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Sample records for aya cancers meetingedit

  1. Treatment of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer in a multidisciplinary setting: on the way to a highly specialized AYA unit.

    PubMed

    Bernig, T; Jahn, F; Witkowsky, S; Huehn, R; Hentschel, A; Kegel, T; Schmoll, H-J; Körholz, D

    2013-11-01

    Further survival improvements of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer are clearly affected by biological characteristics of the malignancies and age-specific needs. Multidisciplinary teams drawing expertice from both pediatric and adult cancer teams as well as clinical trials are required to meet the age specific needs of AYA patients with cancer. In 2011, the first AYA unit was established at the University Hospital Halle (Saale), where patients with newly-diagnosed cancer aged 15-25 are treated interdisciplinary by pediatric and adult oncologists. The enrollment into pediatric or adult clinical trials is controlled by age 18. Over the last 2 years, 19 AYA with cancer have been treated at the unit; and, in turn patients and their relatives reflected a high satisfaction with the offered novel health care approach. In the scope of the future Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University Hospital Halle (Saale), a complete ward is planned for all admitted AYA up to 25 years with cancer. The patients will be treated by a tumor-specialized multidisciplinary team of adult or pediatric oncologists and oncological surgeons. Therefore, we intend to establish a special teaching curriculum for physicians, nurses and psychosocial health care staff. Rather than age, cancer biology of a malignancy, surveillance data of late side effects as well as the age-specific needs of AYA patients will be crucial for best treatment options. PMID:24166088

  2. Young and Uninsured: Insurance Patterns of Recently Diagnosed Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors in the AYA HOPE Study

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Helen; Schmidt, Susanne; Harlan, Linda; Kent, Erin; Lynch, Charles; Smith, Ashley; Keegan, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Young adults have historically been the least likely to have health insurance in the United States. Previous studies of childhood cancer survivors found lower rates of insurance and less access to medical care compared to siblings; however, no studies have examined continuity of insurance after cancer diagnosis in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Methods Using the AYA Health Outcomes and Patient Experience study, a cohort of 465 15-39 year-olds from participating Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries, we evaluated changes in and sponsors of health insurance coverage after diagnosis, coverage of doctor-recommended tests, and factors associated with lack of insurance post-diagnosis using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Results Over 25% (n=118) of AYA cancer survivors experienced some period without insurance up to 35 months post-diagnosis. Insurance rates were high in the initial year after diagnosis (6-14 months; 93.3%) but decreased substantially at follow-up (15-35 months; 85.2%). The most common sponsor of health insurance was employer/school-coverage (43.7%). Multivariable analysis indicated that older survivors (25-39 vs. 15-19; Odds Ratio (OR): 3.35, p<0.01) and those with less education (high school or less vs. college graduate; OR: 2.80, p<0.01) were more likely to experience a period without insurance after diagnosis. Furthermore, >20% of survivors indicated there were doctor-recommended tests/treatments not covered by insurance, but >80% received them regardless of coverage. Discussion Insurance rates decrease with time since diagnosis in AYA cancer survivors. Future studies should examine how new policies under the Affordable Care Act extend access and insurance coverage beyond initial treatment. PMID:24899580

  3. Identifying and Addressing the Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Summary of an Institute of Medicine Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Beaupin, Lynda K.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Fasciano, Karen; Ganz, Patricia A.; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Hudson, Melissa M.; Nevidjon, Brenda; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Rechis, Ruth; Richardson, Lisa C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Smith, Ashley W.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading disease-related cause of death in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). This population faces many short- and long-term health and psychosocial consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment, but many programs for cancer treatment, survivorship care, and psychosocial support do not focus on the specific needs of AYA cancer patients. Recognizing this health care disparity, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the Institute of Medicine convened a public workshop to examine the needs of AYA patients with cancer. Workshop participants identified many gaps and challenges in the care of AYA cancer patients and discussed potential strategies to address these needs. Suggestions included ways to improve access to care for AYAs, to deliver cancer care that better meets the medical and psychosocial needs of AYAs, to develop educational programs for providers who care for AYA cancer survivors, and to enhance the evidence base for AYAs with cancer by facilitating participation in research. PMID:25568146

  4. Sustaining a School-Based Prevention Program: Results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Michael C.; Flay, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Sustaining effective school-based prevention programs is critical to improving youth and population-based health. This article reports on results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project, an effort to sustain a school-based prevention program that was tested via a randomized trial and targeted violence, drug use, and risky sex-related behaviors…

  5. If You Didn’t Document It, It Didn’t Happen: Rates of Documentation of Discussion of Fertility Risk in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology Patients’ Medical Record

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Block, Rebecca; Clayman, Marla L.; Kelvin, Joanne; Arvey, Sarah R; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Reinecke, Joyce; Sehovic, Ivana; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Reed, Damon; Gonzalez, Luis; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Laronga, Christine; Lee, M Catherine; Pow-Sang, Julio; Eggly, Susan; Franklin, Anna; Shah, Bijal; Fulp, William J; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) community is an underserved population due to unique quality of life and late-effect issues, particularly future fertility. This study sought to establish rates of documentation of discussion of risk of infertility, fertility preservation (FP) options, and referrals to fertility specialists in AYA patients’ medical records at four cancer centers. Methods All centers reviewed randomized medical records within the four most common disease sites among AYAs (breast, leukemia/lymphoma, sarcoma, and testicular). Eligible patient records included: 1) diagnosed in 2011 with no prior gonadotoxic therapy; 2) ages 18–45; 3) no multiple primary cancers; and 4) not second opinions. Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) methods were used to evaluate documentation of: a) discussion of risk of infertility; b) discussion of FP options; and c) referral to a fertility specialist. Results A total of 231 records were analyzed. Overall, 61 (26%) of records documented item a; 56 (24%) documented item b; and 31 (13%) documented item c. Female (p = 0.030; p = 0.004) and breast cancer (p = 0.021; p < 0.001) records were less likely to contain evidence of a and b. Conclusion The overall rate of documentation is low and results show disparities among specific groups. While greater numbers of discussions may be occurring, there is need to create interventions to improve documentation. Rates may improve with increased provider education and other intervention efforts. PMID:25549654

  6. Breast cancer in adolescent and young adult women.

    PubMed

    Gewefel, Hanan; Salhia, Bodour

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women, accounting for approximately 14% of all AYA cancer diagnoses and 7% of all breast cancer. Breast cancer in AYA women is believed to represent a more biologically aggressive disease, but aside from commonly known hereditary predispositions, little is still known about the underlying molecular genetic causes. This review examines the current trends of breast cancer in AYA women as they relate to clinical, social, genetic, and molecular pathologic characteristics. We highlight existing trends, treatment and imaging approaches, and health burdens as they relate to breast cancer in AYA women and provide a discussion on ways to help improve the overall management of this breast cancer cohort. PMID:25034440

  7. Biologic and clinical characteristics of adolescent and young adult cancers: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, and sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Tricoli, James V; Blair, Donald G; Anders, Carey K; Bleyer, W Archie; Boardman, Lisa A; Khan, Javed; Kummar, Shivaani; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Hunger, Stephen P; Merchant, Melinda; Seibel, Nita L; Thurin, Magdalena; Willman, Cheryl L

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have not attained the same improvements in overall survival as either younger children or older adults. One possible reason for this disparity may be that the AYA cancers exhibit unique biologic characteristics, resulting in differences in clinical and treatment resistance behaviors. This report from the biologic component of the jointly sponsored National Cancer Institute and LiveStrong Foundation workshop entitled "Next Steps in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology" summarizes the current status of biologic and translational research progress for 5 AYA cancers; colorectal cancer breast cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, melanoma, and sarcoma. Conclusions from this meeting included the need for basic biologic, genomic, and model development for AYA cancers as well as translational research studies to elucidate any fundamental differences between pediatric, AYA, and adult cancers. The biologic questions for future research are whether there are mutational or signaling pathway differences (for example, between adult and AYA colorectal cancer) that can be clinically exploited to develop novel therapies for treating AYA cancers and to develop companion diagnostics. Cancer 2016;122:1017-1028. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26849082

  8. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears. PMID:25750863

  9. Sustaining a school-based prevention program: results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project.

    PubMed

    Fagen, Michael C; Flay, Brian R

    2009-02-01

    Sustaining effective school-based prevention programs is critical to improving youth and population-based health. This article reports on results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project, an effort to sustain a school-based prevention program that was tested via a randomized trial and targeted violence, drug use, and risky sex-related behaviors among a cohort of 5th-grade African American children followed through 10th grade. Sustainability project health educators trained parent educators to deliver the Aban Aya prevention curriculum in five schools, and project researchers studied the resultant curricular implementation and relations between the research and school-based teams. Study results showed uneven implementation across the five schools that we largely attributed to parent educator preparation and parent educator-health educator relations. These and related results are discussed to answer the study's primary research question: How viable was the sustainability project's parent-centered approach to sustaining a school-based prevention program? PMID:19238697

