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Sample records for azadirachta indica seed

  1. Purification of Azadirachta indica seed cake and its impact on nutritional and antinutritional factors.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Mohanji; Ravikanth, Kotagiri; Kumar, Abhishek; Gupta, Ashish; Singh, Brijpal; Sharma, Anirudh

    2010-04-28

    Azadirachta indica Juss. (family Meliaceae) is a vital plant with multiple agricultural and medicinal utilities. The seed cake after oil extraction can be a good source of nutrition in animal feed. The limitation to its use is the presence of azadirachtin, salannin, and other bitter constituents. To make it palatable for use as a source of animal nutrition it was detoxified using 50 and 80% methanol and was analyzed for contents of azadirachtin, salannin, and nutritional contents such as total carbohydrates, protein, crude fiber, in vitro protein digestibility, and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), prior to and after purification. The contents of azadirachtin and salannin were quantified using HPTLC and HPLC. Various validation parameters were also investigated. A highly significant decrease of antinutritional factor (TIA) was recorded after purification of samples, retaining the contents of protein, carbohydrates, crude fiber, and in vitro protein digestibility. The purified seed cake was found to be free of azadirachtin and salannin contents. PMID:20218605

  2. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, M; Lal, R; Sankaranarayanan, A; Banerjee, C K; Sharma, P L

    1988-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) is well known for its medicinal properties in the indigenous Indian system of medicine. Its acute toxicity was documented in rats and rabbits by the oral route. Dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms were noted along with a number of biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity. The 24-h LD50 was established as 14 ml/kg in rats and 24 ml/kg in rabbits. Prior to death, animals of both species exhibited comparable pharmacotoxic symptoms in order and severity, with lungs and central nervous system as the target organs of toxicity. Edible mustard seed oil (80 ml/kg) was tested in the same manner to document the degree to which the physical characteristics of an oil could contribute to the oral toxicity of neem oil. PMID:3419203

  3. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h. PMID:22270115

  4. Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activities of limonoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ishii, Koichi; Noto, Taisuke; Takahashi, Akitomo; Tabata, Keiichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2011-04-25

    Thirty-five limonoids, including 15 of the azadiradione type (1-15), five of the gedunin type (16-20), four of the azadirachtin type (21-24), nine of the nimbin type (25-33), and two degraded limonoids (34, 35), isolated from Azadirachta indica seed extracts, were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. Seven compounds (3, 6, 7, 16, 18, 28, and 29) exhibited cytotoxic activity against one or more cell lines. Among these compounds, 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylepoxyazadiradione (7), 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgeduin (18), and 28-deoxonimbolide (28) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HL60 leukemia cells with IC(50) values in the range 2.7-3.1 μM. Compounds 7, 18, and 28 induced early apoptosis in HL60 cells, observed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that compounds 7, 18, and 28 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9 in HL60 cells. This suggested that compounds 7, 18, and 28 induced apoptotic cell death in HL60 cells via both the mitochondrial- and the death receptor-mediated pathways. Futhermore, compound 7 was shown to possess high selective cytotoxicity for leukemia cells since it exhibited only weak cytotoxicity against a normal lymphocyte cell line (RPMI 1788). PMID:21381696

  5. Immunocontraceptive activity guided fractionation and characterization of active constituents of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N

    1998-04-01

    A novel approach for immunocontraception by intervention of local cell mediated immunity in the reproductive system by using single intrauterine application of neem oil has been described earlier. The reversible block in fertility was reported to last for 107-180 days in female Wistar rats (Upadhyay et al., 1990. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London B 242, 175-180) and 7-11 months in monkeys (Upadhyay et al., 1994. Long term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (IUNT) in bonnet monkeys: An alternative to intrauterine contraceptive devices. Contraception 49, 161-167). The present study, describes the identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae), responsible for the above activity in adult female Wistar rats. Initial studies with the mechanically extracted oil and solvent extracts of neem seeds have revealed that the antifertility activity was present in constituents of low to intermediate polarity. A hexane extract of neem seeds was reported to be biologically active (Garg et al., 1994. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 87-92). Subsequently, hexane extract was sequentially fractionated through the last active fraction using various separation techniques and tested for antifertility activity at each step. Preparative HPLC was used for isolating individual components of the active fraction in quantities, sufficient for characterization. An analytical HPLC method was developed for standardization of the fraction. The active fraction was identified to be a mixture of six components, which comprises of saturated, mono and di-unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl esters. Dose response study was performed with the last active fractions. The antifertility

  6. A study of water relations in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed that is characterized by complex storage behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sacandé, M; Buitink, J; Hoekstra, F A

    2000-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed is reputed to have limited tolerance to desiccation, to be sensitive to chilling and imbibitional stress, and to display intermediate storage behaviour. To understand this behaviour the properties of water in seed tissues were studied. Water sorption isotherms showed that at similar relative humidity (RH), the water content was consistently higher in axes than in cotyledons, mainly due to the elevated lipid content (51%) in the cotyledons. Using differential scanning calorimetry, melting transitions of water were observed at water contents higher than 0.14 g H2O g-1 DW in the cotyledons and 0.23 g H2O g-1 DW in the axes. Beside melting transitions of lipid, as verified by infrared spectroscopy, changes in heat capacity were observed which shifted with water content, indicative of glass-to-liquid transitions. State diagrams are given on the basis of the water content of seed tissues, and also on the basis of the RH at 20 degrees C. Longevity was considerably improved, and the sensitivity to chilling/subzero temperatures was reduced when axis and cotyledons were dehydrated to moisture contents < or = of approximately 0.05 g H2O g-1 DW. However, longevity during storage at very low water contents was limited. A possible mechanism for the loss of sensitivity to chilling/subzero temperatures at low water contents is discussed. The results suggest that dry neem seeds in the glassy state have great potential for extended storability, also at subzero temperatures. PMID:10938819

  7. Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel powder retards urease and nitrification activities in different soils at contrasting moisture and temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sangita; Patra, Ashok K; Chhonkar, Pramod K

    2008-03-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the potentiality of a natural resource neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel powder (NSKP) to reduce the urease and nitrification activities in different soils (viz., normal, acid, and sodic) at contrasting moisture (1:1 soil to water and field capacity) and temperature regimes (10 degrees C and 37 degrees C). Results have revealed that application of NSKP with urea did not exhibit any urease inhibitory property in normal and sodic soils, but in acid soil it had maintained higher concentration of urea than the urea alone treated samples for two weeks after application. At 37 degrees C and under field capacity moisture level, urea hydrolysis was more rapid than at 10 degrees C and under waterlogged (1:1) conditions. The NSKP has showed variable effects (4-28%) to inhibit nitrification during 7-21 days after application, depending upon the soil types, temperature and moisture regimes. The nitrification activity was significantly low in acid soil followed by normal and sodic soils. The present study suggests that NSKP has the potential to retard the urease activity in acid soil, and nitrification in all the soils, and thus it may be used along with urea for the better use of applied -N. PMID:17360179

  8. Cytoprotective and Anti-secretory Effects of Azadiradione Isolated from the Seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem) on Gastric Ulcers in Rat Models.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Mishra, Vaibhav; Pandeti, Sukanya; Palit, Gautam; Barthwal, Manoj K; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Narender, Tadigoppula

    2015-06-01

    Azadirachta indica is well known medicinal plant mentioned in ancient herbal texts. It has been extensively used in Ayurvedic, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a luminary of modern medicine. As part of our drug discovery program we isolated azadiradione from the ethanolic extract of seeds of A. indica and evaluated for in-vivo antiulcer activity in cold restraint induced gastric ulcer model, aspirin induced gastric ulcer model, alcohol induced gastric ulcers model and pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. Azadiradione exhibited potent antiulcer activity through the inhibition of H+ K+-ATPase (proton pump) activity via its cytoprotective effect and also via its antisecretory effect. This combined effect has valuable potential in the future treatment of peptic ulceration. PMID:25851068

  9. Purification of the seven tetranortriterpenoids in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed by counter-current chromatography sequentially followed by isocratic preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Silva, Júlio César T; Jham, Gulab N; Oliveira, Rosângela D'arc L; Brown, Leslie

    2007-06-01

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) sequentially followed by isocratic preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to isolate the seven bio-actives (azadirachtin A, azadirachtin B, azadirachtin H, desacetylnimbin, desacetylsalannin, nimbin and salannin) from the seed concentrate (NSC) of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Reproducible, narrow polarity range, high purity fractions were obtained from repeated injections of the NSC (700 mg loadings/injection), on to a relatively small volume CCC coil (116 mL). The CCC biphasic solvent system chosen was hexane:butanol:methanol:water (1:0.9:1:0.9, v/v). A mass balance of injected material showed that 95+% were recovered. PMID:17428489

  10. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control. PMID:25346198

  11. Anticancer biology of Azadirachta indica L (neem): a mini review.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rajkumar; Prasad, Murari; Sah, Nand K

    2011-09-15

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), a member of the Meliaceae family, is a fast growing tropical evergreen tree with a highly branched and stout, solid stem. Because of its tremendous therapeutic, domestic, agricultural and ethnomedicinal significance, and its proximity with human culture and civilization, neem has been called "the wonder tree" and "nature's drug store." All parts of this tree, particularly the leaves, bark, seed-oil and their purified products are widely used for treatment of cancer. Over 60 different types of biochemicals including terpenoids and steroids have been purified from this plant. Pre-clinical research work done during the last decade has fine-tuned our understanding of the anticancer properties of the crude and purified products from this plant. The anticancer properties of the plant have been studied largely in terms of its preventive, protective, tumor-suppressive, immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects against various types of cancer and their molecular mechanisms. This review aims at scanning scattered literature on "the anticancer biology of A. indica," related toxicity problems and future perspectives. The cogent data on the anticancer biology of products from A. indica deserve multi-institutional clinical trials as early as possible. The prospects of relatively cheaper cancer drugs could then be brighter, particularly for the under-privileged cancer patients of the world. PMID:21743298

  12. Haemolytic anaemia after ingestion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) tea

    PubMed Central

    Page, Cristy; Hawes, Emily M

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a clinically relevant and possible cause of haemolytic anaemia from ingestion of a Mexican tea from the Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta indica, in a 35-year-old Hispanic man who was found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. PMID:24136910

  13. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides.

    PubMed

    Boeke, Sara J; Boersma, Marelle G; Alink, Gerrit M; van Loon, Joop J A; van Huis, Arnold; Dicke, Marcel; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2004-09-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 microg/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 microl/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged. PMID:15261960

  14. Toxicological studies on debitterized Neem oil (Azadirachta indica).

    PubMed

    Chinnasamy, N; Harishankar, N; Kumar, P U; Rukmini, C

    1993-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, popularly known as 'Neem' in India, is widely grown all over the tropics. The seed contains 45% oil and is a minor oil of considerable potential. Neem oil is bitter and inedible. Recently, a method has been developed to completely remove the bitter and odoriferous principles and leave a bitterless, odourless and colourless oil. The nutritional and chemical evaluation of debitterized neem oil (NO) was reported earlier (C. Rukmini, Food Chemistry 1987, 26, 119). We report here a three-generation study, carried out according to WHO/FDA protocol in groups of 15 male and 15 female rats fed a diet containing 10% NO or groundnut oil (GNO). Reproductive toxicology was monitored for three generations. The results obtained in both the matings in all the three generations did not show any adverse effects on the reproductive parameters studied in rats fed NO and were similar to those observed in rats fed GNO. The mean organ weights and the histopathological evaluation of all the organs were similar to those of the control (GNO-fed) rats. A mutagenicity test of NO was also found to be negative in Ames test as reported earlier (K. Polasa and C. Rukmini, Food and Chemical Toxicology 1987, 25, 763). These studies indicate that NO devoid of all the bitter and odoriferous principles, may be recommended as safe for consumption by humans. PMID:8477918

  15. Azadirachta indica: A herbal panacea in dentistry – An update

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, T.; Krishnan, Vidya; Rajendran, R; Madhusudhanan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an active ingredient in a number of toothpastes and toothpowders. Neem bark has anti-bacterial properties, it is quite useful in dentistry for curing gingival problems and maintaining oral health in a natural way. Neem twigs are used as oral deodorant, toothache reliever and for cleaning of teeth. The objective of this article is to focus on the various aspects of Azadirachta indica in dentistry in order to provide a tool for future research. PMID:26009692

  16. Antiplasmodial triterpenoids from the fruits of neem, Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Chianese, Giuseppina; Yerbanga, Serge R; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Habluetzel, Annette; Basilico, Nicoletta; Taramelli, Donatella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2010-08-27

    Eight known and two new triterpenoid derivatives, neemfruitins A (9) and B (10), have been isolated from the fruits of neem, Azadirachta indica, a traditional antimalarial plant used by Asian and African populations. In vitro antiplasmodial tests evidenced a significant activity of the known gedunin and azadirone and the new neemfruitin A and provided useful information about the structure-antimalarial activity relationships in the limonoid class. PMID:20669933

  17. A New Sucrase Enzyme Inhibitor from Azadirachta indica

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhady, Mohamed I. S.; Shaheen, Usama; Bader, Ammar; Youns, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sucrase enzyme inhibitor considered as an oral anti-diabetic therapy that delays the absorption of eaten carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks to reach normoglycemia. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic fractionation of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica growing in KSA, followed by in-vitro assay of sucrase enzyme inhibition activity. Results: This investigation led to the isolation of a new remarkable sucrase enzyme inhibitor; 4’-methyl Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (1) alongside with four known compounds; 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(α/β)-D-4C1-glucopyranose (2), Avicularin (3), Castalagin (4) and Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (5). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including ESI-MS, UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC. Conclusion: Under the assay conditions, hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica and compounds 1-5 exhibited significant sucrase enzyme inhibitory activity. SUMMARY Chromatographic fractionation of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica, led to the Isolation of a new flavonoid glycoside named 4’-methyl Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside, alongside to other 4 known polyphenols. The hydroalcoholic extract as well as the isolated compounds exhibited significant sucrase enzyme inhibitory activity. Abbreviations used: ESI-MS; electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, UV; ultraviolet, NMR; nuclear magnetic resonance, 1H-1H COSY; 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, NOESY; nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy, and HSQC; heteronuclear multiple bond correlation. A. indica; Azadirachta indica. PMID:27563214

  18. Neem (Azadirachta indica): Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-01-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary. PMID:23835719

  19. Identification and antifeedant activities of limonoids from Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jie-Qing; Wang, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Xiong; Chen, Jian-Chao; Chen, Li; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Four new limonoids, azadiraindins A-D (1-4, resp.), together with seven known analogs, were isolated from the MeOH extract of Azadirachta indica. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses, and the relative configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The compounds isolated in comparatively large amount were evaluated for their antifeedant activities against Plutella xylostella; the antifeedant rate of 10 was 90.6% and the corrected mortality of 8 was 79.2%. PMID:26172324

  20. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E.; Othman, Mohamed S.; Aref, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt) on cisplatin- (CP-) induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i) as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii) as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii) as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), (iv) as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v) as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin. PMID:25162019

  1. Molecular approach to identify antidiabetic potential of Azadirachta indica

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, K.; Sravanthi, K.; Shaker, I. Anand; Ponnulakshmi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a medicinal plant, used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. It is known to possess antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and diverse pharmacological properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of A. indica on insulin signal transduction and glucose homeostasis is obscure. Objective: The aim was to study the effects of A. indica aqueous leaf extract on the expression of insulin signaling molecules and glucose oxidation in target tissue of high-fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetic male rat. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf extract (400 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) was given once daily for 30 days to high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, and the levels of insulin signaling molecules, glycogen, glucose oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle were assessed. Results: Diabetic rats showed impaired glucose tolerance and impairment in insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, phospho-IRS-1Tyr632, phospho-IRS-1Ser636, phospho-AktSer473, and glucose transporter 4 [GLUT4] proteins), glycogen concentration and glucose oxidation. The treatment with A. indica leaf extract normalized the altered levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins at 400 mg/kg b.wt dose. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present study that A. indica may play a significant role in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, by improving the insulin signaling molecules and glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle. PMID:26604551

  2. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Neeraja M.; Jain, Prachi; Gupta, Saurabh; Hariharan, Arun K.; Panda, Binay

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0) yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0). The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome. PMID:27172223

  3. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. PMID:23353547

  4. Molluscicidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts on edible tropical land snails.

    PubMed

    Ebenso, Ime E

    2004-02-01

    The effects of 350, 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) of crude extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A Juss, on edible tropical land snails Archachatina marginata and Limicolaria aurora (Jay) were determined and compared with control using pawpaw, Carica papaya L as bait. Responses were measured through normal feeding, cessation of food intake, cessation of crawling, mucus secretion, lack of response to mechanical stimuli (mortality) and decomposition. Results showed no effects on the controls or snails exposed to neem seed oil extract. Crude extracts of bark, root and leaf of neem at 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) produced mortality after exposure for 48 h for L aurora and 72 h for A marginata. PMID:14971686

  5. Analysis of insecticidal Azadirachta indica A. Juss. fractions.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Rasheed, Munawwer; Ilyas, Firdous; Gulzar, Tahsin; Tariq, Rajput Mohammad; Naqvi, Syed Naim-ul-Hassan

    2004-01-01

    As a result of chemical investigation on the ethanolic extract of fresh fruit coatings of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), twenty-seven compounds were identified in non-polar to less polar fractions which showed pesticidal activity determined by WHO method against Anopheles stephensi Liston. These identifications were basically made through GC-EIMS and were further supported by other spectroscopic techniques, including 13C NMR, UV and FTIR as well as retention indices. Thus sixteen n-alkanes, 1-16; three aromatics 2,6-bis-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenol (17), 2-(phenylmethylene)-octanal (20), 1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-(1Z-propenyl)-benzene (27); three benzopyranoids 3,4-dihydro-4,4,5,8-tetramethylcoumarin (18), 3,4-dihydro-4,4,7,8-tetramethylcoumarin-6-ol (19), 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (22); one sesquiterpene methyl-3,7,11-trimethyl-2E,6E,10-dodecatrienoate (21); three esters of fatty acids methyl 14-methyl-pentadecanoate (23), ethyl hexadecanoate (24), ethyl 9Z-octadecenoate (25) and one monoterpene 3,7-dimethyl-1-octen-7-ol (26) were identified. Except 6, 8, 24 and 25 all these compounds were identified for the first time from the pericarp and fifteen of these, 1-3, 7, 9, 10, 17-23, 26, 27, are hitherto unreported previously from any part of the tree. Although this tree is a rich source of various natural products, it is the first report of identification of mono- and sesquiterpenes 26 and 21 and a potent antioxidant, 17. PMID:15018062

  6. Cytotoxic evaluation of Melia azedarach in comparison with, Azadirachta indica and its phytochemical investigation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages. Methods In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study. Results Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1). In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively) than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1). The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine. Conclusions The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows that

  7. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Methods Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells’ fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Results Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. Conclusions The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices. PMID:23984986

  8. Isolation and characterization of an antimalarial agent of the neem tree Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Khalid, S A; Duddeck, H; Gonzalez-Sierra, M

    1989-01-01

    The isolation and structure elucidation of gedunin [1], the antimalarial agent of Azadirachta indica, are reported. Its 1H- and 13C-nmr spectra were assigned by using one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy, especially homonuclear and heteronuclear COSY, nOe difference, and COLOC experiments. PMID:2607354

  9. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhanwra, S; Singh, J; Khosla, P

    2000-01-01

    The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) was evaluated in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver necrosis was produced by administering single dose of paracetamol (2 g/kg, p.o.). The liver damage was evidenced by elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and by histopathological observations of liver sections. Aqueous A. indica leaf extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced these elevated levels of AST, ALT and gamma-GT. Paracetamol induced liver necrosis was also found to be reduced as observed macroscopically and histologically. PMID:10919097

  10. Bioactivity of neem, Azadirachta indica, against spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Garcia, José Francisco; Grisoto, Eliane; Vendramim, José Djair; Botelho, Paulo Sérgio Machado

    2006-12-01

    The effect of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, on some biological parameters of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stil) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) was studied in the laboratory by using NeemAzal-T/S, Nimkol-LS, and an aqueous neem seed extract. Initially, the LC,, was estimated for nymphs. Later, nymphs fed on sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., roots were sprayed with the respective LC,, for each product. The adults were maintained in cages on sugarcane plants sprayed at the base with the maximum rate recommended commercially for the crop (3 liter/ha). Moistened cotton discs surrounding the base of the plant were used as oviposition substrates. The LCso values estimated for NeemAzal, Nimkol, and aqueous extract were 0.014, 0.225, and 0.611%, respectively. There was a reduction in spittlebug longevity, regardless of sex, in relation to the control. Males exposed to the neem products, and aqueous extract showed longevity reductions of approximately 50%, whereas for females the reductions were 55-60%. The neem products and extract reduced fecundity by 75-85%. Morphological and physiological changes were observed in 9% of the eggs from individuals submitted to NeemAzal. Neem-based products, especially NeemAzal, have potential for the control of M. fimbriolata. PMID:17195667

  11. Azadirachta indica triterpenoids promote osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Priyanka; Khedgikar, Vikram; Haldar, Saikat; Gautam, Jyoti; Mulani, Fayaj A; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-08-01

    Terpenoids were isolated using chromatographic purification through solvent purification technique and identified as Azadirone (1), Epoxyazadiradione (2) Azadiradione (3) Gedunin (4) Nimbin (5) Salannin (6) Azadirachtin A (7) and Azadirachtin B (8) from Azadirachta indica. Out of eight compounds, only three compounds had osteogenic activity and enhanced osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization in osteoblast cells. Active compounds stimulated osteogenic genes ALP, RunX-2 and OCN expressions in vitro, but Azadirachtin A had a maximum ability to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and mineralization compared to other two active compounds. For in vivo study, Azadirachtin A injected subcutaneously in pups, which enhanced osteogenic gene expressions and promoted bone formation rate significantly. Here, we conclude that active compounds of Azadirachta indica have osteogenic activity and Azadirachtin A has a beneficial effects on bone. PMID:27317644

  12. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways. PMID:27034694

  13. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways. PMID:27034694

  14. Five New Guaiane Sesquiterpenes from the Endophytic Fungus Xylaria sp. YM 311647 of Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Xie, Xiao-Song; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Kai-Xia; Wu, Shao-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Five new guaiane sesquiterpenes, 1-5, were isolated from the culture broth of the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. YM 311647, isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, and their inhibitory activities against five pathogenic fungi were evaluated. All guaiane sesquiterpenes showed moderate or weak antifungal activities in a broth microdilution assay. PMID:26265580

  15. Dentinal Tubule Disinfection with Propolis & Two Extracts of Azadirachta indica Against Candida albicans Biofilm Formed on Tooth Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Joy Sinha, Dakshita; Garg, Paridhi; Verma, Anurag; Malik, Vibha; Maccune, Edgar Richard; Vasudeva, Agrima

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluates the disinfection of dentinal tubules using Propolis, Azadirachta indica (alcoholic and aqueous extracts), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide against Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate. Materials & Method: One hundred and five human teeth were infected with Candida albicans for 2 days. Samples were divided into 7 groups. Group I- Propolis, Group II- Alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica, Group III- Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica, Group IV- 2% Chlorhexidine, Group V- Calcium hydroxide, Group VI- Ethanol and Group VII- Saline (negative control). At the end of 1,3 and 5 days, the antimicrobial efficacy of medicaments against Candida albicans was assessed at the depths of 200 µm and 400 µm. Results: The overall percentage inhibition of fungal growth (at 200 µm and 400 µm depth) was 99.2% with 2% chlorhexidine gel. There was no statistical difference between propolis, alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) and 2% chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Propolis and alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica performed equally well as that of 2% Chlorhexidine. PMID:26962368

  16. The Antioxidant Potential of Azadirachta indica Ameliorates Cardioprotection Following Diabetic Mellitus-Induced Microangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Naveen Kumar; Srivastva, Nidhi; Bubber, Parvesh; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac complications associated with diabetes mellitus have become major cause of concern. Antidiabetic drugs, with varied mode of action, are although available, apprehensions exist for their limited action or side effects upon prolonged use. Efforts are therefore inclined toward finding other alternatives. The present study was, thus, undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Azadirachta indica (AI) on microangiopathic changes in rat model of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in male rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Seven days after glucose levels are stabilized, aqueous leaf extract of AI (ALE) (600 mg/kg1 body weight) was administered orally to diabetic animals every day for 7 days. Results: High blood glucose characterizing diabetes in these animals was found to show increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), altered antioxidant biomarkers together with microangiopathic alterations. The treatment of diabetic rats with ALE reduced the levels of blood glucose, LPO, and restored the activities of antioxidant enzyme. Light and transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed reduced necrotic areas and inflammation in tissue architecture of ALE treated heart in comparison to untreated diabetic group. Conclusion: AI provides cardioprotection by ameliorating oxidative stress in rat model of diabetic mellitus. SUMMARY The streptozotocin (STZ) treatment (60 mg/kg body weight) to animals induced diabetic changes such as elevated blood glucose levels, decreased body weight, altered lipid profiles together with development of proxidant state evidenced by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and altered antioxidant enzymes with consequent microangiopathic alterations in heart tissue evinced by localization of necrotic and inflamed areas in heart tissueThe treatment of animals with Azadirachta indica leaf extract (ALE) (600 mg

  17. Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Radwanski, S.A.; Wickens, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Research into the systems of agriculture based on vegetative fallows should begin from enquiries into the shrubs and trees most efficient in restoring soil productivity and providing essential products. Azadirachta indica, of the semiarid regions is an outstanding example of a species which is not only an efficient soil ameliorant, but also provides products that are highly competitive in price and quality with petroleum-based synthetics. The launching of a research and development programme leading to the exploitation of this tree is proposed. Several projects that could be studied in such a programme are briefly outlined.

  18. In vivo and in vitro effectiveness of Azadirachta indica-synthesized silver nanocrystals against Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum, and their potential against malaria mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Samidoss, Christina Mary; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Paulpandi, Manickam; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    Malaria transmission is a serious emergence in urban and semiurban areas worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. Malaria is transmitted through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. The extensive employ of synthetic pesticides leads to negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, plant-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective mosquitocides. In this research, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the Azadirachta indica seed kernel extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The A. indica seed kernel extract was toxic against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae, LC50 were 232.8ppm (larva I), 260.6ppm (II), 290.3ppm (III), 323.4ppm (IV), and 348.4ppm (pupa). AgNP LC50 were 3.9ppm (I), 4.9ppm (II), 5.6ppm (III), 6.5ppm (IV), and 8.2ppm (pupa). The antiplasmodial activity of A. indica seed kernel extract and AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC50 of A. indica seed kernel extract were 63.18μg/ml (CQ-s) and 69.24μg/ml (CQ-r). A. indica seed kernel-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50, of 82.41μg/ml (CQ-s) and 86.12μg/ml (CQ-r). However, in vivo anti-plasmodial experiments conducted on Plasmodium berghei infecting albino mice showed moderate activity of the A. indica extract and AgNP. Overall, this study showed that the A. indica-mediated fabrication of AgNP is of interest for a wide array of purposes, ranging from IPM of mosquito vectors to the development of novel and cheap antimalarial drugs. PMID:27234530

  19. Biosorption of zinc from aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica bark: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    King, P; Anuradha, K; Lahari, S Beena; Prasanna Kumar, Y; Prasad, V S R K

    2008-03-21

    The removal of zinc ions from aqueous solutions on the biomass of Azadirachta indica bark has been studied by using batch adsorption technique. The biosorption studies were determined as a function of contact time, pH, initial metal ion concentration, average biosorbent size and biosorbent dosage. The equilibrium metal uptake was increased and percentage biosorption was decreased with an increase in the initial concentration and particle size of biosorbent. The maximum zinc biosorption occurred at pH 6 and percentage biosorption increases with increase in the biosorbent dosage. Experimental data obtained were tested with the adsorption models like Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. Biosorption isothermal data were well interpreted by Langmuir model with maximum biosorption capacity of 33.49mg/g of zinc ions on A. indica bark biomass and kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:17681426

  20. Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gangar, Subhash Chander; Sandhir, Rajat; Rai, Durg Vijay; Koul, Ashwani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the chemopreventive effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica (A indica) leaf extract (AAILE) against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in Balb/c mice. METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were divided into four groups of 10-12 animals each. For induction of forestomach tumors, starting from d 14 of the experi-ment, mice of B(a)P and B(a)P + A indica groups were given intra-gastric instillations of B(a)P (40 mg/kg), twice a week for four weeks. Mice of A indica and B(a)P + A indica groups were orally administered with AAILE (100 mg/kg), two weeks prior to B(a)P instillations till the end of the experiment. After 22 wk of the first B(a)P instillation, mice were sacrificed and the forestomachs were analyzed for development of tumors, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histopathology. RESULTS: Tumor incidence was observed to be 100% in mice that received only B(a)P. However, treatment with AAILE reduced the tumor incidence by 58.4% as observed in mice of B(a)P + A indica group when compared to that of B(a)P group. Similarly, the tumor burden and multiplicity were seen to decrease by 87.3% and 69.6% respectively in mice of B(a)P + A indica group when compared to those of B(a)P group. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that AAILE treatment itself did not cause any abnormalities on the surface architecture of forestomach epithelium. In tumorous forestomach, surface disruption was observed. Over the forestomach tumors of B(a)P group of mice certain rounded structures were seen in addition to closely placed tongue-shaped squamous cells. Interestingly, these rounded structures were not observed in B(a)P + A indica group of mice. Histopathalogically, the tumors were identical and diagnosed to be papillomas. Mice from control and A indica groups of mice did not develop any forestomach tumors and showed normal histo-architecture. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that A indica exerts chemopreventive effects against B

  1. Limonoids from Azadirachta indica var. siamensis extracts and their cytotoxic and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Ishii, Kenta; Shinozaki, Takuro; Tachi, Yosuke; Takagi, Mio; Ebina, Kodai; Zhang, Jie; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Rima; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2014-04-01

    Six new limonoids, 7-benzoyl-17-epinimbocinol (5), 3-acetyl-7-tigloylnimbidinin (8), 1-isovaleroyl-1-detigloylsalanninolide (15), 2,3-dihydro-3α-methoxynimbolide (16), deacetyl-20,21-epoxy-20,22-dihydro-21-deoxyisonimbinolide (26), and deacetyl-20,21,22,23-tetrahydro-20,22-dihydroxy-21,23-dimethoxynimbin (27), along with 28 known limonoids, 1-4, 6, 7, 9-14, 17-25, and 28-34, and two known flavonoids, 35 and 36, have been isolated from the extracts of bark, leaves, roots, and seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton (Siamese neem tree; Meliaceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines. Eleven compounds, 1, 2, 4-7, 13, 16, 17, 29, and 30, exhibited potent cytotoxicities against one or more cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 0.1-9.3 μM. Compound 16 induced apoptotic cell death in AZ521 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis on AZ521 cells revealed that compound 16 activated caspases-3, -8, and -9, while increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. This suggested that 16 induced apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in AZ521. In addition, upon evaluation of all compounds against the melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), 20 limonoids, i.e., 1-3, 6, 9-11, 18, 19, 21-29, 32, and 34, and two flavonoids, 35 and 36, exhibited melanogenesis-inhibitory activities, with no, or almost no, toxicities to the cells at lower and/or higher concentrations, which were more potent than the reference arbutin, a known melanogenesis inhibitor. Western blot analysis showed that nimbin (18) reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor

  2. Interaction between chloroquine sulphate and aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nwafor, Sunday Vitalis; Akah, Peter Achunike; Okoli, Charles Obgonnaya; Onyirioha, Adaoma Chinaemerem; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvesta

    2003-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of concurrent oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the pharmacokinetic properties of chloroquine sulphate in experimental rabbits. The results indicated that concurrent administration of both agents resulted in a significant decrease in serum concentration, slower absorption and elimination as well as longer half-life of chloroquine sulphate. The highest relative decrease of 78.0% was recorded 4 hours after concurrent administration, while the smallest decrease (64.6%) occurred 24 hours after concurrent administration. Significant reductions were also noted in some pharmacokinetic parameters of chloroquine and included the area under the curve (71.9%), maximum serum concentration (69.8%), absorption rate constant (37.3%), elimination rate constant (53.9%), clearance rate (76.5%) and volume of distribution (47.2%). However, there was a pronounced increase in the half-life of the drug (125.7%). PMID:14769237

  3. Ultra-rapid photocatalytic activity of Azadirachta indica engineered colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Renu; Rizwana, Kadarmohideen; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were effectively synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica under pH and temperature-dependent condition. 5 mM titanium isopropoxide solution worked as a primary source for the synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectrum of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles authorized the presence of bioactive compounds in the leaf extract, which may play a role as capping and reducing agent. The high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analyses results showed the interconnected spherical in shape titanium dioxide nanoparticles having a mean particle size of 124 nm and a zeta potential of -24 mV. Besides, the colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles energetically degrade the industrially harmful methyl red dye under bright sunlight.

  4. Biogenic Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots at Ambient Temperature Using Azadirachta indica (Neem) gum.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Chinmay; Mewada, Ashmi; Dharmatti, Roopa; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Sharon, Madhuri

    2015-07-01

    Synthesis of fluorescent Carbon Dots (CDs) from various carbonaceous materials apparently has acquired lots of interest amongst researchers as the corollary of the properties of CDs; which are subsequently getting unveiled. In this study we report the use of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Gum as a novel natural pre-cursor for synthesis of CDs at room temperature. Water soluble CDs of around 5-8 nm were obtained after treatment of the gum with ethanol and NaOH. These CDs exhibited green fluorescence in UV-light (λ = 365 nm). These CDs were found to be stable, having many bio-linkers attached on their surface, making it suitable for drug attachment and hence can serve as potential candidates for applications like drug delivery vehicles as well as for biosensors. PMID:26123675

  5. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Shipra; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2010-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using crude neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract at room temperature. The formation and crystallinity of synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The average size of these silver nanoparticles is about 20-50 nm as observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Optical absorption measurements were performed to determine band-edge energy gap of these silver nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed to emphasize its emission properties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles could have major applications in the area of nanoscale optoelectronics devices and biomedical engineering. Our synthesis method has advantage over other conventional chemical routes because it is cost effective & environmental compatibility.

