1 H^+_1)$ with $H^+_1$ being the lightest charged Higgs. Additionally, due to the new mixing effect, the triplet charged Higgs could couple to quarks in the model; therefore, the search for $\\delta^{++}$ via $\\delta^{++}\\to tb W^+ \\to b \\bar b W^+ W^+$ by mediated $H^+_{1}$ becomes significant.

  11. Microtubules Accelerate the Kinase Activity of Aurora-B by a Reduction in Dimensionality

    PubMed Central

    Noujaim, Michael; Bechstedt, Susanne; Wieczorek, Michal; Brouhard, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Aurora-B is the kinase subunit of the Chromosome Passenger Complex (CPC), a key regulator of mitotic progression that corrects improper kinetochore attachments and establishes the spindle midzone. Recent work has demonstrated that the CPC is a microtubule-associated protein complex and that microtubules are able to activate the CPC by contributing to Aurora-B auto-phosphorylation in trans. Aurora-B activation is thought to occur when the local concentration of Aurora-B is high, as occurs when Aurora-B is enriched at centromeres. It is not clear, however, whether distributed binding to large structures such as microtubules would increase the local concentration of Aurora-B. Here we show that microtubules accelerate the kinase activity of Aurora-B by a “reduction in dimensionality.” We find that microtubules increase the kinase activity of Aurora-B toward microtubule-associated substrates while reducing the phosphorylation levels of substrates not associated to microtubules. Using the single molecule assay for microtubule-associated proteins, we show that a minimal CPC construct binds to microtubules and diffuses in a one-dimensional (1D) random walk. The binding of Aurora-B to microtubules is salt-dependent and requires the C-terminal tails of tubulin, indicating that the interaction is electrostatic. We show that the rate of Aurora-B auto-activation is faster with increasing concentrations of microtubules. Finally, we demonstrate that microtubules lose their ability to stimulate Aurora-B when their C-terminal tails are removed by proteolysis. We propose a model in which microtubules act as scaffolds for the enzymatic activity of Aurora-B. The scaffolding activity of microtubules enables rapid Aurora-B activation and efficient phosphorylation of microtubule-associated substrates. PMID:24498282

  12. EB1 Accelerates Two Conformational Transitions Important for Microtubule Maturation and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Sebastian P.; Cade, Nicholas I.; Bohner, Gerg?; Gustafsson, Nils; Boutant, Emmanuel; Surrey, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The dynamic properties of microtubules depend on complex nanoscale structural rearrangements in their end regions. Members of the EB1 and XMAP215 protein families interact autonomously with microtubule ends. EB1 recruits several other proteins to growing microtubule ends and has seemingly antagonistic effects on microtubule dynamics: it induces catastrophes, and it increases growth velocity, as does the polymerase XMAP215. Results Using a combination of in vitro reconstitution, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, and subpixel-precision image analysis and convolved model fitting, we have studied the effects of EB1 on conformational transitions in growing microtubule ends and on the time course of catastrophes. EB1 density distributions at growing microtubule ends reveal two consecutive conformational transitions in the microtubule end region, which have growth-velocity-independent kinetics. EB1 binds to the microtubule after the first and before the second conformational transition has occurred, positioning it several tens of nanometers behind XMAP215, which binds to the extreme microtubule end. EB1 binding accelerates conformational maturation in the microtubule, most likely by promoting lateral protofilament interactions and by accelerating reactions of the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis cycle. The microtubule maturation time is directly linked to the duration of a growth pause just before microtubule depolymerization, indicating an important role of the maturation time for the control of dynamic instability. Conclusions These activities establish EB1 as a microtubule maturation factor and provide a mechanistic explanation for its effects on microtubule growth and catastrophe frequency, which cause microtubules to be more dynamic. PMID:24508171

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Microtubule Dynamics during Adhesion-Mediated Growth Cone Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aih Cheun; Suter, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    During adhesion-mediated neuronal growth cone guidance microtubules undergo major rearrangements. However, it is unknown whether microtubules extend to adhesion sites because of changes in plus-end polymerization and/or translocation dynamics, because of changes in actin-microtubule interactions, or because they follow the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we used fluorescent speckle microscopy to directly quantify microtubule and actin dynamics in Aplysia growth cones as they turn towards beads coated with the cell adhesion molecule apCAM. During the initial phase of adhesion formation, dynamic microtubules in the peripheral domain preferentially explore apCAM-beads prior to changes in growth cone morphology and retrograde actin flow. Interestingly, these early microtubules have unchanged polymerization rates but spend less time in retrograde translocation due to uncoupling from actin flow. Furthermore, microtubules exploring the adhesion site spend less time in depolymerization. During the later phase of traction force generation, the central domain advances and more microtubules in the peripheral domain extend because of attenuation of actin flow and clearance of F-actin structures. Microtubules in the transition zone and central domain, however, translocate towards the adhesion site in concert with actin arcs and bundles, respectively. We conclude that adhesion molecules guide neuronal growth cones and underlying microtubule rearrangements largely by differentially regulating microtubule-actin coupling and actin movements according to growth cone region and not by controlling plus-end polymerization rates. PMID:18698606

  14. Plant cell growth responds to external forces and the response requires intact microtubules.

    PubMed Central

    Wymer, C L; Wymer, S A; Cosgrove, D J; Cyr, R J

    1996-01-01

    Microfibril deposition in most plant cells is influenced by cortical microtubules. Thus, cortical microtubules are templates that provide spatial information to the cell wall. How cortical microtubules acquire their spatial information and are positioned is unknown. There are indications that plant cells respond to mechanical stresses by using microtubules as sensing elements. Regenerating protoplasts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were used to determine whether cells can be induced to expand in a preferential direction in response to an externally applied unidirectional force. Additionally, an anti-microtubule herbicide was used to investigate the role of microtubules in the response to this force. Protoplasts were embedded in agarose, briefly centrifuged at 28 to 34g, and either cultured or immediately prepared for immunolocalization of their microtubules. The microtubules within many centrifuged protoplasts were found to be oriented parallel to the centrifugal force vector. Most protoplasts elongated with a preferential axis that was oriented 60 to 90 degrees to the applied force vector. Protoplasts treated transiently with the reversible microtubule-disrupting agent amiprophos-methyl (applied before and during centrifugation) elongated but without a preferential growth axis. These results indicate that brief biophysical forces may influence the alignment of cortical microtubules and that microtubules themselves act as biophysical responding elements. PMID:11536739

  15. The kinetochore-bound Ska1 complex tracks depolymerizing microtubules and binds to curved protofilaments

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jens C.; Arthanari, Haribabu; Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Dashkevich, Natalia M.; Wilson-Kubalek, Elizabeth M.; Monnier, Nilah; Markus, Michelle; Oberer, Monika; Milligan, Ron A.; Bathe, Mark; Wagner, Gerhard; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.; Cheeseman, Iain M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary To ensure equal chromosome segregation during mitosis, the macromolecular kinetochore must remain attached to depolymerizing microtubules, which drive chromosome movements. How kinetochores associate with depolymerizing microtubules, which undergo dramatic structural changes forming curved protofilaments, has yet to be defined in vertebrates. Here, we demonstrate that the conserved kinetochore-localized Ska1 complex tracks with depolymerizing microtubule ends and associates with both the microtubule lattice and curved protofilaments. In contrast, the Ndc80 complex, a central player in the kinetochore-microtubule interface, binds only to the straight microtubule lattice and lacks tracking activity. We demonstrate that the Ska1 complex imparts its tracking capability to the Ndc80 complex. Finally, we present a structure of the Ska1 microtubule binding domain that reveals its interaction with microtubules and its regulation by Aurora B. This work defines an integrated kinetochore-microtubule interface formed by the Ska1 and Ndc80 complexes that associates with depolymerizing microtubules, potentially by interacting with curved microtubule protofilaments. PMID:23085020

  16. Self protein-protein interactions are involved in TPPP/p25 mediated microtubule bundling

    PubMed Central

    DeBonis, Salvatore; Neumann, Emmanuelle; Skoufias, Dimitrios A.

    2015-01-01

    TPPP/p25 is a microtubule-associated protein, detected in protein inclusions associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Deletion analysis data show that TPPP/p25 has two microtubule binding sites, both located in intrinsically disordered domains, one at the N-terminal and the other in the C-terminal domain. In copolymerization assays the full-length protein exhibits microtubule stimulation and bundling activity. In contrast, at the same ratio relative to tubulin, truncated forms of TPPP/p25 exhibit either lower or no microtubule stimulation and no bundling activity, suggesting a cooperative phenomenon which is enhanced by the presence of the two binding sites. The binding characteristics of the N- and C-terminally truncated proteins to taxol-stabilized microtubules are similar to the full-length protein. However, the C-terminally truncated TPPP/p25 shows a lower Bmax for microtubule binding, suggesting that it may bind to a site of tubulin that is masked in microtubules. Bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays in cells expressing combinations of various TPPP/p25 fragments, but not that of the central folded domain, resulted in the generation of a fluorescence signal colocalized with perinuclear microtubule bundles insensitive to microtubule inhibitors. The data suggest that the central folded domain of TPPP/p25 following binding to microtubules can drive s homotypic protein-protein interactions leading to bundled microtubules. PMID:26289831

  17. Microtubule minus-end binding protein CAMSAP2 controls axon specification and dendrite development.

    PubMed

    Yau, Kah Wai; van Beuningen, Sam F B; Cunha-Ferreira, Inês; Cloin, Bas M C; van Battum, Eljo Y; Will, Lena; Schätzle, Philipp; Tas, Roderick P; van Krugten, Jaap; Katrukha, Eugene A; Jiang, Kai; Wulf, Phebe S; Mikhaylova, Marina; Harterink, Martin; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Akhmanova, Anna; Kapitein, Lukas C; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2014-06-01

    In neurons, most microtubules are not associated with a central microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), and therefore, both the minus and plus-ends of these non-centrosomal microtubules are found throughout the cell. Microtubule plus-ends are well established as dynamic regulatory sites in numerous processes, but the role of microtubule minus-ends has remained poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging, high-resolution microscopy, and laser-based microsurgery techniques, we show that the CAMSAP/Nezha/Patronin family protein CAMSAP2 specifically localizes to non-centrosomal microtubule minus-ends and is required for proper microtubule organization in neurons. CAMSAP2 stabilizes non-centrosomal microtubules and is required for neuronal polarity, axon specification, and dendritic branch formation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we found that non-centrosomal microtubules in dendrites are largely generated by ?-Tubulin-dependent nucleation. We propose a two-step model in which ?-Tubulin initiates the formation of non-centrosomal microtubules and CAMSAP2 stabilizes the free microtubule minus-ends in order to control neuronal polarity and development. PMID:24908486

  18. Effects of kinesin-5 inhibition on dendritic architecture and microtubule organization

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Olga I.; Sharma, Vandana; González-Billault, Christian; Baas, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Kinesin-5 is a slow homotetrameric motor protein best known for its essential role in the mitotic spindle, where it limits the rate at which faster motors can move microtubules. In neurons, experimental suppression of kinesin-5 causes the axon to grow faster by increasing the mobility of microtubules in the axonal shaft and the invasion of microtubules into the growth cone. Does kinesin-5 act differently in dendrites, given that they have a population of minus end–distal microtubules not present in axons? Using rodent primary neurons in culture, we found that inhibition of kinesin-5 during various windows of time produces changes in dendritic morphology and microtubule organization. Specifically, dendrites became shorter and thinner and contained a greater proportion of minus end–distal microtubules, suggesting that kinesin-5 acting normally restrains the number of minus end–distal microtubules that are transported into dendrites. Additional data indicate that, in neurons, CDK5 is the kinase responsible for phosphorylating kinesin-5 at Thr-926, which is important for kinesin-5 to associate with microtubules. We also found that kinesin-5 associates preferentially with microtubules rich in tyrosinated tubulin. This is consistent with an observed accumulation of kinesin-5 on dendritic microtubules, as they are known to be less detyrosinated than axonal microtubules. PMID:25355946

  19. Microtubule-associated proteins-dependent colchicine stability of acetylated cold-labile brain microtubules from the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Assembly of brain microtubule proteins isolated from the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, was found to be much less sensitive to colchicine than assembly of bovine brain microtubules, which was completely inhibited by low colchicine concentrations (10 microM). The degree of disassembly by colchicine was also less for cod microtubules. The lack of colchicine effect was not caused by a lower affinity of colchicine to cod tubulin, as colchicine bound to cod tubulin with a dissociation constant, Kd, and a binding ratio close to that of bovine tubulin. Cod brain tubulin was highly acetylated and mainly detyrosinated, as opposed to bovine tubulin. When cod tubulin, purified by means of phosphocellulose chromatography, was assembled by addition of DMSO in the absence of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), the microtubules became sensitive to low concentrations of colchicine. They were, however, slightly more stable to disassembly, indicating that posttranslational modifications induce a somewhat increased stability to colchicine. The stability was mainly MAPs dependent, as it increased markedly in the presence of MAPs. The stability was not caused by an extremely large amount of cod MAPs, since there were slightly less MAPs in cod than in bovine microtubules. When "hybrid" microtubules were assembled from cod tubulin and bovine MAPs, these microtubules became less sensitive to colchicine. This was not a general effect of MAPs, since bovine MAPs did not induce a colchicine stability of microtubules assembled from bovine tubulin. We can therefore conclude that MAPs can induce colchicine stability of colchicine labile acetylated tubulin. PMID:2010465

  20. Metallic Glass Wire Based Localization of Kinesin/Microtubule Bio-molecular Motility System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Sikora, A.; Yaginuma, S.; Nakayama, K. S.; Nakazawa, H.; Umetsu, M.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2014-03-01

    We report electrophoretic accumulation of microtubules along metallic glass (Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20) wires free-standing in solution. Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal filaments. Kinesin is a cytoskeletal motor protein. Functions of these bio-molecules are central to various dynamic cellular processes. Functional artificial organization of bio-molecules is a prerequisite for transferring their native functions into device applications. Fluorescence microscopy at the individual-microtubule level reveals microtubules aligning along the wire axis during the electrophoretic migration. Casein-treated electrodes are effective for releasing trapped microtubules upon removal of the external field. Furthermore, we demonstrate gliding motion of microtubules on kinesin-treated metallic glass wires. The reversible manner in the local adsorption of microtubules, the flexibility of wire electrodes, and the compatibility between the wire electrode and the bio-molecules are beneficial for spatio-temporal manipulation of the motility machinery in 3 dimensions.

  1. Tubulin bond energies and microtubule biomechanics determined from nanoindentation in silico

    E-print Network

    Kononova, Olga; Theisen, Kelly E; Marx, Kenneth A; Dima, Ruxandra I; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules, the primary components of the chromosome segregation machinery, are stabilized by longitudinal and lateral non-covalent bonds between the tubulin subunits. However, the thermodynamics of these bonds and the microtubule physico-chemical properties are poorly understood. Here, we explore the biomechanics of microtubule polymers using multiscale computational modeling and nanoindentations in silico of a contiguous microtubule fragment. A close match between the simulated and experimental force-deformation spectra enabled us to correlate the microtubule biomechanics with dynamic structural transitions at the nanoscale. Our mechanical testing revealed that the compressed MT behaves as a system of rigid elements interconnected through a network of lateral and longitudinal elastic bonds. The initial regime of continuous elastic deformation of the microtubule is followed by the transition regime, during which the microtubule lattice undergoes discrete structural changes, which include first the reversib...

  2. Redistribution of microtubules and pericentriolar material during the development of polarity in mouse blastomeres

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of microtubules and microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) during the development of cell polarity in eight-cell mouse blastomeres was studied by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy using monoclonal anti-tubulin antibodies and an anti- pericentriolar material (PCM) serum. In early eight-cell blastomeres microtubules were found mainly around the nucleus and in the cell cortex, whereas PCM foci were observed dispersed in the cytoplasm. During the eight-cell stage, microtubules disappeared from the area adjacent to the zone of intercellular contact and accumulated in the apical part of the cell while their number decreased in the basal domain. The PCM also relocalized to the apical domain of the cell, but this occurred after the redistribution of the microtubules by a mechanism that involved the microtubule network. The possible roles of both MTOCs and microtubules in establishing cell polarity are discussed. PMID:3571331

  3. Microtubule curvatures under perpendicular electric forces reveal a low persistence length

    PubMed Central

    Van den Heuvel, M. G. L.; de Graaff, M. P.; Dekker, C.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanics of microtubules, cylindrical protein filaments that constitute the cytoskeleton, have been well characterized on long length scales. Here, we investigate the persistence length of short (?0.1 ?m) ends of microtubules by measuring the trajectories of kinesin-propelled microtubules under perpendicular electric forces. We relate the measured trajectory curvatures to the biased thermal fluctuations of the leading microtubule end, and upon including all electrohydrodynamic forces, we find that the persistence length of the microtubule ends is only 0.08 ± 0.02 mm. This is significantly shorter than the well established value of ?4–8 mm that is measured for long microtubules. Our data are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions that microtubules mechanically behave as a loose assembly of independent protofilaments on these short length scales. PMID:18359849

  4. Dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A central question in plant cell development is how the cell wall determines directional cell expansion and therefore the final shape of the cell. As the major load-bearing component of the cell wall, cellulose microfibrils are laid down transversely to the axis of elongation, thus forming a spring-like structure that reinforces the cell laterally and while favoring longitudinal expansion in most growing cells. Mounting evidence suggests that cortical microtubules organize the deposition of cellulose microfibrils, but the precise molecular mechanisms linking microtubules to cellulose organization have remained unclear until the recent discovery of cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 , a linker protein between the cortical microtubules and the cellulose biosynthesizing machinery. In this review, we will focus on the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules, in particular, we will discuss microtubule arrangement and cell wall architecture, the linkage between cellulose synthase complexes and microtubules, and the feedback mechanisms between cell wall and microtubules. PMID:24659994

  5. Microtubule arrays in the cortex and near the germinal vesicle of immature starfish oocytes.

    PubMed

    Otto, J J; Schroeder, T E

    1984-02-01

    An extensive array of long, crisscrossing microtubules has been discovered in the cortex of oocytes of the starfish Pisaster ochraceus. The microtubules were visualized in cortex preparations by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies to tubulin. The cortical array of microtubules is present in all oocytes before and for about 30 min after the application of 1-methyladenine, the hormone that induces oocyte maturation. The presence of microtubules was confirmed by electron microscopy. The microtubules in this array are depolymerized when oocytes are treated with colchicine or nocodozole and are augmented when oocytes are treated with taxol. Dihydrocytochalasin B treatment of the oocytes causes the microtubules to aggregate, presumably by altering a microfilament network also found in the cortex. The distribution of microtubules was also explored in whole oocytes stained with antitubulin. One or two aster-like structures were observed adjacent to the germinal vesicle of each oocyte. PMID:6363161

  6. Microtubule depolymerization induces traction force increase through two distinct pathways.

    PubMed

    Rape, Andrew; Guo, Wei-hui; Wang, Yu-li

    2011-12-15

    Traction forces increase after microtubule depolymerization; however, the signaling mechanisms underlying this, in particular the dependence upon myosin II, remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism of traction force increase after nocodazole-induced microtubule depolymerization by applying traction force microscopy to cells cultured on micropatterned polyacrylamide hydrogels to obtain samples of homogeneous shape and size. Control cells and cells treated with a focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor showed similar increases in traction forces, indicating that the response is independent of FAK. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of myosin II did not prevent the increase of residual traction forces upon nocodazole treatment. This increase was abolished upon pharmacological inhibition of FAK. These results suggest two distinct pathways for the regulation of traction forces. First, microtubule depolymerization activates a myosin-II-dependent mechanism through a FAK-independent pathway. Second, microtubule depolymerization also enhances traction forces through a myosin-II-independent, FAK-regulated pathway. Traction forces are therefore regulated by a complex network of complementary signals and force-generating mechanisms. PMID:22193960

  7. Deviant kinetochore-microtubule dynamics underlie chromosomal instability

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Samuel F.; Genovese, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The persistent mal-attachment of microtubules to chromosomes at kinetochores is a major mechanism of chromosomal instability (CIN) [1, 2]. In normal diploid cells, mal-attachments arise spontaneously and are efficiently corrected to preserve genomic stability [3]. However, it is unknown if cancer cells with CIN possess the ability to efficiently correct attachment errors. Here we show that kinetochore-microtubule attachments in cancer cells with CIN are inherently more stable than those in normal diploid RPE-1 cells. The observed differences in attachment stability account for the persistence of mal-attachments into anaphase, where they cause chromosome mis-segregation. Furthermore, increasing the stability of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in normal diploid RPE-1 cells, either by depleting the tumor suppressor protein, APC, or the kinesin-13 protein, MCAK, is sufficient to promote chromosome segregation defects to levels comparable to those in cancer cells with CIN. Collectively, these data identify that cancer cells have a diminished capacity to correct erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments and accounts for the widespread occurrence of CIN in tumors [4]. PMID:19879145

  8. Prion protein inhibits microtubule assembly by inducing tubulin oligomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Nieznanski, Krzysztof . E-mail: k.nieznanski@nencki.gov.pl; Podlubnaya, Zoya A.; Nieznanska, Hanna

    2006-10-13

    A growing body of evidence points to an association of prion protein (PrP) with microtubular cytoskeleton. Recently, direct binding of PrP to tubulin has also been found. In this work, using standard light scattering measurements, sedimentation experiments, and electron microscopy, we show for First time the effect of a direct interaction between these proteins on tubulin polymerization. We demonstrate that full-length recombinant PrP induces a rapid increase in the turbidity of tubulin diluted below the critical concentration for microtubule assembly. This effect requires magnesium ions and is weakened by NaCl. Moreover, the PrP-induced light scattering structures of tubulin are cold-stable. In preparations of diluted tubulin incubated with PrP, electron microscopy revealed the presence of {approx}50 nm disc-shaped structures not reported so far. These unique tubulin oligomers may form large aggregates. The effect of PrP is more pronounced under the conditions promoting microtubule formation. In these tubulin samples, PrP induces formation of the above oligomers associated with short protofilaments and sheets of protofilaments into aggregates. Noticeably, this is accompanied by a significant reduction of the number and length of microtubules. Hence, we postulate that prion protein may act as an inhibitor of microtubule assembly by inducing formation of stable tubulin oligomers.

  9. Microtubules and vesicles under controlled tension D. Kuchnir Fygenson,1

    E-print Network

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    , a phospholipid bilayer is able to separate three-dimensional space into distinct re- gions. Yet, it cannot, and nearly as common in cells as the phospholipid bilayer. Microtubules are cylindrical aggregates diameter universal theme: phospho- lipid bilayers 1 . These are membranes that define the boundaries of and within

  10. Model of ionic currents through microtubule nanopores and the lumen

    E-print Network

    Holly Freedman; Vahid Rezania; Avner Priel; Eric Carpenter; Sergei Y. Noskovd; Jack A. Tuszynski

    2009-12-09

    It has been suggested that microtubules and other cytoskeletal filaments may act as electrical transmission lines. An electrical circuit model of the microtubule is constructed incorporating features of its cylindrical structure with nanopores in its walls. This model is used to study how ionic conductance along the lumen is affected by flux through the nanopores when an external potential is applied across its two ends. Based on the results of Brownian dynamics simulations, the nanopores were found to have asymmetric inner and outer conductances, manifested as nonlinear IV curves. Our simulations indicate that a combination of this asymmetry and an internal voltage source arising from the motion of the C-terminal tails causes a net current to be pumped across the microtubule wall and propagate down the microtubule through the lumen. This effect is demonstrated to enhance and add directly to the longitudinal current through the lumen resulting from an external voltage source, and could be significant in amplifying low-intensity endogenous currents within the cellular environment or as a nano-bioelectronic device.

  11. BMP signaling and microtubule organization regulate synaptic strength.

    PubMed

    Ball, R W; Peled, E S; Guerrero, G; Isacoff, E Y

    2015-04-16

    The strength of synaptic transmission between a neuron and multiple postsynaptic partners can vary considerably. We have studied synaptic heterogeneity using the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), which contains multiple synaptic connections of varying strengths between a motor axon and muscle fiber. In larval NMJs, there is a gradient of synaptic transmission from weak proximal to strong distal boutons. We imaged synaptic transmission with the postsynaptically targeted fluorescent calcium sensor SynapCam, to investigate the molecular pathways that determine synaptic strength and set up this gradient. We discovered that mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway disrupt production of strong distal boutons. We find that strong connections contain unbundled microtubules in the boutons, suggesting a role for microtubule organization in transmission strength. The spastin mutation, which disorganizes microtubules, disrupted the transmission gradient, supporting this interpretation. We propose that the BMP pathway, shown previously to function in the homeostatic regulation of synaptic growth, also boosts synaptic transmission in a spatially selective manner that depends on the microtubule system. PMID:25681521

  12. Spaceflight alters microtubules and increases apoptosis in human lymphocytes (Jurkat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Reynolds, J. L.; Cubano, L. A.; Hatton, J. P.; Lawless, B. D.; Piepmeier, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    Alteration in cytoskeletal organization appears to underlie mechanisms of gravity sensitivity in space-flown cells. Human T lymphoblastoid cells (Jurkat) were flown on the Space Shuttle to test the hypothesis that growth responsiveness is associated with microtubule anomalies and mediated by apoptosis. Cell growth was stimulated in microgravity by increasing serum concentration. After 4 and 48 h, cells filtered from medium were fixed with formalin. Post-flight, confocal microscopy revealed diffuse, shortened microtubules extending from poorly defined microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). In comparable ground controls, discrete microtubule filaments radiated from organized MTOCs and branched toward the cell membrane. At 4 h, 30% of flown, compared to 17% of ground, cells showed DNA condensation characteristic of apoptosis. Time-dependent increase of the apoptosis-associated Fas/ APO-1 protein in static flown, but not the in-flight 1 g centrifuged or ground controls, confirmed microgravity-associated apoptosis. By 48 h, ground cultures had increased by 40%. Flown populations did not increase, though some cells were cycling and actively metabolizing glucose. We conclude that cytoskeletal alteration, growth retardation, and metabolic changes in space-flown lymphocytes are concomitant with increased apoptosis and time-dependent elevation of Fas/APO-1 protein. We suggest that reduced growth response in lymphocytes during spaceflight is linked to apoptosis.