  10. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  11. Quality of life in adolescent and young adult cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gonçalves, Vânia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) effects that persist beyond cancer diagnosis and treatment. Due to continuous improvements in technology and cancer treatments resulting in improved survival rates, the identification of late effects, survivorship issues, and QoL is moving to the forefront of cancer research. The goal of this systematic review was to identify key psychosocial factors impacting QoL in AYA oncology populations. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of these phrases or keywords: “adolescent and young adult or AYA” AND “health outcomes OR quality of life OR psychology” AND “neoplasm OR cancer OR oncology”. A total of 35 articles were included in this review. Studies were classified into two categories: AYA perceptions and stakeholder perceptions. Results AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have “worse” or impaired QoL compared with the general population, regardless of other demographic factors. AYAs described both positive and negatives experiences with their medical care, the educational information received, and the supportive care services. Although health care professionals were likely to underestimate or misjudge the health preferences and support needs of AYAs, these perceptions varied across disciplines and levels of experience. Conclusion The literature is lacking in sufficient evidence-based interventions to improve QoL in AYA cancer populations. Further, the tools to adequately measure QoL in this population are also unsatisfactory. The literature, however, consistently shows agreement regarding the unique needs of this population, indicating a trend toward health care standardization within age ranges or life stages. We suggest the need for AYA-specific programs in health care institutions that comprise a multidisciplinary team that addresses all the unique medical and QoL needs of AYAs. PMID

  12. Reimagining care for adolescent and young adult cancer programs: Moving with the times.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abha A; Papadakos, Janet K; Jones, Jennifer M; Amin, Leila; Chang, Eugene K; Korenblum, Chana; Mina, Daniel Santa; McCabe, Lianne; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith E

    2016-04-01

    Literature regarding the development of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer programs has been dominantly informed by pediatric centers and practitioners. However, the majority of young adults are seen and treated at adult cancer centers, in which cancer volumes afford the development of innovative supportive care services. Although the supportive care services in adult cancer centers are helpful to AYAs, some of the most prominent and distinct issues faced by AYAs are not adequately addressed through these services alone. This article describes how the AYA Program at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre has collaborated with existing supportive care services in addition to supplying its own unique services to meet the comprehensive needs of AYAs in the domains of: symptom management (sexuality and fatigue), behavior modification (return to work and exercise), and health services (advanced cancer and survivorship). These collaborations are augmented by patient education interventions and timely referrals. The objective of this article was to assist other centers in expanding existing services to address the needs of AYA patients with cancer. Cancer 2016;122:1038-1046. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26848554

  13. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; Wakefield, Claire E

    2013-10-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This review examined the existing literature on psychological outcomes among AYAs living with cancer. All psychological outcomes (both distress and positive adjustment) were included, and AYAs were included across the cancer trajectory, ranging from newly-diagnosed patients, to long-term cancer survivors. Four key research questions were addressed. Section 1 answered the question, "What is the nature and prevalence of distress (and other psychological outcomes) among AYAs living with cancer?" and documented rates of clinical distress, as well as evidence for the trajectory of this distress over time. Section 2 examined the individual, cancer/treatment-related and socio-demographic factors that have been identified as predictors of these outcomes in this existing literature. Section 3 examined current theoretical models relevant to explaining psychological outcomes among AYAs, including developmental models, socio-cognitive and family-systems models, stress-coping frameworks, and cognitive appraisal models (including trauma and meaning making models). The mechanisms implicated in each model were discussed, as was the existing evidence for each model. Converging evidence implicating the potential role of autobiographical memory and future thinking systems in how AYAs process and integrate their cancer experience into their current sense of self and future goals are highlighted. Finally, Section 4 addressed the future of psycho-oncology in understanding and conceptualizing

  14. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This review examined the existing literature on psychological outcomes among AYAs living with cancer. All psychological outcomes (both distress and positive adjustment) were included, and AYAs were included across the cancer trajectory, ranging from newly-diagnosed patients, to long-term cancer survivors. Four key research questions were addressed. Section 1 answered the question, “What is the nature and prevalence of distress (and other psychological outcomes) among AYAs living with cancer?” and documented rates of clinical distress, as well as evidence for the trajectory of this distress over time. Section 2 examined the individual, cancer/treatment-related and socio-demographic factors that have been identified as predictors of these outcomes in this existing literature. Section 3 examined current theoretical models relevant to explaining psychological outcomes among AYAs, including developmental models, socio-cognitive and family-systems models, stress-coping frameworks, and cognitive appraisal models (including trauma and meaning making models). The mechanisms implicated in each model were discussed, as was the existing evidence for each model. Converging evidence implicating the potential role of autobiographical memory and future thinking systems in how AYAs process and integrate their cancer experience into their current sense of self and future goals are highlighted. Finally, Section 4 addressed the future of psycho-oncology in understanding and conceptualizing

  15. A Qualitative Study of Phase III Cancer Clinical Trial Enrollment Decision-Making: Perspectives from Adolescents, Young Adults, Caregivers, and Providers.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Lamia P; Schwartz, Lisa A; Reilly, Anne; Deatrick, Janet A; Balis, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The mortality reduction rate for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer has not demonstrated the same rate of improvement as for children, due partly to insufficient phase III cancer clinical trial enrollment. This study describes three key components of phase III cancer clinical trial enrollment-family decision-making patterns, factors that influence AYAs' involvement, and attitudes (perceived barriers and benefits) toward trial participation-and evaluated a measure of attitudes. Methods: Participants were AYAs (15-23 years old at study) diagnosed with cancer and offered a phase III cancer clinical trial within the past 3-21 months, their primary caregivers, and their healthcare providers. Interviews assessed: (a) phase III clinical trial decision-making experiences and (b) relevance of the Pediatric Research Participation Questionnaire (PRPQ) in the assessment of AYAs' attitudes toward enrollment on phase III cancer clinical trials. Results: Thirteen AYAs, 16 caregivers, and 11 providers were interviewed. Four decision-making patterns were identified, with AYA abdicates to caregiver and caregiver-based and AYA-endorsed the most commonly described, but with variation across respondents. Distress and reduced health-related quality of life limited AYAs' involvement in the enrollment decision, while developmental and emotional maturity facilitated involvement. Perceived barriers and benefits to enrollment were reported, and the PRPQ was deemed relevant with minor modifications. Conclusions: Findings suggest that AYAs may not be fully involved in phase III cancer clinical trial enrollment decision-making, and caregivers and providers are challenged to overcome factors that limit their involvement. The PRPQ shows promise as a tool for systematically evaluating clinical trial attitudes. PMID:24669354

  16. A Qualitative Study of Phase III Cancer Clinical Trial Enrollment Decision-Making: Perspectives from Adolescents, Young Adults, Caregivers, and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lisa A.; Reilly, Anne; Deatrick, Janet A.; Balis, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The mortality reduction rate for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer has not demonstrated the same rate of improvement as for children, due partly to insufficient phase III cancer clinical trial enrollment. This study describes three key components of phase III cancer clinical trial enrollment—family decision-making patterns, factors that influence AYAs' involvement, and attitudes (perceived barriers and benefits) toward trial participation—and evaluated a measure of attitudes. Methods: Participants were AYAs (15–23 years old at study) diagnosed with cancer and offered a phase III cancer clinical trial within the past 3–21 months, their primary caregivers, and their healthcare providers. Interviews assessed: (a) phase III clinical trial decision-making experiences and (b) relevance of the Pediatric Research Participation Questionnaire (PRPQ) in the assessment of AYAs' attitudes toward enrollment on phase III cancer clinical trials. Results: Thirteen AYAs, 16 caregivers, and 11 providers were interviewed. Four decision-making patterns were identified, with AYA abdicates to caregiver and caregiver-based and AYA-endorsed the most commonly described, but with variation across respondents. Distress and reduced health-related quality of life limited AYAs' involvement in the enrollment decision, while developmental and emotional maturity facilitated involvement. Perceived barriers and benefits to enrollment were reported, and the PRPQ was deemed relevant with minor modifications. Conclusions: Findings suggest that AYAs may not be fully involved in phase III cancer clinical trial enrollment decision-making, and caregivers and providers are challenged to overcome factors that limit their involvement. The PRPQ shows promise as a tool for systematically evaluating clinical trial attitudes. PMID:24669354

  17. Investigation of iron-rich events in the AYaKS experiment /September 22, 1977 to January 26, 1978/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolchin, A. A.; Lebedev, V. V.; Levchenko, V. F.; Repin, A. I.; Skrebtsov, G. P.; Shubin, V. L.

    1981-04-01

    The AYaKS spectrometer on Prognoz 6 observed nine iron-rich events with an enrichment of three to 24 associated with solar flares. A comparison of solar cosmic ray data for three intense flares indicates that the iron enrichment coefficient is constant in a wide range of kinetic energies of accelerated nuclei. This confirms the conclusion that the enriched composition of solar cosmic rays is formed at a preliminary stage of acceleration. Of the nine iron-rich events discovered six form two sequences of genetically connected events, with three events in each. It is suggested that the generation of solar cosmic rays with heavy-element enrichment from one active region or genetically associated active regions (a generation that is not disrupted even by intense flares) shows that the heating processes which are involved are related to large-scale magnetic fields on the sun.

  18. Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll: caring for adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sue; Davies, Simon; Palmer, Susan; Plaster, Meg

    2010-11-10

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are a distinct group whose needs have been poorly addressed within health care systems. This imbalance is being addressed in some countries, and this growing specialty is now receiving the recognition it requires in order to develop further. This article discusses some of the psychosocial issues of AYAs and, with reference to the phrase of sex, drugs, and rock and roll, highlights the various rites of passage that young people experience. It also discusses how services and professionals can work alongside AYAs, enabling them to feel a part of the process by providing age-appropriate environment and expertise. PMID:20498401

  19. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Kunitoh-Asari, Ayami; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Imai, Shinjiro; Kasuya, Kenji; Abe, Kimio; Adachi, Yu; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer's patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA(+) B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection. PMID:24466081

  20. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  1. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan.