  6. Antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi and 2% CHX on multispecies dentinal biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Kunjal S.; Sanghvi, Zarna; Parmar, Girish; Shah, Samir; Pushpalatha, Kasukurthi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To check the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Mimusops elengi (Bakul), and Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on multispecies biofilm of common endodontic pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Settings and Design: In vitro dentin disinfection model used to check the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal extracts. Materials and Methods: The in vitro dentin disinfection model was used to check the antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts of the medicinal plants along with Chlorhexidine gluconate. The polymicrobial biofilm was allowed to grow on extracted teeth sections for a period of 21 days. Remaining microbial load in the form of CFU/ml after the antimicrobial treatment was tabulated, and data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc tests. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17, one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post-hoc test. Results: Both the plant extracts showed considerable antimicrobial efficacy as compared to negative control. 2% CHX was the most effective antimicrobial agent having statistically significant difference against plant extracts and negative control (saline). Conclusion: The methanolic extract of A. Indica, M. elengi, and Chlorhexidine Gluconate has considerable antimicrobial activity against polymicrobial dentinal biofilm of S. mutans, E. faecalis, S. aureus and C. albicans. PMID:26752840

  7. Effect of Initial Temperature Treatment on Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    PubMed

    Vats, Sharad

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of initial temperature treatment on phytochemical and antioxidant potential of commercially important plant Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The leaves were differentially treated after harvest at temperatures 4, -20, and 110 °C and at room temperature, separately. It was found that a quick drying process at 110 °C followed by air-drying helped in maximum retention of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, which was significantly higher than other processing methods. Correlation analysis revealed that total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) can be a measure to assess the antioxidant potential using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Nitric oxide scavenging assay (NOSA) was insignificantly related to DPPH and FRAP. Also, FRAP and DPPH can be a predictive assay for each other, but not with NOSA. Thus, a quick drying process at 110 °C using an oven can be a cost-effective venture, especially in developing countries, for retaining the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. indica. PMID:26467740

  8. Studies in the Chemical Constituents of Azadirachta indica Part II: Isolation and Structure of the New Triterpenoid Azadirachtol.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, S; Siddiqui, B S; Faizi, S

    1985-12-01

    A new triterpenoid named azadirachtol ( 1) has been isolated from the fruits of AZADIRACHTA INDICA Juss. (neem) of which the structure is reported on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Azadirachtol appears to be the first apo-tirucallol (apo-euphol) derivative possessing an eight carbons side-chain with an oxygenated ring system isolated from neem. Moreover, it is the first instance of the isolation of an 11-hydroxy triterpenoid from any of the various parts of neem. PMID:17345262

  9. The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in advanced diabetic foot: an unexpected outcome.

    PubMed

    Iabichella, Maria Letizia

    2013-01-01

    This is the first case reporting the results of using an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and neem oil (Azadirachta indica) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers. The effective use of this cheap treatment in patients with diabetic lesions on the feet, if confirmed in a wide controlled study, might allow the caregivers to take care of patients at home. PMID:23413284

  10. Investigation of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Azadirachta indica roots

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Delowar; Sarwar, Md. Shahid; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Hossain, Md. Shohel; Shahid-Ud-Daula, AFM; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was an attempt to study total phenolic content and antioxidant property of the crude ethanolic extract of the roots of Azadirachta indica (A. indica). Materials and Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of the crude extract, some complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay, and ferrous ion chelating ability and determination of total phenolic content were conducted. Results: In DPPH free radical scavenging test, IC50 value of the crude extract was found to be fairly significant (13.81±0.06 μg/ml) while compared with that of the reference standards, ascorbic acid and BHA (2.12±0.02 and 4.87±0.05 μg/ml, respectively). In reducing power assay, the maximum absorbance for the extract was found to be 1.523±0.026 at100 μg/ml compared with standard ascorbic acid and BHA (2.811±0.013 μg/ml and 2.031±0.019 μg/ml, respectively). The IC50 value of the extract as percentage of Fe++ ion chelating ability was determined as 19.01±0.024 μg/ml where EDTA showed 8.87±0.035 μg/ml. The total phenolic amount was also calculated quite high in the extract (238.81±0.98 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent). Conclusion: The assays showed the presence of significant antioxidant properties of the crude sample, which would justify its traditional use. However, it would be very interesting to investigate the possible causes and their mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant property of the plant A. indica. PMID:25050306

  11. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Azadirachta indica--a most effective method for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Poopathi, Subbiah; De Britto, Lourduraj John; Praba, V Lakshmi; Mani, C; Praveen, M

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes transmit major communicable diseases such as dengue, malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so on. Vector control is important in epidemic disease situations as there is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and effective yet safe for non-targeted organisms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the aqueous leaf extract of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), and their effects on mosquito vectors (Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) were assessed. The synthesised AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The nanoparticles have maximum absorption at 442 ± 1.5 nm with an average size of 41-60 nm. The XRD data showed six well-defined diffraction peaks, corresponding to a relative intensity of the crystal structure of metallic silver 36.42, 100.00, 53.70, 14.20, 16.05, and 6.79, respectively. The FT-IR data showed strong prominent peaks in different ranges, reflecting its complex nature. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of AgNPs synthesized from the neem leaves under investigation (0.07-25 mg/l) for 24 h; this revealed larvicidal activity of AgNPs with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.006 and 0.04 mg/l for A. aegypti, respectively. Further, the LC50 and LC90 values were also identified as 0.047 and 0.23 mg/l for Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The result obtained from this study presents biosynthesized silver nanoparticle from A. indica as the biolarvicidal agent with the most potential for mosquito control. PMID:25226837

  12. Comparative analysis of the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwei; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Jin; Xun, Hang; Sun, Jia; Tang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is the only source of azadirachtin, which is known for its insecticide activity. Melia azedarach is a related species of A. indica, widely distributed in the south of China. In this study, the leaf transcriptomes of these two Meliaceae plants were sequenced. More than 40 million clean reads were generated from each library. About 80 % of A. indica reads were mapped to the neem genome, while 93 % of M. azedarach reads were mapped to its assembled transcripts and unigenes dateset. After mapping and assembly, 225,972 transcripts and 91,607 unigenes of M. azedarach were obtained and 1179 new genes of A. indica were detected. Comparative analysis of the annotated differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that all six DEGs involved in terpenoid backbone biosynthesis were up-regulated in A. indica. Chemical analysis of the two plants revealed A. indica leaves contained 2.45 % total terpenoid and nearly 20-50 µg azadirachtin per gram, whereas azadirachtin was not detected in M. azedarach and total terpenoid content was reached 1.67 %. These results give us a better insight into the transcriptomes differences between A. indica and M. azedarach, and help us to understand the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in vivo. PMID:27390659

  13. Antiangiogenic Effects and Therapeutic Targets of Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Saswati; Young, Charles Y. F.; Kohli, Manish; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Klee, Eric W.; Holmes, Michael W.; Tindall, Donald J.; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachta indica (common name: neem) leaves have been found to possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The present study evaluates anti-angiogenic potential of ethanol extract of neem leaves (EENL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with EENL inhibited VEGF induced angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro proliferation, invasion and migration of HUVECs were suppressed with EENL. Nuclear fragmentation and abnormally small mitochondria with dilated cristae were observed in EENL treated HUVECs by transmission electron microscopy. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiling after treatment with EENL revealed differentially regulated genes. Expression changes of the genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, increase in the expression of HMOX1, ATF3 and EGR1 proteins were determined by immunoblotting. Analysis of the compounds in the EENL by mass spectrometry suggests the presence of nimbolide, 2′,3′-dehydrosalannol, 6-desacetyl nimbinene and nimolinone. We further confirmed antiproliferative activity of nimbolide and 2′,3′-dehydrosalannol in HUVECs. Our results suggest that EENL by regulating the genes involved in cellular development and cell death functions could control cell proliferation, attenuate the stimulatory effects of VEGF and exert antiangiogenic effects. EENL treatment could have a potential therapeutic role during cancer progression. PMID:22461839

  14. Docking studies for screening anticancer compounds of Azadirachta indica using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model system

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, M; Balakrishnan, Reena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Plants have a long history of use in the treatment of cancer. Plant-derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anticancer agents. In the recent years, more emphasis has been placed on identifying plant-derived compounds that can be used as an effective treatment for life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Cancer is a disease where there is abnormal cell proliferation. The proliferation of the cancer cells are restrained by cdk/cyclin complexes, which control the normal process of cell cycle. Materials and Method: The current study involves the investigation of the anticancer property of the chemical compounds present in the leaves of Azadirachta indica by performing docking studies with the cell cycle control protein using Arguslab. Result: The compounds were docked with the cdk1 protein to identify suitable inhibitors against the protein function. Conclusion: The study were conducted on yeast Cdk protein, because these proteins showed homology with the human Cdks PMID:24678207

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies on Modulation of N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis by Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Sanjay; Rishi, Parveen; Koul, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed in the present study to obtain information about the molecular composition of hepatic tumor versus hepatic tissue. A hepatic cancer model was developed by administering N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) to male Balb/c mice. The results revealed that NDEA-induced hepatic cancer tumor tissue had altered molecular composition compared with normal liver tissue. Compared with the normal tissue, the saturation level of membrane phospholipids was observed to be decreased in tumors along with an abnormal distribution of protein secondary structures. A significant decrease in glycogen and a significant increase in total nucleic acid content were also observed in tumor cells. The administration of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) prior to NDEA treatment resulted in the normalization of saturation levels in phospholipids and total nucleic acid content and in the distribution of protein secondary structures in tumors. A significant increase in the amount of stored glycogen was observed in AAILE cotreated tumors compared with NDEA-induced tumors, which might indicate that AAILE cotreatment impeded the ability of tumor cells to consume glucose at a faster rate. The normalization of molecular composition upon AAILE cotreatment in hepatic tumors might indicate that AAILE hampered the process of evolution of tumors, which could be responsible for its observed chemopreventive action. PMID:26349605

  16. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arindam; Kundabala, Mala

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Results: Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Conclusion: Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use. PMID:24778508

  17. Enhanced Nematicidal Activity of Organic and Inorganic Ammonia-Releasing Amendments by Azadirachta indica Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Yuji; Tkachi, Nadia; Shuker, Shimshon; Yerumiyahu, Uri

    2007-01-01

    The nematicidal activities of ammonium sulfate, chicken litter and chitin, alone or in combination with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts were tested against Meloidogyne javanica. Soil application of these amendments or the neem extracts alone did not reduce the root galling index of tomato plants or did so only slightly, but application of the amendments in combination with the neem extracts reduced root galling significantly. Soil analysis indicated that the neem extract inhibited the nitrification of the ammonium released from the amendments and extended the persistence of the ammonium concentrations in the soil. In microplot experiments, tomato plants were grown in pots filled with soils from the treated microplots. The galling indices of tomato plants grown in soil treated with ammonium sulfate or chicken litter in combination with the neem extract or a chemical nitrification inhibitor were far lower than those of plants grown in the control soil or in soil treated with chicken litter, neem extract or nitrification inhibitor alone. However, plants grown in the microplots showed only slight reductions in galling, probably because the soil amendments were inadequately mixed compared to their application in the pot experiments. The extended exposure of nematodes to ammonia as a result of nitrification inhibition by the neem extracts appeared to be the cause of the enhanced nematicidal activity of the ammonia-releasing amendments. PMID:19259469

  18. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Del Serrone, Paola; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10–1 : 10,000). The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 106 CFU/mL). There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC. PMID:26064900

  19. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    PubMed Central

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

  20. Effect of elicitors and precursors on azadirachtin production in hairy root culture of Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2014-02-01

    The present study involved strategies for enhancement in in vitro azadirachtin (commercially used biopesticide) production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica. Improvement in the azadirachtin production via triggering its biosynthetic pathway in plant cells was carried out by the exogenous addition of precursors and elicitors in the growth medium. Among the different abiotic stress inducers (Ag(+), Hg(+2), Co(+2), Cu(+2)) and signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) tested, salicylic acid at 15 mg l(-1) of concentration was found to enhance the azadirachtin yield in the hairy roots to the maximum (up to 4.95 mg g(-1)). Similarly, among the different biotic elicitors tested (filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrates of Phoma herbarium, Alternaria alternata, Myrothecium sp., Fusarium solani, Curvularia lunata, and Sclerotium rolfsii; yeast extract; and yeast extract carbohydrate fraction), addition of filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrate of C. lunata (1 % v/v) resulted in maximum azadirachtin yield enhancement in hairy root biomass (up to 7.1 mg g(-1)) with respect to the control (3.3 mg g(-1)). Among all the biosynthetic precursors studied (sodium acetate, cholesterol, squalene, isopentynyl pyrophosphate, mavalonic acid lactone, and geranyl pyrophosphate), the overall azadirachtin production (70.42 mg l(-1) in 25 days) was found to be the highest with cholesterol (50 mg l(-1)) addition as an indirect precursor in the medium. PMID:24357500

  1. Biogenic gold nanotriangles from Saccharomonospora sp., an endophytic actinomycetes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vijay C.; Anand, Swechha; Ulrichs, Christian; Singh, Santosh K.

    2013-04-01

    Microbial biofabrication is emerging as eco-friendly, simpler, and reproducible alternative to chemical synthesis of metals and semiconductor nanoparticles, allowing generation of rare geometrical forms such as nanotriangles and nanoprisms. Highly confined nanostructures like triangles/prisms are interesting class of nanoparticles due to their unique optical properties exploitable in biomedical diagnostics and biosensors. Here, we report for the first time a single-step biological protocol for the synthesis of gold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic actinomycetes Saccharomonospora sp., isolated from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., when incubated with an aqueous solution of chloroaurate ions (AuCl- 4/1 mM). Thin, flat occasionally prismatic gold nanotriangles were produced when aqueous chloroaurate ions reacted with the cell-free extract as well as with the biomass of endophytic Saccharomonospora. It was evidenced from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis that proteins of 42 and 50 kD were involved in biosynthesis as well as in stabilization of the nanoparticles. The particle growth process was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, and the morphological characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy together with X-ray powder diffractions. Although the exact mechanism for this shape-oriented synthesis is not clear so far, the possibility of achieving nanoparticle shape control in a microbial system is exciting.

  2. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10-1 : 10,000). The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC. PMID:26064900

  3. Neurotoxicity of neem commercial formulation (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bernardi, M M; Dias, S G; Barbosa, V E

    2013-11-01

    The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory. PMID:24211596

  4. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Okumu, Fredros O; Knols, Bart GJ; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v) on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides. PMID:17519000

  5. Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis.

    PubMed

    Jamra, Nirmala; Das, Giridhari; Singh, Priyanka; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Based on copro-examination, 30 cattle positive for strongyle infection with at least 250 [eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces] were selected and grouped as A, B and C (10 animals/group). Group A and B were treated respectively with fendendazole and neem leaf powder @ 5 and 500 mg/kg body weight, whereas Group C served as infected untreated control. Faecal sample from each animal of these groups was examined on day 0, 7, 14 and 28 post treatments and EPG was determined. The result showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in EPG in Group A and B after day 7 post treatment but there was no significant variation in terms of EPG in control group. Thus it can be concluded that crude neem leaf powder has anthelmintic property and it can further be studied to isolate the active component to produce herbal anthelminthics. PMID:26688654

  6. Chemopreventive effect of methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica on experimental Trypanosoma brucei induced oxidative stress in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Omobowale, Temidayo O.; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Oyewunmi, Oyefunbi A.; Adejumobi, Olumuyiwa A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The medicinal properties of Azadirachta indica have been harnessed for many years in the treatment of many diseases in both humans and animals. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five apparently healthy dogs weighing between 3 and 8 kg were randomly divided into five groups with five dogs in each group. Ameliorative effect of A. indica on erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Liver and kidney function tests were also performed. Results: Pre-treatment with methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (MEAI) at different doses did not significantly alter the values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in Trypanosoma brucei infection. Although, serum creatinine significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with pre-treatment with 50 mg/kg A. indica, after 2 weeks of T. brucei infection. However, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content of the erythrocyte increased significantly in animals pre-treated with 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica respectively. Markers of oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generated were higher in animals infected with T. brucei with no significant (P >0.05) difference compared to the values obtained in pre-treated animals. Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica significantly (P < 0.05) decreased serum myeloperoxidase activity at 2 weeks post-infection with T. brucei. Conclusion: From this study, MEAI showed significant ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation during experimental T. brucei infection. PMID:26130936

  7. Biochemical effects of vepacide (from Azadirachta indica) on Wistar rats during subchronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K J

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of Vepacide (from Azadirachta indica), a neem-based pesticide, on acid (AcP) and alkaline (AkP) phosphatase in different tissues of male and female albino Wistar rats. Subchronic doses of Vepacide in coconut oil (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg; maximum volume of 0.2 mL) were administered orally for 45 or 90 days. The administration of Vepacide resulted in a significant increase in AcP and AkP in serum, kidney, lung, and liver tissue (AkP only in liver), whereas a significant decrease of AcP in liver was observed in male and female rats after 45 and 90 days of treatment with moderate and high doses. The alterations in serum, liver, kidney, and lung tissues of both male and female rats caused by this compound were statistically significant, and the changes were also dose and time dependent. The alterations in male rats were not statistically significant when compared with female rats, indicating that there were no sexual differences. The withdrawal study (28 days post-treatment) revealed significant recovery, indicating reversal of the toxic symptoms once the toxicant was removed. There was a high degree of positive correlation between results for serum as compared to those for kidney, lung, and liver (AkP only for liver). However, there was a high negative correlation between AcP results for serum as compared with those for liver. The alterations in these enzymes indicated that lung tissue was the most susceptible, followed by liver and kidney. AcP and AkP are marker enzymes, and their increase in serum, with parallel increases in different tissues, might be due to the increased permeability of plasma membranes. The decrease in liver AcP may be due to the necrosis of cellular tissues. The changes observed in these enzyme activities could be useful as biomarkers of exposure to Vepacide. PMID:15388273

  8. Production of Limonoids with Insect Antifeedant Activity in a Two-Stage Bioreactor Process with Cell Suspension Culture of Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Rivera, Andrés; Chicaiza-Finley, Diego; Hoyos, Rodrigo A; Orozco-Sánchez, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) cell suspension culture is an alternative for the production of limonoids for insect control that overcomes limitations related to the supply of neem seeds. To establish conditions for cell growth and azadiracthin-related limonoid production, the effect of different sucrose concentrations, nitrate and phosphate in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, and the addition of one precursor and three elicitors was evaluated in shake flasks. The process was scaled up to a 3-l stirred tank bioreactor in one- and two-stage batch cultivation. In shake flasks, more than fivefold increase in the production of limonoids with the modified MS medium was observed (increase from 0.77 to 4.52 mg limonoids/g dry cell weight, DCW), while an increase of more than fourfold was achieved by adding the elicitors chitosan, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid together (increase from 1.03 to 4.32 mg limonoids/g DCW). In the bioreactor, the volumetric production of limonoids was increased more than threefold with a two-stage culture in day 18 (13.82 mg limonoids/l in control single-stage process and 41.44 mg/l in two-stage process). The cultivation and operating mode of the bioreactor reported in this study may be adapted and used in optimization and process plant development for production of insect antifeedant limonoids with A. indica cell suspension cultures. PMID:26234433

  9. Attenuation of nonenzymatic glycation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by chloroform leaf extract of Azadirachta indica

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Pérez; Gómez, Yolanda Gómez Y.; Guzman, Mónica Damián

    2011-01-01

    Background: The hypoglycemic effects of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (AI) were evaluated by oral administration in streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic rats (SD). Materials and Methods: The effect of chronic oral administration of the extract for 28 days was evaluated in streptozotozin diabetic rats. Lipid peroxidation, glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscles, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were determined. In addition, advanced glycation end product formation (AGEs) was evaluated. Results: The most active extracts were obtained with chloroform. Chloroform extract from AI shows increased levels of SOD, GSH, GSSG and CAT, hepatic glycogen content, glucose-6-phosphatase and insulin plasma levels, which also decreased the glucokinase (GK), lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. The chloroform extract exhibited significant inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end product formation with an IC50 average range of 79.1 mg/ml. Conclusion: Azadirachta indica can improve hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinema in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and, therefore, AI can be potentially considered to be an antidiabetic-safe agent. PMID:21969798

  10. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper points and cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cleaning and shaping were completed with irrigation by 10 mL of respective irrigants and 5 mL of final rinse. The patients were recalled after 3 days and canals were rinsed again with 5 mL of the test irrigants. This was followed by obtaining a posttreatment root canal culture sample and culturing and analyzed by counting the colony forming units (CFUs). Results: Six percentage MCJ, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the mean CFU counts for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria between baseline and 3 days. Conclusion: There was no difference in the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% M. citrifolia, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl as root canal irrigants. PMID:26929692

  11. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

  12. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica, Commiphora Myrrha, Glycyrrhiza Glabra Against Enterococcus Faecalis using Real Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Suresh; Rajan, Mathan; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Shravya, Yarramreddy; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR Materials and Methods: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively Conclusion: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline PMID:27386000

  13. The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in a neuropathic patient with advanced diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Iabichella, Maria Letizia; Caruso, Claudio; Lugli, Marzia

    2014-01-01

    The successful use of an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and nimh oil (Azadirachta indica; Hyperoil) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers, has been reported previously. It was hypothesised that this amelioration was linked with the improved glycaemic control and peripheral microvascular circulation. In this case report, the surprisingly successful outcome of another patient using Hyperoil for infection damaged diabetic foot, without prior use of surgical procedure, is described. The patient had no macrovascular pattern impairment. Diabetic foot healing paralleled with controlled local infection and enhanced glycaemic control. The outcome of this patient suggests that the effectiveness of this inexpensive therapy using Hyperoil for diabetic foot is not only linked with the presence of severe microvascular disorder, but also with the appropriate local treatment for ulcer being a must for its recovery. PMID:25378221

  14. Constituents of Azadirachta indica: isolation and structure elucidation of a new antibacterial tetranortriterpenoid, mahmoodin, and a new protolimonoid, naheedin.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, S; Faizi, S; Siddiqui, B S; Ghiasuddin

    1992-03-01

    Mahmoodin [1], a new limonoid, has been isolated from Azadirachta indica (neem) oil, along with seven known tetranortriterpenoids, azadirone, epoxyazadiradione, nimbin, gedunin, azadiradione, deacetylnimbin, and 17-hydroxyazadiradione. A new protolimonoid, naheedin [3], has been obtained from the neem fruits along with azadirachtol. Their structures have been elucidated through chemical and spectral analyses including 2D nmr studies. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by comparison of its cd spectrum with those of the known tetranortriterpenoids. Mahmoodin showed significant antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Four hydrocarbons, icosane, docosane, 2-methyltricosane, and docosene, have also been identified by gc-ms of the EtOH extract of the fruit coats. Only docosane has earlier been reported from neem, while the remaining three are unreported from this plant. PMID:1593280

  15. Evaluation of anti-plaque microbial activity of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) in vitro: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Abinaya, P.; Elanchezhiyan, S.; Thangakumaran; Vennila, K.; Naziya, K. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Probably microbial plaque is the main etiology for periodontal tissue inflammation. Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity. However, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) against plaque formation is considered to be vital, with lesser side effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and prove the antimicrobial activity of neem using plaque samples. Materials and Methods: Culture was prepared using brain heart infusion broth reagent. Dental plaque samples were used for that. Kirby–Bauer antimicrobial susceptibility test procedure was carried away with the sample. Neem oil was kept in the agar plate with culture and the diameter of inhibition zones was calculated. Results: Results showed inhibition zones on the agar plate around neem oil. Conclusion: Study shows definite antiplaque activity of neem oil. PMID:23066297

  16. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  17. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies. PMID:22739123

  18. Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).

    PubMed

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2014-12-01

    Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use. PMID:25130979

  19. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H2O2 concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  20. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts

    PubMed Central

    Gotep, J. G.; Tanko, J. T.; Forcados, G. E.; Muraina, I. A.; Ozele, N.; Dogonyaro, B. B.; Oladipo, O. O.; Makoshi, M. S.; Akanbi, O. B.; Kinjir, H.; Samuel, A. L.; Onyiche, T. E.; Ochigbo, G. O.; Aladelokun, O. B.; Ozoani, H. A.; Viyoff, V. Z.; Dapuliga, C. C.; Atiku, A. A.; Okewole, P. A.; Shamaki, D.; Ahmed, M. S.; Nduaka, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis. PMID:26989496

  1. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts.

    PubMed

    Gotep, J G; Tanko, J T; Forcados, G E; Muraina, I A; Ozele, N; Dogonyaro, B B; Oladipo, O O; Makoshi, M S; Akanbi, O B; Kinjir, H; Samuel, A L; Onyiche, T E; Ochigbo, G O; Aladelokun, O B; Ozoani, H A; Viyoff, V Z; Dapuliga, C C; Atiku, A A; Okewole, P A; Shamaki, D; Ahmed, M S; Nduaka, C I

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis. PMID:26989496

  2. Gedunin and Azadiradione: Human Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Inhibiting Limonoids from Neem (Azadirachta indica) as Anti-Diabetic Agents.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Sudha; Haldar, Saikat; Mulani, Fayaj; Zinjarde, Smita; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu; RaviKumar, Ameeta

    2015-01-01

    Human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA) inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower postprandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Limonoids from Azadirachta indica known for their therapeutic potential were screened for pancreatic α-amylase inhibition, a known anti-diabetic target. Studies were carried out to reveal their mode of action so as to justify their hypoglycemic potential. Of the nine limonoids isolated/semi-synthesized from A.indica and screened for α-amylase inhibition, azadiradione and exhibited potential inhibition with an IC50 value of 74.17 and 68.38 μM, respectively against HPA under in vitro conditions. Further screening on AR42J α-amylase secretory cell line for cytotoxicity and bioactivity revealed that azadiradione and gedunin exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 of 11.1 and 13.4μM. Maximal secreted α-amylase inhibition of 41.8% and 53.4% was seen at 3.5 and 3.3μM, respectively. Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggested a mixed mode of inhibition with maltopentaose (Ki 42.2, 18.6 μM) and starch (Ki' 75.8, 37.4 μM) as substrate with a stiochiometry of 1:1 for both azadiradione and gedunin, respectively. The molecular docking simulation indicated plausible π-alkyl and alkyl-alkyl interactions between the aromatic amino acids and inhibitors. Fluorescence and CD confirmed the involvement of tryptophan and tyrosine in ligand binding to HPA. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that binding is enthalpically and entropically driven with ΔG° of -21.25 kJ mol-1 and -21.16 kJ mol-1 for azadiradione and gedunin, respectively. Thus, the limonoids azadiradione and gedunin could bind and inactivate HPA (anti-diabetic target) and may prove to be lead drug candidates to reduce/control post-prandial hyperglycemia. PMID:26469405

  3. Gedunin and Azadiradione: Human Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Inhibiting Limonoids from Neem (Azadirachta indica) as Anti-Diabetic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zinjarde, Smita; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu; RaviKumar, Ameeta

    2015-01-01

    Human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA) inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower postprandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Limonoids from Azadirachta indica known for their therapeutic potential were screened for pancreatic α-amylase inhibition, a known anti-diabetic target. Studies were carried out to reveal their mode of action so as to justify their hypoglycemic potential. Of the nine limonoids isolated/semi-synthesized from A.indica and screened for α-amylase inhibition, azadiradione and exhibited potential inhibition with an IC50 value of 74.17 and 68.38 μM, respectively against HPA under in vitro conditions. Further screening on AR42J α-amylase secretory cell line for cytotoxicity and bioactivity revealed that azadiradione and gedunin exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 of 11.1 and 13.4μM. Maximal secreted α-amylase inhibition of 41.8% and 53.4% was seen at 3.5 and 3.3μM, respectively. Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggested a mixed mode of inhibition with maltopentaose (Ki 42.2, 18.6 μM) and starch (Ki′ 75.8, 37.4 μM) as substrate with a stiochiometry of 1:1 for both azadiradione and gedunin, respectively. The molecular docking simulation indicated plausible π-alkyl and alkyl-alkyl interactions between the aromatic amino acids and inhibitors. Fluorescence and CD confirmed the involvement of tryptophan and tyrosine in ligand binding to HPA. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that binding is enthalpically and entropically driven with ΔG° of -21.25 kJ mol-1 and -21.16 kJ mol-1 for azadiradione and gedunin, respectively. Thus, the limonoids azadiradione and gedunin could bind and inactivate HPA (anti-diabetic target) and may prove to be lead drug candidates to reduce/control post-prandial hyperglycemia. PMID:26469405

  4. An increase of granulosa cell apoptosis mediates aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract-induced oocyte apoptosis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anima; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for female fertility regulation for a long time, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine whether an increase of granulosa cell apoptosis is associated with aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE)-induced oocyte apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Sexually immature female rats of 20 days old were fed NLE (50 mg/day) for 10 days and then subjected to superovulation induction protocol. The morphological changes in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), rate of oocyte apoptosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total nitrite, and cytochrome c concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytochrome c, p53, Bcl2 and Bax expressions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, and estradiol 17β level in granulosa cells collected from preovulatory COCs were analyzed. Results: Aqueous NLE increased H2O2 concentration and decreased catalase activity, increased iNOS expression and total nitrite concentration, increased p53, Bax, and p53 expressions but decreased Bcl2 expression, increased cytochrome c concentration and induced DNA fragmentation in granulosa cells. An increased granulosa cell apoptosis resulted in reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that aqueous NLE-induced granulosa cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Thus, granulosa cell apoptosis mediates NLE-induced oocyte apoptosis during female fertility regulation in rat. PMID:23776837

  5. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria. PMID:26379714

  6. Nimbolide a limonoid from Azadirachta indica inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells.

    PubMed

    Harish Kumar, G; Chandra Mohan, K V P; Jagannadha Rao, A; Nagini, S

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the cytotoxic effects of nimbolide, a limonoid present in leaves and flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) on human choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. Treatment with nimbolide resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of BeWo cells with IC(50) values of 2.01 and 1.19 microM for 7 and 24 h respectively, accompanied by downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Examination of nuclear morphology revealed fragmentation and condensation indicating apoptosis. Increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was reversed by addition of reduced glutathione suggested ROS involvement in the cytotoxicity of nimbolide. A decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio with increased expression of Apaf-1 and caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase provide compelling evidence that nimbolide-induced apoptosis is mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. The results of the present study suggest that nimbolide has immense potential in cancer prevention and therapy based on its antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects. PMID:18719855

  7. Performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder as a growth promoter

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Singh, B.; Kumar, Sh.; Joshi, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Sathapathy, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed at studying growth pattern and carcass traits in pearl grey guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (NLP) over a period of 12 weeks. Day old guinea fowl keets (n=120) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, NLP was provided as 1, 2 and 3 g per kg of feed, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in body weight at 12 weeks; 1229.7 for T1, 1249.8 for T2, and 1266.2 g T3 compared to 1220.0 g for the control group (P<0.05). The results also showed that the supplementation of NLP significantly increased feed intake (P≤0.05) which might be due to the hypoglycaemic activity of Neem. A significant increase was also found in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the treated groups over the control, showing that feeding NLP to the treated groups has lowered their residual feed efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLP on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in guinea fowl. NLP is, therefore, suggested to be used as a feed supplement in guinea fowl for higher profitability. PMID:27175156

  8. In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

  9. Studies on the acaricidal mechanism of the active components from neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-zhen; Deng, Yun-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Wei, Qin; Li, Mei; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Li, Li; Song, Xu; Liang, Xiao-xia; Shu, Gang; He, Chang-liang; Gu, Xiao-bin; Lv, Cheng; Yin, Lizi

    2014-08-29

    Octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester, isolated from neem (Azadirachta indica) oil, exhibited potent acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi. In this paper, the acaricidal mechanism of octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated based on pathologic histology and enzyme activities. The results showed that after compound treatment for 24h at a concentration of 20mg/mL, the lesions of mites were prominent under transmission electron microscopy. The lesions consisted of the lysis of dermis cell membranes and cell nuclear membranes, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities, the drop of spinal disorders, and mitochondrial vacuolization. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs), and Ca(2+)-ATPase of mites significantly changed after treatment with octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester compared with the control group. The activities of SOD, POD, and Ca(2+)-ATPase were significantly suppressed, whereas that of GSTs was activated. These results indicated that the mechanism of the acaricidal activity of octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester was mainly achieved through interference with the energy metabolism of mites, thus resulting in insect death. PMID:24974121

  10. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork. PMID:26184255

  11. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Korn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork. PMID:26184255

  12. Thrombolytic potential of Ocimum sanctum L., Curcuma longa L., Azadirachta indica L. and Anacardium occidentale L.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Irfan Newaz; Habib, Md. Razibul; Rahman, Md. Mominur; Mannan, Adnan; Sarker, Md. Mominul Islam; Hawlader, Sourav

    2011-01-01

    Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed xin blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether herbal preparations possess thrombolytic activity or not. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four aqueous herbal extracts viz., O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica, A. occidentale along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. The percentage (%) clot lysis was statistically significant (p<0.0001) when compared with vehicle control. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica & A. occidentale showed moderate clot lysis activity (30.01 ± 6.168%, 32.94 ± 3.663%, 27.47 ± 6.943%, 33.79 ± 2.926% respectively) whereas standard streptokinase showed 86.2 ± 10.7 % clot lysis effect. From our study we found that all the herbs showed reasonable % of clot lysis. These herbal extracts possess thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of these extracts for clot lysis are yet to be discovered PMID:24826011

  13. Antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extracts against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mahfuzul Hoque, M D; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Kawamoto, S

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against 21 strains of foodborne pathogens were determined--Listeria monocytogenes (five strains), Staphylococcus aureus (four strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (six strains), Salmonella Enteritidis (four strains), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus, and five food spoilage bacteria: Pseudomonas aeroginosa, P. putida, Alcaligenes faecalis, and Aeromonas hydrophila (two strains). Guava and neem extracts showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria except for V. parahaemolyticus, P. aeroginosa, and A. hydrophila. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethanol extracts of guava showed the highest inhibition for L. monocytogenes JCM 7676 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2151 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2179 (0.1 mg/mL), and V. parahaemolyticus IFO 12711 (0.1 mg/mL) and the lowest inhibition for Alcaligenes faecalis IFO 12669, Aeromonas hydrophila NFRI 8282 (4.0 mg/mL), and A. hydrophila NFRI 8283 (4.0 mg/mL). The MIC of chloroform extracts of neem showed similar inhibition for L. monocytogenes ATCC 43256 (4.0 mg/mL) and L. monocytogenes ATCC 49594 (5.0 mg/mL). However, ethanol extracts of neem showed higher inhibition for S. aureus JCM 2151 (4.5 mg/mL) and S. aureus IFO 13276 (4.5 mg/mL) and the lower inhibition for other microorganisms (6.5 mg/mL). No significant effects of temperature and pH were found on guava and neem extracts against cocktails of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. The results of the present study suggest that guava and neem extracts possess compounds containing antibacterial properties that can potentially be useful to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms. PMID:18041957

  14. Comparative transcripts profiling of fruit mesocarp and endocarp relevant to secondary metabolism by suppression subtractive hybridization in Azadirachta indica (neem).