  13. Selective Vulnerability of Dopaminergic Neurons to Microtubule Depolymerization*

    E-print Network

    Feng, Jian

    vesicles. Inhibition of dopamine metabolism significantly reduced rotenone toxicity. Thus, our results suggest that microtubule depolymerization induced by PD toxins such as rotenone plays a key role found recently that long term, systemic administra- tion of rotenone, a natural substance widely used

  14. Effects of microtubule mechanics on hydrolysis and catastrophes

    E-print Network

    Kierfeld, Jan

    Effects of microtubule mechanics on hydrolysis and catastrophes N Müller and J Kierfeld Department modeling steric constraints to investigate the influence of mechanical forces on hydrolysis bending angle, which changes from °0 to °22 by hydrolysis of a dimer. This also affects the lateral

  15. Furrow microtubules and localized exocytosis in cleaving Xenopus laevis embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilchik, Michael V.; Bedrick, Steven D.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Ray, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    In dividing Xenopus eggs, furrowing is accompanied by expansion of a new domain of plasma membrane in the cleavage plane. The source of the new membrane is known to include a store of oogenetically produced exocytotic vesicles, but the site where their exocytosis occurs has not been described. Previous work revealed a V-shaped array of microtubule bundles at the base of advancing furrows. Cold shock or exposure to nocodazole halted expansion of the new membrane domain, which suggests that these microtubules are involved in the localized exocytosis. In the present report, scanning electron microscopy revealed collections of pits or craters, up to approximately 1.5 micro m in diameter. These pits are evidently fusion pores at sites of recent exocytosis, clustered in the immediate vicinity of the deepening furrow base and therefore near the furrow microtubules. Confocal microscopy near the furrow base of live embryos labeled with the membrane dye FM1-43 captured time-lapse sequences of individual exocytotic events in which irregular patches of approximately 20 micro m(2) of unlabeled membrane abruptly displaced pre-existing FM1-43-labeled surface. In some cases, stable fusion pores, approximately 2 micro m in diameter, were seen at the surface for up to several minutes before suddenly delivering patches of unlabeled membrane. To test whether the presence of furrow microtubule bundles near the surface plays a role in directing or concentrating this localized exocytosis, membrane expansion was examined in embryos exposed to D(2)O to induce formation of microtubule monasters randomly under the surface. D(2)O treatment resulted in a rapid, uniform expansion of the egg surface via random, ectopic exocytosis of vesicles. This D(2)O-induced membrane expansion was completely blocked with nocodazole, indicating that the ectopic exocytosis was microtubule-dependent. Results indicate that exocytotic vesicles are present throughout the egg subcortex, and that the presence of microtubules near the surface is sufficient to mobilize them for exocytosis at the end of the cell cycle.

  16. Temperature and pH govern the self-assembly of microtubules from unfertilized sea-urchin egg extracts

    E-print Network

    Suprenant, Kathy A.; Marsh, John C.

    1987-02-01

    . References ASAI, D. J. & WILSON, L. (1985). A latent activity dynein- like cytoplasmic magnesium adenosine triphosphatase. J. biol. Chetn. 260, 699-702. ASNES, C. F. & WILSON, L. (1981). Analysis of microtubule polymerization inhibitors in sea urchin egg... leads to microtubule assembly and microtubule-mediated motility during sea urchin fertilization: correlations between elevated intracellular pH and microtubule activity and depressed intracellular pH and microtubule disassembly. Eur.J. Cell Biol. 36, 116...

  17. Microtubule-Dependent Modulation of Adhesion Complex Composition

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Daniel H. J.; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Byron, Adam; Millon-Frémillon, Angélique; Humphries, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule network regulates the turnover of integrin-containing adhesion complexes to stimulate cell migration. Disruption of the microtubule network results in an enlargement of adhesion complex size due to increased RhoA-stimulated actomyosin contractility, and inhibition of adhesion complex turnover; however, the microtubule-dependent changes in adhesion complex composition have not been studied in a global, unbiased manner. Here we used label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to determine adhesion complex changes that occur upon microtubule disruption with nocodazole. Nocodazole-treated cells displayed an increased abundance of the majority of known adhesion complex components, but no change in the levels of the fibronectin-binding ?5?1 integrin. Immunofluorescence analyses confirmed these findings, but revealed a change in localisation of adhesion complex components. Specifically, in untreated cells, ?5-integrin co-localised with vinculin at peripherally located focal adhesions and with tensin at centrally located fibrillar adhesions. In nocodazole-treated cells, however, ?5-integrin was found in both peripherally located and centrally located adhesion complexes that contained both vinculin and tensin, suggesting a switch in the maturation state of adhesion complexes to favour focal adhesions. Moreover, the switch to focal adhesions was confirmed to be force-dependent as inhibition of cell contractility with the Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, prevented the nocodazole-induced conversion. These results highlight a complex interplay between the microtubule cytoskeleton, adhesion complex maturation state and intracellular contractile force, and provide a resource for future adhesion signaling studies. The proteomics data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001183. PMID:25526367

  18. Tubulin-G protein interactions involve microtubule polymerization domains

    SciTech Connect

    Nan Wang; Rasenick, M.M. )

    1991-11-12

    It has been suggested that elements of the cytoskeleton contribute to the signal transduction process and that they do so in association with one or more members of the signal-transducing G protein family. Relatively high-affinity binding between dimeric tubulin and the {alpha} subunits of G{sub s} and G{sub i1} has also been reported. Tubulin molecules, which exist in solution as {alpha}{beta} dimers, have binding domains for microtubule-associated proteins as well as for other tubulin dimers. This study represents an attempt to ascertain whether the association between G proteins and tubulin occurs at one of these sites. Removal of the binding site for MAP2 and tau from tubulin by subtilisin proteolysis did not influence the association of tubulin with G protein, as demonstrated in overlay studies with ({sup 125}I)tubulin. However, ring structures formed from subtilisin-treated tubulin were incapable of effecting such inhibition. Stable G protein-tubulin complexes were formed, and these were separated from free tubulin by Octyl-Sepharose chromatography. Using this methodology, it was demonstrated that assembled microtubules bound G protein quite weakly compared with tubulin dimers. The {alpha} subunit of G{sub i1} and, to a lesser extent, that of G{sub o} were demonstrated to inhibit microtubule polymerization. In aggregate, these data suggest that dimeric tubulin binds to the {alpha} subunits of G protein at the sites where it binds to other tubulin dimers during microtubule polymerization. Interaction with signal-transducing G proteins, thus, might represent a role for tubulin dimers which is independent of microtubule formation.

  19. Force fluctuations and polymerization dynamics of intracellular microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brangwynne, Clifford

    2008-03-01

    Microtubules are dynamic biopolymers within the cytoskeleton of living cells. They play a central role in many biological processes including cell division, migration, and cargo transport. Microtubules are significantly more rigid than other cytoskeletal biopolymers, such as actin filaments, and are insensitive to thermal fluctuations on cellular length scales. However, we show that intracellular microtubules exhibit bending amplitudes with a surprisingly thermal-like wavevector dependence, but with an apparent persistence length about 100 times smaller than that measured in vitro. By studying the time-dependent bending fluctuations of individual filaments, we find that the thermal-like bends are fluctuating significantly only on short length scales, while they are frozen-in on longer length scales [1], reminiscent of non-ergodic behavior seen in systems far from equilibrium. Long wavelength bends are suppressed by the surrounding elastic cytoskeleton, which confines bending to short length scales on the order of a few microns [2]. These short wavelength bending fluctuations naturally cause fluctuations in the orientation of the microtubule tip. Tip fluctuations result in a persistent random walk trajectory of microtubule growth, but with a small non-equilibrium persistence length, explaining the origin of quenched thermal-like bends. These results suggest that intracellular motor activity has a highly fluctuating character that dominates over thermal fluctuations, with important consequences for fundamental biological processes. [1] CP Brangwynne, FC MacKintosh, DA Weitz, PNAS, 104:16128 (2007). [2] CP Brangwynne, FC MacKintosh, S Kumar, NA Geisse, J Talbot, L. Mahadevan, KK Parker, DE Ingber, DA Weitz, JCB, 173:733 (2006).

  20. Natural leptogenesis and neutrino masses with two Higgs doublets

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Jackson D; Volkas, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The minimal Type I see-saw model cannot explain the observed neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis without ceding naturalness. We show that this conclusion can be avoided by adding a second Higgs doublet with $\\tan\\beta\\gtrsim 4$. The models considered naturally accommodate a SM-like Higgs boson, and predict TeV-scale scalar states and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with $10^3\\text{ GeV}\\lesssim M_{N_1}\\lesssim 10^8\\text{ GeV}$.

  1. Linear negative dispersion with a gain doublet via optomechanical interactions

    E-print Network

    Qin, Jiayi; Ma, Yiqiu; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2015-01-01

    Optical cavities containing a negative dispersion medium have been proposed as a means of improving the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors through the creation of white light signal recycling cavities. Here we classically demonstrate that negative dispersion can be realized using an optomechanical cavity pumped by a blue detuned doublet. We used an 85mm cavity with an intra-cavity silicon nitride membrane. Tunable negative dispersion is demonstrated, with a phase derivative $d\\varphi/df$ from $-0.14$ Deg$\\cdot$Hz$^{-1}$ to $-4.2\\times10^{-3}$ Deg$\\cdot$Hz$^{-1}$.

  2. Linear negative dispersion with a gain doublet via optomechanical interactions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayi; Zhao, Chunnong; Ma, Yiqiu; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2015-05-15

    Optical cavities containing a negative dispersion medium have been proposed as a means of improving the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors through the creation of white-light signal recycling cavities. Here we demonstrate that negative dispersion can be realized using an optomechanical cavity pumped by a blue detuned doublet. We used an 85-mm cavity with an intracavity silicon nitride membrane. Tunable negative dispersion is demonstrated, with a phase derivative d?/df from -0.14??Deg·Hz(-1) to -4.2×10(-3)??Deg·Hz(-1). PMID:26393733

  3. Constraints to Dark Matter from Inert Higgs Doublet Model

    E-print Network

    Díaz, Marco Aurelio; Urrutia-Quiroga, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    We study the Inert Higgs Doublet Model and its CP-even Higgs $H$ as the only source for dark matter. It is found that three mass regions of the CP-even Higgs can give the correct dark matter relic density. The low mass region (between 3 and 50 GeV) is ruled out. New direct dark matter detection experiments will probe the intermediate (between 60 and 100 GeV) and high (heavier than 550 GeV) mass regions. Collider experiments are advised to search for $D^\\pm \\to HW^\\pm$ decay in the two jets plus missing energy channel.

  4. Stabilizing versus Destabilizing the Microtubules: A Double-Edge Sword for an Effective Cancer Treatment Option?

    PubMed Central

    Fanale, Daniele; Bronte, Giuseppe; Passiglia, Francesco; Calò, Valentina; Castiglia, Marta; Di Piazza, Florinda; Barraco, Nadia; Cangemi, Antonina; Catarella, Maria Teresa; Insalaco, Lavinia; Listì, Angela; Maragliano, Rossella; Massihnia, Daniela; Perez, Alessandro; Toia, Francesca; Cicero, Giuseppe; Bazan, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are dynamic and structural cellular components involved in several cell functions, including cell shape, motility, and intracellular trafficking. In proliferating cells, they are essential components in the division process through the formation of the mitotic spindle. As a result of these functions, tubulin and microtubules are targets for anticancer agents. Microtubule-targeting agents can be divided into two groups: microtubule-stabilizing, and microtubule-destabilizing agents. The former bind to the tubulin polymer and stabilize microtubules, while the latter bind to the tubulin dimers and destabilize microtubules. Alteration of tubulin-microtubule equilibrium determines the disruption of the mitotic spindle, halting the cell cycle at the metaphase-anaphase transition and, eventually, resulting in cell death. Clinical application of earlier microtubule inhibitors, however, unfortunately showed several limits, such as neurological and bone marrow toxicity and the emergence of drug-resistant tumor cells. Here we review several natural and synthetic microtubule-targeting agents, which showed antitumor activity and increased efficacy in comparison to traditional drugs in various preclinical and clinical studies. Cryptophycins, combretastatins, ombrabulin, soblidotin, D-24851, epothilones and discodermolide were used in clinical trials. Some of them showed antiangiogenic and antivascular activity and others showed the ability to overcome multidrug resistance, supporting their possible use in chemotherapy. PMID:26484003

  5. The Non-Catalytic Domains of Drosophila Katanin Regulate Its Abundance and Microtubule-Disassembly Activity

    PubMed Central

    Grode, Kyle D.; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule severing is a biochemical reaction that generates an internal break in a microtubule and regulation of microtubule severing is critical for cellular processes such as ciliogenesis, morphogenesis, and meiosis and mitosis. Katanin is a conserved heterodimeric ATPase that severs and disassembles microtubules, but the molecular determinants for regulation of microtubule severing by katanin remain poorly defined. Here we show that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin regulate its abundance and activity in living cells. Our data indicate that the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain and adjacent linker region of the Drosophila katanin catalytic subunit Kat60 cooperate to regulate microtubule severing in two distinct ways. First, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 decrease its abundance by enhancing its proteasome-dependent degradation. The Drosophila katanin regulatory subunit Kat80, which is required to stabilize Kat60 in cells, conversely reduces the proteasome-dependent degradation of Kat60. Second, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 augment its microtubule-disassembly activity by enhancing its association with microtubules. On the basis of our data, we propose that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin serve as the principal sites of integration of regulatory inputs, thereby controlling its ability to sever and disassemble microtubules. PMID:25886649

  6. Changes in microtubule stability and density in myelin-deficient shiverer mouse CNS axons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, L. L.; Witt, A. S.; Payne, H. R.; Shine, H. D.; Brady, S. T.

    2001-01-01

    Altered axon-Schwann cell interactions in PNS myelin-deficient Trembler mice result in changed axonal transport rates, neurofilament and microtubule-associated protein phosphorylation, neurofilament density, and microtubule stability. To determine whether PNS and CNS myelination have equivalent effects on axons, neurofilaments, and microtubules in CNS, myelin-deficient shiverer axons were examined. The genetic defect in shiverer is a deletion in the myelin basic protein (MBP) gene, an essential component of CNS myelin. As a result, shiverer mice have little or no compact CNS myelin. Slow axonal transport rates in shiverer CNS axons were significantly increased, in contrast to the slowing in demyelinated PNS nerves. Even more striking were substantial changes in the composition and properties of microtubules in shiverer CNS axons. The density of axonal microtubules is increased, reflecting increased expression of tubulin in shiverer, and the stability of microtubules is drastically reduced in shiverer axons. Shiverer transgenic mice with two copies of a wild-type myelin basic protein transgene have an intermediate level of compact myelin, making it possible to determine whether the actual level of compact myelin is an important regulator of axonal microtubules. Both increased microtubule density and reduced microtubule stability were still observed in transgenic mouse nerves, indicating that signals beyond synaptogenesis and the mere presence of compact myelin are required for normal regulation of the axonal microtubule cytoskeleton.

  7. Nezha/CAMSAP3 and CAMSAP2 cooperate in epithelial-specific organization of noncentrosomal microtubules.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobutoshi; Meng, Wenxiang; Nagae, Shigenori; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2012-12-01

    Major microtubules in epithelial cells are not anchored to the centrosome, in contrast to the centrosomal radiation of microtubules in other cell types. It remains to be discovered how these epithelial microtubules are generated and stabilized at noncentrosomal sites. Here, we found that Nezha [also known as calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 3 (CAMSAP3)] and its related protein, CAMSAP2, cooperate in organization of noncentrosomal microtubules. These two CAMSAP molecules coclustered at the minus ends of noncentrosomal microtubules and thereby stabilized them. Depletion of CAMSAPs caused a marked reduction of microtubules with polymerizing plus ends, concomitantly inducing the growth of microtubules from the centrosome. In CAMSAP-depleted cells, early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus exhibited irregular distributions. These effects of CAMSAP depletion were maximized when both CAMSAPs were removed. These findings suggest that CAMSAP2 and -3 work together to maintain noncentrosomal microtubules, suppressing the microtubule-organizing ability of the centrosome, and that the network of CAMSAP-anchored microtubules is important for proper organelle assembly. PMID:23169647

  8. Motor-mediated cortical versus astral microtubule organization in lipid-monolayered droplets.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Hella; Surrey, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The correct spatial organization of microtubules is of crucial importance for determining the internal architecture of eukaryotic cells. Microtubules are arranged in space by a multitude of biochemical activities and by spatial constraints imposed by the cell boundary. The principles underlying the establishment of distinct intracellular architectures are only poorly understood. Here, we studied the effect of spatial confinement on the self-organization of purified motors and microtubules that are encapsulated in lipid-monolayered droplets in oil, varying in diameter from 5-100 ?m, which covers the size range of typical cell bodies. We found that droplet size alone had a major organizing influence. The presence of a microtubule-crosslinking motor protein decreased the number of accessible types of microtubule organizations. Depending on the degree of spatial confinement, the presence of the motor caused either the formation of a cortical array of bent microtubule bundles or the generation of single microtubule asters in the droplets. These are two of the most prominent forms of microtubule arrangements in plant and metazoan cells. Our results provide insights into the combined organizing influence of spatial constraints and cross-linking motor activities determining distinct microtubule architectures in a minimal biomimetic system. In the future, this simple lipid-monolayered droplet system characterized here can be expanded readily to include further biochemical activities or used as the starting point for the investigation of motor-mediated microtubule organization inside liposomes surrounded by a deformable lipid bilayer. PMID:24966327

  9. Ste20-related Protein Kinase LOSK (SLK) Controls Microtubule Radial Array in Interphase

    PubMed Central

    Burakov, Anton V.; Zhapparova, Olga N.; Kovalenko, Olga V.; Zinovkina, Liudmila A.; Potekhina, Ekaterina S.; Shanina, Nina A.; Weiss, Dieter G.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.

    2008-01-01

    Interphase microtubules are organized into a radial array with centrosome in the center. This organization is a subject of cellular regulation that can be driven by protein phosphorylation. Only few protein kinases that regulate microtubule array in interphase cells have been described. Ste20-like protein kinase LOSK (SLK) was identified as a microtubule and centrosome-associated protein. In this study we have shown that the inhibition of LOSK activity by dominant-negative mutant K63R-?T or by LOSK depletion with RNAi leads to unfocused microtubule arrangement. Microtubule disorganization is prominent in Vero, CV-1, and CHO-K1 cells but less distinct in HeLa cells. The effect is a result neither of microtubule stabilization nor of centrosome disruption. In cells with suppressed LOSK activity centrosomes are unable to anchor or to cap microtubules, though they keep nucleating microtubules. These centrosomes are depleted of dynactin. Vero cells overexpressing K63R-?T have normal dynactin “comets” at microtubule ends and unaltered morphology of Golgi complex but are unable to polarize it at the wound edge. We conclude that protein kinase LOSK is required for radial microtubule organization and for the proper localization of Golgi complex in various cell types. PMID:18287541

  10. Dendrites differ from axons in patterns of microtubule stability and polymerization during development

    PubMed Central

    Kollins, Katherine M; Bell, Robert L; Butts, Matthew; Withers, Ginger S

    2009-01-01

    Background Dendrites differ from axons in patterns of growth and development, as well as in morphology. Given that microtubules are key structural elements in cells, we assessed patterns of microtubule stability and polymerization during hippocampal neuron development in vitro to determine if these aspects of microtubule organization could distinguish axons from dendrites. Results Quantitative ratiometric immunocytochemistry identified significant differences in microtubule stability between axons and dendrites. Most notably, regardless of developmental stage, there were high levels of dynamic microtubules throughout the dendritic arbor, whereas dynamic microtubules were predominantly concentrated in the distal end of axons. Analysis of microtubule polymerization using green fluorescent protein-tagged EB1 showed both developmental and regional differences in microtubule polymerization between axons and dendrites. Early in development (for example, 1 to 2 days in vitro), polymerization events were distributed equally in both the anterograde and retrograde directions throughout the length of both axons and dendrites. As development progressed, however, polymerization became biased, with a greater number of polymerization events in distal than in proximal and middle regions. While polymerization occurred almost exclusively in the anterograde direction for axons, both anterograde and retrograde polymerization was observed in dendrites. This is in agreement with predicted differences in microtubule polarity within these compartments, although fewer retrograde events were observed in dendrites than expected. Conclusion Both immunocytochemical and live imaging analyses showed that newly formed microtubules predominated at the distal end of axons and dendrites, suggesting a common mechanism that incorporates increased microtubule polymerization at growing process tips. Dendrites had more immature, dynamic microtubules throughout the entire arbor than did axons, however. Identifying these differences in microtubule stability and polymerization is a necessary first step toward understanding how they are developmentally regulated, and may reveal novel mechanisms underlying neuron maturation and dendritic plasticity that extend beyond the initial specification of polarity. PMID:19602271

  11. Mechanical Aspects of Microtubule Bundling in Taxane-Treated Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, MunJu; Rejniak, Katarzyna A.

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules play an important role in many cellular processes, including mitotic spindle formation and cell division. Taxane-based anticancer treatments lead to the stabilization of microtubules, thus preventing the uncontrolled proliferation of tumor cells. One of the striking physical features of taxane-treated cells is the localization of their microtubules, which can be observed via fluorescent microscopy as an intense fluorescent band and are referred to as a microtubule bundle. With the recent advances in capturing and analyzing tumor cells circulating in a patient’s blood system, there is increasing interest in using these cells to examine a patient’s response to treatment. This includes taxanes that are used routinely in clinics to treat prostate, breast, lung, and other cancers. Here, we have used a computational model of microtubule mechanics to investigate self-arrangement patterns of stabilized microtubules, which allowed for the identification of specific combinations of three physical parameters: microtubule stiffness, intracellular viscosity, and cell shape, that can prevent the formation of microtubule bundles in cells with stabilized microtubules, such as taxane-treated cells. We also developed a method to quantify bundling in the whole microtubule aster structure and a way to compare the simulated results to fluorescent images from experimental data. Moreover, we investigated microtubule rearrangement in both suspended and attached cells and showed that the observed final microtubule patterns depend on the experimental protocol. The results from our computational studies can explain the heterogeneous bundling phenomena observed via fluorescent immunostaining from a mechanical point of view without relying on heterogeneous cellular responses to the microtubule-stabilizing drug. PMID:25185559

  12. Nanomechanical Model of Microtubule Translocation in the Presence of Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taesung; Kao, Ming-Tse; Hasselbrink, Ernest F.; Meyhöfer, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    Research efforts in recent years have been directed toward actively controlling the direction of translocation of microtubules on a kinesin-coated glass surface with E-fields (electric fields), opening up the possibility of engineering controllable nanodevices that integrate microtubules and motor proteins into their function. Here, we present a detailed, biophysical model that quantitatively describes our observations on the steering of microtubules by electric fields. A sudden application of an electric field parallel to the surface and normal to the translocation direction of a microtubule bends the leading end toward the anode, because Coulombic (electrophoretic) forces are dominant on negatively charged microtubules. Modeling this bending as a cantilever deflection with uniform loading requires accurate mechanical and electrical properties of microtubules, including their charge density, viscous drag, and flexural rigidity. We determined the charge density of microtubules from measurements of the electrophoretic mobility in a “zero flow” capillary electrophoresis column and estimate it to be 256 e? per micron of length. Viscous drag forces on deflecting microtubules in electroosmotic flows were studied theoretically and experimentally by directly characterizing flows using a caged dye imaging method. The flexural rigidity of microtubules was measured by applying E-fields to microtubules with biotinylated segments that were bound to streptavidin-coated surfaces. From the calculated loading, and the Bernoulli-Euler curvature and moment equation, we find that the flexural rigidity of microtubules depends on their length, suggesting microtubules are anisotropic. Finally, our model accurately predicts the biophysical properties and behavior of microtubules directed by E-fields, which opens new avenues for the design of biomolecular nanotransport systems. PMID:18234823

  13. Microtubule-bundling activity of the centrosomal protein, Cep169, and its binding to microtubules.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yusuke; Taniyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Sayori; Fukuchi, Hiroki; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2015-11-27

    CDK5RAP2 is a centrosomal protein that regulates the recruitment of a ?-tubulin ring complex (?-TuRC) onto centrosomes and microtubules (MTs) dynamics as a member of MT plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs). In our previous report, we found mammalian Cep169 as a CDK5RAP2 binding partner, and Cep169 accumulates at the distal ends of MTs and centrosomes, and coincides with CDK5RAP2. Depletion of Cep169 induces MT depolymerization, indicating that Cep169 targets MT tips and regulates stability and dynamics of MTs. However, how Cep169 contributes to the stabilization of MT remains unclear. Here we show that Cep169 is able to stabilize MTs and induces formation of long MT bundles with intense acetylation of MTs with CDK5RAP2, when expressed at higher levels in U2OS cells. In addition, we demonstrated that Cep169 forms homodimers through its N-terminal domain and directly interacts with MTs through its C-terminal domain. Interestingly, Cep169 mutants, which lack each domains, completely abolished the activity, respectively. Therefore, Cep169 bundles MTs and induces solid structure of MTs by crosslinking each adjacent MTs as a homodimer. PMID:26482847

  14. Precision measurements constraints on the number of Higgs doublets

    E-print Network

    A. E. Cárcamo Hernández; Sergey Kovalenko; Iván Schmidt

    2015-05-19

    We consider an extension of the Standard Model with an arbitrary number $N$ of Higgs doublets (NHDM), and calculate their contribution to the oblique parameters $S$ and $T$. We examine the possible limitations on $N$ from precision measurements of these parameters. In view of the complexity of the general case of NHDM, we analyze several benchmark scenarios for the Higgs mass spectrum, identifying the lightest CP-even Higgs with the Higgs-like particle recently observed at the LHC with the mass of $\\sim 125$ GeV. The rest of the Higgses are put above the mass scale of $\\sim 600$ GeV, below which the LHC experiments do not detect any Higgs-like signals except for the former famous one. We show that, in a scenario, with all the heavy Higgses degenerate at any scale, there are no limitations on the number $N$ of the Higgs doublets. However, upper limits appear for certain not completely degenerate configurations of the heavy Higgses.

  15. Next-to-minimal two Higgs Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien -Yi; Freid, Michael; Sher, Marc

    2014-04-07

    The simplest extension of the Two Higgs Doublet Model is the addition of a real scalar singlet, S. The effects of mixing between the singlet and the doublets can be manifested in two ways. It can modify the couplings of the 126 GeV Higgs boson, h, and it can lead to direct detection of the heavy Higgs at the LHC. In this paper, we show that in the type-I Model, for heavy Higgs masses in the 200-600 GeV range, the latter effect will be detected earlier than the former for most of parameter space. Should no such Higgs be discovered in this mass range, then the upper limit on the mixing will be sufficiently strong such that there will be no significant effects on the couplings of the h for most of parameter space. Thus, the reverse is true in the type-II model, the limits from measurements of the couplings of the h will dominate over the limits from non-observation of the heavy Higgs.

  16. Classical scale invariance in the inert doublet model

    E-print Network

    Plascencia, Alexis D

    2015-01-01

    The inert doublet model (IDM) is a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) that can account for the dark matter in the universe. Naturalness arguments motivate us to study whether the model can be embedded into a theory with dynamically generated scales. In this work we study a classically scale invariant version of the IDM with a minimal hidden sector, which has a $U(1)_{\\text{CW}}$ gauge symmetry and a complex scalar $\\Phi$. The mass scale is generated in the hidden sector via the Coleman-Weinberg (CW) mechanism and communicated to the two Higgs doublets via portal couplings. Since the CW scalar remains light, acquires a vacuum expectation value and mixes with the SM Higgs boson, the phenomenology of this construction can be modified with respect to the traditional IDM. We analyze the impact of adding this CW scalar and the $Z'$ gauge boson on the calculation of the dark matter relic density and on the spin-independent nucleon cross section for direct detection experiments. Finally, by studying the RG ...

  17. Probing the Inert Doublet Dark Matter Model with Cherenkov Telescopes

    E-print Network

    Camilo Garcia-Cely; Michael Gustafsson; Alejandro Ibarra

    2015-12-09

    We present a detailed study of the annihilation signals of the inert dark matter doublet model in its high mass regime. Concretely, we study the prospects to observe gamma-ray signals of the model in current and projected Cherenkov telescopes taking into account the Sommerfeld effect and including the contribution to the spectrum from gamma-ray lines as well as from internal bremsstrahlung. We show that present observations of the galactic center by the H.E.S.S. instrument are able exclude regions of the parameter space that give the correct dark matter relic abundance. In particular, models with the charged and the neutral components of the inert doublet nearly degenerate in mass have strong gamma-ray signals. Furthermore, for dark matter particle masses above 1 TeV, we find that the non-observation of the continuum of photons generated by the hadronization of the annihilation products typically give stronger constraints on the model parameters than the sharp spectral features associated to annihilation into monochromatic photons and the internal bremsstrahlung process. Lastly, we also analyze the interplay between indirect and direct detection searches for this model, concluding that the prospects for the former are more promising. In particular, we find that the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array will be able to probe a significant part of the high mass regime of the model.