    PubMed

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called "no man's land" between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients' needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  2. Contributors and Inhibitors of Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Wharton, Claire; Gordon, Karen; Jones, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceived resilience may enable coping and mitigate poor psychosocial outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. In order to inform the development of resilience-promoting interventions, we aimed to: (1) describe AYA patient-reported resilience and (2) identify AYA patient-reported contributors and inhibitors of resilience. Methods: The “Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer” study was a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study. Consecutive Caucasian patients aged 14–25 years old enrolled 14–60 days following their diagnosis of cancer and completed one-on-one semi-structured interviews both at the time of enrollment and 3–6 months later. Constant comparative analyses identified salient themes describing modifiable contributors and inhibitors to patient-perceived resilience. Results: Seventeen patients (85% of those approached) enrolled in the study. The mean age was 17 years (SD=2.6) and 53% were female. All patient definitions of resilience inferred an ability to handle adversity. Five themes emerged as predominant contributors or inhibitors of resilience: (1) stress and coping; (2) goals, purpose, and planning; (3) optimism; (4) gratitude and meaning; and (5) connection and belonging. Merged analyses suggested that AYA resilience was a balance that may be enabled by promoting certain skills. Conclusion: AYA patients with cancer perceive resilience as a balance. Learned skills in stress management, goal-setting, and benefit-finding may empower AYAs during their cancer experience, in turn improving long-term psychosocial outcomes. PMID:25969794

  3. Epidemiology of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desandes, Emmanuel; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    To design the services for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we need to understand the patterns of disease and the other clinical and managerial challenges of the patient group. Cancer occurring between the ages of 15 and 39 years is 4 times less rare than cancer occurring during the first 15 years of life and consists of 2% of all invasive cancer in Europe, about 66,000 patients in Europe each year. AYAs have a unique distribution of cancer types, including the peak in incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or germ cell tumors. The relative improvement in the survival rate in AYAs has not kept pace with that achieved in younger children, especially for acute leukemia, non-HLs, Ewing tumors and rhabdomyosarcoma. Etiological factors are under-researched and remain largely hypothetical. In this unique group of illnesses, improving AYA cancer management involves bridging interfaces. Since this has begun, outcomes have also begun to improve. The local nature of these interfaces determines the age group considered as AYA. Specific skills are necessary in the clinical, biological and psychosocial domains. Services need support from policy, clinical and administrative professionals. National policy and supranational groups such as SIOPE and ESMO are in constructive collaboration to develop this further. PMID:27595352

  4. Parental Perspectives on a Behavioral Health Music Intervention for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Cancer Treatment: Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Stickler, Molly Donovan; Haase, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes resilience and quality of life. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents’ perspectives. Maximum variation purposive sampling was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semi-structured, open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days following their AYA’s transplant. Results Results are grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during acute phase of transplantation. Conclusions Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted, behavioral intervention. Thus parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy and identifies approaches for future study. PMID:23332481

  5. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Korsvold, Live; Lie, Hanne Cathrine; Mellblom, Anneli Viktoria; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon Håvard; Finset, Arnstein

    2016-01-01

    Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness) and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions), encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients. PMID:27125477

  6. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Korsvold, Live; Lie, Hanne Cathrine; Mellblom, Anneli Viktoria; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon Håvard; Finset, Arnstein

    2016-01-01

    Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients' emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12-25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness) and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists' communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists' communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions), encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists' communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients. PMID:27125477

  7. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eliza M.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group. PMID:26246791

  8. Cancer Incidence Among Adolescents and Young Adults (15 to 29 Years) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Balmant, Nathalie V; de Souza Reis, Rejane; Pinto Oliveira, Julio F; Ferman, Sima; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of cancers commonly found in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) differs from those in children and adults; therefore, the childhood classification is not appropriate for this population. Here we used a newly proposed classification system to reclassify cases of AYAs from Brazilian population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in 5 geographic regions of Brazil. We aimed to describe the cancer incidence rates within this age group according to PBCR. Using the world population, incidence rates per million were analyzed in each diagnostic subgroup according to sex and age at diagnosis (15 to 19 y, 20 to 24 y, and 25 to 29 y). The median incidence rate was 232.31 per million for females and 218.07 per million for males. Incidence increased with age, with the highest rate observed for 25- to 29-year-olds in both sexes. Carcinomas, lymphomas, and skin tumors were most frequent among AYAs. High incidence rates of cervix-uterus carcinoma were observed in most PBCRs. AYAs present epidemiological characteristics that differ from those of children, reinforcing the need for a new classification. This study describes, for the first time, the cancer incidence rate in AYAs in Brazil, and we believe that our findings represent the Brazilian profile. PMID:26950086

  9. Social Well-Being Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Echo L.; Kent, Erin E.; Trevino, Kelly M.; Parsons, Helen M.; Zebrack, Brad J.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood may negatively influence social well-being. The existing literature concerning the social well-being of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer was reviewed to identify gaps in current research and highlight priority areas for future research. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature published in English from 2000 through 2014 was performed. Eligible studies included patients and survivors diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 39 years that reported on social well-being domains in the City of Hope Cancer Survivor Quality of Life Model. Each article was reviewed for relevance using a standardized template. A total of 253 potential articles were identified. After exclusions, a final sample of 26 articles identified domains of social well-being that are believed to be understudied among AYAs with cancer: 1) educational attainment, employment, and financial burden; 2) social relationships; and 3) supportive care. Articles were read in their entirety, single coded, and summarized according to domain. RESULTS AYAs with cancer report difficulties related to employment, educational attainment, and financial stability. They also report problems with the maintenance and development of peer and family relationships, intimate and marital relationships, and peer support. Supportive services are desired among AYAs. Few studies have reported results in reference to comparison samples or by cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS Future research studies on AYAs with cancer should prioritize the inclusion of underserved AYA populations, more heterogeneous cancer samples, and comparison groups to inform the development of supportive services. Priority areas for potential intervention include education and employment reintegration, and social support networks. PMID:26848713

  10. Primary Care Use before Cancer Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults – A Nationwide Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survival rates of cancer patients have generally improved in recent years. However, children and older adults seem to have experienced more significant clinical benefits than adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Previous studies suggest a prolonged diagnostic pathway in AYAs, but little is known about their pre-diagnostic healthcare use. This study investigates the use of primary care among AYAs during the two years preceding a cancer diagnosis. Methods The study is a retrospective population-based matched cohort study using Danish nationwide registry data. All persons diagnosed with cancer during 2002–2011 in the age group 15–39 years were included (N = 12,306); each participant was matched on gender, age and general practice with 10 randomly selected references (N = 123,060). The use of primary healthcare services (face-to-face contacts, blood tests and psychometric tests) was measured during the two years preceding the diagnosis (index date), and collected data were analysed in a negative binomial regression model. Results The cases generally increased their use of primary care already from 8 months before a cancer diagnosis, whereas a similar trend was not found for controls. The increase was observed for all cancer types, but it started at different times: 17 months before a diagnosis of CNS tumour, 12 months before a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 9 months before a diagnosis of lymphoma, 5–6 months before a diagnosis of leukaemia, bone tumour or GCT, and 3 months before a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Conclusion The use of primary care among AYAs increase several months before a cancer diagnosis. The diagnostic intervals are generally short for malignant melanomas and long for brain tumours. A prolonged diagnostic pathway may indicate non-specific or vague symptomatology and low awareness of cancer among AYAs primary-care personnel. The findings suggest potential of faster cancer diagnosis in AYAs. PMID:27203083

  11. Cancer-related information needs and cancer’s impact on control over life influence health-related quality of life among adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    DeRouen, Mindy C.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Tao, Li; Bellizzi, Keith M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Parsons, Helen M.; Kent, Erin E.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age often report need for greater amounts of cancer-related information and perceive that cancer has had a negative impact on control over their life. We examined whether unmet information need and perceived control over life are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods We examined data from 484 AYA cancer survivors recruited from population-based cancer registries in 2007–2008. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months after diagnosis. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated associations of unmet cancer-related information needs and impact of cancer on control over life on HRQOL (SF-12). Results Two-thirds of AYAs reported an intermediate or high level of unmet information need, and half (47%) reported a negative impact of cancer on control. Greater unmet information need was associated with lower overall mental and physical HRQOL and lower levels of all HRQOL subscales except vitality. A negative impact on control over life was associated with lower overall mental HRQOL as well as lower HRQOL across all subscales (all p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, perceived control and unmet information need were independently associated with HRQOL (p-values for interaction >0.1). Conclusions AYA patients with cancer have high levels of unmet cancer-related information needs and perceived negative impact of cancer on control over life; both were independently associated with lower HRQOL. Addressing unmet information needs among AYA cancer survivors and finding ways to increase their sense of control may help improve HRQOL in this understudied population. PMID:25611943