    PubMed

    Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Rajakani, Raja; Sangwan, Neelam S; Gupta, Vikrant; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is a medicinally important plant that is valued for its bioactive secondary metabolites. Higher levels of the bioactive phytochemicals are accumulated in fruits than in other tissues. In the present study, a total of 387 and 512 ESTs, respectively, from endocarp and mesocarp of neem fruits were isolated and analyzed. Out of them 318 ESTs (82.17%) clones from endocarp and 418 ESTs (81.64%) from mesocarp encoded putative proteins that could be classified into three major gene ontology categories: biological process, molecular function and cellular component. From the analyses of contigs, 73 unigenes from the forward subtracted library and 35 unigenes from the reverse subtracted library were obtained. The ESTs from mesocarp encoded cytochrome P450 enzymes, which indicated hydroxylation to be a major metabolic event and that biogeneration of hydroxylated neem fruit phytochemicals was differentially regulated with developmental stage-specificity of synthesis. Through this study, we present the first report of any gene expression data in neem tissues. Neem hydroxy-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NHMGR) gene was used as expressing control vis-a-vis subtracted tissues. NHMGR was present in fruit, endocarp and mesocarp tissues, but absent in subtractive libraries, revealing that it was successfully eliminated during subtraction. Eight genes of interest from subtracted libraries were profiled for their expression in fruit, mesocarp and endocarp. Expression profiles validated the quality of the libraries and functional diversity of the tissues. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable transcript sequence resource for future research aimed at improving the economically important medicinal plant. PMID:24477588

  15. Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract specifically suppresses the growth of tumors in H22-bearing Kunming mice.

    PubMed

    He, Zhenxiang; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi; Yin, Zengfang; Zhu, Yunfeng; Fu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract (NTE) has been reported to have various antitumor activities against gastric, breast, prostate, and skin cancer, respectively. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of NTE on hepatic cancer in a mouse model. The possible side effects elicited by NTE were also evaluated. The components in NTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). H22 cells-bearing Kumming mice were generated by injecting H22 cells subcutaneously into the right forelimb armpit of the mice. Then the mice were treated daily for 27 days with NTE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric administration, using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 1%) as blank control and cyclophosphamide (CTX, 20 mg/kg) as positive control. The antitumor effect of NTE was evaluated by assessment of survival rate, body weight, tumor volume and weight, tumor histology, thymus and spleen indexes, and liver histology. The tumor weight and volume in groups of NTE and CTX were significantly lower than those in the CMC group. The survival rate in the NTE group receiving the high dose (600 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in the CTX and CMC groups. Compared with CTX, NTE was observed to have a tumor-specific cytotoxicity without impairing the normal liver tissue. Additionally, the higher indexes of thymus and spleen indicated that NTE could facilitate the growth of immune organs. The results indicate that NTE is a promising candidate for the antitumor treatment with high efficacy and safety. PMID:27248120

  16. Limonoids and flavonoids from the flowers of Azadirachta indica var. siamensis, and their melanogenesis-inhibitory and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Ishii, Kenta; Ebina, Kodai; Zhang, Jie; Ukiya, Motohiko; Koike, Kazuo; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Manosroi, Aranya; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A new limonoid, 7-O-acetyl-7-O-debenzoyl-22-hydroxy-21-methoxylimocinin (2), and two new flavonoids, 3'-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)naringenin (7) and 4'-O-methyllespedezaflavanone C (9), along with nine known compounds, including two limonoids, 1 and 3, and seven flavonoids, 4-6, 8, and 10-12, were isolated from a MeOH extract of the flowers of Azadirachta indica A.Juss. var. siamensis Valeton (Siamese neem tree; Meliaceae). The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. All of these compounds were evaluated for their melanogenesis-inhibitory activities in B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Compound 2 (16.9% melanin content at 30 μM), 6-deacetylnimbin (3; 49.6% melanin content at 100 μM), and kaempferide (10; 41.7% melanin content at 10 μM) exhibited inhibitory effects with no, or almost no, toxicity to the cells (81.0-111.7% cell viability). In addition, evaluation of their cytotoxic activities against HL60, A549, AZ521, and SK-BR-3 human cancer cell lines, isoazadironolide (1), 4'-O-methyl-8-prenylnaringenin (5), euchrestaflavanone A (8), 9, and 3-methoxy-3'-prenylnaringenin (12) revealed potent cytotoxicities against one or more cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 4.5-9.9 μM. PMID:24443427

  17. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  18. Hair waving natural product: Dillenia indica seed sap.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad

    2013-02-01

    Knowing keratin is the main component and mechanical strength of hair a study was performed to evaluate whether Dillenia indica seed sap can affect molecular strength of hair or not. In the present study the human hair collected from barber shop waste were subjected to purified sap for 12 h and then analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for documenting evidence for keratin degradation. Further the deterioration was confirmed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23124020

  19. Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na₂S₂O₃) and calcium chloride (CaCl₂) on changes in NH₄(+)⁻N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg⁻¹, UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃ and UN+CaCl₂ and incubated at 22°C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH₄⁻ disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO₃⁻-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH₄(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO₃⁻-N kg⁻¹ was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg⁻¹) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃, and UN+CaCl₂, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na₂S₂O₃ proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal. PMID:21031260

  1. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  2. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries. PMID:26142532

  3. Chemopreventive Effects of Azadirachta indica on Cancer Marker Indices and Ultrastructural Changes During 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Sun, Bo; Wu, Peiwei; Wei, Xi

    2015-09-01

    The present study elucidated the prospective of Azadirachta indica supplementation, if any, in affording chemoprevention by modulating the altered cancer markers and ultrastructural changes in DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. The rats were segregated into four groups viz., normal control, DMH treated, A. indica treated, and DMH+AI treated. Initiation and induction of colon carcinogenesis were achieved through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for both 10 and 20 weeks. A. indica extract was supplemented to rats at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight of animals thrice a week on alternative days, ad libitum for two different time durations of 10 and 20 weeks. The study observed a significant increase in the number of aberrant crypt foci in colons of DMH-treated rats at both the time intervals which were decreased significantly upon AI supplementation. Also, a significant increase was seen in the enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, which, however, was moderated upon AI administration to DMH-treated rats. Changes in the ultrastructural architecture of colonic cells were apparent following both the treatment schedules of DMH; however, the changes were prominent following 20 weeks of DMH treatment. The most obvious changes were seen in the form of altered nuclear shape and disruption of cellular integrity, which were appreciably improved upon AI supplementation. In conclusion, the study shows the chemopreventive abilities of AI against DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. PMID:25697750

  4. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development. PMID:25204070

  5. Bio-green synthesis of Ag–GO, Au–GO and Ag–Au–GO nanocomposites using Azadirachta indica: its application in SERS and cell viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hareesh, K.; Williams, J. F.; Dhole, N. A.; Kodam, K. M.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    Silver-graphene oxide, Gold–graphene oxide, Silver–Gold–graphene oxide nanocomposites were synthesized from Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) extract using a bio-green one-pot method. The synthesized bio-green nanocomposites were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffractogram, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated the decoration of ∼10 nm of silver, ∼20 nm of gold and ∼15 nm of silver–gold nanoparticles on a graphene oxide sheet. The synthesized nanocomposites showed enhancement in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy with alizarin and also enhancement in cell viability of Chang liver cell lines which may be due to a synergetic effect of nanoparticles and graphene oxide.

  6. Comparative immunomodulation potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F., Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill and Tinospora cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    PubMed

    Narkhede, A N; Jagtap, S D; Kasote, D M; Kulkarni, O P; Harsulkar, A M

    2014-08-01

    Guduchi has been widely used in the traditional medicine as an immunomodulator. Description of guduchi in Ayurvedic literature resemble with T. sinensis rather than with commonly available T. cordifolia and hence this may be used as substitutes for T. sinensis. T. cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica commonly called Neem-guduchi has more immunomodulatory potential. Thus, immunomodulatory activity of three Tinospora spp. was assessed by checking humoral and cell mediated immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion tests on albino Wistar rats using Guduchi-Satwa, a well known dosage form. Results revealed that Neem-guduchi possesses higher immunomodulatory potential at the dose of 300 mg/kg, po and validated the traditional claim. Hence, Neem-Guduchi can be employed in immunomodulatory formulation prepared using guduchi. PMID:25141544

  7. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated if Neem (Azadirachta indic...

  8. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  9. Screening of efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for Azadirachta indica under nursery condition: A step towards afforestation of semi-arid region of western India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, K.; Gadani, M.H.; Srivastava, K.K.; Verma, Neelam; Jasrai, Y.T.; Jain, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    To optimize nursery practices for efficient plant production procedures and to keep up to the ever growing demand of seedlings, identification of the most suitable species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), specific for a given tree species, is clearly a necessary task. Sixty days old seedlings of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) raised in root trainers were inoculated with six species of AMF and a mixed inoculum (consortia) and kept in green house. Performances of the treatments on this tree species were evaluated in terms of growth parameters like plant height shoot collar diameter, biomass and phosphorous uptake capabilities. Significant and varied increase in the growth parameters and phosphorous uptake was observed for most of the AMF species against control. Consortia culture was found to be the best suited AMF treatment for A. indica, while Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae were the best performing single species cultures. It is the first time in the state of Gujarat that a wide variety of AMF species, isolated from the typical semi-arid region of western India, were tested for the best growth performance with one of the most important tree species for the concerned region. PMID:24294258

  10. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi, Tinospora cardifolia, Ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Kunjal S.; Sanghvi, Zarna; Parmar, Girish; Shah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To check the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Mimusops elelngi (Bakul), Tinospora cardifolia (Giloy) and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) on common endodontic pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion test was used to check the antimicrobial activity of the Methanolic extracts of the medicinal plants along with CHX. Six different concentrations of the tested agents were used for the study. The values of Zone of Inhibition were tabulated according to the concentration of the tested agent and data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post- hoc tests. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) values were also recorded. Results: All the plants extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against selected endodontic pathogens. At 3mg. concentration, O.sanctum was the most effective against S. mutans, M. elengi showed highest zone of inhibition against E.faecalis, whereas CHX was the most effective agent against S.aureus. CHX was also the most consistent of all the medicaments testes, showing inhibitory effect against all the tree pathogens at all the selected concentrations. Conclusions: The Methanolic extract of A.Indica, O.sanctum, M. Elengi, T.cardifolia and Chlorhexidine Gluconate has considerable antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, E. faecalis and S. aureus. PMID:24966766

  11. Antifilarial effects of polyphenol rich ethanolic extract from the leaves of Azadirachta indica through molecular and biochemical approaches describing reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis of Setaria cervi.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Niladri; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Saini, Prasanta; Roy, Priya; Sinha Babu, Santi P

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a global cause of morbidity needs much more attention in developing potent therapeutics that can be effective against both microfilariae (mf) and adults. Efficient botanicals that can induce apoptosis of filarial parasites possibly can provide a direction towards developing new class of antifilarials. In this work we have evaluated the antifilarial efficacy of an optimized polyphenol rich ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA). A. indica A. Juss has been widely used in the traditional Indian medicinal system 'Ayurveda' for the treatment of a variety of ailments. A thorough investigation towards biochemical and molecular mechanisms describing ROS mediated apoptosis in Setaria cervi was performed. Motility reduction, MTT reduction assay and dye exclusion test have confirmed the micro- and macrofilaricidal potential of EEA. Alterations were visible in mf and trichrome stained section of EEA-treated adult worms. We have found cellular disturbances in EEA-treated parasites characterized by chromatin condensation, in situ DNA fragmentation and nucleosomal DNA laddering. Depletion in worm GSH level and elevation in parasite GST, SOD, catalase, GPx and superoxide anion indicated the generation of ROS. Our results provided experimental evidence supporting that EEA causes a decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes and increased pro-apoptotic gene expression at the level of both transcription and translation. Here we are reporting for the first time that antifilarial activity of EEA is mediated by ROS up regulation and apoptosis. PMID:24275557

  12. Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, G S; Bhuptawat, Hitendra Kumar; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of low cost agro-based materials namely, Tamarindus indica seed (TS), crushed coconut shell (CS), almond shell (AS), ground nut shell (GS) and walnut shell (WS) were evaluated for Cr(VI) removal. Batch test indicated that hexavalent chromium sorption capacity (q(e)) followed the sequence q(e)(TS) > q(e)(WS) > q(e)(AS) > q(e)(GS) > q(e)(CS). Due to high sorptive capacity, tamarind seed was selected for detailed sorption studies. Sorption kinetic data followed first order reversible kinetic fit model for all the sorbents. The equilibrium conditions were achieved within 150 min under the mixing conditions employed. Sorption equilibria exhibited better fit to Freundlich isotherms (R>0.92) than Langmuir isotherm (R approximately = 0.87). Hexavalent chromium sorption by TS decreased with increase in pH, and slightly reduced with increase in ionic strength. Cr(VI) removal by TS seems to be mainly by chemisorption. Desorption of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) laden TS was quite less by distilled water and HCl. Whereas with NaOH, maximum desorption achieved was about 15.3%. When TS was used in downflow column mode, Cr(VI) removal was quite good but head loss increased as the run progressed and was stopped after 200 h. PMID:15964190

  13. Evaluation of Azadirachta indica leaf fractions for in vitro antioxidant potential and in vivo modulation of biomarkers of chemoprevention in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, P; Letchoumy, P Vidjaya; Gopalakrishnan, M; Nagini, S

    2008-07-01

    We evaluated the chemopreventive potential of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf fractions based on in vitro antioxidant assays, and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. In addition we also identified the major constituents in neem leaf fractions by HPLC. Analysis of the free radical scavenging activities and reducing potential of crude ethanolic extract (CEE), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MF) of neem leaf revealed a concentration-dependent increase in antioxidant potential that was in the order EAF>MF>CEE. Administration of neem leaf fractions reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas at a lower concentration compared to the crude extract. Chemoprevention by neem leaf fractions was associated with modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, lipid and protein oxidation, upregulation of antioxidant defences, inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and induction of apoptosis. However, EAF was more effective than MF in terms of antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects, and expression of CYP isoforms. The greater efficacy of EAF may be due to higher content of constituent phytochemicals as revealed by HPLC analysis. The results of the present study suggest that the antioxidant properties of neem leaf fractions may be responsible for modulating key hallmark capabilities of cancer cells such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in the HBP carcinogenesis model. PMID:18442880

  14. Chemoprevention of rat mammary carcinogenesis by Azadirachta indica leaf fractions: modulation of hormone status, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Vinothini, G; Manikandan, P; Anandan, R; Nagini, S

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the chemopreventive potential of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MF) of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Estradiol and estrogen receptor status, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities, redox status, DNA and protein modifications, and the expression of cell proliferation, and apoptosis related proteins in the mammary gland and liver were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Administration of both EAF and MF at a dose of 10mg/kg bw effectively suppressed tumour incidence. Chemoprevention by neem leaf fractions was associated with modulation of hormone and receptor status, xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, and lipid and protein oxidation, with upregulation of antioxidants, inhibition of oxidative DNA damage, protein modification, and cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. However EAF rich in constituent phytochemicals was more effective than MF in modulating multiple molecular targets. These results provide evidence for the chemopreventive efficacy of neem leaf fractions in the rat mammary tumour model. PMID:19427891

  15. Morphological and biochemical changes in Azadirachta indica from coal combustion fly ash dumping site from a thermal power plant in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Sami Ullah; Raja, Vaseem; Siddiqui, Weqar A

    2016-07-01

    The foliar and biochemical traits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss from fly ash (FA) dumping site in Badarpur thermal power plant (BTPP) New Delhi, India was studied. Three different experimental sites were selected at different distances from the thermal power plant. Ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), total chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal index (SI), stomatal conductance (SC), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration [CO2]i, net photosynthetic rate (NPR), nitrogen, nitrate, nitrate reductase activity, proline, protein, reducing sugar and sulphur content were measured. Considerable reduction in pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), and total chlorophyll was observed at fly ash dumping site. Fly ash stress revealed the inhibitory effect on Nitrate reductase activity (NRA), Nitrate, soluble protein, and reducing sugar content, whereas stimulatory effect was found for the stomatal index, nitrogen, proline, antioxidants and sulphur content in the leaves. Under fly ash stress, stomatal conductance was low, leading to declining in photosynthetic rate and increase in the internal CO2 concentration of leaf. Single leaf area (SLA), leaf length and leaf width also showed a declining trend from control to the polluted site. Antioxidant enzymes increased in leaves reflecting stress and extenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:27077968

  16. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group fed without neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection. PMID:23178500

  17. Azadirachta indica plant-assisted green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles: Excellent thermal catalytic performance and chemical sensing behavior.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jitendra Kumar; Srivastava, Pratibha; Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Singh, Gurdip; Yadava, Sudha

    2016-06-15

    The leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) plant was utilized as reducing agent for the green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs). The crystalline analysis demonstrated the typical tetragonal hausmannite crystal structure of Mn3O4, which confirmed the formation of Mn3O4 NPs without the existence of other oxides. Green synthesized Mn3O4 NPs were applied for the catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and as working electrode for fabricating the chemical sensor. The excellent catalytic effect for the thermal decomposition of AP was observed by decreasing the decomposition temperature by 175 °C with single decomposing step. The fabricated chemical sensor based on green synthesized Mn3O4 NPs displayed high, reliable and reproducible sensitivity of ∼569.2 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with reasonable limit of detection (LOD) of ∼22.1 μM and the response time of ∼10 s toward the detection of 2-butanone chemical. A relatively good linearity in the ranging from ∼20 to 160 μM was detected for Mn3O4 NPs electrode based 2-butanone chemical sensor. PMID:27038784

  18. Acaricidal activity of extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against the larvae of the rabbit mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Pu, Zhong-Hui; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu-Qun; Lu, Yang

    2008-10-20

    The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract, the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests. The results showed that at all test time points, the petroleum ether extract demonstrated the highest activity against the larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi, while the activities of the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract were similar. The activities of both the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract against the larvae showed the relation of time and concentration dependent. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (1.3 microL/mL) was about three times that of the chloroform extract (4.1 microL/mL) at 24 h post-treatment. At the concentrations of 500.0 microL/mL, the median lethal time (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 8.4 and 9.6 h, respectively. PMID:18752898

  19. In-vitro immunomodulatory and anti-cancerous activities of biotransformed products of Dianabol through Azadirachta indica and its molecular docking studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant Biotransformation is one of the tools for structural modifications of the organic substrate of low, moderate or high biological value utilizing plant cultured cells, these modifications of organic structures may lead to biologically augmented products and which may be ultimately substantial in cure or improvement of various morbidities and diseases. Results Azadirachta indica A. Juss. suspension culture was employed for the biotransformation of dianabol (1) for the first time, and two metabolites, 17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one (2), and 17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3-one (3) were obtained. Conclusions Most important aspect of this work was the evaluation of metabolite 2, which strongly and differentially suppressed [not affecting whole blood and human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)] the phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated T-cell proliferation (IC50: <10.33 μM), and also found to inhibit IL-2 production (IC50: 16.89 ± 1.32) unlike metabolite 3 and compound 1. Compound 2 also exhibited anticancer activity against lung cancer cell line; NCI-H460, it moderately inhibited the growth of cancer cells (22.5 ± 4.15 μM). Furthermore, a good correlation between the predicted binding energies of the compounds acquired by the FlexX program and the experimental affinities were speculated upon interacting with IL-2 protein during molecular docking studies. PMID:24764465

  20. How much Dillenia indica seed predation occurs from Asian elephant dung?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekar, Nitin; Giam, Xingli; Sharma, Netra Prasad; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Elephants are thought to be effective seed dispersers, but research on whether elephant dung effectively protects seeds from seed predation is lacking. Quantifying rates of seed predation from elephant dung will facilitate comparisons between elephants and alternative dispersers, helping us understand the functional role of megaherbivores in ecosystems. We conducted an experiment to quantify the predation of Dillenia indica seeds from elephant dung in Buxa Reserve, India from December 2012 to April 2013. Using dung boluses from the same dung pile, we compared the number of seeds in boluses that are a) opened immediately upon detection (control boluses), b) made available only to small seed predators (<3 mm wide) for 1-4 months, and c) made available to all seed predators and secondary dispersers for 1-4 months. Using a model built on this experiment, we estimated that seed predation by small seed predators (most likely ants and termites) destroys between 82.9% and 96.4% of seeds in elephant dung between the time of defecation and the median germination date for D. indica. Exposure to larger seed predators and secondary dispersers did not lead to a significant additional reduction in the number of seeds per dung bolus. Our findings suggest that post-dispersal seed predation by small insects (<3 mm) substantially reduces but does not eliminate the success of elephants as dispersers of D. indica in a tropical moist forest habitat.

  1. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8°C and 10.9 min at 12°C). The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8°C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12°C, respectively) and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

  2. Transmission blocking activity of Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis extracts on the sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeting the stages of the malaria parasites responsible for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector is a key pharmacological strategy for malaria control. Research efforts to identify compounds that are active against these stages have significantly increased in recent years. However, at present, only two drugs are available, namely primaquine and artesunate, which reportedly act on late stage gametocytes. Methods In this study, we assessed the antiplasmodial effects of 5 extracts obtained from the neem tree Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis against the early vector stages of Plasmodium falciparum, using field isolates. In an ex vivo assay gametocytaemic blood was supplemented with the plant extracts and offered to Anopheles coluzzii females by membrane feeding. Transmission blocking activity was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence and density on the mosquito midguts. Results Initial screening of the 5 plant extracts at 250 ppm revealed transmission blocking activity in two neem preparations. Up to a concentration of 70 ppm the commercial extract NeemAzal® completely blocked transmission and at 60 ppm mosquitoes of 4 out of 5 replicate groups remained uninfected. Mosquitoes fed on the ethyl acetate phase of neem leaves at 250 ppm showed a reduction in oocyst prevalence of 59.0% (CI95 12.0 - 79.0; p < 10-4) and in oocyst density of 90.5% (CI95 86.0 - 93.5; p < 10-4 ), while the ethanol extract from the same plant part did not exhibit any activity. No evidence of transmission blocking activity was found using G. senegalensis ethyl acetate extract from stem galls. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the potential of antimalarial plants for the discovery of novel transmission blocking molecules, and open up the potential of developing standardized transmission blocking herbal formulations as malaria control tools to complement currently used antimalarial drugs and combination treatments. PMID:24735564

  3. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the supplemented groups. CP digestibility was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only. PMID:26563272

  4. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of azadirachtin from dried entire fruits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) and its determination by a validated HPLC-PDA method.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano; Brito, Lucas Ferreira; Caetano, Karen Lorena Ferreira Neves; de Morais Rodrigues, Mariana Cristina; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2016-03-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss., also known as neem, is a Meliaceae family tree from India. It is globally known for the insecticidal properties of its limonoid tetranortriterpenoid derivatives, such as azadirachtin. This work aimed to optimize the azadirachtin ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and validate the HPLC-PDA analytical method for the measurement of this marker in neem dried fruit extracts. Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the UAE. Three independent variables, including ethanol concentration (%, w/w), temperature (°C), and material-to-solvent ratio (gmL(-1)), were studied. The azadirachtin content (µgmL(-1)), i.e., dependent variable, was quantified by the HPLC-PDA analytical method. Isocratic reversed-phase chromatography was performed using acetonitrile/water (40:60), a flow of 1.0mLmin(-1), detection at 214nm, and C18 column (250×4.6mm(2), 5µm). The primary validation parameters were determined according to ICH guidelines and Brazilian legislation. The results demonstrated that the optimal UAE condition was obtained with ethanol concentration range of 75-80% (w/w), temperature of 30°C, and material-to-solvent ratio of 0.55gmL(-1). The HPLC-PDA analytical method proved to be simple, selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust. The experimental values of azadirachtin content under optimal UAE conditions were in good agreement with the RSM predicted values and were superior to the azadirachtin content of percolated extract. Such findings suggest that UAE is a more efficient extractive process in addition to being simple, fast, and inexpensive. PMID:26717816

  5. The bioefficacy of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the survival and development of myiasis-causing larvae of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Jasneet

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a type of parasitosis originating from the invasion of tissues of live humans and other vertebrates by dipteran larvae. The Old World screwworm fly—Chrysomya bezziana—is known worldwide in the tropical regions for causing myiasis among man and domestic animals, thereby leading to health hazards and severe economic losses to the dairy farmers. Management techniques for controlling populations of the fly are needed to minimize these losses. Plant-derived materials have been increasingly evaluated these days in controlling the insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study evaluated the efficacy of crude extracts of the plant neem, Azadirachta indica, against C. bezziana. The dried leaves of the plant were extracted successively with four different solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and were evaluated against the third instar larvae of C. bezziana using dipping method and thin film application technique. In the dipping method, larvae were dipped in four different concentrations of plant extracts for 30 s, whereas in the thin film application, they were exposed to a thin film of plant extracts. The results showed that all the extracts had toxic effect on the larvae in both the techniques. In the dipping method, the highest mortalities were recorded in methanol extract followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 values 1.07 g/100 ml, 1.7 g/100 ml, 3.39 g/100 ml and 4.9 g/100 ml, respectively. In the thin film application method, methanol extract showed the highest mortalities followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether with LC50 values 0.4 mg/cm2, 0.6 mg/cm2, 2.1 mg/cm2 and 2.5 mg/cm2. It is concluded that the crude extracts of A. indica can be used in controlling the larvae of C. bezziana by using the dipping as well as thin film application technique. PMID:26494546

  6. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (η) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  7. 6beta-hydroxygedunin from Azadirachta indica. Its potentiation effects with some non-azadirachtin limonoids in neem against lepidopteran larvae.

    PubMed

    Koul, Opender; Multani, Jatinder Singh; Singh, Gurmeet; Daniewski, Wlodzimierz Maria; Berlozecki, Stanislaw

    2003-05-01

    The biological activity of 6beta-hydroxygedunin isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. was assessed using the gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), and Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), alone and in combination with other limonoids, gedunin, salannin, nimbinene, and azadirachtin. The compound exhibited growth inhibitory activity in artificial diet bioassays, with 24.2 and 21.5 ppm, respectively, inhibiting growth by 50%. This efficacy was higher in comparison to gedunin (EC(50) = 50.8 and 40.4 ppm), salannin (EC(50) = 74.5 and 72.0 ppm), and nimbinene (EC(50) = 391.4 and 404.5 ppm). Azadirachtin, however, remained the most active neem allelochemical against both insect species. Nutritional assays clearly demonstrated that, though relative consumption and growth rates of fourth instar larvae were reduced, gedunin-type compounds induced physiological toxicity, evident by reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) in feeding experiments. Salannin and nimbinene, on the contrary, induced concentration-dependent feeding deterrence only. In feeding experiments, combinations of the compounds revealed that when azadirachtin was present in a mixture, EC(50) values did not deviate from the individual efficacy of azadirachtin (0.26 and 0.21 ppm, respectively) against H. armigera and S. litura larvae. However, a combination without azadirachtin did show a potentiation effect with potent EC(50) values among structurally different molecules, i.e., when salannin or nimbinene was combined with 6beta-hydroxygedunin or gedunin rather than structurally similar salannin + nimbinene or 6beta-hydroxygedunin + gedunin. Obviously, azadirachtin being the most active compound in neem is not synergized or influenced by any other limonoid, but other non-azadirachtin limonoids were more potent in specific combinations vis-à-vis the structural chemistry of the compound. It is obvious from the present study that potentiation among

  8. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. PMID:23561175

  9. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    PubMed

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition. PMID:22886626

  10. Cold tolerance in rice germinating seeds revealed by deep RNAseq analysis of contrasting indica genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dametto, Andressa; Sperotto, Raul A; Adamski, Janete M; Blasi, Édina A R; Cargnelutti, Denise; de Oliveira, Luiz F V; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Fregonezi, Jeferson N; Mariath, Jorge E A; da Cruz, Renata P; Margis, Rogério; Fett, Janette P

    2015-09-01

    Rice productivity is largely affected by low temperature, which can be harmful throughout plant development, from germination to grain filling. Germination of indica rice cultivars under cold is slow and not uniform, resulting in irregular emergence and small plant population. To identify and characterize novel genes involved in cold tolerance during the germination stage, two indica rice genotypes (sister lines previously identified as cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive) were used in parallel transcriptomic analysis (RNAseq) under cold treatment (seeds germinating at 13 °C for 7 days). We detected 1,361 differentially expressed transcripts. Differences in gene expression found by RNAseq were confirmed for 11 selected genes using RT-qPCR. Biological processes enhanced in the cold-tolerant seedlings include: cell division and expansion (confirmed by anatomical sections of germinating seeds), cell wall integrity and extensibility, water uptake and membrane transport capacity, sucrose synthesis, generation of simple sugars, unsaturation of membrane fatty acids, wax biosynthesis, antioxidant capacity (confirmed by histochemical staining of H2O2), and hormone and Ca(2+)-signaling. The cold-sensitive seedlings respond to low temperature stress increasing synthesis of HSPs and dehydrins, along with enhanced ubiquitin/proteasome protein degradation pathway and polyamine biosynthesis. Our findings can be useful in future biotechnological approaches aiming to cold tolerance in indica rice. PMID:26259169

  11. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dipak N; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-04-01

    A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an approximately 34 kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(1), with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6 A. PMID:19342775

  12. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunarwidhi, Anggit Listyacahyani; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens were performed by TLC-densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study. Results: A. indica contained 2.90±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica:112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68.74±4.83% (preprandial) and 73.91±3.18% (postprandial). Histological studies indicated that this combination improved the morphology of the islets of Langerhans and β cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated-glucose concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens. Combination of both extracts was potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:25671197

  13. Acaricidal activity of four fractions and octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester isolated from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong-Hua; Li, Jin-Liang; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Qun

    2009-07-01

    Four fractions obtained from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by column chromatography were investigated for acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester was isolated from an active fraction of the chloroform extract and its toxicity against S. scabiei larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log model was used to analyse the toxicity data. Activity was found in the third fraction, with 100% corrected mortality after 4.5 h of exposure at a concentration of 200 mg ml(-1). This fraction was repeatedly re-crystallised in acetone to yield a white amorphous powder, identified as octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester, with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.1 mg ml(-1) at 24 h post-treatment. The median lethal time (LT(50)) for this compound was 15.3 h at a concentration of 7.5 mg ml(-1). PMID:19443124

  14. Allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz on Eleusine indica (L.) gaertn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, Syamimi; Ismail B., S.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata on the growth of E. indica through aqueous extract and debris (incorporated into the soil) experiment. Three concentrations of leaf and seed aqueous extract (16.7, 33.3 and 66.7 g/L) and debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) of M. bracteata were used in the experiment. Complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications was applied in this experiment which was conducted twice. Results demonstrated that the leaf and seed extracts of M. bracteata exhibited higher suppression effect on the growth and germination of E. indica as the concentration increased. The leaf and seed extracts significantly reduced all measured parameters at all concentrations except for the shoot length and germination of E. indica by seed extract at 16.7 g/L which recorded insignificant reduction by 40.5% and 4% respectively. The leaf and seed debris significantly reduced the root length of E. indica at all treatments. Seed debris also showed significant reduction on the germination at all treatments and other seedling growth parameters (shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) at 2.5 and 10.0 g/500 g soil. Meanwhile, the leaf debris demonstrated stimulation effect on the seedling growth parameters. As a whole, the leaf showed higher suppression effect in aqueous extract experiment while the seed recorded higher suppression effect in the debris experiment. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the type of inhibition mechanism involved in both experiments.