  18. Next-to-minimal two Higgs Doublet Model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Chien -Yi; Freid, Michael; Sher, Marc

    2014-04-07

    The simplest extension of the Two Higgs Doublet Model is the addition of a real scalar singlet, S. The effects of mixing between the singlet and the doublets can be manifested in two ways. It can modify the couplings of the 126 GeV Higgs boson, h, and it can lead to direct detection of the heavy Higgs at the LHC. In this paper, we show that in the type-I Model, for heavy Higgs masses in the 200-600 GeV range, the latter effect will be detected earlier than the former for most of parameter space. Should no such Higgs be discoveredmore »in this mass range, then the upper limit on the mixing will be sufficiently strong such that there will be no significant effects on the couplings of the h for most of parameter space. Thus, the reverse is true in the type-II model, the limits from measurements of the couplings of the h will dominate over the limits from non-observation of the heavy Higgs.« less

  19. Cilia-like beating of active microtubule bundles.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Timothy; Welch, David; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2011-07-22

    The mechanism that drives the regular beating of individual cilia and flagella, as well as dense ciliary fields, remains unclear. We describe a minimal model system, composed of microtubules and molecular motors, which self-assemble into active bundles exhibiting beating patterns reminiscent of those found in eukaryotic cilia and flagella. These observations suggest that hundreds of molecular motors, acting within an elastic microtubule bundle, spontaneously synchronize their activity to generate large-scale oscillations. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that densely packed, actively bending bundles spontaneously synchronize their beating patterns to produce collective behavior similar to metachronal waves observed in ciliary fields. The simple in vitro system described here could provide insights into beating of isolated eukaryotic cilia and flagella, as well as their synchronization in dense ciliary fields. PMID:21778400

  20. Contributions of microtubule rotation and dynamic instability to kinetochore capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweezy-Schindler, Oliver; Edelmaier, Christopher; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matt; Betterton, Meredith

    2014-03-01

    The capture of lost kinetochores (KCs) by microtubules (MTs) is a crucial part of prometaphase during mitosis. Microtubule dynamic instability has been considered the primary mechanism of KC capture, but recent work discovered that lateral KC attachment to pivoting MTs enabled rapid capture even with significantly reduced MT dynamics. We aim to understand the relative contributions of MT rotational diffusion and dynamic instability to KC capture, as well as KC capture through end-on and/or lateral attachment. Our model consists of rigid MTs and a spherical KC, which are allowed to diffuse inside a spherical nuclear envelope consistent with the geometry of fission yeast. For simplicity, we include a single spindle pole body, which is anchored to the nuclear membrane, and its associated polar MTs. Brownian dynamics treats the diffusion of the MTs and KC and kinetic Monte Carlo models stochastic processes such as dynamic instability. NSF 1546021.

  1. Microtubule-driven nuclear rotations promote meiotic chromosome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Christophorou, Nicolas; Rubin, Thomas; Bonnet, Isabelle; Piolot, Tristan; Arnaud, Marion; Huynh, Jean-René

    2015-11-01

    At the onset of meiosis, each chromosome needs to find its homologue and pair to ensure proper segregation. In Drosophila, pairing occurs during the mitotic cycles preceding meiosis. Here we show that germ cell nuclei undergo marked movements during this developmental window. We demonstrate that microtubules and Dynein are driving nuclear rotations and are required for centromere pairing and clustering. We further found that Klaroid (SUN) and Klarsicht (KASH) co-localize with centromeres at the nuclear envelope and are required for proper chromosome motions and pairing. We identified Mud (NuMA in vertebrates) as co-localizing with centromeres, Klarsicht and Klaroid. Mud is also required to maintain the integrity of the nuclear envelope and for the correct assembly of the synaptonemal complex. Our findings reveal a mechanism for chromosome pairing in Drosophila, and indicate that microtubules, centrosomes and associated proteins play a crucial role in the dynamic organization of chromosomes inside the nucleus. PMID:26458247

  2. A Bio-Polymer Transistor: Electrical Amplification by Microtubules

    E-print Network

    Avner Priel; Arnolt J. Ramos; Jack A. Tuszynski; Horacio F. Cantiello

    2006-06-09

    Microtubules (MTs) are important cytoskeletal structures, engaged in a number of specific cellular activities, including vesicular traffic, cell cyto-architecture and motility, cell division, and information processing within neuronal processes. MTs have also been implicated in higher neuronal functions, including memory, and the emergence of "consciousness". How MTs handle and process electrical information, however, is heretofore unknown. Here we show new electrodynamic properties of MTs. Isolated, taxol-stabilized microtubules behave as bio-molecular transistors capable of amplifying electrical information. Electrical amplification by MTs can lead to the enhancement of dynamic information, and processivity in neurons can be conceptualized as an "ionic-based" transistor, which may impact among other known functions, neuronal computational capabilities.

  3. Chromosomal attachments set length and microtubule number in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle.

    PubMed

    Nannas, Natalie J; O'Toole, Eileen T; Winey, Mark; Murray, Andrew W

    2014-12-15

    The length of the mitotic spindle varies among different cell types. A simple model for spindle length regulation requires balancing two forces: pulling, due to micro-tubules that attach to the chromosomes at their kinetochores, and pushing, due to interactions between microtubules that emanate from opposite spindle poles. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that spindle length scales with kinetochore number, increasing when kinetochores are inactivated and shortening on addition of synthetic or natural kinetochores, showing that kinetochore-microtubule interactions generate an inward force to balance forces that elongate the spindle. Electron microscopy shows that manipulating kinetochore number alters the number of spindle microtubules: adding extra kinetochores increases the number of spindle microtubules, suggesting kinetochore-based regulation of microtubule number. PMID:25318669

  4. Kinesin-1 Translocation along Human Breast Cancer Cell Microtubules in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Jun, Yonggun

    2015-03-01

    A principle approach to better understand intra-cellular microtubule based transport is to study such it in vitro. Such in vitro examinations have predominantly used microtubules polymerized from bovine brain tubulin, but motor function can also in principle be affected by the specific tubulin isotypes present in different cells. The human breast cancer cells carry different beta tubulin isotype distribution. However, it is entirely unknown whether transport along the microtubules is different in these cells. In this work we have characterized, for the first time, the translocation specifications of kinesin-1 along human breast cancer cell microtubules polymerized in vitro. We found that as compared with the translocation along bovine brain microtubules, kinesin-1 shows a fifty percent shorter processive run length and slightly slower velocity under similar experimental conditions. These first time results support the regulatory role of tubulin isotypes in regards to motor protein translocations, and quantify the translocation specifications of kinesin-1 along microtubules of human breast cancer cells.

  5. Using computational modeling to understand microtubule dynamics: A primer for cell biologists.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Holly V; Gregoretti, Ivan V

    2010-01-01

    Experimental cell biology, biochemistry, and structural biology have provided a wealth of information about microtubule function and mechanism, but we are reaching a limit as to what can be understood from experiment alone. Standard biochemical approaches are not sufficient to make quantitative predictions about microtubule behavior, and they are limited in their ability to test existing conceptual models of microtubule mechanism. Because microtubules are so complex, achieving a deep understanding of microtubule behavior and mechanism will require the input of mathematical and computational modeling. However, this type of analysis can be daunting to the uninitiated. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a straightforward introduction to the various types of modeling and how they can be used to study microtubule function, dynamics, and mechanism. PMID:20466135

  6. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-08-10

    Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin "clouds" are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10's role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles. PMID:26235048

  7. STOP Proteins are Responsible for the High Degree of Microtubule Stabilization Observed in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guillaud, Laurent; Bosc, Christophe; Fourest-Lieuvin, Anne; Denarier, Eric; Pirollet, Fabienne; Lafanechère, Laurence; Job, Didier

    1998-01-01

    Neuronal differentiation and function require extensive stabilization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Neurons contain a large proportion of microtubules that resist the cold and depolymerizing drugs and exhibit slow subunit turnover. The origin of this stabilization is unclear. Here we have examined the role of STOP, a calmodulin-regulated protein previously isolated from cold-stable brain microtubules. We find that neuronal cells express increasing levels of STOP and of STOP variants during differentiation. These STOP proteins are associated with a large proportion of microtubules in neuronal cells, and are concentrated on cold-stable, drug-resistant, and long-lived polymers. STOP inhibition abolishes microtubule cold and drug stability in established neurites and impairs neurite formation. Thus, STOP proteins are responsible for microtubule stabilization in neurons, and are apparently required for normal neurite formation. PMID:9660871

  8. Relative velocity of sliding of microtubules by the action of Kinesin-5

    E-print Network

    Sthitadhi Roy

    2011-03-10

    Kinesin-5, also known as Eg5 in vertebrates is a processive motor with 4 heads, which moves on filamentous tracks called microtubules. The basic function of Kinesin-5 is to slide apart two anti-parallel microtubules by simultaneously walking on both the microtubules. We develop an analytical expression for the steady-state relative velocity of this sliding in terms of the rates of attachments and detachments of motor heads with the ATPase sites on the microtubules. We first analyse the motion of one pair of motor heads on one microtubule and then couple it to the motion of the other pair of motor heads of the same motor on the second microtubule to get the relative velocity of sliding.

  9. Chromosomal attachments set length and microtubule number in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle

    PubMed Central

    Nannas, Natalie J.; O’Toole, Eileen T.; Winey, Mark; Murray, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    The length of the mitotic spindle varies among different cell types. A simple model for spindle length regulation requires balancing two forces: pulling, due to micro­tubules that attach to the chromosomes at their kinetochores, and pushing, due to interactions between microtubules that emanate from opposite spindle poles. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that spindle length scales with kinetochore number, increasing when kinetochores are inactivated and shortening on addition of synthetic or natural kinetochores, showing that kinetochore–microtubule interactions generate an inward force to balance forces that elongate the spindle. Electron microscopy shows that manipulating kinetochore number alters the number of spindle microtubules: adding extra kinetochores increases the number of spindle microtubules, suggesting kinetochore-based regulation of microtubule number. PMID:25318669

  10. The role of microtubules in contractile ring function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, A. H.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    During cytokinesis, a cortical contractile ring forms around a cell, constricts to a stable tight neck and terminates in separation of the daughter cells. At first cleavage, Ilyanassa obsoleta embryos form two contractile rings simultaneously. The cleavage furrow (CF), in the animal hemisphere between the spindle poles, constricts to a stable tight neck and separates the daughter cells. The third polar lobe constriction (PLC-3), in the vegetal hemisphere below the spindle, constricts to a transient tight neck, but then relaxes, allowing the polar lobe cytoplasm to merge with one daughter cell. Eggs exposed to taxol, a drug that stabilizes microtubules, before the CF or the PLC-3 develop, fail to form CFs, but form stabilized tight PLCs. Eggs exposed to taxol at the time of PLC-3 formation develop varied numbers of constriction rings in their animal hemispheres and one PLC in their vegetal hemisphere, none of which relax. Eggs exposed to taxol after PLC-3 initiation form stabilized tight CFs and PLCs. At maximum constriction, control embryos display immunolocalization of nonextractable alpha-tubulin in their CFs, but not in their PLCs, and reveal, via electron microscopy, many microtubules extending through their CFs, but not through their PLCs. Embryos which form stabilized tightly constricted CFs and PLCs in the presence of taxol display immunolocalization of nonextractable alpha-tubulin in both constrictions and show many polymerized microtubules extending through both CFs and PLCs. These results suggest that the extension of microtubules through a tight contractile ring may be important for stabilizing that constriction and facilitating subsequent cytokinesis.

  11. Doublet Production in the Development of Medieval and Modern Spanish: New Approaches to Phonolexical Duplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Darren W.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers new approaches to an old and well-known problem in the study of the development of Romance varieties: duplicate lexis or doublets. Traditional analyses of duplication are narrow in scope both in what qualifies as a doublet (the popular/learned opposition has dominated, to the exclusion of other pairs) and in channels of…

  12. Multiple chiral doublet candidate nucleus $^{105}$Rh in a relativistic mean-field approach

    E-print Network

    Jian Li; S. Q. Zhang; J. Meng

    2011-03-25

    Following the reports of two pairs of chiral doublet bands observed in $^{105}$Rh, the adiabatic and configuration-fixed constrained triaxial relativistic mean-field (RMF) calculations are performed to investigate their triaxial deformations with the corresponding configuration and the possible multiple chiral doublet (M$\\chi$D) phenomenon. The existence of M$\\chi$D phenomenon in $^{105}$Rh is highly expected.

  13. Structural organization of the dynein-dynactin complex bound to microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Saikat; Ketcham, Stephanie A.; Schroer, Trina A.; Lander, Gabriel C.

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein associates with dynactin to drive cargo movement on microtubules, but the structure of the dynein-dynactin complex is unknown. Using electron microscopy, we determined the organization of native bovine dynein, dynactin, and the dynein-dynactin-microtubule quaternary complex. In the microtubule-bound complex, the dynein motor domains are positioned for processive unidirectional movement and the cargo binding domains of both dynein and dynactin are accessible. PMID:25751425

  14. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji; Habu, Toshiyuki; Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 ; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871 ; Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko; Obuse, Chikashi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  15. Short-circuiting microtubule plus and minus end proteins in spindle positioning.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Stephen L

    2014-01-13

    Proteins residing at the plus and minus ends of microtubules have been thought not to communicate with each other, but recent findings on bona fide nucleation factors also regulating microtubule dynamics have challenged this notion. New work by Bouissou et al (2014) in The EMBO Journal now reveals that interplay between the nucleation factor ??TuRC and the plus?end tracking protein EB1 controls mitotic spindle positioning by affecting the stability and dynamics of astral microtubules. PMID:24421323

  16. Effects of microtubule mechanics on hydrolysis and catastrophes

    E-print Network

    Nina Müller; Jan Kierfeld

    2014-06-05

    We introduce a model for microtubule mechanics containing lateral bonds between dimers in neighboring protofilaments, bending rigidity of dimers, and repulsive interactions between protofilaments modeling steric constraints to investigate the influence of mechanical forces on hydrolysis and catastrophes. We use the allosteric dimer model, where tubulin dimers are characterized by an equilibrium bending angle, which changes from $0^\\circ$ to $22^\\circ$ by hydrolysis of a dimer. This also affects the lateral interaction and bending energies and, thus, the mechanical equilibrium state of the microtubule. As hydrolysis gives rise to conformational changes in dimers, mechanical forces also influence the hydrolysis rates by mechanical energy changes modulating the hydrolysis rate. The interaction via the microtubule mechanics then gives rise to correlation effects in the hydrolysis dynamics, which have not been taken into account before. Assuming a dominant influence of mechanical energies on hydrolysis rates, we investigate the most probable hydrolysis pathways both for vectorial and random hydrolysis. Investigating the stability with respect to lateral bond rupture, we identify initiation configurations for catastrophes along the hydrolysis pathways and values for a lateral bond rupture force. If we allow for rupturing of lateral bonds between dimers in neighboring protofilaments above this threshold force, our model exhibits avalanche-like catastrophe events.

  17. Bidirectional actin transport is influenced by microtubule and actin stability.

    PubMed

    Chetta, Joshua; Love, James M; Bober, Brian G; Shah, Sameer B

    2015-11-01

    Local and long-distance transport of cytoskeletal proteins is vital to neuronal maintenance and growth. Though recent progress has provided insight into the movement of microtubules and neurofilaments, mechanisms underlying the movement of actin remain elusive, in large part due to rapid transitions between its filament states and its diverse cellular localization and function. In this work, we integrated live imaging of rat sensory neurons, image processing, multiple regression analysis, and mathematical modeling to perform the first quantitative, high-resolution investigation of GFP-actin identity and movement in individual axons. Our data revealed that filamentous actin densities arise along the length of the axon and move short but significant distances bidirectionally, with a net anterograde bias. We directly tested the role of actin and microtubules in this movement. We also confirmed a role for actin densities in extension of axonal filopodia, and demonstrated intermittent correlation of actin and mitochondrial movement. Our results support a novel mechanism underlying slow component axonal transport, in which the stability of both microtubule and actin cytoskeletal components influence the mobility of filamentous actin. PMID:26043972

  18. Structural Heterogeneity of Mitochondria Induced by the Microtubule Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sukhorukov, Valerii M.; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    By events of fusion and fission mitochondria generate a partially interconnected, irregular network of poorly specified architecture. Here, its organization is examined theoretically by taking into account the physical association of mitochondria with microtubules. Parameters of the cytoskeleton mesh are derived from the mechanics of single fibers. The model of the mitochondrial reticulum is formulated in terms of a dynamic spatial graph. The graph dynamics is modulated by the density of microtubules and their crossings. The model reproduces the full spectrum of experimentally found mitochondrial configurations. In centrosome-organized cells, the chondriome is predicted to develop strong structural inhomogeneity between the cell center and the periphery. An integrated analysis of the cytoskeletal and the mitochondrial components reveals that the structure of the reticulum depends on the balance between anterograde and retrograde motility of mitochondria on microtubules, in addition to fission and fusion. We propose that it is the combination of the two processes that defines synergistically the mitochondrial structure, providing the cell with ample capabilities for its regulative adaptation. PMID:26355039

  19. Targeting Microtubules by Natural Agents for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds that target microtubules and disrupt the normal function of the mitotic spindle have proven to be one of the best classes of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs available in clinics to date. There is increasing evidence showing that even minor alteration of microtubule dynamics can engage the spindle checkpoint, arresting cell cycle progression at mitosis and subsequently leading to cell death. Our improved understanding of tumor biology and our continued appreciation for what the microtubule target agents (MTAs) can do has helped pave the way for a new era in the treatment of cancer. The effectiveness of these agents for cancer therapy has been impaired, however, by various side effects and drug resistance. Several new MTAs have shown potent activity against the proliferation of various cancer cells, including resistance to the existing MTAs. Sustained investigation of the mechanisms of action of MTAs, development and discovery of new drugs, and exploring new treatment strategies that reduce side effects and circumvent drug resistance could provide more effective therapeutic options for cancer patients. This review focuses on the successful cancer chemotherapy from natural compounds in clinical settings and the challenges that may abort their usefulness. PMID:24435445

  20. Quantitative analysis of microtubule self-assembly kinetics and tip structure.

    PubMed

    Prahl, Louis S; Castle, Brian T; Gardner, Melissa K; Odde, David J

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are dynamic polymers of the cytoskeleton, which play important roles in cell division, polarization, and intracellular transport. Self-assembly of microtubule polymer from ??-tubulin heterodimers is highly variable, with stochastic switching between alternate states of net growth and net shortening, a phenomenon known as dynamic instability. Microtubule tip structures are also variable and directly influence the kinetics of assembly and vice versa. TipTracker, a semiautomated, image processing-based tool, permits high spatial and temporal resolution measurements from fluorescence microscopy images (~10-40 nm, or 1-5 dimer lengths, at 1-10 Hz) with simultaneous tip structure estimation. We provide a walkthrough of the TipTracker code to demonstrate methods used to (1) fit the coordinates of the microtubule backbone; (2) track microtubule tip position; and (3) estimate tip structure from the spatial decay of the tip fluorescence distribution, discuss possible sources of error, and include an example protocol for nanometer-scale tip tracking in living cells. Additionally, we evaluate TipTracker's accuracy on simulated digital images and fixed microtubules to estimate accuracy under realistic imaging conditions. In summary, this chapter demonstrates the use of TipTracker in making robust, high-resolution measurements of microtubule tip dynamics and structures, facilitating quantitative investigations into nanoscale/molecular control of microtubule assembly. Although our primary focus is on microtubules, these methods are, in principle, suitable for other polymer structures, such as F-actin. PMID:24630100

  1. DHTP is an allosteric inhibitor of the kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerases.

    PubMed

    Talje, Lama; Ben El Kadhi, Khaled; Atchia, Kaleem; Tremblay-Boudreault, Thierry; Carreno, Sébastien; Kwok, Benjamin H

    2014-06-27

    The kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerases is a major regulator of microtubule dynamics. RNA interference-induced knockdown studies have highlighted their importance in many cell division processes including spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. Since microtubule turnovers and most mitotic events are relatively rapid (in minutes or seconds), developing tools that offer faster control over protein functions is therefore essential to more effectively interrogate kinesin-13 activities in living cells. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a selective allosteric kinesin-13 inhibitor, DHTP. Using high resolution microscopy, we show that DHTP is cell permeable and can modulate microtubule dynamics in cells. PMID:24859087

  2. Aurora B phosphorylates spatially distinct targets to differentially regulate the kinetochore-microtubule interface

    E-print Network

    Welburn, Julie P. I.

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires carefully regulated interactions between kinetochores and microtubules, but how plasticity is achieved to correct diverse attachment defects remains unclear. Here we demonstrate ...

  3. Xnf7 contributes to spindle integrity through its microtubule-bundling activity.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Thomas J; Niederstrasser, Hanspeter; Weis, Karsten; Heald, Rebecca

    2005-10-11

    Regulation of microtubule dynamics and organization in mitosis by a number of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) is required for proper bipolar spindle assembly, yet the precise mechanisms by which many MAPs function are poorly understood. One interesting class of MAPs is known to localize to the nucleus during interphase yet fulfill important spindle functions during mitosis. We have identified Xenopus nuclear factor 7 (Xnf7), a developmental regulator of dorsal-ventral patterning, as a microtubule-binding protein that also associates with the nuclear import receptor importin alpha/beta. Xnf7 localized to interphase nuclei and metaphase spindles both in Xenopus egg extracts and cultured cells. Xnf7-depleted spindles were hypersensitive to microtubule-depolymerizing agents. Functional characterization of Xnf7 revealed that it binds directly to microtubules, exhibits RING-finger-dependent E3-ubiquitin-ligase activity, and has C-terminal-dependent microtubule-bundling activity. The minimal microtubule-bundling domain of Xnf7 was sufficient to rescue the spindle-hypersensitivity phenotype. Thus, we have identified Xnf7 as a nuclear MAP whose microtubule-bundling activity, but not E3-ligase activity, contributes to microtubule organization and spindle integrity. Characterization of the multiple activities of Xnf7 may have implications for understanding human diseases caused by mutations in related proteins. PMID:16213823

  4. Coupled oscillations of a protein microtubule immersed in cytoplasm: an orthotropic elastic shell modeling.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Farhang; Amabili, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Revealing vibration characteristics of sub-cellular structural components such as membranes and microtubules has a principal role in obtaining a deeper understanding of their biological functions. Nevertheless, limitations and challenges in biological experiments at this scale necessitates the use of mathematical and computational models as an alternative solution. As one of the three major cytoskeletal filaments, microtubules are highly anisotropic structures built from tubulin heterodimers. They are hollow cylindrical shells with a ? 25 nm outer diameter and are tens of microns long. In this study, a mechanical model including the effects of the viscous cytosol and surrounding filaments is developed for predicting the coupled oscillations of a single microtubule immersed in cytoplasm. The first-order shear deformation shell theory for orthotropic materials is used to model the microtubule, whereas the motion of the cytosol is analyzed by considering the Stokes flow. The viscous cytosol and the microtubule are coupled through the continuity condition across the microtubule-cytosol interface. The stress and velocity fields in the cytosol induced by vibrating microtubule are analytically determined. Finally, the influences of the dynamic viscosity of the cytosol, filament network elasticity, microtubule shear modulus, and circumferential wave-number on longitudinal, radial, and torsional modes of microtubule vibration are elucidated. PMID:23729907

  5. The Kinetochore-Bound Ska1 Complex Tracks Depolymerizing Microtubules and Binds to Curved Protofilaments

    E-print Network

    Arthanari, Haribabu

    To ensure equal chromosome segregation during mitosis, the macromolecular kinetochore must remain attached to depolymerizing microtubules, which drive chromosome movements. How kinetochores associate with depolymerizing ...

  6. Astral microtubule pivoting promotes their search for cortical anchor sites during mitosis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Baumgärtner, Stephan; Toli?, Iva M

    2014-01-01

    Positioning of the mitotic spindle is crucial for proper cell division. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two mechanisms contribute to spindle positioning. In the Kar9 pathway, astral microtubules emanating from the daughter-bound spindle pole body interact via the linker protein Kar9 with the myosin Myo2, which moves the microtubule along the actin cables towards the neck. In the dynein pathway, astral microtubules off-load dynein onto the cortical anchor protein Num1, which is followed by dynein pulling on the spindle. Yet, the mechanism by which microtubules target cortical anchor sites is unknown. Here we quantify the pivoting motion of astral microtubules around the spindle pole bodies, which occurs during spindle translocation towards the neck and through the neck. We show that this pivoting is largely driven by the Kar9 pathway. The microtubules emanating from the daughter-bound spindle pole body pivot faster than those at the mother-bound spindle pole body. The Kar9 pathway reduces the time needed for an astral microtubule inside the daughter cell to start pulling on the spindle. Thus, we propose a new role for microtubule pivoting: By pivoting around the spindle pole body, microtubules explore the space laterally, which helps them search for cortical anchor sites in the context of spindle positioning in budding yeast. PMID:24721997

  7. TOG Proteins Are Spatially Regulated by Rac-GSK3? to Control Interphase Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Trogden, Kathryn P.; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are regulated by a diverse set of proteins that localize to microtubule plus ends (+TIPs) where they regulate dynamic instability and mediate interactions with the cell cortex, actin filaments, and organelles. Although individual +TIPs have been studied in depth and we understand their basic contributions to microtubule dynamics, there is a growing body of evidence that these proteins exhibit cross-talk and likely function to collectively integrate microtubule behavior and upstream signaling pathways. In this study, we have identified a novel protein-protein interaction between the XMAP215 homologue in Drosophila, Mini spindles (Msps), and the CLASP homologue, Orbit. These proteins have been shown to promote and suppress microtubule dynamics, respectively. We show that microtubule dynamics are regionally controlled in cells by Rac acting to suppress GSK3? in the peripheral lamellae/lamellipodium. Phosphorylation of Orbit by GSK3? triggers a relocalization of Msps from the microtubule plus end to the lattice. Mutation of the Msps-Orbit binding site revealed that this interaction is required for regulating microtubule dynamic instability in the cell periphery. Based on our findings, we propose that Msps is a novel Rac effector that acts, in partnership with Orbit, to regionally regulate microtubule dynamics. PMID:26406596

  8. An ELMO2-RhoG-ILK network modulates microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Bradley C.; Ivanova, Iordanka A.; Dagnino, Lina

    2015-01-01

    ELMO2 belongs to a family of scaffold proteins involved in phagocytosis and cell motility. ELMO2 can simultaneously bind integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and RhoG, forming tripartite ERI complexes. These complexes are involved in promoting ?1 integrin–dependent directional migration in undifferentiated epidermal keratinocytes. ELMO2 and ILK have also separately been implicated in microtubule regulation at integrin-containing focal adhesions. During differentiation, epidermal keratinocytes cease to express integrins, but ERI complexes persist. Here we show an integrin-independent role of ERI complexes in modulation of microtubule dynamics in differentiated keratinocytes. Depletion of ERI complexes by inactivating the Ilk gene in these cells reduces microtubule growth and increases the frequency of catastrophe. Reciprocally, exogenous expression of ELMO2 or RhoG stabilizes microtubules, but only if ILK is also present. Mechanistically, activation of Rac1 downstream from ERI complexes mediates their effects on microtubule stability. In this pathway, Rac1 serves as a hub to modulate microtubule dynamics through two different routes: 1) phosphorylation and inactivation of the microtubule-destabilizing protein stathmin and 2) phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3?, which leads to the activation of CRMP2, promoting microtubule growth. At the cellular level, the absence of ERI species impairs Ca2+-mediated formation of adherens junctions, critical to maintaining mechanical integrity in the epidermis. Our findings support a key role for ERI species in integrin-independent stabilization of the microtubule network in differentiated keratinocytes. PMID:25995380

  9. Astral Microtubule Pivoting Promotes Their Search for Cortical Anchor Sites during Mitosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Baumgärtner, Stephan; Toli?, Iva M.