  12. Cancer-Related Disclosure Among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Marie E.; Shuk, Elyse M.; Conway, Francine P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) employ self-disclosure in normative social interactions and in promoting identity development. Disclosure is associated with numerous psychological and physical benefits. Little research has examined how AYA cancer survivors diagnosed during adolescence disclose their cancer history. Methods: Using a qualitative design, this study explored cancer-related disclosures among survivors (N=26) 16–24 years old at study (M=19.6 years), 14–18 years old at diagnosis (M=15.6 years), and currently at least 6 months post-treatment (M=3.2 years). Semi-structured interview guides were developed and used. Disclosure-related topics included survivorship communications and others' responses to AYAs' disclosure of their cancer experiences. Results: Grounded theory and thematic content analysis guided analyses, with an inductive data-driven approach. Three themes and eight subthemes emerged: “it depends” decision-making processes (don't ask/don't tell, shared experience, relationship potential), perceptions of others' responses (perceived apprehension, positive responses), and methods of disclosure (verbal, written, behavioral). No thematic differences were found by gender or age, although females reported greater frequency of disclosures. Conclusion: Disclosure emerged as a nuanced and complex process. “It depends” decision-making processes were most frequently endorsed, consistent with developmental complexities of this age group. This reflects social and psychological changes and highlights unique challenges for AYA survivors. This also reflects the importance of peers and social interactions as variables that influence disclosure. In the context of AYA cancer survivorship, understanding ways in which disclosure may bolster or hinder social support can assist survivors, clinicians, and families navigate survivorship. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25276496

  13. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial. PMID:24940529

  14. A review of mobile applications to help adolescent and young adult cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, Kimberly M; Fizur, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review research articles utilizing mobile applications with adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. Materials and methods We identified articles via online searches and reference lists (eg, PsycInfo, PubMed). Articles were reviewed by two study team members for target population, stated purpose, technological utilization, sample size, demographic characteristics, and outcome data. Strengths and weaknesses of each study were described. Results Of 19 identified manuscripts, six met full inclusion criteria for this review (four smartphone applications and two tablet applications). One additional article that included an application not specific to oncology but included AYA patients with cancer within the target sample was also reviewed. Uses of these applications included symptom tracking, pain management, monitoring of eating habits following bone marrow transplant, monitoring of mucositis, and improving medication management. Utility results from pilot studies are presented. Conclusion Mobile applications are growing in number and increasingly available to AYAs with and without chronic illness. These applications may prove useful in helping to support AYAs throughout their cancer treatment and beyond. However, few applications provide empirical data supporting their utility. Numerous strengths and benefits of these applications include increased accessibility to educational resources and self-management strategies, more frequent physical and emotional symptom tracking, and increased access to peer support. Despite these strengths, numerous limitations are identified, highlighting the need for future research in this area. PMID:26316835

  15. End-of-Life Care Intensity among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients in Kaiser Permanente Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer W.; Chen, Lie H.; Cannavale, Kimberley; Sattayapiwat, Olivia; Cooper, Robert M.; Chao, Chun R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is the leading disease-related cause of death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs), but little is known about the care that AYA patients with cancer receive at the end of life (EOL). Objective To evaluate the intensity of EOL care among AYA cancer patients. Design Cross-sectional study using cancer registry and electronic health record data. Setting Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KSPC), an integrated health care delivery system. Participants 663 AYA patients with either (1) stage I-III cancer and evidence of cancer recurrence or (2) stage IV cancer at diagnosis who received care in KPSC and died in the years 2001–2010. Patients were eligible if they were aged 15–39 at death. Main Outcome Measures Chemotherapy use in the last 14 days of life, intensive care unit (ICU) care in the last 30 days of life, more than one emergency room (ER) visit in the last 30 days of life, hospitalization in the last 30 days of life, and a composite measure of medically intensive EOL care comprising any of the aforementioned measures. Results 11% of patients (72/663) received chemotherapy within 14 days of death. In the last 30 days of life, 22% of patients (144/663) were admitted to the ICU; 22% (147/663) had >1 ER visit; and 62% (413/663) were hospitalized. Overall, 68% (449/663) of subjects received at least one medically intensive EOL care measure. Conclusions and Relevance Most AYA patients receive at least one form of medically intensive EOL care. These findings suggest the need to better understand EOL care preferences and decision-making in this young population. PMID:26181778

  16. Clinical Trial Participation and Time to Treatment Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Does Age at Diagnosis or Insurance Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Helen M.; Harlan, Linda C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Stevens, Jennifer L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Because adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have experienced variable improvement in survival over the past two decades, enhancing the quality and timeliness of cancer care in this population has emerged as a priority area. To identify current trends in AYA care, we examined patterns of clinical trial participation, time to treatment, and provider characteristics in a population-based sample of AYA patients with cancer. Methods Using the National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care Study, we used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate demographic and provider characteristics associated with clinical trial enrollment and time to treatment among 1,358 AYA patients with cancer (age 15 to 39 years) identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results In our study, 14% of patients age 15 to 39 years had enrolled onto a clinical trial; participation varied by type of cancer, with the highest participation in those diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (37%) and sarcoma (32%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that uninsured, older patients and those treated by nonpediatric oncologists were less likely to enroll onto clinical trials. Median time from pathologic confirmation to first treatment was 3 days, but this varied by race/ethnicity and cancer site. In multivariate analyses, advanced cancer stage and outpatient treatment alone were associated with longer time from pathologic confirmation to treatment. Conclusion Our study identified factors associated with low clinical trial participation in AYA patients with cancer. These findings support the continued need to improve access to clinical trials and innovative treatments for this population, which may ultimately translate into improved survival. PMID:21931022

  17. The importance of assessing priorities of reproductive health concerns among adolescent and young adult patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Devin; Klosky, James L; Reed, Damon R; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Shannon, Susan V; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-08-01

    Visions for the future are a normal developmental process for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with and without cancer, and these visions often include expectations of sexual and romantic relationships. AYA cancer survivors indicate reproductive health is an issue of great importance and more attention is needed in the health care setting throughout the cancer experience, beginning at diagnosis. Various practice guidelines are predominately focused on fertility; are intended to influence survivorship care plans; and do not encompass the broad scope of reproductive health that includes romantic partnering, friendships, body image, sexuality, sexual identity, fertility, contraception, and more. Although interventions to reduce reproductive health-related sequelae from treatment are best approached as an evolving process, practitioners are not certain of the priorities of these various reproductive health content areas. Strategies incongruent with the reproductive health priorities of AYAs will likely thwart adequate follow-up care and foster feelings of isolation from the treatment team. Research is needed to identify these priorities and ensure discussions of diverse content areas. This review explored various domains of reproductive health and emphasized how understanding the priorities of the AYA cancer cohort will guide future models of care. PMID:26054052

  18. Clinical next-generation sequencing reveals aggressive cancer biology in adolescent and young adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Vivek; Bupathi, Manojkumar; Kato, Shumei; Livingston, Andrew; Slopis, John; Anderson, Pete M.; Hong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aggressive biology of cancers arising in adolescent and young adult (AYA; ages 15–39 years) patients is thought to contribute to poor survival outcomes. Methods We used clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) results to examine the molecular alterations and diverse biology of cancer in AYA patients referred to the Phase 1 program at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Results Among the 28 patients analyzed (14 female and 14 male), 12 had pediatric-type cancers, six had adult-type cancers, and ten had orphan cancers. Unique, hitherto unreported aberrations were identified in all types of cancers. Aberrations in TP53, NKX2-1, KRAS, CDKN2A, MDM4, MCL1, MYC, BCL2L2, and RB1 were demonstrated across all tumor types. Five patients harbored TP53 aberrations; three patients harbored MYC, MCL1, and CDKN2A aberrations; and two patients harbored NKX2-1, KRAS, MDM4, BCL2L2, and RB1 alterations. Several patients had multiple aberrations; a patient with wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumor harbored five alterations (MDM4, MCL1, KIT, AKT3, and PDGRFA). Conclusions This preliminary report of NGS of cancer in AYA patients reveals diverse and unique aberrations. Further molecular profiling and a deeper understanding of the biology of these unique aberrations are warranted and may lead to targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26328274

  19. Quantifying treatment delays in adolescents and young adults with cancer at McGill University

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y.; Stavrides-Eid, M.; Baig, A.; Cardoso, M.; Rho, Y.S.; Shams, W.M.; Mamo, A.; Kavan, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the end of the 1980s, the magnitude of survival prolongation or mortality reduction has not been the same for adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer as for their older and younger counterparts. Precise reasons for those observations are unknown, but the differences have been attributed in part to delays in diagnosis and treatment. In 2003 at the Jewish General Hospital, we developed the first Canadian multidisciplinary aya oncology clinic to better serve this unique patient population. The aim of the present study was to develop an approach to quantify diagnosis delays in our aya patients and to study survival in relation to the observed delay. Methods: In a retrospective chart review, we collected information about delays, treatment efficacy, and obstacles to treatment for patients seen at our aya clinic. Results: From symptom onset, median time to first health care contact was longer for girls and young women (62 days) than for boys and young men (6 days). Median time from symptom onset to treatment was 173 days; time from first health care contact to diagnosis was the largest contributor to that duration. Delays in diagnosis were shorter for patients who initially presented to the emergency room, but compared with patients whose first health contact was of another type, patients presenting to the emergency room were 3 times more likely to die from their disease. Conclusions: Delays in diagnosis are frequently reported in ayas with cancer, but the duration of the delay was unrelated to survival in our sample. Application of this approach to larger prospective samples is warranted to better understand the relation between treatment delay and survival in ayas—and in other cancer patient groups. PMID:26715885

  20. Symptoms and Symptom Clusters Identified by Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer Using a Symptom Heuristics App.