  15. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level. PMID:15099853

  16. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  17. Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial. PMID:25204067

  18. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Komutarin, T; Azadi, S; Butterworth, L; Keil, D; Chitsomboon, B; Suttajit, M; Meade, B J

    2004-04-01

    The seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. The present studies investigated the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract of T. indica on nitric oxide production in vitro using a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, and in vitro and in vivo using freshly isolated B6C3F1 mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro exposure of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages to 0.2-200 microg/mL of T. indica extract significantly attenuated (as much as 68%) nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo administration of T. indica extract (100-500 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice dose-dependently suppressed TPA, LPS and/or IFN-gamma induced production of nitric oxide in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of any effect on body weight. Exposure to T. indica extract had no effect on cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. In B6C3F1 mice, preliminary safety studies demonstrated a decrease in body weight at only the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg) without alterations in hematology, serum chemistry or selected organ weights or effects on NK cell activity. A significant decrease in body weight was observed in BALB/c mice exposed to concentrations of extract of 250 mg/kg or higher. Oral exposure of BALB/c mice to T. indica extract did not modulate the development of T cell-mediated sensitization to DNFB or HCA as measured by the local lymph node assay, or dermal irritation to nonanoic acid or DNFB. These studies suggest that in mice, T. indica extract at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg may modulate nitric oxide production in the absence of overt acute toxicity. PMID:15019190

  19. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected. PMID:19427016

  20. Evaluation of Azadirachta indica leaf fractions for in vitro antioxidant potential and protective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA and red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, P; Anandan, R; Nagini, S

    2009-08-12

    We evaluated the protective effects of subfractions of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and the methanolic fraction (MF) from the crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) leaves against various free radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage to red blood cells (RBCs) and pBR322 DNA. Neem leaf fractions reduced DPPH(*), ABTS(*+), superoxide (O(*-)), hydroxyl (OH(*)), and nitric oxide radicals to nonradical forms in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with the benzene insoluble fraction from EAF (EBIF), the chloroform insoluble fraction from EAF (ECIF), the chloroform insoluble fraction from MF (MCIF), and the ethyl acetate insoluble fraction from MF (MEIF) significantly mitigated H2O2-induced oxidative damage to RBCs and pBR322 DNA. Although we found low in vitro free radical scavenging activity for the benzene insoluble fraction from EAF (EBSF), the chloroform soluble fraction from EAF (ECSF), the chloroform soluble fraction from MF (MCSF), and the ethyl acetate soluble fraction from MF (MESF), these fractions showed no effect on H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and pBR322 DNA damage. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TLC-Iatroscan analysis revealed that the greater efficacy of EBIF, ECIF, MCIF, and MEIF may be due to the presence of more polar compounds such as nimbolide and quercetin. Our studies suggest that the antioxidant and protective effects of active neem leaf fractions against H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and pBR322 DNA damage can be attributed to their ability to inhibit various free radicals. PMID:19583256

  1. Three new tetranortriterpenoids from neem seed oil.

    PubMed

    Hallur, Gurulingappa; Sivramakrishnan, Apoorba; Bhat, Sujata V

    2002-08-01

    Three new tetranortriterpenoids, 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-17beta-hydroxyazadiradione (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxynimolicinol (2), and 7-deacetylnimolicinol (3), have been isolated from a methanol extract of neem oil (Azadirachta indica, seed oil) along with the known compounds epoxyazadiradione, 17beta-hydroxyazadiradione, gedunin, nimbin, and nimolicinol (4). Spectral studies and chemical transformations were used to establish the structure of compounds 1-3. The characterization of the epoxides 1 and 2 in neem oil is of biogenetic significance, as they may be considered as intermediates between A-ring enones and 1,3-diols among the A. indica tetranortriterpenoids. PMID:12193026

  2. The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Ushanandini, S; Nagaraju, S; Harish Kumar, K; Vedavathi, M; Machiah, D K; Kemparaju, K; Vishwanath, B S; Gowda, T V; Girish, K S

    2006-10-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, various plants have been used widely as a remedy for treating snake bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica seed extract on the pharmacological as well as the enzymatic effects induced by V. russelli venom. Tamarind seed extract inhibited the PLA(2), protease, hyaluronidase, l-amino acid oxidase and 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activities of venom in a dose-dependent manner. These are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the early effects of envenomation, such as local tissue damage, inflammation and hypotension. Furthermore, the extract neutralized the degradation of the Bbeta chain of human fibrinogen and indirect hemolysis caused by venom. It was also observed that the extract exerted a moderate effect on the clotting time, prolonging it only to a small extent. Edema, hemorrhage and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom were neutralized significantly when different doses of the extract were preincubated with venom before the assays. On the other hand, animals that received extract 10 min after the injection of venom were protected from venom induced toxicity. Since it inhibits hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2), metalloproteinases, serine proteases, hyaluronidases and 5 cent-nucleotidases, the enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases. PMID:16847999

  3. Isolation and structure elucidation of phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds and pericarp.

    PubMed

    Sudjaroen, Y; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, W E; Erben, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Changbumrung, S; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2005-11-01

    Although it is already known that Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds contain phenolic substances, the individual components of the seeds have not been fully identified and quantitated, and in the case of Tamarind pericarp not reported. Therefore, major polyphenolic compounds were extracted using organic solvents and the metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), nano-electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and where possible by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1H and 13C NMR. Quantitative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in Tamarind seeds and pericarp was conducted by analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), calculated against standard curves of authentic compounds. The yields of total phenolic compounds after Soxhlet extraction with methanol were 6.54 and 2.82 g/kg (dry weight) in the seeds and pericarp respectively. The profile (%) of polyphenolics in Tamarind pericarp was dominated by proanthcyanidins (73.4) in various forms (+)-catechin (2.0), procyanidin B2 (8.2), (-)-epicatechin (9.4), procyanidin trimer (11.3), procyanidin tetramer (22.2), procyanidin pentamer (11.6), procyanidin hexamer (12.8) along with taxifolin (7.4), apigenin (2.0), eriodictyol (6.9), luteolin (5.0) and naringenin (1.4) of total phenols, respectively. The content of Tamarind seeds comprised only procyanidins, represented (%) mainly by oligomeric procyanidin tetramer (30.2), procyanidin hexamer (23.8), procyanidin trimer (18.1), procyanidin pentamer (17.6) with lower amounts of procyanidin B2 (5.5) and (-)-epicatechin (4.8). Extraction of Tamarind pericarp and seeds using acetone:methanol:acetic acid gave only procyanidin oligomers, but in much higher yield and variety. The antioxidant capacities of the Soxhlet methanolic extracts were determined, and indicates that Tamarind may be an

  4. Toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadiracta indica) against the larvae of amblyomma variegatum a three-host tick in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ndumu, P A; George, J B; Choudhury, M K

    1999-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadiracta indica, family: Meliaceae, 'Dogon yaro' in Hausa -language) was tested against the larvae of a three-host tick, Amblyomma variegatum (family: Ixodidae or hard tick) parasitic to cattle commonly found in Nigeria. Undiluted neem oil (100% concentration) was found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 48 h. The toxicity was concentration and time dependent. PMID:10479769

  5. High frequency plant regeneration from mature seed of elite, recalcitrant Malaysian indica rice ( Oryza sativa L.) CV. MR 219.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P; Law, Y S; Ho, C-L; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2010-09-01

    An efficient in vitro plant regeneration system was established for elite, recalcitrant Malaysian indica rice, Oryza sativa L. CV. MR 219 using mature seeds as explant on Murashige and Skoog and Chu N6 media containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and kinetin either alone or in different combinations. L-proline, casein hydrolysate and L-glutamine were added to callus induction media for enhancement of embryogenic callus induction. The highest frequency of friable callus induction (84%) was observed in N6 medium containing 2.5 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 0.2 mg l(-1) kinetin, 2.5 mg l(-1) L-proline, 300 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate, 20 mg l(-1) L-glutamine and 30 g l(-1) sucrose under culture in continuous lighting conditions. The maximum regeneration frequency (71%) was observed, when 30-day-old N6 friable calli were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg l(-1) 6-benzyl aminopurine, 1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid, 2.5 mg l(-1) L-proline, 300 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate and 3% maltose. Developed shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose and were successfully transplanted to soil with 95% survival. This protocol may be used for other recalcitrant indica rice genotypes and to transfer desirable genes in to Malaysian indica rice cultivar MR219 for crop improvement. PMID:20724277

  6. Abundant class III acidic chitinase homologue in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed serves as the major storage protein.

    PubMed

    Rao, Devavratha H; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2008-03-26

    The phyla Leguminosae contains protease inhibitors, lectins, chitinases, and glycohydrolases as major defense proteins in their seeds. Electrophoretic analysis of the seed proteins of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.), an agri-waste material, indicated the unusual presence of two major proteins comparable to overexpression of recombinant proteins. These proteins were identified by amino-terminal analysis to be (1) Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and (2) class III endochitinase (34000 Da). These two proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by a single-step chitin bead affinity chromatography and characterized. The Kunitz inhibitor was specific toward inhibiting trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1:1. The 33000 +/- 1000 Da protein, accounting for >50% of the total seed protein, is an acidic glycoprotein exhibiting a very low endotype hydrolytic activity toward chitin derivatives. SDS-PAGE followed by densitometry of tamarind seed germination indicates the disappearance of the chitinase with the concomitant appearance of a cysteine endopeptidase. On the basis of its abundance, accumulation without any pathogenesis-related stimulus, temporal regulation, amino acid composition, and very low enzyme activity, this 34000 Da protein designated "tamarinin" physiologically serves as the major storage protein. PMID:18298067

  7. Nutritional Composition, in vitro Antioxidant Activity and Artemia salina L. Lethality of Pulp and Seed of Tamarindus indica L. Extracts.

    PubMed

    Khairunnuur, F A; Zulkhairi, A; Azrina, A; Moklas, Ma M; Khairullizam, S; Zamree, M S; Shahidan, M A

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and medium lethal concentration (LC50 value) of Tamarindus indica L. pulp and seed extracts in vitro. The extraction was set at 40◦C, 60◦C and 100◦C for 12 hours, 6 hours and 15 minutes respectively to determine the optimum extraction parameter whereas the anti-oxidant activity of the extracts was measured using iron (III) reduction (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts was estimated as gallic acid equivalent by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Toxicity potential of the extract was assessed in vitro by Artemia salina lethality test both in seed and pulp samples. The results showed that tamarind seed contained a higher percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy (15%, 82%, 95% and 33.13% respectively) than the pulp. On the other hand, the pulp demonstrated a high moisture (51.1%) and ash (34.84%) content than the seed. For the mineral analysis, tamarind seed contained higher Ca and C (1.0% and 50.73% respectively) than the pulp (0.27% and 40.40% respectively). No heavy metals were detected in both samples. Seed extracted at 60◦C/6 hours and 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest TPC value and were significantly different (p<0.05) than the seed extracted at 40◦C/12 hours. Anti-oxidant activity is positively correlated to the TPC value of the extracts (R=0.991). The pulp and seed extracted at 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest FRAP value among its groups (216.17 ± 14.06 μmol (Fe)/g and 659.74 ± 16.40 μmol (Fe)/g respectively). This study indicates that tamarind pulp and seed extracts possess beneficial antioxidant properties and the optimum extraction parameter is 100◦C for 15 minutes. In Artemia salina lethality test, tamarind pulp caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC50 in the range of 26-28 μL/mL. Tamarind seed were not toxic to Artemia salina since the LC50 of the extracts was higher than 1000 μL/mL. PMID:22691806

  8. Mature seed-derived callus of the model indica rice variety Kasalath is highly competent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2010-12-01

    We previously established an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using primary calli derived from mature seeds of the model japonica rice variety Nipponbare. We expected that the shortened tissue culture period would reduce callus browning--a common problem with the indica transformation system during prolonged tissue culture in the undifferentiated state. In this study, we successfully applied our efficient transformation system to Kasalath--a model variety of indica rice. The Luc reporter system is sensitive enough to allow quantitative analysis of the competency of rice callus for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We unexpectedly discovered that primary callus of Kasalath exhibits a remarkably high competency for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation compared to Nipponbare. Southern blot analysis and Luc luminescence showed that independent transformation events in primary callus of Kasalath occurred successfully at ca. tenfold higher frequency than in Nipponbare, and single copy T-DNA integration was observed in ~40% of these events. We also compared the competency of secondary callus of Nipponbare and Kasalath and again found superior competency in Kasalath, although the identification and subsequent observation of independent transformation events in secondary callus is difficult due to the vigorous growth of both transformed and non-transformed cells. An efficient transformation system in Kasalath could facilitate the identification of QTL genes, since many QTL genes are analyzed in a Nipponbare × Kasalath genetic background. The higher transformation competency of Kasalath could be a useful trait in the establishment of highly efficient systems involving new transformation technologies such as gene targeting. PMID:20853107

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-07-01

    A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 A. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:19574654

  10. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rajkumar; Das, Uttam Kumar; Ghosh, Debidas

    2005-07-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were divided into mild diabetic (MD) and severe diabetic (SD) on the basis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels. Diabetes was confirmed here by intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT), biochemical assay of glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle, glucose-6-phosphatase activity in liver, and serum insulin levels. Hyperlipidemia developed in these experimental diabetic rats was assessed by quantification of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and triglyceride (TG) in serum. Aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica was given to MD and SD rats at the dose of 80 mg and 120 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight/d respectively for 14 d. Significant attenuation of hyperglycemia was indicated by measuring FBG, glycogen level and glucose-6-phosphatase activity along with monitoring of intravenous GTT and serum insulin level. Similarly, correction of hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats after this extract supplementation was confirmed by significant reduction in the levels of above-mentioned hyperlipidemic indicators. Intravenous GTT was performed that highlights the antidiabetic action of this extract is not due to its effect on the intestinal rate of glucose absorption but may be due to modulation of intracellular glucose utilization in target organs. This study focus the efficacy of this extract for the management of experimental diabetes in rat model which may shed some light on the scientific basis of ancient herbal therapy in this line using this seed. PMID:15997092

  11. Characterization and storage stability of the extract of Thai mango (Mangifera indica Linn. Cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernels.

    PubMed

    Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    Qualitative analysis of hydrolysable extract from mango (Mangifera indica Linn. cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel was performed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). The main phenolic compound was identified as methyl gallate by comparing their retention time, UV-vis absorption spectra and mass spectra with a reference standard. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that the extract contained total phenolics at a concentration of 194.1 mg GAE/g dry weight of mango seed kernel (MSK), of which 85.7% was identified as methyl gallate. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the extract and the main compound were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays, by the ferric thiocyanate method and by an assay of metal chelating activity. Tyrosinase inhibition was also investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content of MSK extract stored in a plastic (polyethylene) PE bag decreased during storage at freezing (-20 °C), refrigerated (7 °C) and room (28-32 °C) temperature for 182 days. The loss of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content increased at higher storage temperatures for more than 182 days. PMID:25114335

  12. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro, Joycellane Alline; Serquiz, Alexandre Coellho; dos Santos Silva, Priscila Fabíola; Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; Sampaio, Tarcísio Bruno Montenegro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Machado, Richele Janaina Araújo; Maciel, Bruna Leal Lima; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; dos Santos, Elizeu Antunes; de Araújo Morais, Ana Heloneida

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30–60%) following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated. PMID:25789523

  13. Effect of neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and leaves extract on some plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Moslem, M A; El-Kholie, E M

    2009-07-15

    In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi. PMID:19947185

  14. Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Mohammd Reza; Harati, Mehdi; Shahraki, Ahamd Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action. PMID:21713743

  15. Purification, some properties of a D-galactose-binding leaf lectin from Erythrina indica and further characterization of seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Konozy, Emadeldin H E; Mulay, Ranjana; Faca, Vitor; Ward, Richard John; Greene, Lewis Joel; Roque-Barriera, Maria Cristina; Sabharwal, Sushma; Bhide, Shobhana V

    2002-10-01

    Lectin from a leaf of Erythrina indica was isolated by affinity chromatography on Lactamyl-Seralose 4B. Lectin gave a single band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In SDS-gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions Erythrina indica leaf lectin (EiLL) split into two bands with subunit molecular weights of 30 and 33 kDa, whereas 58 kDa was obtained for the intact lectin by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. EiLL agglutinated all human RBC types, with a slight preference for the O blood group. Lectin was found to be a glycoprotein with a neutral sugar content of 9.5%. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin was directed towards D-galactose and its derivatives with pronounced preference for lactose. EiLL had pH optima at pH 7.0; above and below this pH lectin lost sugar-binding capability rapidly. Lectin showed broad temperature optima from 25 to 50 degrees C; however, at 55 degrees C EiLL lost more than 90% of its activity and at 60 degrees C it was totally inactivated. The pI of EiLL was found to be 7.6. The amino acid analysis of EiLL indicated that the lectin was rich in acidic as well as hydrophobic amino acids and totally lacked cysteine and methionine. The N-terminal amino acids were Val-Glu-Thr-IIe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Glu-Phe-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asn-Asp-X-Leu-Thr-Gln-Glu-Gly-Ala-Ala-Leu-. Chemical modification studies of both EiLL and Erythrina indica seed lectin (EiSL) with phenylglyoxal, DEP and DTNB revealed an absence of arginine, histidine and cysteine, respectively, in or near the ligand-binding site of both lectins. Modification of tyrosine with NAI led to partial inactivation of EiLL and EiSL; however, total inactivation was observed upon NBS-modification of two tryptophan residues in EiSL. Despite the apparent importance of these tryptophan residues for lectin activity they did not seem to have a direct role in binding haptenic sugar as D-galactose did not protect lectin from inactivation by NBS. PMID:12504284

  16. A serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from Tamarindus indica seeds and its effects on the release of human neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Fook, J M S L L; Macedo, L L P; Moura, G E D D; Teixeira, F M; Oliveira, A S; Queiroz, A F S; Sales, M P

    2005-05-01

    Proteinaceous inhibitors with high inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) were found in seeds of the Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica). A serine proteinase inhibitor denoted PG50 was purified using ammonium sulphate and acetone precipitation followed by Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatographies. Inhibitor PG50 showed a Mr of 14.9 K on Sephadex G-50 calibrated column and a Mr of 11.6 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PG50 had selective activity while cysteine proteinases (papain and bromelain) and serine proteinases (porcine pancreatic elastase and bovine chymotrypsin) were not inhibited, it was strongly effective against serine proteinases such as bovine trypsin and isolated human neutrophil elastase. The IC50 value was determined to be 55.96 microg.mL-1. PG50 showed neither cytotoxic nor haemolytic activity on human blood cells. After pre-incubation of PG50 with cytochalasin B, the exocytosis of elastase was initiated using PAF and fMLP. PG50 exhibited different inhibition on elastase release by PAF, at 44.6% and on release by fMLP, at 28.4%. These results showed that PG50 preferentially affected elastase release by PAF stimuli and this may indicate selective inhibition on PAF receptors. PMID:15820500

  17. Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2011-12-01

    Biosorption of Cu(II) by Tamarindus indica seed powder (TSP) was investigated as a function of temperature in a batch system. The Cu(II) biosorption potential of TSP increased with increasing temperature. The rate of the biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics while the sorption equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum monolayer Cu(II) biosorption capacity increased from 82.97 mg g(-1) at 303 K to 133.24 mg g(-1) at 333 K. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. Isosteric heat of sorption, determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation increased with increase in surface loading showing its strong dependence on surface coverage. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of FTIR analysis of unloaded and Cu(II)-loaded TSP revealed that -NH(2), -OH, -C=O and C-O functional groups on the biosorbent surface were involved in the biosorption process. The present study suggests that TSP can be used as a potential, alternative, low-cost biosorbent for removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous media. PMID:21872453

  18. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively. PMID:20502579

  19. Effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) leaf on oocyte maturation, oviposition, reproductive potentials and embryonic development of a freshwater fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anirban; Manna, Subha; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2014-12-01

    In present study, a microcosm experiment is carried out to investigate the efficacy of 120 and 250-ppm crude aqueous extract of Azadirachta leaf on oocyte maturation, oviposition, embryonic development and hatching of the eggs of a fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis. Relative abundance of different maturing oocyte stages in the ovary of the parasite from different age groups was enumerated, and marked variations were obtained. Significant depletion in the abundance of pre-vitollogenic, vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic oocytes was recorded, which indicates impairment in maturation. Chromatin condensation of the oocytes of treated parasite indicates apoptosis of oogenic cells. Strong oviposition deterrence was evident by the elevated oviposition deterrence index of 0.18 and 0.52 at respective toxin levels. The treated parasites invested less number of eggs per oviposition, and hatching percentage of the eggs reduced markedly. In vitro treatment of eggs within 70 min of incubation exhibited coagulation of yolk material and subsequent reduction in hatching percentage. However, treatment applied after this critical period, hatching was not significantly altered. In vitro treatment of eggs at 80 min of incubation resulted in normal development. It signifies that azadirachtin affects the early developmental events but not the later. Presumably, azadirachtin either affects early gene expression of the embryo or antagonizes any of the substances of the zygote required for sustaining early developmental process. The result of the present experiment suggests that azadirachtin could be a promising agent to control argulosis through inhibition of the reproductive maturity of the parasite as well as through interference of its embryonic development. PMID:25270235

  20. Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals. PMID:24597144

  1. Limonoids from Azadirachta excelsa.

    PubMed

    Cui, B; Chai, H; Constant, H L; Santisuk, T; Reutrakul, V; Beecher, C W; Farnsworth, N R; Cordell, G A; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1998-04-01

    Activity-directed fractionation of a stem extract of Azadirachta excelsa using KB (human oral epidermoid carcinoma) cells led to the isolation of four meliacin-type limonoids. Two of these constituents were novel, namely, 2,3-dihydronimbolide and 3-deoxymethylnimbidate, and these were purified along with the known compounds, nimbolide and 28-deoxonimbolide. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. Nimbolide and 28-deoxonimbolide were broadly cytotoxic when evaluated against a panel of human cancer cell lines, while the two novel compounds were inactive in this regard. The defection of nimbolide and 28-deoxonimbolide as cytotoxic constituents was facilitated by an electrospray LC/MS dereplication procedure. PMID:9611828

  2. Prediction of Desiccation Sensitivity in Seeds of Woody Species: A Probabilistic Model Based on Two Seed Traits and 104 Species

    PubMed Central

    DAWS, M. I.; GARWOOD, N. C.; PRITCHARD, H. W.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Seed desiccation sensitivity limits the ex situ conservation of up to 47 % of plant species, dependent on habitat. Whilst desirable, empirically determining desiccation tolerance levels in seeds of all species is unrealistic. A probabilistic model for the rapid identification of woody species at high risk of displaying seed desiccation sensitivity is presented. • Methods The model was developed using binary logistic regression on seed trait data [seed mass, moisture content, seed coat ratio (SCR) and rainfall in the month of seed dispersal] for 104 species from 37 families from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Panamá. • Key Results For the Panamanian species, only seed mass and SCR were significantly related to the response to desiccation, with the desiccation-sensitive seeds being large and having a relatively low SCR (i.e. thin ‘seed’ coats). Application of this model to a further 38 species, of known seed storage behaviour, from two additional continents and differing vegetation types (dryland Africa and temperate Europe) correctly predicted the response to desiccation in all cases, and resolved conflicting published data for two species (Acer pseudoplatanus and Azadirachta indica). • Conclusions This model may have application as a decision-making tool in the handling of species of unknown seed storage behaviour in species from three disparate habitats. PMID:16464874

  3. Detection of DNA polymerase λ activity during seed germination and enhancement after salinity stress and dehydration in the plumules of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Sihi, Sayantani; Bakshi, Sankar; Sengupta, Dibyendu Narayan

    2015-02-01

    DNA polymerase λ (DNA pol λ) is the only reported X-family DNA polymerases in plants and has been shown to play a significant role in dry quiescent seeds, growth, development and nuclear DNA repair. cDNA for DNA pol λ has been reported in Arabidopsis and japonica rice cultivar and has been characterized from E. coli expressed protein, but very little is known about its activity at protein level in plants. The enzymatic activity of DNA pol λ was studied in dry, imbibed and during different germination stages of indica rice IR-8 (salt sensitive) by in-gel activity assay to determine its physiological role in important stages of growth and development. The upstream sequence was also analyzed using plantCARE database and was found to contain several cis-acting elements, including light responsive elements, dehydration responsive elements, Myb binding sites, etc. Hence, 4-day-old germinating seedlings of IR29, a salt-sensitive, but high yielding indica rice cultivar and Nonabokra, a salt-tolerant, but low yielding cultivar were treated with water (control) or 250 mM NaCl or 20% polyethyleneglycol-6000 for 4 and 8 h. The protein was analyzed by in vitro DNA pol λ activity assay, in-gel activity assay and Western blot analysis. DNA pol λ was not detected in dry seeds, but enhanced after imbibition and detectable from low level to high level during subsequent germination steps. Both salinity and dehydration stress led to the enhancement of the activity and protein level of DNA pol λ, as compared to control tissues. This is the first evidence of the salinity or dehydration stress induced enhancement of DNA pol λ activity in the plumules of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. PMID:26040115

  4. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, O P; Chandra, Harish; Behl, H M

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB(1) was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of aflatoxin in both the oil and cake samples. Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B(1) were 220.66 and 201.57ppb in oil as compared to that in cake samples where it was 87.55 and 74.35ppb, respectively. Various individual and combined plant extracts were evaluated for their efficacy against growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in vitro. Combination of botanicals were found to be more effective in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin production than individual extracts. Results of the present study suggests that synergistic effect of plant extracts can be used for control of fungal growth and aflatoxin production. These natural plant products may successfully replace synthetic chemicals and provide an alternative method to protect mahua as well as other agricultural commodities of nutritional significance from toxigenic fungi such as A. flavus and aflatoxin production. PMID:19167450

  5. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27001282

  6. A stereological study of effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hamidreza, Hamidreza; Heidari, Zahra; Shahraki, Mohammadreza; Moudi, Bita

    2010-10-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn was used as a traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus in human and experimental animals. This study investigated effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds (AETIS) against STZ-induced damages in pancreatic islands by means of stereological methods. sixty matured normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 gr, were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Control, STZ-induced diabetic; by intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/Kg streptozotocin, Treated control group (TC); received AETIS at a dose of 200mg/kg/day, and AETIS treated diabetic groups (TD1-3); received respectively AETIS at the dose of 50, 100,and 200 mg/kg/day by gavage from one week after induction of diabetes by STZ. After 8 weeks of experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume weighted mean islets volume, mass of beta cells, islets, and pancreas and total number of islets were done. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume weighted mean islets volume, volume density islets/pancreas, volume density beta cells/islet, mass of islets and pancreas of treated diabetic groups (TD1-3) were significantly higher than untreated diabetic group (P<0.001), and in TD3 group these values were comparable to controls. Although total volume and mass of beta cells in TD1-3 were significantly higher than D group but they were significantly lower than control group (P>0.05). Total number of islets, pancreas wet weight and volume did not show any significant changes between control and experimental groups (P>0.05). Results suggested that AETIS partially restores pancreatic beta cells and repairs STZ-induced damages in rats. PMID:20884458

  7. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C). PMID:22754699

  8. Bio-potency of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H. armigera.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10 µg/ml and 1.68 µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21 kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H. armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H. armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H. armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H. armigera. PMID:25454525

  9. Antitumor and immunopotentiating activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica: an in vivo study in mice.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S R; Joseph, Manu M; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T T

    2012-01-01

    Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC(50) of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14 μg/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4(+) T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22593679

  10. Antitumor and Immunopotentiating Activity of Polysaccharide PST001 Isolated from the Seed Kernel of Tamarindus indica: An In Vivo Study in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, S. R.; Joseph, Manu M.; Varghese, Sheeja; Balaram, Prabha; Sreelekha, T. T.

    2012-01-01

    Antitumor activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica was evaluated using different cancer cell lines. Human cancer cell lines A549, KB, and MCF-7 and murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC were treated with PST001 and cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out for toxicity, tumor reduction and immunomodulation. The respective IC50 of PST001 in A549, KB, and DLA was at 80.72, 190.99, and 91.14 μg/mL. Significant tumor reduction was obtained in both DLA and EAC tumors on treatment with PST001 which was more prominent when PST001 was administered with CTX/5-fluorouracil. Increase in total WBC, CD4+ T-cell population, and bone marrow cellularity suggested strong immunomodulatory activity for this compound. No significant abnormality was observed in toxicity studies. Thus the results of the present study suggest that PST001 has immunomodulatory and tumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent and immunomodulator either as a sole agent or as an adjuvant to other chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22593679

  11. Negative effects of a nonhost proteinase inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica seeds on developmental physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K

    2014-01-01

    An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a K i value of 4.1 × 10(-10) M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

  12. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K.

    2014-01-01

    An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1 × 10−10 M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

  13. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

  14. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    PubMed

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products. PMID:27386100

  15. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention. PMID:26059174

  16. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S.; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M.; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention. PMID:26059174

  17. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    PubMed

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) breed effect on body weight and gain, shank length, thigh length, body width and body length. The growth traits of Anak breed were found to be superior to NHLE chickens. Within treatments, chicks on T1, T2 and T3, grew heavier than those on T4 and T5. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and haematological indices (RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC count) were not significant (P > 0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens. PMID:25939914

  18. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher ( P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower ( P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers.

  19. Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers.

    PubMed

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from the tamarind seed coat (PETSC) on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, red blood cell parameters and bilirubin in heat-stressed broilers. One hundred forty-seven broilers, 18-days old were divided into two groups. In group 1, broilers were maintained at an environmental temperature of 26 ± 2 °C throughout the experimental period. In group 2, the broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C (cyclic temperature: 26 ± 2 °C; -38 ± 2 °C; and -26 ± 2 °C, and broilers were maintained at 38 ± 2 °C for 6 h/ day) and received PETSC at a concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/kg in their diet ad libitum. Parameters were investigated on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period. Results showed that GPx activity of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC in their diet was lower (P < 0.05) than that in broilers fed the other concentrations. The mean total red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg PETSC was higher (P < 0.05) than those in broilers in group 1 and those fed the other concentrations. The mean bilirubin level in the excreta of heat-stressed broilers that received 100 mg/kg of PETSC was lower (P < 0.05) than that in broilers that received 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg of PETSC. This showed that PETSC could reduce GPx activity and bilirubin in feces, and increase red blood cell parameters in heat-stressed broilers. PMID:22434485

  20. Direct, rapid and sustainable vermicomposting of the leaf litter of neem (Azadirachta indica).

    PubMed

    Nayeem-Shah, M; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed concept of high rate vermicomposting was successfully used to enable direct vermicomoposting of neem leaves-without any pre-composting or cow dung supplementation as previously reported processes had necessitated. All the three epigeic species of earthworms that were explored, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, provided efficient vermicast production with no mortality, persistent gain in body mass and good fecundity over the 16 months long period of reactor operation. In this period, all reactors were pulse-fed at the solid retention time of 20 days and were operated in the pseudo discretized continuous operation protocol developed earlier by the authors. With this, it was possible to almost completely dampen the influence of natural biodegradation of the feed or grazing by the earthworm born in the vermireactors. The findings, thus, conclusively prove that, all-through, the brisk vermicomposting was caused almost entirely by the action of the 'parent' earthworms on fresh feed. PMID:25344437

  1. Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

  2. The Methanol Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Leaf Protects Mice Against Lethal Endotoxemia and Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woong-Hyun; Song, Hyun-Ok; Jin, Chun Mei; Hur, Jong Moon; Lee, Hwa Sung; Jin, Han Yong; Kim, Sung Yeon; Park, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the inhibitory effect of neem leaf extract (NLE) on lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production was examined both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro study revealed that NLE treatment (100 μg/ml) inhibits LPS (100 ng/ml)-induced NO production by 96% and TNF-α production by 32%. The reduction in NO production is probably conferred by the complete suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Interestingly, in vivo NLE significantly improved the survival rate of mice in an experimental sepsis model. Administration of NLE (100 mg/kg) 24 h before LPS treatment (20 mg/kg) improved the survival rate of mice by 60%. The inhibition of plasma NO and TNF-α production by NLE is likely to account for the improved survival of mice. Our results suggest that NLE may present a promising avenue in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24116281

  3. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  4. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors. PMID:23993219

  5. Coating of Prilled Urea with Neem (Azadirachta Indica Juss) Oil for Efficient Nitrogen Use in Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, R.; Singh, S.; Saxena, V. S.; Devkumar, C.

    A field study made with rice at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, showed that coating urea with neem oil, neem cake or neem oil microemulsion improved rice growth and resulted in more grain and straw than did commercial prilled urea.

  6. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys. PMID:23444337

  7. Influence of physicochemical parameters of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oils on nitrification inhibition in soil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Sharma, Vandana; Kakkar, Garima; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P

    2007-02-21

    The technology for the production of neem oil coated urea (NOCU) developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute is in the pipeline for adaption by several Indian fertilizer industries. Use of nitrification inhibitors is one of the methods of improving the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture. However, standard specifications for the neem oil as a raw material of NOCU are desired. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate 25 samples of neem oils comprising 11 samples of expeller grade (EG) oils, 8 samples of cold-pressed (CP) oils, 3 samples of solvent-extracted oils, and 2 commercial formulations. NOCU was prepared using these oils (5000 ppm of urea-N). The soils fertilized with NOCUs (200 ppm of urea-N) were incubated at 27 degrees C and 50% water-holding capacity for a period of 15 days. Nitrapyrin (0.5% of N) coated urea served as the reference and prilled urea as control. Samples were analyzed for NH4+-N, NO2--N, and NO3--N using standard methods. The percent nitrification inhibition (NI) was calculated, and the results revealed that all of the neem oils caused NI ranging from 4.0 to 30.9%. Two samples of EG oils and two commercial formulations were found to be the best, causing 27.0-30.9% NI. Iodine, acid, and saponification values and meliacin content of all of the oils were analyzed and correlated with NI. The results revealed the direct influence of meliacin content of the neem oils on NI, which, however, was found to be negatively correlated with saponification and iodine values. There is, therefore, a need to introduce new Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) specifications for neem oils as raw materials of NOCU. PMID:17263551

  8. Docynia indica, Docynia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Docynia (Docynia indica [Well.] Decne, Rosaceae) is native to southeast Asia, from Vietnam through India and north into central China. While generally referred to as Docynia i...