    2014-01-01

    Positioning of the mitotic spindle is crucial for proper cell division. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two mechanisms contribute to spindle positioning. In the Kar9 pathway, astral microtubules emanating from the daughter-bound spindle pole body interact via the linker protein Kar9 with the myosin Myo2, which moves the microtubule along the actin cables towards the neck. In the dynein pathway, astral microtubules off-load dynein onto the cortical anchor protein Num1, which is followed by dynein pulling on the spindle. Yet, the mechanism by which microtubules target cortical anchor sites is unknown. Here we quantify the pivoting motion of astral microtubules around the spindle pole bodies, which occurs during spindle translocation towards the neck and through the neck. We show that this pivoting is largely driven by the Kar9 pathway. The microtubules emanating from the daughter-bound spindle pole body pivot faster than those at the mother-bound spindle pole body. The Kar9 pathway reduces the time needed for an astral microtubule inside the daughter cell to start pulling on the spindle. Thus, we propose a new role for microtubule pivoting: By pivoting around the spindle pole body, microtubules explore the space laterally, which helps them search for cortical anchor sites in the context of spindle positioning in budding yeast. PMID:24721997

  10. Prophase Microtubule Arrays Undergo Flux-like Behavior in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferenz, Nick P.

    2007-01-01

    In higher eukaryotic cells, microtubules within metaphase and anaphase spindles undergo poleward flux, the slow, poleward movement of tubulin subunits through the spindle microtubule lattice. Although a number of studies have documented this phenomenon across a wide range of model systems, the possibility of poleward flux before nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) has not been examined. Using a mammalian cell line expressing photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tubulin, we observe microtubule motion, both toward and away from centrosomes, at a wide range of rates (0.5–4.5 ?m/min) in prophase cells. Rapid microtubule motion in both directions is dynein dependent. In contrast, slow microtubule motion, which occurs at rates consistent with metaphase flux, is insensitive to inhibition of dynein but sensitive to perturbation of Eg5 and Kif2a, two proteins with previously documented roles in flux. Our results demonstrate that microtubules in prophase cells are unexpectedly dynamic and that a subpopulation of these microtubules shows motion that is consistent with flux. We propose that the marked reduction in rate and directionality of microtubule motion from prophase to metaphase results from changes in microtubule organization during spindle formation. PMID:17671163

  11. Inhibition of kinesin-5 improves regeneration of injured axons by a novel microtubule-based mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Baas, Peter W.; Matamoros, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules have been identified as a powerful target for augmenting regeneration of injured adult axons in the central nervous system. Drugs that stabilize microtubules have shown some promise, but there are concerns that abnormally stabilizing microtubules may have only limited benefits for regeneration, while at the same time may be detrimental to the normal work that microtubules perform for the axon. Kinesin-5 (also called kif11 or Eg5), a molecular motor protein best known for its crucial role in mitosis, acts as a brake on microtubule movements by other motor proteins in the axon. Drugs that inhibit kinesin-5, originally developed to treat cancer, result in greater mobility of microtubules in the axon and an overall shift in the forces on the microtubule array. As a result, the axon grows faster, retracts less, and more readily enters environments that are inhibitory to axonal regeneration. Thus, drugs that inhibit kinesin-5 offer a novel microtubule-based means to boost axonal regeneration without the concerns that accompany abnormal stabilization of the microtubule array. Even so, inhibiting kinesin-5 is not without its own caveats, such as potential problems with navigation of the regenerating axon to its target, as well as morphological effects on dendrites that could affect learning and memory if the drugs reach the brain. PMID:26199587

  12. Inhibition of kinesin-5 improves regeneration of injured axons by a novel microtubule-based mechanism.

    PubMed

    Baas, Peter W; Matamoros, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    Microtubules have been identified as a powerful target for augmenting regeneration of injured adult axons in the central nervous system. Drugs that stabilize microtubules have shown some promise, but there are concerns that abnormally stabilizing microtubules may have only limited benefits for regeneration, while at the same time may be detrimental to the normal work that microtubules perform for the axon. Kinesin-5 (also called kif11 or Eg5), a molecular motor protein best known for its crucial role in mitosis, acts as a brake on microtubule movements by other motor proteins in the axon. Drugs that inhibit kinesin-5, originally developed to treat cancer, result in greater mobility of microtubules in the axon and an overall shift in the forces on the microtubule array. As a result, the axon grows faster, retracts less, and more readily enters environments that are inhibitory to axonal regeneration. Thus, drugs that inhibit kinesin-5 offer a novel microtubule-based means to boost axonal regeneration without the concerns that accompany abnormal stabilization of the microtubule array. Even so, inhibiting kinesin-5 is not without its own caveats, such as potential problems with navigation of the regenerating axon to its target, as well as morphological effects on dendrites that could affect learning and memory if the drugs reach the brain. PMID:26199587

  13. Cep169, a Novel Microtubule Plus-End-Tracking Centrosomal Protein, Binds to CDK5RAP2 and Regulates Microtubule Stability

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoko; Tanaka, Sayori; Doda, Satoka; Yamanaka, Shota; Fukuchi, Hiroki; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The centrosomal protein, CDK5RAP2, is a microcephaly protein that regulates centrosomal maturation by recruitment of a ?-tubulin ring complex (?-TuRC) onto centrosomes. In this report, we identified a novel human centrosomal protein, Cep169, as a binding partner of CDK5RAP2, a member of microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs). Cep169 interacts directly with CDK5RAP2 through CM1, an evolutionarily conserved domain, and colocalizes at the pericentriolar matrix (PCM) around centrioles with CDK5RAP2. In addition, Cep169 interacts with EB1 through SxIP-motif responsible for EB1 binding, and colocalizes with CDK5RAP2 at the microtubule plus-end. EB1-binding–deficient Cep169 abolishes EB1 interaction and microtubule plus-end attachment, indicating Cep169 as a novel member of +TIPs. We further show that ectopic expression of either Cep169 or CDK5RAP2 induces microtubule bundling and acetylation in U2OS cells, and depletion of Cep169 induces microtubule depolymerization in HeLa cells, although Cep169 is not required for assembly of ?-tubulin onto centrosome by CDK5RAP2. These results show that Cep169 targets microtubule tips and regulates stability of microtubules with CDK5RAP2. PMID:26485573

  14. Cold Electroweak Baryogenesis in the Two Higgs-Doublet Model

    E-print Network

    Anders Tranberg; Bin Wu

    2012-03-22

    We perform the first investigation of cold electroweak baryogenesis in the two Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). The electroweak symmetry breaking transition is assumed to occur through a spinodal instability from a super-cooled initial state. We consider the creation of net Chern-Simons number, which through the axial anomaly is equivalent to baryon number. CP-violation is explicit in the scalar potential, but only in combination with P-violation is it possible for an asymmetry to be generated. This is introduced through the leading C- and P-breaking, but CP-invariant, term expected to arise upon integrating out the fermions in the theory. We perform real-time lattice simulations of the transition, and find the coefficient of this term required for successful bayogenesis.

  15. Search for multiple chiral doublets in rhodium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, J.; Sagawa, H.; Zhang, S. Q.; Yao, J. M.; Zhang, Y.; Meng, J.

    2008-02-15

    The deformation in rhodium isotopes is investigated using adiabatic and configuration-fixed constrained triaxial relativistic mean field (RMF) approaches. The triaxial deformations are found in the ground states of {sup 102,104,106,108,110}Rh, which is consistent with triaxial Skyrme Hartree-Fock calculations. Several minima with triaxial deformation in {sup 104,106,108,110}Rh are obtained by the configuration-fixed constrained calculations. The corresponding configurations are characterized by the quantum numbers |nljm> obtained by transforming wave functions from a Cartesian basis to a spherical basis. The possible existence of multiple chiral doublets (M{chi}D) is demonstrated in {sup 104,106,108,110}Rh isotopes, based on different particle-hole configurations and triaxial deformations.

  16. Active doublet method for measuring small changes in physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Peter M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fehler, Michael C. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Paul A. (Santa Fe, NM); Phillips, W. Scott (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Small changes in material properties of a work piece are detected by measuring small changes in elastic wave velocity and attenuation within a work piece. Active, repeatable source generate coda wave responses from a work piece, where the coda wave responses are temporally displaced. By analyzing progressive relative phase and amplitude changes between the coda wave responses as a function of elapsed time, accurate determinations of velocity and attenuation changes are made. Thus, a small change in velocity occurring within a sample region during the time periods between excitation origin times (herein called "doublets") will produce a relative delay that changes with elapsed time over some portion of the scattered waves. This trend of changing delay is easier to detect than an isolated delay based on a single arrival and provides a direct measure of elastic wave velocity changes arising from changed material properties of the work piece.

  17. Compatible abelian symmetries in N-Higgs-Doublet Models

    E-print Network

    C. C. Nishi

    2015-03-04

    We analyze the compatibility between abelian symmetries acting in two different sectors of a theory using the Smith Normal Form method. We focus on N-Higgs-doublet models (NHDMs) and on the compatibility between symmetries in the Higgs potential and in the Yukawa interactions, which were separately analyzed previous works. It is shown that two equal (isomorphic) symmetry groups that act in two separate sectors are not necessarily compatible in the whole theory and an upper bound is found for the size of the group that can be implemented in the entire NHDM. We also develop useful techniques to analyze compatibility and extend a symmetry from one sector to another. Consequences to the supersymmetric case are briefly discussed.

  18. Tracer transport modeling of the doublet well system

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdniakov, S.P. |; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1994-07-01

    Steady-state flow and tracer transport between an injection well and a pumping we in a heterogeneous confined aquifer were investigated with numerical modeling. Calculation of transport was based on the advective model for heterogeneous aquifers. Dispersion was assumed to be controlled by microscale velocity variation. An effective parameter of dispersion evaluated on the breakthrough curves was defined to account for the influences of heterogeneity. Breakthrough curves were calculated by using numerical modeling of transport in a strongly heterogeneous aquifer with spatial heterogeneous transmissivity fields. The results of modeling were processed by comparison with analytical solutions of doublet systems to obtain the effective parameters. A special solution was developed for advective transport in aquifers with a layered structure. Examples of real field heterogeneity were given to show its influence on breakthrough cures and the resulting impact on the effective macroscopic parameters.

  19. Phenomenology of baryogenesis from lepton-doublet mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn; Izaguirre, Ignacio

    2015-07-01

    Mixing lepton doublets of the Standard Model can lead to lepton flavour asymmetries in the Early Universe. We present a diagrammatic representation of this recently identified source of CP violation and elaborate in detail on the correlations between the lepton flavours at different temperatures. For a model where two sterile right-handed neutrinos generate the light neutrino masses through the see-saw mechanism, the lower bound on reheat temperatures in accordance with the observed baryon asymmetry turns out to be ? 1.2 ×109 GeV. With three right-handed neutrinos, substantially smaller values are viable. This requires however a tuning of the Yukawa couplings, such that there are cancellations between the individual contributions to the masses of the light neutrinos.

  20. Unitarity bound in the most general two Higgs doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Yagyu, Kei

    2015-12-01

    We investigate unitarity bounds in the most general two Higgs doublet model without a discrete Z2 symmetry nor CP conservation. S-wave amplitudes for two-body elastic scatterings of Nambu-Goldstone bosons and physical Higgs bosons are calculated at high energies for all possible initial and final states (14 neutral, 8 singly-charged and 3 doubly-charged states). We obtain analytic formulae for the block-diagonalized scattering matrix by the classification of the two body scattering states using the conserved quantum numbers at high energies. Imposing the condition of perturbative unitarity to the eigenvalues of the scattering matrix, constraints on the model parameters can be obtained. We apply our results to constrain the mass range of the next-to-lightest Higgs state in the model.

  1. Strong Electron Correlation in Photoionization of Spin-Orbit Doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernsheva, L. V.; Mnason, S. T.; Msezane, A. Z.; Radojevic, V.

    2002-05-01

    A new and explicitly many-body aspect of the "leveraging" of the spin-orbit interaction is demonstrated, spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling, which can significantly alter the photoionization cross section of a spin-orbit doublet. As an example, using a modified version of the Spin-Polarized Random-Phase-Approximation with Exchange methodology, a recently observed structure in the photoionization of Xe 3d(A. Kivimaki et al, Phys. Rev. A 63), 012716 (2000) has been explained both qualitatively and quantitatively. The structure is entirely due to this new spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling effect, which should be a general feature of inner-shell photoionization. This work was supported by NSF, NASA, DOE and ISTC.

  2. ErbB2-Dependent Chemotaxis Requires Microtubule Capture and Stabilization Coordinated by Distinct Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Benseddik, Khedidja; Sen Nkwe, Nadine; Daou, Pascale; Verdier-Pinard, Pascal; Badache, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase stimulates breast cancer cell migration. Cell migration is a complex process that requires the synchronized reorganization of numerous subcellular structures including cell-to-matrix adhesions, the actin cytoskeleton and microtubules. How the multiple signaling pathways triggered by ErbB2 coordinate, in time and space, the various processes involved in cell motility, is poorly defined. We investigated the mechanism whereby ErbB2 controls microtubules and chemotaxis. We report that activation of ErbB2 increased both cell velocity and directed migration. Impairment of the Cdc42 and RhoA GTPases, but not of Rac1, prevented the chemotactic response. RhoA is a key component of the Memo/ACF7 pathway whereby ErbB2 controls microtubule capture at the leading edge. Upon Memo or ACF7 depletion, microtubules failed to reach the leading edge and cells lost their ability to follow the chemotactic gradient. Constitutive ACF7 targeting to the membrane in Memo-depleted cells reestablished directed migration. ErbB2-mediated activation of phospholipase C gamma (PLC?) also contributed to cell guidance. We further showed that PLC? signaling, via classical protein kinases C, and Memo signaling converged towards a single pathway controlling the microtubule capture complex. Finally, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway did not affect microtubule capture, but disturbed microtubule stability, which also resulted in defective chemotaxis. PI3K/Akt-dependent stabilization of microtubules involved repression of GSK3 activity on the one hand and inhibition of the microtubule destabilizing protein, Stathmin, on the other hand. Thus, ErbB2 triggers distinct and complementary pathways that tightly coordinate microtubule capture and microtubule stability to control chemotaxis. PMID:23383112

  3. Molecular Mechanisms for Microtubule Length Regulation by Kinesin-8 and XMAP215 Proteins

    E-print Network

    Louis Reese; Anna Melbinger; Erwin Frey

    2014-05-22

    The cytoskeleton is regulated by a plethora of enzymes that influence the stability and dynamics of cytoskeletal filaments. Molecular motors of the kinesin-8 protein family depolymerise microtubules in a length-dependent manner, and experimental and theoretical evidence suggest a role for kinesin-8 in the dynamic regulation of microtubules. However, so far the detailed molecular mechanisms how these molecular motors interact with the growing microtubule tip remain elusive. Here we investigate two interaction scenarios for kinesin-8 and the microtubule tip. We give a comprehensive analysis of regimes where length-regulation is possible and characterise how the stationary length depends on the biochemical rates and the bulk concentrations of the various proteins. For a neutral scenario, where microtubules grow irrespective of whether the microtubule tip is occupied by a molecular motor, length regulation is possible only for a narrow range of biochemical rates and limited to small polymerisation rates. In contrast, for an inhibition scenario, where the presence of a motor at the microtubule tip inhibits microtubule growth, the regime of length regulation is extremely broad and includes high growth rates. These results also apply to situations where polymerising enzymes, like XMAP215, and kinesin-8 mutually exclude each other from the microtubule tip. We also investigate the stochastic dynamics of the two scenarios. While for the neutral scenario length is tightly controlled, length dynamics is intermittent for the inhibition scenario and exhibits extended periods of microtubule growth and shrinkage, reminiscent of microtubule dynamic instability. On a broader perspective, the set of models established in this work quite generally suggests that mutual exclusion of molecules at the ends of cytoskeletal filaments is an important factor for filament dynamics and regulation.

  4. Regulation of microtubule nucleation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: recruitment of Mto1 to the site of the prospective eMTOC 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Victoria Jane

    2010-01-01

    Mto1 recruits ?-tubulin to the sites of cytoplasmic microtubule nucleation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The regulation of Mto1 localisation is central to re-modelling of the microtubule cytoskeleton ...

  5. Analysis of Soybean Microtubule Persistence Length; New Evidence on the Correlation between Structural Composition and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Winton, Carly; Barrientos, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies on microtubules composed of different ? tubulin isotypes indicate their different functionality in terms of their dynamical behavior or the mechanism of their interaction with chemotherapeutic drugs. Along these lines, the result of our recent study measuring the rigidity of neural and non-neural samples of microtubules with different ? tubulin isotype compositions suggests that the distinguished mechanical properties of microtubules, such as rigidity, may also be associated with the different distribution of their ? tubulin isotypes. In our current study, we have reported the persistence length of a single soybean microtubule. This plant microtubule has a structural composition different from that of mammalian microtubules. Under the same experimental methods of measurement, the soybean microtubules showed a different persistence length as compared to the value of the persistence length that we estimated in the study of both single Bovine Brain and MCF7 microtubules.

  6. beta-tubulin C354 mutations that severely decrease microtubule dynamics do not prevent nuclear migration in yeast

    E-print Network

    Bode, Claudia Janelle; Himes, Richard H.; Bloom, K. S.; Suprenant, Kathy A.; Pearson, C. G.; Thrower, D. A.; Gupta, M. L.

    2002-08-01

    Microtubule dynamics are influenced by interactions of microtubules with cellular factors and by changes in the primary sequence of the tubulin molecule. Mutations of yeast beta-tubulin C354, which is located near the binding site of some...

  7. Microtubule inhibition causes epidermal growth factor receptor inactivation in oesophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Sooman, Linda; Lennartsson, Johan; Bergström, Stefan; Bergqvist, Michael; Gullbo, Joachim; Ekman, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Drugs that interfere with microtubule function can prevent cells from mitosis and may cause cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Various microtubule targeting agents, both stabilizers and inhibitors, are used in a clinical setting to treat cancer. In the current study, we investigated the sensitivity of oesophageal cancer cells to different microtubule targeting agents. The current study demonstrated that different microtubule targeting agents disrupted the microtubule network and inhibited survival of oesophageal cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, an additional cellular effect with inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR and subsequent downregulation of EGFR-induced signalling was also observed, suggesting an additional mechanism of action for microtubule destabilising agents. A tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate, could reverse the EGFR dephosphorylation effects induced by microtubule targeting agents. The EGFR dephosphorylation could be reversed by a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, indicating that disruption of the microtubule network may lead to activation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that can regulate EGFR phosphorylation and activation, an effect of potential clinical relevance for combination therapies in patients. PMID:23174948

  8. Dietary flavonoid fisetin binds to ?-tubulin and disrupts microtubule dynamics in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Sechi, Mario; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-10-28

    Microtubule targeting based therapies have revolutionized cancer treatment; however, resistance and side effects remain a major limitation. Therefore, novel strategies that can overcome these limitations are urgently needed. We made a novel discovery that fisetin, a hydroxyflavone, is a microtubule stabilizing agent. Fisetin binds to tubulin and stabilizes microtubules with binding characteristics far superior than paclitaxel. Surface plasmon resonance and computational docking studies suggested that fisetin binds to ?-tubulin with superior affinity compared to paclitaxel. Fisetin treatment of human prostate cancer cells resulted in robust up-regulation of microtubule associated proteins (MAP)-2 and -4. In addition, fisetin treated cells were enriched in ?-tubulin acetylation, an indication of stabilization of microtubules. Fisetin significantly inhibited PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Nudc, a protein associated with microtubule motor dynein/dynactin complex that regulates microtubule dynamics, was inhibited with fisetin treatment. Further, fisetin treatment of a P-glycoprotein overexpressing multidrug-resistant cancer cell line NCI/ADR-RES inhibited the viability and colony formation. Our results offer in vitro proof-of-concept for fisetin as a microtubule targeting agent. We suggest that fisetin could be developed as an adjuvant for treatment of prostate and other cancer types. PMID:26235140

  9. The spindle assembly function of Caenorhabditis elegans katanin does not require microtubule-severing activity

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Karen Perry; McNally, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    Katanin is a heterodimeric microtubule-severing protein that is conserved among eukaryotes. Loss-of-function mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans katanin catalytic subunit, MEI-1, cause specific defects in female meiotic spindles. To determine the relationship between katanin’s microtubule-severing activity and its role in meiotic spindle formation, we analyzed the MEI-1(A338S) mutant. Unlike wild-type MEI-1, which mediated disassembly of microtubule arrays in Xenopus fibroblasts, MEI-1(A338S) had no effect on fibroblast microtubules, indicating a lack of microtubule-severing activity. In C. elegans, MEI-1(A338S) mediated assembly of extremely long bipolar meiotic spindles. In contrast, a nonsense mutation in MEI-1 caused assembly of meiotic spindles without any poles as assayed by localization of the spindle-pole protein, ASPM-1. These results indicated that katanin protein, but not katanin’s microtubule-severing activity, is required for assembly of acentriolar meiotic spindle poles. To understand the nonsevering activities of katanin, we characterized the N-terminal domain of the katanin catalytic subunit. The N-terminal domain was necessary and sufficient for binding to the katanin regulatory subunit. The katanin regulatory subunit in turn caused a dramatic change in the microtubule-binding properties of the N-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit. This unique bipartite microtubule-binding structure may mediate the spindle-pole assembly activity of katanin during female meiosis. PMID:21372175

  10. Force Transduction by the Microtubule-Bound Dam1 Ring Jonathan W. Armond

    E-print Network

    Turner, Matthew

    Force Transduction by the Microtubule-Bound Dam1 Ring Jonathan W. Armond and Matthew S. Turner of microtubules (MTs) and the motion of the Dam1 ring complex is now thought to play an important role protofilaments at the end of the depolymerizing MT physically prevent the Dam1 ring from falling off the end

  11. Feeding Cells Induced by Phytoparasitic Nematodes Require ?-Tubulin Ring Complex for Microtubule Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Banora, Mohamed Youssef; Rodiuc, Natalia; Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Smertenko, Andrei; Bleve-Zacheo, Teresa; Mellilo, Maria Teresa; Karimi, Mansour; Hilson, Pierre; Evrard, Jean-Luc; Favery, Bruno; Engler, Gilbert; Abad, Pierre; de Almeida Engler, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Reorganization of the microtubule network is important for the fast isodiametric expansion of giant-feeding cells induced by root-knot nematodes. The efficiency of microtubule reorganization depends on the nucleation of new microtubules, their elongation rate and activity of microtubule severing factors. New microtubules in plants are nucleated by cytoplasmic or microtubule-bound ?-tubulin ring complexes. Here we investigate the requirement of ?-tubulin complexes for giant feeding cells development using the interaction between Arabidopsis and Meloidogyne spp. as a model system. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrate that ?-tubulin localizes to both cortical cytoplasm and mitotic microtubule arrays of the giant cells where it can associate with microtubules. The transcripts of two Arabidopsis ?-tubulin (TUBG1 and TUBG2) and two ?-tubulin complex proteins genes (GCP3 and GCP4) are upregulated in galls. Electron microscopy demonstrates association of GCP3 and ?-tubulin as part of a complex in the cytoplasm of giant cells. Knockout of either or both ?-tubulin genes results in the gene dose-dependent alteration of the morphology of feeding site and failure of nematode life cycle completion. We conclude that the ?-tubulin complex is essential for the control of microtubular network remodelling in the course of initiation and development of giant-feeding cells, and for the successful reproduction of nematodes in their plant hosts. PMID:22144887

  12. Length-dependence of flexural rigidity as a result of anisotropic elastic properties of microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Ru, C.Q. . E-mail: c.ru@ualberta.ca; Mioduchowski, A.

    2006-10-27

    Unexplained length-dependence of flexural rigidity and Young's modulus of microtubules is studied using an orthotropic elastic shell model. It is showed that vibration frequencies and buckling load predicted by the accurate orthotropic shell model are much lower than that given by the approximate isotropic beam model for shorter microtubules, although the two models give almost identical results for sufficiently long microtubules. It is this inaccuracy of the isotropic beam model used by all previous researchers that leads to reported lower flexural rigidity and Young's modulus for shorter microtubules. In particular, much lower shear modulus and circumferential Young's modulus, which only weaken flexural rigidity of shorter microtubules, are responsible for the observed length-dependence of the flexural rigidity. These results confirm that longitudinal Young's modulus of microtubules is length-independent, and the observed length-dependence of the flexural rigidity and Young's modulus is a result of strongly anisotropic elastic properties of microtubules which have a length-dependent weakening effect on flexural rigidity of shorter microtubules.