    PubMed

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Erickson, Jeanne M; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Stegenga, Kristin; Linder, Lauri A

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer experience multiple distressing symptoms during treatment. Because the typical approach to symptom assessment does not easily reflect the symptom experience of individuals, alternative approaches to enhancing communication between the patient and provider are needed. We developed an iPad-based application that uses a heuristic approach to explore AYAs' cancer symptom experiences. In this mixed-methods descriptive study, 72 AYAs (13-29 years old) with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy used the Computerized Symptom Capture Tool (C-SCAT) to create images of the symptoms and symptom clusters they experienced from a list of 30 symptoms. They answered open-ended questions within the C-SCAT about the causes of their symptoms and symptom clusters. The images generated through the C-SCAT and accompanying free-text data were analyzed using descriptive, content, and visual analyses. Most participants (n = 70) reported multiple symptoms (M = 8.14). The most frequently reported symptoms were nausea (65.3%), feeling drowsy (55.6%), lack of appetite (55.6%), and lack of energy (55.6%). Forty-six grouped their symptoms into one or more clusters. The most common symptom cluster was nausea/eating problems/appetite problems. Nausea was most frequently named as the priority symptom in a cluster and as a cause of other symptoms. Although common threads were present in the symptoms experienced by AYAs, the graphic images revealed unique perspectives and a range of complexity of symptom relationships, clusters, and causes. Results highlight the need for a tailored approach to symptom management based on how the AYA with cancer perceives his or her symptom experience. PMID:26455729

  1. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care.

    PubMed

    Ramphal, R; Aubin, S; Czaykowski, P; De Pauw, S; Johnson, A; McKillop, S; Szwajcer, D; Wilkins, K; Rogers, P

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas-medical, psychosocial, and research-and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  2. Cancer of Unknown Primary in Adolescents and Young Adults: Clinicopathological Features, Prognostic Factors and Survival Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Kanwal; Mhadgut, Hemendra; McQuade, Jennifer L.; Lei, Xiudong; Ross, Alicia; Matamoros, Aurelio; Wang, Huamin; Overman, Michael J.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) (15–39 years) is increasingly recognized as a distinct clinical and biological entity. Cancer of unknown primary (CUP), a disease traditionally presenting in older adults with a median age of 65 years, poses several challenges when diagnosed in AYA patients. This study describes clinicopathological features, outcomes and challenges in caring for AYA-CUP patients. Methods A retrospective review of 47 AYAs diagnosed with CUP at MD Anderson Cancer Center (6/2006–6/2013) was performed. Patients with favorable CUP subsets treated as per site-specific recommendations were excluded. Demographics, imaging, pathology and treatment data was collected using a prospectively maintained CUP database. Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test were used to estimate and compare overall survival. The cox-proportional model was used for multivariate analyses. Results Median age was 35 years (range 19–39). All patients underwent comprehensive workup. Adenocarcinoma was the predominant histology (70%). A median of 9 immunostains (range 2–29) were performed. The most common putative primary was biliary tract based on clinicopathological parameters as well as gene profiling. Patients presented with a median of 2 metastatic sites [lymph node (60%), lung (47%), liver (38%) and bone (34%)]. Most commonly used systemic chemotherapies included gemcitabine, fluorouracil, taxanes and platinum agents. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 10.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.7–15.4) months. On multivariate analyses, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (Hazard ratio (HR) 3.66; 95%CI 1.52–8.82; P = 0.004), ≥3 metastatic sites (HR 5.34; 95%CI 1.19–23.9; P = 0.029), and tissue of origin not tested (HR 3.4; 95%CI 1.44–8.06; P = 0.005) were associated with poor overall survival. Culine’s CUP prognostic model (lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, liver metastases) was validated in this cohort (median

  3. Initial Evaluation of an Electronic Symptom Diary for Adolescents with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Faith; Coll, Beatriz; Kletter, Richard; Zeltzer, Paul; Miaskowski, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients’ symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile application, the reasons for any missing recorded data, patients’ adherence rates to daily symptom queries, and patients’ perceptions of the usefulness and acceptability of symptom data collection via mobile phones. Methods Our team developed an electronic symptom diary based on interviews conducted with AYAs with cancer and their clinicians. This diary included daily severity ratings of pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and sleep. The occurrence of other selected physical sequelae was assessed daily. Additionally, patients selected descriptors of their mood. A 3-week trial of the eDiary was conducted with 10 AYA cancer patients. Mobile phones with service plans were loaned to patients who were instructed to report their symptoms daily. Patients completed a brief questionnaire and were interviewed to elicit their perceptions of the eDiary and any technical difficulties encountered. Results Overall adherence to daily symptom reports exceeded 90%. Young people experienced few technical difficulties and reported benefit from daily symptom reports. Symptom occurrence rates were high and considerable inter- and intra-patient variability was noted in symptom and mood reports. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of an eDiary that may contribute insight into patients’ symptom patterns to promote effective symptom management. PMID:23612521

  4. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia Liver cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer ... have any symptoms. In certain cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, symptoms often do not start until the disease ...

  5. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266

  6. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. PMID:26681427

  7. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS. PMID:26442952

  8. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells. Causes Cancer grows out of cells in the body. Normal ... of many cancers remains unknown. The most common cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer. In the U.S., ...

  9. The Doctor-Patient Relationship in the Adolescent Cancer Setting: A Developmentally Focused Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Siembida, Elizabeth J; Bellizzi, Keith M

    2015-09-01

    Several national reports and many individuals in the clinical oncology community have defined the adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer population as individuals diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39. However, neuroscience and developmental research have identified important decision-making skills (e.g., information processing, reasoning, emotion regulation) that are not fully developed during adolescence, making general, AYA-focused doctor-patient interaction guidelines potentially questionable for the adolescent cancer population. Most studies include adolescents in samples of pediatric cancer patients or include adolescents in samples of young adult cancer patients, but studies rarely consider adolescent cancer patients as a distinct, developmentally unique group. A systematic literature review was undertaken in October 2014 to begin to understand what is known about the doctor-patient relationship and communication preferences within adolescent oncology. From the 25 included studies, three important conclusions emerged: (1) discrepancies among adolescent patients, parents, and providers about the desired extent of involvement in treatment-related decisions; (2) patient desire for developmentally and culturally appropriate information provision; and (3) the desire and preference for how information is delivered, with recognition that these preferences may change with age. There was some variation in themes by study design, with studies directly observing medical consultations reporting less adolescent involvement in discussions than studies that surveyed doctors. The results of this review support the need for developmentally focused research and clinical guidelines that emphasize the experience of adolescent cancer patients separate from their older and younger counterparts. PMID:26812664

  10. Fertility Preservation Knowledge, Counseling, and Actions among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Harlan, Linda C.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Prasad, Pinki K.; Cress, Rosemary D.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hamilton, Ann S.; Parsons, Helen M.; Keel, Gretchen; Charlesworth, Sarah; Schwartz, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fertility of adolescents and young adult (AYA) cancer patients can be threatened by treatments, but little is known about the extent to which providers discuss this with patients or recommend fertility preservation, or patient and physician characteristics associated with these interactions. Methods Questionnaires from 459 AYA cancer patients diagnosed 2007-2008 and recruited through seven U.S. population-based cancer registries were analyzed in sex-specific multivariable models. We assessed characteristics associated with not discussing therapy effects on fertility or fertility preservation options, and not making fertility preservation arrangements. Results Males without a medical oncologist were more likely not to be told that therapy might affect fertility than those with a medical oncologist (male odds ratio [OR]=2.28; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.03, 5.00). Individuals without insurance (male OR=2.91; 95%CI 1.41, 5.91; female OR=5.46; [95%CI] = 1.59, 18.72), raising children <18 years old, and, among males only, who received treatment posing no or low fertility risk (OR=3.39; 95%CI=1.60, 7.16) were more likely not to discuss fertility preservation with providers. Finally, among males, those without a college degree (OR=1.98; 95%CI=1.00, 3.97), lacking private insurance ([OR]=2.97; [95%CI]=1.16, 7.63), and raising children <18 years old (OR=3.53, 95%CI=1.63, 7.65) were more likely to not make fertility preservation arrangements; too few females had made fertility preservation arrangements for similar analyses. Conclusions Discussion and action surrounding fertility preservation for AYA cancer patients are associated with medical factors, patient socioeconomic and child-rearing status. These results highlight the need for insurance coverage for fertility preservation and increased awareness of fertility preservation options. PMID:26214755

  11. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your life Being exposed to chemicals that can cause cancer Being at risk for skin cancer Depending on ... than nonsmokers. Other forms of tobacco can also cause cancer, such as cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff. If ...