  9. Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica) resistance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Luthra, O P; Chawla, V; Yadav, N R; Kumar, R; Khar, A

    2003-03-01

    Embryos excised from seeds of six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2) of a cross WH 283 WH 533 were cultured on modified MS medium already inoculated with secondary sporidia of Neovossia indica. Significant variations for callusing response (CR) (54 55-75 55%) were observed among generations but the presence or absence of N. indicia did not affect callusing response. A clear inhibition zone (IZ) was formed around each embryo showing callusing. The diameter of IZ varied significantly among generations and was maximum in the resistant genotype, WH 283 (3 60 cm). Fresh weight and dry weight of calli, initiated from embryo cultured and inoculated with N. indica, varied significantly among generations. Coefficient of infection as well as percentage of infection reflected the overdominance of susceptibility. Generation mean analysis showed that the three parameter model was adequate for diameter of IZ only. Six-parameter model showed that additive (in presence of N. indica), additive and additive dominance (in absence of N. indica) effects were also significant. Complementary type of epistasis for fresh weight of calli and dominance, and dominance dominance effects for dry weight of calli were observed in the presence of N. indica. Magnitude of additive effects was higher for diameter of IZ in three parameter model. Therefore, selection might assist in improving this trait and thus indirectly help in attaining the resistance towards N. indica. PMID:12711812

  10. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    PubMed

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. PMID:26852009

  11. Effects of Azardirachta indica on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Cytokines in Diabetic Deep Wound.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Manish Kumar; Gangwar, Mayank; Singh, Surya Kumar; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    A chronic, unhealed diabetic wound is one of the severe complications of diabetes mellitus. Azadirachta indica has been reported to have antidiabetic and antiapoptotic properties. The present work incorporates the healing potential of 50 % ethanol A. indica leaves extract against deep surgical wounds in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic rats. A. indica leaves extract (500 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for ten days. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides as well as body weight, food, and water intake, and tissue antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione), free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide), myeloperoxidase, total collagens (hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid and hexosamine), protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cytokines (tumor necrotic factor-α and interleukin-1β) were estimated. Histology was done for connective tissue formation and inflammatory and healing in deep granulation tissue after A. indica leaves extract treatment. Diabetic rats showed an increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels, food and water intake, and granular tissue free radicals, myeloperoxidase, and cytokines, but a decrease in body weight, total collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. A. indica leaves extract reversed the increased serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, food and water intake, and tissue free radicals, myeloperoxidase and, cytokines, but increased body weight, tissue antioxidants, total collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor contents. The results thus indicated an improvement in wound healing by A. indica leaves extract in diabetic rats through enhanced angiogenesis mediated through the inhibition of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and down- and upregulation of inflammatory mediators and growth factor expression. PMID:26069952

  12. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet. PMID:26084100

  13. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  14. Rice, indica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Indica varieties, which are generally recalcitrant to tissue culture and transformation, occupy 80 % of rice cultivation area in the world. Therefore, transformation method for indica rice must be improved greatly so that global rice production would take full advantage of cutting-edge biotechnology. An efficient protocol for indica transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is hereby described. Immature embryos collected from plants in a greenhouse are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens after pretreatment with heat and centrifuging. The protocol was successfully tested in many elite indica cultivars such as IR8, IR24, IR58025B, IR64, IR72, Suweon 258, and Nanjing 11, yielding between 5 and 15 of independent transgenic plants per immature embryo. The use of immature embryos is recommended because gene transfer to them could be much more efficient and much less genotype dependent than gene transfer to callus. PMID:25300838

  15. Field evaluation of potential weed-suppressive traits in an indica x tropical japonica mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The indica rice accession, PI 312777 (a.k.a. WC 4644), is highly productive and can suppress barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in reduced-input systems, but the genetic control of this weed suppression is unknown. A set of 330 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed using single seed desc...

  16. The neem [Azadirachta indica a. juss (meliaceae)] oil reduction in the in vitro production of zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Geraldo, Márcia Regina Ferreira; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; Kemmelmeier, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Zearalenone, a mycotoxin produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium, including F. graminearum, triggers reproduction disorders in certain animals and hyperestrogen syndromes in humans. Current research investigates three concentrations of neem oil extract (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5%) in reducing the production of zearalenone. Neem oil extract decreased zearalenone amount in the three concentrations but highest inhibition (59.05%) occurred at 0.1%. PMID:24031683

  17. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  18. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  19. [Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract].

    PubMed

    Soares, Nilce M; Tucci, Edna C; Guastalli, Elizabeth A L; Yajima, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2% is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite. PMID:19265573

  20. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  1. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  2. Growth characteristics of a weed-suppressive indica x non-suppressive tropical japonica rice mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The indica rice cultivar, PI 312777, can be highly productive as well as suppressive to C4 grass species such as barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population was developed using single seed descent from a cross between ‘Katy’ (non-weed-suppressive) and ...

  3. Effect of early planting on weed suppression activity of indica and commercial U.S. rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indica and commercial cultivars can suppress barnyardgrass when drill-seeded into ‘warm’ soils and grown under flood-irrigation in Arkansas. Because early planting is popular with growers and considered to improve productivity and flexibility, weed suppression tests were planted in the field on Apr...

  4. Triterpenoid saponins from Fagonia indica.

    PubMed

    Shaker, K H; Bernhardt, M; Elgamal, M H; Seifert, K

    1999-08-01

    Two new triterpenoid saponins, 3-O-{[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1- ->3)]- alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl}-ursolic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (indicasaponin A), 3-O-{[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1- ->3)]- alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl}-oleanolic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (indicasaponin B) and two known triterpenoid saponins, 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]-ur solic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester, 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]-olean olic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester have been isolated from Fagonia indica. The structures were determined primarily by NMR spectroscopy. The assignment of NMR signals was performed by means of 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, ROESY, TOCSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. PMID:10444859

  5. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica. PMID:26058149

  6. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness. PMID:27072926

  7. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness. PMID:27072926

  8. Interaction of Piriformospora indica with Azotobacter chroococcum

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Bhuyan, Soubhagya; Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar Mishra, Deepak; Prasad, Ramraj; Kumari, Abha; Chandra Upadhyaya, Kailash; Varma, Ajit; Kumar Yadava, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in rhizosphere interact with each other and form a basis of a cumulative impact on plant growth. Rhizospheric microorganisms like Piriformospora indica and Azotobacter chroococcum are well known for their beneficial interaction with plants. These features make P. indica /A. chroococcum co-inoculation of crops most promising with respect to sustainable agriculture and to understanding the transitions in the evolution of rhizospheric microbiome. Here, we investigated interactions of P. indica with A. chroococcum in culture. Out of five Azotobacter strains tested, WR5 exhibited growth-promoting while strain M4 exerted growth-inhibitory effect on the fungus in axenic culture. Electron microscopy of co-culture indicated an intimate association of the bacterium with the fungus. 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry of P. indica cellular proteins grown with or without WR5 and M4 showed differential expression of many metabolic proteins like enolase-I, ureaseD, the GTP binding protein YPT1 and the transmembrane protein RTM1. Fungal growth as influenced by bacterial crude metabolites was also monitored. Taken together, the results conform to a model where WR5 and M4 influence the overall growth and physiology of P. indica which may have a bearing on its symbiotic relationship with plants. PMID:26350628

  9. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    PubMed

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed. PMID:23167758

  10. Complexity of indica-japonica varietal differentiation in Bangladesh rice landraces revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mumu; Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Fu, Yongcai; Sun, Chuanqing; Cai, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the genetic diversity and indica-japonica differentiation in Bangladesh rice varieties, a total of 151 accessions of rice varieties mostly Bangladesh traditional varieties including Aus, Boro, broadcast Aman, transplant Aman and Rayada varietal groups were genotyped using 47 rice nuclear SSRs. As a result, three distinct groups were detected by cluster analysis, corresponding to indica, Aus and japonica rice. Among deepwater rice varieties analyzed some having particular morphological features that mainly corresponded to the japonica varietal group. Some small seeded and aromatic varieties from Bangladesh also corresponded to the japonica varietal group. This research for the first time establishes that the japonica varietal group is a prominent component of traditional varieties in Bangladesh, particularly in deepwater areas. PMID:23853518

  11. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  12. Tamarindus indica L. and Moringa oleifera M. extract administration ameliorates fluoride toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, R; Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Chandra, Vikas

    2009-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of T. indica fruit pulp (100 mg/kg body weight) and M. oleifera seeds (50 mg/kg body wight) orally once daily for 90 days lowered plasma fluoride concentrations in rabbits receiving fluorinated drinking water (200 mg NaF/ Liter water). Cortical indices and metaphysial width in animals receiving extracts also revealed beneficial effects of plant extracts. Changes in plasma biochemistry suggested less hepatic and renal damages in animals receiving plant extracts along with fluorinated water in comparison to that receiving fluorinated water alone. Preliminary results revealed these plant extracts have some potential to mitigate fluoride toxicity. PMID:20099463

  13. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential

    PubMed Central

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word “Tamar-I-hind,” meaning date of India. Its name “Amlika” in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood. PMID:22096321

  14. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.

    PubMed

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood. PMID:22096321

  15. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  16. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    PubMed

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition. PMID:17147745

  17. The effect of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica Linn. on the growth of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Nandakumar, Subhadra; Rao, Usha Anand

    2005-12-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei) causes melioidosis, a life-threatening infection common among paddy cultivators in Southeast Asian countries. No plant materials have been investigated for its activity against B. pseudomallei. Therefore, a preliminary study was carried out using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods to evaluate the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of five Indian medicinal plants documented to have been used for several ailments in the ancient Indian scriptures. The leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, the rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and the seeds of Vigna radiata were prepared using methanol as solvent. The disc diffusion and MIC methods were used to assess the anti-B. pseudomallei activity of the plants tested. Only methanol leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity starting from disc concentrations of 150 mug by the disc diffusion method. The other plants failed to show any zone of inhibition. MIC assay revealed that the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for B. pseudomallei were 125 mug/ml. Our preliminary finding showed that methanolic extracts of Tamarindus indica has anti-B. pseudomallei inhibitory potentials under in vitro conditions. Extensive animal studies may be required before investigating the role of Tamarindus indica for treating melioidosis. PMID:16518004

  18. Seed Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  19. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chhavi; Vas, Andrea J.; Goala, Payal; Gheewala, Taher M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE) alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1). ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2) in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers. PMID:24624140

  20. Ethanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract induces apoptosis in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model by modulation of Bcl-2, Bim, caspase 8 and caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Nagini, S

    2005-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis is one of the most active strategies in cancer chemoprevention and the ability of medicinal plants in this regard has attracted major research interest. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptosis inducing capacity of an ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis using the apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl-2, Bim, caspase 8 and caspase 3 as markers. Topical application of DMBA to the hamster cheek pouch for 14 weeks resulted in well developed squamous cell carcinomas associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and decreased expression of Bim, caspase 8 and caspase 3. Administration of ENLE inhibited DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis, as revealed by the absence of neoplasms, with induction of Bim and caspases 8 and 3 and inhibition of Bcl-2 expression. Our results suggest that the chemopreventive effects of ENLE may be mediated by induction of apoptosis. PMID:16436003

  1. Effects of aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) and neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on hepatic and blood oxidant-antioxidant status during experimental gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arivazhagan, S; Velmurugan, B; Bhuvaneswari, V; Nagini, S

    2004-01-01

    The modifying effects of aqueous extracts of garlic and neem leaf during the pre-initiation and post-initiation phases of gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine were investigated in male Wistar rats. The extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of phase II biotransformation enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase that use reduced glutathione (GSH) as substrate were used to biomonitor the chemopreventive potential of these extracts. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the liver and blood of tumor-bearing animals was accompanied by significant decreases in the activities of GSH-dependent antioxidants in the pre-initiation as well as in the post-initiation phases. Our results suggest that the modulatory effects of garlic and neem leaf on hepatic and blood oxidant-antioxidant status may play a key role in preventing cancer development at extrahepatic sites. PMID:15383228

  2. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the replacement of the midgut epithelium in the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri during larval-pupal metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraeasaccharalis treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval period. Pupae obtained from treated larvae were used in the study at five days after the completion of cocoon spinning to investigate the effects of neem oil on the replacement of the midgut epithelium during the larval-pupal transition. We observed that the old larval epithelium was shed into the midgut lumen and transformed into the yellow body. Old cells from the yellow body were destroyed by apoptosis and autophagy and were not affected by neem oil. However, neem oil did affect the new pupal epithelium. Cells from treated pupae showed cellular injuries such as a loss of microvilli, cytoplasmic vacuolization, an increase of glycogen stores, deformation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilation of the perinuclear space. Additionally, the neem oil treatment resulted in the release of cytoplasmic protrusions, rupture of the plasma membrane and leakage of cellular debris into the midgut lumen, characteristics of cell death by necrosis. The results indicate that neem oil ingestion affects the replacement of midgut epithelium, causing cytotoxic effects that can alter the organism's physiology due to extensive cellular injuries. PMID:24560939

  3. Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunxia; Shi, Dongxia; Yin, Zhongqiong; Guo, Jianhong; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Lv, Cheng; Fan, Qiaojia; Liang, Xiaoxia; Shi, Fei; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    The petroleum ether extract of neem oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography was diluted at different concentrations with liquid paraffin. The acaricidal bioassay was conducted using a dipping method. The results indicated that the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (at the concentration of 500.0ml/l) was 70.9ml/l, 24h after treatment. At concentrations of 500.0, 250.0, 125.0, 62.5 and 31.2ml/l, the median lethal times (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract were 8.7, 8.8, 10.8, 11.5 and 13.1h, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the petroleum ether extract of neem oil separated into four fractions (F1-F4). Acaricidal activity of 68.3% and 100.0% in the F2 and F4 was confirmed. These results suggest that petroleum ether extracts of neem oil and its four fractions possess useful acaricidal activity in vitro. PMID:22349080

  4. The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Geng, Yi; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Shi, Fei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chang-Long; Tao, Cui; Zhang, Ya-Xue; Shi, Dong-Xia

    2010-05-11

    The preparation of neem oil microemulsion and its acaricidal activity in vitro was developed in this study. In these systems, the mixture of Tween-80 and the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) (4:1, by weight) was used as compound surfactant; the mixture of compound surfactant and hexyl alcohol (4:1, by weight) was used as emulsifier system; the mixture of neem oil, emulsifier system and water (1:3.5:5.5, by weight) was used as neem oil microemulsion. All the mixtures were stired in 800 rpm for 15 min at 40 degrees C. The acaricidal activity was measured by the speed of kill. The whole lethal time value of 10% neem oil microemulsion was 192.50 min against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. PMID:20304561

  5. Seed proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  6. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  7. The susceptibility of Tatera indica, Nesokia indica and Bandicota bengalensis to three anticoagulant rodenticides.

    PubMed

    Greaves, J H; Rehman, A B

    1977-02-01

    Three South-Asian rodent past species were tested for susceptibility to anticoagulant rodenticides. Wheat fluor containing 0-025% warfarin 0-0375% coumatetralyl or 0-005% difenacoum was fed to 260 Tatera indica, 140 Nesokia indica and 81 Bandicota bengalensis for 1-56 days. Tatera was about as susceptible to anticoagulants as Rattus has been reported to be. Nesokia and Bandicota were extremely variable: though the majority were highly susceptible, the slopes of the dose-mortality curves were close to zero. The difenacoum diet appeared to be more toxic than the warfarin diet to all three species, but less toxic than the coumatetralyl diet to Tatera and Nesokia. All of the anticoagulants were eventually lethal to all of the animals tested. PMID:264500

  8. The susceptibility of Tatera indica, Nesokia indica and Bandicota bengalensis to three anticoagulant rodenticides.

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, J. H.; Rehman, A. B.

    1977-01-01

    Three South-Asian rodent past species were tested for susceptibility to anticoagulant rodenticides. Wheat fluor containing 0-025% warfarin 0-0375% coumatetralyl or 0-005% difenacoum was fed to 260 Tatera indica, 140 Nesokia indica and 81 Bandicota bengalensis for 1-56 days. Tatera was about as susceptible to anticoagulants as Rattus has been reported to be. Nesokia and Bandicota were extremely variable: though the majority were highly susceptible, the slopes of the dose-mortality curves were close to zero. The difenacoum diet appeared to be more toxic than the warfarin diet to all three species, but less toxic than the coumatetralyl diet to Tatera and Nesokia. All of the anticoagulants were eventually lethal to all of the animals tested. PMID:264500

  9. Piriformospora indica: Potential and Significance in Plant Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Gill, Ritu; Trivedi, Dipesh K.; Anjum, Naser A.; Sharma, Krishna K.; Ansari, Mohammed W.; Ansari, Abid A.; Johri, Atul K.; Prasad, Ram; Pereira, Eduarda; Varma, Ajit; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its exceptional ability to efficiently promote plant growth, protection and stress tolerance, a mycorrhiza like endophytic Agaricomycetes fungus Piriformospora indica has received a great attention over the last few decades. P. indica is an axenically cultiviable fungus which exhibits its versatility for colonizing/hosting a broad range of plant species through directly manipulating plant hormone-signaling pathway during the course of mutualism. P. indica-root colonization leads to a better plant performance in all respect, including enhanced root proliferation by indole-3-acetic acid production which in turn results into better nutrient-acquisition and subsequently to improved crop growth and productivity. Additionally, P. indica can induce both local and systemic resistance to fungal and viral plant diseases through signal transduction. P. indica-mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. Therefore, P. indica can biotize micropropagated plantlets and also help these plants to overcome transplantation shock. Nevertheless, it can also be involved in a more complex symbiotic relationship, such as tripartite symbiosis and can enhance population dynamic of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In brief, P. indica can be utilized as a plant promoter, bio-fertilizer, bioprotector, bioregulator, and biotization agent. The outcome of the recent literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of mechanisms underlying P. indica-crop plant mutual relationship. Together, the discussion will be functional to comprehend the usefulness of crop plant-P. indica association in both achieving new insights into crop protection/improvement as well as in sustainable agriculture production. PMID:27047458

  10. Canna indica flower: New source of anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Vankar, Padma S

    2010-12-01

    In this study the red flowers of Canna indica (Cannaceae) were extracted by using sonicator and isolation of anthocyanins have been carried out. Four anthocyanin pigments have been isolated apart from quercetin and lycopene. They are Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside (1), Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside (2), Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3) and Cyanidin-O-β-galactopyranoside (4). These compounds were isolated by using HPLC and their structures were subsequently determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, i.e., (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, ESI-MS, FTIR, UV-Visible etc. The isolated compounds showed good antioxidant activity thus makes it suitable for use in food coloration and as a nutraceutical. Thus it is a promising pigment source for food applications. PMID:20926305

  11. Strategies to overcome oxygen transfer limitations during hairy root cultivation of Azadiracta indica for enhanced azadirachtin production.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok Kumar

    2012-07-01

    The vast untapped potential of hairy root cultures as a stable source of biologically active chemicals has focused the attention of scientific community toward its commercial exploitation. However, the major bottleneck remains its successful scale-up. Due to branching, the roots form an interlocked matrix that exhibits resistance to oxygen transfer. Thus, present work was undertaken to develop cultivation strategies like optimization of inlet gas composition (in terms of % (v/v) O(2) in air), air-flow rate and addition of oxygen vectors in the medium, to curb the oxygen transfer limitations during hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica for in vitro azadirachtin (a biopesticide) production. It was found that increasing the oxygen fraction in the inlet air (in the range, 20-100% (v/v) O(2) in air) increased the azadirachtin productivity by approximately threefold, to a maximum of 4.42 mg/L per day (at 100% (v/v) O(2) in air) with respect to 1.68 mg/L per day in control (air with no oxygen supplementation). Similarly, increasing the air-flow rate (in the range, 0.3-2 vvm) also increased the azadirachtin productivity to a maximum of 1.84 mg/L per day at 0.8 vvm of air-flow rate. On the contrary, addition of oxygen vectors (in the range, 1-4% (v/v); hydrogen peroxide, toluene, Tween 80, kerosene, silicone oil, and n-hexadecane), decreased the azadirachtin productivity with respect to control (1.76 mg/L per day). PMID:22246729

  12. Biosynthesis of Anti-Proliferative Gold Nanoparticles Using Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Isolated from Neem (A. indica) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Absar; Julius, Anju; Syed, Asad; Khan, Shadab; Kharat, Mahesh; Pai, Kalpana; Kadoo, Narendra; Gupta, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as Fusarium oxysporum. The aqueous precursor (HAuCl4) solution when reacted with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. These biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were then characterized by standard analytical techniques such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity of these nanoparticles was checked against three different cell types including breast cancer (ZR-75-1), Daudi (Human Burkitt's lymphoma cancer) and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), where it was found that our gold nanoparticles are anti-proliferative against cancer cells but completely safe toward normal cells. In addition to this, assessment of toxicity toward human RBC revealed less than 0.1 % hemolysis as compared to Triton X-100 suggesting safe nature of our biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cells. Also, our nanoparticles exhibited no anti-fungal (against Aspergillus niger) or anti-bacterial [against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis & Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria] activity thus suggesting their non-toxic, biocompatible nature. The present investigation opens up avenues for ecofriendly, biocompatible nanomaterials to be used in a wide variety of application such as drug delivery, therapeutics, theranostics and so on. PMID:26876519

  13. First Case Reports of Ignatzschineria (Schineria) indica Associated with Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Heather S.; Hicks, Adam B.; Yanoviak, Stephen P.; Southern, Paul; Dhakal, Bijaya K.; Ghimire, Giri R.; Couturier, Marc R.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of infection due to the Gram-negative rod Ignatzschineria (Schineria) indica involving bacteremia and the urinary tract. Two cases were clearly associated with maggot infestation, and the third could conceivably have had unrecognized maggot infestation of the urinary tract. We believe these cases to be the first I. indica infections reported in association with maggot infestation and myiasis. PMID:25297331

  14. Piriformospora indica confers cadmium tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Hui, Feiqiong; Liu, Jian; Gao, Qikang; Lou, Binggan

    2015-11-01

    Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to confirm the influence of P. indica on growth, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll, and cadmium (Cd) amounts in Nicotiana tabacum under Cd stress, hydroponics, pot and field trials were conducted. The results showed that P. indica can store Cd in plant roots and reduce leaf Cd content, reduce the concentration of MDA, and increase the proline and chlorophyll content and the activities of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase under hydroponic Cd stress. RT-PCR analysis showed that the relative expression level of genes Gsh2, TaPCS1, oas1, GPX, and Hsp70 in colonized plants was 4.3, 1.4, 2.9, 1.7, and 6.9 fold higher than in un-colonized plants respectively. Cd exposure significantly reduced un-colonized plants' agronomic traits compared to P. indica-colonized ones. Our results suggested that P. indica can sequester Cd in roots, so that much less cadmium was transported to leaves, and the increased concentrations of antioxidant enzymes, pigments and proline contents, as well as the higher expression of stress-related phytochelatin biosynthesis genes in P. indica-inoculated plants, may also serve to protect N. tabacum plants against oxidative damage, enhancing Cd tolerance. PMID:26574103

  15. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S M; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC(50) of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC(50): 22.42 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC(50): 55.65 mg/l) in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:11050667

  16. Ameliorative potential of Tamarindus indica on high fat diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair Ariyattu; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:24688399

  17. Ameliorative Potential of Tamarindus indica on High Fat Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Ariyattu Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:24688399

  18. Antifungal Quinoline Alkaloids from Waltheria indica.

    PubMed

    Cretton, Sylvian; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Azzollini, Antonio; Favre-Godal, Quentin; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Voinesco, Francine; Michellod, Emilie; Sanglard, Dominique; Gindro, Katia; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Cuendet, Muriel; Christen, Philippe

    2016-02-26

    Chemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Waltheria indica led to the isolation and characterization of five polyhydroxymethoxyflavonoids, namely, oxyanin A (1), vitexicarpin (3), chrysosplenol E (4), flindulatin (5), 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6), and six quinolone alkaloids, waltheriones M-Q (2, 7, 8, 10, 11) and 5(R)-vanessine (9). Among these, compounds 2, 7, 8, 10, and 11 have not yet been described in the literature. Their chemical structures were established by means of spectroscopic data interpretation including (1)H and (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY NMR experiments and UV, IR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of the compounds were established by ECD. The isolated constituents and 10 additional quinoline alkaloids previously isolated from the roots of the plant were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and 10 compounds (7, 9, 11-16, 18, 21) showed growth inhibitory activity on both planktonic cells and biofilms (MIC ≤ 32 μg/mL). Their spectrum of activity against other pathogenic Candida species and their cytotoxicity against human HeLa cells were also determined. In addition, the cytological effect of the antifungal isolated compounds on the ultrastructure of C. albicans was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:26848627

  19. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract.

    PubMed

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:25878974

  20. Larvicidal activity of Saraca indica, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea extracts against three mosquito vector species.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nisha; Anitha, M G; Bala, T S L; Sivakumar, S M; Narmadha, R; Kalyanasundaram, M

    2009-04-01

    Screening of natural products for mosquito larvicidal activity against three major mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles stephensi resulted in the identification of three potential plant extracts viz., Saraca indica/asoca, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea for mosquito larval control. In the case of S. indica/asoca, the petroleum ether extract of the leaves and the chloroform extract of the bark were effective against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus with respective LC(50) values 228.9 and 291.5 ppm. The LC(50) values of chloroform extract of N. arbor-tristis leaves were 303.2, 518.2, and 420.2 ppm against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The methanol and chloroform extracts of flowers of N. arbor-tristis showed larvicidal activity against larvae of A. stephensi with the respective LC(50) values of 244.4 and 747.7 ppm. Among the methanol extracts of C. ternatea leaves, roots, flowers, and seeds, the seed extract was effective against the larvae of all the three species with LC(50) values 65.2, 154.5, and 54.4 ppm, respectively, for A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Among the three plant species studied for mosquito larvicidal activity, C. ternatea was showing the most promising mosquito larvicidal activity. The phytochemical analysis of the promising methanolic extract of the seed extract was positive for carbohydrates, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and proteins. In conclusion, bioassay-guided fractionation of effective extracts may result in identification of a useful molecule for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:19039604

  1. Nonpigmented and Bacteriochlorophyll-Containing Bradyrhizobia Isolated from Aeschynomene indica

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, P.; Tully, R. E.; Keister, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The legume genus Aeschynomene is unusual, since many species develop stem nodules and the bradyrhizobia isolated from these nodules produce bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl). Evidence is presented that the bradyrhizobia of Aeschynomene indica have wide distribution throughout the world, since A. indica was nodulated when grown in 58 soils collected in 14 different countries. Only 38 of 79 isolates tested synthesized Bchl and carotenoids during heterotrophic growth. Nine isolates produced Bchl constitutively, and cultures were pigmented after growth in the dark. The other isolates required light for Bchl production. The DNA from seven pigmented and three nonpigmented bradyrhizobia hybridized with a DNA probe containing the genes for the photosynthetic apparatus of Rhodobacter capsulatus, but DNA from two other nonpigmented isolates did not hybridize with this probe. A relationship between pigmentation in culture and symbiotic phenotype was not evident, since bradyrhizobia of both Bchl phenotypes nodulated stems of A. indica and formed nitrogen-fixing symbioses. Several isolates, which were ineffective on A. indica, probably do belong to the proposed cross-inoculation group 3 (D. Alazard, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50:732-734, 1985), since they did not nodulate Aeschynomene americana or Macroptilium atropurpureum. Since it has been suggested that extant rhizobia arose from photosynthetic ancestors (J. I. Sprent, p. 45-54, in P. M. Gresshoff, L. E. Roth, G. Stacey, and W. E. Newton, ed., Nitrogen Fixation: Achievements and Objectives, 1990), we propose that the nonpigmented isolates may represent an extant lineage of an intermediate evolutionary stage. PMID:16534933

  2. Survival of Tilletia indica teliospores under European soil conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a 3-year EU-funded project developing a Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for Tilletia indica for Europe, teliospore survival studies were done outside under quarantine containment at three European sites (Norway, UK, and Italy). At each site, experiments were set up in three consecutive years (Ex...

  3. Estimated Longevity of Tilletia indica Teliospores in Field Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rate of decline of teliospore viability over a 7-year period was determined for teliospores of Tilletia indica, the causal agent of Karnal bunt of wheat, in field plots in Tucson, AZ. During the study, polyester mesh bags, each containing 3 g teliospore-infested soil, were received from Marylan...

  4. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  5. SURVIVAL OF TILLETIA INDICA TELIOSPORES IN ARIZONA FIELD SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two methods were used to test germinability during a 42-month period in which polyester mesh bags of Tilletia indica teliospore-infested soil were buried in irrigated and non-irrigated field plots in Tucson, Arizona. One method determined the total number of viable teliospores (TNVT) whether or not ...

  6. Screening of polysaccharides from tamarind, fenugreek and jackfruit seeds as pharmaceutical excipients.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:26007663

  7. Potential improvement in rice seedling establishment and weed suppression in reduced-input systems using osmotically pre-conditioned seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian indica rice cultivars have exhibited suppression potential against barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in drill-seeded, flood-irrigated production systems in the U.S. However, the degree of weed suppression has been inconsistent, and is dependent on environmental and production factors whi...

  8. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  9. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Singh, D K

    2001-03-01

    Molluscicidal activity of leaf, bark and seed of Lawsonia inermis against Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Highest toxicity was observed in the seed of Lawsonia inermis. Toxicity of binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the essential oil of cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxh) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), powder from bulb of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), and oleoresin extracted from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) with Lawsonia inermis and Embelia ribes fruit powder were studied against L. acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual components and other combinations. PMID:11495286

  10. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  11. Piriformospora indica requires kaurene synthase activity for successful plant colonization.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Chen, Xi; Ma, Chaoyang; Wu, Hongqing; Qi, Shuting

    2016-05-01

    Ent-kaurene (KS) synthases and ent-kaurene-like (KSL) synthases are involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins and/or gibberellins which play a role in plant immunity and development. The relationship between expression of five synthase genes (HvKSL1, HvKS2, HvKS4, HvKS5, HvKSL4) and plant colonization by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica was assessed in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The KS gene family is differently up-regulated at 1, 3 and 7 day after P. indica inoculation. By comparison, the HvKSL4 gene expression pattern is more significantly affected by UV irradiation and P. indica colonization. The characterizations of two silencing lines (HvKSL1-RNAi, HvKSL4-RNAi) also were analyzed. HvKSL1-RNAi and HvKSL4-RNAi lines in the first generation lead to less dark green leaves and slower plant development. Further, reduced spikelet fertility in progenies of RNAi plants heterozygous for HvKSL1 were observed, but not for HvKSL4. T2 generation of HvKSL1-RNAi line showed semi-dwarf phenotype while the wild type phenotype could be restored by applying GA3. Silencing of HvKSL4 and HvKSL1 resulted in reduced colonization by P. indica especially in the HvKSL1-RNAi line. These results probably suggest the presence of two ent-KS synthase in barley, one (HvKSL1) that participates in the biosynthesis of GAs and another (HvKSL4) that is involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins. PMID:26943021

  12. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    PubMed Central

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B. J.; Harisha, C. R.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  13. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.

    PubMed

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  14. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  15. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica. PMID:22536394

  16. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed. PMID:21972084

  17. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. PMID:23545106

  18. What Are Chia Seeds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men For Women For Seniors What Are Chia Seeds? Published February 05, 2014 Print Email When you ... number of research participants. How to Eat Chia Seeds Chia seeds can be eaten raw or prepared ...

  19. Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.

    PubMed

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2011-10-01

    In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services. PMID:21629992

  20. New guaian-type sesquiterpene from Wikstroemia indica.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mamoru; He, Yu-Min; Dibwe, Dya Fta; Li, Feng; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, we isolated a new guaian-type sesquiterpene (1) and two known guaian-type sesquiterpenes [oleodaphnal (2), 1alpha,7alpha,10alphaH-guaia-4,11-dien-3-one (3)], together with twelve known compounds: (+)-arctigenin, (+)-matairesinol, (+)-trachelogenin, (+)-nortrachelogenin, (+)-hinokinin, (+)-kusunokinin, 7-methoxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin (umbelliferone), daphnogitin, daphnoretin, salicifoliol, and (-)-pinoresinol. The structure of compound 1 was determined to be 4,10,11-guaiatrien-3-one-14-oic acid, by the analyses of spectral data. PMID:24660446

  1. Utilization of soil solarization for eliminating viable Tilletia indica teliospores from Arizona wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Arizona to determine the efficacy of soil solarization for killing teliospores of the soilborne fungal wheat pathogen, Tilletia indica Mitra. In a replicated study, conducted in each of three years, T. indica teliospores and bunted wheat kernels were buried in a non-preirr...

  2. Promising weed suppressive activity in high-yielding indica rice and hybrid rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective weed control in U.S. rice has relied primarily on herbicides since the 1960s. Several indica rice lines tested in the 1980s suppressed aquatic weeds. Since then, they and their crosses with standard U.S. cultivars, and other indica lines were found to suppress barnyardgrass (Echinochloa ...

  3. Weed suppression potential of 'Rondo' and other indica rice germplasm lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-yielding indica rice, 'Rondo' (4484-1693; PI 657830) which carries resistances to major rice diseases, was previously developed. We evaluated the weed suppression potential of Rondo, a sister line (4484-1665), and other indica lines against barnyardgrass in field plots in Stuttgart, AR, using...

  4. Seed health and vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The health of lentil and chickpea seed greatly impacts the quality of the crop stand and yield. Healthy seed has a high germination rate, is whole (free of cracks or other damage), is free from foreign matter including weed seed and has limited seedborne pathogens. The health of the seed often dep...

  5. The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2011-09-01

    The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

  6. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. PMID:27283673

  7. Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.

    PubMed

    Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development. PMID:12970483

  8. Three Early Flowering Germplasms of a Blast Disease-Resistant Indica Rice for U.S. Rice Improveemnt Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three early flowering indica germplasms of rice (Oryza sativa L.), indica-16 through indica-18, are described. These three lines are induced early flowering mutants of Oryzica llanos 5 (PI 584668, henceforth abbreviated as OL5), a highly blast disease [Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc.] resistant cul...