  13. Force-Velocity Relation for Growing Microtubules Anatoly B. Kolomeisky* and Michael E. Fisher

    E-print Network

    Force-Velocity Relation for Growing Microtubules Anatoly B. Kolomeisky* and Michael E. Fisher and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 USA ABSTRACT Forces generated by microtubule velocity, V, under an opposing force, F, has been measured by Dogterom and Yurke (1997; Science 278

  14. Kinetochore-microtubule attachment is sufficient to satisfy the human spindle assembly checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Banafsheh; Kuijt, Timo E F; Kops, Geert J P L

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a genome surveillance mechanism that protects against aneuploidization. Despite profound progress on understanding mechanisms of its activation, it remains unknown what aspect of chromosome-spindle interactions is monitored by the SAC: kinetochore-microtubule attachment or the force generated by dynamic microtubules that signals stable biorientation of chromosomes? To answer this, we uncoupled these two processes by expressing a non-phosphorylatable version of the main microtubule-binding protein at kinetochores (HEC1-9A), causing stabilization of incorrect kinetochore-microtubule attachments despite persistent activity of the error-correction machinery. The SAC is fully functional in HEC1-9A-expressing cells, yet cells in which chromosomes cannot biorient but are stably attached to microtubules satisfy the SAC and exit mitosis. SAC satisfaction requires neither intra-kinetochore stretching nor dynamic microtubules. Our findings support the hypothesis that in human cells the end-on interactions of microtubules with kinetochores are sufficient to satisfy the SAC without the need for microtubule-based pulling forces. PMID:26621779

  15. Modeling the Effects of Drug Binding on the Dynamic Instability of Microtubules

    E-print Network

    Hinow, Peter

    Modeling the Effects of Drug Binding on the Dynamic Instability of Microtubules Peter Hinow1 concentrations to have visible effects. Keywords: microtubules, dynamic instability, stochastic modeling and the recycling of free GDP tubulin to GTP tubulin. The model conserves the total amount of tubulin in all its

  16. Effect of tubulin diffusion on polymerization of microtubules P. A. Deymier,1

    E-print Network

    Deymier, Pierre

    is synchronous and bounded. The microtubules form an aster with a monotonously decreasing long-time distribution where the transition is regulated by the reaction rates. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.72.021906 PACS number -tubulin 1,2 . Microtubules generated from pure tubulin exist in a dynamic state with net addition

  17. A model of cytoplasmically driven microtubule-based motion in the single-celled

    E-print Network

    Shelley, Michael

    A model of cytoplasmically driven microtubule- based motion in the single-celled Caenorhabditis of cytoplasmically driven microtubule-based pronuclear motion in the single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans em- bryo. These MTs encounter motor proteins, distributed throughout the cytoplasm, that attach and exert a pulling

  18. Perturbations in Microtubule Mechanics from Tubulin Preparation TAVIARE L. HAWKINS,1

    E-print Network

    Ross, Jennifer

    Perturbations in Microtubule Mechanics from Tubulin Preparation TAVIARE L. HAWKINS,1 MATTHEW. Interestingly, we find that the fraction of labeled tubulin dimers does not affect the measured persistence Microtubules are non-covalent polymer tubes made from tubulin protein hetero-dimers.8 They are essential

  19. Conserved mechanisms of microtubule-stimulated ADP release, ATP binding, and force generation in transport kinesins

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Joseph; Farabella, Irene; Yu, I-Mei; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Houdusse, Anne; Topf, Maya; Moores, Carolyn A

    2014-01-01

    Kinesins are a superfamily of microtubule-based ATP-powered motors, important for multiple, essential cellular functions. How microtubule binding stimulates their ATPase and controls force generation is not understood. To address this fundamental question, we visualized microtubule-bound kinesin-1 and kinesin-3 motor domains at multiple steps in their ATPase cycles—including their nucleotide-free states—at ?7 Å resolution using cryo-electron microscopy. In both motors, microtubule binding promotes ordered conformations of conserved loops that stimulate ADP release, enhance microtubule affinity and prime the catalytic site for ATP binding. ATP binding causes only small shifts of these nucleotide-coordinating loops but induces large conformational changes elsewhere that allow force generation and neck linker docking towards the microtubule plus end. Family-specific differences across the kinesin–microtubule interface account for the distinctive properties of each motor. Our data thus provide evidence for a conserved ATP-driven mechanism for kinesins and reveal the critical mechanistic contribution of the microtubule interface. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03680.001 PMID:25209998

  20. Long Astral Microtubules and RACK-1 Stabilize Polarity Domains during Maintenance Phase in Caenorhabditis

    E-print Network

    Skop, Ahna

    Long Astral Microtubules and RACK-1 Stabilize Polarity Domains during Maintenance Phase. In this study, we show that depletion of Caenorhabditis elegans RACK-1, which leads to short astral microtubules. We then investigated the consequence of knocking down other factors that also abolish astral

  1. Microtubule stability affects the unique motility of F-actin in Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Era, Atsuko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Higaki, Takumi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Nakano, Akihiko; Ueda, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Actin microfilaments play crucial roles in diverse plant functions. Some specific cellular processes require interaction between F-actin and microtubules, and it is believed that there are direct or indirect connections between F-actin and microtubules. We previously reported that actin microfilaments exhibit unique dynamic motility in cells of the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha; the relevance of this activity to microtubules has not been explored. To examine whether the dynamics of F-actin in M. polymorpha were somehow regulated by microtubules, we investigated the effects of stabilization or destabilization of microtubules on dynamics of actin bundles, which were visualized by Lifeact-Venus. To our surprise, both stabilization and destabilization of microtubules exerted similar effects on F-actin motility; apparent sliding movement of F-actin in M. polymorpha cells was accelerated by both oryzalin and paclitaxel, with the effect of paclitaxel more evident than that of oryzalin. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that some F-actin bundles were arrayed along with microtubules in M. polymorpha thallus cells. These results suggest that microtubules play regulatory roles in the unique F-actin dynamics in M. polymorpha. PMID:22678689

  2. An epidermal plakin that integrates actin and microtubule networks at cellular junctions.

    PubMed

    Karakesisoglou, I; Yang, Y; Fuchs, E

    2000-04-01

    Plakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins initially thought to interact exclusively with intermediate filaments (IFs), but recently were found to associate additionally with actin and microtubule networks. Here, we report on ACF7, a mammalian orthologue of the Drosophila kakapo plakin genetically involved in epidermal-muscle adhesion and neuromuscular junctions. While ACF7/kakapo is divergent from other plakins in its IF-binding domain, it has at least one actin (K(d) = 0.35 microM) and one microtubule (K(d) approximately 6 microM) binding domain. Similar to its fly counterpart, ACF7 is expressed in the epidermis. In well spread epidermal keratinocytes, ACF7 discontinuously decorates the cytoskeleton at the cell periphery, including microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) that are aligned in parallel converging at focal contacts. Upon calcium induction of intercellular adhesion, ACF7 and the cytoskeleton reorganize at cell-cell borders but with different kinetics from adherens junctions and desmosomes. Treatments with cytoskeletal depolymerizing drugs reveal that ACF7's cytoskeletal association is dependent upon the microtubule network, but ACF7 also appears to stabilize actin at sites where microtubules and microfilaments meet. We posit that ACF7 may function in microtubule dynamics to facilitate actin-microtubule interactions at the cell periphery and to couple the microtubule network to cellular junctions. These attributes provide a clear explanation for the kakapo mutant phenotype in flies. PMID:10747097

  3. Microtubule reorganization in tobacco BY-2 cells stably expressing GFP-MBD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Microtubule organization plays an important role in plant morphogenesis; however, little is known about how microtubule arrays transit from one organized state to another. The use of a genetically incorporated fluorescent marker would allow long-term observation of microtubule behavior in living cells. Here, we have characterized a Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell line that had been stably transformed with a gfp-mbd construct previously demonstrated to label microtubules (J. Marc et al., 1998, Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939). Fluorescence levels were low, but interphase and mitotic microtubule arrays, as well as the transitions between these arrays, could be observed in individual gfp-mbd-transformed cells. By comparing several attributes of transformed and untransformed cells it was concluded that the transgenic cells are not adversely affected by low-level expression of the transgene and that these cells will serve as a useful and accurate model system for observing microtubule reorganization in vivo. Indeed, some initial observations were made that are consistent with the involvement of motor proteins in the transition between the spindle and phragmoplast arrays. Our observations also support the role of the perinuclear region in nucleating microtubules at the end of cell division with a progressive shift of these microtubules and/or nucleating activity to the cortex to form the interphase cortical array.

  4. Theory of self-assembly of microtubules and motors Igor S. Aranson1

    E-print Network

    Tsimring, Lev S.

    Theory of self-assembly of microtubules and motors Igor S. Aranson1 and Lev S. Tsimring2 1 Argonne describing spatiotemporal organization of an array of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting of rods and concentration of motors, the model describes an orientational instability. We demonstrate

  5. Pattern formation of microtubules and motors: Inelastic interaction of polar rods Igor S. Aranson1

    E-print Network

    Tsimring, Lev S.

    Pattern formation of microtubules and motors: Inelastic interaction of polar rods Igor S. Aranson1 organization of an array of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting from a stochastic model of motors, the model describes orientational instability. We demonstrate that the orientational instability

  6. AUTOMATED ESTIMATION OF MICROTUBULE MODEL PARAMETERS FROM 3-D LIVE CELL MICROSCOPY IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Robert F.

    at the microtubule-organizing center or at regions of high crossover. Previously, we developed an indirect cell models. We have previously described a generative model of microtubules and developed an indirect-tagged alpha tubulin generated using CD-tagging [5] were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf

  7. Whole cell microtubule analysis by flow cytometry Karen C. Morrison, Paul J. Hergenrother

    E-print Network

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    Whole cell microtubule analysis by flow cytometry Karen C. Morrison, Paul J. Hergenrother Roger s t r a c t Perturbation of the tubulin/microtubule dynamic in cells is perhaps the single most in whole cells using flow cytometry, and we use this technique to evaluate compounds that stabilize

  8. Microtubule remodelling is required for the front-rear polarity switch during contact inhibition of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Kadir, Shereen; Astin, Jonathan W; Tahtamouni, Lubna; Martin, Paul; Nobes, Catherine D

    2011-08-01

    When migrating mesenchymal cells collide, they exhibit a 'contact inhibition of locomotion' response that results in reversal of their front-rear polarity by extension of a new leading edge, which enables their migration away from the opposing contacted cell. The critical cytoskeletal rearrangements underpinning these mutual repulsion events are currently unknown. We found that during fibroblast cell-cell collisions, microtubules at the region of contact increase their frequency of catastrophe, their rates of shrinkage and growth, and concomitantly, a new microtubule array is established at a new leading edge. We show that Rho and ROCK activity is necessary for this repulsion response, and we observed increased microtubule stabilisation as a consequence of ROCK inhibition. Importantly, partial destabilisation of microtubules, by co-treatment with a low dose of nocodazole, restored microtubule dynamics to that of untreated cells and rescued contact inhibition of locomotion in ROCK-inhibited cells. Although there was an increase in microtubule growth or shrinkage rates in Y27632 cell-cell collisions, these failed to reach the same level of dynamicity compared with untreated collisions. Our data suggest that microtubule dynamics at contact sites must increase beyond a threshold for a cell to switch its front-rear polarity, and that microtubule stabilisation can lead to a failure of contact inhibition of locomotion. PMID:21750190

  9. Kinetochore–microtubule attachment is sufficient to satisfy the human spindle assembly checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Etemad, Banafsheh; Kuijt, Timo E. F.; Kops, Geert J. P. L.

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a genome surveillance mechanism that protects against aneuploidization. Despite profound progress on understanding mechanisms of its activation, it remains unknown what aspect of chromosome–spindle interactions is monitored by the SAC: kinetochore–microtubule attachment or the force generated by dynamic microtubules that signals stable biorientation of chromosomes? To answer this, we uncoupled these two processes by expressing a non-phosphorylatable version of the main microtubule-binding protein at kinetochores (HEC1-9A), causing stabilization of incorrect kinetochore–microtubule attachments despite persistent activity of the error-correction machinery. The SAC is fully functional in HEC1-9A-expressing cells, yet cells in which chromosomes cannot biorient but are stably attached to microtubules satisfy the SAC and exit mitosis. SAC satisfaction requires neither intra-kinetochore stretching nor dynamic microtubules. Our findings support the hypothesis that in human cells the end-on interactions of microtubules with kinetochores are sufficient to satisfy the SAC without the need for microtubule-based pulling forces. PMID:26621779

  10. Group-theoretic restrictions on generation of CP-violation in multi-Higgs-doublet models

    E-print Network

    Branco, G C

    2015-01-01

    It has been known since decades that imposing a symmetry group G on the scalar sector of multi-Higgs-doublet models has consequences for CP-violation. In all examples of two- and three-Higgs-doublet models equipped with symmetries, one observes the following intriguing property: if G prevents explicit CP-violation (CPV), at least in the neutral Higgs sector, then it also prevents spontaneous CPV, and if G allows explicit CPV, then it allows for spontaneous CPV. One is led to conjecture that this is a general phenomenon. In this paper, we prove this conjecture for any rephasing symmetry group G and any number of doublets.

  11. TONNEAU2/FASS Regulates the Geometry of Microtubule Nucleation and Cortical Array Organization in Interphase Arabidopsis Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kirik, Angela; Ehrhardt, David W.; Kirik, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Organization of microtubules into ordered arrays involves spatial and temporal regulation of microtubule nucleation. Here, we show that acentrosomal microtubule nucleation in plant cells involves a previously unknown regulatory step that determines the geometry of microtubule nucleation. Dynamic imaging of interphase cortical microtubules revealed that the ratio of branching to in-bundle microtubule nucleation on cortical microtubules is regulated by the Arabidopsis thaliana B?? subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, which is encoded by the TONNEAU2/FASS (TON2) gene. The probability of nucleation from ?-tubulin complexes localized at the cell cortex was not affected by a loss of TON2 function, suggesting a specific role of TON2 in regulating the nucleation geometry. Both loss of TON2 function and ectopic targeting of TON2 to the plasma membrane resulted in defects in cell shape, suggesting the importance of TON2-mediated regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton in cell morphogenesis. Loss of TON2 function also resulted in an inability for cortical arrays to reorient in response to light stimulus, suggesting an essential role for TON2 and microtubule branching nucleation in reorganization of microtubule arrays. Our data establish TON2 as a regulator of interphase microtubule nucleation and provide experimental evidence for a novel regulatory step in the process of microtubule-dependent nucleation. PMID:22395485

  12. www.landesbioscience.com Cell Cycle 1115 Microtubules play a central role in centering the nucleus or

    E-print Network

    Dumont, Sophie

    www.landesbioscience.com Cell Cycle 1115 Microtubules play a central role in centering the nucleus current understanding of microtubule organization during the first cell cycle in a fertilized Xenopus egg or mitotic spindle in eukaryotic cells. However, despite common use of microtubules for centering, physical

  13. Effects of Eribulin on Microtubule Binding and Dynamic Instability Are Strengthened in the Absence of the ?III Tubulin Isotype.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Leslie; Lopus, Manu; Miller, Herbert P; Azarenko, Olga; Riffle, Stephen; Smith, Jennifer A; Jordan, Mary Ann

    2015-10-27

    Eribulin mesylate (Halaven) is a microtubule-targeted anticancer drug used to treat patients with metastatic breast cancer who have previously received a taxane and an anthracycline. It binds at the plus ends of microtubules and has been shown to suppress plus end growth selectively. Because the class III ? tubulin isotype is associated with resistance to microtubule targeting drugs, we sought to determine how ?III tubulin might mechanistically influence the effects of eribulin on microtubules. We found that while [(3)H]eribulin bound to bovine brain soluble tubulin depleted of ?III tubulin in a manner similar to that of unfractionated tubulin, it bound to plus ends of microtubules that were depleted of ?III-depleted tubulin with a maximal stoichiometry (20 ± 3 molecules per microtubule) higher than that of unfractionated microtubules (9 ± 2 molecules per microtubule). In addition, eribulin suppressed the dynamic instability behavior of ?III-depleted microtubules more strongly than and in a manner different from that of microtubules containing ?III tubulin. Specifically, with ?III tubulin present in the microtubules, 100 nM eribulin suppressed the growth rate by 32% and marginally reduced the catastrophe frequency (by 17%) but did not modulate the rescue frequency. However, in the absence of ?III tubulin, eribulin not only reduced the growth rate but also strongly reduced the shortening rate (by 43%) and the catastrophe and the rescue frequencies (by 49 and 32%, respectively). Thus, when present in microtubules, ?III tubulin substantially weakens the effects of eribulin. PMID:26435331

  14. Transport of dendritic microtubules establishes their nonuniform polarity orientation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The immature processes that give rise to both axons and dendrites contain microtubules (MTs) that are uniformly oriented with their plus- ends distal to the cell body, and this pattern is preserved in the developing axon. In contrast, developing dendrites gradually acquire nonuniform MT polarity orientation due to the addition of a subpopulation of oppositely oriented MTs (Baas, P. W., M. M. Black, and G. A. Banker. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:3085-3094). In theory, these minus-end-distal MTs could be locally nucleated and assembled within the dendrite itself, or could be transported into the dendrite after their nucleation within the cell body. To distinguish between these possibilities, we exposed cultured hippocampal neurons to nanomolar levels of vinblastine after one of the immature processes had developed into the axon but before the others had become dendrites. At these levels, vinblastine acts as a kinetic stabilizer of MTs, inhibiting further assembly while not substantially depolymerizing existing MTs. This treatment did not abolish dendritic differentiation, which occurred in timely fashion over the next two to three days. The resulting dendrites were flatter and shorter than controls, but were identifiable by their ultrastructure, chemical composition, and thickened tapering morphology. The growth of these dendrites was accompanied by a diminution of MTs from the cell body, indicating a net transfer of MTs from one compartment into the other. During this time, minus-end-distal microtubules arose in the experimental dendrites, indicating that new MT assembly is not required for the acquisition of nonuniform MT polarity orientation in the dendrite. Minus-end-distal microtubules predominated in the more proximal region of experimental dendrites, indicating that most of the MTs at this stage of development are transported into the dendrite with their minus-ends leading. These observations indicate that transport of MTs from the cell body is an essential feature of dendritic development, and that this transport establishes the nonuniform polarity orientation of MTs in the dendrite. PMID:7790380

  15. Stall force of polymerizing microtubules and filament bundles

    E-print Network

    Jaroslaw Krawczyk; Jan Kierfeld

    2011-02-10

    We investigate stall force and polymerization kinetics of rigid protofilaments in a microtubule or interacting filaments in bundles under an external load force in the framework of a discrete growth model. We introduce the concecpt of polymerization cycles to describe the stochastic growth kinetics, which allows us to derive an exact expression for the stall force. We find that the stall force is independent of ensemble geometry and load distribution. Furthermore, the stall force is proportional to the number of filaments and increases linearly with the strength of lateral filament interactions. These results are corroborated by simulations, which also show a strong influence of ensemble geometry on growth kinetics below the stall force.

  16. Buckling of microtubules: An insight by molecular and continuum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jin; Meguid, S. A.

    2014-10-27

    The molecular structural mechanics method has been extended to investigate the buckling of microtubules (MTs) with various configurations. The results indicate that for relative short MTs the shear deformation effect, rather than the nonlocal effect, is mainly responsible for the limitation of their widely used Euler beam description and the observed length-dependence of their bending stiffness. In addition, the configuration effect of MTs is also studied and considered as an explanation for the large scattering of the critical buckling force and bending stiffness observed in existing experiments. This configuration effect is also found to mainly originate from the geometry of the MTs and is mainly determined by the protofilament number.

  17. Direct observation shows superposition and large scale flexibility within cytoplasmic dynein motors moving along microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hiroshi; Shima, Tomohiro; Sutoh, Kazuo; Walker, Matthew L.; Knight, Peter J.; Kon, Takahide; Burgess, Stan A.

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a dimeric AAA+ motor protein that performs critical roles in eukaryotic cells by moving along microtubules using ATP. Here using cryo-electron microscopy we directly observe the structure of Dictyostelium discoideum dynein dimers on microtubules at near-physiological ATP concentrations. They display remarkable flexibility at a hinge close to the microtubule binding domain (the stalkhead) producing a wide range of head positions. About half the molecules have the two heads separated from one another, with both leading and trailing motors attached to the microtubule. The other half have the two heads and stalks closely superposed in a front-to-back arrangement of the AAA+ rings, suggesting specific contact between the heads. All stalks point towards the microtubule minus end. Mean stalk angles depend on the separation between their stalkheads, which allows estimation of inter-head tension. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding dynein's directionality and unusual stepping behaviour. PMID:26365535

  18. Visualizing Microtubule Networks During Drosophila Oogenesis Using Fixed and Live Imaging.

    PubMed

    Legent, Kevin; Tissot, Nicolas; Guichet, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton is a plastic network of polarized cables. These polymers of tubulin provide orientated routes for the dynamic transport of cytoplasmic molecules and organelles, through which cell polarity is established and maintained. The role of microtubule-mediated transport in the asymmetric localization of axis polarity determinants, in the Drosophila oocyte, has been the subject of extensive studies in the past years. However, imaging the distribution of microtubule fibers in a large cell, where vitellogenesis ensures the uptake of a thick and hazy yolk, presents a series of technical challenges. This chapter briefly reviews some of these aspects and describes two methods designed to circumvent these difficulties. We provide a detailed protocol for the visualization by immunohistochemistry of the three-dimensional organization of tubulin cables in the oocyte. Additionally, we detail the stepwise procedure for the live imaging of microtubule dynamics and network remodeling, using fluorescently labeled microtubule-associated proteins. PMID:26324432

  19. GM130 Regulates Golgi-Derived Spindle Assembly by Activating TPX2 and Capturing Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jen-Hsuan; Zhang, Zi Chao; Wynn, R Max; Seemann, Joachim

    2015-07-16

    Spindle assembly requires the coordinated action of multiple cellular structures to nucleate and organize microtubules in a precise spatiotemporal manner. Among them, the contributions of centrosomes, chromosomes, and microtubules have been well studied, yet the involvement of membrane-bound organelles remains largely elusive. Here, we provide mechanistic evidence for a membrane-based, Golgi-derived microtubule assembly pathway in mitosis. Upon mitotic entry, the Golgi matrix protein GM130 interacts with importin ? via a classical nuclear localization signal that recruits importin ? to the Golgi membranes. Sequestration of importin ? by GM130 liberates the spindle assembly factor TPX2, which activates Aurora-A kinase and stimulates local microtubule nucleation. Upon filament assembly, nascent microtubules are further captured by GM130, thus linking Golgi membranes to the spindle. Our results reveal an active role for the Golgi in regulating spindle formation to ensure faithful organelle inheritance. PMID:26165940

  20. Direct observation shows superposition and large scale flexibility within cytoplasmic dynein motors moving along microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hiroshi; Shima, Tomohiro; Sutoh, Kazuo; Walker, Matthew L.; Knight, Peter J.; Kon, Takahide; Burgess, Stan A.

    2015-09-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a dimeric AAA+ motor protein that performs critical roles in eukaryotic cells by moving along microtubules using ATP. Here using cryo-electron microscopy we directly observe the structure of Dictyostelium discoideum dynein dimers on microtubules at near-physiological ATP concentrations. They display remarkable flexibility at a hinge close to the microtubule binding domain (the stalkhead) producing a wide range of head positions. About half the molecules have the two heads separated from one another, with both leading and trailing motors attached to the microtubule. The other half have the two heads and stalks closely superposed in a front-to-back arrangement of the AAA+ rings, suggesting specific contact between the heads. All stalks point towards the microtubule minus end. Mean stalk angles depend on the separation between their stalkheads, which allows estimation of inter-head tension. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding dynein's directionality and unusual stepping behaviour.

  1. Direct observation shows superposition and large scale flexibility within cytoplasmic dynein motors moving along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hiroshi; Shima, Tomohiro; Sutoh, Kazuo; Walker, Matthew L; Knight, Peter J; Kon, Takahide; Burgess, Stan A

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a dimeric AAA(+) motor protein that performs critical roles in eukaryotic cells by moving along microtubules using ATP. Here using cryo-electron microscopy we directly observe the structure of Dictyostelium discoideum dynein dimers on microtubules at near-physiological ATP concentrations. They display remarkable flexibility at a hinge close to the microtubule binding domain (the stalkhead) producing a wide range of head positions. About half the molecules have the two heads separated from one another, with both leading and trailing motors attached to the microtubule. The other half have the two heads and stalks closely superposed in a front-to-back arrangement of the AAA(+) rings, suggesting specific contact between the heads. All stalks point towards the microtubule minus end. Mean stalk angles depend on the separation between their stalkheads, which allows estimation of inter-head tension. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding dynein's directionality and unusual stepping behaviour. PMID:26365535

  2. On the Nature and Shape of Tubulin Trails: Implications on Microtubule Self-Organization

    E-print Network

    Glade, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Microtubules, major elements of the cell skeleton are, most of the time, well organized in vivo, but they can also show self-organizing behaviors in time and/or space in purified solutions in vitro. Theoretical studies and models based on the concepts of collective dynamics in complex systems, reaction-diffusion processes and emergent phenomena were proposed to explain some of these behaviors. In the particular case of microtubule spatial self-organization, it has been advanced that microtubules could behave like ants, self-organizing by 'talking to each other' by way of hypothetic (because never observed) concentrated chemical trails of tubulin that are expected to be released by their disassembling ends. Deterministic models based on this idea yielded indeed like-looking spatio-temporal self-organizing behaviors. Nevertheless the question remains of whether microscopic tubulin trails produced by individual or bundles of several microtubules are intense enough to allow microtubule self-organization at a macr...

  3. A STRIPAK component Strip regulates neuronal morphogenesis by affecting microtubule stability

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Chisako; Okumura, Misako; Umehara, Tomoki; Miura, Masayuki; Chihara, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    During neural development, regulation of microtubule stability is essential for proper morphogenesis of neurons. Recently, the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex was revealed to be involved in diverse cellular processes. However, there is little evidence that STRIPAK components regulate microtubule dynamics, especially in vivo. Here, we show that one of the core STRIPAK components, Strip, is required for microtubule organization during neuronal morphogenesis. Knockdown of Strip causes a decrease in the level of acetylated ?-tubulin in Drosophila S2 cells, suggesting that Strip influences the stability of microtubules. We also found that Strip physically and genetically interacts with tubulin folding cofactor D (TBCD), an essential regulator of ?- and ?-tubulin heterodimers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the genetic interaction between strip and Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam), a cell surface molecule that is known to work with TBCD. Thus, we propose that Strip regulates neuronal morphogenesis by affecting microtubule stability. PMID:26644129

  4. A STRIPAK component Strip regulates neuronal morphogenesis by affecting microtubule stability.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Chisako; Okumura, Misako; Umehara, Tomoki; Miura, Masayuki; Chihara, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    During neural development, regulation of microtubule stability is essential for proper morphogenesis of neurons. Recently, the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex was revealed to be involved in diverse cellular processes. However, there is little evidence that STRIPAK components regulate microtubule dynamics, especially in vivo. Here, we show that one of the core STRIPAK components, Strip, is required for microtubule organization during neuronal morphogenesis. Knockdown of Strip causes a decrease in the level of acetylated ?-tubulin in Drosophila S2 cells, suggesting that Strip influences the stability of microtubules. We also found that Strip physically and genetically interacts with tubulin folding cofactor D (TBCD), an essential regulator of ?- and ?-tubulin heterodimers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the genetic interaction between strip and Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam), a cell surface molecule that is known to work with TBCD. Thus, we propose that Strip regulates neuronal morphogenesis by affecting microtubule stability. PMID:26644129

  5. Specific polar subpopulations of astral microtubules control spindle orientation and symmetric neural stem cell division.

    PubMed

    Mora-Bermúdez, Felipe; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Huttner, Wieland B

    2014-01-01

    Mitotic spindle orientation is crucial for symmetric vs asymmetric cell division and depends on astral microtubules. Here, we show that distinct subpopulations of astral microtubules exist, which have differential functions in regulating spindle orientation and division symmetry. Specifically, in polarized stem cells of developing mouse neocortex, astral microtubules reaching the apical and basal cell cortex, but not those reaching the central cell cortex, are more abundant in symmetrically than asymmetrically dividing cells and reduce spindle orientation variability. This promotes symmetric divisions by maintaining an apico-basal cleavage plane. The greater abundance of apical/basal astrals depends on a higher concentration, at the basal cell cortex, of LGN, a known spindle-cell cortex linker. Furthermore, newly developed specific microtubule perturbations that selectively decrease apical/basal astrals recapitulate the symmetric-to-asymmetric division switch and suffice to increase neurogenesis in vivo. Thus, our study identifies a novel link between cell polarity, astral microtubules, and spindle orientation in morphogenesis. PMID:24996848

  6. Simulation studies of self-organization of microtubules and molecular motors.

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, Z.; Karpeev, D.; Aranson, I. S.; Bates, P. W.; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-05-01

    We perform Monte Carlo type simulation studies of self-organization of microtubules interacting with molecular motors. We model microtubules as stiff polar rods of equal length exhibiting anisotropic diffusion in the plane. The molecular motors are implicitly introduced by specifying certain probabilistic collision rules resulting in realignment of the rods. This approximation of the complicated microtubule-motor interaction by a simple instant collision allows us to bypass the 'computational bottlenecks' associated with the details of the diffusion and the dynamics of motors and the reorientation of microtubules. Consequently, we are able to perform simulations of large ensembles of microtubules and motors on a very large time scale. This simple model reproduces all important phenomenology observed in in vitro experiments: Formation of vortices for low motor density and raylike asters and bundles for higher motor density.