  12. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  13. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R.; Aubin, S.; Czaykowski, P.; De Pauw, S.; Johnson, A.; McKillop, S.; Szwajcer, D.; Wilkins, K.; Rogers, P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas—medical, psychosocial, and research—and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  14. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  15. Reproductive Health in the Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patient: An Innovative Training Program for Oncology Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Hutchins, Nicole M.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 AYAs were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare (ENRICH). The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  16. [Cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  17. Towards an Ontology-driven Framework to Enable Development of Personalized mHealth Solutions for Cancer Survivors' Engagement in Healthy Living.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Sahiti; Amith, Muhammad; Geng, Yimin; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) cancer survivors manage an array of health-related issues. Survivorship Care Plans (SCPs) have the potential to empower these young survivors by providing information regarding treatment summary, late-effects of cancer therapies, healthy lifestyle guidance, coping with work-life-health balance, and follow-up care. However, current mHealth infrastructure used to deliver SCPs has been limited in terms of flexibility, engagement, and reusability. The objective of this study is to develop an ontology-driven survivor engagement framework to facilitate rapid development of mobile apps that are targeted, extensible, and engaging. The major components include ontology models, patient engagement features, and behavioral intervention technologies. We apply the proposed framework to characterize individual building blocks ("survivor digilegos"), which form the basis for mHealth tools that address user needs across the cancer care continuum. Results indicate that the framework (a) allows identification of AYA survivorship components, (b) facilitates infusion of engagement elements, and (c) integrates behavior change constructs into the design architecture of survivorship applications. Implications for design of patient-engaging chronic disease management solutions are discussed. PMID:26262021

  18. Cancer Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  19. Collaboration and Networking.

    PubMed

    Husson, O; Manten-Horst, E; van der Graaf, W T A

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the need for collaboration across pediatric and adult cancer to care for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) arose from the recognition of the unique characteristics of AYAs with cancer. Neither pediatric nor adult oncology hospital departments are able to provide age-appropriate care single handedly. The best way to bridge the gap in care of AYA cancer patients is to centralize aspects of their care within dedicated AYA care programs, including the following essential components: provision of developmentally appropriate and multidisciplinary (supportive) care, availability of AYA inpatient and outpatient facilities and healthcare professional AYA expertise as collaboration between adult and pediatric departments. Barriers are related to the slowly emerging evidence of benefit, cultural differences (collaboration between pediatric and adult oncology professionals), administrative and logistic challenges (small number of AYAs makes it difficult to create an AYA program in every hospital) and financial aspects (dependency on philanthropic funds). The sustainable development of an AYA program requires acceptance as a standard of care at the clinical and patient community and at government level. To improve the quality, equity and quantity of research and innovation in AYA cancer care across the world, it is necessary to join forces and collaborate in international networks to study issues such as the features of quality care, collaboration between pediatric and adult clinical teams, trial groups and professional societies, and AYA-specific groups such as Critical Mass, Canteen or European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer. PMID:27595356

  20. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  1. Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-traumatic Growth in 223 Childhood Cancer Survivors: Predictive Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Basso, Giuseppe; Pillon, Marta

    2016-01-01

    With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2 to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level, and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG) index. Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15–25), 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD = 4.17). Most (52.5%) had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD = 4.40). The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4%) and sub-clinical PTSS (6–8 symptoms: 11.2%), with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r = 0.24; p = 0.0001). A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05) identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05) and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05) as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001), with

  2. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  3. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  4. Metastatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  5. Cancer Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  6. Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  7. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  8. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  9. Cancer Staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  10. Vulva cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... is rare. Risk factors include: Human papilloma virus (HPV, or genital warts ) infection in women under age ...

  11. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 60,050 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 10,470 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 635,437 women living with endometrial cancer in ...

  12. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  13. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  14. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - ovaries ... Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women. It causes more deaths than any other type of female reproductive organ cancer. The cause of ovarian cancer is unknown. Risk ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth ...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  17. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  19. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms ...

  20. Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Anal Cancer Anal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Anal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Anal Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Screening ...

  1. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ...

  2. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Pancreatic Cancer - Did you know that an estimated 46,000 Americans were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 53,070 % of All ...

  3. Psychosocial Strength Enhancing Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Akiko; Okamura, Jun; Ueda, Reiko; Sunami, Shosuke; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ogawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore ways of enhancing psychosocial strengths in newly diagnosed and relapsed adolescents and young adults (AYAs) to improve their resilience. A descriptive case study was used. The adolescent resilience model (ARM) and the self-sustaining process model were applied as theories. The data were analyzed using pattern-matching logic. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 patients aged 12 to 24 years and discharged within 10 years. We found that the newly diagnosed and the relapsing AYAs developed the 5 strength factors of the ARM during and after treatment. Whether the individuals cultivated a positive attitude and sense of purpose early or late, the AYAs developed resilience eventually. A positive attitude and sense of purpose during the early phase of care may be essential for improving resilience. The AYAs benefited from the support of their parents, friends, and previous experience. Individualized support and social resources may be important to develop these strengths. Further research is needed to develop strengths and improve resilience in newly diagnosed AYAs. PMID:25862715

  4. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk ...

  5. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Ovarian Cancer There are five main types of cancer that affect a woman’s reproductive organs: cervical, ovarian, uterine, ... rare fallopian tube cancer.) This fact sheet about ovarian cancer is part of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  6. Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer statistics across the world. U.S. Cancer Mortality Trends The best indicator of progress against cancer is ... the number of cancer survivors has increased. These trends show that progress is being made against the ...

  7. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  8. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... esophagus, and chest wall Lung Cancer Esophageal Cancer Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Barrett’s Esophagus Chest Wall Tumors Mediastinal Tumors ... Section Navigation Select Topic Lung Cancer Esophageal Cancer Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Barrett’s Esophagus Chest Wall Tumors Mediastinal Tumors ...

  9. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  10. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure ...

  11. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of targeted therapy. It blocks certain hormones that fuel cancer growth. Cancer treatment can be local or ... breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) Alternative Names Cancer - breast; Carcinoma - ductal; Carcinoma - lobular; DCIS; ...

  12. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  16. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-28

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  17. What Causes Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » What Causes Cancer? Cancer is a complex group of diseases with ... cancer. Learn About Cancer Topics Cancer Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate ...

  18. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  19. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  20. Esophageal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - esophagus ... Esophageal cancer is not common in the United States. It occurs most often in men over 50 years old. There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types ...

  1. Cancer Today

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor if you are considering having a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test or digital rectal examination (DRE). Skin ... regular colonoscopy for cancer of the colon, serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer, mammography for breast cancer, ...

  2. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  3. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  4. Metastatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers, including cancers of the blood and the lymphatic system ( leukemia , multiple myeloma , and lymphoma ), can form metastatic tumors. Although rare, the metastasis of blood and lymphatic system cancers to the lung, heart, central nervous system , ...

  5. Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Anal Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Whether you (or ... the topics below to get started. What Is Anal Cancer? What is anal cancer? What are the ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  7. Parathyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thyroid gland, which is located at the base of the neck. Parathyroid cancer is a very rare type of cancer. Men and women are equally affected. It usually occurs in people older than 30. The cause of parathyroid cancer ...

  8. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  9. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000380.htm Prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. ...

  10. Cancer - penis

    MedlinePlus

    ... an organ that makes up part of the male reproductive system. Causes The exact cause is unknown. Smegma, a ... Squamous cell cancer - penis Images Male reproductive anatomy Male reproductive system References National Comprehensive Cancer Network. National Comprehensive Cancer ...

  11. Cancer Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  12. Stomach cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - stomach; Gastric cancer; Gastric carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of the stomach ... Several types of cancer can occur in the stomach. The most common type is called adenocarcinoma. It starts from one of the cell ...

  13. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  14. Cancer Moonshot

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  15. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  16. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  17. Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  18. Cancer Today

    MedlinePlus

    ... Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2007 : NCI Cancer Screening Tests Screening tests can find diseases and conditions early when ... active or are older than 21. Prostate Cancer Screening (Men): Get advice from your doctor if you ...

  19. Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for ... therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  20. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer is a cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located inside the front of your lower ... thyroid cells that are normally present in the thyroid gland. This form of thyroid cancer tends to occur ...

  1. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  2. Next steps for adolescent and young adult oncology workshop: An update on progress and recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashley Wilder; Seibel, Nita L; Lewis, Denise R; Albritton, Karen H; Blair, Donald F; Blanke, Charles D; Bleyer, W Archie; Freyer, David R; Geiger, Ann M; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Tricoli, James V; Wagner, Lynne I; Zebrack, Bradley J

    2016-04-01

    Each year, 70,000 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) between ages 15 and 39 years in the United States are diagnosed with cancer. In 2006, a National Cancer Institute (NCI) Progress Review Group (PRG) examined the state of science associated with cancer among AYAs. To assess the impact of the PRG and examine the current state of AYA oncology research, the NCI, with support from the LIVESTRONG Foundation, sponsored a workshop entitled "Next Steps in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology" on September 16 and 17, 2013, in Bethesda, Maryland. This report summarizes the findings from the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and suggestions for future research priorities. Multidisciplinary teams that include basic scientists, epidemiologists, trialists, biostatisticians, clinicians, behavioral scientists, and health services researchers will be essential for future advances for AYAs with cancer. Cancer 2016;122:988-999. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26849003

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  5. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  6. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  7. Cancer of the Uterus (Endometrial Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Home For Patients Search FAQs Cancer of the ... Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] FAQ097, May 2011 PDF Format Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Gynecologic Problems What ...

  8. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  9. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  10. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  11. Radon and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  13. NCI Designated Cancer Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Cancer Center History Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners ... Profiles in Cancer Research Outstanding Investigator Award Recipients ...

  14. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  16. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  17. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  18. Metastatic cancer to the lung

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bladder cancer Breast cancer Colon cancer Kidney cancer Neuroblastoma Prostate cancer Sarcoma Wilms tumor Symptoms Symptoms may ... Breast cancer Cancer Chemotherapy Colon cancer Lung cancer Neuroblastoma Prostate cancer Radiation therapy Wilms tumor Update Date ...