  9. Host plant range of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in areas of invasion of the New World.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Amalin, Divina; Hosein, Farzan; Roda, Amy; Duncan, Rita E; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    Raoiella indica has spread rapidly through the Neotropical region where the mite damages economically and ecologically important plants. Three studies were conducted to determine the host plant range of R. indica, using the presence of colonies containing all life stages as an indicator of reproductive suitability. Periodic surveys at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (Miami Dade County, FL, USA) and the Royal Botanical Gardens (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) identified 27 new reproductive host plants. The reproductive suitability of two dicotyledonous species and three native Florida palm species was examined. An updated list of reproductive host plants of R. indica is presented. All reported reproductive hosts (91 plant species) of R. indica are monocots from the orders Arecales (Arecaceae), Zingiberales (Heliconiaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Zingiberaceae) and Pandanales (Pandanaceae). Most are palms of the family Arecaceae that originated in areas of the Eastern Hemisphere; about one fourth of the reported hosts are native to the New World and could be considered new host associations of R. indica. Six years after the initial detection in the Caribbean, R. indica has expanded its host plant range. Here we report 27 new reproductive host of R. indica that represent 30% of increase on previous host plant records. As this mite continues spreading in the Neotropical region a great diversity of plants is potentially affected. PMID:21915682

  10. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Parvizi, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran. Methods: Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from individual specimens, such as some taxonomic features and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that had previously proven useful for the taxonomy of rodents. Wild rodents were caught using live wooden and wire traps. The specimens were identified morphologically using external criteria and molecularly by sequencing of Cyt b gene and phylogenetic analyses. Results: Forty one T. indica were collected and identified morphologically in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Two morphotypes of T. indica were found and classified but sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial Cyt b gene did not support any subspecies between two morphotypes of T. indica. Because all 21 sequences of both morphotypes of T. indica had no variation with only one common and novel haplotype (GenBank accession No KP001566). Conclusion: This is the first time that T. indica was characterized molecularly in Iran. There is no molecular evidence for T. indica morphotypes or subspecies, and so a population genetics approach using several polymorphic genes might be employed using species-specific molecular markers. In addition, more specimens of T. indica species in large geographical locations should be tested. PMID:27047972

  11. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  12. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    PubMed

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. PMID:26658229

  13. Utilization of Anting-Anting (Acalypha indica) Leaves as Antibacterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batubara, Irmanida; Wahyuni, Wulan Tri; Firdaus, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Anting-anting (Acalypha indica) plants is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence. This research aims to utilize anting-anting as antibacterial toward Streptococcus mutans and degradation of biofilm on teeth. Anting-anting leaves were extracted by maceration technique using methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane. Antibacterial and biofilm degradation assays were performed using microdilution technique with 96 well. n-Hexane extracts of anting-anting leaves gave the best antibacterial potency with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration value of 500 μg/mL and exhibited good biofilm degradation activity. Fraction of F3 obtained from fractionation of n-hexane's extract with column chromatography was a potential for degradation of biofilm with IC50 value of 56.82 μg/mL. Alkaloid was suggested as antibacterial and degradation of biofilm in the active fraction.

  14. A new triterpene glycoside from the stems of Lagerstroemia indica.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyeong Wan; Cha, Joon Min; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-05-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the stems of Lagerstroemia indica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new triterpene glycoside, lagerindiside (1), along with nine known triterpenes (2-10). The structure of this new compound was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical method. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates (1-10) were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15) using a sulforhodamine B bioassay. Compounds 3 and 4 showed potent cytotoxicity on the tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 3.38 to 6.29 μM. PMID:27107863

  15. A new cytotoxic biflavonoid from the rhizome of Wikstroemia indica.

    PubMed

    Shao, Meng; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Jun-Shan; Han, Wei-Li; Cai, Hong-Bing; Tang, Qing-Fa; Fan, Qin

    2016-06-01

    One new chalcone-flavone biflavonoid, 3'-hydroxydaphnodorin A (1), together with 12 known biflavonoids (2-13), was isolated from the rhizome of Wikstroemia indica. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. Eight isolated compounds 1-3, 6, 7, 9, 12 and 13 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against cancer-derived cell lines Hep3B, HepG2 and CNE2, and 1 was found to possess moderate cytotoxicity against HepG2 and CNE2 cell lines, with IC50 values of 65.5 ± 11.4 and 53.6 ± 10.1 μM, respectively. PMID:26252201

  16. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  17. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  18. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  19. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  20. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  1. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  2. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  3. Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  4. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  5. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  6. Pasture seed banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

  7. Preservation of recalcitrant seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds are not included in seed banks because of misperceptions that these efforts would be futile. Between 20 and 25% of the Earth’s angiosperm species are estimated to produce recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. These species are more prevalent in the tropics and sub...

  8. Seed Development and Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  9. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

  10. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

  11. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency.

  12. First report of the symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus indica associated with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema yirgalemense.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, T; van Reenen, C A; Tailliez, P; Pagès, S; Malan, A P; Dicks, L M T

    2016-01-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema yirgalemense is considered a promising agent in the biocontrol of insects. However, little is known about the bacteria living in symbiosis with the nematode. In this study, we have identified the only available bacterial strain (157-C) isolated from S. yirgalemense, as a member of the species Xenorhabdus indica. Identification was based on 16S rDNA, recA, dnaN, gltX, gyrB and infB gene sequence analyses. The relatedness of strain 157-C to the type strain of X. indica (DSM 17 382) was confirmed with DNA-DNA hybridization. The phenotypic characteristics of strain 157-C are similar to those described for the type strain of X. indica. This is the first report associating X. indica with S. yirgalemense. PMID:25119819

  13. On the Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica (Kerr, 1792) in Turkey (Mammalia: Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Arslan, Atilla

    2008-01-15

    This study presents some data about ecological, biological and taxonomical characteristics of Hystrix indica (Kerr, 1792) from Turkey. For this purpose characteristics of burrow, skull, tooth and measurements of external and cranial characters of two female H. indica from Turkey were investigated. It was concluded that our specimens are between the Middle East and Indian sub-region specimens in terms of morphometrical. It was also determined that there were roots in stomach contents of specimens. PMID:18817213

  14. First report of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Navia, D; Marsaro, A L; da Silva, F R; Gondim, M G C; de Moraes, G J

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, is reported for the first time in Brazil. This invasive mite was found in July 2009 infesting coconut palms and bananas in urban areas of Boa Vista, State of Roraima, in northern Brazil. Comments on the possible pathways of R. indica into the country, present and potential impact of its introduction and mitigating measures to prevent or to delay the mite spread in Brazil are presented. PMID:21710040

  15. The antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2009-08-01

    Different plant seeds extracts of Citrus sinensis, Hordeum sativum, Triticum sativum, Canna indica, Citrullus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, RBCs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. All the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic and flavonoid. The Canna indica extract exhibited strong antioxidant as a reducing power and as DPPH radical-scavenging (3.61 absorbance, 87.12%, respectively), while the Hordeum sativum extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect on RBCs hemolysis (59.55%) and the Capsicum annuum extract has highest inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation (65.06%). PMID:19943462

  16. Renoprotective Effect of Coccinia indica Fruits and Leaves in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gurukar, Mallur Somasundra Abignan; Mahadevamma, Siddaiah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Diabetic nephropathy is one of the secondary complications of diabetes mellitus that is marked by changes in extracellular matrix components leading to end-stage renal failure. Diet plays an important role in managing diabetes. In the present study, the effect of Coccinia indica consumption on diabetes-mediated kidney damage was determined. Both control and diabetic rats were fed with AIN-76 diet supplemented with C. indica fruits and leaves individually at 10% and 5%, respectively, for a period of 2 months. Various parameters, such as fasting blood glucose, urine sugar, albumin excretion, kidney index, and glomerular filtration rate, were ameliorated to various extents by the supplementation of C. indica in the diet. Additionally, diabetic rats fed with diet supplemented with C. indica fruits or leaves showed improvement in glucose tolerance compared to control diabetic rats. They also exhibited beneficial effects on key antioxidant enzymes of the kidney. Furthermore, an increase in laminin and fibronectin as a result of diabetes was alleviated in C. indica-fed rats. These results indicate that the consumption of C. indica is beneficial in partially containing diabetes-mediated deleterious effects on the kidney. PMID:24044493

  17. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  18. Multiple and independent origins of short seeded alleles of GS3 in rice

    PubMed Central

    Takano-Kai, Noriko; Jiang, Hui; Powell, Adrian; McCouch, Susan; Takamure, Itsuro; Furuya, Naruto; Doi, Kazuyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    GRAIN SIZE 3 (GS3) is a cloned gene that is related to seed length. Here we report the discovery of new deletion alleles at the GS3 locus, each of which confer short seed. We selected ten short seeded cultivars from a collection of 282 diverse cultivars. Sequence analysis across the GS3 gene in these ten cultivars identified three novel alleles and a known allele that contain several independent deletion(s) in the fifth exon of GS. These independent deletion variants each resulted in a frameshift mutation that caused a premature stop codon, and they were functionally similar to one another. Each coded for a truncated gene product that behaved as an incomplete dominant allele and conferred a short seeded phenotype. Haplotype analysis of these sequence variants indicated that two of the variants were of japonica origin, and two were from indica. Transformation experiments demonstrated that one of the deletion alleles of GS3 decrease the cell number in the upper epidermis of the glume, resulting in a significant reduction in seed length. The multiple and independent origins of these short seeded alleles indicate that farmers and early breeders imposed artificial selection favoring short seeds. PMID:23641184

  19. Assessment of Tamarindus indica extracts for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. PMID:22072893

  20. [Genetic studies of blast resistance of indica variety Zhefu 802].

    PubMed

    Wang, J L; Lei, C L; Jiang, W R; Ling, Z Z

    2000-01-01

    One indica variety, Zhefu 802, was studied for its inheritance of blast resistance by inoculation of two strains Ken54-04 and 95-t2. The B1F1 and F2 populations from cross of Zhefu 802(R) x Lijiangxintuanheigu (S) and related parents were inoculated by spray inoculation method with the two above mentioned strains to determine R:S ratio of segregating populations of this cross. The results indicated that Zhefu 802 has two dominant resistance genes to strain Ken 54-04. One of the two genes showed resistant reaction and the other is susceptible to strain 95-t2. The allelism test indicated that one gene in Zhefu 802, which showed resistant reaction to strain 95-t2, is allelic to Pi-i gene locus and non-allelic to loci of Pi-a, Pi-sh, Pi-k, Pi-z, Pi-ta, Pi-b, Pi-t. The other gene in this variety was also estimated to be different from all of the known genes. So it may be an unknown gene. But this point needs to be confirmed further. PMID:10887695

  1. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. PMID:25465849

  2. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Strehmel, Nadine; Mönchgesang, Susann; Herklotz, Siska; Krüger, Sylvia; Ziegler, Jörg; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana’s roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes PMID:27399695

  3. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Strehmel, Nadine; Mönchgesang, Susann; Herklotz, Siska; Krüger, Sylvia; Ziegler, Jörg; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana's roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes. PMID:27399695

  4. Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Obiiyeke, Grace E.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. PMID:22072893

  5. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scruggs, S. J.; Putman, P. T.; Zhou, Y. X.; Fang, H.; Salama, K.

    2006-07-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local Tc suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown.

  6. Analysis of Active Components and Proteomics of Chinese Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) and Indica Rice (Nagina22).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Xia; Zhai, Li-Jie; Yang, Hua; Zhai, Shu-Menghui; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2016-08-01

    The ancient Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) (CWR) has valuable biological and medicinal functions. To assess the advantages lost in modern cultivated rice after domestication, we compared the composition of bioactive compounds and the results of proteomic analysis with those of Indica rice (N22). We used routine methods to determine the protein, total dietary fiber, amino acid, mineral substance, plant secondary metabolites, and amino acid composition of CWR and N22. The protein and mineral contents of CWR were two times that of N22, and the levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium, chromium, iron, and zinc were significantly higher than those of N22 (P < .05). There was ∼7.6 times more dietary fiber in CWR than in N22, but fewer carbohydrates (P < .05). Anthocyanins and chlorophyll were detected in CWR, but were absent from N22. Compared with N22, CWR had 53, 19, and 5.4 times higher (P < .05) levels of saponins, flavonoids, and plant sterols, respectively. The amino acid score of CWR was 66.6, which was significantly higher than N22. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the main seed proteins of CWR were glutelins, including both acid and alkaline subunits, which were approximately twice those of N22. To investigate the differences in protein profiles between CWR and N22, we conducted two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of the total proteins in the seeds of the two rice species. 2-DE gels revealed 19 differentially expressed proteins. Information obtained from peptide mass fingerprinting indicates that glutelin precursor caffeoyl coenzyme A (CoA) O-methyltransferase and putative bithoraxoid-like protein can provide good gene sources for improving rice quality. PMID:27533651

  7. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics. PMID:25075631

  8. Bioaugmentation of Mesorhizobium cicer, Pseudomonas spp. and Piriformospora indica for Sustainable Chickpea Production.

    PubMed

    Mansotra, Pallavi; Sharma, Poonam; Sharma, Sunita

    2015-07-01

    Chickpea establishes symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium to fulfill its nitrogen (N) requirement. Integrating chickpea rhizosphere with potential native mesorhizobia and other plant growth promoting microorganisms can contribute multiple benefits to plants. The present investigation was undertaken to study interactions among Piriformospora indica (PI) with potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) viz. Pseudomonas argentinensis (LPGPR1), Pseudomonas sp. (LPGPR2) along with national check Pseudomons sp. (LK884) and Mesorhizobium cicer (LGR33, MR) to examine the synergistic effect of consortium for improving growth, symbiotic efficiency, nutrient acquisition and yield in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties viz. desi PBG1 and kabuli BG1053. In-vitro, seed germination with consortium MR + PI + LPGPR1 was the best compatible treatment followed by MR + PI + LK884 and MR + PI + LPGPR2. Significant improvement in the growth, symbiotic parameters and grain yield was observed with MR + PI + LPGPR1 and MR + PI + LK884 treatments. Significantly high chlorophyll and leghaemoglobin content was recorded with MR + PI + LPGPR1 (1.57 and 1.64 mg g(-1) fresh weight of leaves and 5.19 and 4.39 mg/g(-1) fresh weight of nodules) in desi PBG1 and kabuli BG1053 chickpea varieties, respectively. At 90 DAS, MR + PI + LPGPR1 treatment significantly improved nodule dry weight (ranged between 84.0 and 141.7 mg plant(-1)) as compared to MR alone treatment (ranged between 62.3 and 123.3 mg plant(-1)). Data revealed significant increase in total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content of shoot with MR + PI + LPGPR1 by 1.2 and 1.5 fold, respectively over MR alone treatment. On the basis of overall mean, MR + PI + LPGPR1 significantly improved the yield by 8.2 % over Mesorhizobium alone application. It seems from foregoing study that tripartite combination of different micro-organisms can be

  9. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  10. Eleucine indica Possesses Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubairi, Adel S.; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Peng, Chew Yuan; Mohan, Syam; Elhassan, Manal Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine is increasing rapidly. Eleucine indica (EI) is traditionally used in ailments associated with liver and kidneys. The therapeutic benefit of the medicinal plants is often attributed to their antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen the hexane, dicholoromethane, ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol extracts (MeTH) of EI for their antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-cancer effects using total phenolic contents (TPCs) and DPPH, disc diffusion method and MTT cytotoxicity assays, respectively. The MeTH was showed to have the highest TPC and scavenging activity (77.7%) on DPPH assay, followed by EA (64.5%), hexane (47.19%) and DCM (40.83%) extracts, whereas the MeTH showed no inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria strains. However, the EA extract exhibited a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria except Bacillus subtilis, in which this bacterium was found to be resistant to all EI extracts. Meanwhile, hexane extract was demonstrated to have a remarkable antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the dicholoromethane extract did not exhibit significant activity against P. aeruginosa. None of the extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7, HT-29 and CEM-SS human cancer cell lines after 72 h incubation time (IC50 > 30 μg/ml). These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from the EI possesses antioxidant activity in vitro in addition to antibacterial properties. Further investigations are needed to verify the antioxidant effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19617201

  11. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.

  12. Bioactive components and pharmacological action of Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey and its clinical application.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Min; Zhu, Liang; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Yang, Li; Wang, Ding-Yong

    2009-12-01

    Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey. is a member of family Thymelaeaceae and mainly distributes in middle and southeast part of China. As a traditional Chinese herb, this plant has long been employed as antipyretics, detoxicants, expectorants, vermifuges as well as aborticides in clinic practice. However, its use has mainly been based on empirical findings during hundreds and thousands of years. Recent studies indicated that W. indica contains abundant active components including flavonoids, biflavonoids, coumarins, lignans, volatile oils, polysaccharides etc. This paper provides a comprehensive review of pharmacological relevant compounds of W. indica that have been characterized to date, and introduce the research progresses supporting its pharmacological action and clinical application. Particular attention has been given to antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and antifertility effects. Some examples of clinical applications of prepared W. indica in treatment of various diseases are outlined. Finally, the trend and necessity of future research, such as quantification of individual constituents extracted from W. indica and the assessment of their pharmacological activities in human body are proposed. PMID:19939213

  13. Impact of Piriformospora indica on tomato growth and on interaction with fungal and viral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fakhro, Ahmad; Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocío; von Bargen, Susanne; Bandte, Martina; Büttner, Carmen; Grosch, Rita; Schwarz, Dietmar; Franken, Philipp

    2010-03-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root endophytic fungus with plant-promoting properties in numerous plant species and induces resistance against root and shoot pathogens in barley, wheat, and Arabidopsis. A study over several years showed that the endophyte P. indica colonised the roots of the most consumed vegetable crop tomato. P. indica improved the growth of tomato resulting in increased biomass of leaves by up to 20%. Limitation of disease severity caused by Verticillium dahliae by more than 30% was observed on tomato plants colonised by the endophyte. Further experiments were carried out in hydroponic cultures which are commonly used for the indoor production of tomatoes in central Europe. After adaptation of inoculation techniques (inoculum density, plant stage), it was shown that P. indica influences the concentration of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato shoots. The outcome of the interaction seems to be affected by light intensity. Most importantly, the endophyte increases tomato fruit biomass in hydroponic culture concerning fresh weight (up to 100%) and dry matter content (up to 20%). Hence, P. indica represents a suitable growth promoting endophyte for tomato which can be applied in production systems of this important vegetable plant not only in soil, but also in hydroponic cultures. PMID:19789897

  14. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  15. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

  16. In the elephant's seed shadow: the prospects of domestic bovids as replacement dispersers of three tropical Asian trees.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Nitin; Lee, Chia-lo; Sukumar, Raman

    2015-08-01

    As populations of the world's largest animal species decline, it is unclear how ecosystems will react to their local extirpation. Due to the unique ecological characteristics of megaherbivores such as elephants, seed dispersal is one ecosystem process that may be affected as populations of large animals are decimated. In typically disturbed South Asian ecosystems, domestic bovids (cattle, Bosprimigenius, and buffalo, Bubalus bubalis) may often be the species most available to replace Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) as endozoochorous dispersers of large-fruited mammal-dispersed species. We use feeding trials, germination trials, and movement data from the tropical moist forests of Buxa Tiger Reserve (India) to examine whether domestic bovids are viable replacements for elephants in the dispersal of three large- fruited species: Dillenia indica, Artocarpus chaplasha, and Careya arborea. We find that (1) once consumed, seeds are between 2.5 (C. arborea) and 26.5 (D. indica) times more likely to pass undigested into elephant dung than domestic bovid dung; and (2) seeds from elephant dung germinated as well as or better than seeds taken from bovid dung for all plant species, with D. indica seeds from elephant dung 1.5 times more likely to germinate. Furthermore, since wild elephants have less constrained movements than even free-roaming domestic bovids, we calculate that maximum dispersal by elephants is between 9.5 and 11.2 times farther than that of domestic bovids, with about 20% of elephant-dispersed seeds being moved farther than the maximum distance seeds are moved by bovids. Our findings suggest that, while bovids are able to disperse substantial numbers of seeds over moderate distances for two of the three study species, domestic bovids will be unable to routinely emulate the reliable, long-distance dispersal of seeds executed by elephants in this tropical moist forest. Thus while domestic bovids can attenuate the effects of losing elephants as dispersers

  17. [Quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-yue; Zhu, Zai-biao; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-lin

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds, thirty-one batches of P. suffruticosa seeds from different provenances were selected. The seed rooting rate, seed germination rate, seed purity, seed viability, 1,000-seed weight and moisture content were determined and analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. Seed rooting rate, seed germination rate and seed purity were selected as the main index for classification, while 1,000-seed weight, seed viability and moisture content could be used as important references. The seed quality grading of P. suffruticosa was set as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should meet following requirements: For the first grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 80%, seed germination rate ≥ 80%, seed purity ≥ 90%, seed viability ≥ 80%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 250 g, moisture content, ≤ 10. For the second grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 50%, seed germination rate ≥ 60%, seed purity ≥ 70%, seed viability ≥ 75%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 225 g, moisture content ≤ 10. For the third grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 20%, seed germination rate ≥ 45%, seed purity ≥ 60%, seed viability ≥ 45%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 205 g, moisture content ≤ 10. The quality classification criteria of P. suffruticosa seeds have been initially established. PMID:26137680

  18. Development of microsatellite markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae) and related species1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; He, Dan; Cai, Ming; Tang, Wan; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Pan, Hui-Tang; Zhang, Qi-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. • Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR)–enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. • Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker–assisted selection of L. indica. PMID:25202512

  19. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials. PMID:21983877

  20. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  1. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and its damage to coconut palms in Puerto Rico and Culebra Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of the occurrence of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica and its damage in Puerto Rico and Culebra island. Raoiella indica is a new invasive pest threatening ornamental palm, coconut, and banana plantations. The mite was observed in eastern Puerto Rico and in Culebra island ...

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Mulla, Wahid A; Salunkhe, Vijay R; Bhise, Satish B

    2009-10-01

    Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica (250 and 500 mg/kg) effectively inhibited CCl4 and paracetamol induced changes in the serum marker enzymes, cholesterol, serum protein and albumin in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the normal and the standard drug silymarin-treated groups. Hepatic steatosis, fatty infiltration, hydropic degeneration and necrosis observed in CCl4 and paracetamol-treated groups were completely absent in histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts. The results suggests that the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of A. indica possess significant potential as hepatoprotective agent. PMID:20112809

  3. Antiulcer activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae): ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Galati, E M; Monforte, M T; Tripodo, M M; d'Aquino, A; Mondello, M R

    2001-06-01

    In Sicily folk medicine, Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. cladodes are used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. We studied the effect of administration of lyophilized cladodes on experimental ethanol-induced ulcer in rat. In this paper, we report the ultrastructural observations of gastric mucosa. The ultrastructural changes were observed by trasmission electronic microscopy (TEM) confirming the protective effect exercised by administration of lyophilized cladodes. Pre-treatment test in rats revealed a protective action against ethanol-induced ulcer. Probably, the mucilage of Opuntia ficus indica is involved. PMID:11378276

  4. [Studies on the histochemistry of Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae infected with Coelomomyces indica].

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Wang, Z Y; Lian, W N; Liu, S L

    1993-01-01

    A sectional survey with histochemical technique was carried out on Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae infected with Coelomomyces indica in comparison to the noninfected larvae. Studies were pursued by using micrograph and imaging analysis. The results showed that the glycogen, protein and nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) reaction in the infected group were less than those of the control group. The gray level assessment in tissue imaging showed marked difference between the two groups. It is suggested that C. indica has significant effect on the above biochemical elements of the mosquito larvae, which might be considered an important mechanism in the pathogenicity of the fungus. PMID:8168236

  5. Wound healing effects of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, J Suresh; Rao, P Rajeswara; Reddy, Mada S

    2002-02-01

    The ethanolic extracts of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica were evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats. Wound healing activity was studied using excision and incision wound models in rats following topical application. Animals were divided into four groups with six in each group. Ten percent w/v extract of each plant was prepared in saline for topical application. H. indicum possesses better wound healing activity than P. zeylanicum and A. indica. Tensile strength results indicate better activity of H. indicum on remodeling phase of wound healing. PMID:11801388

  6. [Scytalidium dimidiatum an opportunistic fungus for both man and Mangifera indica trees in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Padin, Carmiña; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt, Guillermo; Yegres, Francisco; Richard-Yegres, Nicole

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of Scytalidium dimidiatum on Mangifera indica (mango) trees, in a plantation managed by a diabetic patient with a white grain mycetoma of the foot caused by the same fungus. Samples from necrotic apices, roots, burned leaves and rotten stems from eight trees were processed by the Smith and Furcolow's mineral oil technique (modified). Several isolates from the apex material and clinical samples from the diabetic patient isolated in pure culture a fungus with the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of that in S. dimidiatum. This fungus should be considered as an opportunistic microorganism for both humans and M. indica. PMID:16309356

  7. Development of an iron-enriched high-yieldings indica rice cultivar by introgression of a high-iron trait from transgenic iron-biofortified rice.

    PubMed

    Paul, Soumitra; Ali, Nusrat; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2014-09-01

    Low level of iron in staple food crops is one reason for the predominance of iron-deficiency anemia in developing countries. Most of the iron in rice grains accumulates in the outer aleurone layer and embryo, which are removed during milling, and the edible endosperm contains very low amounts of iron. In an effort to increase iron nutrition, we report here the transgene introgression of a high-iron trait into a high-yielding indica rice cultivar. The ferritin gene from soybean (soyfer1) was introduced into rice plants through interbreeding between soybean ferritin-overexpressing transgenic IR68144 and the high-yielding cultivar Swarna. The stable integration of the soyfer1 gene was confirmed in the BC2F4 generation, and the hybrid seeds showed 2.6-fold soybean ferritin gene expression over the recurrent parent Swarna. The hybrid milled seeds revealed a 2.54-fold increase in iron and 1.54-fold increase in zinc compared to Swarna. Agronomic data and an SSR marker analysis of the hybrid rice plants were taken into account for NIL character identification. PMID:25069855

  8. Transgenic indica rice lines, expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1), exhibit enhanced resistance to major pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Kalambur, Muralidharan; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-07-10

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into commercial indica rice varieties by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic rice plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in various transgenic rice lines. Transgenes NPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing BjNPR1 protein displayed enhanced resistance to rice blast, sheath blight and bacterial leaf blight diseases. Rice transformants with higher levels of NPR1 revealed notable increases in plant height, panicle length, flag-leaf length, number of seeds/panicle and seed yield/plant as compared to the untransformed plants. The overall results amply demonstrate the profound impact of BjNPR1 in imparting resistance against major pathogens of rice. The multipotent BjNPR1, as such, seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants with durable resistance against various pathogens. PMID:23664883

  9. Analysis of the genetic behavior of some starch properties in indica rice ( Oryza sativa L.): thermal properties, gel texture, swelling volume.

    PubMed

    Bao, J. S.; Sun, M.; Corke, H.

    2002-02-01

    Starch comprises about 90% of milled rice, so that the eating and cooking quality of rice is mainly affected by the starch properties. In the present paper, we analyzed the genetical behavior of gelatinization temperature tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel texture, and the swelling volume (SV) of indica rice with an incomplete cross of 4x8 parents. A genetic model which can dissect the effects of triploid seed, the cytoplasm, and the maternal plant on the endosperm traits was used. The results indicated that peak temperature (T(p)), conclusion temperature (T(c)) and enthalpy (DeltaH) were controlled by three types of genetic effects: seed direct (endosperm) effects, cytoplasmic effects and maternal effects. No cytoplasmic effects for the onset temperature (T(o)), hardness and SV, and no maternal effects for cohesiveness were found. The additive variances ( V (A)+ V (Am)) were larger than the dominance variances ( V (D)+ V (Dm)) for all the traits except for T(c), which suggested that selection could be applied for the starch properties in early generations. The total narrow-sense heritability for each parameter was over 60%, indicating that selection advances were predictable in the early generations for these traits. PMID:12582713

  10. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Peanut Seed and Seed Coat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. In a peanut, within the hull and encasing the cotyledon is the seed coat, which is commonly referred to within the peanut industry as the skin. The seed coat is a distinct plant structure critical for seed deve...

  12. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  13. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  14. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  15. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dekker; 2005:309–325. Grape. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on June ... Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on June ...

  16. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  17. Two triterpenes lupanone and lupeol isolated and identified from Tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Imam, Shehla; Azhar, Iqbal; Hasan, M Mohtaseemul; Ali, M S; Ahmed, S Waseemuddin

    2007-04-01

    Tamarindus indica, a useful medicinal plant was subjected to phytochemical investigation. Two triterpenes (lupanone and lupeol) have been isolated from the leaves of this plant. Their structures were elucidated with the help of physico-chemical methods and spectroscopic techniques. The lupanone and lupeol from this plant are being reported for the first time. PMID:17416567

  18. Effect of Different Substrates and Casing Materials on the Growth and Yield of Calocybe indica

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ruhul; Khair, Abul; Alam, Nuhu

    2010-01-01

    Calocybe indica, a tropical edible mushroom, is popular because it has good nutritive value and it can be cultivated commercially. The current investigation was undertaken to determine a suitable substrate and the appropriate thickness of casing materials for the cultivation of C. indica. Optimum mycelial growth was observed in coconut coir substrate. Primordia initiation with the different substrates and casing materials was observed between the 13th and 19th day. The maximum length of stalk was recorded from sugarcane leaf, while diameter of stalk and pileus, and thickness of pileus were found in rice straw substrate. The highest biological and economic yield, and biological efficiency were also obtained in the rice straw substrate. Cow dung and loamy soil, farm-yard manure, loamy soil and sand, and spent oyster mushroom substrates were used as casing materials to evaluate the yield and yield-contributing characteristics of C. indica. The results indicate that the number of effective fruiting bodies, the biological and economic yield, and the biological efficiency were statistically similar all of the casing materials used. The maximum biological efficiency was found in the cow dung and loamy soil casing material. The cow dung and loamy soil (3 cm thick) was the best casing material and the rice straw was the best substrate for the commercial cultivation of C. indica. PMID:23956634

  19. Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): An island-hopping mite pest in the Caribbean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major infestations of the flat mite species Raoiella indica Hirst have been reported from the Caribbean islands of Dominica, Martinique, and Saint Lucia. Specimens from these localities were examined using traditional light microscopy and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) techniqu...

  20. Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L

    PubMed Central

    Gururaja, G. M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Dethe, Shekhar M.; Sangli, Gopala K.; Abhilash, K.; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the earlier studies, methanolic extract of Mangifera indica L leaf was exhibited hypocholesterol activity. However, the bioactive compounds responsible for the same are not reported so far. Objective: To isolate the bioactive compounds with hypocholesterol activity from the leaf extract using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay which can be used for the standardization of extract. Materials and Methods: The leaf methanolic extract of M. indica (Sindoora variety) was partitioned with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on silica gel to yield twelve fractions and the activity was monitored by using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. Active fractions were re-chromatographed to yield individual compounds. Results and Discussion: A major compound mangiferin present in the extract was screened along with other varieties of mango leaves for cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. However, the result indicates that compounds other than mangiferin may be active in the extract. Invitro pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibition assay was used for bioactivity guided fractionation (BAGF) to yield bioactive compound for standardization of extract. Bioactivity guided fractionation afford the active fraction containing 3b-taraxerol with an IC50 value of 0.86μg/ml. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that M. indica methanol extract of leaf have significant hypocholesterol activity which is standardized with 3b-taraxerol, a standardized extract for hypocholesterol activity resulted in development of dietary supplement from leaves of Mangifera indica. PMID:26692750

  1. Karnal bunt of wheat (Tilletia indica) Pest and Diseases Image Library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Karnal bunt is caused by Tilletia indica, which is a floret-infecting fungal smut fungus. Unlike systemic smut fungi, only a few florets of the inflorescence become infected; with little or no swelling of the kernels, which may be only partially destroyed. In kernels partially infected, the sorus de...

  2. The influence of tillage on dispersal of Tilletia indica teliospores from a concentrated point source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the impact of tillage on dispersal of Tilletia indica teliospores from a concentrated point source in Arizona in November 2004. The infested source was created using a 300 ml teliospore suspension, containing approximately 90,000 teliospores per ml, sprayed onto a...

  3. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799

  4. 'Rondo', a long-grain indica rice with resistances to multiple diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) is needed to increase genetic diversity in the U.S. cultivars and resistant germplasm is needed to control newly occurred races of blast disease (Magnaporthe oryzae). ‘Rondo’ rice, a long grain cultivar meeting these needs, was developed by the USDA-ARS through mutation...

  5. Detection and Identification of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major infestations of the Red Palm Mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, have been reported in almost all the Caribbean islands and Venezuela. Correct identification of the mite and host associations is essential for the management and biocontrol of this invasive mite pest. This paper provides information o...

  6. Quantification of Tilletia indica teliospores in sori of commercially harvested wheat grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Karnal bunt caused by Tilletia indica is a minor disease of wheat that has caused considerable international quarantine concerns. Knowledge of the number of teliospores in sori of diseased grains is needed to provide information for the development of pest risk assessments. Eight to fourteen disea...

  7. Utilization of soil solarization for eliminating viable Tilletia indica teliospores from Arizona wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil solarization was investigated as an alternative method for the deregulation of fields under management for Karnal bunt of wheat caused by Tilletia indica. Under the current USDA management scheme, infested fields and the surrounding 3-mile buffer area can be deregulated after 5 years of cultiva...

  8. Development of the recombinant inbred line population of tropical japonica Lemont crossed with indica Jasmine 85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice is routinely used in studying agronomically important genes, and is particularly useful for analyzing quantitative trait loci (QTL) since phenotypes can be assessed over years. Jasmine 85, a midseason aromatic long-grain indica rice cultivar develo...

  9. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799

  10. Tilletia indica: Environmental Resiliency of Allantoid Sporidia and its Relationship to Host Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tilletia indica, causal agent of Karnal bunt of wheat, is a non-systemic bunt fungus that infects the wheat spikes at flowering via allantoid sporidia arising from basidiospores produced by germinating teliospores on the soil surface. Historically, secondary sporidia have been reported as fragile, ...