  7. A mutation uncouples the tubulin conformational and GTPase cycles, revealing allosteric control of microtubule dynamics.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Elisabeth A; Burns, Alexander; Lalonde, Beth A; Ye, Xuecheng; Piedra, Felipe-Andres; Huffaker, Tim C; Rice, Luke M

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule dynamic instability depends on the GTPase activity of the polymerizing ??-tubulin subunits, which cycle through at least three distinct conformations as they move into and out of microtubules. How this conformational cycle contributes to microtubule growing, shrinking, and switching remains unknown. Here, we report that a buried mutation in ??-tubulin yields microtubules with dramatically reduced shrinking rate and catastrophe frequency. The mutation causes these effects by suppressing a conformational change that normally occurs in response to GTP hydrolysis in the lattice, without detectably changing the conformation of unpolymerized ??-tubulin. Thus, the mutation weakens the coupling between the conformational and GTPase cycles of ??-tubulin. By showing that the mutation predominantly affects post-GTPase conformational and dynamic properties of microtubules, our data reveal that the strength of the allosteric response to GDP in the lattice dictates the frequency of catastrophe and the severity of rapid shrinking. PMID:26439009

  8. Microtubules are stabilized in confluent epithelial cells but not in fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Rhodamine-tagged tubulin was microinjected into epithelial cells (MDCK) and fibroblasts (Vero) to characterize the dynamic properties of labeled microtubules in sparse and confluent cells. Fringe pattern fluorescence photobleaching revealed two components with distinct dynamic properties. About one-third of the injected tubulin diffused rapidly in the cytoplasm with a diffusion coefficient of 1.3-1.6 x 10(- 8) cm2/s. This pool of soluble cytoplasmic tubulin was increased to greater than 80% when cells were treated with nocodazole, or reduced to approximately 20% upon treatment of cells with taxol. Fluorescence recovery of the remaining two-thirds of labeled tubulin occurred with an average half-time (t1/2) of 9-11 min. This pool corresponds to labeled tubulin associated with microtubules, since it was sensitive to treatment of cells with nocodazole and since taxol increased its average t1/2 to greater than 22 min. Movement of photobleached microtubules in the cytoplasm with rates of several micrometers per minute was shown using very small interfringe distances. A significant change in the dynamic properties of microtubules occurred when MDCK cells reached confluency. On a cell average, microtubule half-life was increased about twofold to approximately 16 min. In fact, two populations of cells were detected with respect to their microtubule turnover rates, one with a t1/2 of approximately 9 min and one with a t1/2 of greater than 25 min. Correspondingly, the rate of incorporation of microinjected tubulin into interphase microtubules was reduced about twofold in confluent MDCK cells. In contrast to the MDCK cells, no difference in microtubule dynamics was observed in sparse and confluent populations of Vero fibroblasts, where the average microtubule half- life was approximately 10 min. Thus, microtubules are significantly stabilized in epithelial but not fibroblastic cells grown to confluency. PMID:2269663

  9. A Stochastic Multiscale Model That Explains the Segregation of Axonal Microtubules and Neurofilaments in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chuan; Shtylla, Blerta; Brown, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The organization of the axonal cytoskeleton is a key determinant of the normal function of an axon, which is a long thin projection of a neuron. Under normal conditions two axonal cytoskeletal polymers, microtubules and neurofilaments, align longitudinally in axons and are interspersed in axonal cross-sections. However, in many neurotoxic and neurodegenerative disorders, microtubules and neurofilaments segregate apart from each other, with microtubules and membranous organelles clustered centrally and neurofilaments displaced to the periphery. This striking segregation precedes the abnormal and excessive neurofilament accumulation in these diseases, which in turn leads to focal axonal swellings. While neurofilament accumulation suggests an impairment of neurofilament transport along axons, the underlying mechanism of their segregation from microtubules remains poorly understood for over 30 years. To address this question, we developed a stochastic multiscale model for the cross-sectional distribution of microtubules and neurofilaments in axons. The model describes microtubules, neurofilaments and organelles as interacting particles in a 2D cross-section, and is built upon molecular processes that occur on a time scale of seconds or shorter. It incorporates the longitudinal transport of neurofilaments and organelles through this domain by allowing stochastic arrival and departure of these cargoes, and integrates the dynamic interactions of these cargoes with microtubules mediated by molecular motors. Simulations of the model demonstrate that organelles can pull nearby microtubules together, and in the absence of neurofilament transport, this mechanism gradually segregates microtubules from neurofilaments on a time scale of hours, similar to that observed in toxic neuropathies. This suggests that the microtubule-neurofilament segregation can be a consequence of the selective impairment of neurofilament transport. The model generates the experimentally testable prediction that the rate and extent of segregation will be dependent on the sizes of the moving organelles as well as the density of their traffic. PMID:26285012

  10. Cryofixation rapidly preserves cytoskeletal arrays of leaf epidermal cells revealing microtubule co-alignments between neighbouring cells and adjacent actin and microtubule bundles in the cortex.

    PubMed

    Barton, D A; Overall, R L

    2010-01-01

    Accurate preservation of microtubule and actin microfilament arrays is crucial for investigating their roles in plant cell development. Aldehyde fixatives such as paraformaldehyde or glutaraldehyde preserve cortical microtubule arrays but, unless actin microfilaments are stabilized with drugs such as m-maleimidobenzoyl N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS), ethylene glycol bis[sulfosuccinimidylsuccinate] (sulfo-EGS) or phalloidin, their arrays are often poorly preserved. Cryofixation, used primarily for electron microscopy, preserves actin microfilaments well but is used rarely to fix plant cells for optical microscopy. We developed a novel whole-mount cryofixation method to preserve microtubule and microfilament arrays within Tradescantia virginiana leaf epidermal cells for investigation using confocal microscopy. Cortical microtubule arrays were often oriented in different directions on the internal and external faces of the epidermal cells. A number of arrays were aligned in several directions, parallel to microtubules of neighbouring cells. Actin microfilaments were particularly well preserved possibly due to the speed with which they were immobilized. No transverse cortical microfilament arrays were observed. On occasion, we observed co-aligned microfilament and microtubule bundles lying adjacent to the plasma membrane and positioned side by side suggesting a potential direct interaction between the cytoskeletal filaments at these locations. Cryofixation is therefore a valuable tool to investigate the interactions between cytoskeletal arrays in plant cells using confocal microscopy. PMID:20055921

  11. Alteration of Microtubule Dynamic Instability during Preprophase Band Formation Revealed by Yellow Fluorescent Protein–CLIP170 Microtubule Plus-End LabelingW?

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.

    2003-01-01

    At the onset of mitosis, plant cells form a microtubular preprophase band that defines the plane of cell division, but the mechanism of its formation remains a mystery. Here, we describe the use of mammalian yellow fluorescent protein–tagged CLIP170 to visualize the dynamic plus ends of plant microtubules in transfected cowpea protoplasts and in stably transformed and dividing tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells. Using plus-end labeling, we observed dynamic instability in different microtubular conformations in live plant cells. The interphase plant microtubules grow at 5 ?m/min, shrink at 20 ?m/min, and display catastrophe and rescue frequencies of 0.02 and 0.08 events/s, respectively, exhibiting faster turnover than their mammalian counterparts. Strikingly, during preprophase band formation, the growth rate and catastrophe frequency of plant microtubules double, whereas the shrinkage rate and rescue frequency remain unchanged, making microtubules shorter and more dynamic. Using these novel insights and four-dimensional time-lapse imaging data, we propose a model that can explain the mechanism by which changes in microtubule dynamic instability drive the dramatic rearrangements of microtubules during preprophase band and spindle formation in plant cells. PMID:12615935

  12. Aquifer thermal energy storage : A well doublet experiment at increased temperatures

    E-print Network

    Molz, F. J.; Melville, J. G.; Parr, Alfred D.; King, D. A.; Hopf, M. T.

    1983-02-01

    The two main objectives of this communication are to present a study of potential advantages and disadvantages of the doublet supply-injection well configuration in an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system and to ...

  13. Absorption spectrum in the wings of the potassium second resonance doublet broadened by helium

    E-print Network

    François Shindo; James F. Babb; Kate Kirby; Kouichi Yoshino

    2007-06-11

    We have measured the reduced absorption coefficients occurring in the wings of the potassium 4S-5P doublet lines at 404.414 nm and at 404.720 nm broadened by helium gas at pressures of several hundred Torr. At the experimental temperature of 900 K, we have detected a shoulder-like broadening feature on the blue wing of the doublet which is relatively flat between 401.8 nm and 402.8 nm and which drops off rapidly for shorter wavelengths, corresponding to absorption from the X doublet Sigma+ state to the C doublet Sigma+ state of the K-He quasimolecule. The accurate measurements of the line profiles in the present work will sharply constrain future calculations of potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moments correlating to the asymptotes He-K(5p), He-K(5s), and He-K(3d).

  14. The Lee-Wick Extension of the Two-Higgs Doublet Model

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Aria R; Thrasher, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The Lee-Wick Standard Model is a highly constrained model which solves the gauge hierarchy problem at the expense of including fields with negative norm. It appears to be macroscopically causal and consistent. This model is extended by considering the two-Higgs doublet extension of the Lee-Wick model. Rewriting the Lagrangian using auxiliary fields introduces two additional doublets of Lee-Wick partners. The model is highly constrained, with only one or two additional parameters beyond that of the usual two-Higgs doublet model, and yet there are four doublets. Mass relations are established by diagonalizing the mass matrices and further constraints are established by studying results from B --> tau nu, neutral B-meson mixing, and B --> X_s gamma. The prospects of detecting evidence for this model at the LHC are discussed.

  15. The Lee-Wick Extension of the Two-Higgs Doublet Model

    E-print Network

    Aria R. Johansen; Marc Sher; Keith Thrasher

    2015-12-01

    The Lee-Wick Standard Model is a highly constrained model which solves the gauge hierarchy problem at the expense of including states with negative norm. It appears to be macroscopically causal and consistent. This model is extended by considering the two-Higgs doublet extension of the Lee-Wick model. Rewriting the Lagrangian using auxiliary fields introduces two additional doublets of Lee-Wick partners. The model is highly constrained, with only one or two additional parameters beyond that of the usual two-Higgs doublet model, and yet there are four doublets. Mass relations are established by diagonalizing the mass matrices and further constraints are established by studying results from B --> tau nu, neutral B-meson mixing, and B --> X_s gamma. The prospects of detecting evidence for this model at the LHC are discussed.

  16. Type II seesaw mechanism for Higgs doublets and the scale of new physics

    E-print Network

    W. Grimus; L. Lavoura; B. Radovcic

    2009-03-20

    We elaborate on an earlier proposal by Ernest Ma of a type II seesaw mechanism for suppressing the vacuum expectation values of some Higgs doublets. We emphasize that, by nesting this form of seesaw mechanism into various other seesaw mechanisms, one may obtain light neutrino masses in such a way that the new-physics scale present in the seesaw mechanism - the masses of scalar gauge-SU(2) triplets, scalar SU(2) doublets, or right-handed neutrinos - does not need to be higher than a few 10 TeV. We also investigate other usages of the type II seesaw mechanism for Higgs doublets. For instance, the suppression of the vacuum expectation values of Higgs doublets may realize Froggatt-Nielsen suppression factors in some entries of the fermion mass matrices.

  17. High-temperature Higgs potential of the two-doublet model in catastrophe theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, M. N.; Petrova, E. Yu.

    2015-08-01

    We consider the general case of the temperature evolution of the two-doublet Higgs potential of the minimal supersymmetric standard model when vacuum condensates of the Higgs doublets arbitrarily propagate along the equilibrium surface (or along the extremum surface) passing through bifurcation domains. In the framework of catastrophe theory, the two-doublet Higgs potential of the minimal supersymmetric standard model is a special case of a gradient system potential. We obtain nonlinear transformations of the vacuum condensates of this model, which reduce the two-doublet potential to a canonical form, and catastrophe functions of types A3 and A5 corresponding to an electroweak first-order phase transition in the considered model.

  18. Radiative neutrino masses in the singlet-doublet fermion dark matter model with scalar singlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Diego; Rivera, Andrés; Sánchez-Peláez, Marta; Zapata, Oscar; Tangarife, Walter

    2015-07-01

    When the singlet-doublet fermion dark matter model is extended with additional Z2-odd real singlet scalars, neutrino masses and mixings can be generated at the one-loop level. In this work, we discuss the salient features arising from the combination of the two resulting simplified dark matter models. When the lightest Z2-odd particle is a scalar singlet, Br (? ?e ? ) could be measurable provided that the singlet-doublet fermion mixing is small enough. In this scenario, the new decay channels of vector-like fermions into scalars can also generate interesting leptonic plus missing transverse energy signals at the LHC. On the other hand, in the case of doublet-like fermion dark matter, scalar coannihilations lead to an increase in the relic density which allows one to lower the bound of doublet-like fermion dark matter.

  19. Force transduction by the microtubule-bound Dam1 ring

    E-print Network

    Jonathan W. Armond; Matthew S. Turner

    2010-04-08

    The coupling between the depolymerization of microtubules (MTs) and the motion of the Dam1 ring complex is now thought to play an important role in the generation of forces during mitosis. Our current understanding of this motion is based on a number of detailed computational models. Although these models realize possible mechanisms for force transduction, they can be extended by variation of any of a large number of poorly measured parameters and there is no clear strategy for determining how they might be distinguished experimentally. Here we seek to identify and analyze two distinct mechanisms present in the computational models. In the first the splayed protofilaments at the end of the depolymerizing MT physically prevent the Dam1 ring from falling off the end, in the other an attractive binding secures the ring to the microtubule. Based on this analysis, we discuss how to distinguish between competing models that seek to explain how the Dam1 ring stays on the MT. We propose novel experimental approaches that could resolve these models for the first time, either by changing the diffusion constant of the Dam1 ring (e.g., by tethering a long polymer to it) or by using a time varying load.

  20. Microtubule-dependent regulation of mitotic protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ling; Craney, Allison; Rape, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Accurate cell division depends on tightly regulated ubiquitylation events catalyzed by the anaphase-promoting complex. Among its many substrates, the APC/C triggers the degradation of proteins that stabilize the mitotic spindle, and loss or accumulation of such spindle assembly factors can result in aneuploidy and cancer. Although critical for cell division, it has remained poorly understood how the timing of spindle assembly factor degradation is established during mitosis. Here, we report that active spindle assembly factors are protected from APC/C-dependent degradation by microtubules. In contrast, those molecules that are not bound to microtubules are highly susceptible to proteolysis and turned over immediately after APC/C-activation. The correct timing of spindle assembly factor degradation, as achieved by this regulatory circuit, is required for accurate spindle structure and function. We propose that the localized stabilization of APC/C-substrates provides a mechanism for the selective disposal of cell cycle regulators that have fulfilled their mitotic roles. PMID:24462202

  1. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Naoyuki; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate), Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells. PMID:26308057

  2. Molecular wear of microtubules propelled by surface-adhered kinesins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Emmanuel L. P.; Do, Catherine; Hess, Henry

    2015-02-01

    Wear is the progressive loss of material from a body caused by contact and relative movement and is a major concern in both engineering and biology. Advances in nanotechnology have allowed the origins of wear processes to be studied at the atomic and molecular scale, but also demand that wear in nanoscale systems can be predicted and controlled. Biomolecular systems can undergo a range of active movements at the nanoscale, which are enabled by the transduction of chemical energy into mechanical work by polymerization processes and motor proteins. The active movements are accompanied by dissipative processes that can be conceptually understood as ‘protein friction’. Here, we show that wear also occurs in an in vitro system consisting of microtubules gliding across a surface coated with kinesin-1 motor proteins, and that energetic considerations suggest a molecule-by-molecule removal of tubulin proteins. The rates of removal show a complex dependence on sliding velocity and kinesin density, which, in contrast to the friction behaviour between microtubules and kinesin-8, cannot be explained by simple chemical reaction kinetics.

  3. Molecular wear of microtubules propelled by surface-adhered kinesins.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Emmanuel L P; Do, Catherine; Hess, Henry

    2015-02-01

    Wear is the progressive loss of material from a body caused by contact and relative movement and is a major concern in both engineering and biology. Advances in nanotechnology have allowed the origins of wear processes to be studied at the atomic and molecular scale, but also demand that wear in nanoscale systems can be predicted and controlled. Biomolecular systems can undergo a range of active movements at the nanoscale, which are enabled by the transduction of chemical energy into mechanical work by polymerization processes and motor proteins. The active movements are accompanied by dissipative processes that can be conceptually understood as 'protein friction'. Here, we show that wear also occurs in an in vitro system consisting of microtubules gliding across a surface coated with kinesin-1 motor proteins, and that energetic considerations suggest a molecule-by-molecule removal of tubulin proteins. The rates of removal show a complex dependence on sliding velocity and kinesin density, which, in contrast to the friction behaviour between microtubules and kinesin-8, cannot be explained by simple chemical reaction kinetics. PMID:25622231

  4. Dynamic movements of Ro52 cytoplasmic bodies along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Tanji, Kunikazu; Niida, Motoko; Kamitani, Tetsu

    2010-03-01

    The RING-finger protein Ro52/TRIM21 is known as an autoantigen and is recognized by anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, which are commonly found in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, Ro52 has been shown to localize to distinct structures called cytoplasmic bodies and function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. However, the Ro52 cytoplasmic bodies have not been well characterized. In this study, we investigated the Ro52 cytoplasmic bodies using fluorescence microscopy. This analysis revealed that the Ro52 cytoplasmic bodies are diffusely located in the cytoplasm and exist independently of TRIM5alpha cytoplasmic bodies. Our results further showed that the Ro52 cytoplasmic bodies are not stained with MitoTracker dye and are not colocalized with the proteasome subunit Rpt5, the caveolae component caveolin-1, the endosome markers (EEA1, Rab5, and Rab7), and the lysosome marker LAMP2. These results indicate that the Ro52 cytoplasmic bodies are not mitochondria, proteasome-enriched structures, caveolae, endosomes, or lysosomes. Importantly, the Ro52 cytoplasmic bodies are highly motile and are located along the microtubule network. These results suggest that the Ro52 cytoplasmic bodies are unidentified structures that are transported along the microtubule network. PMID:20013343

  5. Microtubule-dependent transport and dynamics of vimentin intermediate filaments

    PubMed Central

    Hookway, Caroline; Ding, Liya; Davidson, Michael W.; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    We studied two aspects of vimentin intermediate filament dynamics—transport of filaments and subunit exchange. We observed transport of long filaments in the periphery of cells using live-cell structured illumination microscopy. We studied filament transport elsewhere in cells using a photoconvertible-vimentin probe and total internal reflection microscopy. We found that filaments were rapidly transported along linear tracks in both anterograde and retrograde directions. Filament transport was microtubule dependent but independent of microtubule polymerization and/or an interaction with the plus end–binding protein APC. We also studied subunit exchange in filaments by long-term imaging after photoconversion. We found that converted vimentin remained in small clusters along the length of filaments rather than redistributing uniformly throughout the network, even in cells that divided after photoconversion. These data show that vimentin filaments do not depolymerize into individual subunits; they recompose by severing and reannealing. Together these results show that vimentin filaments are very dynamic and that their transport is required for network maintenance. PMID:25717187

  6. MAP65 Coordinate Microtubule Growth during Bundle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Stoppin-Mellet, Virginie; Fache, Vincent; Portran, Didier; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Vantard, Marylin

    2013-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are highly dynamical structures that play a crucial role in cell physiology. In cooperation with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), MTs form bundles endowing cells with specific mechanisms to control their shape or generate forces. Whether the dynamics of MTs is affected by the lateral connections that MAPs make between MTs during bundle formation is still under debate. Using in vitro reconstitution of MT bundling, we analyzed the dynamics of MT bundles generated by two plant MAP65 (MAP65-1/4), MAP65-1 being the plant ortholog of vertebrate PRC1 and yeast Ase1. MAP65-1/4 limit the amplitude of MT bundle depolymerization and increase the elongation phases. The subsequent sustained elongation of bundles is governed by the coordination of MT growth, so that MT ends come in close vicinity. We develop a model based on the assumption that both MAP65-1/4 block MT depolymerization. Model simulations reveal that rescue frequencies are higher between parallel than between anti-parallel MTs. In consequence the polarity of bundled MTs by MAP65 controls the amplitude of bundle’s growth. Our results illustrate how MAP-induced MT-bundling, which is finely tuned by MT polarity, robustly coordinates MT elongation within bundles. PMID:23437247

  7. Microtubules restrict plastid sedimentation in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    Apical cells of protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are unusual among plant cells with sedimentation in that only some amyloplasts sediment and these do not fall completely to the bottom of vertical cells. To determine whether the cytoskeleton restricts plastid sedimentation, the effects of amiprophos-methyl (APM) and cytochalasin D (CD) on plastid position were quantified. APM treatments of 30-60 min increased the plastid sedimentation that is normally seen along the length of untreated or control cells. Longer APM treatments often resulted in more dramatic plastid sedimentation, and in some cases almost all plastids sedimented to the lowermost point in the cell. In contrast, the microfilament inhibitor CD did not affect longitudinal plastid sedimentation compared to untreated cells, although it did disturb or eliminate plastid zonation in the tip. These data suggest that microtubules restrict the sedimentation of plastids along the length of the cell and that microtubules are load-bearing for all the plastids in the apical cell. This demonstrates the importance of the cytoskeleton in maintaining organelle position and cell organization against the force of gravity.

  8. Multiple chiral doublet candidate nucleus {sup 105}Rh in a relativistic mean-field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian; Zhang, S. Q.; Meng, J.

    2011-03-15

    Following the reports of two pairs of chiral doublet bands observed in {sup 105}Rh, the adiabatic and configuration-fixed constrained triaxial relativistic mean-field calculations are performed to investigate their triaxial deformations with the corresponding configuration and the possible multiple chiral doublet (M{chi}D) phenomenon. The existence of the M{chi}D phenomenon in {sup 105}Rh is highly expected.

  9. Stability of the normal vacuum in multi-Higgs-doublet models

    E-print Network

    A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; R. Santos; Joao P. Silva

    2006-09-19

    We show that the vacuum structure of a generic multi-Higgs-doublet model shares several important features with the vacuum structure of the two and three Higgs-doublet model. In particular, one can still define the usual charge breaking, spontaneous CP breaking and normal (charge and CP preserving) stationary points. We analyse the possibility of charge or spontaneous CP breaking, by studying the relative depth of the potential in each of the possible stationary points.

  10. Loosening of a preprophase band of microtubules in onion (Allium cepa L.) root tip cells by kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nogami, A; Mineyuki, Y

    1999-10-01

    Effects of kinase inhibitors on the preprophase band of microtubules in onion (Allium cepa L.) root tip cells were examined. Bundled microtubules in preprophase bands were dispersed on the cell cortex when onion seedlings were incubated with 2.5-5.0 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine. Fifteen min was enough for the bundled microtubules to disappear. Although many preprophase bands remained when the seedlings were incubated with 60 microM staurosporin, these preprophase band microtubules were loosened and the width of the band became broad. These results sugget that some kinases are involved in the microtubule bundling in the preprophase band development. PMID:15216900

  11. Scalar potential of two-Higgs doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indrani; Kundu, Anirban

    2015-11-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) potential. At the tree level, the potential may accommodate more than one minima, one of them being the electroweak (EW) minimum where the Universe lives. The parameter space allowed after the data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) came in almost excludes those cases where the EW vacuum is shallower than the second minimum. We extend the analysis by including terms in the 2HDM potential that break the Z2 symmetry of the potential by dimension-4 operators and show that the conclusions remain unchanged. Furthermore, a one-loop analysis of the potential is performed for both cases, namely, where the Z2 symmetry of the potential is broken by dimension-2 or dimension-4 operators. For quantitative analysis, we show our results for the type II 2HDM, qualitative results remaining the same for other 2HDMs. We find that the nature of the vacua from the tree-level analysis does not change; the EW vacuum still remains deeper.

  12. Two-Higgs-doublet model in terms of observable quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, I. F.; Kanishev, K. A.

    2015-07-01

    We found a minimal and a comprehensive set of directly measurable quantities defining the most general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM); we call these quantities observables. The potential parameters of the model are expressed explicitly via these observables (plus nonphysical parameters which are similar to gauge parameters). The model with arbitrary values of these observables can, in principle, be realized (up to general enough limitations). Our results open the door for the study of Higgs models in terms of measurable quantities only. The experimental limitations can be implemented here directly, without complex, often model-dependent, analysis of the Lagrangian coefficients. The principal opportunity to determine all parameters of the 2HDM from the (future) data meets strong practical limitation. It is the problem for a very long time. Apart from this construction per se, we also obtain some by-products. Among them are the following: a simple criterium for charge parity symmetry (C P ) conservation in the 2HDM, a new sum rules for Higgs couplings, a clear possibility of the coexistence of relatively light Higgses with the strong interaction in the Higgs sector, and a simple expression for the triple Higgs vertex g (hahaha) , useful for the analysis of future h h h coupling measurements.

  13. Substructure of the outer dynein arm

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The substructure of the outer dynein arm has been analyzed in quick- frozen deep-etch replicas of Tetrahymena and Chlamydomonas axonemes. Each arm is found to be composed of five morphologically discrete components: an elliptical head; two spherical feet; a slender stalk; and an interdynein linker. The feet make contact with the A microtubule of each doublet; the stalk contacts the B microtubule; the head lies between the feet and stalk; and the linker associates each arm with its neighbor. The spatial relationships between these five components are found to be distinctly different in rigor (ATP-depleted) versus relaxed (ATP- or vanadate plus ATP-treated) axonemes, and the stalk appears to alter its affinity for the B microtubule in the relaxed state. Images of living cilia attached to Tetrahymena cells show that the relaxed configuration is adopted in vivo. We relate our observations to morphological and experimental studies reported by others and propose several models that suggest how this newly described dynein morphology may relate to dynein function. PMID:6218174

  14. Substructure of the outer dynein arm.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, U W; Heuser, J E

    1982-12-01

    The substructure of the outer dynein arm has been analyzed in quick-frozen deep-etch replicas of Tetrahymena and Chlamydomonas axonemes. Each arm is found to be composed of five morphologically discrete components: an elliptical head; two spherical feet; a slender stalk; and an interdynein linker. The feet make contact with the A microtubule of each doublet; the stalk contacts the B microtubule; the head lies between the feet and stalk; and the linker associates each arm with its neighbor. The spatial relationships between these five components are found to be distinctly different in rigor (ATP-depleted) versus relaxed (ATP- or vanadate plus ATP-treated) axonemes, and the stalk appears to alter its affinity for the B microtubule in the relaxed state. Images of living cilia attached to Tetrahymena cells show that the relaxed configuration is adopted in vivo. We relate our observations to morphological and experimental studies reported by others and propose several models that suggest how this newly described dynein morphology may relate to dynein function. PMID:6218174

  15. Complementary activities of TPX2 and chTOG constitute an efficient importin-regulated microtubule nucleation module.

    PubMed

    Roostalu, Johanna; Cade, Nicholas I; Surrey, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Spindle assembly and function require precise control of microtubule nucleation and dynamics. The chromatin-driven spindle assembly pathway exerts such control locally in the vicinity of chromosomes. One of the key targets of this pathway is TPX2. The molecular mechanism of how TPX2 stimulates microtubule nucleation is not understood. Using microscopy-based dynamic in vitro reconstitution assays with purified proteins, we find that human TPX2 directly stabilizes growing microtubule ends and stimulates microtubule nucleation by stabilizing early microtubule nucleation intermediates. Human microtubule polymerase chTOG (XMAP215/Msps/Stu2p/Dis1/Alp14 homologue) only weakly promotes nucleation, but acts synergistically with TPX2. Hence, a combination of distinct and complementary activities is sufficient for efficient microtubule formation in vitro. Importins control the efficiency of the microtubule nucleation by selectively blocking the interaction of TPX2 with microtubule nucleation intermediates. This in vitro reconstitution reveals the molecular mechanism of regulated microtubule formation by a minimal nucleation module essential for chromatin-dependent microtubule nucleation in cells. PMID:26414402

  16. The effect of human microtubule-associated-protein tau on the assembly structure of microtubules and its ionic strength dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. C.; Raviv, U.; Miller, H. P.; Gaylord, M. R.; Kiris, E.; Ventimiglia, D.; Needleman, D. J.; Chung, P. J.; Deek, J.; Lapointe, N.; Kim, M. W.; Wilson, L.; Feinstein, S. C.; Safinya, C. R.