  19. Experiences of Parents and General Practitioners with End-of-Life Care in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaal, Suzanne E J; Kuijken, Noortje M J; Verhagen, Constant A H H V M; Jansen, Rosemarie; Servaes, Petra; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the experiences of Dutch bereaved parents and general practitioners (GPs) with palliative care of AYAs (18-35 years) in the terminal stage. Fifteen parents and nine GPs involved with nine deceased AYAs filled out questionnaires and were interviewed by telephone, respectively. In general, the parents were satisfied with the emotional care they themselves received and the medical care that their child received. The GPs were very satisfied with the cooperation with the palliative team. Gaps are present in the areas of symptom control, communication between hospital professionals and parents, aftercare, and transition between hospital and GP. PMID:26812457

  20. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. Get the Facts ...

  1. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. Get the Facts ...

  2. Cancer Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep forming without control. Chemotherapy is drug ... Your course of therapy will depend on the cancer type, the chemotherapy drugs used, the treatment goal ...

  3. Bladder cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; Urothelial cancer ... In the United States, bladder cancer usually starts from the cells lining the bladder. These cells are called transitional cells. These tumors are classified by the way ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  5. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  6. Cervical cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and cervical cancer cannot be seen with the naked eye. Special tests and tools are needed to ... Pap smears and cervical cancer References Committee on Adolescent Health Care of the American College of Obstetricians ...

  7. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. ... from other parts of the body. Treatment for eye cancer varies by the type and by how advanced ...

  8. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  9. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  10. Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Primary liver cancer starts in the liver. Metastatic liver ... and spreads to your liver. Risk factors for primary liver cancer include Having hepatitis B or C ...

  11. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  12. Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  13. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  14. Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  15. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  16. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  17. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  18. Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  19. Occupational Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carcinogen List Cancer Clusters Cancer Policy at NIOSH Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Related Topics Asbestos ... Toxicology Program Report on Carcinogens NIOSH Pocket Guide Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Recent NIOSH Research ...

  20. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of treatments. They may include surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  1. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of ovarian cancer Already been diagnosed with ovarian cancer to determine how well treatment is working Other tests that may be done include: Complete blood count and blood chemistry Pregnancy test (serum HCG) CT or MRI of ...

  2. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red or processed meats Have colorectal polyps Have inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis ) Have a family history of colon cancer Have a personal history of breast cancer Some inherited diseases also increase the risk ...

  3. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  4. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  5. Cancer treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells. Targeted treatment zeroes in on specific targets (molecules) in cancer cells. These targets play a role ... Cryotherapy Also called cryosurgery , this therapy uses very cold gas to freeze and kill cancer cells. It ...

  6. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  7. Cancer pain

    SciTech Connect

    Swerdlow, M.; Ventafridda, V.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Importance of the Problem; Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Pain; Assessment of Pain in Patients with Cancer; Drug Therapy; Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Pain; Sympton Control as it Relates to Pain Control; and Palliative Surgery in Cancer Pain Treatment.

  8. Breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-17

    Essential facts Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with around 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, according to the charity Breast Cancer Care. Over a lifetime, women have a one in eight risk of developing it. PMID:27533387

  9. Cancer Triptych.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-08-01

    The author uses personal narrative to show how the cold cloak of cancer covered her family during the polar vortex of 2013-2014. The use of a triptych form hinges together related themes of containment, coping, communicative responses, and social support after a cancer diagnosis. This narrative demonstrates the multiple responses and communicative coping strategies to a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26752448

  10. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  11. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  12. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysplasia of the cervix, vagina, or vulva • A family history of cervical cancer •Smoking •Certain sexually transmitted infections , such as chlamydia • ... to treat your cancer, you still need cervical cancer screening. Cells are taken from the upper vagina ... smallest units of a structure in the body; the building blocks for all ...

  13. Cancer Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cells , tiny units that make up all living things. Cancer (also known as malignancy , pronounced: muh-LIG- ... cancer and cancer treatments can disrupt a person's life for a while. People ... to take care of the things they have to get done. For example, teens ...

  14. National Cancer Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  15. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  16. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  17. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  18. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  19. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  20. Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  1. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  2. Biological Therapies for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  3. Snapshot of Pediatric Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  4. Head and Neck Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  5. Helicobacter pylori and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  6. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  7. Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  8. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics for prostate cancer What is prostate cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  9. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Throat or larynx cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  11. Throat or larynx cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... or use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key ... Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives ...

  13. Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of pancreatic cancer, and it is now clear that pancreatic cancer is a disease of inherited (germ-line) and somatic gene mutations. The genes mutated in pancreatic cancer include KRAS2, p16/CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4/DPC4, and these are accompanied by a substantial compendium of genomic and transcriptomic alterations that facilitate cell cycle deregulation, cell survival, invasion, and metastases. Pancreatic cancers do not arise de novo, and three distinct precursor lesions have been identified. Experimental models of pancreatic cancer have been developed in genetically engineered mice, which recapitulate the multistep progression of the cognate human disease. Although the putative cell of origin for pancreatic cancer remains elusive, minor populations of cells with stem-like properties have been identified that appear responsible for tumor initiation, metastases, and resistance of pancreatic cancer to conventional therapies. PMID:18039136

  14. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  15. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, C; Hofmann, B T; Wolters-Eisfeld, G; Bockhorn, M

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that the current standard therapeutic options for pancreatic cancer are not adequate and still do not meet the criteria to cure patients suffering from this lethal disease. Although research over the past decade has shown very interesting and promising new therapeutic options for these patients, only minor clinical success was achieved. Therefore, there is still an urgent need for new approaches that deal with early detection and new therapeutic options in pancreatic cancer. To provide optimal care for patients with pancreatic cancer, we need to understand better its complex molecular biology and thus to identify new target molecules that promote the proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer cells. In spite of significant progress in curing cancers with chemotherapy, pancreatic cancer remains one of the most resistant solid tumour cancers and many studies suggest that drug-resistant cancer cells are the most aggressive with the highest relapse and metastatic rates. In this context, activated Notch signalling is strongly linked with chemoresistance and therefore reflects a rational new target to circumvent resistance to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Here, we have focused our discussion on the latest research, current therapy options and recently identified target molecules such as Notch-2 and the heparin-binding growth factor midkine, which exhibit a wide range of cancer-relevant functions and therefore provide attractive new therapeutic target molecules, in terms of pancreatic cancer and other cancers also. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4 PMID:24024905

  16. Contagious cancer.

    PubMed

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in dogs. There is a vast difference in prognosis between these two conditions. DFTD is often fatal within 6 months, whereas most cases of CTVT are eventually rejected by the host dog, who then is conferred lifelong immunity. In man, only scattered case reports exist about such communicable cancers, most often in the setting of organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cancers arising during pregnancy that are transmitted to the fetus. In about one third of cases, transplant recipients develop cancers from donor organs from individuals who were found to harbor malignancies after the transplantation. The fact that two thirds of the time cancer does not develop, along with the fact that cancer very rarely is transmitted from person to person, supports the notion that natural immunity prevents such cancers from taking hold in man. These observations might hold invaluable clues to the immunobiology and possible immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:21212437

  17. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  18. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheet ePublications Uterine cancer: Cancer of the uterus fact sheet Print this fact sheet Uterine cancer: Cancer ... U.S. federal government and is in the public domain. This public information is not copyrighted and may ...

  19. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  20. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ... lung cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s Lung Cancer. Previous Basic Information Basic Information Basic Information ...

  1. Photodynamic therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Photoradiation therapy; Cancer of the esophagus-photodynamic; Esophageal cancer-photodynamic; Lung cancer-photodynamic ... the light at the cancer cells. PDT treats cancer in the: Lungs, using a bronchoscope Esophagus, using upper endoscopy Doctors ...

  2. Photodynamic therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer of the esophagus-photodynamic; Esophageal cancer-photodynamic; Lung cancer-photodynamic ... the light at the cancer cells. PDT treats cancer in the: Lungs, using a bronchoscope Esophagus, using upper endoscopy Doctors ...

  3. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about ovarian cancer? What is ovarian cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... section . Other cancers that are similar to epithelial ovarian cancer Primary peritoneal carcinoma Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is ...

  4. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  5. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  6. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  7. Children's cancer centers

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  8. Basic Cancer Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Cancer Terms: Treatment Cancer Terms: After Treatment Online Medical Dictionaries Diagnosing Cancer Managing Your Care Financial Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For ...

  9. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Cancer Terms: Treatment Cancer Terms: After Treatment Online Medical Dictionaries Diagnosing Cancer Managing Your Care Financial Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For ...

  10. Living with Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... pork, lamb, and processed meat (such as hot dogs, sausage, and bacon); and low in high-fat ... ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer ...

  11. Tests for Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Next Topic Liver cancer stages Tests for liver cancer If you have some of the signs ... cancer has come back (recurred). Other blood tests Liver function tests (LFTs): Because liver cancer often develops ...

  12. What Is Bone Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... our document called Osteosarcoma . Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma (KON-droh-sar-KOH-muh) is a cancer of cartilage cells. ... AdditionalResources Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & ...

  13. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  14. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  15. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  16. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason Blood in the stool A lump in the abdomen Imaging tests that create pictures of the small ... help diagnose intestinal cancer and show whether it has spread. Surgery is ...

  17. Anal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the last part of your large intestine where solid waste from food (stool) is stored. Stool leaves your body through the anus when you have a bowel movement. Anal cancer is fairly rare. It spreads ... Squamous cell carcinoma. This is the most common type of anal cancer. It starts in cells that ...