  11. Susceptibility of European bread and durum wheat cultivars to Tilletia indica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representative European wheat cultivars were tested under quarantine containment for their susceptibility to Tilletia indica, the cause of Karnal bunt (or partial bunt) of wheat. Fifteen winter, 15 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 11 durum wheat cultivars (Triticum durum) were inoculated by ‘boo...

  12. Evalution of Inter-Specific Hybrids between Lagerstroemia indica and L. speciosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of viable inter-specific seedlings from a cross between L. indica L. ‘Tonto’ × L. speciosa (L.) Pers. was confirmed by comparison of morphological traits and genetic markers. Traits such as plant height and width showed marked variation within the seedling population while variation in ot...

  13. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    PubMed

    Soradech, Sitthiphong; Petchtubtim, Intira; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu; Muangman, Thanchanok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5-11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH) was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH) using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w) was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (%) and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax) significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity. PMID:27011162

  14. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. PMID:27507473

  15. Extensive sequence divergence between the reference genomes of two elite indica rice varieties Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianwei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Xing, Feng; Kudrna, David A; Yao, Wen; Copetti, Dario; Mu, Ting; Li, Weiming; Song, Jia-Ming; Xie, Weibo; Lee, Seunghee; Talag, Jayson; Shao, Lin; An, Yue; Zhang, Chun-Liu; Ouyang, Yidan; Sun, Shuai; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Lv, Fang; Du, Bogu; Luo, Meizhong; Maldonado, Carlos Ernesto; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Xiong, Lizhong; Wu, Changyin; Xing, Yongzhong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu; Yu, Sibin; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Gongwei; Yu, Yeisoo; Luo, Yijie; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Hurtado, Beatriz Elena Padilla; Danowitz, Ann; Wing, Rod A; Zhang, Qifa

    2016-08-30

    Asian cultivated rice consists of two subspecies: Oryza sativa subsp. indica and O. sativa subsp. japonica Despite the fact that indica rice accounts for over 70% of total rice production worldwide and is genetically much more diverse, a high-quality reference genome for indica rice has yet to be published. We conducted map-based sequencing of two indica rice lines, Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and Minghui 63 (MH63), which represent the two major varietal groups of the indica subspecies and are the parents of an elite Chinese hybrid. The genome sequences were assembled into 237 (ZS97) and 181 (MH63) contigs, with an accuracy >99.99%, and covered 90.6% and 93.2% of their estimated genome sizes. Comparative analyses of these two indica genomes uncovered surprising structural differences, especially with respect to inversions, translocations, presence/absence variations, and segmental duplications. Approximately 42% of nontransposable element related genes were identical between the two genomes. Transcriptome analysis of three tissues showed that 1,059-2,217 more genes were expressed in the hybrid than in the parents and that the expressed genes in the hybrid were much more diverse due to their divergence between the parental genomes. The public availability of two high-quality reference genomes for the indica subspecies of rice will have large-ranging implications for plant biology and crop genetic improvement. PMID:27535938

  16. Prey-stage preferences and functional and numerical responses of Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a phytophagous mite that recently invaded the Western Hemisphere. This mite is a multivoltine and gregarious species that can reach very high population densities and cause significant damage to various palm species (Arecaceae). The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. This study evaluated A. largoensis for potential to control R. indica by (1) determining predator preferences among developmental stages of R. indica, and (2) estimating predator functional and numerical responses to varying densities of its most preferred prey-stage. Under no-choice conditions A. largoensis consumed significantly more eggs than other stages of R. indica. In choice tests A. largoensis showed a significant preference for R. indica eggs over all other prey stages. Amblyseius largoensis displayed a type II functional response showing an increase in number of prey killed with an increase in prey population density. Consumption of prey stabilized at approximately 45 eggs/day, the level at which oviposition by the predator was maximized (2.36 ± 0.11 eggs/day; mean ± SEM). Results of this study suggest that A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica populations, particularly when prey densities are low. PMID:21915681

  17. Life cycle of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on ornamental plants, mostly Arecaceae.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J

    2015-02-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America. PMID:25342244

  18. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of Lagerstroemia indica and Lagerstroemia fauriei (Lythraceae) seedlings for phytoremediation applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixiang; Gu, Cuihua; Bai, Shangbin; Sun, Zhibin; Zhu, Tingting; Zhu, Xudan; Grit, Dale H; Tembrock, Luke R

    2016-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals is one of the most serious environmental problems generated from human activities. Because phytoremediation utilizes plants to uptake contaminants, it could potentially be used to remediate metal-contaminated areas. A pot culture experiment with four levels of cadmium (Cd) (0, 20, 40, and 80 mg of Cd/kg dry soil) was conducted to investigate Cd accumulation and tolerance of roots, shoots, and leaves of Lagerstroemia indica and Lagerstroemia fauriei as well as their potential for phytoremediation. Experimental results indicated that Cd inhibited seedling growth only at the higher Cd exposure concentration (40 and 80 mg/kg). The tolerance index revealed that on average L. indica is more tolerant of Cd than L. fauriei. Moreover, plants in the experiment accumulated Cd differentially. In comparisons between L. indica and L. fauriei, the leaves of the former had higher concentrations of Cd, while the roots of latter had higher concentrations of Cd. Furthermore, the roots, shoots, and leaves had very high bioaccumulation factors that markedly exceeded 1.0 (exceptional only in shoots of 80 mg/kg for L. fauriei), indicating that the seedlings extracted Cd from the soil. The leaves' translocation factor of L. indica was greater than 1.0, being significantly higher than that of L. fauriei. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and total declined in both species significantly as Cd concentrations exceeded 40 mg/kg in the soil. In contrast, lipid peroxidation and proline content was found to increase with increasing Cd concentration. From the assessments of biomass production, Cd tolerance and uptake L. indica and L. fauriei could stand as excellent species for remediating Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:27196684

  19. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  20. Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

  1. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

  2. Phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity of Leea indica leaves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The leaves of Leea indica (Vitaceae), commonly known as ‘Huo Tong Shu’ in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. The current study reports the outcome of antioxidant and cytotoxic investigation of L. indica leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) for evaluation of total phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell lines. Methods In the present study, L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) were firstly prepared prior to phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity assessment. Folin-Ciocalteau’s method was used for the measurement of total phenolic content of the extracts. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals, reducing power assay and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity assay. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts were evaluated against three colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (HT-29, HCT-15 and HCT-116) by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Results The total phenolic content and antioxidant capabilities differed significantly among the L. indica leaf extracts. A strong correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant properties was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributor to the antioxidant properties of these extracts. Among the crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts, fractionated water extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content and strongest antioxidant effect in all the antioxidant testing systems employed in this study. All the four extracts exert no damage to the selected colon cancer cells. Conclusions The

  3. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  4. Multiple seeds sensitivity using a single seed with threshold.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Lavinia; Manzini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Spaced seeds are a fundamental tool for similarity search in biosequences. The best sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs are obtained using many seeds simultaneously: This is known as the multiple seed approach. Unfortunately, spaced seeds use a large amount of memory and the available RAM is a practical limit to the number of seeds one can use simultaneously. Inspired by some recent results on lossless seeds, we revisit the approach of using a single spaced seed and considering two regions homologous if the seed hits in at least t sufficiently close positions. We show that by choosing the locations of the don't care symbols in the seed using quadratic residues modulo a prime number, we derive single seeds that when used with a threshold t > 1 have competitive sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs, indeed close to the best multiple seeds known in the literature. In addition, the choice of the threshold t can be adjusted to modify sensitivity and selectivity a posteriori, thus enabling a more accurate search in the specific instance at issue. The seeds we propose also exhibit robustness and allow flexibility in usage. PMID:25747382

  5. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  6. Study on the increment of the production of gastric mucus in rats treated with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. cladodes.

    PubMed

    Galati, E M; Pergolizzi, S; Miceli, N; Monforte, M T; Tripodo, M M

    2002-12-01

    Opuntia ficus indica cladodes are used in traditional medicine of many countries for their cicatrisant activity. The major components of cladodes are carbohydrate-containing polymers, which consist of a mixture of mucilage and pectin. In this paper we studied the cytoprotective effects of cladodes on experimental ethanol-induced ulcer in rat. The O. ficus indica cladodes administration gives rise to cytoprotection phenomena by breaking up the epithelial cells and stimulating an increase in mucus production. When O. ficus indica cladodes are administered as a preventive therapy, keep the gastric mucosa under normal condition by preventing mucus dissolution caused by ethanol and favouring mucus production. An increase of mucus production is also observed during the course of the curative treatment. The treatment with O. ficus indica cladodes provokes an increase in the number of secretory cells. Probably, the gastric fibroblasts are involved in the antiulcer activity. PMID:12426090

  7. Ameliorating effects of Tamarindus indica fruit extract on anti-tubercular drugs induced liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Amir, Mohd; Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Ahmad, Sayeed; Akhtar, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica fruit against combination of two antitubercular drugs viz. Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of T. indica by DPPH-HPLC method was found to be 81.48%. Treatment with aqueous extract of T. indica significantly reduced the elevated levels of biochemical markers such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, TBARS and increased the albumin level as well antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT and GSH in intoxicated rats. The biochemical changes were supported by histological observations. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. indica fruit protects against anti tuberculosis induced oxidative liver damage in rats and thus possess significant hepatoprotective activity. Further, it could be suggested that supplementation with this food extract might prove beneficial in the individuals on anti-TB drugs. PMID:25978515

  8. Genetic dissection of seed storability using two different populations with a same parent rice cultivar N22.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiuyun; Wang, Wenyan; Ren, Yakun; Jiang, Yimei; Sun, Ailing; Qian, Ying; Zhang, Yifei; He, Niqing; Hang, Ngo Thi; Liu, Zhou; Li, Linfang; Liu, Linglong; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    Seed storability in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important agronomic trait. Two segregating populations with N22 (indica) as a common parent, viz. a set of 122 backcross-inbred lines (BILs) derived from the backcross Nanjing35 (japonica)/N22//Nanjing35 and another population comprising 189 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross of USSR5 (japonica) and N22, were studied to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed storability. Germination percentage (GP) was used to evaluate seed storability after aging treated under three different conditions, viz. natural, artificial and combined aging treatments. A total of seven QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 9. Among them, a major QTL, qSSn-9, was common in the two populations. In contrast, four QTLs (qSSnj-2-1, qSSn-2-2, qSSn-5 and qSSn-6) were detected in BILs and the QTL qSSn-1 was identified in RILs, which was a new QTL for seed storability. The N22-derived alleles increased the seed storability at all the loci except qSSnj-2-1. We also investigated the effect of QTLs using five selected lines with high storability from BILs and verified qSSn-5 with a near-isogenic line (NIL). These results provide an opportunity for pyramiding or map-based cloning major QTLs for seed storability in rice. PMID:26719744

  9. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  10. Development and reproduction of Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) feeding on pollen, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), and other microarthropods inhabiting coconuts in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E; Hoy, Marjorie A; Frank, J Howard

    2010-10-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. In order to verify whether A. largoensis can develop and reproduce when feeding exclusively on R. indica, the biology of this predator was evaluated on various food sources, including R. indica. Five diets [R. indica, Tetranychus gloveri Aonidiella orientalis, Nipaecocus nipae, oak (Quercus virginiana) pollen] and a no-food control were tested to determine the predators' development, survivorship, oviposition rate, sex ratio and longevity at 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a 12:12 L:D photophase. Amblyseius largoensis was able to complete its life cycle and reproduce when fed exclusively on R. indica. The development of immature stages of A. largoensis was faster and fecundity and survivorship were higher when fed on R. indica or T. gloveri compared to the other food sources. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. largoensis was significantly higher when fed on R. indica than on other diets. These results suggest that, despite earlier assessments, A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica. PMID:20333446

  11. In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:23894592

  12. Amino acid composition and betaxanthin formation in fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Stintzing, F C; Schieber, A; Carle, R

    1999-10-01

    In contrast to earlier reports high levels of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) were found in fruit juices of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Whereas the occurrence of taurine in plant tissue was thought to be restricted to algae, fungi, and the endosperm of some higher plants, prickly pear proved to be a rich source of dietary taurine. Using L-taurine as the amino compound, a new betaxanthin was synthesized by partial synthesis. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence its structure was determined to be the taurine-immonium-conjugate of betalamic acid. Also betalamic acid could be detected in yellow and orange coloured cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica for the first time. In spite of the high levels of L-taurine accompanied by the occurrence of betalamic acid, the corresponding betaxanthin could not be detected in the fruit tissue. PMID:17260288

  13. Nymphal Linguatulosis in Indian Crested Porcupines (Histrix Indica) in Southwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rajabloo, Mohammad; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Shayegh, Hossein; Alavi, Amir Mootabi

    2015-01-01

    Linguatula serrata is one of the important zoonotic parasites. Carnivores serve as definitive host. The larvae existed in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), liver, lungs, etc of intermediate herbivores. The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting viscera containing the infective nymphal stage. Humans may be infected with Linguatula either by ingestion of nymphs resulting in a condition called nasopharyngeal linguatulosis or Halzoun syndrome or by ingestion of infective eggs which develop in internal organs resulting in visceral linguatulosis. Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a common rodent in Middle East. Based on some tradition, consumption of Histrix meat and viscera is common in some parts of Iran. The present study reports the occurrence of Linguatula serrata nymph in H. indica as a new intermediate host from southwest of Iran. PMID:26114151

  14. Nymphal Linguatulosis in Indian Crested Porcupines (Histrix Indica) in Southwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rajabloo, Mohammad; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Shayegh, Hossein; Alavi, Amir Mootabi

    2015-06-01

    Linguatula serrata is one of the important zoonotic parasites. Carnivores serve as definitive host. The larvae existed in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), liver, lungs, etc of intermediate herbivores. The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting viscera containing the infective nymphal stage. Humans may be infected with Linguatula either by ingestion of nymphs resulting in a condition called nasopharyngeal linguatulosis or Halzoun syndrome or by ingestion of infective eggs which develop in internal organs resulting in visceral linguatulosis. Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a common rodent in Middle East. Based on some tradition, consumption of Histrix meat and viscera is common in some parts of Iran. The present study reports the occurrence of Linguatula serrata nymph in H. indica as a new intermediate host from southwest of Iran. PMID:26114151

  15. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products. PMID:20623195

  16. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of Asplenium nidus, Phaleria macrocarpa and Eleusine indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mariya Mohd; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Three local medicinal plants namely Asplenium nidus (langsuyar), Eleusine indica (sambau) and Phaleria macrocarpa (mahkota dewa) were screened for the cytotoxicity and antiviral activities. Six plant extracts were prepared including the aqueous and methanol extracts from A. nidus leaf and root, aqueous extract from dried whole plant of E. indica and methanol extract from P. macrocarpa fruits. Cytotoxicity screening in Vero cell line by MTT assay showed that the CC50 values ranged from 15 to 60 mg/mL thus indicating the safety of the extracts even at high concentrations. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The EC50 concentrations were between 3.2 to 47 mg/mL. The selectivity indices (SI = CC50/EC50) of each tested extracts ranged from 4.3 to 63.25 indicating the usefulness of the extracts as potential antiviral agents.

  17. Evaluation of brodifacoum against T. indica, M. hurrianae and R. rattus.

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, R. P.; Prakash, I.

    1981-01-01

    Brodifacoum was evaluated in the laboratory against the two gerbils, Tatera indica and Meriones hurrianae and the house rat, Rattus rattus. The acute oral LD50 for these rodents was found to be 0.10 mg/kg, 0.083 mg/kg and 0.77 mg/kg respectively. Feeding tests with 0.002% and 0.005% brodifacoum produced a 100% mortality after a 3-day feeding period in the gerbils and after a 4-day period in R. rattus. The anticoagulant is toxic at both the concentrations to all three species but is less palatable in comparison to plain baits. Results of this laboratory evaluation indicates that 0.002% brodifacoum-treated bait can be effectively used against T. indica, M. hurrianae and R. rattus. PMID:7288172

  18. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. PMID:26041209

  19. A genome-wide microsatellite polymorphism database for the indica and japonica rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Deng, Yajun; Tan, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun; Xue, Qingzhong

    2007-02-28

    Microsatellite (MS) polymorphism is an important source of genetic diversity, providing support for map-based cloning and molecular breeding. We have developed a new database that contains 52 845 polymorphic MS loci between indica and japonica, composed of ample Class II MS markers, and integrated 18 828 MS loci from IRGSP and genetic markers from RGP. Based on genetic marker positions on the rice genome (http://rise.genomics.org.cn/rice2/index.jsp ), we determined the approximate genetic distances of these MS loci and validated 100 randomly selected markers experimentally with 90% success rate. In addition, we recorded polymorphic MS positions in indica cv. 9311 that is the most important paternal parent of the two-line hybrid rice in China. Our database will undoubtedly facilitate the application of MS markers in genetic researches and marker-assisted breeding. The data set is freely available from www.wigs.zju.edu.cn/achievment/polySSR. PMID:17452422

  20. Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica. PMID:24409313

  1. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica's stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security. PMID:26228872

  2. Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes

    PubMed Central

    Banhara, Aline; Ding, Yi; Kühner, Regina; Zuccaro, Alga; Parniske, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection. PMID:26441999

  3. The SEED Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  4. COFFEE SEED PHYSIOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are more than 70 species of Coffea (Rubiaceae), but only C. arabica and C. canephora are used commercially. Better understanding of seed physiology within Coffea will facilitate the incorporation of genetic traits for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses from wild relatives into commerci...

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  6. SEED Software Annotations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethke, Dee; And Others

    This document provides a composite index of the first five sets of software annotations produced by Project SEED. The software has been indexed by title, subject area, and grade level, and it covers sets of annotations distributed in September 1986, April 1987, September 1987, November 1987, and February 1988. The date column in the index…

  7. The National SEED Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cathy L.

    1991-01-01

    The National SEED (Seeking Educational Equity and Diversity) project on Inclusive Curriculum provides K-12 teachers an opportunity for renewal and consideration of gender-inclusive and multicultural curricula. Seminars, led from multiple perspectives, immerse participants in recent scholarship on inclusive education and model teaching strategies…

  8. The Seeds of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Herman J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "Seeds of Change," a Columbian quincentenary exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution. Describes the rapid transformation of the Americas after contact with the Europeans. Reports that the exhibit explores the destruction of the native population by disease, war, slavery, the ongoing decimation of the rain forest, and the transformation…

  9. Seeds: A Celebration of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bob

    The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) Project offered science classes at the 5-12 and college levels the opportunity to conduct experiments involving tomato seeds that had been space-exposed over long periods of time. SEEDS kits were complete packages obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for…

  10. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint family. Chia seeds are considered to be a "super food" by many, delivering several important nutrients in just a few calories. You can eat this nutty-flavored seed in many ways.

  11. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  12. Map-Based Cloning of Seed Dormancy1-2 Identified a Gibberellin Synthesis Gene Regulating the Development of Endosperm-Imposed Dormancy in Rice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Heng; Feng, Jiuhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Jinfeng; Mispan, Muhamad S; Cao, Zhuanqin; Beighley, Donn H; Yang, Jianchang; Gu, Xing-You

    2015-11-01

    Natural variation in seed dormancy is controlled by multiple genes mapped as quantitative trait loci in major crop or model plants. This research aimed to clone and characterize the Seed Dormancy1-2 (qSD1-2) locus associated with endosperm-imposed dormancy and plant height in rice (Oryza sativa). qSD1-2 was delimited to a 20-kb region, which contains OsGA20ox2 and had an additive effect on germination. Naturally occurring or induced loss-of-function mutations of the gibberellin (GA) synthesis gene enhanced seed dormancy and also reduced plant height. Expression of this gene in seeds (including endospermic cells) during early development increased GA accumulation to promote tissue morphogenesis and maturation programs. The mutant allele prevalent in semidwarf cultivars reduced the seed GA content by up to 2-fold at the early stage, which decelerated tissue morphogenesis including endosperm cell differentiation, delayed abscisic acid accumulation by a shift in the temporal distribution pattern, and postponed dehydration, physiological maturity, and germinability development. As the endosperm of developing seeds dominates the moisture equilibrium and desiccation status of the embryo in cereal crops, qSD1-2 is proposed to control primary dormancy by a GA-regulated dehydration mechanism. Allelic distribution of OsGA20ox2, the rice Green Revolution gene, was associated with the indica and japonica subspeciation. However, this research provided no evidence that the primitive indica- and common japonica-specific alleles at the presumably domestication-related locus functionally differentiate in plant height and seed dormancy. Thus, the evolutionary mechanism of this agriculturally important gene remains open for discussion. PMID:26373662

  13. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market. PMID:25485199

  14. Endophytic Life Strategies Decoded by Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of the Mutualistic Root Symbiont Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Güldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota) and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP), including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD) with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi. PMID:22022265

  15. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Carlos; Quirós de G, Magally; Aponte, Orlando; Sandoval, D María F

    2008-01-01

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 degrees 27' 47' N and 64 degrees 10' 38' W) and Monagas (9 masculine46'60' N and 63 masculine12'0' W) states in northeastern Venezuela. PMID:19169566

  16. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  17. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  18. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  19. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  20. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  1. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  2. Tamarind Seed Xyloglucans Promote Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Cells through Internalization via Stimulation of Proproliferative Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nie, W.; Deters, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Xyloglucans (XGs) of Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae are used as drug vehicles or as ingredients of cosmetics. Two xyloglucans were extracted from T. indica seed with cold water (TSw) and copper complex precipitation (TSc). Both were analyzed in regard to composition and influence on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, MAPK phosphorylation, and gene expression of human skin keratinocytes (NHEK and HaCaT) and fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro. TSw and TSc differed in molecular weight, rhamnose content, and ratios of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose. Both XGs improved keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, promoted the cell cycle, and stimulated migration and intracellular enzyme activity of NHDF after endosomal uptake. Only TSw significantly enhanced HaCaT migration and extracellular enzyme activity of NHDF and HaCaT. TSw and TSc predominantly enhanced the phosphorylation of molecules that referred to Erk signaling in NHEK. In NHDF parts of the integrin signaling and SAPK/JNK pathway were affected. Independent of cell type TSw marginally regulated the expression of genes, which referred to membrane proteins, cytoskeleton, cytokine signaling, and ECM as well as to processes of metabolism and transcription. Results show that T. indica xyloglucans promote skin regeneration by a direct influence on cell proliferation and migration. PMID:24106497

  3. Tamarind Seed Xyloglucans Promote Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Cells through Internalization via Stimulation of Proproliferative Signal Transduction Pathways.

    PubMed

    Nie, W; Deters, A M

    2013-01-01

    Xyloglucans (XGs) of Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae are used as drug vehicles or as ingredients of cosmetics. Two xyloglucans were extracted from T. indica seed with cold water (TSw) and copper complex precipitation (TSc). Both were analyzed in regard to composition and influence on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, MAPK phosphorylation, and gene expression of human skin keratinocytes (NHEK and HaCaT) and fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro. TSw and TSc differed in molecular weight, rhamnose content, and ratios of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose. Both XGs improved keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, promoted the cell cycle, and stimulated migration and intracellular enzyme activity of NHDF after endosomal uptake. Only TSw significantly enhanced HaCaT migration and extracellular enzyme activity of NHDF and HaCaT. TSw and TSc predominantly enhanced the phosphorylation of molecules that referred to Erk signaling in NHEK. In NHDF parts of the integrin signaling and SAPK/JNK pathway were affected. Independent of cell type TSw marginally regulated the expression of genes, which referred to membrane proteins, cytoskeleton, cytokine signaling, and ECM as well as to processes of metabolism and transcription. Results show that T. indica xyloglucans promote skin regeneration by a direct influence on cell proliferation and migration. PMID:24106497

  4. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae): patterns of use in traditional African medicine.

    PubMed

    Havinga, Reinout M; Hartl, Anna; Putscher, Johanna; Prehsler, Sarah; Buchmann, Christine; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-02-17

    To increase the understanding of the ethnopharmacology of a single species, elaboration of dispersed primary data is required. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae), or tamarind, is a common tree, especially in West Africa, with a good potential to contribute to affordable local health care based on traditional medicine (TM). For this single species review, more than 60 references with detailed information on the ethnopharmacology of Tamarindus indica in the African context were selected. It showed that most prominently, the fruits are used as laxative or febrifuge throughout the Sahel and Soudan ecological zones. Tamarind bark and leaves are often involved in the treatment of wounds, especially in central West Africa. While the bark is used to treat diarrhoea in West Africa, the leaves are used for this purpose in East Africa. Our findings suggest a difference in the way tamarind is used between East and West Africa and we assess the similarities of its uses within those regions. This review demonstrates the capability of literature research to reveal knowledge by mining and compiling information from the growing body of primary ethnopharmacologic data, much of which is published in this journal. By creating a specific profile of tamarind in the context of traditional medicine throughout Africa, the authors contribute to the collection of current ethnobotanic species accounts on Tamarindus indica that tend to be qualitative and more general. PMID:19963055

  5. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation. PMID:25248867

  6. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester), santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM) than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26357519

  7. Protective effect of Dillenia indica L. on acetic acid induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Somani, S J; Badgujar, L B; Sutariya, B K; Saraf, M N

    2014-09-01

    The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic, immune mediated and chronic inflammation of the intestine. The study aimed to elucidate the ameliorative effect of methanolic extract of Dillenia indica (DIME), hexane fraction (HFDI) and chloroform fraction (CFDI) of Dillenia indica in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in mice. Macroscopic score, colon weight, colonic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 7 days. Intra-rectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced macroscopic score, colon weight, colonic MPO, MDA, and TNF-alpha level. It caused significant decreased level of CAT, SOD and GSH. DIME (800 mg/kg), HFDI (200 mg/kg) and CFDI (200 mg/kg) treatment exhibited significant effect in lowering macroscopic score, colon weight, MPO, MDA, TNF-alpha levels and elevation of CAT, GSH and SOD levels. The results suggest that D. indica has ameliorating effects on experimental colitis by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators like TNF-alpha production. PMID:25241587

  8. Bioactive fraction of Saraca indica prevents diabetes induced cataractogenesis: An aldose reductase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Gauresh; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Saraca indica (SI) flowers extract and different bioactive fraction on in vitro aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity, high glucose-induced cataract in goat lens and in vivo streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg, i.p) induced cataract in rats. Methods: Extract of flowers of SI tested for inhibition against rat lens AR. Furthermore, bioactive fraction was investigated against high glucose-induced opacification of the lens in vitro lens culture and STZ induced diabetic cataract in rats. Identification of the bioactive component was attempted through high-performance thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica (EASI) produced maximum inhibition that may be due to high phenolic content. Goat lenses in media containing glucose developed a distinctly opaque ring in 72 h and treatment with EASI fraction lowered lens opacity in 72 h. Prolonged treatment with EASI to STZ-induced diabetic rats inhibited the AR activity and delayed cataract progression in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica fraction has potential to inhibit rat lens AR enzyme and prevent cataractogenesis not only in goat lens model (in vitro), but also in STZ induced diabetic rats (in vivo). This study is suggestive of the anticataract activity of EASI fraction that could be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in the same. PMID:25709218

  9. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (p<0.05) increases in serum Na+, K+, Cl−, urea and creatinine. CCl4 also caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in renal tissue SOD, CAT and GSH and significant (p<0.05) increases in MDA. The oral MIASE treatment (125-500 mg/kg) was found to significantly (p<0.05) attenuate the increase in serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine. Similarly, MIASE significantly (p<0.05) attenuated the decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH levels and correspondingly attenuated increases in MDA. Mangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology. PMID:27486379

  10. Constituents of Artemisia indica Willd. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of davanone

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S. Zafar; Mohan, Manindra; Andola, Harish Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: The genus Artemisia is important due to its medicinal properties as well as vital aroma compounds of commercial value. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the potential of the essential oil of Artemisia indica wildly growing in Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of Artemisia indica Willd. (Asteraceae), collected from wild growing habitat of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand (north of India) at full flowering stage were hydro-distilled and gave pale yellow oil with the yield of 0.8% (v/w). The obtained essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and identified 32 components, amounting 95.42% of the oil. Results: Among detected compounds, the principal component was found to be davanone (30.80%), followed by β-pinene (15.30%) and germacrene-D (5.82%). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on A. indica from Himalayan region of India, which detected davanone as major component. The species, collected from a specific location, can be explored for isolation of davanone for its industrial utilization and as alternate source of Artemisia pallens, which have already established commercial value. PMID:25002808

  11. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (p<0.05) increases in serum Na+, K+, Cl(-), urea and creatinine. CCl4 also caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in renal tissue SOD, CAT and GSH and significant (p<0.05) increases in MDA. The oral MIASE treatment (125-500 mg/kg) was found to significantly (p<0.05) attenuate the increase in serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine. Similarly, MIASE significantly (p<0.05) attenuated the decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH levels and correspondingly attenuated increases in MDA. Mangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology. PMID:27486379

  12. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester), santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K(+) (80 mM) than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K(+) induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26357519

  13. Molecular basis of floral petaloidy: insights from androecia of Canna indica

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qian; Liu, Huanfang; Almeida, Ana M. R.; Kuang, Yanfeng; Zou, Pu; Liao, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Floral organs that take on the characteristics of petals can occur in all whorls of the monocot order Zingiberales. In Canna indica, the most ornamental or ‘petaloid’ parts of the flowers are of androecial origin and are considered staminodes. However, the precise nature of these petaloid organs is yet to be determined. In order to gain a better understanding of the genetic basis of androecial identity, a molecular investigation of B- and C-class genes was carried out. Two MADS-box genes GLOBOSA (GLO) and AGAMOUS (AG) were isolated from young inflorescences of C. indica by 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (3′-RACE PCR). Sequence characterization and phylogenetic analyses show that CiGLO and CiAG belong to the B- and C-class MADS-box gene family, respectively. CiAG is expressed in petaloid staminodes, the labellum, the fertile stamen and carpels. CiGLO is expressed in petals, petaloid staminodes, the labellum, the fertile stamen and carpels. Expression patterns in mature tissues of CiGLO and CiAG suggest that petaloid staminodes and the labellum are of androecial identity, in agreement with their position within the flower and with described Arabidopsis thaliana expression patterns. Although B- and C-class genes are important components of androecial determination, their expression patterns are not sufficient to explain the distinct morphology observed in staminodes and the fertile stamen in C. indica. PMID:24876297

  14. Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Martinello, F; Soares, S M; Franco, J J; Santos, A C; Sugohara, A; Garcia, S B; Curti, C; Uyemura, S A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary modifications may significantly reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The present study addressed the effects of the crude extract from the pulp fruit of Tamarindus indica L. on lipid serum levels and early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic hamsters in vivo, and the extract's antioxidant action, in vitro. Animals were fed on either chow or atherogenic diet during 10 weeks and concomitantly received either water or T. indica L. extract for drinking. Treatment of hypercholesterolemic hamsters with the T. indica pulp fruit extract (5%) led to a decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (50%), non-HDL cholesterol (73%) and triglyceride (60%), and to an increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (61%). In vitro, the extract presented radical scavenging ability, as assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals assays, and led to decreased lipid peroxidation in serum, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In vivo, the extract improved the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system, as assessed by the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Together these results indicate the potential of tamarind extracts in diminishing the risk of atherosclerosis development in humans. PMID:16330140

  15. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  16. Crop protection by seed coating.

    PubMed

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  17. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  18. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  19. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  20. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  1. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  2. Marker-free transgenic (MFT) near-isogenic introgression lines (NIILs) of 'golden' indica rice (cv. IR64) with accumulation of provitamin A in the endosperm tissue.