    2010-03-01

    Microtubules (MTs), 25 nm protein nanotubes, are among the major filamentous elements of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton involved in intracellular trafficking, cell division and the establishment and maintenance of cell shape. Microtubule-associated-protein tau regulates tubulin assembly, MT dynamics and stability. Aberrant tau action has long been correlated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, and fronto-temporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) Using synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and binding assay, we examine the effects of tau on the assembly structure of taxol-stabilized MTs. We find that tau regulates the distribution of protofilament numbers in MTs as reflected in the observed increase in the average radius of MTs with increasing the tau/tubulin molar ratio. Additionally, tau-MT interactions are mediated to a large extent via electrostatic interactions: the binding affinity of tau to MTs is ionic strength dependent. Supported by DOE-BES DE-FG02-06ER46314, NSF DMR-0803103, NIH NS35010, NIH NS13560. (Ref) M.C. Choi, S.C. Feinstein, and C.R. Safinya et al. Biophys. J. 97; 519 (2009).

  17. Long tethers provide high-force coupling of the Dam1 ring to shortening microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vladimir A.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Gudimchuk, Nikita; Grissom, Paula M.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.

    2013-01-01

    Microtubule kinetochore attachments are essential for accurate mitosis, but how these force-generating connections move chromosomes remains poorly understood. Processive motion at shortening microtubule ends can be reconstituted in vitro using microbeads conjugated to the budding yeast kinetochore protein Dam1, which forms microtubule-encircling rings. Here, we report that, when Dam1 is linked to a bead cargo by elongated protein tethers, the maximum force transmitted from a disassembling microtubule increases sixfold compared with a short tether. We interpret this significant improvement with a theory that considers the geometry and mechanics of the microtubule–ring–bead system. Our results show the importance of fibrillar links in tethering microtubule ends to cargo: fibrils enable the cargo to align coaxially with the microtubule, thereby increasing the stability of attachment and the mechanical work that it can do. The force-transducing characteristics of fibril-tethered Dam1 are similar to the analogous properties of purified yeast kinetochores, suggesting that a tethered Dam1 ring comprises the main force-bearing unit of the native attachment. PMID:23610433

  18. Probing a self-assembled fd virus membrane with a microtubule

    E-print Network

    Sheng Xie; Robert A. Pelcovits; Michael F. Hagan

    2015-12-07

    The self-assembly of highly anisotropic colloidal particles leads to a rich variety of morphologies, whose properties are just beginning to be understood. This article uses computer simulations to probe a particle-scale perturbation of a commonly studied colloidal assembly, a monolayer membrane composed of rodlike fd viruses in the presence of a polymer depletant. Motivated by experiments currently in progress, we simulate the interaction between a microtubule and a monolayer membrane as the microtubule "pokes" and penetrates the membrane face-on. Both the viruses and the microtubule are modeled as hard spherocylinders of the same diameter, while the depletant is modeled using ghost spheres. We find that the force exerted on the microtubule by the membrane is zero either when the microtubule is completely outside the membrane or when it has fully penetrated the membrane. The microtubule is initially repelled by the membrane as it begins to penetrate but experiences an attractive force as it penetrates further. We assess the roles played by translational and rotational fluctuations of the viruses and the osmotic pressure of the polymer depletant. We find that rotational fluctuations play a more important role than the translational ones. The dependence on the osmotic pressure of the depletant of the width and height of the repulsive barrier and the depth of the attractive potential well is consistent with the assumed depletion-induced attractive interaction between the microtubule and viruses. We discuss the relevance of these studies to the experimental investigations. \\end{abstract}

  19. Isolation of a 90-kD Microtubule-Associated Protein from Tobacco Membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Marc, J.; Sharkey, D. E.; Durso, N. A.; Zhang, M.; Cyr, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The organization and function of microtubules in plant cells are important in key developmental events, including the regulation of directional cellulose deposition. Bridges connecting microtubules to each other and to membranes and other organelles have been documented by electron microscopy; however, the biochemical and molecular nature of these linkages is not known. We have partitioned proteins from a suspension culture of tobacco into cytosolic and membrane fractions, solubilized the membrane fraction with a zwitterionic detergent, and then used affinity chromatography and salt elution to isolate tubulin binding proteins. Dark-field microscopy of in vitro-assembled microtubules showed that the eluted proteins from both fractions induce microtubule bundling and, in the presence of purified tubulin, promote microtubule elongation. Gel electrophoresis of the eluted proteins revealed two distinct sets of polypeptides. Those in the membrane eluate included unique bands with apparent molecular masses of 98, 90, and 75 kD in addition to bands present in both eluates. The cytosolic eluate, in contrast, typically included relatively smaller proteins. The eluted proteins also bound to taxol-stabilized microtubules. Initial immunological characterization using monoclonal antibodies raised against the 90-kD polypeptide showed that it is colocalized in situ with cortical microtubules in tobacco protoplast ghosts. PMID:12239375

  20. Anillin interacts with microtubules and is part of the astral pathway that defines cortical domains.

    PubMed

    van Oostende Triplet, Chloe; Jaramillo Garcia, Melina; Haji Bik, Husni; Beaudet, Daniel; Piekny, Alisa

    2014-09-01

    Cytokinesis occurs by the ingression of an actomyosin ring that separates the cell into two daughter cells. The mitotic spindle, comprising astral and central spindle microtubules, couples contractile ring ingression with DNA segregation. Cues from the central spindle activate RhoA, the upstream regulator of the contractile ring. However, additional cues from the astral microtubules also reinforce the localization of active RhoA. Using human cells, we show that astral and central spindle microtubules independently control the localization of contractile proteins during cytokinesis. Astral microtubules restrict the accumulation and localization of contractile proteins during mitosis, whereas the central spindle forms a discrete ring by directing RhoA activation in the equatorial plane. Anillin stabilizes the contractile ring during cytokinesis. We show that human anillin interacts with astral microtubules and that this interaction is competed by the cortical recruitment of anillin by active RhoA. Anillin restricts the localization of myosin to the equatorial cortex and that of NuMA (part of the microtubule-tethering complex that regulates spindle position) to the polar cortex. The sequestration of anillin by astral microtubules might alter the organization of cortical proteins to polarize cells for cytokinesis. PMID:24994938

  1. The mechanics of a microscopic mixer: microtubules and cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes

    E-print Network

    J. M. Deutsch; M. E. Brunner; William M. Saxton

    2012-07-10

    Large scale motion of cytoplasm called cytoplasmic streaming occurs in some large eukaryotic cells to stir the cell's constituents. In Drosophila oocytes, microtubules have been observed to undergo undulating motion, curving to form travelling waves during cytoplasmic streaming. Here we show that this wave-like motion can be understood physically as due to the hydrodynamic drag of streaming impellers attached to kinesin motors moving toward the plus-ends of microtubules whose minus ends are anchored to the cell cortex. The tangential forces applied to such microtubules by kinesin give rise to bending and leads to chiral symmetry breaking causing the microtubules to propagate long travelling waves. The waves are reminiscent of those seen in flagellar motion but of a much longer time scale and by a different physical mechanism. We show how kinesin movement can produce a bulk flow of cytoplasm surrounding a microtubule with the range of flow greatly enhanced by the effect of hydrodynamic coupling between impellers. That is, a relatively small number of motors can move a large amount of fluid. The chaotic nature of the fluid motion of cytoplasm caused by kinesin movement along constantly changing microtubule trajectories is important as it greatly enhances the efficiency of mixing. Existing data on in vitro microtubule gliding assays also show this chiral instability in two dimensions and an analysis of this gives quantitative estimates for the forces exerted by motors and the drag coefficient.

  2. The Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Three Interacting Plus-End Tracking Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wolyniak, Michael J.; Blake-Hodek, Kristina; Kosco, Karena; Hwang, Eric; You, Liru

    2006-01-01

    Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are a diverse group of molecules that regulate microtubule dynamics and interactions of microtubules with other cellular structures. Many +TIPs have affinity for each other but the functional significance of these associations is unclear. Here we investigate the physical and functional interactions among three +TIPs in S. cerevisiae, Stu2, Bik1, and Bim1. Two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation, and in vitro binding assays demonstrate that they associate in all pairwise combinations, although the interaction between Stu2 and Bim1 may be indirect. Three-hybrid assays indicate that these proteins compete for binding to each other. Thus, Stu2, Bik1, and Bim1 interact physically but do not appear to be arranged in a single unique complex. We examined the functional interactions among pairs of proteins by comparing cytoplasmic and spindle microtubule dynamics in cells lacking either one or both proteins. On cytoplasmic microtubules, Stu2 and Bim1 act cooperatively to regulate dynamics in G1 but not in preanaphase, whereas Bik1 acts independently from Stu2 and Bim1. On kinetochore microtubules, Bik1 and Bim1 are redundant for regulating dynamics, whereas Stu2 acts independently from Bik1 and Bim1. These results indicate that interactions among +TIPS can play important roles in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. PMID:16571681

  3. Isolation of a 90-kD Microtubule-Associated Protein from Tobacco Membranes.

    PubMed

    Marc, J.; Sharkey, D. E.; Durso, N. A.; Zhang, M.; Cyr, R. J.

    1996-11-01

    The organization and function of microtubules in plant cells are important in key developmental events, including the regulation of directional cellulose deposition. Bridges connecting microtubules to each other and to membranes and other organelles have been documented by electron microscopy; however, the biochemical and molecular nature of these linkages is not known. We have partitioned proteins from a suspension culture of tobacco into cytosolic and membrane fractions, solubilized the membrane fraction with a zwitterionic detergent, and then used affinity chromatography and salt elution to isolate tubulin binding proteins. Dark-field microscopy of in vitro-assembled microtubules showed that the eluted proteins from both fractions induce microtubule bundling and, in the presence of purified tubulin, promote microtubule elongation. Gel electrophoresis of the eluted proteins revealed two distinct sets of polypeptides. Those in the membrane eluate included unique bands with apparent molecular masses of 98, 90, and 75 kD in addition to bands present in both eluates. The cytosolic eluate, in contrast, typically included relatively smaller proteins. The eluted proteins also bound to taxol-stabilized microtubules. Initial immunological characterization using monoclonal antibodies raised against the 90-kD polypeptide showed that it is colocalized in situ with cortical microtubules in tobacco protoplast ghosts. PMID:12239375

  4. Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 4 Regulates Growth Cone Dynamics through the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeleton*

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Mohamad R.; Girouard, Marie-Pier; Alchini, Ricardo; Ong Tone, Stephan; Shimada, Tadayuki; Bechstedt, Susanne; Cowan, Mitra; Guillet, Dominique; Wiseman, Paul W.; Brouhard, Gary; Cloutier, Jean Francois; Fournier, Alyson E.

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated control of the growth cone cytoskeleton underlies axon extension and guidance. Members of the collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family of cytosolic phosphoproteins regulate the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton, but their roles in regulating growth cone dynamics remain largely unexplored. Here, we examine how CRMP4 regulates the growth cone cytoskeleton. Hippocampal neurons from CRMP4?/? mice exhibited a selective decrease in axon extension and reduced growth cone area, whereas overexpression of CRMP4 enhanced the formation and length of growth cone filopodia. Biochemically, CRMP4 can impact both microtubule assembly and F-actin bundling in vitro. Through a structure function analysis of CRMP4, we found that the effects of CRMP4 on axon growth and growth cone morphology were dependent on microtubule assembly, whereas filopodial extension relied on actin bundling. Intriguingly, anterograde movement of EB3 comets, which track microtubule protrusion, slowed significantly in neurons derived from CRMP4?/? mice, and rescue of microtubule dynamics required CRMP4 activity toward both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Together, this study identified a dual role for CRMP4 in regulating the actin and microtubule growth cone cytoskeleton. PMID:25225289

  5. Hierarchical microtubule organization controls axon caliber and transport and determines synaptic structure and stability.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Raiko; Goellner, Bernd; Moreno, Eliza; Frank, C Andrew; Hugenschmidt, Tabea; Genoud, Christel; Aberle, Hermann; Pielage, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The dimensions of axons and synaptic terminals determine cell-intrinsic properties of neurons; however, the cellular mechanisms selectively controlling establishment and maintenance of neuronal compartments remain poorly understood. Here, we show that two giant Drosophila Ankyrin2 isoforms, Ank2-L and Ank2-XL, and the MAP1B homolog Futsch form a membrane-associated microtubule-organizing complex that determines axonal diameter, supports axonal transport, and provides independent control of synaptic dimensions and stability. Ank2-L controls microtubule and synaptic stability upstream of Ank2-XL that selectively controls microtubule organization. Synergistically with Futsch, Ank2-XL provides three-dimensional microtubule organization and is required to establish appropriate synaptic dimensions and release properties. In axons, the Ank2-XL/Futsch complex establishes evenly spaced, grid-like microtubule organization and determines axonal diameter in the absence of neurofilaments. Reduced microtubule spacing limits anterograde transport velocities of mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. Our data identify control of microtubule architecture as a central mechanism to selectively control neuronal dimensions, functional properties, and connectivity. PMID:25800091

  6. Microtubule and cellulose microfibril orientation during plant cell and organ growth.

    PubMed

    Chan, J

    2012-07-01

    In this review, I ask the question of what is the relationship between growth and the orientations of microtubules and cellulose microfibrils in plant cells. This should be a relatively simple question to answer considering that text books commonly describe microtubules and cellulose microfibrils as hoops that drive expansion perpendicular to their orientation. However, recent live imaging techniques, which allow microtubules and cellulose synthase dynamics to be imaged simultaneously with cell elongation, show that cells can elongate with nonperpendicular microtubule arrays. In this review, I look at the significance of these different microtubule arrangements for growth and cell wall architecture and how these resultant walls differ from those derived from perpendicular arrays. I also discuss how these divergent arrays in stems may be important for coordinating growth between the different cell layers. This role reveals some general features of microtubule alignment that can be used to predict the growth status of organs. In conclusion, nonperpendicular arrays demonstrate alternative ways of cell elongation that do not require hooped arrays of microtubules and cellulose microfibrils. Such nonperpendicular arrays may be required for optimal growth and strengthening of tissues. PMID:22171640

  7. Cyclic assembly-disassembly of cortical microtubules during maturation and early development of starfish oocytes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, T E; Otto, J J

    1984-06-01

    An extensive array of cortical microtubules in oocytes of the starfish Pisaster ochraceus undergoes multiple cycles of disappearance and reappearance during maturation and early development. These events were studied in isolated fragments of the oocyte cortex stained with antitubulin antibodies for indirect immunofluorescence. The meshwork of long microtubules is present in the cortex (a) of immature oocytes, i.e., before treatment with the maturation-inducing hormone 1-methyladenine, (b) for 10-20 min after treatment with 1-methyladenine, (c) after formation of the second polar body (in reduced numbers in unfertilized oocytes), and (d) in the intermitotic period between first and second cleavage divisions. The array of cortical microtubules is absent in oocytes (a) undergoing germinal vesicle breakdown, (b) during the two meiotic divisions (polar body divisions), and (c) during mitosis of the first and, perhaps, subsequent cleavage divisions. The cycle of assembly-disassembly of cortical microtubules is synchronized to the cycle of nuclear envelope breakdown and reformation and to the mitotic cycle; specifically, cortical microtubules are present when a nucleus is intact (germinal vesicle, female pronucleus, zygote nucleus, blastomere nucleus) and are absent whenever a meiotic or mitotic spindle is present. These findings are discussed in terms of microtubule organizing centers in eggs, possible triggers for microtubule assembly and disassembly, the eccentric location of the germinal vesicle, and the regulation of oocyte maturation and cell division. PMID:6373448

  8. Aurora B suppresses microtubule dynamics and limits central spindle size by locally activating KIF4A

    PubMed Central

    Nunes Bastos, Ricardo; Gandhi, Sapan R.; Baron, Ryan D.; Gruneberg, Ulrike; Nigg, Erich A.

    2013-01-01

    Anaphase central spindle formation is controlled by the microtubule-stabilizing factor PRC1 and the kinesin KIF4A. We show that an MKlp2-dependent pool of Aurora B at the central spindle, rather than global Aurora B activity, regulates KIF4A accumulation at the central spindle. KIF4A phosphorylation by Aurora B stimulates the maximal microtubule-dependent ATPase activity of KIF4A and promotes its interaction with PRC1. In the presence of phosphorylated KIF4A, microtubules grew more slowly and showed long pauses in growth, resulting in the generation of shorter PRC1-stabilized microtubule overlaps in vitro. Cells expressing only mutant forms of KIF4A lacking the Aurora B phosphorylation site overextended the anaphase central spindle, demonstrating that this regulation is crucial for microtubule length control in vivo. Aurora B therefore ensures that suppression of microtubule dynamic instability by KIF4A is restricted to a specific subset of microtubules and thereby contributes to central spindle size control in anaphase. PMID:23940115

  9. Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) Proteins Link Microtubule Stability to Genome Integrity*

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Guillaume; Tremblay-Boudreault, Thierry; Roy, Marc-André; Andersen, Parker; Bonneil, Éric; Atchia, Kaleem; Thibault, Pierre; D'Amours, Damien; Kwok, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    Structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins are key organizers of chromosome architecture and are essential for genome integrity. They act by binding to chromatin and connecting distinct parts of chromosomes together. Interestingly, their potential role in providing connections between chromatin and the mitotic spindle has not been explored. Here, we show that yeast SMC proteins bind directly to microtubules and can provide a functional link between microtubules and DNA. We mapped the microtubule-binding region of Smc5 and generated a mutant with impaired microtubule binding activity. This mutant is viable in yeast but exhibited a cold-specific conditional lethality associated with mitotic arrest, aberrant spindle structures, and chromosome segregation defects. In an in vitro reconstitution assay, this Smc5 mutant also showed a compromised ability to protect microtubules from cold-induced depolymerization. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that SMC proteins can bind to and stabilize microtubules and that SMC-microtubule interactions are essential to establish a robust system to maintain genome integrity. PMID:25135640

  10. Variational Principles for Buckling of Microtubules Modeled as Nonlocal Orthotropic Shells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A variational principle for microtubules subject to a buckling load is derived by semi-inverse method. The microtubule is modeled as an orthotropic shell with the constitutive equations based on nonlocal elastic theory and the effect of filament network taken into account as an elastic surrounding. Microtubules can carry large compressive forces by virtue of the mechanical coupling between the microtubules and the surrounding elastic filament network. The equations governing the buckling of the microtubule are given by a system of three partial differential equations. The problem studied in the present work involves the derivation of the variational formulation for microtubule buckling. The Rayleigh quotient for the buckling load as well as the natural and geometric boundary conditions of the problem is obtained from this variational formulation. It is observed that the boundary conditions are coupled as a result of nonlocal formulation. It is noted that the analytic solution of the buckling problem for microtubules is usually a difficult task. The variational formulation of the problem provides the basis for a number of approximate and numerical methods of solutions and furthermore variational principles can provide physical insight into the problem. PMID:25214886

  11. Kinesin-1–powered microtubule sliding initiates axonal regeneration in Drosophila cultured neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wen; Lakonishok, Margot; Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism underlying axon regeneration is of great practical importance for developing therapeutic treatment for traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Dramatic cytoskeleton reorganization occurs at the injury site, and microtubules have been implicated in the regeneration process. Previously we demonstrated that microtubule sliding by conventional kinesin (kinesin-1) is required for initiation of neurite outgrowth in Drosophila embryonic neurons and that sliding is developmentally down-regulated when neurite outgrowth is completed. Here we report that mechanical axotomy of Drosophila neurons in culture triggers axonal regeneration and regrowth. Regenerating neurons contain actively sliding microtubules; this sliding, like sliding during initial neurite outgrowth, is driven by kinesin-1 and is required for axonal regeneration. The injury induces a fast spike of calcium, depolymerization of microtubules near the injury site, and subsequent formation of local new microtubule arrays with mixed polarity. These events are required for reactivation of microtubule sliding at the initial stages of regeneration. Furthermore, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway promotes regeneration by enhancing microtubule sliding in injured mature neurons. PMID:25657321

  12. Detailed Per-residue Energetic Analysis Explains the Driving Force for Microtubule Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Ahmed T.; Klobukowski, Mariusz; Tuszynski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are long filamentous hollow cylinders whose surfaces form lattice structures of ??-tubulin heterodimers. They perform multiple physiological roles in eukaryotic cells and are targets for therapeutic interventions. In our study, we carried out all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for arbitrarily long microtubules that have either GDP or GTP molecules in the E-site of ?-tubulin. A detailed energy balance of the MM/GBSA inter-dimer interaction energy per residue contributing to the overall lateral and longitudinal structural stability was performed. The obtained results identified the key residues and tubulin domains according to their energetic contributions. They also identified the molecular forces that drive microtubule disassembly. At the tip of the plus end of the microtubule, the uneven distribution of longitudinal interaction energies within a protofilament generates a torque that bends tubulin outwardly with respect to the cylinder's axis causing disassembly. In the presence of GTP, this torque is opposed by lateral interactions that prevent outward curling, thus stabilizing the whole microtubule. Once GTP hydrolysis reaches the tip of the microtubule (lateral cap), lateral interactions become much weaker, allowing tubulin dimers to bend outwards, causing disassembly. The role of magnesium in the process of outward curling has also been demonstrated. This study also showed that the microtubule seam is the most energetically labile inter-dimer interface and could serve as a trigger point for disassembly. Based on a detailed balance of the energetic contributions per amino acid residue in the microtubule, numerous other analyses could be performed to give additional insights into the properties of microtubule dynamic instability. PMID:26030285

  13. Strain rate does not affect cortical microtubule orientation in the isolated epidermis of sunflower hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Burian, A; Hejnowicz, Z

    2010-05-01

    A hypothesis exists that external and internal factors affect the orientation of cortical microtubules in as much as these lead to changes in cell elongation rate. Factors that stimulate elongation are proposed to lead to transverse microtubule orientation, whereas factors that inhibit elongation lead to longitudinal orientation. The elongation rate is equal to the rate of longitudinal irreversible strain in cell walls. Incubated epidermis peeled from sunflower hypocotyls does not extend unless it is stretched by loading and the pH of the incubation medium is appropriately low. Thus, peels provide a convenient model to investigate the relationship between longitudinal strain rate and cortical microtubule orientation. In the present study, it was found that peeling affects microtubule orientation. Peels were incubated for several hours in Murashige & Skoog medium (both unbuffered and buffered) to attain a steady state of microtubule orientation before loading. The effects of loading and pH on strain rate and orientation of microtubules under the outer epidermal walls were examined in three portions of peels positioned with respect to the cotyledonary node. Appropriate loading caused longitudinal strain of peels at pH 4.5 but not at pH 6.5. However, no clear effect of strain rate on microtubule orientation in the peels was observed. Independent of applied load and pH of the incubation medium, the microtubule orientation remained unchanged, i.e. orientation was mainly oblique. Our results show that strain rate does not affect cortical microtubule orientation in isolated epidermis of the sunflower hypocotyl model system, although orientation could be changed by white light. PMID:20522182

  14. Posttranslational modification of distinct microtubule subpopulations during cell polarization and differentiation in the mouse preimplantation embryo

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    During the course of preimplantation development, the cells of the mouse embryo undergo both a major subcellular reorganization (at the time of compaction) and, subsequently, a process of differentiation as the phenotypes of trophectoderm and inner cell mass cell types diverge. We have used antibodies specific for tyrosinated (Kilmartin, J. V., B. Wright, and C. Milstein. 1982. J. Cell Biol. 93:576-582) and acetylated (Piperno, G., and M. T. Fuller. 1985. J. Cell Biol. 101:2085-2094) alpha-tubulin in immunofluorescence studies and found that subsets of microtubules can be distinguished within and between cells during the course of these events. Whereas all microtubules contained tyrosinated alpha-tubulin, acetylated alpha-tubulin was detected only in a subpopulation, located predominantly in the cell cortices. Striking differences developed between the distribution of the two populations during the course of development. Firstly, whereas the microtubule population as a whole tends to redistribute towards the apical domain of cells as they polarize during compaction (Houliston, E., S. J. Pickering, and B. Maro. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 104:1299-1308), the microtubules recognized by the antiacetylated alpha-tubulin antibody became enriched in the basal part of the cell cortex. After asymmetric division of polarized cells to generate two distinct cell types (termed inside and outside cells) we found that, despite the relative abundance of microtubules in outside cells, acetylated microtubules accumulated preferentially in inside cells. Treatment with nocodazole demonstrated that within each cell type acetylated microtubules were the more stable ones; however, the difference in composition of the microtubule network between cell types was not accompanied by a greater stability of the microtubule network in inside cells. PMID:2645302

  15. A microtubule-based, dynein-dependent force induces local cell protrusions: Implications for neurite initiation.

    PubMed

    Dehmelt, L; Nalbant, P; Steffen, W; Halpain, S

    2006-02-01

    A key event in neurite initiation is the accumulation of microtubule bundles at the neuron periphery. We hypothesized that such bundled microtubules may generate a force at the plasma membrane that facilitates neurite initiation. To test this idea we observed the behavior of microtubule bundles that were induced by the microtubule-associated protein MAP2c. Endogenous MAP2c contributes to neurite initiation in primary neurons, and exogeneous MAP2c is sufficient to induce neurites in Neuro-2a cells. We performed nocodazol washout experiments in primary neurons, Neuro-2a cells and COS-7 cells to investigate the underlying mechanism. During nocodazol washout, small microtubule bundles formed rapidly in the cytoplasm and immediately began to move toward the cell periphery in a unidirectional manner. In neurons and Neuro-2a cells, neurite-like processes extended within minutes and concurrently accumulated bundles of repolymerized microtubules. Speckle microscopy in COS-7 cells indicated that bundle movement was due to transport, not treadmilling. At the periphery bundles remained under a unidirectional force and induced local cell protrusions that were further enhanced by suppression of Rho kinase activity. Surprisingly, this bundle motility was independent of classical actin- or microtubule-based tracks. It was, however, reversed by function-blocking antibodies against dynein. Suppression of dynein expression in primary neurons by RNA interference severely inhibited the generation of new neurites, but not the elongation of existing neurites formed prior to dynein knockdown. Together, these cell biological data suggest that neuronal microtubule-associated proteins induce microtubule bundles that are pushed outward by dynein and locally override inward contraction to initiate neurite-like cell protrusions. A similar force-generating mechanism might participate in spontaneous initiation of neurites in developing neurons. PMID:17940912

  16. Tubulin Bond Energies and Microtubule Biomechanics Determined from Nanoindentation in Silico

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules, the primary components of the chromosome segregation machinery, are stabilized by longitudinal and lateral noncovalent bonds between the tubulin subunits. However, the thermodynamics of these bonds and the microtubule physicochemical properties are poorly understood. Here, we explore the biomechanics of microtubule polymers using multiscale computational modeling and nanoindentations in silico of a contiguous microtubule fragment. A close match between the simulated and experimental force–deformation spectra enabled us to correlate the microtubule biomechanics with dynamic structural transitions at the nanoscale. Our mechanical testing revealed that the compressed MT behaves as a system of rigid elements interconnected through a network of lateral and longitudinal elastic bonds. The initial regime of continuous elastic deformation of the microtubule is followed by the transition regime, during which the microtubule lattice undergoes discrete structural changes, which include first the reversible dissociation of lateral bonds followed by irreversible dissociation of the longitudinal bonds. We have determined the free energies of dissociation of the lateral (6.9 ± 0.4 kcal/mol) and longitudinal (14.9 ± 1.5 kcal/mol) tubulin–tubulin bonds. These values in conjunction with the large flexural rigidity of tubulin protofilaments obtained (18,000–26,000 pN·nm2) support the idea that the disassembling microtubule is capable of generating a large mechanical force to move chromosomes during cell division. Our computational modeling offers a comprehensive quantitative platform to link molecular tubulin characteristics with the physiological behavior of microtubules. The developed in silico nanoindentation method provides a powerful tool for the exploration of biomechanical properties of other cytoskeletal and multiprotein assemblies. PMID:25389565

  17. Molecular modeling of oscillating GHz electric field influence on the kinesin affinity to microtubule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R. Saeidi, H.; S. Setayandeh, S.; Lohrasebi, A.