  18. Gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patrlj, Leonardo; Kopljar, Mario; Kliček, Robert; Kolovrat, Marijan; Loncar, Bozo; Busic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer involving gastrointestinal tract, but it is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80-95% of biliary tract cancers. This tumor is a highly lethal disease with an overall 5-year survival of less than 5% and mean survival mere than 6 months. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis. The percentage of patients diagnosed to have gallbladder cancer after simple cholecystectomy for presumed gallbladder stone disease is 0.5-1.5%. Patients with preoperative suspicion of gallbladder cancer should not be treated by laparoscopy. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities—inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Improved imaging modalities and improved radical aggressive surgical approach in the last decade has improved outcomes and helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. The overall 5-year survival for patients with gallbladder cancer who underwent R0 curative resection was from 21% to 69%. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. PMID:25392833

  19. Stomach cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... much higher than in the United States. The value of screening in the United States and other countries with much lower rates of stomach cancer is not clear. The following may help reduce your risk of stomach cancer: DO NOT smoke. Keep a ...

  20. Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... sex painful and difficult. If found early, vulvar cancer has a high cure rate and the treatment options involve less surgery. ... people may also need radiation therapy. When vulvar cancer is found and treated early, the cure rate is over 90%. The key to a ...

  1. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer Past ... Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer / Prostate ...

  2. Ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Matulonis, Ursula A; Sood, Anil K; Fallowfield, Lesley; Howitt, Brooke E; Sehouli, Jalid; Karlan, Beth Y

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is not a single disease and can be subdivided into at least five different histological subtypes that have different identifiable risk factors, cells of origin, molecular compositions, clinical features and treatments. Ovarian cancer is a global problem, is typically diagnosed at a late stage and has no effective screening strategy. Standard treatments for newly diagnosed cancer consist of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. In recurrent cancer, chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors are used, and immunological therapies are currently being tested. High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most commonly diagnosed form of ovarian cancer and at diagnosis is typically very responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. However, in addition to the other histologies, HGSCs frequently relapse and become increasingly resistant to chemotherapy. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms underlying platinum resistance and finding ways to overcome them are active areas of study in ovarian cancer. Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that are associated with a high risk of ovarian cancer (such as BRCA1 and BRCA2), as well as a precursor lesion of HGSC called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, which holds promise for identifying individuals at high risk of developing the disease and for developing prevention strategies. PMID:27558151

  3. Pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Wood, Laura D; Itoi, Takao; Takaori, Kyoichi

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease, for which mortality closely parallels incidence. Most patients with pancreatic cancer remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage. There is no standard programme for screening patients at high risk of pancreatic cancer (eg, those with a family history of pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis). Most pancreatic cancers arise from microscopic non-invasive epithelial proliferations within the pancreatic ducts, referred to as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias. There are four major driver genes for pancreatic cancer: KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4. KRAS mutation and alterations in CDKN2A are early events in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration offer high diagnostic ability for pancreatic cancer. Surgical resection is regarded as the only potentially curative treatment, and adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine or S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, is given after surgery. FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, folinic acid [leucovorin], irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) and gemcitabine plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) are the treatments of choice for patients who are not surgical candidates but have good performance status. PMID:26830752

  4. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  5. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Attard, Gerhardt; Parker, Chris; Eeles, Ros A; Schröder, Fritz; Tomlins, Scott A; Tannock, Ian; Drake, Charles G; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management. PMID

  6. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  7. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  8. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  9. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Kislinger, Thomas; Jurisica, Igor; Wigle, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput genomic data for both lung development and lung cancer continue to accumulate. Significant molecular intersection between these two processes has been hypothesized due to overlap in phenotypes and genomic variation. Examining the network biology of both cancer and development of the lung may shed functional light on the individual signaling modules involved. Stem cell biology may explain a portion of this network intersection and consequently studying lung organogenesis may have relevance for understanding lung cancer. This review summarizes our understanding of the potential overlapping mechanisms involved in lung development and lung tumorigenesis. PMID:19202349

  11. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic ...

  12. Adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Jessica; El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Abla, Oussama

    2016-05-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies accounting for a significant portion of cancers occurring in children, adolescents and young adults with an increasing incidence with age. The adolescent and young adult (AYA) population presents a specific set of characteristics and challenges. The most common diseases occurring in adolescents and young adults include Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. There is also a higher incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AYA patients. Cure rates largely depend on risk-stratification, and are generally superior to outcomes in comparison to older adult data but less than in younger children. Here, we review the unique clinical and biological characteristics of NHL occurring in the AYA population with a focus on how to achieve similar curative outcomes in AYA that have been established in younger cohorts. PMID:27071675

  13. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... chance that you could develop breast cancer: Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family history, you cannot control. The more risk factors you have, the more your risk increases. ...

  14. Metastatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health ...

  15. Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate ... and is best made in consultation with your health care team. What happens after treatment for endometrial cancer? ...

  16. Cancer Clusters

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts Training Cancer Training at NCI Funding for ... Closeout NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small ...

  17. Childhood Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the circulatory system and the lymphatic system , two systems that are located throughout the body. This makes it hard to treat these cancers by operating on just one area. However, in children with ...

  18. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is advanced Other symptoms may include: Chewing problems Mouth sores that may bleed Pain with swallowing Speech difficulties ... Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may ... bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: Gum biopsy ...

  19. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... known prevention. Awareness of risk (such as previous radiation therapy to the neck) can allow earlier diagnosis and treatment. Sometimes, people with family histories and genetic mutations related to thyroid cancer will have their thyroid ...

  20. Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... having diabetes. Using estrogen replacement therapy without taking progestin may also increase the risk for endometrial cancer. ... take a combination of estrogen and the hormone progestin. While estrogen stimulates growth of the endometrium, progestin ...

  1. Cervical cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye. Special tests and tools are needed to spot such conditions: A Pap smear screens for precancers and cancer, but does not make a final diagnosis. The human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test may be ...

  2. Lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... any symptoms. Symptoms depend on the type of cancer you have, but may include: Chest pain Cough that does not go away Coughing up blood Fatigue Losing weight without trying Loss of appetite Shortness of breath ...

  3. Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or have a history of genital warts. Your health care provider diagnoses vulvar cancer with a physical exam and a biopsy. Treatment varies, depending on your overall health and ...

  4. Endometrial cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endometrial biopsy Dilation and curettage ( D and C ) Pap smear (may raise a suspicion for endometrial cancer, but ... for more than 2 years. Frequent pelvic exams, Pap smears and endometrial biopsy may be considered in some ...

  5. Cancer Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... I/II Trials CIP ARRA-Funded Clinical Trials Informatics The Cancer Imaging Archive TCGA Imaging Genomics Quantitative Imaging Network LIDC-IDRI Imaging Informatics Resources News & Events News and Announcements Events – Meetings ...

  6. Aging, cancer, and cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    World population has experienced continuous growth since 1400 A.D. Current projections show a continued increase - but a steady decline in the population growth rate - with the number expected to reach between 8 and 10.5 billion people within 40 years. The elderly population is rapidly rising: in 1950 there were 205 million people aged 60 or older, while in 2000 there were 606 million. By 2050, the global population aged 60 or over is projected to expand by more than three times, reaching nearly 2 billion people [1]. Most cancers are age-related diseases: in the US, 50% of all malignancies occur in people aged 65-95. 60% of all cancers are expected to be diagnosed in elderly patients by 2020 [2]. Further, cancer-related mortality increases with age: 70% of all malignancy-related deaths are registered in people aged 65 years or older [3]. Here we introduce the microscopic aspects of aging, the pro-inflammatory phenotype of the elderly, and the changes related to immunosenescence. Then we deal with cancer disease and its development, the difficulty of treatment administration in the geriatric population, and the importance of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Finally, we aim to analyze the complex interactions of aging with cancer and cancer vaccinology, and the importance of this last approach as a complementary therapy to different levels of prevention and treatment. Cancer vaccines, in fact, should at present be recommended in association to a stronger cancer prevention and conventional therapies (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy), both for curative and palliative intent, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated to cancer progression. PMID:22510392

  7. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo Alonso; Gabilondo-Navarro, Fernando Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumor found in men worldwide and in Mexico in particular. Age and family history are the main risk factors. The diagnosis is made by prostate biopsy in patients with abnormalities detected in their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels or digital rectal exam (DRE). This article reviews screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment options for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. PMID:27557386

  8. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Audrey; Herman, Joseph; Schulick, Rich; Hruban, Ralph H; Goggins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patients’ management have also taken place. Evidence is beginning to show that screening first-degree relatives of individuals with several family members affected by pancreatic cancer can identify non-invasive precursors of this malignant disease. The incidence of and number of deaths caused by pancreatic tumours have been gradually rising, even as incidence and mortality of other common cancers have been declining. Despite developments in detection and management of pancreatic cancer, only about 4% of patients will live 5 years after diagnosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localised to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Unfortunately, 80–85% of patients present with advanced unresectable disease. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer responds poorly to most chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, we need to understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to development and progression of pancreatic tumours. In this Seminar we will discuss the most common and deadly form of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:21620466

  9. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » More Information » Prostate Cancer Early Detection » American ... Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News ...

  10. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... daily. Lower your intake of processed meats, smoked, nitrite-cured, and salt-preserved foods; emphasize plant-based ...