    PubMed

    Baisakh, Niranjan; Rehana, Sayda; Rai, Mayank; Oliva, Norman; Tan, Jing; Mackill, David J; Khush, Gurdev S; Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan K

    2006-07-01

    We have developed near-isogenic introgression lines (NIILs) of an elite indica rice cultivar (IR64) with the genes for beta-carotene biosynthesis from dihaploid (DH) derivatives of golden japonica rice (cv. T309). A careful analysis of the DH lines indicated the integration of the genes of interest [phytoene synthase (psy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI)] and the selectable marker gene (hygromycin phosphotransferase, hph) in two unlinked loci. During subsequent crossing, progenies could be obtained carrying only the locus with psy and crtI, which was segregated independently from the locus containing the hph gene during meiotic segregation. The NIILs (BC(2)F(2)) showed maximum similarity with the recurrent parent cultivar IR64. Further, progenies of two NIILs were devoid of any fragments beyond the left or right border, including the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) antibiotic resistance gene of the transformation vector. Spectrophotometric readings showed the accumulation of up to 1.06 microg total carotenoids, including beta-carotene, in 1 g of the endosperm. The accumulation of beta-carotene was also evident from the clearly visible yellow colour of the polished seeds. PMID:17177811

  3. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  4. Seed thioredoxin h.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki; Shahpiri, Azar; Buchanan, Bob B; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2016-08-01

    Thioredoxins are nearly ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of biochemical pathways in various biological systems, and also implicated in numerous biotechnological applications. Plants uniquely synthesize an array of thioredoxins targeted to different cell compartments, for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses on occurrence, reaction mechanisms, specificity, target protein identification, three-dimensional structure and various applications. The aim is to provide a general background as well as an update covering the most recent findings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26876537

  5. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. PMID:25317938

  6. Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce M.; Busse, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. Key Words: Arabidopsis—Branch—Inflorescence—Microgravity—Morphology—Seed—Space. Astrobiology 14, 866–875. PMID:25317938

  7. S-SEED Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-11-21

    This code simulates the transient response of two self-electrooptic-effect devices (SEEDs) connected in series to form an S-SEED pair as used in all-optical high-speed switching. Both optical beam propagation and carrier motion is assumed to be normal to the epi plane, so the code is inherently 1D in nature. For each SEED, an optical input in W/cm**2 is specified as a function of time (usually a step function input). The signal is absorbed during amore » double pass through the intrinsic region, with a spatially-dependent absorption coefficient that is dependent on the transient local electric field. This absorption generates electron-hole pairs that then contribute to the device current, and a transient optical output is predicted. Carriers in the semiconductor layers are generated through thermal excitation or optical absorption, move under the action of diffusion and self-consistent electric fields updated at each time step by a 1D Poisson solver, and recombine at density-dependent rates. The different epi layers are independently specified by position, thickness, doping type and density, and thus space charge effects and junction capacitance are included automatically.« less

  8. Sunflower seed allergy.

    PubMed

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  9. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  10. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  11. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape. PMID:18780144

  12. Comparative analysis of the 100 kb region containing the Pi-k(h) locus between indica and japonica rice lines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S P; Dalai, V; Singh, N K; Sharma, T R

    2007-02-01

    We have recently cloned a pathogen inducible blast resistance gene Pi-k(h) from the indica rice line Tetep using a positional cloning approach. In this study, we carried out structural organization analysis of the Pi-k(h) locus in both indica and japonica rice lines. A 100 kb region containing 50 kb upstream and 50 kb downstream sequences flanking to the Pi-k(h) locus was selected for the investigation. A total of 16 genes in indica and 15 genes in japonica were predicted and annotated in this region. The average GC content of indica and japonica genes in this region was 53.15% and 49.3%, respectively. Both indica and japonica sequences were polymorphic for simple sequence repeats having mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanucleotides. Sequence analysis of the specific blast resistant Pi-k(h) allele of Tetep and the susceptible Pi-k(h) allele of the japonica rice line Nipponbare showed differences in the number and distribution of motifs involved in phosphorylation, resulting in the resistance phenotype in Tetep. PMID:17572362

  13. Cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica against cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity in rats: A biochemical, electrocardiographic and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Viswanatha Swamy, A. H. M.; Patel, U. M.; Koti, B. C.; Gadad, P. C.; Patel, N. L.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Saraca indica (SI) bark was investigated against cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Cardiotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by administering cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p.) single injection on first day of experimental period. Saraca indica (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered immediately after administration of cyclophosphamide on first day and daily for 10 days. The general observations and mortality were measured. Results: Cyclophosphamide administration significantly (p < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased the levels of antioxidant markers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Cyclophosphamide elevated the levels of biomarker enzymes like creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Further, the cyclophosphamide treated rats showed changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) along with increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Treatment with Saraca indica significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the status of cardiac biomarkers, ECG, oxidative enzymes and lipid profile in cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity. Potential cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica was supported by histopathological examination that reduced severity of cellular damage of the myocardium. Conclusion: The biochemical, ECG and histopathology reports support the cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica which could be attributed to antioxidant activity. PMID:23543849

  14. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica’s stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security. PMID:26228872

  15. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains. PMID:21915683

  16. Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. [Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, Opuntia ficus-indica

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S. )

    1989-03-01

    Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, and Opuntia ficus-indica were maintained in environmental growth chambers under a constant total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 yr to investigate the effects of photoperiod on growth of these Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. As the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h, growth increased 33% for A. deserti, 81% for F. acanthodes, and 50% for O. ficus-indica. Such increases were explained based on PAR saturation of the C{sub 3} photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle utilized by CAM plants during the daytime. In particular, the highest instantaneous PAR occurred for the shortest photoperiod and led to less growth for the same total daily PAR. Also, the total daily net CO{sub 2} uptake which occurred primarily at night, increased 53% as the photoperiod was increased from 6 to 18 h for O. ficus-indica, even though the accompanying night length decreased. The only other observed morphological effect was the sevenfold increase in the number of new cladodes initiated as the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h for O. ficus-indica. The influence of photoperiod on the daily pattern of net CO{sub 2} uptake and lack of effect of drought on plant survival under long photoperiods for O. ficus-indica differ from previous reports on this and other CAM species.

  17. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica’s stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security.

  18. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation. PMID:27324185

  19. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  20. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  1. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  2. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  3. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  4. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  5. Temporal-Spatial Transcriptome Analyses Provide Insights into the Development of Petaloid Androecium in Canna indica

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xueyi; Yu, Qianxia; Liu, Huanfang; Liao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Canna indica (Zingiberales) is one of the most important ornamental species characterized with beautiful petaloid staminodes, which are considered to evolve from stamens. However, the genetic basis for the development of petaloid staminodes remains unclear largely because the genomic sequences are not available. By using RNA-Seq, we sequenced the transcripts in the flower of C. indica, and quantified the temporal gene expressions in flower primordium and differentiated flower, as well as the spatial gene expressions in petal and petaloid staminode. In total, 118,869 unigenes were assembled, among which 67,299 unigenes were annotated. Quantification analysis identified the differentially expressed genes in the temporal and spatial two comparisons, based on which, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis highlighted the representative terms in each sample, such as specification of organ number in flower primordium, growth in differentiated flower, secondary cell wall biogenesis in petal and cell division in petaloid staminode. Among the 51 analyzed MADS-box unigenes, 37 were up-regulated in differentiated flower compared with those in flower primordium. A-class unigenes were expressed higher in petal than in petaloid staminode, and C-class unigenes were expressed oppositely, whereas B-class unigenes demonstrated close expression levels in these two organs, indicating that petaloid staminode retains stamen identity to some degree. In situ hybridization provided more detailed expression patterns of these unigenes, and revealed the extended expression of B-class to the carpel at later stages when the style turned flat. These results constitute a preliminary basis for the study of flower development in C. indica and can be applied in further study of the evolution of Zingiberales. PMID:27582744

  6. Temporal-Spatial Transcriptome Analyses Provide Insights into the Development of Petaloid Androecium in Canna indica.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xueyi; Yu, Qianxia; Liu, Huanfang; Liao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Canna indica (Zingiberales) is one of the most important ornamental species characterized with beautiful petaloid staminodes, which are considered to evolve from stamens. However, the genetic basis for the development of petaloid staminodes remains unclear largely because the genomic sequences are not available. By using RNA-Seq, we sequenced the transcripts in the flower of C. indica, and quantified the temporal gene expressions in flower primordium and differentiated flower, as well as the spatial gene expressions in petal and petaloid staminode. In total, 118,869 unigenes were assembled, among which 67,299 unigenes were annotated. Quantification analysis identified the differentially expressed genes in the temporal and spatial two comparisons, based on which, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis highlighted the representative terms in each sample, such as specification of organ number in flower primordium, growth in differentiated flower, secondary cell wall biogenesis in petal and cell division in petaloid staminode. Among the 51 analyzed MADS-box unigenes, 37 were up-regulated in differentiated flower compared with those in flower primordium. A-class unigenes were expressed higher in petal than in petaloid staminode, and C-class unigenes were expressed oppositely, whereas B-class unigenes demonstrated close expression levels in these two organs, indicating that petaloid staminode retains stamen identity to some degree. In situ hybridization provided more detailed expression patterns of these unigenes, and revealed the extended expression of B-class to the carpel at later stages when the style turned flat. These results constitute a preliminary basis for the study of flower development in C. indica and can be applied in further study of the evolution of Zingiberales. PMID:27582744

  7. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  8. Seed mucilage from Ipomoea dasysperma.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Pandey, M; Srivastava, A; Srivastava, V

    2007-04-01

    A non-ionic water-soluble galactomannan, having galactose and mannose in 1:6 molar ratio, was isolated from endosperm of the seeds of Ipomoea dasysperma. The seed mucilage was found to have a structure having a linear chain of beta (1-->4) linked mannopyranosyl units with D-galactose side chains attached through alpha (1-->6) linkage to the main chain. I. dasysperma seed gum possesses non-ionic characteristics of commercial seed gums and has potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:17346904

  9. A flavone from Manilkara indica as a specific inhibitor against aldose reductase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Ryosuke; Ishizu, Takashi; Yagi, Akira

    2003-09-01

    Isoaffinetin (5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavone-6-C-glucoside) was isolated from Manilkara indica as a potent inhibitor of lens aldose reductase by bioassay-directed fractionation. This C-glucosyl flavone showed specific inhibition against aldose reductases (rat lens, porcine lens and recombinant human) with no inhibition against aldehyde reductase and NADH oxidase. Kinetic analysis showed that isoaffinetin exhibited uncompetitive inhibition against both dl-glyceraldehyde and NADPH. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the increasing number of hydroxy groups in the B-ring contributes to the increase in aldose reductase inhibition by C-glucosyl flavones. PMID:14598214

  10. Assessment of Anti-Influenza Activity and Hemagglutination Inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Rahul Dilip; Shinde, Pramod; Girkar, Kaustubh; Madage, Rajendra; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. Objective: To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Materials and Methods: Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. Results: A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Conclusions: Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research. SUMMARY The search for natural antiviral compounds from plants is a promising approach in the development of new therapeutic agents. In the past century, several scientific efforts have been directed toward identifying phytochemicals capable of inhibiting virus. Knowledge of ethnopharmacology can lead to new bioactive plant compounds suitable for drug discovery and development. Macromolecular docking studies provides most detailed possible view of drug-receptor interaction where the structure of drug is designed based on its fit to three

  11. Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): an exploding mite pest in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Ethan C; Ochoa, Ronald; Mathurin, Guy; Erbe, Eric F; Beard, Jennifer J

    2012-08-01

    Major infestations of the flat mite species Raoiella indica Hirst affecting bananas, palms and other ornamental plants have been reported from the Caribbean islands, Mexico, FL (USA), Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. Specimens from these localities were examined using traditional light microscopy and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy techniques. While little is known about the biology of this mite, its recent appearance in the Americas in both commercial coconut and banana plantations has raised concerns about its economic impact as an invasive pest. PMID:22392436

  12. Biosynthesis and characterization of Acalypha indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Rajiv, P.; Narendhran, S.; Venckatesh, R.

    2014-08-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by biological method using aqueous extract of Acalypha indica leaf and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, FT-IR, SEM TEM and EDX analysis. The synthesised particles were highly stable, spherical and particle size was in the range of 26-30 nm. The antimicrobial activity of A.indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was tested against selected pathogens. Copper oxide nanoparticles showed efficient antibacterial and antifungal effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. The cytotoxicity activity of A.indica mediated copper nanoparticles was evaluated by MTT assay against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and confirmed that copper oxide nanoparticles have cytotoxicity activity.

  13. Assessment of the potential genotoxic risk of medicinal Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract using in vivo assays.

    PubMed

    Silva, F M V; Leite, M F; Spadaro, A C C; Uyemura, S A; Maistro, E L

    2009-01-01

    Tamarindus indica has been used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic, a digestive aid, and a carminative, among other uses. Currently, there is no information in the toxicology literature concerning the safety of T. indica extract. We evaluated the clastogenic and/or genotoxic potential of fruit pulp extract of this plant in vivo in peripheral blood and liver cells of Wistar rats, using the comet assay, and in bone marrow cells of Swiss mice, using the micronucleus test. The extract was administered by gavage at doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Peripheral blood and liver cells from Wistar rats were collected 24 h after treatment, for the comet assay. The micronucleus test was carried out in bone marrow cells from Swiss mice collected 24 h after treatment. The extract made with T. indica was devoid of clastogenic and genotoxic activities in the cells of the rodents, when administered orally at these three acute doses. PMID:19768670

  14. From salmon pink to blue natural sensitizers for solar cells: Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, cowberry and Solanum nigrum L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peihui; Niu, Haijun; Zheng, Gang; Bai, Xuduo; Zhang, Milin; Wang, Wen

    2009-11-01

    Study on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with extracts of Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, Solanum nigrum L. as sensitizers is firstly reported in this paper. DSSCs were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. as sensitizers. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dyes of C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. was 0.29%, 0.26%, 0.13% and 0.31%, respectively. A novel technique was taken to fabricate TiO 2 electrode films by electrophoresis. We present FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy studies of structures and light absorption of these four kinds of natural dyes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the interface resistance of cells. The result indicated that high resistance existed in the interfaces of cell with cowberry extract as sensitizer.

  15. Seed-cotton Cleaning Effects on Seed Coat Fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing problems in textile mills have been linked to seed coat fragments (SCF), so cotton ginning facilities should take steps to prevent them from forming. The objective of this experiment was to determine if the use of seed-cotton cleaners prior to the extractor-feeder/gin stand caused increa...

  16. Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a book review of "Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants", by Nicholas Harberd. The book is a diary of ruminations/introspections about plant development and about the main research topic of Nick Harberd’s laboratory. His intended audience is initially nonscientists; many of the explanation...

  17. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  18. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  19. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  20. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  1. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  2. A guide to forest seed handling

    SciTech Connect

    Willan, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This guide to forest seed handling focuses on seed quality, i.e., the physiological viability and vigor of the seeds. Seed and fruit development, germination, and dormancy and the fundamentals of planning seed collections are covered. The guide includes discussions on seed collection of fallen fruits or seeds from the forest floor from the crowns of felled trees, and from standing trees with access from the ground and with other means of access. Also considered are precautions to be followed during fruit and seed handling between collection and processing. The different stages in seed processing are detailed, including extraction, depulping, drying, tumbling and threshing, dewinging, cleaning, grading, and mixing. Factors affecting seed longevity in storage and the choice of storage methods are reviewed. Different forms of seed pretreatment and seed testing methods are described.

  3. Effects of pre-harvest chemical application on rice desiccation and seed quality.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-qi; Cheng, Jin-ping; Liu, Liang-feng; Li, Xiao-dan; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Hong-sheng; Wang, Zhou-fei

    2015-10-01

    Pre-harvest desiccation may increase the efficiency of seed production. Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of diquat, paraquat, and ethephon applications on grain moisture, grain weight, and seed germination of hybrid rice Yanliangyou 88 (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) and conventional rice Wuyunjing 7 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica). In 2013, we tested 12 treatments applied at four weeks (Yanliangyou 88) and six weeks (Wuyunjing 7) after heading. Results showed that reductions in moisture content were significant two and four days after chemical application. Chemical applications had no adverse effects on 1000-grain weight, germination percentage, or germination index, but there were negative effects on the percentage of normal seedlings. Desiccation effects increased with increase in the period after application, while the effect of ethephon combined with diquat or paraquat on desiccation was limited compared with that of diquat or paraquat alone in a short period after application. In 2013, chemical applications reduced the moisture content by from 0.5% to 6.4%, the germination percentage by from 0% to 3.3%, and the percentage of normal seedlings by from 13.3% to 100.0%. Among the treatments, diquat applied at 120 g/ha resulted in effective desiccation with fewer negative effects on grain weight and seed germination in 2013 and 2014. Therefore, diquat may have potential as a pre-harvest chemical desiccation treatment for rice. These results may provide a basis for developing and implementing protocols for large scale field trials. PMID:26465129

  4. Simple and rapid detection of Tilletia horrida causing rice kernel smut in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Xue; Yao, Jian; Kyaw, Ei Phyu; Zhang, Ai-Fang; Li, Yun-Fei; Gu, Chun-Yan; Zang, Hao-Yu; Gao, Tong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the detection of Tilletia horrida, the causal agent of rice kernel smut, in rice seeds is developed based on specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To design the specific primers for the detection of T. horrida, partial sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA region of T. horrida, T. controversa, T. walkeri, T. ehrhartae, T. indica and T. caries were analyzed and compared. A 503-bp fragment was amplified with the designed primers from the T. horrida genomic DNA. However, no PCR product was obtained from the DNA of other five Tilletia species and 22 fungal plant pathogens tested in the present work indicating the specificity of the primers for the detection of T. horrida. The PCR was performed by directly using the spores, isolated from the 21 different rice seed samples, as template DNA. The T. horrida was detected in 6 of the samples, indicating that 28.6% of the rice samples were contaminated with the kernel smut pathogen. This simple PCR based diagnostic assay can be applied for the direct and rapid detection and identification of T. horrida to screen large numbers of rice seed samples. PMID:27624858

  5. Effects of pre-harvest chemical application on rice desiccation and seed quality*

    PubMed Central

    HE, Yong-qi; CHENG, Jin-ping; LIU, Liang-feng; LI, Xiao-dan; YANG, Bin; ZHANG, Hong-sheng; WANG, Zhou-fei

    2015-01-01

    Pre-harvest desiccation may increase the efficiency of seed production. Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of diquat, paraquat, and ethephon applications on grain moisture, grain weight, and seed germination of hybrid rice Yanliangyou 88 (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) and conventional rice Wuyunjing 7 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica). In 2013, we tested 12 treatments applied at four weeks (Yanliangyou 88) and six weeks (Wuyunjing 7) after heading. Results showed that reductions in moisture content were significant two and four days after chemical application. Chemical applications had no adverse effects on 1000-grain weight, germination percentage, or germination index, but there were negative effects on the percentage of normal seedlings. Desiccation effects increased with increase in the period after application, while the effect of ethephon combined with diquat or paraquat on desiccation was limited compared with that of diquat or paraquat alone in a short period after application. In 2013, chemical applications reduced the moisture content by from 0.5% to 6.4%, the germination percentage by from 0% to 3.3%, and the percentage of normal seedlings by from 13.3% to 100.0%. Among the treatments, diquat applied at 120 g/ha resulted in effective desiccation with fewer negative effects on grain weight and seed germination in 2013 and 2014. Therefore, diquat may have potential as a pre-harvest chemical desiccation treatment for rice. These results may provide a basis for developing and implementing protocols for large scale field trials. PMID:26465129

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of medicinally potent plant Saraca indica: a novel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugu, Shyam; Nagati, Veerababu; Bhanoori, Manjula

    2015-08-01

    Eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have various applications in modern biotechnology for better outcomes and benefits to the society. In the present study, we report an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saraca indica leaf extract. Characterization of S. indica silver nanoparticles (SAgNPs) was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. SAgNPs showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of medicinally potent plant Saraca indica: a novel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugu, Shyam; Nagati, Veerababu; Bhanoori, Manjula

    2016-06-01

    Eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have various applications in modern biotechnology for better outcomes and benefits to the society. In the present study, we report an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saraca indica leaf extract. Characterization of S. indica silver nanoparticles (SAgNPs) was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. SAgNPs showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Effect of Tamarindus indica fruits on blood pressure and lipid-profile in human model: an in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Iftekhar, A S M Maruf; Rayhan, Israt; Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Akhteruzzaman, Sharif; Hasnat, Abul

    2006-04-01

    Fruits of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for their effects on lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body weight in human subjects. Dried and pulverized pulp of T. indica fruits, at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight, was found to reduce total cholesterol level (p = 0.031) and LDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.004) to a significant extent. Though the fruits exerted no conspicuous effect on body weight and systolic blood pressure, it significantly reduced the diastolic pressure as confirmed by independent sample t-test at 5% significance level. PMID:16751124

  9. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    PubMed Central

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831

  10. Training for Certification: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing specifically on the treatment of seeds with pesticides, this publication is meant to prepare one to take the written examination for Environmental Protection Agency Seed Treatment certification.…

  11. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Activities for the Fall Semester, 1987 focused on investigating the mechanical/electrical properties of wheat seeds and forming various Seed Planting System (SPS) concepts based on those properties. The Electrical Division of the design group was formed to devise an SPS using electrostatic charge fields for seeding operations. Experiments concerning seed separation using electrical induction (rearranging of the charges within the seed) were conducted with promising results. The seeds, when exposed to the high voltage and low current field produced by a Van de Graff generator, were observed to move back and forth between two electrodes. An SPS concept has been developed based on this phenomena, and will be developed throughout the Spring Semester, 1988. The Mechanical Division centered on SPS concepts involving valves, pumps, and fluids to separate and deliver seeds. An SPS idea utilizing the pressure difference caused by air as it rushes out of holes drilled in the wall of a closed container has been formulated and will be considered for future development. Also, a system of seed separation and delivery employing a combination of centrifugal force, friction, and air flow was considered.

  12. Differential predation of forage seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent field experiments we observed that the main invertebrate seed predators of overseeded tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed in unimproved pastures were harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.) and common field crickets (Gryllus sp.) To determ...

  13. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  14. OPTIMIZING FERTILITY FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed corn production is a high input and high management endeavor that yields a high value product. Most seed production fields are managed as a unit in terms of cultivars, so timing of field operations follows the same scale. However, some producers are finding that spatial variability in soil prop...

  15. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  16. Morphological Analysis of Rubus Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Rubus exhibits morphological diversity and a wide range of reproductive systems and habitats. We examined seed coat ultrastructural morphology of seed accessions of 10 subgenera preserved at the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Reposito...

  17. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  18. Physical properties of psyllium seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, R.; Kalbasi-Ashtari, A.; Gharibzahedi, S.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties ie dimensions, volume, surface area, sphericity, true density, porosity, angle of repose, terminal velocity, static and dynamic friction coefficients on plywood, stainless steel, glass and galvanized iron sheet, force required for initiating seed rupture in horizontal and vertical orientations of psyllium seed at a moisture content of 7.2% (w.b.)were determined.

  19. Genebanking seeds from natural populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional storage protocols have been developed to preserve genetic diversity of seeds of crops in genebanks. These same principles have been applied to preserve seeds from wild populations. While most principles for conventional storage protocols are applicable to a broad range of wild species...

  20. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  1. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  2. Ripening events in seeded watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeded watermelons generally start color development in the locule (seed cavity), with color progressing to the center of the fruit during the ripening process. Soluble solids content (SSR) is thought to be highest at the blossom end. In large-fruited watermelon where only a portion of the fruit is...

  3. The root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering, higher biomass and altered secondary metabolites of the medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aparajita; Kamal, Shwet; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar; Varma, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of plant probiotic fungus Piriformospora indica on the medicinal plant C. forskohlii. Interaction of the C. forskohlii with the root endophyte P. indica under field conditions, results in an overall increase in aerial biomass, chlorophyll contents and phosphorus acquisition. The fungus also promoted inflorescence development, consequently the amount of p-cymene in the inflorescence increased. Growth of the root thickness was reduced in P. indica treated plants as they became fibrous, but developed more lateral roots. Because of the smaller root biomass, the content of forskolin was decreased. The symbiotic interaction of C. forskohlii with P. indica under field conditions promoted biomass production of the aerial parts of the plant including flower development. The plant aerial parts are important source of metabolites for medicinal application. Therefore we suggest that the use of the root endophyte fungus P. indica in sustainable agriculture will enhance the medicinally important chemical production. PMID:22301976

  4. Decoding regulatory landscape of somatic embryogenesis reveals differential regulatory networks between japonica and indica rice subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Poonam; Chauhan, Abhisekh Singh; Goel, Ridhi; Shri, Manju; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a unique process in plants and has considerable interest for biotechnological application. Compare to japonica, indica rice has been less responsive to in vitro culture. We used Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform for comparative transcriptome analysis between two rice subspecies at six different developmental stages combined with a tag-based digital gene expression profiling. Global gene expression among different samples showed greater complexity in japonica rice compared to indica which may be due to polyphyletic origin of two rice subspecies. Expression pattern in initial stage indicate major differences in proembryogenic callus induction phase that may serve as key regulator to observe differences between both subspecies. Our data suggests that phytohormone signaling pathways consist of elaborate networks with frequent crosstalk, thereby allowing plants to regulate somatic embryogenesis pathway. However, this crosstalk varies between the two rice subspecies. Down regulation of positive regulators of meristem development (i.e. KNOX, OsARF5) and up regulation of its counterparts (OsRRs, MYB, GA20ox1/GA3ox2) in japonica may be responsible for its better regeneration and differentiation of somatic embryos. Comprehensive gene expression information in the present experiment may also facilitate to understand the monocot specific meristem regulation for dedifferentiation of somatic cell to embryogenic cells. PMID:26973288

  5. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. PMID:24210248

  6. Population structure analysis and association mapping of blast resistance in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Y; He, J B; Li, A H; Fang, N Y; He, W W; Dang, L L; Zeng, G Y; Huang, J; Bao, Y M; Zhang, H S

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. To understand the genetic diversity of indica landrace accessions and identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are associated with blast resistance, a population of 276 indica landraces from across the world was constructed. This population was then used to evaluate the blast-resistance phenotype through artificial inoculation under controlled conditions in 2012 and 2013. The genetic diversity and association of the population with resistance were analyzed by examining the phenotype for 160 SSR markers distributed on 12 rice chromosomes. The 276 accessions were classified into seven groups using model- and distance-based cluster analyses. Associations between SSR markers and blast resistance showed that 26 SSR markers were significantly associated with blast resistance in 2012 and 2013 (P < 0.01) and that the phenotypic variation ranged from 2.68 to 13.11%. Nineteen of the markers associated with blast resistance were located in regions where genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been previously reported, and seven were newly identified in this study. These results indicate that marker-trait association has potential advantages over classical linkage analysis and QTL mapping, and that these markers could be used for marker-assisted selection in rice blast-resistance-breeding programs. PMID:27525942

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  8. Decoding regulatory landscape of somatic embryogenesis reveals differential regulatory networks between japonica and indica rice subspecies.

    PubMed

    Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Poonam; Chauhan, Abhisekh Singh; Goel, Ridhi; Shri, Manju; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a unique process in plants and has considerable interest for biotechnological application. Compare to japonica, indica rice has been less responsive to in vitro culture. We used Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform for comparative transcriptome analysis between two rice subspecies at six different developmental stages combined with a tag-based digital gene expression profiling. Global gene expression among different samples showed greater complexity in japonica rice compared to indica which may be due to polyphyletic origin of two rice subspecies. Expression pattern in initial stage indicate major differences in proembryogenic callus induction phase that may serve as key regulator to observe differences between both subspecies. Our data suggests that phytohormone signaling pathways consist of elaborate networks with frequent crosstalk, thereby allowing plants to regulate somatic embryogenesis pathway. However, this crosstalk varies between the two rice subspecies. Down regulation of positive regulators of meristem development (i.e. KNOX, OsARF5) and up regulation of its counterparts (OsRRs, MYB, GA20ox1/GA3ox2) in japonica may be responsible for its better regeneration and differentiation of somatic embryos. Comprehensive gene expression information in the present experiment may also facilitate to understand the monocot specific meristem regulation for dedifferentiation of somatic cell to embryogenic cells. PMID:26973288

  9. Transcriptomes That Confer to Plant Defense against Powdery Mildew Disease in Lagerstroemia indica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Rinehart, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis was conducted in two popular Lagerstroemia cultivars: “Natchez” (NAT), a white flower and powdery mildew resistant interspecific hybrid and “Carolina Beauty” (CAB), a red flower and powdery mildew susceptible L. indica cultivar. RNA-seq reads were generated from Erysiphe australiana infected leaves and de novo assembled. A total of 37,035 unigenes from 224,443 assembled contigs in both genotypes were identified. Approximately 85% of these unigenes have known function. Of them, 475 KEGG genes were found significantly different between the two genotypes. Five of the top ten differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (plant defense) and four in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (antioxidant activities or flower coloration). Furthermore, 5 of the 12 assembled unigenes in benzoxazinoid biosynthesis and 7 of 11 in flavonoid biosynthesis showed higher transcript abundance in NAT. The relative abundance of transcripts for 16 candidate DEGs (9 from CAB and 7 from NAT) detected by qRT-PCR showed general agreement with the abundances of the assembled transcripts in NAT. This study provided the first transcriptome analyses in L. indica. The differential transcript abundance between two genotypes indicates that it is possible to identify candidate genes that are associated with the plant defenses or flower coloration. PMID:26247009

  10. Testing prey DNA fingerprinting on Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predation of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rivera, Carlos; Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle

    2012-08-01

    Molecular detection of predation by identifying prey markers in the digestive tract of predators has developed into a powerful tool to assess predator-prey systems in which diet identification is too time consuming or impossible. Here we explore its utility for detecting predation of the pest mite Raoiella indica Hirst by the predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis Muma, taking advantage of the color the predator acquires after eating this mite to cross-reference our results. For this, a ~410 bp segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene marker specific for the subfamily Tetranychoidea was used. Amblyseius largoensis that had recently eaten were collected from greenhouse colonies containing both mites, and isolated from any other food source. Predator mites were taken for fingerprinting at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of starving after collection, and the same process was repeated a second time, offering pollen as an alternative food source to see whether detection changed. Lastly, a sampling trial was conducted in the greenhouse, in which mites were collected regardless of their color and frozen immediately for fingerprinting. Raoiella indica DNA was detected for 48 h on starving predators, and for 96 h on those who had eaten pollen. The segment was detected in 26 % of the samples collected on the trial. This technique needs refinement specific for this system, but the results obtained here confirm that it could turn into a very useful tool for assessing aspects of this predator-prey system. PMID:22476445

  11. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

    2012-01-01

    Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (Fumariaceae), known as “Fumitory”, is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses. PMID:23569991

  12. Spectroscopic, microscopic and catalytic properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Saraca indica flower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidhu, V. K.; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-01

    The bioprospective field is dynamic area of research in the recent years. The present article reports a green synthetic route for the production of highly stable, bio-inspired silver nanoparticles using dried Saraca indica flower. The method is facile, cost effective, simple and reproducible. The reduction of silver ions and the formation of silver nanoparticles has been monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. The TEM, SAED and XRD result reveal that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. FTIR spectra are used to identify the biomolecules that bind on the surface of silver nanoparticles, which increased the stability of the particles. S. indica flower extract plays its role as an excellent reducing agent of silver ions and the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are safer to environment. Also the size dependent catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles in the reduction of cationic dye, Methylene blue by NaBH4 is studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. The efficiency of synthesized nanoparticles as an excellent catalyst is proved by the reduction of Methylene blue which is confirmed by the decrease in the absorbance with time and is attributed to electron relay effect.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    PubMed

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  14. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of a New Tablets Formulation from Tamarindus indica L.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Amado, Jesús Rafael; Lafourcade Prada, Ariadna; Escalona Arranz, Julio Cesar; Pérez Rosés, Renato; Morris Quevedo, Humberto; Keita, Hady; Puente Zapata, Edgar; Pinho Fernandes, Caio; Tavares Carvalho, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells primarily by producing reactive oxygen species. The decoction of the leaves of Tamarindus indica L. is used for liver disorders. In this work we evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of a tablet formulation of this plant. Thirty-five Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 7). First group (I) is control group, fed with standard diet. Groups II to V (hepatotoxic groups) were subjected to a subcutaneous injection of CCl4 (0.5 mL/kg). Group II was negative control, fed with standard diet; group III was subjected to administration of Silymarin 150 mg/kg and groups IV and V were treated with tablets in dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Lipid peroxidation and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione were evaluated. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and a lipid profile were evaluated too. The tablets inhibit lipid peroxidation. The redox balance (SOD-CAT-GSH) remains normal in the experimental groups treated with tablets. The liver function using dose of 200 mg/kg of tablets was better than the other experimental groups. These results justify, scientifically, the ethnobotanical use of the leaves of Tamarindus indica L. PMID:27143986

  15. Seed biology and in vitro seed germination of Cypripedium.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Songjun; Zhang, Yu; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; Duan, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Cypripedium orchids have high horticultural value. The populations of most species are very geographically restricted and they are becoming increasingly rare due to the destruction of native habitats and illegal collection. Reduction of the commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is a preferable option to reduce pressure from illegal collection. Cypripedium species are commercially propagated via seed germination in vitro. This review focuses on in vitro seed germination and provides an in-depth analysis of the seed biology of this genus. PMID:24191720

  16. Brassinosteroid functions in Arabidopsis seed development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen-Bo; Lin, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Seed development of flowering plant is a complicated process controlled by a signal network. Double fertilization generates 2 zygotic products (embryo and endosperm). Embryo gives rise to a daughter plant while endosperm provides nutrients for embryo during embryogenesis and germination. Seed coat differentiates from maternally derived integument and encloses embryo and endosperm. Seed size/mass and number comprise final seed yield, and seed shape also contributes to seed development and weight. Seed size is coordinated by communication among endosperm, embryo, and integument. Seed number determination is more complex to investigate and shows differencies between monocot and eudicot. Total seed number depends on sillique number and seed number per sillique in Arabidopsis. Seed comes from fertilized ovule, hence the ovule number per flower determines the maximal seed number per sillique. Early studies reported that engineering BR levels increased the yield of ovule and seed; however the molecular mechanism of BR regulation in seed development still remained unclear. Our recent studies demonstrated that BR regulated seed size, shape, and number by transcriptionally modulating specific seed developmental pathways. This review summarizes roles of BR in Arabidopsis seed development and gives clues for future application of BR in agricultural production. PMID:24270689

  17. Outcrossing potential between U.S. red rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese indica rice (Oryza sativa) lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice in southern U.S. rice fields remains a widespread, economically challenging problem despite nearly a decade of rice production systems that include true-breeding rice cultivars and indica-derived hybrid rice with resistance to imazethapyr. Both of these herbicide-resistant rice systems hav...

  18. Aristolochia indica green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: A sustainable control tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Labeeba, Mohammed Aamina; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wang, Lan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. We biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Aristolochia indica extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. In laboratory, LC50 of A. indica extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 262.66 (larvae I) to 565.02 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP against A. stephensi ranged from 3.94 (larvae I) to 15.65 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of A. indica extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) leads to 100% larval reduction after 72 h. In laboratory, 24-h predation efficiency of Diplonychus indicus against A. stephensi larvae was 33% (larvae II) and 57% (larvae III). In AgNP-contaminated environment (1 ppm), it was 45.5% (larvae II) and 71.75% (larvae III). Overall, A. indica-synthesized AgNP may be considered as newer and safer control tools against Anopheles vectors. PMID:26412532

  19. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles fabricated using Anisomeles indica: Mosquitocidal potential against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors are a priority. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap, aqueous leaf extract of Anisomeles indica by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of A. indica leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the A. indica leaf extract and AgNP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 31.56, 35.21 and 38.08 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of A. indica, a potential bioresource for rapid, cheap and effective AgNP synthesis. PMID:26708933

  20. Characterization of the root transcriptome for iron and zinc homeostasis-related genes in indica rice (Oryza sativa L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrient malnutrition is the most common form of nutrient deficiency among populations having a cereal based-diet. Rice is the staple food for one third of the world’s population, but is a poor source of iron and zinc concentration. We have characterized the root transcriptome of diverse indica...