    2015-08-01

    Kinesin is a microtubule-associated motor protein which can respond to the external electric field due to its polarity. Using a molecular dynamics simulation method, the effect of such a field on the affinity of kinesin to the ??-tubulin is investigated in this study. To consider kinesin affinity, the system is exposed to an electric field of 0.03 V/nm with frequency values of 1, 2, …, 9, and 10 GHz. It is found that the applied electric field can change kinesin affinity to the microtubule. These changes could perturb the normal operation of kinesin, such as the processive motility of kinesin on the microtubule.

  18. The random release of phosphate controls the dynamic instability of microtubules

    E-print Network

    Ranjith Padinhateeri; Anatoly B. Kolomeisky; David Lacoste

    2011-03-16

    A simple stochastic model which describes microtubule dynamics and explicitly takes into account the relevant biochemical processes is presented. The model incorporates binding and unbinding of monomers and random phosphate release inside the polymer. It is shown that this theoretical approach provides a microscopic picture of the dynamic instability phenomena of microtubules. The cap size, the concentration dependence of the catastrophe times and the delay before observing catastrophes following a dilution can be quantitatively predicted by this approach in a direct and simple way. Furthermore, the model can be solved analytically to a large extend, thus offering a valuable starting point for more refined studies of microtubules dynamics.

  19. Passive athermalization of doublets in 8-13 micron waveband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    Passive athermalization of lenses has become a key-technology for automotive and other outdoor applications using modern uncooled 25, 17 and 12 micron pixel pitch bolometer arrays. Typical pixel counts for thermal imaging are 384x288 (qVGA), 640x480 (VGA), and 1024x768 (XGA). Two lens arrangements (called Doublets) represent a cost effective way to satisfy resolution requirements of these detectors with F-numbers 1.4 or faster. Thermal drift of index of refraction and the geometrical changes (in lenses and housing) versus temperature defocus the initial image plane from the detector plane. The passive athermalization restricts this drop of spatial resolution in a wide temperature range (typically -40°C…+80°C) to an acceptable value without any additional external refocus. In particular, lenses with long focal lengths and high apertures claim athermalization. A careful choice of lens and housing materials and a sophistical dimensioning lead to three different principles of passivation: The Passive Mechanical Athermalization (PMA) shifts the complete lens cell, the Passive Optical and Mechanical Athermalization (POMA) shifts only one lens inside the housing, the Passive Optical Athermalization (POA) works without any mechanism. All three principles will be demonstrated for a typical narrow-field lens (HFOV about 12°) with high aperture (aperture based F-number 1.3) for the actual uncooled reference detector (17micron VGA). Six design examples using different combinations of lens materials show the impact on spatial lens resolution, on overall length, and on weight. First order relations are discussed. They give some hints for optimization solutions. Pros and cons of different passive athermalization principles are evaluated in regards of housing design, availability of materials and costing. Examples with a convergent GASIR®1-lens in front distinguish by best resolution, short overall length, and lowest weight.

  20. Theory and phenomenology of two-Higgs-doublet models

    E-print Network

    G. C. Branco; P. M. Ferreira; L. Lavoura; M. N. Rebelo; Marc Sher; Joao P. Silva

    2011-12-19

    We discuss theoretical and phenomenological aspects of two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the Standard Model. In general, these extensions have scalar mediated flavour changing neutral currents which are strongly constrained by experiment. Various strategies are discussed to control these flavour changing scalar currents and their phenomenological consequences are analysed. In particular, scenarios with natural flavour conservation are investigated, including the so-called type I and type II models as well as lepton-specific and inert models. Type III models are then discussed, where scalar flavour changing neutral currents are present at tree level, but are suppressed by either specific ansatze for the Yukawa couplings or by the introduction of family symmetries. We also consider the phenomenology of charged scalars in these models. Next we turn to the role of symmetries in the scalar sector. We discuss the six symmetry-constrained scalar potentials and their extension into the fermion sector. The vacuum structure of the scalar potential is analysed, including a study of the vacuum stability conditions on the potential and its renormalization-group improvement. The stability of the tree level minimum of the scalar potential in connection with electric charge conservation and its behaviour under CP is analysed. The question of CP violation is addressed in detail, including the cases of explicit CP violation and spontaneous CP violation. We present a detailed study of weak basis invariants which are odd under CP. A careful study of spontaneous CP violation is presented, including an analysis of the conditions which have to be satisfied in order for a vacuum to violate CP. We present minimal models of CP violation where the vacuum phase is sufficient to generate a complex CKM matrix, which is at present a requirement for any realistic model of spontaneous CP violation.

  1. Analysis of cortical arrays from Tradescantia virginiana at high resolution reveals discrete microtubule subpopulations and demonstrates that confocal images of arrays can be misleading.

    PubMed

    Barton, Deborah A; Vantard, Marylin; Overall, Robyn L

    2008-04-01

    Cortical microtubule arrays are highly organized networks involved in directing cellulose microfibril deposition within the cell wall. Their organization results from complex interactions between individual microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins. The precise details of these interactions are often not evident using optical microscopy. Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, we analyzed extensive regions of cortical arrays and identified two spatially discrete microtubule subpopulations that exhibited different stabilities. Microtubules that lay adjacent to the plasma membrane were often bundled and more stable than the randomly aligned, discordant microtubules that lay deeper in the cytoplasm. Immunolabeling revealed katanin at microtubule ends, on curves, or at sites along microtubules in line with neighboring microtubule ends. End binding 1 protein also localized along microtubules, at microtubule ends or junctions between microtubules, and on the plasma membrane in direct line with microtubule ends. We show fine bands in vivo that traverse and may encircle microtubules. Comparing confocal and electron microscope images of fluorescently tagged arrays, we demonstrate that optical images are misleading, highlighting the fundamental importance of studying cortical microtubule arrays at high resolution. PMID:18430803

  2. Analysis of Cortical Arrays from Tradescantia virginiana at High Resolution Reveals Discrete Microtubule Subpopulations and Demonstrates That Confocal Images of Arrays Can Be Misleading[W

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Deborah A.; Vantard, Marylin; Overall, Robyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Cortical microtubule arrays are highly organized networks involved in directing cellulose microfibril deposition within the cell wall. Their organization results from complex interactions between individual microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins. The precise details of these interactions are often not evident using optical microscopy. Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, we analyzed extensive regions of cortical arrays and identified two spatially discrete microtubule subpopulations that exhibited different stabilities. Microtubules that lay adjacent to the plasma membrane were often bundled and more stable than the randomly aligned, discordant microtubules that lay deeper in the cytoplasm. Immunolabeling revealed katanin at microtubule ends, on curves, or at sites along microtubules in line with neighboring microtubule ends. End binding 1 protein also localized along microtubules, at microtubule ends or junctions between microtubules, and on the plasma membrane in direct line with microtubule ends. We show fine bands in vivo that traverse and may encircle microtubules. Comparing confocal and electron microscope images of fluorescently tagged arrays, we demonstrate that optical images are misleading, highlighting the fundamental importance of studying cortical microtubule arrays at high resolution. PMID:18430803

  3. Constraints on the septet-doublet mixing models from oblique parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Tsai, Lu-Hsing; Yu, Yao

    2015-04-01

    The limitations of doublet-septet mixing models resulting from the deviations of electroweak oblique parameters ? S and ? T are studied. In the minimal model, the mixture of the septet ? and the scalar doublet in the standard model (SM) is driven by a non-Hermitian dimension-7 operator. For a smaller bare mass of the septet, ? S puts a stringent constraint on the mixing angle sin ? between the C P -odd neutral parts of the SM Higgs doublet and ? . In general, increasing the mass of the scalar septet M? will enhance the deviation of T from the SM, whereas it decreases the magnitude of ? S for a larger bare mass within the range M??400 GeV . We also examine two extended models from the ordinary doublet-septet mixture pattern. One of them is based on an inert doublet-septet mixing pattern, in which there is no vacuum expectation value for the neutral component of ? and stable dark matter could naturally exist. For a benchmark point with the inner doublet mass of M?=250 and M?=400 GeV in this model, the mixing coefficient is found to be less than 1.8. The other extension is constructed by imposing a doubly charged scalar mixed with the doubly charged component of the septet. Apart from the contribution by the septet-doublet admixture, ? S is suppressed by a factor of sW2 and ? T has a significant constraint due to the vanishing vacuum polarization of Z at the momentum transfer p2=0 .

  4. Tunable dynamics of microtubule-based active isotropic gels

    PubMed Central

    Henkin, Gil; DeCamp, Stephen J.; Chen, Daniel T. N.; Sanchez, Tim; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an active gel of bundled microtubules (MTs) that is driven by clusters of kinesin molecular motors. Upon the addition of ATP, the coordinated action of thousands of molecular motors drives the gel to a highly dynamical turbulent-like state that persists for hours and is only limited by the stability of constituent proteins and the availability of the chemical fuel. We characterize how enhanced transport and emergent macroscopic flows of active gels depend on relevant molecular parameters, including ATP, kinesin motor and depletant concentrations, MT volume fraction, as well as the stoichiometry of the constituent motor clusters. Our results show that the dynamical and structural properties of MT-based active gels are highly tunable. They also indicate existence of an optimal concentration of molecular motors that maximize far-from-equilibrium activity of active isotropic MT gels. PMID:25332391

  5. Theory of self-assembly of microtubules and motors

    E-print Network

    Igor S. Aronson; Lev S. Tsimring

    2005-12-26

    We derive a model describing spatio-temporal organization of an array of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting from a stochastic model of inelastic polar rods with a generic anisotropic interaction kernel we obtain a set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. At large enough mean density of rods and concentration of motors, the model describes an orientational instability. We demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and (for large density and/or kernel anisotropy) asters seen in recent experiments. We derive the specific form of the interaction kernel from the detailed analysis of microscopic interaction of two filaments mediated by a moving molecular motor, and extend our results to include variable motor density and motor attachment to the substrate.

  6. Push or Pull? -- Cryo-Electron Microscopy of Microtubule's Dynamic Instability and Its Roles in the Kinetochore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Wei

    2009-03-01

    Microtubule is a biopolymer made up of alpha-beta-tubulin heterodimers. The tubulin dimers assemble head-to-tail as protofilaments and about 13 protofilaments interact laterally to form a hollow cylindrical structure which is the microtubule. As the major cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells, microtubules have the intrinsic property to switch stochastically between growth and shrinkage phases, a phenomenon termed as their dynamic instability. Microtubule's dynamic instability is closely related to the types of nucleotide (GTP or GDP) that binds to the beta-tubulin. We have biochemically trapped two types of assembly states of tubulin with GTP or GDP bound representing the polymerizing and depolymerizing ends of microtubules respectively. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we have elucidated the structures of these intermediate assemblies, showing that tubulin protofilaments demonstrate various curvatures and form different types of lateral interactions depending on the nucleotide states of tubulin and the temperature. Our work indicates that during the microtubule's dynamic cycle, tubulin undergoes various assembly states. These states, different from the straight microtubule, lend the highly dynamic and complicated behavior of microtubules. Our study of microtubule's interaction with certain kinetochore complexes suggests that the intermediate assemblies are responsible for specific mechanical forces that are required during the mitosis or meiosis. Our discoveries strongly suggest that a microtubule is a molecular machine rather than a simple cellular scaffold.

  7. The growth speed of microtubules with XMAP215-coated beads coupled to their ends is increased by tensile force

    PubMed Central

    Trushko, Anastasiya; Schäffer, Erik; Howard, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    The generation of pulling and pushing forces is one of the important functions of microtubules, which are dynamic and polarized structures. The ends of dynamic microtubules are able to form relatively stable links to cellular structures, so that when a microtubule grows it can exert a pushing force and when it shrinks it can exert a pulling force. Microtubule growth and shrinkage are tightly regulated by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that bind to microtubule ends. Given their localization, MAPs may be exposed to compressive and tensile forces. The effect of such forces on MAP function, however, is poorly understood. Here we show that beads coated with the microtubule polymerizing protein XMAP215, the Xenopus homolog of Dis1 and chTOG, are able to link stably to the plus ends of microtubules, even when the ends are growing or shrinking; at growing ends, the beads increase the polymerization rate. Using optical tweezers, we found that tensile force further increased the microtubule polymerization rate. These results show that physical forces can regulate the activity of MAPs. Furthermore, our results show that XMAP215 can be used as a handle to sense and mechanically manipulate the dynamics of the microtubule tip. PMID:23964126

  8. Non-centrosomal epidermal microtubules act in parallel to LET-502/ROCK to promote C. elegans elongation.

    PubMed

    Quintin, Sophie; Wang, Shahoe; Pontabry, Julien; Bender, Ambre; Robin, François; Hyenne, Vincent; Landmann, Frédéric; Gally, Christelle; Oegema, Karen; Labouesse, Michel

    2016-01-01

    C. elegans embryonic elongation is a morphogenetic event driven by actomyosin contractility and muscle-induced tension transmitted through hemidesmosomes. A role for the microtubule cytoskeleton has also been proposed, but its contribution remains poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the organization of the non-centrosomal microtubule arrays present in the epidermis and assess their function in elongation. We show that the microtubule regulators ?-tubulin and NOCA-1 are recruited to hemidesmosomes and adherens junctions early in elongation. Several parallel approaches suggest that microtubule nucleation occurs from these sites. Disrupting the epidermal microtubule array by overexpressing the microtubule-severing protein Spastin or by inhibiting the C. elegans ninein homolog NOCA-1 in the epidermis mildly affected elongation. However, microtubules were essential for elongation when hemidesmosomes or the activity of the Rho kinase LET-502/ROCK were partially compromised. Imaging of junctional components and genetic analyses suggest that epidermal microtubules function together with Rho kinase to promote the transport of E-cadherin to adherens junctions and myotactin to hemidesmosomes. Our results indicate that the role of LET-502 in junctional remodeling is likely to be independent of its established function as a myosin II activator, but requires a microtubule-dependent pathway involving the syntaxin SYX-5. Hence, we propose that non-centrosomal microtubules organized by epidermal junctions contribute to elongation by transporting junction remodeling factors, rather than having a mechanical role. PMID:26586219

  9. Katanin maintains meiotic metaphase chromosome alignment and spindle structure in vivo and has multiple effects on microtubules in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Karen; Berg, Evan; Cortes, Daniel B.; Hernandez, Veronica; Mains, Paul E.; McNally, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of Caenorhabditis elegans female meiotic spindles requires both MEI-1 and MEI-2 subunits of the microtubule-severing ATPase katanin. Strong loss-of-function mutants assemble apolar intersecting microtubule arrays, whereas weaker mutants assemble bipolar meiotic spindles that are longer than wild type. To determine whether katanin is also required for spindle maintenance, we monitored metaphase I spindles after a fast-acting mei-1(ts) mutant was shifted to a nonpermissive temperature. Within 4 min of temperature shift, bivalents moved off the metaphase plate, and microtubule bundles within the spindle lengthened and developed a high degree of curvature. Spindles eventually lost bipolar structure. Immunofluorescence of embryos fixed at increasing temperature indicated that MEI-1 was lost from spindle microtubules before loss of ASPM-1, indicating that MEI-1 and ASPM-1 act independently at spindle poles. We quantified the microtubule-severing activity of purified MEI-1/MEI-2 complexes corresponding to six different point mutations and found a linear relationship between microtubule disassembly rate and meiotic spindle length. Previous work showed that katanin is required for severing at points where two microtubules intersect in vivo. We show that purified MEI-1/MEI-2 complexes preferentially sever at intersections between two microtubules and directly bundle microtubules in vitro. These activities could promote parallel/antiparallel microtubule organization in meiotic spindles. PMID:24501424

  10. Spectraplakins promote microtubule-mediated axonal growth by functioning as structural MAPs and EB1-dependent +TIPs

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Silva, J.; Sánchez-Soriano, N.; Beaven, R.; Klein, M.; Parkin, J.; Millard, T.H.; Bellen, H. J; Venken, K. J.T.; Ballestrem, C.; Kammerer, R.A.; Prokop, A.

    2013-01-01

    The correct outgrowth of axons is essential for the development and regeneration of nervous systems. Axon growth is primarily driven by microtubules. Key regulators of microtubules in this context are the spectraplakins, a family of evolutionarily conserved actin-microtubule linkers. Loss of function of the mouse spectraplakin ACF7 or of its close Drosophila homologue Short stop/Shot similarly cause severe axon shortening and microtubule disorganisation. How spectraplakins perform these functions is not known. Here we show that axonal growth promoting roles of Shot require interaction with EB1 (End binding protein) at polymerising plus ends of microtubules. We show that binding of Shot to EB1 requires SxIP motifs in Shot’s carboxyterminal tail (Ctail), mutations of these motifs abolish Shot functions in axonal growth, loss of EB1 function phenocopies Shot loss, and genetic interaction studies reveal strong functional links between Shot and EB1 in axonal growth and microtubule organisation. In addition, we report that Shot localises along microtubule shafts and stabilises them against pharmacologically induced depolymerisation. This function is EB1-independent but requires net positive charges within Ctail which essentially contribute to the microtubule shaft association of Shot. Therefore, spectraplakins are true members of two important classes of neuronal microtubule regulating proteins: +TIPs (plus end regulators) and structural MAPs (microtubule associated proteins). From our data we deduce a model that relates the different features of the spectraplakin carboxy-terminus to the two functions of Shot during axonal growth. PMID:22764224

  11. The Type II Arabidopsis Formin14 Interacts with Microtubules and Microfilaments to Regulate Cell Division[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanhua; Shen, Yuan; Cai, Chao; Zhong, Chenchun; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Ming; Ren, Haiyun

    2010-01-01

    Formins have long been known to regulate microfilaments but have also recently been shown to associate with microtubules. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana FORMIN14 (AFH14), a type II formin, was found to regulate both microtubule and microfilament arrays. AFH14 expressed in BY-2 cells was shown to decorate preprophase bands, spindles, and phragmoplasts and to induce coalignment of microtubules with microfilaments. These effects perturbed the process of cell division. Localization of AFH14 to microtubule-based structures was confirmed in Arabidopsis suspension cells. Knockdown of AFH14 in mitotic cells altered interactions between microtubules and microfilaments, resulting in the formation of an abnormal mitotic apparatus. In Arabidopsis afh14 T-DNA insertion mutants, microtubule arrays displayed abnormalities during the meiosis-associated process of microspore formation, which corresponded to altered phenotypes during tetrad formation. In vitro biochemical experiments showed that AFH14 bound directly to either microtubules or microfilaments and that the FH2 domain was essential for cytoskeleton binding and bundling. However, in the presence of both microtubules and microfilaments, AFH14 promoted interactions between microtubules and microfilaments. These results demonstrate that AFH14 is a unique plant formin that functions as a linking protein between microtubules and microfilaments and thus plays important roles in the process of plant cell division. PMID:20709814

  12. A model of cytoplasmically-driven microtubule-based motion in the single-celled

    E-print Network

    Zordan, Victor

    A model of cytoplasmically-driven microtubule-based motion in the single-celled C. elegans embryo-celled C. elegans embryo. In this model, a centrosome pair at the male pronucleus initiates stochastic

  13. csi2p modulates microtubule dynamics and organizes the bipolar spindle for chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Costa, Judite; Fu, Chuanhai; Khare, V Mohini; Tran, Phong T

    2014-12-01

    Proper chromosome segregation is of paramount importance for proper genetic inheritance. Defects in chromosome segregation can lead to aneuploidy, which is a hallmark of cancer cells. Eukaryotic chromosome segregation is accomplished by the bipolar spindle. Additional mechanisms, such as the spindle assembly checkpoint and centromere positioning, further help to ensure complete segregation fidelity. Here we present the fission yeast csi2+. csi2p localizes to the spindle poles, where it regulates mitotic microtubule dynamics, bipolar spindle formation, and subsequent chromosome segregation. csi2 deletion (csi2?) results in abnormally long mitotic microtubules, high rate of transient monopolar spindles, and subsequent high rate of chromosome segregation defects. Because csi2? has multiple phenotypes, it enables estimates of the relative contribution of the different mechanisms to the overall chromosome segregation process. Centromere positioning, microtubule dynamics, and bipolar spindle formation can all contribute to chromosome segregation. However, the major determinant of chromosome segregation defects in fission yeast may be microtubule dynamic defects. PMID:25253718

  14. Host microtubules in the Hartig net region of ectomycorrhizas, ectendomycorrhizas, and

    E-print Network

    Massicotte, Hugues

    Host microtubules in the Hartig net region of ectomycorrhizas, ectendomycorrhizas, and monotropoid (MTs) in root cells of ectendomycorrhizas and monotropoid mycorrhizas; in addition, ectomycorrhizas banksiana L. ­ Laccaria bicolor (Maire) Orton ectomycorrhizas, MTs were present in epidermal and cortical

  15. Microtubule-mediated Transport of Incoming Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Capsids to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Sodeik, Beate; Ebersold, Melanie W.; Helenius, Ari

    1997-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 fuses with the plasma membrane of a host cell, and the incoming capsids are efficiently and rapidly transported across the cytosol to the nuclear pore complexes, where the viral DNA genomes are released into the nucleoplasm. Using biochemical assays, immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy in the presence and absence of microtubule depolymerizing agents, it was shown that the cytosolic capsid transport in Vero cells was mediated by microtubules. Antibody labeling revealed the attachment of dynein, a minus end–directed, microtubule-dependent motor, to the viral capsids. We propose that the incoming capsids bind to microtubules and use dynein to propel them from the cell periphery to the nucleus. PMID:9060466

  16. csi2p modulates microtubule dynamics and organizes the bipolar spindle for chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Judite; Fu, Chuanhai; Khare, V. Mohini; Tran, Phong T.

    2014-01-01

    Proper chromosome segregation is of paramount importance for proper genetic inheritance. Defects in chromosome segregation can lead to aneuploidy, which is a hallmark of cancer cells. Eukaryotic chromosome segregation is accomplished by the bipolar spindle. Additional mechanisms, such as the spindle assembly checkpoint and centromere positioning, further help to ensure complete segregation fidelity. Here we present the fission yeast csi2+. csi2p localizes to the spindle poles, where it regulates mitotic microtubule dynamics, bipolar spindle formation, and subsequent chromosome segregation. csi2 deletion (csi2?) results in abnormally long mitotic microtubules, high rate of transient monopolar spindles, and subsequent high rate of chromosome segregation defects. Because csi2? has multiple phenotypes, it enables estimates of the relative contribution of the different mechanisms to the overall chromosome segregation process. Centromere positioning, microtubule dynamics, and bipolar spindle formation can all contribute to chromosome segregation. However, the major determinant of chromosome segregation defects in fission yeast may be microtubule dynamic defects. PMID:25253718

  17. Cortical microtubule nucleation can organise the cytoskeleton of Drosophila oocytes to define the anteroposterior axis

    E-print Network

    Khuc Trong, Philipp

    Many cells contain non-centrosomal arrays of microtubules (MTs), but the assembly, organisation and function of these arrays are poorly understood. We present the first theoretical model for the non-centrosomal MT cytoskeleton ...

  18. Role of mto2 in temporal and spatial regulation of cytoplasmic microtubule nucleation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe 

    E-print Network

    Groocock, Lynda M.

    2010-01-01

    The microtubule [MT] cytoskeleton of S. pombe is a highly dynamic network of filaments that facilitates intracellular transport, determines cell polarity and plays an essential role in chromosome separation during mitosis. ...

  19. Why Microtubules run in Circles - Mechanical Hysteresis of the Tubulin Lattice

    E-print Network

    Ziebert, Falko; Kuli?, Igor M

    2014-01-01

    The fate of every eukaryotic cell subtly relies on the exceptional mechanical properties of microtubules. Despite significant efforts, understanding their unusual mechanics remains elusive. One persistent, unresolved mystery is the formation of long-lived arcs and rings, e.g. in kinesin-driven gliding assays. To elucidate their physical origin we develop a model of the inner workings of the microtubule's lattice, based on recent experimental evidence for a conformational switch of the tubulin dimer. We show that the microtubule lattice itself coexists in discrete polymorphic states. Curved states can be induced via a mechanical hysteresis involving torques and forces typical of few molecular motors acting in unison. This lattice switch renders microtubules not only virtually unbreakable under typical cellular forces, but moreover provides them with a tunable response integrating mechanical and chemical stimuli.

  20. Why Microtubules run in Circles - Mechanical Hysteresis of the Tubulin Lattice

    E-print Network

    Falko Ziebert; Hervé Mohrbach; Igor M. Kuli?

    2014-05-18

    The fate of every eukaryotic cell subtly relies on the exceptional mechanical properties of microtubules. Despite significant efforts, understanding their unusual mechanics remains elusive. One persistent, unresolved mystery is the formation of long-lived arcs and rings, e.g. in kinesin-driven gliding assays. To elucidate their physical origin we develop a model of the inner workings of the microtubule's lattice, based on recent experimental evidence for a conformational switch of the tubulin dimer. We show that the microtubule lattice itself coexists in discrete polymorphic states. Curved states can be induced via a mechanical hysteresis involving torques and forces typical of few molecular motors acting in unison. This lattice switch renders microtubules not only virtually unbreakable under typical cellular forces, but moreover provides them with a tunable response integrating mechanical and chemical stimuli.